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Sample records for maculatus osteichthyes pimelodidae

  1. Allocreadium pichi n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) in Galaxias maculatus (Osteichthyes: Galaxiidae) from Lake Moreno in Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica R; Brugni, Norma; Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita

    2004-07-01

    Allocreadium pichi n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of Galaxias maculatus (Osteichthyes: Galaxiidae) from Moreno Lake in Patagonia, Argentina. This species is distinguished from A. patagonicum Shimazu, Urawa & Coria, 2000, the other species recorded in the area, by its smaller body size, the diagonal position of the testes and different ratios of the suckers, testes and cirrus-sac in relation to body size. In addition, the synonymy of A. patagonicum with Polylekithum percai Ostrowski de Núñez, Brugni & Viozzi, 2000 is proposed herein. PMID:15218369

  2. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    PubMed Central

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  3. Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

  4. Growth and reproduction aspects of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) of the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir, state of Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Verani, J R

    2014-05-01

    Growth and reproduction parameters of the yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), were determined for the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (GO/MG). The field work occurred throughout February 2007 to January 2008 (with the exception of December 2007). Gill nets with mesh sizes from 1.5 to 10 centimeters were placed in three different areas in the reservoir and were collected 24 hours later. A total of 538 specimens were captured, amongst which 242 were females, 219 were males and 77 could not have their sex determined. Sex ratio differed from 1:1 only during July 2007 and January 2008, with males and females predominating in each of those months. Males occupied the medium length classes (18.9 to 24.3 cm) while females were most abundant in the superior classes (from 27 to 37.8 cm).The growth constant K was statistically equal for males (K=0.1851) and females (K=0.1708), however, females P. maculatus may have a greater investment in reproductive tissue, a fact indicated by the elevated values of Kn and GSI during the summer. Bearing in mind that P. maculatus reproduces in the rainy season, a greater gain in weight is expected during the months before the reproduction season, and that after it occurs the fish loses fat and weight as a consequence of metabolic effort. Still, the absence of juveniles may be an indication that the species did not find in the reservoir the proper conditions for reproduction and growth of its fry. PMID:25166330

  5. The effect of Anonchocephalus chilensis Riggenbach (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) on infracommunity patterns in Genypterus maculatus Tschudi (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S A; George-Nascimento, M

    2008-09-01

    The use of parasite body size (i.e. body mass) is a promising proxy to improve the study of patterns in parasite infracommunities, which are usually analysed using only numerical descriptors. This study deals with the importance and effect of the presence of a large endoparasite species, the cestode Anonchocephalus chilensis in a marine fish species, Genypterus maculatus, on the structure of the parasite infracommunities. Numerical and volumetric measures of aggregated properties of parasite infracommunities were compared and their correlation examined. The highly dominant presence of A. chilensis by volume causes a dramatic change in the patterns observed, including a smaller total volume of the remaining species when this volumetrically dominant species is present. However, C-scores and V-ratios, both indices based on null models of species occurrence, do not support the idea of communities structured by interspecific competition. Analyses reveal that numerical and volumetric community descriptors are complementary ways to search for patterns and to reveal processes within these systems. PMID:18394212

  6. Neotropical monogenoidea. 55. Dactylogyrids parasitising the pintado-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the Rio São Francisco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Kritsky, Delane C; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2010-07-01

    Eight species of Dactylogyridae were collected from the gills of the pintado-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède in the Rio São Francisco in Brazil: Ameloblastella paranaensis (França, Isaac, Pavanelli & Takemoto, 2003) Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2009, A. satoi n. sp., Ameloblastella sp., Demidospermus armostus Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998, D. cf. bidiverticulatum (Suriano & Incorvaia, 1995) Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998, D. ichthyocercus n. sp., D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez & Suriano, 1992 and D. uncusvalidus Gutiérrez & Suriano, 1992. Two new species, A. satoi n. sp. and D. ichthyocercus n. sp., are described, and A. paranaensis is redescribed. The Rio São Francisco represents new geographical records for the five previously described dactylogyrid species. PMID:20532849

  7. Comparative application of direct sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and cytogenetic markers in the genetic characterization of Pimelodus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) species: possible implications for fish conservation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M; Bressane, K C O; Moresco, A R C; Moreira-Filho, O; Almeida-Toledo, L F; Garcia, C

    2014-01-01

    Pimelodus (Pimelodidae) is a genus comprising a group of South American species with complex taxonomic relationships. Cytogenetics, polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and sequencing data of mitochondrial genes were analyzed to characterize 4 Pimelodus species: P. fur, P. heraldoi, P. maculatus, and Pimelodus sp. All populations presented 2n=56 chromosomes and distinct karyotypic formulae. The heterochromatin distribution pattern and the number and location of 5S and 18S rDNA sites are discussed. The application of PCR-RFLP markers and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA genes provided species-specific haplotypes, which allowed us to differentiate the species studied. The mitochondrial gene sequences presented nucleotide mutations in the restriction sites and throughout the sequences, and they were mostly related to synonymous substitutions in the coded proteins; however, they did not affect the protein and its function. Comparing the data obtained using these 3 methodologies, the existence of a species complex in P. maculatus along the basins studied might be inferred, showing that cytogenetics is an important tool in studies focusing on the conservation or management of both natural and captive populations of these fishes. PMID:25036358

  8. Aspects of the biology of Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, L J B; French, R P; Jones, P; Ierodiaconou, D; Gray, S; Versace, V L; Rattray, A; Brown, S; Monk, J

    2012-08-01

    The biology of three landlocked and a riverine population of Galaxias maculatus were examined in western Victoria, Australia. All systems supported reproducing populations of these fish, including Lake Corangamite which had salinities that on occasion reached 82. Spawning sites in Lake Corangamite were located in adjacent tributaries and not in the main lake as was the case for other populations. The smallest fish were found in the fresh water Lake Purrumbete and the largest in the hypersaline Lake Corangamite. The size at which 50% of the population attained sexual maturity varied across sites, with fish maturing at a smaller size in Lake Purrumbete, followed by the Merri River, Lake Bullen Merri and Lake Corangamite. Condition was higher in the freshwater Lake Purrumbete and there was no relationship between condition and temperature, conductivity, turbidity and pH; but there was a positive relationship between condition and dissolved oxygen. Length frequency analysis suggested that the majority of fishes live for a year. PMID:22880739

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Duan, Jinrong; Xu, Dongpo; Zhou, Yanfeng; Zhang, Minying; Fang, Dian; Xu, Pao

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus. This mitochondrial genome is 16,597 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding control region as found in other vertebrates, with the gene synteny identical to those of typical vertebrates. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp in length, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 25.9%, C 29.5%, A 27.3% and G 17.3%, with an AT bias of 53.2%. PMID:26075475

  10. Trophic ecomorphology of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from a tropical stream.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, J P A; Goulart, E; Oliveira, E F; Yamamura, C B

    2011-05-01

    The present study analysed the relationship between morphology and trophic structure of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from the Caracu Stream (22º 45' S and 53º 15' W), a tributary of the Paraná River (Brazil). Sampling was carried out at three sites using electrofishing, and two species of Loricariidae and four of Heptapteridae were obtained. A cluster analysis revealed the presence of three trophic guilds (detritivores, insectivores and omnivores). Principal components analysis demonstrated the segregation of two ecomorphotypes: at one extreme there were the detritivores (Loricariidae) with morphological structures that are fundamental in allowing them to fix themselves to substrates characterised by rushing torrents, thus permitting them to graze on the detritus and organic materials encrusted on the substrate; at the other extreme of the gradient there were the insectivores and omnivores (Heptapteridae), with morphological characteristics that promote superior performance in the exploitation of structurally complex habitats with low current velocity, colonised by insects and plants. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed an ecomorphological divergence between insectivores, which have morphological structures that permit them to capture prey in small spaces among rocks, and omnivores, which have a more compressed body and tend to explore food items deposited in marginal backwater zones. Mantel tests showed that trophic structure was significantly related to the body shape of a species, independently of the phylogenetic history, indicating that, in this case, there was an ecomorphotype for each trophic guild. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the Siluriformes of the Caracu Stream were ecomorphologically structured and that morphology can be applied as an additional tool in predicting the trophic structure of this group. PMID:21755165

  11. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host. PMID:12048579

  12. Growth and reproduction of the highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, K L; Taylor, B M; Hernandez-Ortiz, D; Cuetos-Bueno, J

    2016-05-01

    Highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus sampled in Chuuk, Micronesia, exhibited a moderate growth rate and a relatively short life span compared to other epinephelids of a similar size. Combined gonad and otolith analysis provide preliminary evidence that the species conforms to a protogynous sexual pattern. Mean total length at maturity for females was 308 mm with first age at maturity 2·8 years for females and 4 years for males, which differs from other regional studies. Based on the gonado-somatic index and microscopic analysis of gonads, E. maculatus in Chuuk have a 4 month spawning season (January to April) that corresponds with seasonal lows in sea surface water temperature and overlaps with that of other aggregating epinephelids. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth factor (K) was 0·51 year(-1) , while total mortality was 0·34 year(-1) . Current management for E. maculatus in Chuuk includes a January to May catch, sale and export ban, which overlaps with its reproductive season. The effectiveness of these arrangements will require on-going monitoring to determine whether alternative management strategies are required to ensure population persistence. PMID:27021483

  13. Draft Genomes of Anopheles cracens and Anopheles maculatus: Comparison of Simian Malaria and Human Malaria Vectors in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics. PMID:27347683

  14. A novel oxyconforming response in the freshwater fish Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N; Forster, Malcolm E

    2012-03-01

    How fish oxygen consumption is modulated by external PO(2) has long been a matter of interest, yet is an experimentally complicated question to answer. In this study closed and semi-closed respirometry were used to evaluate the oxygen consumption rate of the scaleless galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) as a function of decreasing external PO(2). Both respirometry techniques showed that as environmental oxygen levels declined, oxygen consumption rates also decreased. At no point did inanga regulate oxygen consumption. This is strong evidence that inanga is an oxyconformer. Partitioned respirometry experiments showed that skin plays an important role in oxygen uptake in this fish species, and cutaneous oxygen uptake may have an important role in shaping the oxygen consumption response to hypoxia. PMID:22138470

  15. Influence of substrate and relative humidity on the efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi for the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diptychus maculatus Steindachner (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    He, Dekui; Liang, Yangyang; Li, Chunhua; Wei, Chaojun; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    Diptychus maculatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), the sole species of genus Diptychus, is an economically important freshwater fish widely distributed in Asia. In this study, we first sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of D. maculatus. The genome is 16,835 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes as well as 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The gene composition and order are identical with most bony fishes. The overall nucleotide composition of the heavy strand is 27.7% A, 26.7% T, 26.5% C and 19.1% G. The mitogenome data would be useful for further genetics studies, phylogenetic analysis, and resource protection of D. maculatus and phylogenetic analysis of Schizothoracine fishes. PMID:25774947

  17. Mechanisms of zinc toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environments occurring both naturally, and through anthropogenic inputs. This study investigated impacts of sub-lethal Zn exposure in the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus. Known as inanga, this amphidromous fish is widespread throughout the Southern hemisphere, but to date almost nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to elevated environmental metals. Fish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of Zn (control, 8, 270 and 1000μgL(-1)) over 96h. End-points measured included those relating to ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body calcium and sodium influx), oxygen consumption (respirometry), oxidative stress (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) and whole body accumulation of Zn. Zn exposure caused increases in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation, but only at the highest exposure level tested. Zn also significantly inhibited calcium influx, but stimulated sodium influx, at 1000μgL(-1). The sub-lethal changes induced by Zn exposure in inanga appear to be conserved relative to other, better-studied species. These data are the first to explore the sensitivity of juvenile galaxiid fish to Zn, information that will be critical to ensuring adequate environmental protection of this important species. PMID:26510681

  18. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  19. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial.

    PubMed

    Firestone, K B; Elphinstone, M S; Sherwin, W B; Houlden, B A

    1999-10-01

    Tiger quolls, Dasyurus maculatus, are the largest carnivorous marsupials still extant on the mainland of Australia, and occupy an important ecological niche as top predators and scavengers. Two allopatric subspecies are recognized, D.m. gracilis in north Queensland, and D.m. maculatus in the southeast of the mainland and Tasmania. D.m. gracilis is considered endangered while D.m. maculatus is listed as vulnerable to extinction; both subspecies are still in decline. Phylogeographical subdivision was examined to determine evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs) among populations of tiger quolls to assist in the conservation of these taxa. Ninety-three tiger quolls from nine representative populations were sampled from throughout the species range. Six nuclear microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (471 bp) were used to examine ESUs and MUs in this species. We demonstrated that Tasmanian tiger quolls are reciprocally monophyletic to those from the mainland using mtDNA analysis, but D.m. gracilis was not monophyletic with respect to mainland D.m. maculatus. Analysis of microsatellite loci also revealed significant differences between the Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls, and between D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus. These results indicate that Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls form two distinct evolutionary units but that D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus are different MUs within the same ESU. The two marker types used in this study revealed different male and female dispersal patterns and indicate that the most appropriate units for short-term management are local populations. A revised classification and management plan are needed for tiger quolls, particularly in relation to conservation of the Tasmanian and Queensland populations. PMID:10583825

  20. Two Nerocila species parasitizing Pomadasys maculatus from Nagapattinam, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2016-09-01

    Two species of Cymothoidae (Nerocila loveni and Nerocila sundaica) were collected on the host fish Pomadasys maculatus from the Nagapattinam coast. Pomadasys maculatus is a new host for these parasitic isopods not previously recorded in the world. Nerocila loveni was mainly attached on the caudal peduncle of the fish and N. sundaica was collected from the pectoral fin and the body of the host. For N. loveni and N. sundaica, the prevalence reached 28.70 and 26.08 % respectively. One parasite was collected per host fish. PMID:27605820

  1. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a

  2. Modification of postmortem wounds by Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) activity: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of insect activity on hacking trauma which was inflicted with a small cleaver and a razor blade under controlled conditions. Three pig hooves were each subjected to a blow with a small cleaver and a cut with a razor blade prior to insect exposure. We used Dermestes maculatus DeGeer 1774 species. These beetles made principally depressions and destruction on both wounds, and bites were observed on the edges of the wounds. As time passed and insects fed and refuge, chop marks were deformed and disappeared, taking this less than a month. Thus, D. maculatus could mask postmortem wounds and probably premortem wounds, and so the cause of death. PMID:26352289

  3. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. PMID:26477981

  4. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J.; Downs, Kevin P.; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj < 0.05) were identified as responsive to UVB. The molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus skin to UVB exposure permitted assessment of; (1) the basal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure. PMID:24556253

  5. Repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Thymus persicus against Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Moharramipour, S; Taghizadeh, A; Meshkatalsadat, M H; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y

    2008-01-01

    Repellent and insecticidal activity of the essential oil extracted from Thymus persicus (Roniger ex Reach. F.) Jalas was evaluated against two stored-product beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Dry flowering aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The repellent and fumigant toxicity were tested against 1-7 days old adult beetles at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% RH in dark condition. The repellency on C. maculatus and T. castaneum at highest concentration (2 microL/mL acetone) was 82.40% and 70.40% respectively. Fumigation bioassays showed that C. maculatus adults were significantly more susceptible (LC50 = 2.39 microL/L air) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 234.42 microL/L air). It could be concluded that T. persicus may have potential for applications in management of stored-product pests because of its safety, strong repellency and fumigant toxicity. PMID:19226805

  6. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption. PMID:27078512

  7. The De Novo Transcriptome and Its Functional Annotation in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Bayram, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera) remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant) database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally. PMID:27442123

  8. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  9. Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations). Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most

  10. Ten novel microsatellite loci characterized for a remarkably widespread fish: Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae).

    PubMed

    Carrea, Cecilia; Paterson, Ian G; Cussac, Victor E; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2009-11-01

    Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers (five tetra-, one compound tetra-, one octa- and three dinucleotides) were isolated and characterized for Galaxias maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. Markers were tested in 89 individual samples from a single location and the number of alleles ranged between 2 and 28. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.103 to 0.910 and 0.098 to 0.935 respectively. No evidence was detected for either linkage disequilibrium (P-values > 0.05 for each locus pair) or deviations from HWE (P-values > 0.05 for every loci). PMID:21564945

  11. Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds. PMID:16938411

  12. Do environmental differences between lakes in northwestern Argentinean Patagonia affect the infection of Philureter trigoniopsis (monogenea) in Galaxias maculatus (osmeriformes)?

    PubMed

    Viozzi, G P; Semenas, L G

    2009-02-01

    Philureter trigoniopsis is the only parasite found in the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus in Patagonian Andean lakes. The dynamics of this endoparasitic monogenean were studied in Lake Gutiérrez, a body of water with scarce shoreline vegetation, where the host has an annual cycle of migration to the deep pelagic zone of the lake. To compare variations of the infection related to differences between lakes, G. maculatus specimens were sampled monthly with baited traps from September 1998 to November 1999 in Lake Moreno, which is an oligotrophic body of water with emergent shoreline vegetation and where the fish do not migrate to the deep pelagic areas of the lake. In addition, data for summer infections of P. trigoniopsis from 10 Andean Patagonian lakes that differ in aquatic vegetation, depth, and area were compared. In Lake Moreno prevalence of P. trigoniopsis showed a seasonal pattern, with 1-yr-old fish exhibiting the highest values of prevalence and mean intensity. Negative correlations between water temperature and prevalence and between age of fish and abundance were found. Our results suggest that age of fish may be the main factor structuring the distribution of P. trigoniosis in populations of G. maculatus. At the regional level the relationship between the infection and the characteristics of the lakes was also observed, with prevalence and mean intensity of P. trigoniopsis in G. maculatus higher in large deep lakes without macrophytes. PMID:18576893

  13. Zanobatus maculatus, a new species of panray from the Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Zanobatidae).

    PubMed

    Séret, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A new species of panray, Zanabatus maculatus sp. nov., is described from 12 type specimens collected in the Gulf of Guinea (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new species is distinguished from its sympatric congener, the striped panray Zanobatus schoenleinii, by its smaller size, heavier thorn pattern, spearhead-shaped dermal denticles and maculate colour pattern. PMID:27615946

  14. Effect of diet and refugia on development of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer reared in a laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hide beetle (Dermestes maculatus DeGeer) is a Dermestid beetle that can infest a wide variety of stored products, including pet foods and animal feeds, dried foods, and grains products with high protein content. Although there is published information concerning the biology and habits of D. macu...

  15. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Heracleum persicum Against the Adults of Callosobruchus Maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses. PMID:24773362

  16. Isolation and characterization of an anti-insect β-toxin from the venom of the scorpion Isometrus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Tomoyuki; Miyashita, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Im-3 was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Isometrus maculatus through several steps of HPLC fractionation based on the insect paralytic activity. Injecting Im-3 into crickets induced paralysis, but no toxicity was apparent in mice after an intracerebroventricular injection. Im-3 shares sequence similarity to scorpion β-toxins that specifically affect insect sodium channels. PMID:23291760

  17. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle. PMID:26981762

  18. Smell no evil: Copper disrupts the alarm chemical response in a diadromous fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Oliver R B; Barbee, Nicole C; Hassell, Kathryn L; Swearer, Stephen E

    2016-09-01

    Fish, at all life stages, utilize olfactory information in the decision-making processes essential to survival. Olfaction is a sensitive sensory process, and toxicants within urban aquatic environments can have destructive or depreciating effects. In the present study, the authors exposed Galaxias maculatus, a native fish commonly found in urban waterways throughout southeastern Australia, to 1 of 5 ecologically relevant copper (II) chloride concentrations (<1 μg/L, 1 μg/L, 6 μg/L, 8 μg/L, 18 μg/L) for 16 h. After exposure, the authors tested the response of individual fish to 1 of 3 stimuli: a conspecific skin extract containing a stress-inducing alarm chemical odor, a conspecific odor, and distilled water as a control. Stress responses were quantified through behavioral assays. The authors found evidence for distinct changes in behavioral response with increasing copper concentration and a marked difference in response between control fish and fish exposed to the alarm chemical odor. Copper, even at relatively low concentrations, can have a significant effect on the stress response behavior shown by G. maculatus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2209-2214. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27552396

  19. Genetic divergence between Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Paraná River Basin.

    PubMed

    Bignotto, T S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Maniglia, T C; Boni, T A; Lucio, L C; Gomes, V N; Prioli, R A; Oliveira, A V; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M

    2009-06-01

    Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz, 1829) and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eingenmann and Eigenmann, 1889) are large migratory catfishes of high biological importance and great commercial value in South America. Because fertile crossbreeds can be artificially produced in hatcheries, a high genetic proximity between these two Pimelodidae species is conceivable. Possible escape of crossbred specimens from pisciculture stations is a serious environmental concern. Despite their importance, knowledge of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum biology, ecology, population diversity and genetics is limited. In the present work, the genetic divergence between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum populations from the Paraná River Basin was analyzed on the basis of polymorphisms in ISSR fragments and in the hypervariable sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Estimates of intraspecific haplotype (h > 0.5) and nucleotide diversities (pi < 0.01) indicate that P. corruscans and P. reticulatum have survived a historical population decline, followed by a demographic expansion. The interspecific polymorphisms within the mtDNA control region and ISSR fragments were suitable as diagnostic molecular markers and could be used to discriminate the two species. A unique Pseudoplatystoma specimen, captured in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain, was identified by these DNA diagnostic markers as a hybrid P. reticulatum x P. corruscans, which possibly escaped from pisciculture. The integrity of the natural population of P. corruscans in the Upper Paraná River is at risk of genetic introgression or homogenization due to the presence of hybrids and the transposition of P. reticulatum upstream through the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam. Data presented herein improve the understanding of the genetic relatedness between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and represent potential tools for future programs of conservation and surveillance of genetic introgression events and the

  20. Ecology of the Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea inferred by parasitological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, M Grazia; Piras, M Cristina; Macías, David; Gómez-Vives, M José; Alemany, Francisco; Montero, Francisco E; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27173779

  1. Infection of Myxobolus galaxii (Myxozoa) in Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) from northwestern Patagonian Andean lakes (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo

    2007-04-01

    The infection of Myxobolus galaxii Szidat, 1953, from the musculature and abdominal organs of northwestern Patagonian Galaxias maculatus is described. Plasmodia are histozoic and intercellular. Spores are pyriform in valvar view and biconvex in sutural view, with 4-9 edge notches in the sutural line, varying in shape within the same plasmodium. Myxobolus galaxii was detected in fish from 7 of 17 Andean Patagonian lakes, with prevalences ranging between 2 and 17%. A repeating pattern of summer increment in prevalence was observed, which could be explained by the ontogenetic migratory movements of the fish in Lake Gutiérrez. Also, accumulation of plasmodia through the life span of fish was detected. PMID:17539428

  2. Myxidium biliare sp. n. (Myxozoa) from gall bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Viozzi, Gustavo P; Flores, Verónica R

    2003-09-01

    Myxidium biliare sp. n., a new myxosporean species parasitizing the gall bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), in Patagonia, is described. Its coelozoic plasmodia were floating free in the bile. Spores are fusiform 13.7 +/- 0.9 microm long and 6.9 +/- 0.6 microm wide, with rounded ends in frontal view and slightly pointed ends in sutural view; shell with ridges and sinuous sutural line. Both maximum prevalence and maximum percentage of immature plasmodia occurred in summer. In winter the prevalence and the percentage of immature plasmodia fell to their lowest values. Prevalence was independent of host sex but increased with host length. Prevalence in 15 Patagonian Andean lakes (situated from 39 degrees 25'S to 41 degrees 30'S) ranged between 4.2% and 70%. PMID:14535344

  3. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    PubMed Central

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066

  4. Tibet Orbivirus, a Novel Orbivirus Species Isolated from Anopheles maculatus Mosquitoes in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, David; Wang, Zhiyu; Liang, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. Methods and Results Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906) that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36), these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5′-RACE and 3′-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5′- and 3′- untranslated regions (UTRs) for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. Conclusions The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. PMID:24533145

  5. Molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus maculatus-X. couchianus interspecies hybrid skin to UVB exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Bowswell, Mikki; Bowswell, William; Yang, Kuan; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    The phenotypic and genetic similarities between Xiphophorus and human melanoma render Xiphophorus a useful animal model for studying the genetic basis of melanoma etiology. In the Xiphophorus model, melanoma has been shown to be inducible by ultraviolet light (UVB) exposure among interspecies hybrids, but not in parental line fish similarly treated. This leads to questions of what genes are responsive to UVB exposure in the skin of the interspecies hybrids, as well as how parental alleles in hybrids may be differentially regulated and the potential roles they may play in induced melanomagenesis. To address these questions, we produced X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus (Sp-Couch) F1 hybrid fish, exposed both hybrid and parental fish to UVB, and performed gene expression profiling of the skin using RNA-Seq methodology. We characterized a group of unique UVB-responsive genes in Sp-Couch hybrid including dct, pmela, tyr, tyrp1a, slc2a11b, rab38a, rab27, tspan10, slc45a2, oca2, slc24a5, ptn and mitfa. These genes are associated with melanin production and melanocyte proliferation. They were also up-regulated in Sp-Couch hybrid, indicating that their UVB response is hybridization initiated. In the hybrid, several melanin production and pigmentation related genes, including slc45a2, tspan10, dct, slc2a11b and ptn showed either X. couchianus or X. maculatus allele specific expression. The finding that these genes exhibit allele specific expression regulatory mechanisms in Sp-Couch hybrids, but do not exhibit a corresponding UVB response in either one of the parental fishes, may suggest UVB targets and imply mechanisms regarding the susceptibility of Sp-Couch to induced melanomagenesis. PMID:26254713

  6. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Fuentes, Juan; Poulin, Elie; Bertrán, Carlos; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations. Results Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π) and the haplotype diversity index (H) indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), and H+-ATPase (HA) was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes. Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G

  7. Complete mitochondrial genomes for Icelus spatula, Aspidophoroides olrikii and Leptoclinus maculatus: pan-Arctic marine fishes from Canadian waters.

    PubMed

    Swanburg, Taylor; Horne, John B; Baillie, Shauna; King, Stanley D; McBride, Meghan C; Mackley, Michael P; Paterson, Ian G; Bradbury, Ian R; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Three Arctic marine fishes Icelus spatula, Aspidophoroides olrikii and Leptoclinus maculatus have been identified as target species for investigating the effects of ocean warming on population patterns in high-latitude marine habitats around Canada. In preparation for this research, we have resolved whole mitochondrial genome sequences of 16 384, 17 200 and 16 384 bp for each species, respectively. GC content for each species was 47.5%, 44.2% and 45.3%, respectively. Mitogenome gene composition included 13 protein-encoding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes, for I. spatula and L. maculatus, consistent with other teleosts. Only 20 tRNA genes were annotated for A. olrikii, because tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Thr are poorly characterized and aberrantly located in this species. PMID:26122337

  8. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  9. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

  10. A new genus of Cystidicolid nematode from the stomach of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Fernández, María V; Vega, Rocío M

    2009-02-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) from Patagonian Andean Lakes, specimens of a new species of nematode were collected from the stomach of fish and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is described as the only member of a newly proposed genus of Cystidicolidae by having oral opening dorsoventrally elongated, 2 lateral pseudolabia, 4 cephalic papillae, stoma (vestibule) elongated, esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular sections, and caudal alae in males. Placonema n. gen. (Habronematoidea, Cystidicolidae) is characterized by the combination of the following features: oral opening dorsoventrally elongated demarcated by 4 sclerotized plates and 2 well-developed pseudolabia projected to the buccal cavity, each pseudolabium with conspicuous, conical, anterior protuberances. Four cephalic papillae and deirids simple. Male with caudal alae, area rugosa absent, 4 pairs of preanal papillae, unpaired papilla present on anterior cloacal lip, and 6 pairs of postanal papillae. Larvigerous eggs without filaments. Placonema pataguense n. gen. n. sp. infects the stomach of G. maculatus from Lake Patagua (Patagonia, Argentina) and is the first species of Cystidicolidae described from G. maculatus. PMID:18652524

  11. Impact of a caged-trout farm on parasites of Galaxias maculatus in Lake Moreno, southern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Revenga, Jorge E; Torres, Patricio F; Baiz, Miguel

    2005-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the impact of a caged-trout farm on the helminth parasites of the wild fish puyen chico (Galaxias maculatus) in Lake Moreno, southern Argentina. Samples of water, fish (G. maculatus), and snails (Heleobia hatcheri) were taken at 4 sampling stations in January 2001. Wild fish were parasitized by 8 helminth species, all of which are endemic in the region; therefore, the farm did not introduce any helminth parasite to G. maculatus. Fish captured near the farm were not infected by the digenean Steganoderma szidati, whereas the abundance of the digenean Acanthostomoides apophalliformis in these fish was significantly lower than that in fish captured away from the farm. This lower abundance may be explained by the absence in this area of the snail H. hatcheri, the parasite's first intermediate host, because of the effect of sediments and ammonium produced by the farm. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Americas linking fish-farm pollution to helminth parasites in wild fish. PMID:16108574

  12. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

  13. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

  14. The fate of vicilins, 7S storage globulins, in larvae and adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P

    2010-09-01

    The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments. PMID:20230826

  15. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut α-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues. PMID:25097041

  16. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°-41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°-53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  17. Salinity-dependent mechanisms of copper toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Urbina, Mauricio A; Harley, Rachel A; Lee, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    The euryhaline galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is widely spread throughout the Southern hemisphere occupying near-coastal streams that may be elevated in trace elements such as copper (Cu). Despite this, nothing is known regarding their sensitivity to Cu contamination. The mechanisms of Cu toxicity in inanga, and the ameliorating role of salinity, were investigated by acclimating fish to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW), or 100% SW and exposing them to a graded series of Cu concentrations (0-200μgL(-1)) for 48h. Mortality, whole body Cu accumulation, measures of ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body ions, sodium (Na) influx, sodium/potassium ATPase activity) and ammonia excretion were monitored. Toxicity of Cu was greatest in FW, with mortality likely resulting from impaired Na influx. In both FW and 100% SW, ammonia excretion was significantly elevated, an effect opposite to that observed in previous studies, suggesting fundamental differences in the effect of Cu in this species relative to other studied fish. Salinity was protective against Cu toxicity, and physiology seemed to play a more important role than water chemistry in this protection. Inanga are sensitive to waterborne Cu through a conserved impairment of Na ion homeostasis, but some effects of Cu exposure in this species are distinct. Based on effect concentrations, current regulatory tools and limits are likely protective of this species in New Zealand waters. PMID:26966874

  18. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  19. Identification and functional analysis of interferon regulatory factor 3 in Lateolabrax maculatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; Wei, Qun; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Chun-Lei; Bi, Yan-Hui; Gu, Yi-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a member of the IFN regulatory transcription factor family, which binds to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) within the promoter of IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes. In this study, the IRF3 cDNA of sea perch Lateolabrax maculatus (SpIRF3) was identified, which contained 1781 bp with an open reading frame of 1398 bp that coded a 465 amino acid protein. The SpIRF3 protein shared conserved characterizations with its homologues and displayed the conserved DNA-binding domain, IRF association domain, serine-rich C-terminal domain, and tryptophan residue cluster. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that SpIRF3 belonged to the IRF3 subfamily. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpIRF3 mainly resided in the cytoplasm without stimuli but translocated into nuclei in the presence of poly I:C. Real-time PCR data indicated that SpIRF3 was transcriptionally up-regulated by poly I:C stimulation in various organs. Moreover, reporter assay revealed that SpIRF3 functioned as a modulator in triggering the IFN response by inducing the activity of IFN and ISRE-containing promoter. These data revealed that SpIRF3 was a potential molecule in the IFN immune defense system against viral infection. PMID:27181713

  20. Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:23535338

  1. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  2. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  3. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

  4. Seasonal dynamics of the flower head infestation of Smallanthus maculatus by two nonfrugivorous tephritids.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Cauich, José F; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. PMID:25368091

  5. Effect of some pulverised plant materials on the developmental stages of fish beetle, Dermestes maculatus Degeer in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage.

    PubMed

    Fasakin, E A; Aberejo, B A

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of pulverised plant materials; Tithonium diversifolia, Afromomum melegueta, Nicotiana tabacum, Monodora myristica and Piper guineense as ovicidal, larvicidal and adult deterents of fish beetle (Dermestes maculatus) in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage were evaluated. Leaves of T. diversifolia, N. tabacum and seeds of A. melegueta, M. myristica and P. guineese were dried and pulverised into powder. Adults and larvae of third generation (F3) of D. maculatus were introduced into Kilner jars containing disinfested fish samples. Pulverised plant materials were applied to the surface of the fish samples at 10% (w/w) and monitored for 40 days, while egg hatchability of the insects was monitored for seven days. The result showed that all the plant materials had varying degree of insecticidal activities. Pulverised powder of P. guineense and A. melegueta were the most effective and significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited egg hatchability and adult emergence of D. maculatus in smoked catfish. N. tabacum gave the lowest insecticidal effect on adults, larvae and eggs of D. maculatus. However, the larvae of D. maculatus were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the plant materials. The percentage weight loss in fish treated with P. guineense and A. melegueta were minimal compared with the untreated fish sample. The result of this study showed that pulverised plant materials obtained from P. guineense and A. melegueta could be used to deter egg hatchability and adult emergence of D. maculatus in smoked catfish during storage. This could also reduce percentage losses due to insect infestation on smoked fish during storage. PMID:12227542

  6. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species. PMID:26245779

  7. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery, Genotyping and Their Preliminary Applications for Population Genetic Inference in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE) for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π) for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001) and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001). However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001). Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40%) significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus. PMID:27336696

  8. Morphology and phylogeny of Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite infecting the gills of the fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Velasco, Michele; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 μm in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 μm in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 μm in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 μm in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 μm long and 6.1 ± 0.4 μm wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna. PMID:25039988

  9. COWPEA WEEVIL (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS) FLIGHTS TO A POINT SOURCE OF FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE: ANALYSES OF FLIGHT TRACKS AT THREE WIND SPEEDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, were released individually and flew upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plumes made contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks i...

  10. Potential of the Lectin/Inhibitor Isolated from Crataeva tapia Bark (CrataBL) for Controlling Callosobruchus maculatus Larva Development.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A; de Sá, Leonardo F R; de Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Correia, Maria Tereza dos S; Paiva, Patrícia Maria G; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2015-12-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus is an important predator of cowpeas. Due to infestation during storage, this insect affects the quality of seed and crop yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CrataBL, a multifunction protein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, on C. maculatus larva development. The protein, which is stable even in extreme pH conditions, showed toxic activity, reducing the larval mass 45 and 70% at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0% (w/w), respectively. Acting as an inhibitor, CrataBL decreased by 39% the activity of cysteine proteinases from larval gut. Conversely, the activity of serine proteinases was increased about 8-fold. The toxic properties of CrataBL may also be attributed to its capacity of binding to glycoproteins or glycosaminoglycans. Such binding interferes with larval metabolism, because CrataBL-FITC was found in the fat body, Malpighian tubules, and feces of larvae. These results demonstrate the potential of this protein for controlling larva development. PMID:26568149

  11. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. PMID:26443776

  12. Sexual size and shape dimorphism and allometric scaling patterns in head traits in the New Zealand common gecko Woodworthia maculatus.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Clint D

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism in shape and size is widespread across animal taxa and arises when natural or sexual selection operates differently on the sexes. Male and female common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus; formerly Hoplodactylus maculatus) in New Zealand do not appear to experience different viability selection pressure, nor do males appear to be under intense pre-copulatory sexual selection. It was therefore predicted that this species would be sexually monomorphic with regard to body size and the size and shape of the head. In line with the prediction, there was no sexual difference in head width, depth, or length or in lateral head shape. However, contrary to prediction, males had a larger body and lateral head size than females. This study suggests that males, at least on Maud Island, NZ, might be under stronger pre-copulatory sexual selection than previously recognized and thus have evolved larger heads (i.e. lateral head size) for use in male combat for females. Allometric scaling patterns do not differ between the sexes and suggest that head width and depth are under directional selection whereas lateral head size is under stabilizing selection. Diet ecology - an agent of natural selection common to both sexes - is likely largely responsible for the observed patterns of head size and shape and the lack of sexual dimorphism in them. PMID:25958103

  13. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. PMID:26443776

  14. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  15. A new genus and species of pterygosomatid mite (Acari: Pterygosomatidae) parasitizing Callopistes maculatus (Squamata: Teiidae) from Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuente, María Carolina Silva-de La; Paredes-León, Ricardo; Casanueva, María Eugenia; Escobar-Huerta, Gustavo; Salas, Lucila Moreno

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species Callopistiella atacamensis gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae) are described from Callopistes maculatus (Squamata: Teiidae) in Chile. In this species, both sexes are characterized by the hypostome without a velum, the chelicerae proximally globose and very thin distally, ending in a movable digit curved outward, the fixed cheliceral digit reduced to a membranous and sparsely serrate structure, presence of seta 2c, tarsus I with seta ft nude and 2 times longer than solenidion ω2; larvae have solenidion ω1 on tarsus I and tibia I without solenidion φ and moderate hypertrichy present around the genital area. Some biological aspects of this new species are discussed. PMID:26249482

  16. Dietary shift in juvenile coral trout ( Plectropomus maculatus) following coral reef degradation from a flood plume disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Colin K. C.; Bonin, Mary C.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2016-06-01

    Acute environmental disturbances impact on habitat quality and resource availability, which can reverberate through trophic levels and become apparent in species' dietary composition. In this study, we observed a distinct dietary shift of newly settled and juvenile coral trout ( Plectropomus maculatus) following severe coral reef habitat degradation after a river flood plume affected the Keppel Islands, Australia. Hard coral cover declined by ~28 % in the 2 yr following the 2010-2011 floods, as did the abundance of young coral trout. Gut contents analysis revealed that diets had shifted from largely crustacean-based to non-preferred prey fishes following the disturbances. These results suggest that newly settled and juvenile coral trout modify their diet and foraging strategy in response to coral habitat degradation. This bottom-up effect of habitat degradation on the diet of a top coral reef predator may incur a metabolic cost, with subsequent effects on growth and survival.

  17. Comparative toxicity and micronuclei formation in Tribolium castaneum, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae exposed to high doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species. PMID:25898238

  18. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

  19. A new genus of dactylogyrid from the gills of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Maullín Basin, Patagonia, Chile.

    PubMed

    Viozzi, Gustavo P; Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; Brugni, Norma; Mancilla, Melinka

    2007-06-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) in the Maullín Basin (Chilean Patagonia), specimens of a new species of Monogenea were collected from the gills. This species is described as the only member of a proposed new genus, Inserotrema n. gen. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae), characterized by similar hooks with 2 subunits, overlapping gonads, coiled cirrus with counterclockwise rings, articulated accessory piece formed by 2 parts, a needlelike sclerite threading the distal part of the MCO, and a sclerotized midventral vagina. This new genus is proposed for dactylogyrids from gills of galaxiids (Galaxiidae). Inserotrema puyei n. sp. infects gills of G. maculatus from Llanquihue Lake, Maullín River, and Maullín Estuary. This is the first species of Ancyrocephalinae described from gills of a galaxiid. PMID:17626345

  20. Population dynamics of Philureter trigoniopsis (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) from urinary organs of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in a cold temperate Andean Patagonian lake (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G; Gutiérrez, Pablo

    2005-12-01

    Philureter trigoniopsis parasitizes the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus in Patagonian Andean lakes. To investigate factors associated with variation in the prevalence and intensity of this monogenean, fish were sampled periodically over 2 yr in Lake Gutiérrez. Prevalence and mean intensity are higher in smaller fishes than in larger ones. A seasonal pattern was observed, with peak recruitment and peak mean intensity occurring in early spring (September), followed by lows in late summer (January-February). Galaxias maculatus length classes are spatially segregated due to seasonal migrations, so the annual infection cycle is characterized by higher prevalence and intensity from late winter to early summer in the smaller fish from the deep zone of the lake. PMID:16539018

  1. Philureter trigoniopsis, a new genus and species (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Viozzi, G P; Gutiérrez, P A

    2001-04-01

    The monotypic Philureter n. gen. (Ancyrocephalinae; Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. with the following features: presence of a cuplike ventral haptor armed with 14 hooks and 2 anchor/bar complexes; dorsal pair of anchors poorly defined and variable in shape, 1 frequently absent; tandem, intercecal gonads, testis bilaterally lobulated. Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. is described from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes) in Patagonian Andean lakes, Argentina. PMID:11318570

  2. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established. PMID:26250192

  3. Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus. PMID:18038102

  4. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

  5. Post-settlement migratory behaviour and growth-related costs in two diadromous fish species, Galaxias maculatus and Galaxias brevipinnis.

    PubMed

    Jung, C A; Barbee, N C; Swearer, S E

    2009-08-01

    The physiological challenges incurred during the transition from sea to fresh water and the constraints they place on the rate at which the common galaxiid Galaxias maculatus and the climbing galaxiid Galaxias brevipinnis can migrate from marine to freshwater habitats were examined. The duration of the marine to freshwater transition, the relationship between post-settlement age (PSA) and standard length (L(S)) as a proxy for energetic costs incurred during settlement and the potential effects of estuary geomorphology on migratory behaviour was investigated. Rate of upstream migration after settlement was not uniform. Upstream migration rate was slowest directly after settlement and increased with increasing PSA and distance from the river mouth, indicating a delay in upstream migration by newly recruited galaxiids. L(s) did not increase with age, at least within the first 21 days post settlement. These patterns were consistent for both species, in spite of differences in their life histories, across the recruitment season, despite seasonal variation in recruit size, and among estuaries with different properties. The results suggest that the timing and speed of migratory behaviour primarily reflect physiological constraints. Given the duration of residency of these species in estuaries, this study indicates that estuaries are critical transitional habitats for diadromous fishes during their migration from marine to freshwater habitats. PMID:20738553

  6. Extended incubation affects larval morphology, hatching success and starvation resistance in a terrestrially spawning fish, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns 1842).

    PubMed

    Semmens, D; Swearer, S E

    2011-10-01

    The effect of extended incubation (delayed hatching) on larval morphology in the terrestrially spawning common galaxias Galaxias maculatus was investigated by inducing larvae to hatch 1 and 2 weeks after the normal 2 week incubation period. After 1 week of extended incubation, larvae were larger (longer in standard length, L(S), and greater in body depth) compared to controls (larvae that experienced normal incubation durations). After 2 weeks of extended incubation, larvae were smaller (shorter in L(S) and smaller in body depth) than larvae that experienced 1 week of extended incubation. Furthermore, eye area increased while yolk-sac size decreased monotonically with increasing incubation duration. These results suggest that larvae experiencing long periods of extended incubation are using somatic tissue to meet their metabolic demands. Larvae that experienced 2 weeks of extended incubation succumbed to starvation sooner than control larvae, but hatching success was not significantly different. Temperature mediated the effect of extended incubation on the morphology of larvae at hatching, most likely, through its effects on developmental rate and efficiency of yolk utilization. This study demonstrates some of the consequences of terrestrial spawning with extended incubation, which will assist in determining why this intriguing behaviour has evolved several times in a diverse range of taxa. PMID:21967585

  7. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres-2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen-and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332

  8. Salinity-dependent nickel accumulation and effects on respiration, ion regulation and oxidative stress in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M; Glover, Chris N

    2016-07-01

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) are a euryhaline and amphidromous Southern hemisphere fish species inhabiting waters highly contaminated in trace elements such as nickel (Ni). Ni is known to exert its toxic effects on aquatic biota via three key mechanisms: inhibition of respiration, impaired ion regulation, and stimulation of oxidative stress. Inanga acclimated to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW) or 100% SW were exposed to 0, 150 or 2000 μg Ni L(-1), and tissue Ni accumulation, metabolic rate, ion regulation (tissue ions, calcium (Ca) ion influx), and oxidative stress (catalase activity, protein carbonylation) were measured after 96 h. Ni accumulation increased with Ni exposure concentration in gill, gut and remaining body, but not in liver. Only in the gill was Ni accumulation affected by exposure salinity, with lower branchial Ni burdens in 100% and 50% SW inanga, relative to FW fish. There were no Ni-dependent effects on respiration, or Ca influx, and the only Ni-dependent effect on tissue ion content was on gill potassium. Catalase activity and protein carbonylation were affected by Ni, primarily in FW, but only at 150 μg Ni L(-1). Salinity therefore offsets the effects of Ni, despite minimal changes in Ni bioavailability. These data suggest only minor effects of Ni in inanga, even at highly elevated environmental Ni concentrations. PMID:27077552

  9. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B.; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres—2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen—and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332

  10. Selection in a fluctuating environment and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M

    2012-08-01

    Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here, we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex differences in plasticity and also the genetic architecture of body mass and developmental time dimorphism to test two existing hypotheses on sex differences in plasticity (adaptive canalization hypothesis and condition dependence hypothesis). We found a decreased sexual size dimorphism in higher temperature and that females responded more plastically than males, supporting the condition dependence hypothesis. However, selection in a fluctuating environment altered sex-specific patterns of genetic and environmental variation, indicating support for the adaptive canalization hypothesis. Genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF) ) were affected by fluctuating selection, suggesting facilitated independent evolution of the sexes. Thus, the selective past of a population is highly important for the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism. PMID:22594940

  11. A RAD-Tag Genetic Map for the Platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) Reveals Mechanisms of Karyotype Evolution Among Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3–40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24–25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years. PMID:24700104

  12. Male-biased sex ratio does not promote increased sperm competitiveness in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kathryn B.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Rosa, Márta E.; Sloan, Nadia S.; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351

  13. Male-biased sex ratio does not promote increased sperm competitiveness in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Robinson, Stephen P; Rosa, Márta E; Sloan, Nadia S; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351

  14. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-04-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed. PMID:24347564

  15. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    PubMed

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  16. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  17. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of  P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus

  18. Differential expression of Na+, K(+)-ATPase α-1 isoforms during seawater acclimation in the amphidromous galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Schulte, Patricia M; Bystriansky, Jason S; Glover, Chris N

    2013-04-01

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish with a well-known capacity to withstand a wide range of environmental salinities. To investigate the molecular mechanisms facilitating acclimation of inanga to seawater, several isoforms of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ion transporter were identified. This included three α-1 (a, b and c), an α-2 and two α-3 (a and b) isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the inanga α-1a and α-1b formed a clade with the α-1a and α-1b isoforms of rainbow trout, while another clade contained the α-1c isoforms of these species. The expression of all the α-1 isoforms was modulated after seawater exposure (28‰). In gills, the expression of the α-1a isoform was progressively down-regulated after seawater exposure, while the expression of the α-1b isoform was up-regulated. The α-1c isoform behaved similarly to the α-1a, although changes were less dramatic. Physiological indicators of salinity acclimation matched the time frame of the changes observed at the molecular level. A 24-h osmotic shock period was highlighted by small increases in plasma osmolality, plasma Na(+) and a decrease in muscle tissue water content. Thereafter, these values returned close to their pre-exposure (freshwater) values. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity showed a decreasing trend over the first 72 h following seawater exposure, but activity increased after 240 h. Our results indicate that inanga is an excellent osmoregulator, an ability that is conferred by the rapid activation of physiological and molecular responses to salinity change. PMID:23142926

  19. Digestive enzyme compartmentalization and recycling and sites of absorption and secretion along the midgut of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Waldir; Dias, Alcides B; Terra, Walter R; Ribeiro, Alberto F

    2007-01-01

    Bostrichiformia is the less known major series of Coleoptera regarding digestive physiology. The midgut of Dermestes maculatus has a cylindrical ventriculus with anterior caeca. There is no cell differentiation along the ventriculus, except for the predominance of cells undergoing apocrine secretion in the anterior region. Apocrine secretion affects a larger extension and a greater number of cells in caeca than in ventriculus. Ventricular cells putatively secrete digestive enzymes, whereas caecal cells are supposed to secrete peritrophic gel (PG) glycoproteins. Feeding larvae with dyes showed that caeca are water-absorbing, whereas the posterior ventriculus is water-secreting. Midgut dissection revealed a PG and a peritrophic membrane (PM) covering the contents in anterior and posterior ventriculus, respectively. This was confirmed by in situ chitin detection with FITC-WGA conjugates. Ion-exchange chromatography of midgut homogenates, associated with enzymatic assays with natural and synthetic substrates and specific inhibitors, showed that trypsin and chymotrypsin are the major proteinases, cysteine proteinase is absent, and aspartic proteinase probably is negligible. Amylase and trypsin occur in contents and decrease along the ventriculus; the contrary is true for cell-membrane-bound aminopeptidase. Maltase is cell-membrane-bound and predominates in anterior and middle midgut. Digestive enzyme activities in hindgut are negligible. This, together with dye data, indicates that enzymes are recovered from inside PM by a posterior-anterior flux of fluid outside PM before being excreted. The combined results suggest that protein digestion starts in anterior midgut and ends in the surface of posterior midgut cells. All glycogen digestion takes place in anterior midgut. PMID:17167750

  20. Ailinella mirabilis gen. n., sp. n. (eucestoda: pseudophyllidea) from Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) in the Andean-Patagonian region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; Semenas, Liliana G

    2006-12-01

    Ailinella gen. n. (Pseudophyllidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate Ailinella mirabilis sp. n. from Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842), a freshwater fish inhabiting the Andean lakes in Argentinean Patagonia. Ailinella belongs to the Triaenophoridae because it has a marginal genital pore, a follicular vitelline gland, and a ventral uterine pore. The new genus can be distinguished from other triaenophorids by the following combination of characters: a small body size, a low number of proglottides, which are longer than wide, a truncated pyramidal to globular scolex, a rectangular apical disc, presence of the neck, lack of internal longitudinal musculature separating the cortex from the medulla, testes distributed in one central field surrounding the ovary laterally and posteriorly, the vagina predominantly anterior to the cirrus sac, vitelline follicles circum-medullary, the genital pores post-equatorial, a saccate uterus, and operculate eggs. Blade-like spiniform microtriches were present on all tegument surfaces, and tumuli on all surfaces of the scolex and the anterior surface of the neck. Microtriches were characterized according to their size and density, and tumuli according to their size, inter-tumulus distance and density. Ailinella mirabilis is the first cestode described from G. maculatus and the second triaenophorid species recorded from a South American freshwater fish. PMID:17256203

  1. Vicilin-derived peptides are transferred from males to females as seminal nuptial gift in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Daniel; Linhares, Ricardo T; Queiroz, Bruna; Fontoura, Luisa; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Bezerra, Cezar S; Oliveira, Eliana M; Demartini, Diogo R; Carlini, Célia R; Silva, Carlos P

    2011-06-01

    The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults have been recently investigated. Vicilins have been demonstrated to be absorbed through the midgut epithelium, circulate in their trimeric form in the haemolymph and are deposited in the fat body. In fat body cells of both sexes, vicilins are partially hydrolyzed and the fragments are eventually deposited in the eggs. Tracking the fate of FITC-labelled vicilins in adult males revealed that the labelled vicilin fragments were also detected in oöcytes and eggs, when the males copulated with non-labelled females. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the males and are eventually sequestered by the gonads and passed to the female gonads during copulation. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack, as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. The contribution of vicilin-derived peptides from seminal fluids may be an investment that helps to increase the offspring survival. This study provides additional insights into the possible contributions of males to female fecundity following copulation in C. maculatus. PMID:21420973

  2. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

  3. Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

    2004-01-01

    Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the

  4. A new variant of antimetabolic protein, arcelin from an Indian bean, Lablab purpureus (Linn.) and its effect on the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Janarthanan, Sundaram; Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Radhika, Dixit; Muthukrishanan, Subbaratnam

    2012-12-15

    The anti-metabolic or insecticidal gene, arcelin (Arl) was isolated, cloned and sequenced using sequence specific degenerate primers from the seeds of Lablab purpureus collected from the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The L. purpureus arcelin nucleotide sequence was homologous to Arl-3 and Arl-4 alleles from Phaseolus spp. The protein it encodes has 70% amino acid identity with the amino acid sequences of Arl-3I, Arl-3III, Arl-4 precursor, Arl-4 and Arl-4I. The partially purified arcelin from the seeds of L. purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds. PMID:22980880

  5. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region. PMID:26262594

  6. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids. PMID:25477682

  7. Should I stay or should I go?: Physiological, metabolic and biochemical consequences of voluntary emersion upon aquatic hypoxia in the scaleless fish Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia represents a significant challenge to most fish, forcing the development of behavioural, physiological and biochemical adaptations to survive. It has been previously shown that inanga (Galaxias maculatus) display a complex behavioural repertoire to escape aquatic hypoxia, finishing with the fish voluntarily emerging from the water and aerially respiring. In the present study we evaluated the physiological, metabolic and biochemical consequences of both aquatic hypoxia and emersion in inanga. Inanga successfully tolerated up to 6 h of aquatic hypoxia or emersion. Initially, this involved enhancing blood oxygen-carrying capacity, followed by the induction of anaerobic metabolism. Only minor changes were noted between emersed fish and those maintained in aquatic hypoxia, with the latter group displaying a higher mean cell haemoglobin content and a reduced haematocrit after 6 h. Calculations suggest that inanga exposed to both aquatic hypoxia and air reduced oxygen uptake and also increased anaerobic contribution to meet energy demands, but the extent of these changes was small compared with hypoxia-tolerant fish species. Overall, these findings add to previous studies suggesting that inanga are relatively poorly adapted to survive aquatic hypoxia. PMID:22645056

  8. Relationship between fish size and metabolic rate in the oxyconforming inanga Galaxias maculatus reveals size-dependent strategies to withstand hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic rate and body size in animals is unlikely to be a constant but is instead shaped by a variety of intrinsic (i.e., physiological) and extrinsic (i.e., environmental) factors. This study examined the effect of environmental oxygen tension on oxygen consumption as a function of body mass in the galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus). As an oxyconformer, this fish lacks overt intrinsic regulation of oxygen consumption, eliminating this as a factor affecting the scaling relationship at different oxygen tensions. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and body size was best described by a power function, with an exponent of 0.82, higher than the theoretical values of 0.66 or 0.75. The value of this exponent was significantly altered by environmental P(O2), first increasing as P(O2) decreased and then declining at the lowest P(O2) tested. These data suggest that the scaling exponent is species specific and regulated by extrinsic factors. Furthermore, the external P(O2) at which fish lost equilibrium was related to fish size, an effect explained by the scaling of anaerobic capacity with fish mass. Therefore, although bigger fish were forced to depress aerobic metabolism more rapidly than small fish when exposed to progressive hypoxia, they were better able to enact anaerobic metabolism, potentially extending their survival in hypoxia. PMID:24241070

  9. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  10. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  11. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  12. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

  14. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  15. Naricolax hoi n. sp. (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) from Arius maculatus (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off Taiwan and a redescription of N. chrysophryenus (Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983) from a new host, Seriola lalandi (Perciformes: Carangidae), in Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Kate S; Tang, Danny

    2007-10-01

    We propose that Naricolax stocki (Roubal, 1981) (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) of Ho & Lin (2005), reported from the spotted catfish Arius maculatus (Thunburg) off Taiwan, represents a new species, N. hoi n. sp. N. hoi can be distinguished from six known congeners by the shape of the rostral area, the maxillary armature and the structural details of legs 3 and 4. N. chrysophryenus (Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983) is redescribed on the basis of recently collected material from wild and farmed yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in southern and eastern Australian waters, providing the first record of Naricolax Ho, Do & Kasahara, 1983 from a carangid host. A key to the species of Naricolax is provided. PMID:17912616

  16. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  17. Infection patterns of Tylodelphys barilochensis and T. crubensis (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) metacercariae in Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) from two Patagonian lakes and observations on their geographical distribution in the southern Andean region, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Liliana, Semenas

    2002-12-01

    In the Patagonian Andean region, 2 species of diplostomatids parasitize the brains of Galaxias maculatus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate seasonal variation, spatial variation, and association with host age in the transmission of Tylodelphys barilochensis and T. crubensis in several oligotrophic lakes in Argentinian Patagonia. Fishes were captured monthly in Lake Gutiérrez and bimonthly in Lake Escondido. One summer or autumn sample was also taken in several other Patagonian lakes. Infection parameters were calculated and compared using nonparametric tests. The 2 species co-occurred in most of the sampled lakes, with high values of prevalence and mean intensity. In Lake Gutiérrez and Lake Escondido, the intensity of both diplostomatid species did not show significant differences between sexes and co-varied with host length. All age classes were infected; maximum prevalence values were reached before maximum mean intensity values in the 1-yr age class. A seasonal pattern of prevalence and mean intensity of the 2 parasite species with autumn mean intensity values differing significantly from those of the other seasons was evident only in Lake Gutiérrez. PMID:12537107

  18. Mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus parallens (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qihai; Ding, Mei; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Genus Acorssocheilus includes approximately 24 valid species, 19 of which are endemic to China. The complete mitogenome of A. parallens is 16,588 bp long and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes (ranging from 67 bp in tRNA(Cys) to 76 bp in tRNA(Leu) and tRNA(Lys)), 2 rRNA genes (955 bp in 12S rRNA and 1675 bp in 16S rRNA), and 1 control region (CR). Only ND6 and other eight tRNA genes are encoded on the L-strand while most of these genes are located in the H-strand. Resolving taxonomic uncertainties and defining evolutionary divergence in this genus are important contributions to cladogenesis in cyprinid fishes in East Asia. PMID:25633177

  19. Detection of dwarf gourami iridovirus (Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus) in populations of ornamental fish prior to and after importation into Australia, with the first evidence of infection in domestically farmed Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Anneke E; Becker, Joy A; Tweedie, Alison; Lintermans, Mark; Landos, Matthew; Stephens, Fran; Whittington, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    The movement of ornamental fish through international trade is a major factor for the transboundary spread of pathogens. In Australia, ornamental fish which may carry dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV), a strain of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), have been identified as a biosecurity risk despite relatively stringent import quarantine measures being applied. In order to gain knowledge of the potential for DGIV to enter Australia, imported ornamental fish were sampled prior to entering quarantine, during quarantine, and post quarantine from wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets in Australia. Samples were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of megalocytivirus. Farmed and wild ornamental fish were also tested. Megalocytivirus was detected in ten of fourteen species or varieties of ornamental fish. Out of the 2086 imported gourami tested prior to entering quarantine, megalocytivirus was detected in 18.7% of fish and out of the 51 moribund/dead ornamental fish tested during the quarantine period, 68.6% were positive for megalocytivirus. Of fish from Australian wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets 14.5% and 21.9%, respectively, were positive. Out of 365 farmed ornamental fish, ISKNV-like megalocytivirus was detected in 1.1%; these were Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus). Megalocytivirus was not detected in free-living breeding populations of Blue gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus) caught in Queensland. This study showed that imported ornamental fish are vectors for DGIV and it was used to support an import risk analysis completed by the Australian Department of Agriculture. Subsequently, the national biosecurity policy was revised and from 1 March 2016, a health certification is required for susceptible families of fish to be free of this virus prior to importation. PMID:26452601

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hemisalanx brachyrostralis (Osteichthyes: Salangidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Ding, Mei; Qi, Jiwei; Chen, Haiping; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Hemisalanx brachyrostralis belonging to the family Salangidae is endemic to the Yangtze River. This species has been listed on the Chinese Red List because of the serious decrease in its resources. In this study, we analyzed the complete mtDNA (16588 bp long) of H. brachyrostralis. Overall base composition of the genome is 25.1% A, 25.4% T, 18.7% G, and 30.8% C. The complete mtDNA contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), and 1 control region. Apart from the ND6 gene and nine tRNA genes encoded on the L-strand, most of the genes are on the H-strand. H. brachyrostralis has the lowest genetic diversity among the Salangid species, so further studies on conservation genetics must be conducted. PMID:24892489

  1. Temporal dynamics of reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  2. Mitochondrial genome of Boleophthalmus sp. nov. (Osteichthyes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Muchtar, Agusnimar; Chen, Changmao; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Boleophthalmus is a genus that consists of six valid species and possesses a number of specializations in terms of amphibious life. The complete mtDNA sequence of Boleophthalmus sp. nov. (17,113 bp in length) has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (12S and 16 S rRNA), and one control region. By comparing the COI sequences, Boleophthalmus sp. nov. is closely related of B. pectinirostris but exhibits 8.93% genetic distance with B. pectinirostris and 13.26% with B. boddarti. This finding may fill some gaps remaining on the taxonomy and biodiversity of this taxon and contribute to the understanding of the phylogeographic relationships between the continental coast and Southeast Asia. PMID:25738219

  3. Scale structure in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne; Heaslop, Meg; Carr, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are secreted within the dermis by a capsule of scleroblasts, and enclosed in a pouch made of collagen fibers, in contact with the epidermis over the posterior third of the scale. Each scale grows from a focus, which represents the first formed part of the scale. On the internal surface of the scale is elasmodin, made of collagen fiber bundles arranged in layers. Elasmodin, unmineralized in N. forsteri, contains cells in the living animal, and the number of layers increases as the scales grow. Squamulin, on the thin external part of the scale, is also laid down in layers, and based on a matrix of fine collagen fibrils, mineralized with a poorly crystalline biogenic calcium hydroxylapatite. Squamulin is divided into separate sections called squamulae, and contains long tubules with cells applied to the wall of the tubule. The anterior and lateral surfaces of the squamulin are ornamented with pediculae, and the posterior surface has longitudinal ridges, from which collagen fibers extend to anchor the scale within the pouch. Elasmodin and squamulin are linked by unmineralized collagen fibrils. The layers, formed at irregular intervals, are connected around the margin of the scale, effectively converting the whole scale into a flat structure resembling a pearl, with the first formed tissues deeply embedded inside the scale, and the youngest on the outer surface. Incremental lines in the hard tissue, and the number of layers in the elasmodin, do not reflect the chronological age of the fish. PMID:26195325

  4. [The seasonal dynamics of Sphaerospora renicola (Myxosporidia) in carp (Osteichthyes)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1988-06-01

    We observed 2 different types of the course of incidence of sporogonic phase and blood phase. Type I shows in both phases a maximum in the first summer, a minimum in winter or autumn and a second maximum between late autumn and second summer. In this case the sporulation was especially distinct with the first maximum. Type II starts in the first summer with the blood phase without occurrence of the sporogonic phase (and the swim-bladder phase), which appears only from autumn until the second summer in a form of three peaks. Here the sporulation was successful only in the third peak. Hitherto there has been no other example of that type. The course of incidence, characterized by peaks and valleys, is regarded as an expression of an internal rhythm of different phases of the parasite and not as caused by the declining of infection and by reinfection. Premunition (if a hitherto unknown reservoir phase is surviving) or age resistance and/or less chance of coincidence of infective stages and older carps are supposed to be the cause of the rare occurrence of the 3 known phases in carps more than 14-15 months old. There are some indications of the infection of carps by carps. Carassius au. auratus was ascertained as a new host for S. renicola in a field experiment. PMID:3177937

  5. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  6. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  7. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b). PMID:27470724

  8. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America. PMID:25271459

  9. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-01-01

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system. PMID:24854445

  10. Genetic structure of a Japanese allotetraploid loach of the genus Cobitis (Osteichthyes, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Tadao; Yoshioka, Motoi; Kashiwagi, Masaaki; Okazaki, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese allotetraploid spined loach of the genus Cobitis "yamato complex" sensu SAITOH et al. (2000), distributed in Western Japan, originated from hybridization between C. biwae on the maternal side and C. striata (Kyushu form) on the paternal side. Mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear DNA were analyzed in order to determine the genetic relationships among 15 populations spanning the entire range of the yamato complex. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ND1 mtDNA gene indicated that the yamato complex contains two divergent types of mtDNA: type A, consisting of one haplotype observed only in the Fukagawa River and type B consisting of 12 haplotypes found in the entire area. Phylogenetic analysis based on the cytochrome b mtDNA gene corroborated RFLP analysis, and indicated that type A was closely related to a different species, C. biwae (Kochi group) and C. striata (large race), rather than type B. The results of RAPD analysis on the Fukagawa River individuals, where types A and B sympatrically existed suggested that no reproductive isolation occurs between them. The existence of two distinct mtDNA types within the yamato complex suggest either multiple maternal origin at the speciation (tetraploidization) time or mtDNA introgression from other species afterwards. PMID:15303347

  11. Seasonal diet shift in a Tetragonopterinae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba River, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Rezende, C F

    2003-02-01

    In the present study, we describe feeding habits of Deuterodon sp. from the Ubatiba River and explore if diet changes according to a temporal cycle of dry and wet seasons. We observed that Deuterodon sp. fed on an extremely high diversity of items ranging from organic matter, sediment (sand plus quartz parts), algae, seeds and leaves to animal organisms, such as, crustaceans, oligochaets and several life stages of terrestrial and aquatic insects, indicating an omnivorous diet. An important shift in the use of feeding resources was also registered; animal and vegetal items had alternated importance between both seasons. Allochthonous vs. autochthonous items analysis showed predominance of allochthonous items during dry season while no significant differences were registered during wet season. PMID:12914416

  12. Spatial distribution and life-history aspects of blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Osteichthyes: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Mytilineou, Ch; Tsagarakis, K; Bekas, P; Anastasopoulou, A; Kavadas, S; Machias, A; Haralabous, J; Smith, C J; Petrakis, G; Dokos, J; Kapandagakis, A

    2013-12-01

    Spatial distribution and life history aspects of Pagellus bogaraveo in the eastern Ionian Sea were investigated using the data from 13 different studies carried out in the area from 1983 to 2010. The spatial patterns of the abundance, biomass and mean size showed that the species inhabits the shallow waters of the shelf (<170 m depth) as juveniles up to a certain size (<180 mm total length, LT ), moving to deeper waters of the slope (mainly 400-500 m depth) as adults. The spatial pattern of abundance indicated a continuous distribution of the species in deep waters, with hot-spot areas of high values, whereas in shallow waters distribution was more discontinuous, with higher concentrations of juveniles in estuaries and brackish waters. The study of biological aspects of the species revealed (1) a difference in the increase in mass between males and females, (2) protandrous hermaphroditism, accompanied by the presence of primary females and males that do not change sex, (3) a sex ratio in favour of females >250 mm LT , (4) the presence of hermaphrodites between 200 and 370 mm, (5) a long reproduction period from June to March, (6) a size at first maturity around 300 mm and (7) a diet composition of adults based mainly on fishes, and also on opportunistic behaviour in the food scarce environment of deep waters. The results suggest that the species' distribution and feeding strategies are the most appropriate for the oligotrophic eastern Ionian waters and that these conditions result in smaller sizes of the species in the east Mediterranean Sea compared to the west basin and the east Atlantic Ocean, with implications for the growth and reproductive biology of the species. PMID:24298951

  13. The Infrabranchial Musculature and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Percomorph Fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286

  14. Reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P

    2005-11-01

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs. PMID:16532189

  15. Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus (Osteichthyes: Prochilodontidae) from the Paraná River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R S; Martins, M L; Marengoni, N G; Francisco, C J; Piazza, R S; Takahashi, H K; Onaka, E M

    2005-11-25

    This work evaluated parasitic infections by Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus captured between August 2000 and August 2001 in the Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo, Brazil. Of 87 fishes examined, 59 were infected (25 males and 34 females). High mean intensities occurred in August 2000 (45.2, range 2-204), September 2000 (28.5, range 11-73), October 2000 (59.3, range 2-250) and February 2001 (27.3, range 3-73). There was no relationship of rainfall with mean intensity and prevalence. Males were more parasitized (P<0.05) than females. This work contributes to the knowledge of helminth parasites of fish from a little studied region of the Paraná River, showing diversity in their fauna when compared to other places in the same river. PMID:16112458

  16. Structure and Possible Functions of Constant-Frequency Calls in Ariopsis seemanni (Osteichthyes, Ariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Jörg; Esser, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, Tavolga conducted a series of experiments in which he found behavioral evidence that the vocalizations of the catfish species Ariopsis felis may play a role in a coarse form of echolocation. Based on his findings, he postulated a similar function for the calls of closely related catfish species. Here, we describe the physical characteristics of the predominant call-type of Ariopsis seemanni. In two behavioral experiments, we further explore whether A. seemanni uses these calls for acoustic obstacle detection by testing the hypothesis that the call-emission rate of individual fish should increase when subjects are confronted with novel objects, as it is known from other vertebrate species that use pulse-type signals to actively probe the environment. Audio-video monitoring of the fish under different obstacle conditions did not reveal a systematic increase in the number of emitted calls in the presence of novel objects or in dependence on the proximity between individual fish and different objects. These negative findings in combination with our current understanding of directional hearing in fishes (which is a prerequisite for acoustic obstacle detection) make it highly unlikely that A. seemanni uses its calls for acoustic obstacle detection. We argue that the calls are more likely to play a role in intra- or interspecific communication (e.g. in school formation or predator deterrence) and present results from a preliminary Y-maze experiment that are indicative for a positive phonotaxis of A. seemanni towards the calls of conspecifics. PMID:23741408

  17. Annulotrematoides bryconi sp. n. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Brycon cephalus (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cuglianna, Ana Maria; da Silva Cordeiro, Nelson; Luque, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    Annulotrematoides bryconi sp. n. is described and illustrated from specimens collected from gills of characiform fish, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869), in pisciculture ponds from Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new species are the tegument of trunk showing annulations, except on the cephalic regiona, and copulatory complex comprising sclerotized male copulatory organ coiled in 1 1/2 rings. This is the first record of monogeneans parasitic on the gills of B. cephalus. PMID:14971596

  18. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection. PMID:25175034

  19. The epithelial sodium channel in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Maejima, Sho; Yoshie, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Konno, Norifumi; Joss, Jean M P

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a Na(+)-selective, aldosterone-stimulated ion channel involved in sodium transport homeostasis. ENaC is rate-limiting for Na(+) absorption in the epithelia of osmoregulatory organs of tetrapods. Although the ENaC/degenerin gene family is proposed to be present in metazoans, no orthologues or paralogues for ENaC have been found in the genome databases of teleosts. We studied full-length cDNA cloning and tissue distributions of ENaCα, β and γ subunits in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Neoceratodus ENaC (nENaC) comprised three subunits: nENaCα, β and γ proteins. The nENaCα, β and γ subunits are closely related to amphibian ENaCα, β and γ subunits, respectively. Three ENaC subunit mRNAs were highly expressed in the gills, kidney and rectum. Amiloride-sensitive sodium current was recorded from Xenopus oocytes injected with the nENaCαβγ subunit complementary RNAs under a two-electrode voltage clamp. nENaCα immunoreactivity was observed in the apical cell membrane of the gills, kidney and rectum. Thus, nENaC may play a role in regulating sodium transport of the lungfish, which has a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This is interesting because there may have been an ENaC sodium absorption system controlled by aldosterone before the conquest of land by vertebrates. PMID:23055064

  20. Formation and structure of scales in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne

    2012-05-01

    The large elasmoid scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are formed within the dermis by unpigmented scleroblasts, growing within a collagenous dermal pocket below a thick glandular epidermis. The first row of scales, on the trunk of the juvenile lungfish, appears below the lateral line of the trunk, single in this species, at around stage 53. The scales, initially circular in outline, develop anteriorly and posteriorly from the point of initiation in the mid-trunk region, and rows are added alternately below the line, and above the line, until they reach the dorsal or ventral midline, or the margins of the fins. Scales develop later on the ventral surface of the head, from a separate centre of initiation. Scales consist of three layers, all produced by scleroblasts of dermal origin. The outermost layer of interlocking plates, or squamulae, consists of a mineralised matrix of fine collagen fibrils, covered by unmineralised collagen and a single layer of cells. Squamulae of the anterior and lateral surfaces are ornamented with short spines, and the mineralised tissue of the posterior surface is linked to the pouch by collagen fibrils. The innermost layer, known as elasmodin, consists of bundles of thick collagen fibrils and cells arranged in layers. An intermediate layer, made up of collagen fibrils, links the outer and inner layers. The elasmoid scales of N. forsteri can be compared with scale types among other osteichthyan groups, although the cellsand canaliculi in the mineralised squamulae bear little resemblance to typical bone. PMID:22190346

  1. Cartilage, bone, and intermandibular connective tissue in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The connective tissue that links the bones of the mandible in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, has been described as an intermandibular cartilage, and as such has been considered important for phylogenetic analyses among lower vertebrates. However, light and electron microscopy of developing lungfish jaws demonstrates that the intermandibular tissue, like the connective tissue that links the bones of the upper jaw, contains fibroblasts and numerous bundles of collagen fibrils, extending from the trabeculae of the bones supporting the tooth plates. It differs significantly in structure and in staining reactions from the cartilage and the bone found in this species. In common with the cladistian Polypterus and with actinopterygians and some amphibians, lungfish have no intermandibular cartilage. The connective tissue linking the mandibular bones has no phylogenetic significance for systematic grouping of lungfish, as it is present in a range of different groups among lower vertebrates. PMID:23801584

  2. [Coincidental appearance of PKD and Sphaerospora sp. (Myxosporidia) in stock of Salmo gairdneri (Osteichthyes)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1988-09-01

    For the first time in Europe simultaneous occurrence of PKX and Sphaerospora sp. is recorded in Salmo gairdneri. Myxosporidian (?) forms hitherto not described have been observed in the kidney interstitium and the epithelium of the renal tubules, sporadically also in the swimbladder wall and the intestinal wall, besides the typical PKX organism in the kidney interstitium. Sporogonic stages and spores of a Sphaerospora species have been found in the lumen of the renal tubules. Neither the exact identification of the Sphaerospora species has been possible, nor the final proof, whether the luminal form, the hitherto undescribed extraluminal forms and PKX belong to one another. PMID:3202329

  3. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and Aω – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279

  4. Taxonomic status of Engraulis nattereri Steindachner, 1880 (Osteichthyes: Clupeiformes: Engraulidae).

    PubMed

    Loeb, Marina Vianna; Menezes, Naércio Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Engraulis nattereri Steindachner, 1880 was described on the basis of five specimens collected in Pará during the Nathaniel Thayer Expedition. Later on, the species was assigned to Anchoviella by Fowler (1941). Including Anchoviella nattereri (Steindachner, 1880), Anchoviella comprises 17 small to medium-sized valid species (20-160 mm standard length), nine of them distributed in freshwaters of the Amazon, Essequibo, Corantijn and Orinoco river basins, and other eight brackish and marine species distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North, Central and South America (Loeb & Figueiredo, 2014). PMID:25947513

  5. Phylogeny, biogeography, and electric signal evolution of Neotropical knifefishes of the genus Gymnotus (Osteichthyes: Gymnotidae).

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Nathan R; Lester, Kristie; Crampton, William G R; Marques, Fernando P L; Albert, James S

    2010-01-01

    The Neotropical knifefish genus Gymnotus is the most broadly distributed and the most diverse (34+species) gymnotiform genus. Its wide range includes both Central and South American drainages, including the Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata Basins. Like all gymnotiforms, Gymnotus species produce weak electric fields for both navigation and communication, and these fields exhibit interspecific variation in electric waveform characteristics. Both biogeography and electric signal evolution can profitably be analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Here, we present a total evidence phylogeny for 19 Gymnotus species based on data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 16S genes (1558 bp), the nuclear RAG2 gene (1223 bp), and 113 morphological characters. Our phylogenetic hypothesis resolves five distinct Gymnotus lineages. In a previous morphology-based analysis, the Central American Gymnotus cylindricus lineage was hypothesized as the sister group to all other Gymnotus species. In our analysis, the G. cylindricus lineage is nested within South American species, and molecular age estimates support a relatively recent origin for the clade in Central America. Phylogenetic optimization of electric signal waveforms indicate that the ancestral state in Gymnotus is a multiphasic (4+phases of alternating polarity) condition, and independent phase loss has occurred in multiple lineages. Gymnotus is a model group for understanding Neotropical diversification and the evolution of communication at a continental scale. PMID:19761855

  6. The jaw adductor muscle complex in teleostean fishes: evolution, homologies and revised nomenclature (osteichthyes: actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae - A1, A2, A3, and Aω - patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279

  7. Polyphyletic origins of schizothoracine fish (Cyprinidae, Osteichthyes) and adaptive evolution in their mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Zhong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The schizothoracine fish, also called snow trout, are members of the Cyprinidae, and are the most diversified teleost fish in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Clarifying the evolutionary history of the schizothoracine fish is therefore important for better understanding the biodiversity of the QTP. Although morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies have supported the monophyly of the Schizothoracinae, a recent molecular phylogenetic study based on the mitochondrial genome questioned the monophyly of this taxon. However, the phylogenetic analysis of that study was on the basis of only three schizothoracine species, and the support values were low. In this report, we inferred the phylogenetic tree on the basis of mitochondrial genome data including 21 schizothoracine species and five closely related species, and the polyphyletic origins of the Schizothoracinae were strongly supported. The tree further suggests that the Schizothoracinae consists of two clades, namely the "morphologically specialized clade" and the "morphologically primitive clade", and that these two clades migrated independently of each other to the QTP and adapted to high altitude. We also detected in their mitochondrial genomes strong signals of positive selection, which probably represent evidence of high-altitude adaptation. In the case of the morphologically specialized clade, positive selection mainly occurred during the Late Paleocene to the Early Oligocene. Its migration also seems to have occurred in the Early Eocene, and this timing is consistent with the drastic uplifting of the QTP. On the other hand, positive selection in the morphologically primitive clade has mainly occurred since the Late Miocene. Because its members are thought to have migrated to the QTP recently, it is possible that they are now undergoing high-altitude adaptation. PMID:25747043

  8. Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae: Heteronchocleidinae) from Channa lucius (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, W B; Lim, L H S

    2009-09-01

    One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided. PMID:19827361

  9. Redescription of two species of cystidicolid nematodes (Spirurina: Cystidicolidae) from Notopterus notopterus (Osteichthyes) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2016-06-01

    Two nematode species, Pseudoproleptus notopteri (Karve et Naik, 1951) and Spinitectus notopteri Karve et Naik, 1951 (both Cystidicolidae), are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of specimens collected from the digestive tract of the freshwater fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) (Notopteridae, Osteoglossiformes) in Thailand. Some new important morphological features, such as a detailed structure of the cephalic end and the presence of bifurcate deirids and a ventral median caudal protuberance in male, are reported for the former species (P. notopteri), which is provisionally assigned to Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955; Notopteroides notopteri Chakravarty et Majumdar, 1962, Pseudoproleptus satendri Sahay, 1967, P. lamyi Le-Van-Hoa et Bui-Thi Lien-Huong, 1969, P. gomtii Gupta et Bakshi, 1984. P. sprenti Gupta et Masoodi, 1986 and P. thapari Gupta et Naiyer, 1992 are considered its junior synonyms. The first study of S. notopteri by SEM showed its morphological similarity with S. mastacembeli Karve et Naik, 1951, from which it clearly differs by the structure of eggs; Spinitectus alii Kalyankar, 1970, S. bengalensis Chakravarty, Sain et Majumdar, 1961, S. gomalensis Siddiqui et Kattak, 1984 and S. thapari Ali, 1957 are considered to be junior synonyms of S. notopteri. Pseudoproleptus notopteri and Spinitectus notopteri are reported from Thailand for the first time. PMID:27078651

  10. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied. PMID:16341415

  11. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952

  12. Metazoan endoparasites diversity of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) as an indicator of environmental alterations on a tropical aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thamy S; Lizama, Maria A P; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the alterations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans parasite infracommunity structure, after the construction of the Porto Primavera dam on the high Paraná River floodplain. The execution of this research was based on 119 host specimens collected between March 2011 and September 2012, and the results were compared to studies performed on periods before the reservoir's construction, when 110 fishes were collected between March 1992 and February 1993. Five parasite species still remain on the environment, despite the environmental modifications: Choanoscolex abscissus, Spasskyelina spinulifera, Nomimoscolex pertierrae, Harriscolex kaparari and Contracaecum sp 2. The Berger-Parker dominance index, calculated to the parasite fauna of 1992, did not show the dominance of any species, while, on the present days, this same index accused the dominance of Nomimoscolex pertierrae (49%) and Choanoscolex abscissus (50%). The present study reports the disappearance of Megathylacus travassosi, Contracaecum sp. 1, Contracaecum sp. 3, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Cucullanus pseudoplatystomae, suggesting the possibility of a local extinction or a host switch of these species. It has also been registered an Acanthocephala specimen, a genus not observed on this host yet. The results here presented show that the antropic influences on natural systems alter the environmental conditions, what is reflected on the richness and diversity parasite levels. PMID:25119352

  13. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  14. Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

    2000-10-15

    Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

  15. Eugregarines reduce susceptibility of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, to apicomplexan pathogens and retard larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...

  16. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  17. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  18. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON MECHANISMS OF COMPETITION AND RESOURCE PARTITIONING BETWEEN 'MENIDIA MENIDIA' (L.) AND 'MENIDIA BERYLLINA' (COPE) (OSTEICHTHYES:ATHERINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Postlarvae of two atherinid species, Menidia menidia and Menidia beryllina, were tested in two 14-day experiments at four densities of fish to determine effects of interspecific versus intraspecific competition for food. In one experiment, when M. menidia was slightly larger than...

  19. Redescription of Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus (Osteichthyes: Hiodontidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Nelson, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is redescribed from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus in southern Manitoba. The redescription adds details regarding the surface morphology and reproductive structures of the parasite not described previously. These include the characteristic tegumental papillae around the oral opening, paired papillae on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the body, and tegumental bosses on the dorsal surface of the forebody. Crepidostomum opeongoensis co-occurred with its hypothesized sister species, Crepidostomum illinoiense, in all host individuals harboring the former, and both species are characteristic of hiodontids. The association of C. opeongoensis with hiodontids and the absence of hiodontids in Lake Opeongo where C. opeongoensis was originally reported indicate that the Algonquin Park region may have had hiodontids in the past and that the life cycle may be completed at present without the original fish host.

  20. The influence of size, sex and season on the feeding regime of Synodontis membranaceus (Osteichthyes: Mochokidae) in Jebba Lake, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Olufemi D

    2007-10-15

    The influence of size, sex and season on the feeding regime of S. membranaceus were examined over a period of 24 months in Jebba Lake, Nigeria using frequency of occurrence, numerical, gravimetric and index of Relative Importance (RI) methods. Dietary composition and feeding intensity were sex dependent. RI established that there was a progression from a detritivorous diet in fish below 20 cm Standard Length (SL), through a transitional planktivorous phase (20-27 cm, SL), to a predominantly molluscivorous/insectivorous diet in fish above 27 cm SL; thus indicating a switch from a relatively passive filter-feeding habit when young to an active predatory habit at adult stage. Food preference also varied with season hence intraspecific competitions were low. Abundant food and ability to evolve trophic strategies that ensure optimum foraging in spite of seasonal changes enable S. membranaceus to maintain its overwhelming prominence and wide distribution in Jebba Lake. PMID:19093475

  1. Characterization of the acute inflammatory response in the hybrid tambacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus male x Colossoma macropomum female) (Osteichthyes).

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Myiazaki, D M Y; Tavares-Dias, M; Fenerick, J; Onaka, E M; Bozzo, F R; Fujimoto, R Y; Moraes, F R

    2009-08-01

    This work evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by injections of 0.5 mL saline solution (control), 500 microg carrageenin and 0.5 mL thioglycollate 3% in the swim bladder of juvenile tambacu hybrid. Fish were distributed in three treatments, three replications and acclimated for a period of 10 days before assay. The cell characterization from the inflammatory exudate was performed in Giemsa and PAS stained smears. Carrageenin, injected in fish, showed an increase on the total number of cells in the inflammatory exudate when compared to saline and thioglycollate injected. Whereas, for carrageenin-injected fish, the percentage of thrombocyte was higher than thioglycollate. On the other hand, granulocyte percentage in thioglycollate-injected fish was higher than the ones injected using carrageenin. Carrageenin provoked the highest migration of macrophage to the inflammatory site. The PAS method confirmed the presence of three types of granulocytes: eosinophilic granular cell (EGC) type 1 with the characteristics of a special granulocytic cell commonly found in the circulating blood; EGC type 2 shorter than the last one and neutrophil. This study contributes to a better understanding of the inflammatory response and infectious processes in native fish. PMID:19802458

  2. Analysis of spawning behavior, habitat, and season of the federally threatened Etheostoma scotti, Cherokee darter (Osteichthyes: Percidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, C.M.; Porter, B.A.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Etheostoma scotti (Cherokee darter) is a member of the subgenus Ulocentra and a federally threatened endemic to the Etowah River system, GA. Field observations of spawning behavior of the Cherokee darter were made at five stream sites to identify spawning season and habitat over two field seasons. Cherokee darters primarily spawn in pool habitats between mid-March and early June, at temperatures between 11 and 18 ?C. Egg deposition was typically on large gravel substrate, but ranged from gravel to bedrock in size and included woody debris. Spawning occurred in a variety of depths (0.09-0.59 m) and velocities (0-0.68 m/s).

  3. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  4. Combined effect of three insect growth regulators on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat Aly; Abuldahb, Faten Farid

    2011-12-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect produced hormones by regulatingdevelopmental process. Theyhave little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. IGRs, especially, chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuron (benzoylphenylurea) are currently studied because of possibility of using in stored products protection. Many of IGRs compounds usedin insect pests control are known to affect digestive enzymes. Chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuronwere tested topically at doses of 0.25%, 0.5%&1% for chlorfluazuron and hydroprene and 0.5, 1 & 2 microg/ml of hexaflumuron to investigate its effects on the activities of the digestive enzymes protease, amylase and lipase in Callosobruchusmaculatus larvae, which were affected by IGRs individually and in combination. When combined, the effect was more sever at low concentration. There were statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in enzyme activities in combined and individual treatments. Combination three IGRs caused a two-fold decrease in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. A synergistic effect of IGRs was found by combination of low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars. PMID:22435168

  5. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  6. Insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á A

    2013-02-01

    The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and α-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 μL. L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 μL. L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 μL .cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests. PMID:23949717

  7. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  8. Cytogenetic characterization of F1, F2 and backcross hybrids of the Neotropical catfish species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Fernanda Dotti; Nunes, Tatiana Leite; Senhorini, José Augusto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic characteristics of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum and their F1, F2 and backcross hybrids were assessed by using chromosome banding techniques. The diploid number of 56 chromosomes was constant in all species and lineages, with a karyotypic formula containing 20 metacentric, 12 submetacentric, 12 subtelocentric and 12 acrocentric chromosomes. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in two subtelocentric chromosomes in the parents and hybrids, with partial nucleolar dominance in F1 and F2 specimens. Heterochromatic blocks were detected in the terminal and centromeric regions of some chromosomes in all individuals. For parental and hybrid lineages, 18S ribosomal clusters corresponding to NORs and 5S ribosomal genes were identified in distinct pairs of chromosomes. The striking conservation in the chromosomal macrostructure of the parental species may account for the fertility of their F1 hybrids. Similarly, the lack of marked alterations in the chromosomal structure of the F1 hybrids could account for the maintenance of these features in post-F1 lineages. PMID:22481875

  9. Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species. PMID:25989288

  10. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. PMID:25733151

  11. A new genus and species of philometrid (Nematoda) from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Osteichthyes), from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2008-12-01

    A new genus and species of nematode, Caranginema americanum n. gen., n. sp. (Philometridae), are described from gravid, subgravid, and nongravid female specimens collected from the subcutaneous tissue of the fish (crevalle jack) Caranx hippos (Carangidae, Perciformes) from the coral reef El Cabezo, southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Caranginema, assigned to the Philometrinae, differs from other genera of this subfamily mainly in the presence of 2 conspicuous parallel cordons on either side, extending along nearly the entire body length and demarcating narrow smooth lateral fields and in having the remaining body surface with numerous ornamentations forming irregularly scattered, transversely elongated narrow cuticular molds. The new species is characterized mainly by the presence of 3 large, sclerotized esophageal teeth protruded out of the mouth, the number and arrangement of cephalic papillae (8 papillae in 4 pairs of external circle and 4 single papillae of internal circle), the length and structure of the esophagus, and by the body length of gravid and subgravid females (267 and 258 mm, respectively). Caranginema americanum is the seventh philometrid species reported from marine and brackish water fishes in Mexico. PMID:18576858

  12. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, A S; Luque, J L

    2004-08-01

    Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W and 23 degrees 05'S, 44 degrees 30'W), Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91%) specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes) were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957) was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955) showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species. PMID:15622838

  13. New species of Tereancistrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Kayton, 1980 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) from the gills of Prochilodus lineatus (Osteichthyes: Prochilodontidae) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Maria de los Angeles P; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2004-01-01

    Two new species of Tereancistrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Kayton, 1980 are described from the gills of Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae) collected from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. T. toksonum n. sp. is characterised by a slim ventral bar with a sclerotised membrane along the anterior margin. Another characteristic is the dorsal anchor with an elongated deep root. T. curimba n. sp. is similar to T. ornatus Kritsky, Thatcher & Kayton, 1980 but possesses a sclerotised structure between the accessory sclerites of the ventral anchors. Moreover, the accessory anchor sclerites of this new species are longer than those described for T. ornatus. PMID:14739674

  14. Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the gills of Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in the Guamá River, Amazon Delta, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Marly de Fátima Carvalho; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2012-06-01

    Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. is described from the gills of the Neotropical cichlid fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) caught in the Guamá River, in the delta of the Amazon River, at Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new species are a basally articulated male copulatory organ with clockwise coils and an accessory piece; a ventral bar with a median process; similar hooklets; vagina in the form of a sclerotised tube; and a sinistral vaginal aperture with a sclerotised papilla lying in a small surface depression. It is the only species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1989 with a medial projection on the ventral bar. PMID:22581249

  15. Geographical variation in metazoan parasites of the deep-sea fish Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 (Osteichthyes: Ipnopidae) from the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, Paula; Montero, Francisco E.; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the parasite fauna of Bathypterois mediterraneus, the most common fish below 1500 m in Western Mediterranean waters. Samples were obtained during July 2010 from the continental slope of two different areas (off Catalonia and Balearic Islands) in three different bathymetric strata at depths between 1000 and 2200 m. The parasite fauna of B. mediterraneus included a narrow range of species: Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum, Scolex pleuronectis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Anisakis sp. larva 3 type II and Sarcotretes sp. Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum and H. aduncum were the most predominant parasites. H. aduncum showed significant differences in abundance between depths of 2000-2200 m with 1000-1400 m and 1400-2000 m, irrespective of locality, whereas S. cf. dorsolineatum showed significant differences between the two localities at all depths except for 2000-2200 m. We suggest the possible usefulness of these two parasites as geographical indicators for discriminating discrete stocks of B. mediterraneus in Western Mediterranean waters.

  16. Distribution of radioactivity in the chondrichthyes Squalus acanthias and the osteichthyes salmo gairdneri following intragastric administration of (9-/sup 14/C)phenanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Solbakken, J.E.; Palmork, K.H.

    1980-12-01

    The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) in marine animals has received increasing attention in the last decade. The present studies dealing with spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) are part of a series of experiments with different marine organisms. All the experiments were performed under the same laboratory conditions using intragastric administration of the PAH-component, /sup 14/C-labelled phenanthrene. Thus it is possible to compare species differences of disposition of PAH in various marine organisms. The most pronounced differences in the disposition of phenanthrene between bony fish and cartilaginous fish in our studies are that the maximum value of radioactivity in the liver of cartilaginous fish occurred several days later than the corresponding value in bony fish. Furthermore, the radioactivity in cartilaginous fish was retained at a high level beyond 672 h (28 days), a time at which the radioactivity in bony fish is near the background values.

  17. The occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae in the eyes of loricariid fish (Siluriformes: Osteichthyes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zica, E O P; Brandão, H; Zawadzki, C H; Nobile, A B; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented. PMID:20459879

  18. A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529

  19. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

  20. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  1. Evidence that severe acute stress and starvation induce rapid atresia of ovarian vitellogenic follicles in Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (L.) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Corriero, A; Zupa, R; Bello, G; Mylonas, C C; Deflorio, M; Genovese, S; Basilone, G; Buscaino, G; Buffa, G; Pousis, C; De Metrio, G; Santamaria, N

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different stressors on the atretic degeneration of ovarian vitellogenic follicles, as well as on the ovarian mass, were examined in female Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (L.), from the Mediterranean Sea. The stressors taken into consideration were short-term starvation (up to 14 days), long-term cage rearing (1 year) and crowding-induced severe panic frenzy. Wild-caught individuals were used as a control group. Fish subjected to either severe panic frenzy or starvation exhibited a decrease in gonad mass and had significantly higher intensity of α atresia in the vitellogenic follicles (means: 78% and 58%, respectively; range: 36-100%) than either wild or long-term caged individuals (means: 32% and 30%, respectively; range: 19-44%). The extensive atresia in fish stressed by severe panic frenzy was observed as early as 24 h after the stressing event. The present study represents the first evidence of the extreme susceptibility of Atlantic bluefin tuna to severe acute stress during vitellogenesis; it also shows that starvation is associated with progressive reabsorption of vitellogenic oocytes. PMID:21988357

  2. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. PMID:27028984

  3. First record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) from South America.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O

    2015-11-01

    Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America. PMID:26675898

  4. Glyptothorax radiolus, a new species of sisorid catfish (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) from northeastern India, with a redescription of G. striatus McClelland 1842.

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Lalramliana

    2013-01-01

    Glyptothorax radiolus, new species, is described from the Brahmaputra River drainage in West Bengal, northeast India. It differs from most congeners in the Indian subcontinent in possessing plicae on the ventral surfaces of the pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray. The following combination of characters serve to distinguish it from congeners in the Indian subcontinent with plicate ventral surfaces of the pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray: eye diameter 6.6-7.4% HL interorbital distance 28.3-28.7% HL, head length 23.7-24.3% SL, wedge-shaped central depression in throracic adhesive apparatus devoid of skin ridges, unculiferous ridges of thoracic adhesive apparatus not extending anteriorly onto gular region, pectoral fin length 21.4-22.8% SL, dorsal-fin spine length 11.6-13.9% SL, dorsal-to-adipose distance 26.6-26.8% SL, body depth at anus 11.2-11.4% SL, pelvic fin length 16.5-18.3% SL, adipose-fin base length 13.1-14.3% SL, anal-fin base length 13.4-14.0% SL, caudal peduncle length 20.9% SL, caudal peduncle depth 7.7% SL (1.4-1.5 times in body depth at anus), absence of distinct pale midlateral stripe on body, and 36 total vertebrae. Glyptothorax striatus, the type species of the genus, is also rediagnosed and redescribed in this study. PMID:25243305

  5. Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

  6. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

    PubMed

    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru. PMID:26373332

  7. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms. PMID:26203999

  8. Henneguya garavelli n. sp. and Myxobolus peculiaris n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in the gills of Cyphocharax nagelli (Osteichthyes: Curimatidae) from Rio do Peixe Reservoir, São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Onaka, E M

    2006-04-30

    The present work describes myxozoans found in Cyphocharax nagelli (Characiformes: Curimatinae) commonly called "sagüiru" collected from Rio do Peixe Reservoir, São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. From a total of 38 examined fish, 24 were infected with Henneguya garavelli n. sp. (63% prevalence) and two with Myxobolus peculiaris n. sp. (5% prevalence) in the gills. Spores were studied by staining and fresh spores were observed by differential interference contrast optics. Henneguya garavelli n. sp. differs from Henneguya iheringi, Henneguya occulta, Henneguya cesarpintoi, Henneguya santae, Henneguya pisciforme, Henneguya amazonica, Henneguya striolata, Henneguya leporinicola and Henneguya chydadea in spore length and from Henneguya travassosi, Henneguya adherens, Henneguya malabarica, Henneguya piaractus and also Henneguya chydadea in polar capsule length and tail length. Myxobolus peculiaris n. sp. was very different when compared to other species of Myxobolus in its morphology and the biggest size of spore body. The authors present tables with comparative measurements of Brazilian myxozoan parasites. PMID:16540251

  9. Osteognathostomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Noch häufig, vor allem im englischen Sprachraum, wird für die fischartigen Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett, also die Actinopterygii und Sarcopterygii, der Begriff "Osteichthyes" (Knochenfische) verwendet. Da sich jedoch aus einem Subtaxon der Sarcopterygier die Tet rapoda entwickelten (S. 322), würde diese Gruppierung ein paraphyletisches Taxon darstellen. Hier wird daher dem Vorschlag W. Hennigs (1983) gefolgt und die Schwestergruppe der Chondrichthyes Osteognathostomata genannt: Sie enthält alle weiteren kiefertragenden Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett (Name!) (Abb. 201). Die Sarcopterygii umfassen demnach verschiedene fossile Gruppen, die rezenten Reliktgruppen der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) sowie die Tetrapoda und ihre Stammgruppenvertreter. (Neuerdings wird in der Literatur aus denselben Gründen einer konsequent phylogenetischen Systematisierung wieder die Gruppierung Osteichthyes, aber unter Einschluss der Tetrapoda, verwendet!).

  10. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  11. The relationship between fish assemblages and the helminth communities of a prey fish, in a group of small shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Maria V; Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana

    2010-12-01

    Galaxias maculatus (small puyen) is an abundant native fish distributed in lakes and rivers of the Patagonia, and it is the frequent prey of other fishes, fish-eating birds, and mammals. Previous studies have shown that it is parasitized by 33 metazoan species and that the richness and composition of the parasite communities vary between lakes. The aim of the present work was to analyze the relationship between the composition of fish assemblages and the helminth component community structure of G. maculatus . Ten environmentally similar, small, shallow lakes, belonging to the Nahuel Huapi Lake basin, were chosen because of the differences in the native fish assemblages. Parasite community structure in G. maculatus varied according to the fish assemblage of each lake. The presence of the piscivorous fish Percichthys trucha regularly produced variations in the composition and richness at the component and infracommunity levels, as well as the percentage of autogenic parasite species in G. maculatus . PMID:21158611

  12. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F1 interspecies hybrids☆

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldroth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathon R; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, X. maculatus and X. couchianus, and their F1 interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈ 70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈ 5–10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6,524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F1 interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the insilico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F1 interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21466860

  13. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds. PMID:27598647

  14. Different evolutionary patterns of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) isoforms in the basal branches of Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei; Gan, Xiaoni; Xiao, Wuhan; Wang, Wen; He, Shunping

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a crucial regulator of cellular and systemic responses to low oxygen levels. Here we firstly cloned three HIF-α isoforms from the basal branches of Osteichthyes and used computational tools to characterise the molecular change underlying the functional divergence of HIF-α isoforms in different lineages. Only the HIF-1α and HIF-2α in African lungfish and amphibians were found under positive selection. HIF-1α and -2α were less functionally divergent in basal ray-finned fish than in teleosts, and showed conserved but different transcriptional activity towards specific target genes. PMID:24265980

  15. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests.

    PubMed

    Reis, Suelen L; Mantello, Anieli G; Macedo, Jeferson M; Gelfuso, Erica A; da Silva, Cássio P; Fachin, Ana L; Cardoso, Alexandre M; Beleboni, Rene O

    2016-01-01

    Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies. PMID:26907246

  16. Primary gene products as plant defenses. Final report, November 1, 1983-October 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.

    1986-04-01

    Using the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model insect we sought to understand the effects of proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive proteinases on growth and development of a representative pest species. We found that C. maculatus has a major migut proteinase of the thiol type which is powerfully inhibited by E-64. We devised a technique for preparing and incorporating proteinases inhibitors into artificial cowpeas: E-64, at concentrations as low as 0.01% (w/w), slowed development, increased mortality, and reduced fecundity. Clearly, thiol proteinase inhibitors in the diet of C. maculatus have a severe impact on this insect and could prevent economic infestations from developing were such inhibitors present in their natural food, i.e., cowpeas.

  17. Diets of deepwater oreos (Oreosomatidae) and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus.

    PubMed

    Forman, J S; Horn, P L; Stevens, D W

    2016-06-01

    The diets of black oreo Allocyttus niger, smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus, spiky oreo Neocyttus rhomboidalis and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus were determined from examination of contents of 240, 311, 76 and 415 non-empty stomachs, from fishes sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand. Hoplostethus atlanticus had an opportunistic predatory strategy with a broad diet dominated by prawns and mesopelagic teleosts, but with substantial components of mysids and cephalopods. Pseudocyttus maculatus was strongly specialized on gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish and salps). Allocyttus niger consumed mainly salps and hyperiid amphipods, and to a lesser extent fishes, prawns, mysids and copepods. Neocyttus rhomboidalis primarily consumed salps, along with mysids, euphausiids and fishes. Only P. maculatus did not exhibit significant ontogenetic variation in diet. The diets were also influenced by year and bottom depth. Differences in the distributions and diets of the four species probably reduce conflicts in resource use. PMID:27188827

  18. Polypterus and the evolution of fish pectoral musculature.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Benjamin C; Du, Trina Y; Standen, Emily M; Larsson, Hans C E

    2015-06-01

    Polypterus, a member of the most primitive living group of ray-finned fishes, has demonstrated the ability to perform fin-assisted terrestrial locomotion, a behavior that indicates a complex pectoral musculoskeletal system. Review of the literature reveals that many aspects of the pectoral muscular anatomy of Polypterus are still unclear, with a number of conflicting descriptions. We provide a new interpretation of the pectoral musculature using soft tissue-enhanced microCT scanning and gross anatomical dissection. The results demonstrate a complex musculature, with six independent muscles crossing the glenoid-fin joint. Comparisons with other bony-fish (Osteichthyes), including both ray-finned (Actinopterygii) and lobed-fin (Sarcopterygii) fish, indicate the presence of novel muscles within Polypterus: coracometapterygialis I+II and the zonopropterygialis medialis. Examination of these muscular additions in the context of osteichthyan phylogeny indicates that this represents a previously unrecognized event in the evolution of pectoral musculature in Osteichthyes. Despite its phylogenetic position as a basal actinopterygian, the musculature of Polypterus has more similarities both anatomically and functionally with that of sarcopterygians. This anatomy, along with other features of Polypterus anatomy such as lobed fins, ventral paired lungs, and a large spiracle, may make it a good model for inferences of stem tetrapod locomotion. PMID:25994125

  19. Geology and taphonomy of the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahud, Artur; Petri, Setembrino

    2015-09-01

    The taphonomy of Early Permian vertebrates from a sandy facies at the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation, was surveyed in order to acquire data for the interpretation of the sedimentary processes and paleoenvironment of deposition. Six outcrops from the Rio Claro municipality and surrounding areas, from the Brazilian State of São Paulo, were investigated. The vertebrate groups are Chondrichthyes (Xenacanthiformes, Ctenacanthiformes and Petalodontiformes), Osteichthyes (Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii) and Tetrapodomorpha. They occur as loose teeth, scales, spines and bone remains. The sandy facies is characterized by fining upward deposition. The coarser sandstone immediately above the underlying Tatuí Formation is rich in Chondrichthyes. However, the fine sandstone above, immediately beneath the silty shale facies, is devoid of Chondrichthyes, though Osteichthyes scales, teeth and bones were present. The taphonomy is important for inferring sedimentary processes and then the paleoenvironments. The poor sorting of the sandstone and the presence of fossils that are mostly abraded or worn are indicative of a high energy environment. In contrast, the presence of fossils in a good state of preservation, some without abrasion and breakages are indicative of only limited transport. Differences of fossil spatial density, numbers of specimens and taxa may be explained by the dynamics of deposition, from details of the palaeoenvironment can be obtained.

  20. Advances in genomics of bony fish

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Hans J.; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances of genomic technologies applied to studies of fish species belonging to the superclass of Osteichthyes (bony fish) with a major emphasis on the infraclass of Teleostei, also called teleosts. This superclass that represents more than 50% of all known vertebrate species has gained considerable attention from genome researchers in the last decade. We discuss many examples that demonstrate that this highly deserved attention is currently leading to new opportunities for answering important biological questions on gene function and evolutionary processes. In addition to giving an overview of the technologies that have been applied for studying various fish species we put the recent advances in genome research on the model species zebrafish and medaka in the context of its impact for studies of all fish of the superclass of Osteichthyes. We thereby want to illustrate how the combined value of research on model species together with a broad angle perspective on all bony fish species will have a huge impact on research in all fields of fundamental science and will speed up applications in many societally important areas such as the development of new medicines, toxicology test systems, environmental sensing systems and sustainable aquaculture strategies. PMID:24291769

  1. Post-cyclic transmission in Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Semenas, Liliana G; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the post-cyclic transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) from Galaxias maculatus Jenyns to Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Wild G. maculatus naturally infected with A. tumescens were fed to cultured rainbow trout, which were sacrificed at the second, third and fourth weeks post infection. Normally attached male and female acanthocephalans were recovered alive from the intestine of rainbow trout. Parasites survive at least four weeks post infection, growing and attaining full sexual maturity. Prevalence and mean intensity generally decreased after infection. A. tumescens is the eighth acanthocephalan species in which post-cyclic transmission has been proven. PMID:12194485

  2. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  3. Effect of ramp length and slope on the efficacy of a baffled fish pass.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ramp length and slope on fish passage over baffled ramps with 15° and 30° gradients. Three fish species indigenous to New Zealand were tested: the redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus and the inanga Galaxias maculatus with ramp lengths of 3, 4·5 and 6 m. As slope and ramp length increased, passage success rate decreased for G. maculatus and G. cotidianus. At a slope of 15°, both G. maculatus and G. cotidianus could pass all ramp lengths tested with the highest success rate on the 3 m ramp. As the gradient increased to 30°, G. maculatus could only pass the 3 m ramp, and G. cotidianus were incapable of passing any ramp. Gobiomorphus huttoni were the only test species capable of climbing the wetted margin of the ramps. Increasing ramp slope significantly reduced passage success for G. huttoni, but ramp length, up to the maximum used in this study, had no significant influence on successful passage. PMID:24417428

  4. Climate-induced changes to the ancestral population size of two Patagonian galaxiids: the influence of glacial cycling.

    PubMed

    Zemlak, Tyler S; Walde, Sandra J; Habit, Evelyn M; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Patagonia is one of the few areas in the Southern Hemisphere to have been directly influenced by Quaternary glaciers. In this study, we evaluate the influence that Quaternary glacial ice had on the genetic diversity of two congeneric fish species, the diadromous Galaxias maculatus and the nondiadromous Galaxias platei, using multilocus estimates of effective population size through time. Mid-Quaternary glaciations had far-reaching consequences for both species. Galaxias maculatus and G. platei each experienced severe genetic bottlenecks during the period when Patagonia ice sheet advance reached its maximum positions c. 1.1-0.6 Ma. Concordant drops in effective size during this time suggest that range sizes were under similar constraints. It is therefore unlikely that coastal (brackish/marine) environments served as a significant refuge for G. maculatus during glacial periods. An earlier onset of population declines for G. platei suggests that this species was vulnerable to modest glacial advances. Declines in effective sizes were continuous for both species and lasted into the late-Pleistocene. However, G. maculatus exhibited a strong population recovery during the late-Quaternary (c. 400,000 bp). Unusually long and warm interglacials associated with the late-Quaternary may have helped to facilitate a strong population rebound in this primarily coastal species. PMID:22077139

  5. New species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Five new Elaphidiini species are described from Bolivia including Anelaphus maculatus sp. nov. from Tarija and Mephritus bonasoi sp. nov., M. meyeri, sp. nov., M. punctulatus sp. nov. and M. eleandroi sp. nov. from Santa Cruz. A revised key to all 22 South American Mephritus species is provided. PMID:25543785

  6. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  7. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  8. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided. PMID:26701570

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of pyriproxyfen under environmentally realistic exposure conditions of integrated vector management for Aedes aegypti control in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Silva, Carolina Fabiano; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Olegário de Campos Júnior, Edimar; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern to control Aedes aegypti mosquito exposure in developing countries such as Brazil. Thus, integrated approaches using a combination of chemical, pyriproxyfen larvicide, and biological, Xiphophorus maculatus, larvivorous fish species approaches are necessary and important to initiate more effective control against mosquito borne diseases. This study describes the toxicological effects of pyriproxyfen larvicide on the fish Xiphophorus maculatus, the larvivorous fish species employed to destroy A. aegypti larvae mosquito species. The toxicological profile of pyriproxyfen was evaluated to determine compatible concentrations for the use of this chemical in conjunction with X. maculatus as an integrated approach against A. aegypti mosquito larvae. According to the behavioral responses of fish, the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of pyriproxyfen were determined to be 2.5 and 5 µg/L, respectively. Bioassays indicated that although pyriproxyfen was not lethal to X. maculatus, the application of this compound at a concentration reported to control the emergence of A. aegypti larvae may decrease the swimming performance of larvivorous fish and their ability to ingest A. aegypti L4 larvae. Data show that integration of biological larvivorous fish and chemical larvicides is more effective when the appropriate larvicide concentration is utilized. PMID:27458879

  10. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  11. Development of Transgenics in Chickpea.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food crop in much of the developing world and ranks third in production among food legumes. Chickpea production is limited worldwide by drought, insect damage from Helicoverpa armigera, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis and disease pressure from ...

  12. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  13. Isolation and cross-familial amplification of 41 microsatellites for the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, G.M.L.; King, T.L.; St. -Cyr, J.; Valcourt, M.; Bernatchez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis; Osteichthyes: Salmonidae) is a phenotypically diverse fish species inhabiting much of North America. But relatively few genetic diagnostic resources are available for this fish species. We isolated 41 microsatellites from S. fontinalis polymorphic in one or more species of salmonid fish. Thirty-seven were polymorphic in brook charr, 15 in the congener Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and 14 in the lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). Polymorphism was also relatively high in Oncorhynchus, where 21 loci were polymorphic in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 16 in cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) but only seven and four microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the more distantly related lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), respectively. One duplicated locus (Sfo228Lav) was polymorphic at both duplicates in S. fontinalis. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Heterochronical patterns of evolution in the transitional stages of vertebrate classes.

    PubMed

    Schad, W

    1993-12-01

    Transitional forms of the recent classes of vertebrates are only known in paleontology. The well described examples are: Eusthenopteron foordi (Crossopterygii), Ichthyostega and Acanthostega (Labyrinthodontia) between Osteichthyes and Amphibia, Seymouria baylorensis (Amphibiosaria) between Amphibia and Reptilia, Archaeopteryx lithographica (Archaeornithes) between Reptilia and Aves, and the mammal-like reptiles Pelycosauria, Therapsida and Cynodontia between Reptilia and Aves, and the description of their phylogenetical heterochronies in terms of peramorphosis and paedomorphosis shows the progressive role of the motorial, especially the locomotorial organ systems and their functions in comparison with the retarded evolution of the axial system, especially the skull and central nervous system. The evolution of the Hominidae shows the same rule. The evaluation of these transitional forms in their fossil context reveals them as inhabitants of biotopes situated in the border areas of coastal and shore landscapes of marine, brackish or fresh water. These biotopes have obviously favoured the innovations on the high taxonimic level of macro-evolutionary characteristics. PMID:8191805

  15. [Medical treatment during fish envenomation].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Gawlikowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Expositions to fish venoms should be treated as a separate group of intoxications because of their different diagnostic procedure. Until now, there are over 220 venomous fish species described, but skin excretions are potentially toxic for humans. Cases of fish envenomations (37), consulted by Poison Information Centres in Poland, as well as described in literature and contained in Micromedex database were analyzed. The course of envenomation, medical management during exposition to venomous of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, freshwater and marine fishes were resolved. Injuries caused by venoms fishes were similarly treated, usually symptomatic. Specific antivenoms are available only for two fish species. Each patient exposed to sting or bite should be examined and observed. If characteristic sings and symptoms of envenomation are present, proper medical management should be proceed. PMID:19788131

  16. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

  17. Variable survival across low pH gradients in freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Jellyman, P G; Harding, J S

    2014-11-01

    A series of 14 day experiments was conducted on five common New Zealand fish species (redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, inanga Galaxias maculatus, brown trout Salmo trutta, longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii and koaro Galaxias brevipinnis) to assess the effect of pH on survival and changes in body mass. No species survived in water of pH <4 although there was 100% survival of all adults at pH 4.5, G. maculatus larvae were also tested and had high mortality at this pH. Results suggest that adults are tolerant of low-pH waters; however, successful remediation of anthropogenically acidified streams will require an understanding of the susceptibility to low pH on different life cycle stages. PMID:25230112

  18. A novel insecticidal serotype of Clostridium bifermentans.

    PubMed

    Seleena, P; Lee, H L; Lecadet, M M

    1997-12-01

    A novel Clostridium bifermentans strain toxic to mosquito larvae on ingestion was isolated from a soil sample collected from secondary forest floor. This strain was designated as serovar paraiba (C. b. paraiba) according to its specific H antigen. Clostridium bifermentans paraiba is most toxic to Anopheles maculatus Theobald larvae (LC50 = 0.038 mg/liter), whereas toxicity to Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (LC50 = 0.74 mg/liter) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 = 0.11 mg/liter) larvae was 20 and 3 times lower, respectively. The toxicity to An. maculatus larvae is as high as that of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis. C. b. paraiba was also found to exhibit significant per os insecticidal activity toward adult Musca domestica (Linn.). PMID:9474569

  19. Exaggerated male genitalia intensify interspecific reproductive interference by damaging heterospecific female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, D; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species. PMID:25882439

  20. Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from 3D orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in three cichlid species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes show considerable diversity in swim bladder morphology. In members of the subfamily Etroplinae, the connection between anterior swim bladder extensions and the inner ears enhances sound transmission and translates into an improved hearing ability. We tested the hypothesis that those swim bladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology and thus compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swim bladder), Hemichromis guttatus (large swim bladder without extensions), and Etroplus maculatus (intimate connection between swim bladder and inner ears). Methodology and results We applied immunostaining together with confocal imaging and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of sensory epithelia, and high-resolution, contrast-enhanced microCT imaging for characterizing inner ears in 3D, and evaluated otolith dimensions. Compared to S. tinanti and H. guttatus, inner ears of E. maculatus showed an enlargement of all three maculae, and a particularly large lacinia of the macula utriculi. While our analysis of orientation patterns of ciliary bundles on the three macula types using artificially flattened maculae uncovered rather similar orientation patterns of ciliary bundles, interspecific differences became apparent when illustrating the orientation patterns on the 3D models of the maculae: differences in the shape and curvature of the lacinia of the macula utriculi, and the anterior arm of the macula lagenae resulted in an altered arrangement of ciliary bundles. Conclusions Our results imply that improved audition in E. maculatus is associated not only with swim bladder modifications but also with altered inner ear morphology. However, not all modifications in E. maculatus could be connected to enhanced auditory abilities, and so a potential improvement of the vestibular sense, among others, also needs to be considered. Our study highlights the value of analyzing orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in their intact 3

  1. The importance of cutaneous gas exchange during aerial and aquatic respiration in galaxiids.

    PubMed

    Urbina, M A; Meredith, A S; Glover, C N; Forster, M E

    2014-03-01

    The Canterbury mudfish Neochanna burrowsius was found to be a pseudo-aestivating galaxiid with a low metabolic rate and significant cutaneous oxygen uptake (c. 43%) in both air and water. Another galaxiid, inanga Galaxias maculatus, had a higher metabolic rate in both media but the proportion of oxygen uptake met by cutaneous respiration rose significantly from 38 to 63% when the fish were exposed to air. Besides its important role in oxygen uptake, the skin of both species also contributed significantly to excretion of carbon dioxide in air, indicating the critical role of the integument as a respiratory tissue. In air, G. maculatus may increase cutaneous gas exchange to meet metabolic demands owing to the reduced utility of the gills, but as emersed G. maculatus were only able to maintain metabolic rates at c. 67% of that measured in water, this strategy probably only permits short-term survival. By contrast, the low and unchanging metabolic rate in water and air in N. burrowsius is a feature that may facilitate tolerance of long periods of emersion in the desiccating environments they inhabit. PMID:24417441

  2. Life-cycle stages of a Posthodiplostomum species (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ritossa, Luciano; Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    In Patagonia, populations of the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus are parasitized by metacercariae of a species of Posthodiplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae). The aim of this work was to describe larval and adult stages of this species in experimental and natural hosts from an Andean Patagonian lake. Specimens of G. maculatus and the pulmonate snail, Anisancylus obliquus, were collected in Patagua Lake. The snails were isolated in individual containers to observe emergence of cercariae, dissected, and examined under a stereoscopic microscope to record sporocysts and cercariae. Fish were examined to obtain metacercariae, and uninfected fish from Gutiérrez Lake were exposed to cercariae from A. obliquus to obtain experimental metacercariae. Chicks and mice were infected with metacercariae from naturally infected G. maculatus to obtain experimental adults. Specimens recovered belong to Posthodiplostomum sp. on the basis of morphological features. This is the first description of sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae, and adults stages of a Posthodiplostomum species in Patagonia, including data about its natural intermediate hosts. PMID:23628085

  3. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

  4. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Silvana; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut. PMID:25763032

  5. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Silvana; e Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut. PMID:25763032

  6. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  7. Hearing in Cichlid Fishes under Noise Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing thresholds of fishes are typically acquired under laboratory conditions. This does not reflect the situation in natural habitats, where ambient noise may mask their hearing sensitivities. In the current study we investigate hearing in terms of sound pressure (SPL) and particle acceleration levels (PAL) of two cichlid species within the naturally occurring range of noise levels. This enabled us to determine whether species with and without hearing specializations are differently affected by noise. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated auditory sensitivities in the orange chromide Etroplus maculatus, which possesses anterior swim bladder extensions, and the slender lionhead cichlid Steatocranus tinanti, in which the swim bladder is much smaller and lacks extensions. E. maculatus was tested between 0.2 and 3kHz and S. tinanti between 0.1 and 0.5 kHz using the auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique. In both species, SPL and PAL audiograms were determined in the presence of quiet laboratory conditions (baseline) and continuous white noise of 110 and 130 dB RMS. Baseline thresholds showed greatest hearing sensitivity around 0.5 kHz (SPL) and 0.2 kHz (PAL) in E. maculatus and 0.2 kHz in S. tinanti. White noise of 110 dB elevated the thresholds by 0–11 dB (SPL) and 7–11 dB (PAL) in E. maculatus and by 1–2 dB (SPL) and by 1–4 dB (PAL) in S. tinanti. White noise of 130 dB elevated hearing thresholds by 13–29 dB (SPL) and 26–32 dB (PAL) in E. maculatus and 6–16 dB (SPL) and 6–19 dB (PAL) in S. tinanti. Conclusions Our data showed for the first time for SPL and PAL thresholds that the specialized species was masked by different noise regimes at almost all frequencies, whereas the non-specialized species was much less affected. This indicates that noise can limit sound detection and acoustic orientation differently within a single fish family. PMID:23469032

  8. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  9. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  10. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii: influence of life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Cerqueira, F; Querouil, S; Nuñez, J; García, C; Renno, J-F

    2014-08-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the population genetic structure of B. rousseauxii in two regions: the Upper Madera Basin (five locations in the Bolivian Amazon) and the Western Amazon Basin (one regional sample from the Uyucalí-Napo-Marañon-Amazon basin, Peru). Length polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci (284 individuals) was used to determine genetic variability and to identify the most probable panmictic units (using a Bayesian approach), after a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the overall dataset (Western Amazon + Upper Madera). Bayesian analyses revealed at least three clusters in admixture in the five locations sampled in the Bolivian Amazon, whereas only two of these clusters were observed in the Western Amazon. Considering the migratory behaviour of B. rousseauxii, different life history strategies, including homing, are proposed to explain the cluster distribution. Our results are discussed in the light of the numerous threats to the species survival in the Madera basin, in particular dam and reservoir construction. PMID:25038864

  11. New species of Demidospermus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) of pimelodid catfish (Siluriformes) from Peruvian Amazonia and the reassignment of Urocleidoides lebedevi Kritsky and Thatcher, 1976.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-08-01

    Three new species of Demidospermus Suriano, 1983 were found in mixed infections on the gills of 4 pimelodid catfish collected in the Amazon River basin around Iquitos, Peru, namely, Demidospermus peruvianus n. sp. from Pimelodus ornatus Kner, Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes, Pimelodus sp. (type host), and an unidentified pimelodid. Demidospermus peruvianus n. sp. (type host, Pimelodus sp.) is characterized by the presence of the male copulatory organ with 2 lateral, thickened projections, and the vagina with a loop at its middle. Demidospermus curvovaginatus n. sp. from P. ornatus , Pimelodus sp. (type host), and Pimelodidae gen. sp. differs from its congeners by the presence of a funnel-shaped vagina directed posteriorly and a male copulatory organ with a small lateral projection at its base. Demidospermus striatus n. sp. from P. blochii and Pimelodus sp. (type host) is distinguished by a cup-shaped vagina with conspicuous ridges at the perimeter of the aperture with a short tube directed anteriorly. In addition, Urocleidoides lebedevi Kritsky and Thatcher, 1976 , a parasite originally described from the gills of Pimelodus grosskopfii (type host) from Colombia, is transferred to Demidospermus , based on morphological characters that we observed in type specimens. PMID:21506840

  12. New dactylogyrids (Monogenea) parasitizing the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Amazon River basin in Peru.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T

    2009-08-01

    Three dactylogyrid (Monogenea) species are described from the gills of siluriform fishes from the rivers around Iquitos, tributaries of the Amazon River in Peru: Demidospermus centromochli n. sp. from Centromochlus heckelii (de Filippi) (Auchenipteridae) and Demidospermus macropteri n. sp. and Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. from Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein) (Pimelodidae). The new species of Demidospermus differ from their congeners in having 2 different hook shapes. Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. differs from the other 3 species of the genus in having anchors with an elongate, straight shaft and a short point that forms a 90 degrees angle, a coiled (counterclockwise) male copulatory organ with 13-14 rings, and a coiled vaginal tube. Based on the present study, Pseudovancleaveus Franca, Issac, Pavanelli, and Takemoto, 2003, is regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000. The finding of Demidospermus and Ameloblastella spp. on these siluriforms extends our host and geographic knowledge of species of these monogenean genera to Peru. PMID:19215149

  13. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  14. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  15. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  16. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): in vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). 2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy of activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin. 3. The concentration of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined. 4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  17. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S

    2011-02-01

    Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates. PMID:21129747

  18. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  19. The in situ distribution of glycoprotein-bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Sialic acids are located at the terminal branches of the cell glycocalyx and secreted glycan molecules. O-Acetylation is an important modification of the sialic acids, however very few studies have demonstrated the in situ distribution of the O-Acetylated sialic acids. Here the distribution of glycoprotein bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids (4-O-Ac sias) in vertebrates was determined using a novel virus histochemistry assay. The 4-O-Ac sias were found in the circulatory system, i.e. on the surface of endothelial cells and RBCs, of several vertebrate species, though most frequently in the cartilaginous fish (class Chondrichthyes) and the bony fish (class Osteichthyes). The O-Acetylated sialic acid was detected in 64 % of the examined fish species. Even though the sialic acid was found less commonly in higher vertebrates, it was found at the same location in the positive species. The general significance of this endothelial labelling pattern distribution is discussed. The seemingly conserved local position through the evolution of the vertebrates, suggests an evolutionary advantage of this sialic acid modification. PMID:24833039

  20. Source and trophic transfer of mercury in plankton from an ultraoligotrophic lacustrine system (Lake Nahuel Huapi, North Patagonia).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Andrea; Arcagni, Marina; Campbell, Linda; Koron, Neža; Pavlin, Majda; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    The incorporation and trophic transfer of total and methyl mercury (THg, MeHg) were examined in three size classes of plankton (10-53, 53-200, and >200 μm size range) and a small planktivorous fish, Galaxias maculatus, from the large multi-branched Lake Nahuel Huapi (North Patagonia, Argentina). Three sites representing a large range of lake benthic-pelagic structures (based on depth and shoreline characteristics) and precipitation regimes were sampled. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) were analyzed to assess Hg trophodynamics. Selenium concentrations were determined together with THg in order to consider its potential effect on Hg trophodynamics. High THg concentrations (0.1-255 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) were measured in plankton, largely in inorganic form (MeHg: 3-29 ng g(-1) DW, 0.02-7% of THg, in the two larger size classes). A trend of increasing THg concentrations, varying in two to three orders of magnitude, with decreasing plankton size was associated with precipitation measured prior to each sampling event. Passive adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) from wet deposition and runoff is considered to be the principal Hg uptake mechanism at the base of the pelagic food web. Despite the initially high THg uptake in the smaller plankton classes, the transfer to G. maculatus, and consequently to the entire food web, is likely limited due to low proportion of MeHg to THg in plankton. Furthermore, evidence of G. maculatus with benthic feeding habits having higher impact on MeHg trophic transfer compared to the same species with more pelagic (e.g., zooplankton) feeding habits, was observed. Although there is a high THg uptake in plankton, limited amounts are incorporated in the entire food web from the pelagic compartment. PMID:24844168

  1. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    PubMed

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  2. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Smoothey, Amy F.; Gray, Charles A.; Kennelly, Steve J.; Masens, Oliver J.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Robinson, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  3. Characterization of telomeres and telomerase expression in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Downs, Kevin P; Shen, Yingjia; Pasquali, Amanda; Beldorth, Ion; Savage, Markita; Gallier, Katelyn; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Booth, Rachell E; Walter, Ronald B

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating telomere lengths and telomerase expression in vertebrates has progressively become important due to the association of these two biological endpoints with cellular aging and cancer in humans. Studies that rely upon the traditional use of laboratory mice have been faced with limitations largely due to inbred mice possessing large telomeres and ubiquitous expression of telomerase. Recently, a number of small fish species have been shown to provide potentially informative models for examining the role of telomeres and telomerase within intact vertebrate animals. Xiphophorus fishes represent a new world live-bearing genus that has not previously been assessed for telomere length or telomerase expression. To add to the knowledge base of telomere and telomerase biology in vertebrates we assessed telomere length and telomerase expression among several species of Xiphophorus. The telomere lengths in several organs (gill, brain, eyes, testis, ovary and liver) in three species (Xiphophorus hellerii, Xiphophorus maculatus, Xiphophorus couchianus) and also in F(1) interspecies hybrids were approximately 2-6 kb. This size was consistent within the same organs of the same species, as well as between species and F(1) hybrids. Despite possessing relatively short telomere lengths compared to humans, the consistency of size among Xiphophorus species and organs may allow experimental detection of telomere shortening. The relative expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of TERT was measured in seven organs (ovary, testis, liver, gill, brain, heart, skin) from X. maculatus, X. hellerii and in control and ultraviolet light (UVB) exposed skin samples from X. maculatus, X. hellerii, and F(1) interspecies hybrids. TERT gene expression was significantly higher in ovary and testis, while all other organs showed low relative TERT expression. Detectable increases in TERT expression were found

  4. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Fishes from the Lower Reach of the Kelantan River, Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Rohasliney; Song, Tan Han; Muslim, Noor Zuhartini Md; Yen, Tan Peck

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in the tissues of fish collected from the lower reach of the Kelantan River, Malaysia. Fishes were collected using gill nets during the dry and wet seasons. A total of 78 individual fish were caught and comprised 6 families, 11 genera and 13 species. The dorsal muscle was analysed using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The mean concentration of Cd in Chitala chitala (0.076 mg/kg) was above the critical limit values of the European Commission (EC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The mean concentrations of Cd in Barbonymus gonionatus and Tachysurus maculatus were already at the level of concern, whereas the other species were approaching the limits of permissible levels. No fish samples were found to have a Ni level higher than the permissible limit of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg set by the WHO (1985). Osteochilus hasseltii (0.169 mg/kg) and T. maculatus (0.156 mg/kg) showed high Pb concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be elevated in the wet season (p<0.05). Omnivorous fish were detected with elevated concentrations of Cd and Ni, whereas carnivorous fish had the highest concentration of Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in fish tissues were positively correlated with fish weight (p<0.05). This study determined that the fish species caught in the Kelantan River were contaminated with non-essential metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Nevertheless, the heavy metal concentration in the fish tissues, with the exception of C. chitala, O. hasseltii and T. maculatus, did not exceed the EC, FAO, Malaysian Food Act (MFA) or WHO guidelines. PMID:27073597

  5. Relationship between Swim Bladder Morphology and Hearing Abilities–A Case Study on Asian and African Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Metscher, Brian; Ladich, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Several teleost species have evolved anterior extensions of the swim bladder which come close to or directly contact the inner ears. A few comparative studies have shown that these morphological specializations may enhance hearing abilities. This study investigates the diversity of swim bladder morphology in four Asian and African cichlid species and analyzes how this diversity affects their hearing sensitivity. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied swim bladder morphology by dissections and by making 3D reconstructions from high-resolution microCT scans. The auditory sensitivity was determined in terms of sound pressure levels (SPL) and particle acceleration levels (PAL) using the auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique. The swim bladders in Hemichromis guttatus and Steatocranus tinanti lacked anterior extensions and the swim bladder was considerably small in the latter species. In contrast, Paratilapia polleni and especially Etroplus maculatus possessed anterior extensions bringing the swim bladder close to the inner ears. All species were able to detect frequencies up to 3 kHz (SPL) except S. tinanti which only responded to frequencies up to 0.7 kHz. P. polleni and E. maculatus showed significantly higher auditory sensitivities at 0.5 and 1 kHz than the two species lacking anterior swim bladder extensions. The highest auditory sensitivities were found in E. maculatus, which possessed the most intimate swim bladder-inner ear relationship (maximum sensitivity 66 dB re 1 µPa at 0.5 kHz). Conclusions Our results indicate that anterior swim bladder extensions seem to improve mean absolute auditory sensitivities by 21–42 dB (SPLs) and 21–36 dB (PALs) between 0.5 and 1 kHz. Besides anterior extensions, the size of the swim bladder appears to be an important factor for extending the detectable frequency range (up to 3 kHz). PMID:22879934

  6. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%). PMID:23388441

  7. An insecticidal N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin gene from Griffonia simplicifolia (Leguminosae).

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, K; Huesing, J E; Shade, R E; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Murdock, L L

    1996-01-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia II, an N-acetylglucosamine-specific legume lectin, has insecticidal activity when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). A cDNA clone encoding G. simplicifolia II was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, sequenced, and expressed in a bacterial expression system. The recombinant protein exhibited N-acetylglucosamine-binding and insecticidal activity against cowpea weevil, indicating that glycosylation and multimeric structure are not required for these properties. These results support the hypothesis that genes of the legume lectin gene family encode proteins that function in plant defense against herbivores. PMID:8587982

  8. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity. PMID:8525405

  9. Component population study of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala) in fishes from Lake Moreno, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G

    2003-03-01

    Seasonal samples of all fish species from Lake Moreno were taken in order to determine the presence of paratenia, to evaluate the status of the hosts and to characterise the transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) at the component population level. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity, numbers of gravid females, relative abundance of the different fish species, relative output of eggs and relative flow rates for each host species were computed. Acanthocephalus tumescens showed low host specificity, successfully parasitizing six out of eight fish species present in the lake. No paratenic infection was registered. If prevalence, mean abundance, and number of gravid females are considered, host species can be placed in a continuum from the most to least suitable as follows: Galaxias platei Steindachner, Diplomystes viedmensis (Mac Donagh), Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), Percichthys trucha (Cuvier et Valenciennes) and Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). However, when parasite flow rates and egg output were calculated, including relative abundance of each fish species, the continuum was rearranged as follows: P. trucha, O. mykiss, G. platei / G. maculatus, S. fontinalis and D. viedmensis. The first four species would be the main contributors to the population of A. tumescens in this lake, P. trucha being the major one. Different regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms are suggested. PMID:12735727

  10. A new hedrurid species (Nematoda) from galaxiid fishes in Patagonia (Argentina) and infection of amphipods as intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2010-02-01

    During a parasite survey of galaxiid fishes (Galaxiidae) from Patagonian Andean lakes, a new species of nematode, Hedruris suttonae n. sp. was collected from the stomach of the native Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) and G. platei (Steindachner). Specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy, especially head morphology, female caudal prehensile structure, and distribution of spines. The new species is distinguished by body and tail size, morphology and size of spicules, the arrangement of caudal papillae in the male, the female caudal hook, and size of eggs. Hyalella patagonica (Ortmann), a Neotropical species of Amphipoda, is reported as its natural intermediate host. Data regarding prevalence and mean intensity in the intermediate and definitive hosts are included. The diet and habitat of the hosts, the percentage of gravid females, the high values of prevalence, and mean intensity in galaxiid fishes, as well as the wide distribution of H. suttonae , collectively indicate that, in these oligotrophic Andean lakes, G. maculatus and G. platei are true definitive hosts of this nematode. PMID:19737026

  11. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three stored–product insects.

    PubMed

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT₅₀ tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  12. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection. PMID:21425874

  13. Virtual Reconstruction and Prey Size Preference in the Mid Cenozoic Thylacinid, Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia)

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Marie R. G.; Parr, William C. H.; Wilson, Laura A. B.; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Wroe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Thylacinidae is an extinct family of Australian and New Guinean marsupial carnivores, comprizing 12 known species, the oldest of which are late Oligocene (∼24 Ma) in age. Except for the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), most are known from fragmentary craniodental material only, limiting the scope of biomechanical and ecological studies. However, a particularly well-preserved skull of the fossil species Nimbacinus dicksoni, has been recovered from middle Miocene (∼16-11.6 Ma) deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here, we ask whether N. dicksoni was more similar to its recently extinct relative or to several large living marsupials in a key aspect of feeding ecology, i.e., was N. dicksoni a relatively small or large prey specialist. To address this question we have digitally reconstructed its skull and applied three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis to compare its mechanical performance with that of three extant marsupial carnivores and T. cynocephalus. Under loadings adjusted for differences in size that simulated forces generated by both jaw closing musculature and struggling prey, we found that stress distributions and magnitudes in the skull of N. dicksoni were more similar to those of the living spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) than to its recently extinct relative. Considering the Finite Element Analysis results and dental morphology, we predict that N. dicksoni likely occupied a broadly similar ecological niche to that of D. maculatus, and was likely capable of hunting vertebrate prey that may have exceeded its own body mass. PMID:24718109

  14. A three year study on distribution and ecology of Anophelines in Thenzawl, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Zomuanpuii, Rita; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A systematic survey on Anopheline species abundance, bionomics and habitat preference was conducted for three years in Thenzawl, Mizoram. A scoop-net method was employed for larval collection and a local made killing-jar for adults. A total of 10 species Anopheles campestris (25.8%), An. nivipes (24.0%), An. vagus (20.6%), An. jamesii (15.1%), An. jeyporiensis (11.4%), An. maculatus (1.7%), An. philippinensis (0.7%), An. annularis (0.26%), An. sinensis (0.23%) and An. peditaeniatus (0.22%) were collected. The survey site having thick tall grasses, numerous rural-huts as residents, small to relatively larger ponds and very slow running water bodies well shaded from sunlight with floating aquatic plants provided the largest area for Anopheles larvae breeding and accounted for 40% of all Anopheles larva and 25.4% total Anopheles spp. collected. An. campestris (NSK01), maculatus (NSK04), philippinensis (NSK06), nivipes (NSK10) and jeyporiensis (NSK09) were strongly anthropogenic and endophagic while vagus (NSK18) and jamesii (NSK03) were found to be highly zoophilic and exophilic and An. peditaeniatus (NSK02), annularis (NSK07) and sinensis (NSK15) were found to be highly zoophilic. Because of its abundance and bionomics, An. campestris, jeyporiensis and nivipes may have played a role in malarial transmission throughout the year. This is the first study reported on Anopheline distribution and abundance in Thenzawl, Mizoram. PMID:24665764

  15. Characterization and Differential Expression of CPD and 6-4 DNA Photolyases in Xiphophorus Species and Interspecies Hybrids★

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Dylan J.; Boswell, Mikki; Volk de García, Sara M.; Walter, Sean M.; Breitenfeldt, Eric W.; Boswell, William; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid tumor models are those that exhibit ultraviolet light (UVB) induced melanoma. In previous studies, assessment of UVB induced DNA damage and nucleotide excision DNA repair has been performed in parental lines and interspecies hybrids. Species and hybrid specific differences in the levels of DNA damage induced and the dark repair rates for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 pyrimidine pyrimidine photoproducts (6-4PPs) have been reported. However, UVB induced DNA lesions in Xiphophorus fishes are thought to primarily be repaired via light dependent CPD and 6-4PP specific photolyases. Photolyases are of evolutionary interest since they are ancient and presumably function solely to ameliorate the deleterious effects of UVB exposure. Herein, we report results from detailed studies of CPD and 6-4PP photolyase gene expression within several Xiphophorus tissues. We determined photolyase gene expression patterns before and after exposure to fluorescent light in X. maculatus, X. couchianus, and for F1 interspecies hybrids produced from crossing these two parental lines (×. maculatus Jp 163 B × X. couchianus). We present novel results showing these two photolyase genes exhibit species, tissue, and hybrid-specific differences in basal and light induced gene expression. PMID:24496042

  16. Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata roots: evaluation of deterrency and toxicity to Coleopteran storage pests.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Dayarathna, Thamara K; Belmain, Steven R; Veitch, Nigel C

    2009-10-14

    Powdered dry root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata was mixed with maize and cowpea and effectively reduced the numbers of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus emerging from these commodities, respectively, more than 9 months after treatment. This effect was reciprocated in grain treated with a methanol extract of the root bark, indicating that compounds were present that were oviposition deterrents or directly toxic to the adults or larvae. Two new bisdesmosidic saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside A) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside B), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of S. longepedunculata and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Securidacaside A, which occurred as (E)- and (Z)-regioisomers, showed deterrency and toxicity toward C. maculatus and S. zeamais and could contribute to the biological activity of the methanol extract. The potential to optimize the use of this plant for stored product protection using water extracts, which would be appropriate technology for target farmers, is discussed. PMID:19769365

  17. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  18. Soyacystatin N inhibits proteolysis of wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and potentiates toxicity against cowpea weevil.

    PubMed

    Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    Genetic engineering may be used to introduce multiple insect resistance genes with different modes of action into crop plants. We explored the possible interactions of two differing gene products fed in the diet of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculates (F.), a stored grain pest. The soybean cysteine protease inhibitor soyacystatin N (scN) and alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) from wheat have defensive function against this coleopteran. When artificial seeds containing both scN and alpha(AI) were infested with eggs of C. maculatus, the delays in larval development were longer than was predicted by summing the developmental delays seen when larvae were fed a diet containing the individual proteins, indicating that the effects of scN and alpha(AI) are synergistic. Alpha(AI) was readily hydrolyzed when incubated with insect gut extract. This proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN, but not by Kunitz inhibitor (a serine protease inhibitor). Thus, degradation of alpha(AI) was due to proteolysis by insect digestive cysteine proteases. These data suggest that C. maculatus uses digestive enzymes not only to function in food protein digestion but also to defend the insects themselves by helping reduce the concentration of a toxic dietary protein. PMID:15666770

  19. Insecticidal activity of an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein resembling a putative precursor of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, M; Yamada, T; Kaga, A

    1999-06-15

    alpha-Amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., protects seeds from insect pests such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (C. chinensis). Cultivars which lack alphaAI still show resistance to both bruchids. These cultivars have a glycoprotein that reacts with anti-alphaAI-1 antibodies. The glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa (Gp29) was purified and the encoding gene was isolated. The primary structure of Gp29 is the same as alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein (AIL) from which the encoding gene has already been isolated. AIL resembles a putative precursor of alphaAI, even though it does not form the active inhibitor. However, AIL has some inhibitory effect on the growth of C. maculatus but not C. chinensis. The presence of AIL alone is insufficient to explain the bruchid resistance of common bean cultivars lacking alpha-AI. Common bean seeds appear to contain several factors responsible for the bruchid resistance. PMID:10366733

  20. First Shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia Sheds New Light on the Development of Tessellated Calcified Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Long, John A.; Burrow, Carole J.; Ginter, Michal; Maisey, John G.; Trinajstic, Kate M.; Coates, Michael I.; Young, Gavin C.; Senden, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods). Most of the early chondrichthyan (‘shark’) record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group—prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males—being from the latest Devonian, c. 360 Mya. This paucity of information about early chondrichthyan anatomy is mainly due to their lack of endoskeletal bone and consequent low preservation potential. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present new data from the first well-preserved chondrichthyan fossil from the early Late Devonian (ca. 380–384 Mya) Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia. The specimen is the first Devonian shark body fossil to be acid-prepared, revealing the endoskeletal elements as three-dimensional undistorted units: Meckel’s cartilages, nasal, ceratohyal, basibranchial and possible epibranchial cartilages, plus left and right scapulocoracoids, as well as teeth and scales. This unique specimen is assigned to Gogoselachus lynnbeazleyae n. gen. n. sp. Conclusions/Significance The Meckel’s cartilages show a jaw articulation surface dominated by an expansive cotylus, and a small mandibular knob, an unusual condition for chondrichthyans. The scapulocoracoid of the new specimen shows evidence of two pectoral fin basal articulation facets, differing from the standard condition for early gnathostomes which have either one or three articulations. The tooth structure is intermediate between the ‘primitive’ ctenacanthiform and symmoriiform condition, and more derived forms with a euselachian-type base. Of special interest is the highly distinctive type of calcified cartilage forming the endoskeleton, comprising multiple layers

  1. Evolution of akirin family in gene and genome levels and coexpressed patterns among family members and rel gene in croaker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianxing; Gao, Yunhang; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-09-01

    Akirins, which are highly conserved nuclear proteins, are present throughout the metazoan and regulate innate immunity, embryogenesis, myogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This study reports all akirin genes from miiuy croaker and analyzes comprehensively the akirin gene family combined with akirin genes from other species. A second nuclear localization signal (NLS) is observed in akirin2 homologues, which is not in akirin1 homologues in all teleosts and most other vertebrates. Thus, we deduced that the loss of second NLS in akirin1 homologues in teleosts likely occurred in an ancestor to all Osteichthyes after splitting with cartilaginous fish. Significantly, the akirin2(2) gene included six exons interrupted by five introns in the miiuy croaker, which may be caused by the intron insertion event as a novel evidence for the variation of akirin gene structure in some species. In addition, comparison of the genomic neighborhood genes of akirin1, akirin2(1), and akirin2(2) demonstrates a strong level of conserved synteny across the teleost classes, which further proved the deduction of Macqueen and Johnston 2009 that the produce of akirin paralogues can be attributed to whole-genome duplications and the loss of some akirin paralogues after genome duplications. Furthermore, akirin gene family members and relish gene are ubiquitously expressed across all tissues, and their expression levels are increased in three immune tissues after infection with Vibrio anguillarum. Combined with the expression patterns of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 from miiuy croaker, an intricate network of co-regulation among family members is established. Thus, it is further proved that akirins acted in concert with the relish protein to induce the expression of a subset of downstream pathway elements in the NF-kB dependent signaling pathway. PMID:25912355

  2. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  3. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  4. Transcriptomic response of cowpea bruchids to N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hua; Chi, Yong Hun; Guo, Feng-Guang; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Balfe, Susan; Fang, Ji-Chao; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-02-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSII) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) are N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectins. Previous studies demonstrated that they have anti-insect activity, a property potentially useful in pest control. To gain some insight into the insect response to dietary lectins, we performed transcriptomic analysis using the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) midgut microarray platform we built. Compared to the nonnutritional cellulose treatment, dietary lectins induced more profound changes in gene expression. Ingestion of relatively high doses of lectins for 24 h resulted in alteration of gene expression involved in sugar and lipid metabolism, transport, development, defense, and stress tolerance. Metabolic genes were largely downregulated. Moreover, we observed disorganized microvilli resulting from ingestion of WGA. This morphological change is consistent with the lectin-induced changes in genes related to midgut epithelial cell repair. In addition, suboptimal nutrient conditions may serve as a stress signal to trigger senescence processes, leading to growth arrest and developmental delay. PMID:24446316

  5. Validating the use of embryonic fish otoliths as recorders of sublethal exposure to copper in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Barbee, Nicole C; Greig, Alan; Swearer, Stephen E

    2013-07-01

    In this study we explore the use of fish otoliths ('earbones') as a tool for detecting exposure to heavy metals in sediments. Because otoliths are metabolically inert and incorporate chemical impurities during growth, they can potentially provide a more permanent record of pollutant exposure history in aquatic environments than soft tissues. To validate this technique we cultured embryos of a native Australian fish, the common Galaxias (Galaxias maculatus), in the laboratory on sediments spiked with copper in a concentration gradient. Our aims were to test whether exposure to copper contaminated sediments is recorded in the otoliths of embryos and determine over what range in concentrations we can detect differences in exposure. We found elevated copper levels in otoliths of embryos exposed to high copper concentrations in sediments, suggesting that otoliths can be used as a tool to track a history of exposure to elevated copper levels in the environment. PMID:23628888

  6. History and phylogeny of intermediate filaments: Now in insects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Intermediate filaments include the nuclear lamins, which are universal in metazoans, and the cytoplasmic intermediate filaments, which are much more varied and form cell type-specific networks in animal cells. Until now, it has been thought that insects harbor lamins only. This view is fundamentally challenged by the discovery, reported in BMC Biology, of an intermediate filament-like cytoplasmic protein, isomin, in the hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. Here we briefly review the history of research on intermediate filaments, and discuss the implications of this latest finding in the context of what is known of their structure and functions. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/17 PMID:21356127

  7. Vocal mimicry in male bowerbirds: who learns from whom?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Laura A; Healy, Susan D

    2010-10-23

    Vocal mimicry is one of the more striking aspects of avian vocalization and is widespread across songbirds. However, little is known about how mimics acquire heterospecific and environmental sounds. We investigated geographical and individual variation in the mimetic repertoires of males of a proficient mimic, the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus. Male bower owners shared more of their mimetic repertoires with neighbouring bower owners than with more distant males. However, interbower distance did not explain variation in the highly repeatable renditions given by bower owners of two commonly mimicked species. From the similarity between model and mimic vocalizations and the patterns of repertoire sharing among males, we suggest that the bowerbirds are learning their mimetic repertoire from heterospecifics and not from each other. PMID:20236967

  8. Osteology and ontogeny of the wrymouths, genus Cryptacanthodes (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Cryptacanthodidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    The four species included in the family Cryptacanthodidae are eel-like, burrowing fishes distributed in the cold-temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific and the western North Atlantic. This study describes the osteology and aspects of the ontogenetic skeletal development of two species, Cryptacanthodes maculatus from the western North Atlantic and C. aleutensis from the eastern North Pacific. We discuss the relationships of Cryptacanthodidae among other zoarcoid families. The Cryptacanthodidae have been previously included in the Stichaeidae, but removed and classified as a separate family based on the skull, pectoral radial, and cephalic lateral-line morphology. Our observations (similarities in gill arch and pectoral girdle morphology; specifically, a thin sheet-like flange of bone from the posterior margin of the supracleithrum) suggest a close relationship to at least some of the members of the family Stichaeidae. PMID:25327966

  9. Intragenic sex-chromosomal crossovers of Xmrk oncogene alleles affect pigment pattern formation and the severity of melanoma in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, H; Schartl, M

    1999-01-01

    The X and Y chromosomes of the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) contain a region that encodes several important traits, including the determination of sex, pigment pattern formation, and predisposition to develop malignant melanoma. Several sex-chromosomal crossovers were identified in this region. As the melanoma-inducing oncogene Xmrk is the only molecularly identified constituent, its genomic organization on both sex chromosomes was analyzed in detail. Using X and Y allele-specific sequence differences a high proportion of the crossovers was found to be intragenic in the oncogene Xmrk, concentrating in the extracellular domain-encoding region. The genetic and molecular data allowed establishment of an order of loci over approximately 0.6 cM. It further revealed a sequence located within several kilobases of the extracellular domain-encoding region of Xmrk that regulates overexpression of the oncogene. PMID:9927468

  10. The occurrence of paralytic shellfish toxins in two species of xanthid crab from Suva barrier reef, Fiji Islands.

    PubMed

    Raj, U; Haq, H; Oshima, Y; Yasumoto, T

    1983-01-01

    Five species of crabs commonly occurring on Suva barrier reef, Fiji Islands, were tested for the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins. All 35 specimens of Atergatis floridus and all 18 specimens of Zosimus aeneus tested were lethal to mice, whilst none of 12 specimens of Carpilius maculatus, 8 of C. convexus and 10 of Eriphia sebana tested were lethal. A. floridus contained saxitoxin (55--60%), neosaxitoxin (35--40%), gonyautoxin-II (less than 5%) and a new toxin previously found in a toxic dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa, and tentatively coded PBT (1%). Z. aeneus contained the same components, with additional trace amounts of gonyautoxin-I and III, but neosaxitoxin was the major component in this species. Comparison with the results of testing Okinawan specimens of Z. aeneus, A. floridus and Platipodia granulosa suggests that the toxin profile is specific to species. PMID:6623494

  11. Mosquito Infection Studies with Aotus Monkeys and Humans Infected with the Chesson Strain of Plasmodiun vivax

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Sullivan, JoAnn S.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.; Nace, Douglas; Williams, Tyrone; Galland, G. Gale; Williams, Allison; Barnwell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Oocyst counts were compared between mosquitoes that fed on humans versus mosquitoes that fed on Aotus monkeys, both of which were infected with the Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax. Oocyst counts obtained from mosquitoes fed on humans were almost 10-fold higher in number. Mosquitoes were more likely to be infected and with a higher rate of infection when they fed on monkeys before the peak in the asexual parasite count. Mosquitoes that fed on humans were more likely to be more heavily infected when fed after the peak in the asexual count. Of several species of owl monkeys, Aotus vociferans was infected at a higher frequency. On the basis of oocyst counts, Anopheles dirus were the most susceptible and An. maculatus were the least susceptible of the mosquito species tested. PMID:22403307

  12. Designation and description of a neotype of Sclerophrys maculata (Hallowell, 1854), and reinstatement of S. pusilla (Mertens, 1937) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Poynton, John C; Loader, Simon P; Conradie, Werner; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Liedtke, H Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis indicates that African material previously referred to Amietophrynus maculatus (Hallowell, 1854; now Sclerophrys maculata), is divisible into two distinct clades: a Western Clade from Cameroon westwards and an Eastern Clade from Central African Republic eastwards, and Uganda southwards to South Africa, extending to Angola-Namibia. Preliminary morphological and bioacoustic data support this division. The two clades are recognised here as two separate species. The Western species retains the name S. maculata, with Hallowell's designated type locality of Liberia. The Eastern Clade retains the name published by Mertens (1937), S. pusilla. It is noted that a type specimen of S. maculata cannot be traced and is presumed lost; the so-called syntypes in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences are not the material described by Hallowell. None of these have been designated as a neotype, consequently a specimen from Liberia in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, is designated here as the neotype of S. maculata. PMID:27394575

  13. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

  14. α-Amylase Inhibitor, Not Phytohemagglutinin, Explains Resistance of Common Bean Seeds to Cowpea Weevil 1

    PubMed Central

    Huesing, Joseph E.; Shade, Richard E.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Murdock, Larry L.

    1991-01-01

    There are claims that phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the lectin of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is toxic when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, and that PHA serves as the chemical defense against this seed-feeding bruchid beetle (DH Janzen, HB Juster, IE Liener [1976] Science 192: 795-796; AMR Gatehouse, FM Dewey, J Dove, KA Fenton, A Pusztai [1984] J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). However, our studies indicate that neither PHA nor its isolectins have detrimental effects when fed to the cowpea weevil. To explain these contradictory results we characterized the commercial lectin source used by A. M. R. Gatehouse, F. M. Dewey, J. Dove, K. A. Fenton, A. Pusztai (1984, J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). We demonstrate here that the toxic effects of PHA to cowpea weevil are due to an α-amylase inhibitor contaminant in the commercial preparation. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668287

  15. Necrophagous beetles associated with carcasses in a semi-arid environment in northeastern Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Ana C G; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2013-03-10

    Data on the ecology and bionomics of necrophagous beetles are scarce in tropical countries despite their relevance in forensic investigations. We performed a survey on the diversity and temporal pattern of colonization of beetles on pig carcasses in a fragment of dry forest in northeastern Brazil. We collected 1550 adults of diverse feeding habits from 12 families, of which 96% had necrophagous and/or copro-necrophagous habits and belonged to four families: Dermestidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae and Trogidae. Three species, Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes and Omorgus suberosus are reported for the first time with an expanded geographical distribution that includes the semi-arid region in Brazil. Adult beetles were collected as early as 24h after death. One endemic species, Deltochilum verruciferum, stood out in terms of numerical dominance and temporal occurrence during different stages of decomposition. Its intimate association with carrion emphasizes their potential role in forensic entomology in the region. PMID:23398925

  16. Integrating multiple bioassays to detect and assess impacts of sublethal exposure to metal mixtures in an estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Barbee, Nicole C; Ganio, Katherine; Swearer, Stephen E

    2014-07-01

    Estuaries are natural sinks for a wide range of urban, industrial and agricultural contaminants that accumulate at potentially toxic but non-lethal concentrations, yet we know relatively little about the long-term impacts of toxicants at these levels on aquatic organisms. In this study, we present an integrated, multi-pronged approach to detect and assess the impacts to estuarine fish of exposure to sublethal concentrations of metal mixtures. Our aims were to (1) examine the effects of sublethal metal exposure on the embryonic development of Galaxias maculatus, an estuarine spawning fish native to southeastern Australia, (2) determine whether sublethal exposure during development has knock-on effects on larval behaviour, and (3) establish whether a signature of metal exposure during embryogenesis can be detected in larval otoliths ("ear bones"). G. maculatus eggs are fertilised in water but develop aerially, in direct contact with estuarine sediments. We were thus also able to explore the relative importance of two exposure pathways, water and sediment. Embryos were exposed to two concentrations of a metal mixture containing Cu, Zn and Pb in water (during fertilisation) and on spiked sediments (during development), using a fully crossed experimental design. Overall, we found that exposure to the metal mixture reduced embryo survival and slowed embryonic development, resulting in poorer quality larvae that exhibited a reduced phototactic response. Differences in exposure to metals between treatment and control embryos were also permanently recorded in the developing otoliths. Combined these three approaches have the potential to be a powerful novel bioassessment tool as they provide a means of identifying a history of metal exposure during the embryonic period and linking it to suboptimal early growth and performance traits which could have long term fitness consequences. PMID:24794343

  17. Jule from the fish Xiphophorus is the first complete vertebrate Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon from the Mag family.

    PubMed

    Volff, J N; Körting, C; Altschmied, J; Duschl, J; Sweeney, K; Wichert, K; Froschauer, A; Schartl, M

    2001-02-01

    Jule is the second complete long-terminal-repeat (LTR) Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon identified to date in vertebrates. Jule, first isolated from the poeciliid fish Xiphophorus maculatus, is 4.8 kb in length, is flanked by two 202-bp LTRs, and encodes Gag (structural core protein) and Pol (protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase, in that order) but no envelope. There are three to four copies of Jule per haploid genome in X. maculatus. Two of them are located in a subtelomeric region of the sex chromosomes, where they are associated with the Xmrk receptor tyrosine kinase genes, of which oncogenic versions are responsible for the formation of hereditary melanoma in Xiphophorus. One almost intact copy of Jule was found in the first intron of the X-chromosomal allele of the Xmrk proto-oncogene, and a second, more corrupted copy is present only 56 nt downstream of the polyadenylation signal of the Xmrk oncogene. Jule-related elements were detected by Southern blot hybridization with less than 10 copies per haploid genome in numerous other poeciliids, as well as in more divergent fishes, including the medakafish Oryzias latipes and the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Database searches also identified Jule-related sequences in the zebrafish Danio rerio and in both genome project pufferfishes, Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Jule is the first member of the Mag family of Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons described to date in vertebrates. This family includes the silkworm Mag and sea urchin SURL retrotransposons, as well as sequences from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Additional related elements were identified in the genomes of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Phylogeny of Mag-related elements suggested that the Mag family of retrotransposons is polyphyletic and is constituted of several ancient lineages that diverged before their host genomes more than 600 MYA. PMID

  18. Phylogeography of the trumpetfishes (Aulostomus): ring species complex on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W; Bass, A L; Rocha, L A; Grant, W S; Robertson, D R

    2001-05-01

    The distribution of circumtropical marine species is limited by continental boundaries, cold temperate conditions, and oceanic expanses, but some of these barriers are permeable over evolutionary time scales. Sister taxa that evolved in separate ocean basins can come back into contact, and the consequences of this renewed sympatry may be a key to understanding evolutionary processes in marine organisms. The circumtropical trumpetfishes (Aulostomus) include a West Atlantic species (A. maculatus), an Indian-Pacific species (A. chinensis), and an East Atlantic species (A. strigosus) that may be the product of a recent invasion from the Indian Ocean. To resolve patterns of divergence and speciation, we surveyed 480 bp of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b in 196 individuals from 16 locations. Based on a conventional molecular clock of 2% sequence divergence per million years, the deepest partitions in a neighbor-joining tree (d = 0.063-0.082) are consistent with separation of West Atlantic and Indian-Pacific species by the Isthmus of Panama, 3-4 million years ago. By the same criteria, trumpetfish in the East Atlantic were isolated from the Indian Ocean about 2.5 million years ago (d = 0.044-0.054), coincident with the advent of glacial cycles and cold-water upwelling around South Africa. Continental barriers between tropical oceans have only rarely been surmounted by trumpetfishes, but oceanic barriers do not appear to be substantial, as indicated by weak population partitioning (phiST = 0.093) in A. chinensis across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Finally, morphological and mitochondrial DNA data indicate hybridization of A. strigosus and A. maculatus in Brazil. After 3-4 million years and a globe-spanning series of vicariant and dispersal events, trumpetfish lineages have come back into contact in the southwest Atlantic and appear to be merging. This ring species phenomenon may occur in a broad array of marine organisms, with clear implications for the production and

  19. Three new genera and six new species of lecanicephalideans (Cestoda) from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from northern Australia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Koch, K R; Jensen, K; Caira, J N

    2012-02-01

    New lecanicephalidean cestodes inhabiting the spiral intestine were investigated in 4 of the 6 known species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman. Hosts examined consisted of 5 specimens of Aetomylaeus vespertilio from northern Australia, 5 of Aetomylaeus maculatus from Borneo, 10 of Aetomylaeus nichofii sensu stricto from Borneo, and 7 of Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 from northern Australia. As a result of these new collections, 3 new genera and 6 new species of lecanicephalideans are formally described. Aetomylaeus vespertilio hosted the new genera and species Collicocephalus baggioi n. gen., n. sp. and Rexapex nanus n. gen., n. sp., as well as Aberrapex weipaensis n. sp. Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii sensu stricto hosted 3 new species of the novel genus Elicilacunosus , with the former eagle ray hosting Elicilacunosus sarawakensis n. sp. and the latter hosting both Elicilacunosus dharmadii n. sp. and Elicilacunosus fahmii n. sp. No new lecanicephalideans were described from A. cf. nichofii 2. Collicocephalus n. gen. is conspicuously unique among the genera of its order in possessing a large, retractable apical organ that, in cross-section, is transversely oblong, rather than round. Rexapex n. gen. is distinctive in its possession of an apical organ that bears 18 papilliform projections around its perimeter, and Elicilacunosus n. gen. is unlike any other known lecanicephalidean, or eucestode, in its possession of a region of musculo-glandular tissue along the midline of the dorsal and ventral surfaces of its proglottids, manifested externally as a tandem series of depressions. Among other features, A. weipaensis n. sp. differs from its congeners in its lack of post-ovarian vitelline follicles. All 6 new species were each restricted to a single species of Aetomylaeus . These records formally establish species of Aetomylaeus as hosts of lecanicephalideans. A summary of cestodes of myliobatid rays is presented. PMID:21882975

  20. Global Genetic Differentiation in a Cosmopolitan Pest of Stored Beans: Effects of Geography, Host-Plant Usage and Anthropogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  1. [Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, a new species of golden-line fish from the Red River drainage in Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Fu; Li, Lie; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, a new species of the genus Sinocyclocheilus Fang 1936, Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, was described from the Ganhaizi tributary of Chouyang River, Red River drainage, located in southeast Yunnan, China. This species has normal eyes and a strong dorsal spine with serrations on the lower 3/5 part. In general, this species is similar in morphology to S. macrophthalmus, S. guishanensis, S. angustiporus, S. lateristritus, S. qiubeiensis, S. grahami, S. qujingensis, S. maculatus and S. purpureus distributed in the Nanpanjiang River, and S. qiubeiensis distributed in the Red River. It is distinguished from S. macrophthalmus by possessing fewer than 9 gill rakers. However, S. xichouensis can be distinguished from S. guishanensis by its interorbital width/SL of 8.1~9.9%, rostral barbels extended to posterior margin of eye and maxillary barbels extended to posterior preopercular. It is distinct from S. lateristritus by dorsal-fin origin opposite of pelvic fin origin, with no a black stripe along the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. grahami by 74~88 lateral-line scales, 20 scale rows above the lateral line, and 16 scale rows below the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. qujingensis by a curved lateral line, 74-88 lateral-line scales, 48 circumpeduncular scales. It can be distinguished from S. yimenensis by the ratio of predorsal length, dorsal-fin base length, preanal length, anal fin length, prepectoral length, caudal-peduncle length and lower jaw length to SL, 47.1%-53.7%, 12.8%-15.8%, 66.0%-71.0%, 13.7%-17.1%, 26.0%-29.5%, 19.3%-24.7%, 4.7%-7.0%, respectively. It is distinguished from S. maculatus and S. purpureus by possession of lateral line and scaled body and distinguished from S. angustiporus and S. qiubeiensis by 35~39 predorsal scales, 6 gill rakers, and interorbital width/SL of 8.1%-9.9%. PMID:23913886

  2. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  3. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  4. LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF MALARIA EPIDEMIOLOGY IN AN ISOLATED VILLAGE IN WESTERN THAILAND: I. STUDY SITE AND ADULT ANOPHELINE BIONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Gabriela; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Kankaew, Prasan; Robert, Leon L; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Coleman, Russell E

    2016-05-01

    This is the first in a series of papers describing the epidemiology of malaria in an isolated village in western Thailand. The study site was the village of Kong Mong Tha, located in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. In this paper we present an overview of the study site and results from our adult anopheline mosquito surveillance conducted over 56 consecutive months from June 1999 until January 2004. The collection site, indoor/outdoor location, parity, biting activity and Plasmodiumfalciparum (Pf) and P. vivax (Pv) infection rates were used to calculate seasonal entomological inoculation rates for the predominant four Anopheles species. A total of 21,566 anophelines representing 28 distinct species and 2 groups that were not identified to species were collected using human bait, with almost 95% of the collection consisting of Anopheles minimus, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni and An. barbirostris/campestris. Mosquitoes generally peaked during the wet season, were collected throughout the night, and were collected most often outside (ca. 75%) versus inside (ca. 25%) of houses. Approximately 50% of collected mosquitoes were parous. Overall Plasmodium infection rates were 0.27%, with a total of 16 and 42 pools of Pf- and Pv-positive mosquitoes, respectively. Annual EIRs were 2.3 times higher for Pv than for Pf, resulting in approximately 5.5 and 2.6 infective bites per person per year, respectively. The results suggest An. minimus and An. maculatus are the primary and secondary vectors of Pf and Pv transmission in Kong Mong Tha, while An. sawadwongporni and An. barbirostris/campestris also appear to play a role based on the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in the head/thorax of the specimens tested. PMID:27405117

  5. The corneal surface of aquatic vertebrates: microstructures with optical and nutritional function?

    PubMed

    Collin, H B; Collin, S P

    2000-09-29

    The anterior surface of the mammalian cornea plays an important role in maintaining a smooth optical interface and consequently a sharp retinal image. The smooth surface is produced by a tear film, which adheres to a variety of microprojections, which increase the cell surface area, improve the absorbance of oxygen and nutrients and aid in the movement of metabolic products across the outer cell membrane. However, little is known of the structural adaptations and tear film support provided in other vertebrates from different environments. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy; this study examines the density and surface structure of corneal epithelial cells in representative species of the classes Cephalaspidomorphi, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia, including some Marsupialia. Variations in cell density and the structure and occurrence of microholes, microridges, microplicae and microvilli are described with respect to the demands placed upon the cornea in different aquatic environments such as marine and freshwater. A progressive decrease in epithelial cell density occurs from marine (e.g. 29348 cells mm(-2) in the Dover sole Microstomius pacficus) to estuarine or freshwater (e.g. 5999 cells mm(-2) in the black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri) to terrestrial (e.g. 2126 cells mm(-2) in the Australian koala Phascolarctos cinereus) vertebrates, indicating the reduction in osmotic stress across the corneal surface. The microholes found in the Southern Hemisphere lampreys, namely the pouched lamprey (Geotria australis) and the shorthead lamprey (Mordacia mordax) represent openings for the release of mucus, which may protect the cornea from abrasion during their burrowing phase. Characteristic of marine teleosts, fingerprint-like patterns of corneal microridges are a ubiquitous feature, covering many types of sensory epithelia (including the olfactory epithelium and the oral mucosa). Like microplicae and microvilli

  6. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (<7 cm ML) in the samples, which might indicate that these individuals inhabit rocky grounds that are not accessible to trawlers or waters deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). The species occurred more frequently around the Balearic Islands than along the Iberian Peninsula as they appeared in 20% and 7%, respectively, of the hauls in these areas. The octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the

  7. Influence of Host Origin on Host Choice of the Parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: Does Upbringing Influence Choices Later in Life?

    PubMed Central

    Sankara, F.; Dabiré, L. C. B.; Ilboudo, Z.; Dugravot, S.; Cortesero, A. M.; Sanon, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4th instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4th instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the

  8. Influence of host origin on host choice of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: does upbringing influence choices later in life?

    PubMed

    Sankara, F; Dabiré, L C B; Ilboudo, Z; Dugravot, S; Cortesero, A M; Sanon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4(th)instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cow-pea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4(th)instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4(th)instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4(th)instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the

  9. Effects of exposure to pile-driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia and hogchoker

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Casper, Brandon M.; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2012-01-01

    Pile-driving and other impulsive sound sources have the potential to injure or kill fishes. One mechanism that produces injuries is the rapid motion of the walls of the swim bladder as it repeatedly contacts nearby tissues. To further understand the involvement of the swim bladder in tissue damage, a specially designed wave tube was used to expose three species to pile-driving sounds. Species included lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)—with an open (physostomous) swim bladder, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)—with a closed (physoclistous) swim bladder and the hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus)—a flatfish without a swim bladder. There were no visible injuries in any of the exposed hogchokers, whereas a variety of injuries were observed in the lake sturgeon and Nile tilapia. At the loudest cumulative and single-strike sound exposure levels (SELcum and SELss respectively), the Nile tilapia had the highest total injuries and the most severe injuries per fish. As exposure levels decreased, the number and severity of injuries were more similar between the two species. These results suggest that the presence and type of swim bladder correlated with injury at higher sound levels, while the extent of injury at lower sound levels was similar for both kinds of swim bladders. PMID:23055066

  10. Is the habitation of acidic-water sanctuaries by galaxiid fish facilitated by natural organic matter modification of sodium metabolism?

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Donovan, Katherine A; Hill, Jonathan V

    2012-01-01

    Acidic waters of New Zealand's West Coast are hypothesized to be a refuge for native galaxiid fish, allowing them to escape predation from acid-sensitive invasive salmonid species. To determine the mechanisms by which galaxiids tolerate low pH, we investigated sodium metabolism in inanga Galaxias maculatus in response to water pH, short-term acclimation to acidic waters, the presence and source of natural organic matter (NOM), and fish life history. Contrary to expectation, inanga were physiologically sensitive to acid exposure, displaying inhibited sodium influx and exacerbated sodium efflux. Short-term (144 h) acclimation to acid did not modify this effect, and NOM did not exert a protective effect on sodium metabolism at low pH. Inanga sourced from naturally acidic West Coast waters did, however, display a sodium influx capacity (J(max)) that was significantly elevated when compared with that of fish collected from neutral waters. All inanga, independent of source, exhibited exceptionally high sodium uptake affinities (18-40 μM) relative to previously studied freshwater teleosts. Although inanga displayed relatively poor physiological tolerance to acidic waters, their high sodium influx affinity coupled with their occupation of near-coastal waters with elevated sodium levels may permit habitation of low-pH freshwaters. PMID:22902374

  11. New evidence on a cold case: trophic transmission, distribution and host-specificity in Hedruris spinigera (Nematoda: Hedruridae).

    PubMed

    Luque, José L; Vieira, Fabiano M; Herrmann, Kristin; King, Tania M; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2010-09-01

    The life cycle of Hedruris spinigera Baylis, 1931 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) is determined here with the first formal identification of the parasite's intermediate host: the crustacean amphipod Paracorophium excavatum Thomson. Adult H. spinigera are redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of fishes, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichettaforsteri (Valenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand. Immature adults of the parasite collected from intermediate hosts (P. excavatum) are also described for the first time. The prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection of H. spinigera in several fish species are quantified along with the occurrence of P. excavatum, the parasite's intermediate host, in fish stomach contents. Although H. spinigera's transmission mode (trophic transmission) and fish diet potentially expose all fish species to infection, some level of host specificity must exist as parasite prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection vary greatly between potential definitive host species. We suggest here that the anatomy of the fish digestive tract and especially that of the stomach plays an important role in host suitability for H. spinigera. While P. excavatum is the only intermediate host in Lake Waihola, H. spinigera was found in six different fish species: Aldrichetta forsteri, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), Retropinna retropinna, Rhombosolea retiaria Hutton, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus and Salmo trutta Linnaeus; although typical hedrurid attachment and mating positions were observed only in R. retropinna and A. forsteri. The limited distribution of H. spinigera is most likely due to that of its different host species (intermediate and definitive), all inhabitants of coastal fresh and brackish waters. PMID:20941914

  12. Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

    2011-05-01

    Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

  13. Detection of mycobacteria in aquarium fish in Slovenia by culture and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Pate, M; Jencic, V; Zolnir-Dovc, M; Ocepek, M

    2005-04-01

    Thirty-five aquarium fish were investigated for the presence of mycobacteria by culture and molecular methods. The following species were examined: goldfish Carassius auratus auratus, guppy Poecilia reticulata, 4 three-spot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, dwarf gourami Colisa lalia, Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens, freshwater angelfish Pterophyllum scalare, African cichlid fish Cichlidae spp., cichlid fish Microgeophagus altispinosus, cichlid fish Pseudotropheus lombardoi, blue streak hap Labidochromis caeruleus, sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, and catfish Corydoras spp. Isolates of mycobacteria were obtained in 29 cases (82.9%). Two specimens were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, but the cultivation failed. Four specimens were both ZN- and culture-negative. On the basis of GenoType Mycobacterium assay (Hain Life-science) and restriction enzyme analysis of the amplified products (PCR-RFLP), 23 isolates (79.3%) were identified: 7 as Mycobacterium fortuitum, 6 as M. gordonae, 6 as M. marinum, 3 as M. chelonae, and 1 as M. peregrinum. Five isolates remained unidentified (Mycobacterium spp.). One case probably represented a mixed infection (M. marinum/M. fortuitum). Since M. marinum infections are also detected in humans, the significance of mycobacteria in aquarium fish should not be overlooked. PMID:15900685

  14. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  15. Ultralow volume application of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis for the control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Gregorio, E R; Khadri, M S; Seleena, P

    1996-12-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (B.t.i.) against mosquito larvae dispersed by ultralow volume (ULV) spraying was conducted in simulated field trials. Effectiveness was measured using 3 different indicators: larval mortality, colony-forming unit enumeration, and droplet analysis. B.t.i. was dispersed with a ULV generator using 2 different flow rates: 0.3 and 0.5 liter/min on 2 different days. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that an output of 0.3 liter/min is effective for controlling Aedes aegypti. although a dosage of 0.5 liter/min can be used when high residual activity is desired. For Culex quinquefasciatus control, both dosages were effective but with low residual activity. For Anopheles maculatus control, only a discharge rate of 0.5 liter/min was effective with low residual activity. B.t.i. application at both dosages penetrated tires well, indicating that B.t.i. ULV application is an effective method for controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes. Good coverage of target area and penetration were attributed to satisfactory droplet profiles. PMID:9046471

  16. Isolation and Identification of novel toxins from a new mosquitocidal isolate from Malaysia, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.

    PubMed

    Kawalek, M D; Benjamin, S; Lee, H L; Gill, S S

    1995-08-01

    A new mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp., jegathesan, has recently been isolated from Malaysia. Parasporal crystal inclusions were purified from this strain and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes togoi, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles maculatus, and Mansonia uniformis. The 50% lethal concentration of crystal inclusions for each species was 0.34, 8.08, 0.34, 17.59, 3.91, and 120 ng/ml, respectively. These values show that parasporal inclusions from this new subspecies have mosquitocidal toxicity comparable to that of inclusions isolated from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Solubilized and chymotrypsin-activated parasporal inclusions possessed low-level hemolytic activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the crystals were composed of polypeptides of 77, 74, 72, 68, 55, 38, 35, 27, and 23 kDa. Analysis by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with polyclonal antisera raised against toxins purified from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis reveals that proteins in parasporal inclusions of subsp. jegathesan are distinct, because little cross-reactivity was shown. Analysis of the plasmid content of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan indicates that the genes for toxin production may be located on 105- to 120-kb plasmids. Cry- clones that have been cured of these plasmids are nontoxic. Southern blot analysis of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from subsp. jegathesan showed little or low homology to the genes coding for CryIVA, CryIVB, and CryIVD from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. PMID:7487029

  17. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World’s Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  18. Genomic survey provides insights into the evolutionary changes that occurred during European expansion of the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Vera, Manuel; Díez-del-Molino, David; García-Marín, José-Luis

    2016-03-01

    Biological invasions rank among the main global threats for biodiversity. The Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is considered one of the 100 world worst invasive species due to its high adaptation capability to new environments. Using the restriction-site-associated DNA tags (RADtags), introduced European locations were compared against native US mosquitofish populations to analyse genomic changes that occurred during invasive process of European locations. After filtering, 7724 RADtags containing only one SNP were retained for population studies. Comparative genomics indicated that 186 of these RADtags matched sequences in the transcriptome of Xyphophorus maculatus, the most closely related genome available. Genomic analyses showed that invasive populations show high reductions in diversity. Further, analyses of population structuring based on these data are concordant with previous analyses based on microsatellites. It is concluded that during the invasion process genetic drift was the main evolutionary force affecting patterns of diversity and population structure. While recognizing that positive selection could be masked by the strong drift during founder events, adaptive processes were evidenced in a reduced number of RADtags (<2%), with only one of these in a putative coding region. Surprisingly, balancing selection was detected in several coding RADtags, suggesting that the preservation of polymorphism in specific genes could be more important than the average population diversity for the population maintenance at any location, particularly for the survival of introduced populations. PMID:26825431

  19. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. PMID:25345487

  20. Intralocus Sexual Conflict and the Tragedy of the Commons in Seed Beetles.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Maklakov, Alexei A; Arnqvist, Göran

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified genetic variation in life history and morphology, as well as associated covariance in male and female adult reproductive success. In parallel, we created replicated artificial populations of each line and measured their productivity. Genetic constraints limited independent trait expression in the sexes, and we identified several instances of sexually antagonistic covariance between traits and fitness, signifying IaSC. Population productivity was strongly positively correlated to female adult reproductive success but uncorrelated with male reproductive success. Moreover, male (female) phenotypic optima for several traits under sexually antagonistic selection were exhibited by the genotypes with the lowest (highest) population productivity. Our study forms a direct link between individual-level sex-specific selection and population demography and places life-history traits at the epicenter of these dynamics. PMID:27622882

  1. ACTH-induced stress response during pregnancy in a viviparous gecko: no observed effect on offspring quality.

    PubMed

    Preest, Marion R; Cree, Alison; Tyrrell, Claudine L

    2005-09-01

    The typical stress response in reptiles involves the release of corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Elevated maternal concentrations of corticosterone in mammals during pregnancy may have deleterious effects on offspring fitness, and recent work has shown a suppression of the hormonal response to stress during pregnancy in rats. Little is known about the influence of reproductive state on the secretion of corticosterone in viviparous reptiles or on the effects of high levels of corticosterone during reproduction on the developing embryos. We examined whether New Zealand common geckos (Hoplodactylus maculatus), pregnant with embryos at stages 34-35 of development, secrete corticosterone in response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and whether an ACTH-induced increase in maternal corticosterone affects the outcome of pregnancy. Corticosterone concentrations in pregnant lizards increased more than seven-fold over basal levels following injection of ACTH. However, there were no significant effects of elevated corticosterone on the duration or success of pregnancy, or on various morphological measures, growth, or sprint speed of the offspring. This may reflect a lack of sensitivity of relevant embryonic tissues to corticosterone under the conditions of the present experiment or an ability of the embryos to bind, degrade, or restrict placental transport of corticosterone. Future studies should investigate the possibility of corticosteroid effects on other offspring tissues, including effects in adult life. PMID:16106406

  2. Effects of reproductive condition, season, and site on selected temperatures of a viviparous gecko.

    PubMed

    Rock, J; Andrews, R M; Cree, A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between thermal and reproductive biology is complex and poorly understood. We measured selected body temperatures (T(sel)) for the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus. T(sel) was compared among pregnant females, nonpregnant females, and males from two sites: a cool site with biennially reproducing geckos and a warm site with annually reproducing geckos. T(sel) was measured at five times of day during three seasons and compared with microhabitat temperature (T(top)) and field body temperature (T(b)). T(sel) varied with time of day in all comparisons, and the effect of reproductive condition on T(sel) differed between sites and seasons. At both sites, when T(sel) differed between reproductive conditions, pregnant females had higher T(sel) than nonpregnant females and males. Stage of pregnancy affected the degree of elevation of T(sel). Measurements of microhabitat temperature and field T(b) showed that, even in the warmest season, geckos rarely had the opportunity to achieve T(sel) at the cool site but were able to do so at the warm site. The elevation of T(sel) with pregnancy is extreme in this species (up to 8 degrees C), which suggests that an increase in T(b) is critical to successful reproduction. Interactions between the effects of time of day, season, and reproductive condition on T(sel) must be considered in the assessment of thermoregulation in reptiles. PMID:10893174

  3. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. PMID:26991346

  4. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  5. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected. PMID:17933365

  6. Complex mitonuclear interactions and metabolic costs of mating in male seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Rönn, J; Watson, C; Berger, D; Arnqvist, G

    2016-02-01

    The lack of evolutionary response to selection on mitochondrial genes through males predicts the evolution of nuclear genetic influence on male-specific mitochondrial function, for example by gene duplication and evolution of sex-specific expression of paralogs involved in metabolic pathways. Intergenomic epistasis may therefore be a prevalent feature of the genetic architecture of male-specific organismal function. Here, we assess the role of mitonuclear genetic variation for male metabolic phenotypes [metabolic rate and respiratory quotient (RQ)] associated with ejaculate renewal, in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, by assaying lines with crossed combinations of distinct mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear lineages. We found a significant increase in metabolic rate following mating relative to virgin males. Moreover, processes associated with ejaculate renewal showed variation in metabolic rate that was affected by mitonuclear interactions. Mitochondrial haplotype influenced mating-related changes in RQ, but this pattern varied over time. Mitonuclear genotype and the energy spent during ejaculate production affected the weight of the ejaculate, but the strength of this effect varied across mitochondrial haplotypes showing that the genetic architecture of male-specific reproductive function is complex. Our findings unveil hitherto underappreciated metabolic costs of mating and ejaculate renewal, and provide the first empirical demonstration of mitonuclear epistasis on male reproductive metabolic processes. PMID:26548644

  7. Cross matching of blood in carcharhiniform, lamniform, and orectolobiform sharks.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Haines, Ashley N; Clayton, Leigh A; Whitaker, Brent R

    2010-09-01

    The transfusion of whole blood in elasmobranchs could provide cardiovascular support following hemorrhage. Since donor and recipient compatibility is not known, a technique was established to allow cross matching of red blood cells and serum in sharks. Cross matching was carried out among 19 individuals from seven species: the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), sandtiger shark (Carcharias taurus), white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), brown-banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum), and spotted wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus). Negative cross-matches showed no agglutination or hemolysis, suggesting that donor and recipient would be compatible. Cross-matches between conspecifics were all negative (sandbar, sandtiger, nurse, and white-spotted bamboo sharks). All cross-matches between sandbar and sandtiger sharks were also negative. Positive crossmatches consisted of agglutination or hemolysis of red blood cells, suggesting that the donor and recipient would be incompatible. Strong positive reactions occurred, for example, with red blood cells from sandtiger and sandbar sharks and serum from nurse sharks. Cross matching should be carried out in elasmobranchs prior to any blood transfusion. PMID:20945647

  8. A ZFY-like sequence in fish, with comments on the evolution of the ZFY family of genes in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerer, E.J.; Threlkeld, L.

    1995-08-01

    ZFY-like genes have been observed in a variety of vertebrate species. Although originally implicated as the primary testis-determining gene in humans and other placental mammals, more recent evidence indicates a role(s) outside that of testis determination. In this study, DNA from five species of fish, Carasius auratus, Rivulus marmoratus, Xiphophorus maculatus, X. milleri, and X. nigrensis was subjected to Southern blot analysis using a PCR-amplified fragment of mouse ZFY-like sequence as a probe. Restriction fragment patterns were not polymorphic between sexes in any one species but showed a different pattern for each species. With one exception, Rivulus, a 3.1-kb band from the EcoRI digestion was common to all. Sequence and open reading frame analysis of this fragment showed a strong homology to other known vertebrate ZFY-like genes. Of particular interest in this gene is a novel third finger domain similar to one human and one alligator ZFY-like gene. Our studies and others provide evidence for a family of vertebrate ZFY genes, with those having this novel third finger being representative of the ancestral condition. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  10. Parasitic infections in live freshwater tropical fishes imported to Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ho; Hayward, Craig James; Joh, Seong-Joon; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2002-11-22

    We examined 15 species of ornamental tropical fishes originating from Southeast Asia to determine the cause of losses among 8 fish farms in Korea. A total of 351 individuals belonging to 5 different families (1 species of Characidae, 6 of Cichlidae, 3 of Cyprinidae, 1 of Heleostomatidae, and 4 of Poecilidae) were collected for the purpose of detecting metazoan and protozoan parasites. Parasites were fixed and stained using routine methods, and identified. We found 3 ciliates, 2 monogeneans, 1 nematode, and 1 copepod from 7 host species. Of these, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common parasite in our study, and together with Trichodina sp., caused mass mortality of Sumatra barb Puntius tetrazona at 1 farm. We also found Camallanus cotti and Tetrahymena corlissi from guppies Poecilia reticulata, both for the first time in Korea. Farmers consider these 2 pathogens to be the most serious ones in Korea. Gussevia asota from oscar Astronotus ocellatus, and Gyrodactylus bullatarudis from platy Xiphophorus maculatus were also found in Korea for the first time. We believe that appropriate quarantine practices for tropical ornamental fishes should be introduced because the failure to require and implement quarantines has already resulted in the accidental introduction of exotic parasites to fish farms, and because these parasites can cause further economic losses if they become established in the wild. PMID:12542094

  11. A model system using confocal fluorescence microscopy for examining real-time intracellular sodium ion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Collings, David A; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-15

    The gills of euryhaline fish are the ultimate ionoregulatory tissue, achieving ion homeostasis despite rapid and significant changes in external salinity. Cellular handling of sodium is not only critical for salt and water balance but is also directly linked to other essential functions such as acid-base homeostasis and nitrogen excretion. However, although measurement of intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) is important for an understanding of gill transport function, it is challenging and subject to methodological artifacts. Using gill filaments from a model euryhaline fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), the suitability of the fluorescent dye CoroNa Green as a probe for measuring [Na(+)]i in intact ionocytes was confirmed via confocal microscopy. Cell viability was verified, optimal dye loading parameters were determined, and the dye-ion dissociation constant was measured. Application of the technique to freshwater- and 100% seawater-acclimated inanga showed salinity-dependent changes in branchial [Na(+)]i, whereas no significant differences in branchial [Na(+)]i were determined in 50% seawater-acclimated fish. This technique facilitates the examination of real-time changes in gill [Na(+)]i in response to environmental factors and may offer significant insight into key homeostatic functions associated with the fish gill and the principles of sodium ion transport in other tissues and organisms. PMID:27235170

  12. Environmental variables associated with immature stage habitats of culicidae collected in aboriginal villages in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad; Ahmad, Rohani; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ismail, Zamree; Ibrahim, Mohd Noor; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Hassan, Rahimi; Lim, Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Many of the most widely spread vector-borne diseases are water related, in that the mosquito vectors concerned breed or pass part of their lifecycle in or close to water. A major reason for the study of mosquito larval ecology is to gather information on environmental variables that may determine the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of larvae in the breeding habitats. Larval surveillance studies were conducted six times between May 2008 and October 2009 in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Twelve environmental variables were recorded for each sampling site, and samples of mosquito larvae were collected. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected from 79 and 67 breeding sites, respectively. All breeding sites were classified into nine habitat groups. Culicine larvae were found in all habitat groups, suggesting that they are very versatile and highly adaptable to different types of environment. Rock pools or water pockets with clear water formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls were the most common habitats associated with An. maculatus. Environmental variables influence the suitability of aquatic habitats for anopheline and culicine larvae, but not significantly associated with the occurrence of both larvae genera (p>0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitats that will be useful in designing and implementing larval control operations. PMID:23413702

  13. Expansion of the Known Host Range of the Microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Justin L; Watral, Virginia; Stidworthy, Mark F; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The microsporidium, Pseudoloma neurophilia, is the most common infectious organism found in laboratory zebrafish colonies. Many currently used zebrafish lines originally came from pet store fish, and the initial description of P. neurophilia came from zebrafish obtained from a retail pet store. However, as P. neurophilia has not been described from wild-caught zebrafish, whether P. neurophilia is a natural pathogen of zebrafish is an open question. The pooling of fish of different species in the aquarium fish trade is common and a generalist parasite could be transmitted to novel hosts in this scenario. We determined that P. neurophilia can infect seven species of fishes from five families by cohabitation with infected zebrafish: Betta splendens, Xiphophorus maculatus, Devario aequipinnatus, Pimephales promelas, Oryzias latipes, Carassius auratus and Paracheirodon innesi. Infections in these fishes were histologically similar to those of zebrafish. We include a case report of a laboratory population of fathead minnows with naturally acquired P. neurophilia infections. With such a broad host range, including several fish families, other laboratory fishes should be screened routinely for this and other microsporidian parasites. PMID:27182659

  14. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. PMID:24817604

  15. Altered transcription levels of endocrine associated genes in two fisheries species collected from the Great Barrier Reef catchment and lagoon.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Henderson, Brent; Smith, Rachael; Warne, Michael St J; Turner, Ryan D; McKeown, Adam; Westcott, David A

    2015-03-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is chronically exposed to agricultural run-off containing pesticides, many of which are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here, we measure mRNA transcript abundance of two EDC biomarkers in wild populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus). Transcription levels of liver vitellogenin (vtg) differed significantly in both species amongst sites with different exposures to agricultural run-off; brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) revealed some differences for barramundi only. Exposure to run-off from sugarcane that contains pesticides is a likely pathway given (i) significant associations between barramundi vtg transcription levels, catchment sugarcane land use, and river pesticide concentrations, and (ii) consistency between patterns of coral trout vtg transcription levels and pesticide distribution in the GBR lagoon. Given the potential consequences of such exposure for reproductive fitness and population dynamics, these results are cause for concern for the sustainability of fisheries resources downstream from agricultural land uses. PMID:25617679

  16. Spatial variability in structural and functional aspects of macrofauna communities and their environmental parameters in the Jade Bay (Wadden Sea Lower Saxony, southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Spatial distribution and functional structure of intertidal benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental variables in the Jade Bay (southern North Sea) were studied and compared with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea. A total of 128 stations covering the whole Jade Bay were sampled in summer 2009. A total of 114 taxa were found. Highest species numbers occurred in the subtidal areas, whereas highest mean abundances were found in the upper intertidal areas. Based on species abundance data, six significantly distinct macrofauna communities in the Jade Bay were identified and evaluated with multivariate statistics, univariate correlations and canonical correspondence analysis. Differences in these community patterns were caused by the response of the dominant species ( Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Pygospio elegans, Caulleriella killariensis, Scoloplos armiger, Urothoe poseidonis, Microprotopus maculatus) to prevailing environmental conditions along the gradient from the lower and exposed sandy intertidal areas via intermediate mixed sediments to the upper mudflat areas. Distribution patterns in relation to tidal zonation were best explained by variability in submergence time, Chlorophyll a (chl a) content and sediment composition (mud content), which are proxies for hydrodynamic conditions and food availability. Species inventory and species richness were comparable with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea, but the Jade Bay differs from these areas regarding dominant species. Differences in sediment composition and morphological characteristics (macrotidal versus mesotidal Wadden Sea areas) are discussed for comparison of regional differences.

  17. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues. PMID:27178280

  18. The macromelanophore locus and the melanoma oncogene Xmrk are separate genetic entities in the genome of Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Weis, S; Schartl, M

    1998-08-01

    Fish of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for black pigmentation patterns. Certain intra- or interspecific hybrids exhibit enhanced expression of these patterns, leading in many cases to malignant melanoma. Because no recombination was ever observed between the pattern information and the genetic predisposition to develop melanoma after hybridization, a "tumor gene" (Tu) was postulated that encodes both phenotypes. A dominant oncogene, ONC-Xmrk, was then found to be necessary and sufficient for the transforming function of Tu. Here we present molecular evidence that ONC-Xmrk and the pigment pattern information are encoded by separate, although intimately linked loci. No ONC-Xmrk gene was present in the 15 Xiphophorus strains investigated which exhibit no black pigmentation pattern. Five different patterns from Xiphophorus maculatus, X. evelynae, X. milleri, X. cortezi, and X. montezumae were associated with ONC-Xmrk and were melanomagenic, while fish of X. helleri, X. variatus, X. nezahualcoyotl, and X. montezumae with five other patterns had no ONC-Xmrk and consequently did not produce hybrid melanoma. These data provide evidence that ONC-Xmrk is sufficient for tumorigenesis in Xiphophorus hybrids, and that a separate, pigment pattern-encoding locus is closely linked to it. PMID:9691046

  19. Homology of Melanoma-Inducing Loci in the Genus Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several species of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for specific pigment patterns. Some of these give rise to malignant melanoma following the appropriate crossings. For one of these pattern loci from the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus the melanoma-inducing gene has been cloned and found to encode a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, designated Xmrk. Using molecular probes from this gene in Southern blot analyses on single fish DNA preparations from 600 specimens of different populations of various species of the genus Xiphophorus and their hybrids, either with or without melanoma-predisposing pattern, it was shown that all individuals contain the Xmrk gene as a proto-oncogene. It is located on the sex chromosome. All fish that carry a melanoma-predisposing locus which has been identified by Mendelian genetics contain an additional copy of Xmrk, closely linked to a specific melanophore pattern locus on the sex chromosome. The melanoma-inducing loci of the different species and populations are homologous. The additional copy of Xmrk obviously arose by a gene-duplication event, thereby acquiring the oncogenic potential. The homology of the melanoma-inducing loci points to a similar mechanism of tumor suppression in all feral fish populations of the different species of the genus Xiphophorus. PMID:1981761

  20. A Sex Chromosomal Restriction-Fragment-Length Marker Linked to Melanoma-Determining Tu Loci in Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1988-01-01

    In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

  1. A sex chromosomal restriction-fragment-length marker linked to melanoma-determining Tu loci in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Schartl, M

    1988-07-01

    In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

  2. The macromelanophore locus and the melanoma oncogene Xmrk are separate genetic entities in the genome of Xiphophorus.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, S; Schartl, M

    1998-01-01

    Fish of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for black pigmentation patterns. Certain intra- or interspecific hybrids exhibit enhanced expression of these patterns, leading in many cases to malignant melanoma. Because no recombination was ever observed between the pattern information and the genetic predisposition to develop melanoma after hybridization, a "tumor gene" (Tu) was postulated that encodes both phenotypes. A dominant oncogene, ONC-Xmrk, was then found to be necessary and sufficient for the transforming function of Tu. Here we present molecular evidence that ONC-Xmrk and the pigment pattern information are encoded by separate, although intimately linked loci. No ONC-Xmrk gene was present in the 15 Xiphophorus strains investigated which exhibit no black pigmentation pattern. Five different patterns from Xiphophorus maculatus, X. evelynae, X. milleri, X. cortezi, and X. montezumae were associated with ONC-Xmrk and were melanomagenic, while fish of X. helleri, X. variatus, X. nezahualcoyotl, and X. montezumae with five other patterns had no ONC-Xmrk and consequently did not produce hybrid melanoma. These data provide evidence that ONC-Xmrk is sufficient for tumorigenesis in Xiphophorus hybrids, and that a separate, pigment pattern-encoding locus is closely linked to it. PMID:9691046

  3. Protein Polymorphisms, Segregation in Genetic Crosses and Genetic Distances among Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Don C.; Siciliano, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    The products of 49 protein-coding loci were examined by starch gel electrophoresis for populational variation in six species of Xiphophorus fishes and/or segregation in intra- and interspecific backcross and intercross hybrids. Electrophoretic variation was observed for 29 of the 35 locus products in a survey of 42 population samples. The highest frequency of polymorphic loci observed in noninbred populations was 0.143. After ten or more generations of inbreeding, all loci studied were monomorphic. Inbred strains generally exhibited the commonest electrophoretic alleles of the population from which they were derived. An assessment of genetic distances among Xiphophorus populations reflected classical systematic relationships and suggested incipient subspeciation between X. maculatus from different drainages as well as several species groups. Thirty-three loci were analyzed with respect to segregation in hybrids. The goodness of fit of segregations to Mendelian expectations at all loci analyzed (except loci in linkage group I) is interpreted as evidence for high genetic compatibility of the genomes of Xiphophorus species. It is anticipated that these data will result in a rapid expansion of the assignment of protein-coding loci to linkage groups in these lower vertebrate species. PMID:7173606

  4. The life cycle of Mesostephanus indicum Mehra, 1947 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae).

    PubMed

    Sheena, P; Manjula, K T; Subair, K T; Janardanan, K P

    2007-09-01

    The life cycle of the cyathocotylid fluke, Mesostephanus indicum Mehra, 1947 infecting the pariah kite, Milvus migrans govinda (Accipitridae), is elucidated. The species, reported by Mehra (Proc Nat Acad Sci India 17:1-52, 1947) from Buteo rufinus rufinus (Accipitridae), was transferred to the genus Prohemistomum by Dubois (Rev Suiss de Zool 58:639-691, 1951). However, it is retained in the genus Mesostephanus because of the presence of vaginal sphincter and caudal appendage, which are the characters of the genus. Its first intermediate host is the gastropod snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Viviparidae), which released the furcocercous cercariae. The prohemistomulum-type metacercariae encysted in the muscle tissues of the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius and Puntius sophore (Cyprinidae), Mystus malabaricus (Bagridae), Heteropneustes fossilis (Heteropneustidae), Aplocheilus lineatus (Cyprinodontidae), Etroplus maculatus and E. suratensis (Cichlidae), and Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Belontidae). Recovery of M. indicum from M. m. govinda forms a new host record, and this is the first report of the life cycle of the genus from India. PMID:17514481

  5. Sexually dimorphic development and binding characteristics of NMDA receptors in the brain of the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Yablonsky-Alter, E.; Banerjee, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated age- and gender-specific variations in properties of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in a freshwater teleost, the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). Prior localization of the immunoreactive (ir)-R1 subunit of the NMDAR protein (R1) in cells of the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a primary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus in the platyfish, suggests that NMDAR, as in mammals, is involved in modulation of the platyfish brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The current study shows that the number of cells in the NOR displaying ir-R1 is significantly increased in pubescent and mature female platyfish when compared to immature and senescent animals. In males, there is no significant change in ir-R1 expression in the NOR at any time in their lifespan. The affinity of the noncompetitive antagonist ((3)H)MK-801 for the NMDAR is significantly increased in pubescent females while maximum binding of ((3)H)MK-801 to the receptor reaches a significant maximum in mature females. In males, both MK-801 affinity and maximum binding remain unchanged throughout development. This is the first report of gender differences in the association of NMDA receptors with neuroendocrine brain areas during development. It is also the first report to suggest NMDA receptor involvement in the development of the BPG axis in a nonmammalian vertebrate. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:11579888

  7. [Mortality from snake bites, wild and domestic animal bites and arthropod stings in the savannah zone of eastern Senegal].

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2002-08-01

    From 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4,228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were brought on by snakebites, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged 1 year or more, 0.9% (26/2,880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of the total number of deaths by accident. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1,280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspididae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:12404858

  8. Animal model for ultraviolet radiation-induced melanoma: Platyfish-swordtail hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.; Woodhead, A.D.; Grist, E. )

    1989-11-01

    Sunlight exposure is strongly indicated as one of the important etiologic agents in human cutaneous malignant melanoma. However, because of the absence of good animal models, it has not been possible to estimate the wavelengths or wavelength regions involved. We have developed a useful animal model from crosses and backcrosses of platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri). Two strains of these fish are susceptible to invasive melanoma induction by exposure to filtered radiation from sunlamps in the wavelength ranges lambda greater than 290 nm and lambda greater than 304 nm. Multiple exposures on 5-20 consecutive days beginning on day 5 after birth or a single exposure of approximately 200 J/(m2.day) of lambda greater than 304 nm result in a tumor prevalence of 20% to 40% at 4 months of age compared with a background rate of 12% in one strain and 2% in another. Exposure of the fish to visible light after UV exposure reduces the prevalence to background. The melanomas are similar in many respects to mammalian melanomas, as judged by light and electron microscopy. The genetics of the crosses determined by others and the high sensitivity of the hybrids to melanoma induction indicate that the UV radiation probably inactivates the one tumor repressor gene (or a small number of tumor repressor genes) in the hybrid fish. The small size of the animals and their high susceptibility to melanoma induction make them ideal for action spectroscopy.

  9. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs. PMID:25480970

  11. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  12. Redescriptions of genera Raphidascaris Railliet et Henry, 1915 and Paranisakis Baylis, 1923 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), and Paracamallanus Yorke and Maplestone, 1926 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from fish of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, I R; Rao, K H; Shyamasundari, K

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with the redescriptions of the species of a nematode of the families, Heterocheilidae Railliet et Henry, 1915 and Camallanidae Railliet et Henry, 1915 from the intestine and stomach of marine fishes, Epinephelus areolatus (Forskål), Tachysurus tenuispinis (Day), Johnius diacantus (Lecépède), Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes), Pomadasys maculatus (Blooch). Dasyatis (Himantura) uarnak (Forskål), Pterois russelli Bennett, Scoliodon sorrakowah (Cuvier) and Carangoides malabaricus Bloch and Schneider from Visakhapatnam and Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh). Most of the characters tally with Raphidascaris chirocentri Yamaguti, 1935, Paranisakis pastinacae (Rud., 1819) Baylis, 1936 and Paracamallanus theraponis Kalyankar, 1970, but differs from it body measurements, oesophagus length, location of the nerve ring, length of the tridents, possession of striations, shape and position of the vulvar process and size of the eggs. Except for these minor variations, in all other characters there is agreement with above species. Because of the non-availability of the male, it is not possible to assign the present specimens to any of the known species of the genus Raphidascaris, Paranisakis and Paracamallanus. Hence these are referred as Raphidascaris sp., Paranisakis sp. and Paracamallanus sp. Dasyatis uarnak, Pterois russelli, Scoliodon sorrakowah and Carangoides malabaricus are new host records. Visakhapatnam and Kakinada are the new locality records. PMID:2487509

  13. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  14. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  15. Physiological and biochemical strategies for withstanding emersion in two galaxiid fishes.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Walsh, Patrick J; Hill, Jonathan V; Glover, Chris N

    2014-10-01

    The galaxiid fishes of the Southern hemisphere display variable tolerance to aerial exposure. Brown mudfish (Neochanna apoda), for example, pseudoaestivate, inhabiting moist soil for months at a time, whereas inanga (Galaxias maculatus) emerse under unfavourable water conditions, but only for periods of a few hours. This study sought to identify the physiological and biochemical strategies that determine emersion tolerance in these species. Nitrogenous waste excretion was measured before and after an experimental emersion period (14 days for mudfish, 6 h for inanga). Both species showed significantly elevated ammonia "washout" upon return to water, but no increase in plasma or muscle ammonia. Post-emersion urea levels were elevated in plasma and muscle in both fish, however the extent of the accumulation did not indicate significant de novo urea production. This was supported by the lack of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase activity in tissues. Consequently, mudfish metabolism was examined to determine whether changes in parameters such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide excretion, and/or altered metabolic costs (represented by the key ionoregulatory enzyme Na(+), K(+)-ATPase; NKA) could explain emersion tolerance. Oxygen consumption rates, already very low in immersed mudfish, were largely maintained over the course of emersion. Carbon dioxide excretion decreased during emersion, and a small, but significant, decrease in NKA was noted. These data suggest that the extended emersion capacity of mudfish may result from a generally low metabolic rate that is maintained throughout aerial exposure via cutaneous gas exchange, and which limits the production of potentially toxic nitrogenous waste. PMID:25026541

  16. Isolation and analysis of mannose/trehalose/maltose specific lectin from jack bean with antibruchid activity.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Velayutham, Veeramani; Kamalanathan, Tamilarasan; Periasamy, Mullainadhan; Munusamy, Arumugam; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-10-01

    A lectin with insecticidal property against the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus was successfully isolated from the seeds of Canavalia virosa using standard affinity chromatography. The isolated molecule typically behaved like a lectin in its characteristics. It agglutinated indicator red blood cells (RBC) in its native as well as enzyme treated conditions. The enzyme treated RBC types exhibited a very high hemagglutination (HA) titre values and this property of isolated molecule behaved like arcelin, the lectin-like molecules reported from several species of Phaseolus. As a characteristic feature of a lectin, the isolated molecule effectively inhibited the agglutination of indicator RBC types with simple and complex carbohydrates including glycoproteins. This nature of the isolated molecule also relate with characteristic feature of arcelin isoforms in inhibiting HA activity with complex glycoproteins as reported in many studies. Most interestingly, the present study disclosed trehalose as a potent inhibitor of C. virosa lectin. Therefore, feeding insect pests on the lectin like arcelin could serve as antibiosis factor/anti-insect activity. The molecular characteristics of this isolated molecule and its mass studies too revealed its homology with arcelin, arcelin-1, 2 and 6 isoforms of P. vulgaris and lectin from Canavalia cathartica, C. lineata and C. brasiliensis. PMID:27238584

  17. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations. PMID:26590193

  18. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  19. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  20. Toxicological assessment of spinosad: Implications for integrated control of Aedes aegypti using larvicides and larvivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Freitas, Priscila Costa; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Campos, Carlos Fernando; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Rodrigues, Tamiris Sabrina; Morelli, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Integration of larvivorous fish and biolarvicides at low concentrations to control of mosquito larvae in field situations may result in a safer and more effective tool. However, the usefulness of integrated approach depends upon survival and ecological fitness of fish employed. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic effects of combining different sublethal concentrations of spinosad, a naturally occurring neurotoxic insecticide, with male adult poecilid larvivorous guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) fish on Aedes larvae mosquitos. Both fish species have been used for biological control of Aedes larvae in Brazil. Sublethal spinosad exposures were predetermined based on CL50-96hr. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill cells were measured after 14 d of exposure. Behavioral changes were monitored over 96 h. Although genotoxic effects were not markedly different from control, behavioral changes evaluated based upon the no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC). Adverse effects were noted at concentrations of 12.6 mg/L (NOEC) and 25.3 mg/L (LOEC) spinosad. Therefore, these insecticide concentrations may be considered as being safe to these fish species and have important implications for integrated approach to control Aedes larvae using natural larvicides and larvivorous fish. PMID:27294296

  1. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwosu, Francis M.

    2010-03-01

    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  2. Two new species of Ornithodoros (Ixodida; Argasidae) from the Southern Cone of South America.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Ornithodoros were described from larvae collected in Argentina and Chile. Ornithodoros xerophylus n. sp. was described from specimens collected on the small rodent Graomys centralis in Argentina. The diagnostic characters for this species are a combination of dorsal plate slightly oval with a length of approximately 250 µm, 16 pairs of dorsal setae, hypostome with apex rounded and dental formula 2/2 in most rows, 3/3 apically, and capsule of the Haller's organ oval in shape without reticulations. Larvae of Ornithodoros lahillei n. sp. were collected on the reptiles Philodryas chamissonis and Callopistes maculatus in Chile. The diagnostic characters for O. lahillei are a combination of dorsal plate subtriangular with margins corrugated and posterior margin convex, dorsal surface with 14 pairs of setae, absence of postcoxal setae, and hypostome with apex pointed and dental formula 3/3 in anterior third and 2/2 in the middle and basal portion. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences and a Principal Component Analysis based on morphometric characters provided additional support to the description of O. lahillei and O. xerophylus as two independent lineages within the genus Ornithodoros. PMID:25702203

  3. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in southeastern brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L M; Thyssen, P J; Linhares, A X; Palhares, F A

    2000-01-01

    Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation), located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected - Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae (Diptera) and Dermestidae (Coleoptera) - were considered of forensic importance, because several species were collected in large numbers both visiting and breeding in pig carcasses. Several species were also observed and collected on human corpses at the Institute of Legal Medicine. The species belonged to 17 different families, 6 being of forensic importance because they were reared from human corpses or pig carcasses: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Piophilidae (Diptera), Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera). The most important species were: Diptera - Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya putoria, Hemilucilia segmentaria, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae), Pattonella intermutans (Sarcophagidae), Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae), Piophila casei (Piophilidae); Coleoptera - Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae), Oxyletrum disciolle (Silphidae) and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae). PMID:10656720

  4. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World's Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  5. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent–offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28–96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

  6. First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jung-Schroers, Verena; Adamek, Mikolaj; Wohlsein, Peter; Wolter, Jan; Wedekind, Helmut; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established. PMID:27225207

  7. Molecular confirmation of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in farmed and imported ornamental fish in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Cummins, David M; Davies, Kelly R; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-10-16

    Viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus have not been detected in wild populations of fish in Australia but circulate in imported ornamental fish. In 2012, detection of a megalocytivirus in healthy platys Xiphophorus maculatus was reported from a farm in Australia during surveillance testing as part of a research project undertaken at the University of Sydney. Confirmatory testing of the original samples at the AAHL Fish Diseases Laboratory verified the presence of an infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV)-like virus. Additional sampling at the positive farm confirmed the persistence of the virus in the platys, with 39 of 265 (14.7%) samples testing positive. Comparison of 3 separate gene regions of the virus with those of ISKNV confirmed the detection of a virus indistinguishable from ISKNV. Subsequently, ISKNV was also detected in a range of imported ornamental fish from several countries between 2013 and 2014, by screening with real-time PCR and confirmation by conventional PCR and sequence analysis. Accordingly, the current importation of live ornamental fish acts as a potential perpetual source for the establishment of ISKNV viruses within Australia. The testing of the farmed and imported ornamental fish verified the utility of the probe-based real-time PCR assay for screening of ornamental fish for Megalocytivirus. PMID:26480913

  8. Spatial distribution of malaria in Peninsular Malaysia from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is still an endemic disease of public health importance in Malaysia. Populations at risk of contracting malaria includes indigenous people, traditional villagers, mobile ethnic groups and land scheme settlers, immigrants from malaria endemic countries as well as jungle workers and loggers. The predominant species are Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. An increasing number of P. knowlesi infections have also been encountered. The principal vectors in Peninsular Malaysia are Anopheles maculatus and An. cracens. This study aims to determine the changes in spatial distribution of malaria in Peninsular Malaysia from year 2000–2009. Methods Data for the study was collected from Ministry of Health, Malaysia and was analysed using Geographic Information System (GIS). Results Changes for a period of 10 years of malaria spatial distribution in 12 states of Peninsular Malaysia were documented and discussed. This is illustrated by digital mapping according to five variables; incidence rate (IR), fatality rate (FR), annual blood examination rate (ABER), annual parasite index (API) and slide positivity rate (SPR). Conclusion There is a profound change in the spatial distribution of malaria within a 10-year period. This is evident from the digital mapping of the infection in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:24735583

  9. Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Bilde, Trine; Maklakov, Alexei A; Meisner, Katrine; la Guardia, Lucia; Friberg, Urban

    2009-01-01

    Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have rarely been tested experimentally. Alternatively, sexual dimorphism in lifespan could result from sex-specific selection, caused by fundamental differences in how males and females optimize their fitness by allocating resources into current and future reproduction. Results Here we used sex-specific responses to inbreeding to study the genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates in Callosobruchus maculatus, a seed beetle that shows sexual dimorphism in lifespan. Two independent assays revealed opposing sex-specific responses to inbreeding. The combined data set showed that inbred males live longer than outbred males, while females show the opposite pattern. Both sexes suffered reduced fitness measured as lifetime reproductive success as a result of inbreeding. Conclusion No model based on asymmetrical inheritance can explain increased male lifespan in response to inbreeding. Our results are however compatible with models based on sex-specific selection on reproductive strategies. We therefore suggest that sex-specific differences in lifespan in this species primarily result from sexually divergent selection. PMID:19200350

  10. Fishborne Trematode Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming

    2009-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 307 freshwater fish of 31 species were collected from 5 administrative regions of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They were examined by artificial digestion method from July 2003 to August 2004. No metacercariae were detected in fish from Fusui-xian. In fish from Mashan-xian and a market in Nanning, 3 species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, and Centrocestus formosanus, were mainly detected. Metacercariae (8 in number) of Clonorchis sinensis were found in 1 Chanodichthys dabryi purchased from a market in Nanning. In fish from Yangshuo, Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae were detected from all 18 fish species examined. Total 13 C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 3 out of 10 Hemibarbus maculatus from Yangshuo. All 7 Zacco platypus from Yangshuo were infected with 8-112 Echinochasmus perfoliatus metacercariae. In fish from Binyang-xian, H. pumilo metacercariae were mainly detected in all 5 fish species examined, and only 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis was found in a Hemiculter leucisculus. From the above results, it was confirmed that some species of freshwater fish play a role of second intermediate hosts for FBT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. In particular, 4 species of intestinal flukes, M. yokogawai, H. taichui, H. pumilio, and C. formosanus, were prevalent in fish hosts, whereas C. sinensis metacercariae were detected only in 3 fish species. PMID:19724698

  11. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.A.; Zabrecky, J.; Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces Invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden.

  12. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    PubMed

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities. PMID:17701394

  13. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus. PMID:8787024

  14. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  15. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  16. Separating natural responses from experimental artefacts: habitat selection by a diadromous fish species using odours from conspecifics and natural stream water.

    PubMed

    Hale, Robin; Swearer, Stephen E; Downes, Barbara J

    2009-03-01

    Animals use sensory stimuli to assess and select habitats, mates and food as well as to communicate with other individuals. One way they do this is to use olfaction, whereby they identify and respond to chemical cues. All organisms release odours, which mix with other chemical substances and ambient environmental conditions. The result is that animals are frequently immersed in a complex, highly dynamic sensory environment where they must identify and respond to only some of the potential stimuli they encounter in the face of significant levels of background noise. Understanding how organisms respond to different chemical cues is therefore dependent on knowing how these responses might be influenced by potential interactions with other stimuli. To test this, we examined whether the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus was attracted to conspecific odours and whether this response differed when cues were offered in an artificial environment lacking other potential chemical stimuli (tap water) or a more natural background environment (stream water). We found that (1) fish responded to both natural stream water odours and those from conspecifics but the response to the latter was stronger; (2) the attraction to conspecific odours was stronger in tap water than in stream water, which indicates the importance of these odours may be overestimated when they are offered in artificial media. We also conducted a brief literature review, which confirmed that artificial media are commonly used in experiments and that the background environment is often not considered. Our results show that future research testing the responses of organisms to auditory, olfactory and visual cues should carefully consider the context in which cues are presented. Without doing so, such studies may inaccurately assess the importance of sensory cues in natural situations in the wild. PMID:19139923

  17. Constraints upon the Response of Fish and Crayfish to Environmental Flow Releases in a Regulated Headwater Stream Network

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Edwin T.; Matthews, Ty G.; Howson, Travis J.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K.; Strachan, Scott R.; Robson, Belinda J.

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer–term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006–2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human–made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow

  18. Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 μg g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 μg g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems. PMID:21421254

  19. Synergistic Interactions within Disturbed Habitats between Temperature, Relative Humidity and UVB Radiation on Egg Survival in a Diadromous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hickford, Michael J. H.; Schiel, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small

  20. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    PubMed

    Chester, Edwin T; Matthews, Ty G; Howson, Travis J; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K; Strachan, Scott R; Robson, Belinda J

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow

  1. The impacts of stress on sodium metabolism and copper accumulation in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Harley, Rachel A; Glover, Chris N

    2014-02-01

    In freshwater fish, stress can often result in significant modifications to Na(+) metabolism and may be an important aspect to consider in conservation efforts; as maintaining ion balance is critical to survival and ion transport is also a key determinant of metal toxicity. In order to better quantify the response of stress, Na(+) influx, Na(+) efflux, and copper accumulation were measured as a result of handling stress in inanga (Galaxias maculatus). This species is a culturally and economically important fish in New Zealand as one of the major species in the local 'whitebait' fishery. Na(+) influx rates in inanga were found to be 2-3 times greater after handling than in 'recovered' fish, and Na(+) efflux rates increased in the range of 5-6 times. Both influx and efflux rates quickly returned to resting levels within 24h. Increases in Na(+) efflux were strongly correlated with opercular beat frequency. This suggests an increas in ventilation, and subsequent enhanced diffusive loss of Na(+), as the mechanism of increased Na(+) efflux. Total body copper levels were also measured under similar treatments. Fish had significantly higher levels of copper directly after handling than following a 24h recovery; likely due to a shared Na(+)/copper uptake pathway. As accumulation is linked to toxicity, fish exposed to elevated copper levels in stressful environments will consequently be more at risk to metal toxicity. In a natural environment, stress can come from many different sources; among which, anthropogenic disturbances can often be a cause. Given that inanga must migrate through metal-contaminated coastal regions to reach breeding habitats, they will be exposed to toxicants under conditions where perfusion and ventilation of the gill is increased. As such, ion loss would be exacerbated, leading to an enhanced compensatory ion uptake and an increase in accumulation of ion-mimicking toxicants such as copper, exacerbating toxicity. This is a concern as conservation

  2. Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small

  3. Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history pathway.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-05-01

    Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts. PMID:21076966

  4. Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

    2003-03-31

    A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only

  5. Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Hollings, Tracey; Jones, Menna; Mooney, Nick; McCallum, Hamish

    2013-12-01

    Changing ecosystem dynamics are increasing the threat of disease epidemics arising in wildlife populations. Several recent disease outbreaks have highlighted the critical need for understanding pathogen dynamics, including the role host densities play in disease transmission. In Australia, introduced feral cats are of immense concern because of the risk they pose to native wildlife through predation and competition. They are also the only known definitive host of the coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, the population-level impacts of which are unknown in any species. Australia's native wildlife have not evolved in the presence of cats or their parasites, and feral cats may be linked with several native mammal declines and extinctions. In Tasmania there is emerging evidence that feral cat populations are increasing following wide-ranging and extensive declines in the apex predator, the Tasmanian devil, from a consistently fatal transmissible cancer. We assess whether feral cat density is associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii in native wildlife to determine whether an increasing population of feral cats may correspond to an increased level of risk to naive native intermediate hosts. We found evidence that seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tasmanian pademelons was lower in the north-west of Tasmania than in the north-east and central regions where cat density was higher. Also, samples obtained from road-killed animals had significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii than those from culled individuals, suggesting there may be behavioural differences associated with infection. In addition, seroprevalence in different trophic levels was assessed to determine whether position in the food-web influences exposure risk. Higher order carnivores had significantly higher seroprevalence than medium-sized browser species. The highest seroprevalence observed in an intermediate host was 71% in spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus), the largest mammalian

  6. Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, A. R. A.; Barletta, M.; Costa, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    The seasonal migration of a salt wedge and rainfall were the major factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of ichthyoplankton and microplastics along the main channel of the Goiana Estuary, NE Brazil. The most abundant taxa were the clupeids Rhinosardinia bahiensis and Harengula clupeola, followed by the achirid Trinectes maculatus (78.7% of the catch). Estuarine and mangrove larvae (e.g. Anchovia clupeoides, Gobionellus oceanicus), as well as microplastics were ubiquitous. During drier months, the salt wedge reaches the upper estuary and marine larvae (e.g. Cynoscion acoupa) migrated upstream until the zones of coastal waters influence. However, the meeting of waterfronts in the middle estuary forms a barrier that retains the microplastics in the upper and lower estuary most part of the year. During the late dry season, a bloom of zooplankton was followed by a bloom of fish larvae (12.74 ind. 100 m-3) and fish eggs (14.65 ind. 100 m-3) at the lower estuary. During the late rainy season, the high freshwater inflow flushed microplastics, together with the biota, seaward. During this season, a microplastic maximum (14 items 100 m-3) was observed, followed by fish larvae maximum (14.23 ind. 100 m-3) in the lower estuary. In contrast to fish larvae, microplastics presented positive correlation with high rainfall rates, being more strictly associated to flushing out/into the estuary than to seasonal variation in environmental variables. Microplastics represented half of fish larvae density. Comparable densities in the water column increase the chances of interaction between microplastics and fish larvae, including the ingestion of smaller fragments, whose shape and colour are similar to zooplankton prey.

  7. Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Hollings, Tracey; Jones, Menna; Mooney, Nick; McCallum, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Changing ecosystem dynamics are increasing the threat of disease epidemics arising in wildlife populations. Several recent disease outbreaks have highlighted the critical need for understanding pathogen dynamics, including the role host densities play in disease transmission. In Australia, introduced feral cats are of immense concern because of the risk they pose to native wildlife through predation and competition. They are also the only known definitive host of the coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, the population-level impacts of which are unknown in any species. Australia’s native wildlife have not evolved in the presence of cats or their parasites, and feral cats may be linked with several native mammal declines and extinctions. In Tasmania there is emerging evidence that feral cat populations are increasing following wide-ranging and extensive declines in the apex predator, the Tasmanian devil, from a consistently fatal transmissible cancer. We assess whether feral cat density is associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii in native wildlife to determine whether an increasing population of feral cats may correspond to an increased level of risk to naive native intermediate hosts. We found evidence that seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tasmanian pademelons was lower in the north-west of Tasmania than in the north-east and central regions where cat density was higher. Also, samples obtained from road-killed animals had significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii than those from culled individuals, suggesting there may be behavioural differences associated with infection. In addition, seroprevalence in different trophic levels was assessed to determine whether position in the food-web influences exposure risk. Higher order carnivores had significantly higher seroprevalence than medium-sized browser species. The highest seroprevalence observed in an intermediate host was 71% in spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus), the largest mammalian

  8. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive) models and compatibility (non-additive) models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross) in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity). Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14%) is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We

  9. Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed. Results Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes), the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six. Conclusions The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African) and Cichlinae (American). The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine) were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in the reference genome

  10. The status of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with redescription of the type species, R. myliobatidis, and description of three new species from two species of Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Malaysian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2006-09-01

    As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae. PMID:17120499

  11. Mosquito Species Associated Within Some Western Himalayas Phytogeographic Zones in the Garhwal Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Pemola Devi, N.; Jauhari, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty four species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the Garhwal region of India. They included 5 genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex and Uranotaenia. Of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. The larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, rock holes, tree holes, intradomestic containers and shallow pits. Three groups and two separate individual species were associated, based on breeding habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis. The characters taken into consideration for classification were natural/artificial, temporary/permanent, shady/lighted, vegetation, movement and turbidity. Breeding habitats such as streams and rock holes were the richest habitats shared by 18 mosquito species followed by seepage pools harboring 16 species of mosquitoes. The lowest species diversity (6 species) was recorded from shallow pits. Generally, all the collected species were found in natural habitats in quiet/stagnant conditions at a depth of 0.1–0.5 m. Generally, the maximum number of species preferred partially shady and temporary water habitats. Moderate vegetation and clear water habitats also had a diversity of mosquito species. Culex mimeticus Noe and Anopheles maculatus Theobald had the highest association coefficient (0.941) followed by Anopheles stephensi Liston and Anopheles vagus Donitz (0.884). The highest negative association (-0.30) was found between the species of Culex vishnui Theobald and Culex brevipalpis (Giles). There were a few species of mosquitoes for which only immatures were collected. Phytogeographically, the zones of lower elevation shared higher species abundance than the higher elevation. PMID:20233101

  12. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to ITN effectiveness. Methods Entomological surveys were carried out using different catching methods to identify potential malaria vector species and characterise their biting habits. The salivary glands were dissected from all female anophelines caught to identify sporozoites by microscopy. Findings Between 1995 and 2000 a total of 4,824 female anopheline mosquitoes were caught with various catching methods. A total of 916 person nights yielded 3,009 female anopheline mosquitoes between 6 pm and 6 am. Except for Anopheles annularis, which showed no apparent preference (51% outdoor biting), all major species showed a strong preference for outdoor biting; Anopheles epiroticus (79%), Anopheles subpictus (72%), Anopheles maculatus (92%), Anopheles aconitus (85%) and Anopheles vagus (72%). Most human biting occurred in the early evening with the peak biting time between 6 pm and 7 pm (35%). Overall 51% (1447/2837) of all bites recorded were between 6 pm and 8 pm. A large proportion of children were not sleeping under an ITN during peak biting times. Only one An. annularis mosquito (0.02%) had malaria sporozoites identified in the salivary glands. Conclusions Peak vector biting occurred early in the evening and mainly occurred outdoors. The limited efficacy of ITN in this area of Western Myanmar may be explained by the biting behaviour of the prevalent Anopheles mosquito vectors in this area. PMID:24119994

  13. Evaluation of a barrier to inhibit lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and dermestidae movement in high-rise, caged-layer poultry facilities.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Murray, Kathleen D; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    An evaluation of a mechanical barrier to prevent movement of adult and larval lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York and Maine. The barrier, a plastic collar wrapped around building support posts, proved highly effective at preventing movement of adult lesser mealworms. Significantly more lesser mealworm larvae were recovered from cardboard collar beetle traps placed below both washed and unwashed barriers than from traps placed above washed and unwashed barriers. Similarly, significantly more adult Dermestes were recovered from traps placed below washed barriers than from above both washed and unwashed barriers. The level of fly specking on the barrier was found to have no significant impact on the numbers of adult lesser mealworms and adult and larval Dermestes recovered either above or below barriers. Fly specking level did significantly impact the numbers of lesser mealworm larvae recovered above the barrier. Although washed barriers provided the greatest deterrent to adult lesser mealworms, the presence of the barrier, regardless of the level of fly specking, provided a significant deterrent to beetle climbing success. Washed barriers further reduced climbing success by lesser mealworm larvae by 17%, Dermestes adults by 7-28%, and Dermestes larvae by 33-38%. The high level of climbing observed by adult lesser mealworms suggests that the impact of adult beetle movement toward birds should be considered in its importance in building damage, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost and maintenance of the barrier are discussed. PMID:16334349

  14. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Anisa Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  15. Oxygen isotopic distribution along the otolith growth axis by secondary ion mass spectrometry: Applications for studying ontogenetic change in the depth inhabited by deep-sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Liao, Yun-Chih

    2014-02-01

    This study using tuna otoliths as working standards established a high lateral resolution and precision analysis to measure δ18Ootolith by secondary ion mass spectrometry. This analytical approach of the ion probe was applied to deep-sea fishes to reconstruct the likely depths inhabited by the fishes at different life history stages based on the measured δ18Ootolith values as a proxy of water temperature. Dramatic increases up to 5-6‰ in δ18Ootolith, representing a temperature decrease of approximately 20 °C, were detected in a blind cusk eel (Barathronus maculatus) otolith and in the otoliths of Synaphobranchus kaupii during leptocephalus metamorphosis to glass eel, inferred from the drop of otolith Sr/Ca ratios and increase of otolith growth increment width. δ18Ootolith profiles clearly divided the fish's life history into a planktonic stage in the mixed layer of the ocean and a benthic stage on the deep-sea ocean bottom. The habitat shift signal was recorded within a 150 μm width of otolith growth zone, which was too narrow to be clearly detected by mechanical drilling and conventional isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. However, variations down to -7‰ were found in δ18Ootolith profiles as the result of Cs2+ beam sputter in the core and larval portions of the otoliths. Carbon mapping by electron probe microanalyzer and staining by toluidine blue suggested abundant proteins existed in the areas with anomaly negative δ18Ootolith values, which cannot be interpreted as a habitat change but due to the isotopic fractionation by O emission from the proteins. These results implied that careful design and understanding of the chemical composition of the analytical areas or tracks on the heterogeneous otolith was essential for highly accurate and precise analysis.

  16. Spontaneous melanoma formation in nonhybrid Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Schartl, A; Malitschek, B; Kazianis, S; Borowsky, R; Schartl, M

    1995-01-01

    Melanoma in hybrids of Xiphophorus is due to the unrestricted activity of a cellular oncogene locus, Tu, encoding the growth factor receptor gene Xmrk. In nonhybrid parental fish, Tu is controlled by a tumor suppressor gene. Thus, its restricted activity leads there only to a nonmalignant, species- and population-specific macromelanophore spot pattern. Prompted by enigmatic reports on nonhybrid Xiphophorus with pigmentation abnormalities resembling melanoma, we have studied pigmentation in descendants of wild-caught fish and purebred laboratory stocks derived from wild populations. Whereas most stocks exhibiting macromelanophore patterns never developed pigmentation abnormalities, an exceptional situation for some nonhybrids was found. In X. variatus carrying the macromelanophore pattern "punctatus-2" and in X. cortezi with "spotted caudal," expressivity of the pigmentation gene ranges from a few black spots to extreme melanosis and eventually to malignant melanoma. In X. maculatus with the mutant pigmentation gene striped" carrying in addition the micromelanophore pattern "anal fin black" or "lower comet," testosterone-dependent melanoma develop originating from the corresponding micromelanophore pattern. The tumors are highly malignant and express a melanoma-associated antigen. Overexpression of the Xmrk oncogene appears as the underlying molecular mechanism for tumor induction. These findings clearly demonstrate that tumors can also develop in purebred wild-type fish. The classical model for formation of hereditary melanoma in Xiphophorus hybrids does not explain the development of melanoma in the absence of hybridization. However, their existence gives additional support to the reasoning that the Xmrk oncogene associated with the macromelanophore locus is potentially injurious. PMID:7805027

  17. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses. PMID:22924335

  18. Sperm Cryopreservation in Live-Bearing Xiphophorus Fishes: Offspring Production from Xiphophorus variatus and Strategies for Establishment of Sperm Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G.; Walter, Ronald B.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×109 cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%–80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses. PMID:22924335

  19. A Microsatellite Genetic Linkage Map for Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R. B.; Rains, J. D.; Russell, J. E.; Guerra, T. M.; Daniels, C.; Johnston, Dennis A.; Kumar, Jay; Wheeler, A.; Kelnar, K.; Khanolkar, V. A.; Williams, E. L.; Hornecker, J. L.; Hollek, L.; Mamerow, M. M.; Pedroza, A.; Kazianis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecies hybrids between distinct species of the genus Xiphophorus are often used in varied research investigations to identify genomic regions associated with the inheritance of complex traits. There are 24 described Xiphophorus species and a greater number of pedigreed strains; thus, the number of potential interspecies hybrid cross combinations is quite large. Previously, select Xiphophorus experimental crosses have been shown to exhibit differing characteristics between parental species and among the hybrid fishes derived from crossing them, such as widely differing susceptibilities to chemical or physical agents. For instance, genomic regions harboring tumor suppressor and oncogenes have been identified via linkage association of these loci with a small set of established genetic markers. The power of this experimental strategy is related to the number of genetic markers available in the Xiphophorus interspecies cross of interest. Thus, we have undertaken the task of expanding the suite of easily scored markers by characterization of Xiphophorus microsatellite sequences. Using a cross between Xiphophorus maculatus and X. andersi, we report a linkage map predominantly composed of microsatellite markers. All 24 acrocentric chromosome sets of Xiphophorus are represented in the assembled linkage map with an average intergenomic distance of 7.5 cM. Since both male and female F1 hybrids were used to produce backcross progeny, these recombination rates were compared between “male” and “female” maps. Although several genomic regions exhibit differences in map length, male- and female-derived maps are similar. Thus Xiphophorus, in contrast to zebrafish, Danio rerio, and several other vertebrate species, does not show sex-specific differences in recombination. The microsatellite markers we report can be easily adapted to any Xiphophorus interspecies and some intraspecies crosses, and thus provide a means to directly compare results derived from independent

  20. Planning Marine Reserve Networks for Both Feature Representation and Demographic Persistence Using Connectivity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Michael; Williamson, David H.; Weeks, Rebecca; Jones, Geoff P.; Almany, Glenn R.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Hopf, Jess K.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only recently become available. However, systematic conservation planning methods currently incorporate demographic processes through unsatisfactory surrogates. There are therefore two key challenges to designing marine reserve networks that achieve feature representation and demographic persistence constraints. First, constructing a method that efficiently incorporates persistence as well as complementary feature representation. Second, incorporating persistence using a mechanistic description of population viability, rather than a proxy such as size or distance. Here we construct a novel systematic conservation planning method that addresses both challenges, and parameterise it to design a hypothetical marine reserve network for fringing coral reefs in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. For this application, we describe how demographic persistence goals can be constructed for an important reef fish species in the region, the bar-cheeked trout (Plectropomus maculatus). We compare reserve networks that are optimally designed for either feature representation or demographic persistence, with a reserve network that achieves both goals simultaneously. As well as being practically applicable, our analyses also provide general insights into marine reserve planning for both representation and demographic persistence. First, persistence constraints for dispersive organisms are likely to be much harder to achieve than representation targets, due to their greater complexity. Second, persistence and representation constraints pull the reserve network design process in divergent directions, making it difficult to

  1. Loss of adaptation following reversion suggests trade-offs in host use by a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Messina, F J; Durham, S L

    2015-10-01

    Experimental evolution has provided little support for the hypothesis that the narrow diets of herbivorous insects reflect trade-offs in performance across hosts; selection lines can sometimes adapt to an inferior novel host without a decline in performance on the ancestral host. An alternative approach for detecting trade-offs would be to measure adaptation decay after selection is relaxed, that is, when populations newly adapted to a novel host are reverted to the ancestral one. Lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus rapidly adapted to a poor host (lentil); survival in lentil seeds increased from 2% to > 90% in < 30 generations. After the lines had reached a plateau with respect to survival in lentil, sublines were reverted to the ancestral host, mung bean. Twelve generations of reversion had little effect on performance in lentil, but after 25-35 generations, the reverted lines exhibited lower survival, slower development and smaller size. The most divergent pair of lines was then assayed on both lentil and mung bean. Performance on lentil was again much poorer in the reverted line than in the nonreverted one, but the lines performed equally well on mung bean. Moreover, the performance of the nonreverted line on mung bean remained comparable to that of the original mung-bean population. Our results thus present a paradox: loss of adaptation to lentil following reversion implies a trade-off, but the continued strong performance of lentil-adapted lines on mung bean does not. Genomic comparisons of the reverted, nonreverted and ancestral lines may resolve this paradox and determine the importance of selection vs. drift in causing a loss of adaptation following reversion. PMID:26201813

  2. The role of male age, sperm age and mating history on fecundity and fertilization success in the hide beetle.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Therésa M.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Models of age-related mate choice predict female preference for older males as they have proven survival ability. However, these models rarely address differences in sperm age and male mating history when evaluating the potential benefits to females from older partners. We used a novel experimental design to assess simultaneously the relative importance of these three parameters in the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus. In a two-part experiment we first explored age-related male mating success and subsequently examined the consequences of male age, sperm age and male mating history on female fecundity and fertilization success. In a competitive mating environment, intermediate-age males gained significantly higher mating success than younger or older males. To test the consequences for females of aged-related male mating success, a second set of females were mated to males varying in age (young, intermediate-age and old), in numbers of matings and in timing of the most recent mating. We found that male age had a significant impact on female fecundity and fertilization success. Females mated to intermediate-age males laid more eggs and attained consistently higher levels of fertilization success than females with young and old mates. A male's previous mating history determined his current reproductive effort; virgin males spent longer in copula than males with prior mating opportunities. However, differences in copulation duration did not translate into increased fecundity or fertilization success. There was also little evidence to suggest that fertilization success was dependent on the age of a male's sperm. The experiment highlights the potential direct benefits accrued by females through mating with particular aged males. Such benefits are largely ignored by traditional viability models of age-related male mating success. PMID:15306356

  3. Carbohydrate binding and resistance to proteolysis control insecticidal activity of Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II

    PubMed Central

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Shade, Richard E.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Salzman, Ron A.; Narasimhan, Meena; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Murdock, Larry L.

    1998-01-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia leaf lectin II (GSII), a plant defense protein against certain insects, consists of an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding large subunit with a small subunit having sequence homology to class III chitinases. Much of the insecticidal activity of GSII is attributable to the large lectin subunit, because bacterially expressed recombinant large subunit (rGSII) inhibited growth and development of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). Site-specific mutations were introduced into rGSII to generate proteins with altered GlcNAc binding, and the different rGSII proteins were evaluated for insecticidal activity when added to the diet of the cowpea bruchid. At pH 5.5, close to the physiological pH of the cowpea bruchid midgut lumen, rGSII recombinant proteins were categorized as having high (rGSII, rGSII-Y134F, and rGSII-N196D mutant proteins), low (rGSII-N136D), or no (rGSII-D88N, rGSII-Y134G, rGSII-Y134D, and rGSII-N136Q) GlcNAc-binding activity. Insecticidal activity of the recombinant proteins correlated with their GlcNAc-binding activity. Furthermore, insecticidal activity correlated with the resistance to proteolytic degradation by cowpea bruchid midgut extracts and with GlcNAc-specific binding to the insect digestive tract. Together, these results establish that insecticidal activity of GSII is functionally linked to carbohydrate binding, presumably to the midgut epithelium or the peritrophic matrix, and to biochemical stability of the protein to digestive proteolysis. PMID:9844026

  4. Extracellular matrix remodeling of the testes through the male reproductive cycle in Teleostei fish.

    PubMed

    Santana, Julio Cesar de Oliveira; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2014-12-01

    During the fish reproductive cycle, testes undergo morphological changes related to germinal epithelium and remodeling of extracellular matrix components (ECM). ECM is degraded mainly by action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Due to the natural renewal of ECM in fish testes, we choose Pimelodus maculatus to study remodeling of ECM throughout reproductive cycle, using picrosirius (to identify type I, II, III collagen) and reticulin (type III collagen), and to immunolocalize MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) and MMP-2 in testis cells. Testes were classified in four reproductive phases: regenerating, development, spawning capable and regressing. Picrosirius and reticulin demonstrated a differential distribution of total collagen fibers during the reproductive cycle. Immunohistochemistry showed MT1-MMP only in acidophilic granulocyte cells mainly inside blood vessels, in connective tissue of capsule close to the germinal compartment, and also infiltrated in interstitial connective tissue. MMP-2 was detected in fibroblast and endothelial cells of interstitial and capsule blood vessels, in epithelial cells of capsule, and in acidophilic granulocyte cells at same description for MT1-MMP. The fish testes ECM were remodeled throughout reproductive cycle in according to morphophysiological alterations. During reproductive season (spawning capable), the interstitium increased in total collagen fibers (type I, II, III). After spermiation period (regression and regenerating), the amount of collagen fibers decreased in response to action of MMPs on collagen degradation and other interstitial components (not assessed in this study). MMPs seem to be indispensable components for natural cyclic events of ECM remodeling of fish testes and for guarantee tissue homeostasis throughout reproductive cycle. PMID:25142725

  5. New Zealand geckos (Diplodactylidae): Cryptic diversity in a post-Gondwanan lineage with trans-Tasman affinities.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Stuart V; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Hitchmough, Rod A; Daugherty, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    We used a multi-gene approach to assess the phylogenetic relationships of New Zealand diplodactylid geckos to their Australian and New Caledonian relatives and to one another. Data from nuclear (RAG-1, PDC) and mitochondrial (ND2, 16S) genes from >180 specimens representing all 19 recognized New Zealand taxa and all but two of 20 putatively new species suggested by previous studies were analyzed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. All analyses retrieved a monophyletic New Zealand clade, most closely related to the Australian Diplodactylidae exclusive of Pseudothecadactylus. Hoplodactylus is paraphyletic and composed of two morphological groups: a broad-toed clade, consisting of the island-restricted, largest extant species, Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, and the species-rich, wide-ranging Hoplodactylus maculatus clade; and a narrow-toed clade, comprising five monophyletic subgroups: Naultinus, the Hoplodactylus pacificus and Hoplodactylus granulatus clades, and the distinctive species Hoplodactylus rakiurae and Hoplodactylus stephensi. Each of these lineages is here recognized at the generic level. Our data support recognition of 16 new species (36 total), and five new or resurrected genera (seven total). The New Zealand diplodactylid radiation split from its Australian relatives 40.2mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 28.9-53.5), after the opening of the Tasman Sea. Their distribution cannot, therefore, be regarded as derived as a result of Gondwanana vicariance. The age of the New Zealand crown group, 24.4mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 15.5-33.8), encompasses the period of the 'Oligocene drowning' of New Zealand and is consistent with the hypothesis that New Zealand was not completely inundated during this period. Major lineages within New Zealand geckos diverged chiefly during the mid- to late Miocene, probably in association with a suite of geological and climatological factors that have characterized the region

  6. Fiber-type composition in the perivertebral musculature of lizards: Implications for the evolution of the diapsid trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Sabine; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-03-01

    The perivertebral musculature of lizards is critical for the stabilization and the mobilization of the trunk during locomotion. Some trunk muscles are also involved in ventilation. This dual function of trunk muscles in locomotion and ventilation leads to a biomechanical conflict in many lizards and constrains their ability to breathe while running ("axial constraint") which likely is reflected by their high anaerobic scope. Furthermore, different foraging and predator-escape strategies were shown to correlate with the metabolic profile of locomotor muscles in lizards. Because knowledge of muscle's fiber-type composition may help to reveal a muscle's functional properties, we investigated the distribution pattern of muscle fiber types in the perivertebral musculature in two small lizard species with a generalized body shape and subjected to the axial constraint (Dipsosaurus dorsalis, Acanthodactylus maculatus) and one species that circumvents the axial constraint by means of gular pumping (Varanus exanthematicus). Additionally, these species differ in their predator-escape and foraging behaviors. Using refined enzyme-histochemical protocols, muscle fiber types were differentiated in serial cross-sections through the trunk, maintaining the anatomical relationships between the skeleton and the musculature. The fiber composition in Dipsosaurus and Acanthodactylus showed a highly glycolytic profile, consistent with their intermittent locomotor style and reliance on anaerobic metabolism during activity. Because early representatives of diapsids resemble these two species in several postcranial characters, we suggest that this glycolytic profile represents the plesiomorphic condition for diapsids. In Varanus, we found a high proportion of oxidative fibers in all muscles, which is in accordance with its high aerobic scope and capability of sustained locomotion. PMID:23115131

  7. Vector control in some countries of Southeast Asia: comparing the vectors and the strategies.

    PubMed

    Meek, S R

    1995-04-01

    The use of information on malaria vector behaviour in vector control is discussed in relation to the area of Southeast Asia comprising Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The major vectors in the region are Anopheles dirus, An. minimus, An. maculatus and An. sundaicus, of which An. dirus is the most important. Options for vector control and the biological features of mosquitoes, which would make them amenable to control by these measures, are listed. The methods with the greatest potential for controlling each of the four vector species are described. Experiences of vector control by residual spraying, insecticide-treated nets and larva control and of personal protection against the four vectors are outlined, and it is noted that choice of control strategy is often determined by epidemiological, economic and political considerations, whilst entomological observations may help to explain failures of control and to indicate alternative strategies. Future research needs include basic entomological field studies using the most appropriate indicators to detect changes related to rapidly changing environmental conditions, such as loss of forest and climate change. Further studies of the efficacy of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, with greater attention to study design, are needed before it can be assumed that they will work in Southeast Asia. At the same time, research to improve sustainable utilization of nets is important, bearing in mind that nets are not the only means to control malaria and should not drain resources from supervision and training, which improve access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria and other diseases. Research is needed to make decisions on whether vector control is appropriate in different environments, and, if so, how to carry it out in different health systems. Researchers need to play a greater role in making operational research (entomological, epidemiological, social, economic and health systems research) of good quality

  8. Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale

  9. Sperm cryopreservation of a live-bearing fish, Xiphophorus couchianus: Male-to-male variation in post-thaw motility and production of F1 hybrid offspring☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiping; Hazlewood, Leona; Walter, Ronald B.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2015-01-01

    Fishes of the genus Xiphophorus are well-studied biomedical research models, and some species, such as X. couchianus, are currently listed as endangered in the wild. Sperm cryopreservation in these live-bearing fishes has begun recently. Thus far, live young have been produced with cryopreserved sperm only in one species (Xiphophorus helleri). In this study, the goal was to develop a practical protocol for sperm cryopreservation of Xiphophorus couchianus, and to produce live young with cryopreserved sperm. Sperm were collected by crushing of testis in Hanks’ balanced salt solution at an osmolality of 500 mOsmol/kg (HBSS500), and were cryopreserved with 14% glycerol (v/v) as cryoprotectant at a cooling rate of 20 °C/min from 5 to −80 °C in 250-μL French straws. For artificial insemination, samples were thawed at 40 °C for 5 s in a water bath, washed once using fresh HBSS500 by centrifuging at 1000 g for 5 min at 4 °C, concentrated into ~5 μL, and injected into virgin females of Xiphophorus maculatus. The inseminated females were monitored for 90 days for subsequent discharge of live young. Results from 2006 and 2007 showed considerable male-to-male variation in post-thaw motility (from 1 to 70%). Offspring were produced by cryopreserved sperm in two tanks (of three) at 36 and 66 days after insemination in 2007. Paternity was confirmed via phenotypes (body color) and genotypes (microsatellite genetic marker) of the hybrid offspring. Overall, a practical protocol for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination is provided to preserve X. couchianus, which is an important biomedical research model, and also currently listed as an endangered species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. PMID:19027087

  10. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed onPercina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, orGambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  11. Planning Marine Reserve Networks for Both Feature Representation and Demographic Persistence Using Connectivity Patterns.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Williamson, David H; Weeks, Rebecca; Jones, Geoff P; Almany, Glenn R; Harrison, Hugo B; Hopf, Jess K; Pressey, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only recently become available. However, systematic conservation planning methods currently incorporate demographic processes through unsatisfactory surrogates. There are therefore two key challenges to designing marine reserve networks that achieve feature representation and demographic persistence constraints. First, constructing a method that efficiently incorporates persistence as well as complementary feature representation. Second, incorporating persistence using a mechanistic description of population viability, rather than a proxy such as size or distance. Here we construct a novel systematic conservation planning method that addresses both challenges, and parameterise it to design a hypothetical marine reserve network for fringing coral reefs in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. For this application, we describe how demographic persistence goals can be constructed for an important reef fish species in the region, the bar-cheeked trout (Plectropomus maculatus). We compare reserve networks that are optimally designed for either feature representation or demographic persistence, with a reserve network that achieves both goals simultaneously. As well as being practically applicable, our analyses also provide general insights into marine reserve planning for both representation and demographic persistence. First, persistence constraints for dispersive organisms are likely to be much harder to achieve than representation targets, due to their greater complexity. Second, persistence and representation constraints pull the reserve network design process in divergent directions, making it difficult to

  12. Insects breeding in pig carrion in two environments of a rural area of the state of minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, L S; Paseto, M L; Franco, F T; Perdigão, V C; Capel, G; Mendes, J

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify potential forensic indicators in the insect fauna associated with pig carrion and the pattern of insect succession during the decomposition process in two environments of a rural area in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study was conducted at two locations: in a pasture and in a fragment of a semi-deciduous forest (vegetation profile of the Cerrado biome) in two different seasons (rainy and dry) of 2010. The decomposition process was more rapid in the rainy season. More than 32,000 insects belonging to 17 species of 6 families of Diptera and 2 species of Coleoptera bred in the carcasses. The majority of Diptera bred in the first three stages of decomposition. However, Phoridae and Coleoptera bred mainly in the last two stages. The insects bred more abundantly in the pasture and in the humid season. The exceptions were the Fanniidae (Diptera), which bred more abundantly in the forest and the Dermestidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera), which did not demonstrate any preference in terms of environments and were more abundant in the dry season, respectively. Species such as Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Peckia (Patonella) intermutans (Walker), Necrobia rufipes (De Geer), and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) may be potential indicators of post-mortem interval. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius) and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) may be indicators of localization of the natural environment, while Musca domestica Linnaeus may be an indicator of the anthropic environment. The study thus presented many species of potential forensic indicators in rural areas of this region. PMID:23949758

  13. Insecticidal and vertebrate toxicity associated with ethnobotanicals used as post-harvest protectants in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Belmain, S R; Neal, G E; Ray, D E; Golob, P

    2001-03-01

    Six plant species (Cassia sophera, Chamaecrista nigricans, Mitragyna inermis, Ocimum americanum, Securidaca longepedunculata and Synedrella nodiflora) traditionally used in Ghana to control insect pests of stored grain and legumes were screened in the laboratory at three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 5%, w/w) against four common storage pests (Rhyzopertha dominica, Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus). All the plants showed some ability to control all or some of the test insect species. Levels of efficacy varied according to test concentration with the highest concentration tested providing the best control. The S. longepedunculata plant induced the highest percent mortality and was the best at reducing emergence of the F(1) generation. The six plants were also incorporated into standard rat diet at two concentrations (1 and 5%, w/w) and fed to rats over a 6-week period to assess potential deleterious effects against vertebrates. None of the plants demonstrated any neurotoxicological or neurobehavioural effects to the rats over the course of the trial. However, S. longepedunculata and C. nigricans caused a significant reduction in rat growth rate when incorporated at 5% in the diet, induced cell hyperplasia in the liver, and reduced the mean weight of the liver and kidneys, compared to the control group of rats. Kidney pathology was affected only by the 5% concentration of S. longepedunculata which caused a reduced accumulation of alpha2mu-globulin. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of farmer usage of insecticidal plants for stored product protection. PMID:11278061

  14. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  15. Comparison of life history and genetic properties of cowpea bruchid strains and their response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Fox, Charles W; Johnston, J Spencer; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-04-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) is the most important storage pest of grain legumes and comprises geographically distinct strains. Storage under a modified atmosphere with decreased O2 content represents an alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control of stored grains. In this study, we compared reproduction, development and survival, as well as genome size of bruchid strains from South India (SI), Burkina Faso (BF), Niger (CmNnC) and the United States (OH), reared on mung bean (Vigna radiata). Fecundity and egg-to-adult duration varied significantly among these strains. Notably, strain BF had the highest fecundity, and strain SI displayed the fastest development whereas strain OH was the slowest. Differences in adult lifespan among strains were only detected in unmated but not in the mated group. Genome size of SI females was significantly larger than that of OH females, and for all four strains, the female genomes were larger than those of their corresponding males. Furthermore, we studied effects of exposure to 1% O2+99% N2 on strains SI and BF. Mortality caused by hypoxia was influenced by not only developmental stage but also by insect strain. Eggs were most sensitive, particularly at the early stage, whereas the 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most tolerant and could survive up to 15 days of low O2. Strain SI was slightly more resistant than BF in egg and larval stages. Proteolytic activity prior to, during and after hypoxia treatment revealed remarkable metabolic plasticity of cowpea bruchids in response to modified atmosphere. PMID:25733404

  16. Evolutionary relationships among proteins in the phytohemagglutinin-arcelin-alpha-amylase inhibitor family of the common bean and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Mirkov, T E; Wahlstrom, J M; Hagiwara, K; Finardi-Filho, F; Kjemtrup, S; Chrispeels, M J

    1994-11-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a family of defense proteins that comprises phytohemagglutinin (PHA), arcelin, and alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI). Here we report eight new derived amino acid sequences of genes in this family obtained with either the polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA, or by screening cDNA libraries made with RNA from developing beans. These new sequences are: two alpha AI sequences and arcelin-4 obtained from a wild accession of P. vulgaris that is resistant to the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus) and the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus); an alpha AI sequence from the related species P. acutifolius (tepary bean); a PHA and an arcelin-like sequence from P. acutifolius; an alpha AI-like sequence from P. maculatus; and a PHA sequence from an arcelin-5 type P. vulgaris. A dendrogram of 16 sequences shows that they fall into the three identified groups: phytohemagglutinins, arcelins and alpha AIs. A comparison of these derived amino acid sequences indicates that one of the four amino acid residues that is conserved in all legume lectins and is required for carbohydrate binding is absent from all the arcelins; two of the four conserved residues needed for carbohydrate binding are missing from all the alpha AIs. Proteolytic processing at an Asn-Ser site is required for the activation of alpha AI, and this site is present in all alpha AI-like sequences; this processing site is also found at the same position in certain arcelins, which are not proteolytically processed. The presence of this site is therefore not sufficient for processing to occur. PMID:7811969

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of the avian genus Pipilo and a biogeographic argument for taxonomic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zink, R M; Weller, S J; Blackwell, R C

    1998-10-01

    We sequenced 1709 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA including parts of cytochrome b, ND 2, and the control region (CR I, II) for seven members of the avian genus Pipilo (towhees), Melozone kieneri (rusty-crowned ground-sparrow), and Arremonops rufivirgatus (olive sparrow). A total of 457 bp was variable and 257 bp were potentially phylogenetically informative. All gene regions were similarly variable (20.2 to 28.4%) except for CR II (38.4%); third position transitions were as common as substitutions in the CR. Tree topology was sensitive to choice of outgroup(s) and individual sequences used as exemplars. Six trees were considered viable phylogenetic hypotheses based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. These trees generally supported two groups of towhees (rufous-sided group, brown towhee group), a sister taxon relationship for P. aberti and P. crissalis, and a sister taxon relationship for P. ocai and P. maculatus. The occurrence of M. kiernei within Pipilo in three trees challenges the monophyly of the latter; the other species of Melozone and other outgroups require study to resolve Pipilo monophyly. The relationships of P. albicollis and P. fuscus were ambiguous, as they were with previous data sets (allozymes, mtDNA restriction sites); they could be sister species or either one could be the basal species in the brown towhee group. We suggest that this taxonomic uncertainty obtains from the contemporaneous origin of P. fuscus, P. albicollis, and the ancestor of P. aberti/P. crissalis. We favor a "star" phylogeny because species in unrelated lineages found in the same region as P. albicollis are similarly difficult to resolve phylogenetically. Synapomorphies from coding genes and the CR did not preferentially support basal and terminal nodes, and hence did not provide different windows of taxonomic resolution, which might be expected from the apparent rapid rate of CR evolution. Phylogenetic trees inferred from allozymes, restriction sites

  18. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  19. Diversity and distribution of fishes in tropical estuary Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jalal, K C A; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Arshad, A; Ara, R; Rahman, M F

    2012-06-15

    A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the

  20. Reproductive Capacities and Development of a Seed Bruchid Beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a Potential Host for the Mass Rearing of the Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis

    PubMed Central

    TQ, Effowe; K, Amevoin; Y, Nuto; D, Mondedji; IA, Glitho

    2010-01-01

    study are close to those of Callobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), the natural host of D. basalts in a previous study. A. macrophthalmus could therefore be used as substitute host for the mass rearing of D. basalts and subsequently its release in farmers' storage containers. The data presented in this study provide some baseline information regarding the reproductive capacities of A. macrophthalmus that may be useful for its promotion as a substitute host for mass rearing of D. basalts. PMID:20879923

  1. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Meyer, Christopher P; Mills, Suzanne C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators' diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  2. Monogenean community structure on the gills of Pimelodus albicans from Río de la Plata (Argentina): a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, P A

    2001-04-01

    The community structure of monogeneans on the gills of a catfish Pimelodus albicans, in the Río de la Plata, was studied and compared with previous findings on P. maulatus. Six Monogenea species belonging to 3 genera were found: Demidospermus majusculus Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998; Demidospermus armostus Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998; Demidospermus idolus Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998; Demidospermus bidiverticulatum (Suriano & Incorvaia, 1995) Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998; Scleroductus yuncensi Jara & Cone, 1989; and Unibarra paranoplatensis Suriano & Incorvaia, 1995. The relationships between selected host and helminth variables; the interactions between the worms and the patterns obtained from the species abundance were analysed employing appropriate statistical methodology. The results obtained revealed the following common patterns within the monogenean communities of P. maculatus and P. albicans: (a) most monogenean species belonged to the genus Demidospermus; (b) S. yuncensi was a secondary species in both communities; (c) 1 of the 3 species common to both hosts was a core species (D. bidiverticulatum); (d) the selected variables of both hosts (weight and length) were not related to the number of monogeneans or species richness; (e) the dominant species in both communities showed the highest proportion of monogeneans in more than 40% of the infracommunities; (f) in both communities the dominant species accounted for 40-80% of the total number of monogeneans at component community level; (g) the number of worms correlates positively with the species richness; (h) few cases of interaction among species were found; (i) a high degree of order exists among the infracommunities compared. Finally, the proportion of common species and the phylogenetic and ecological resemblances between the hosts, P. maceulatus and P. albicans support a hypothesis of co-speciation among monogeneans and pimelodids in Río de la Plata. It seems improbable that these parasite communities are

  3. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher P.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  4. Diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong Provinces of Vietnam and their relation to disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly

  5. Epibenthic assemblages in the Celtic Sea and associated with the Jones Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Martinez, I.; Burt, G. J.; Scott, B. E.

    2013-10-01

    The epibenthic assemblages in the Celtic Sea are described from the catches from 2 m beam trawl surveys undertaken from 2000 to 2009. During this period 154 samples were collected. The most ubiquitous species in the study area were the natantid shrimps Processa spp. and Crangon allmanni, the hermit crabs Pagurus prideaux and Anapagurus laevis, sand star Astropecten irregularis and spotted dragonet Callionymus maculatus. Multivariate community analyses indicated that catches (numbers per tow) were distributed across six assemblages, two of which were predominant in the study area. Most catches were attributed to either a 'shelf edge assemblage', which was widespread in deeper waters (114-423 m water depth) or an 'outer shelf assemblage' that occurred across much of the Celtic Sea north of 49°N in waters 49-175 m deep. The dominant species along the edge of the continental shelf were the hormathid anemome Actinauge richardi, sea spider Pycnogonum littorale (which associated with A. richardi), Devonshire cup coral Caryophyllia smithii and the swimming crab Macropipus tuberculatus. The dominant species in the outer shelf assemblage included P. prideaux, C. allmanni, A. laevis and common starfish Asterias rubens. Stations closer to shore were relatively distinct and catches in this 'inner shelf assemblage' were composed primarily of an inshore fauna (e.g. Ophiura ophiura, C. allmanni and Liocarcinus holsatus). Stations in the southern part of the survey grid were also relatively distinct ('southern Celtic Sea assemblage'), and several large echinoderms (Porania pulvillus, Stichastrella rosea and Anseropoda placenta) dominated at these sites. Three of the deepest stations were also relatively distinct, as were a group of stations in the muddy habitat of the Celtic Deep and comparable grounds elsewhere in the region, where Nucula sulcata and Alpheus glaber were characteristic. Catches on the shallower parts of the Jones Bank (and on another bank in the region) were

  6. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an “accommodating” type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that ‘steer’ the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be

  7. Two new and two redescribed species of Anonchotaenia (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from South American birds.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Georgiev, Boyko B; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Mariaux, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Morphological examination of novel specimens of paruterinid cestodes from passerine birds from Brazil and Chile and of museum specimens from Paraguay revealed two new species: Anonchotaenia prolixa sp. n. from Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr from Chile, and Anonchotaenia vaslata sp. n. from Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot) (type host) and Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller) from Paraguay. The generic diagnosis of Anonchotaenia Conn, 1900 is amended, prompted by the presence of the armed cirrus and the elongated cirrus sac of A. prolixa. Two species were redescribed: Anonchotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot) and Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot) (new host records) from Brazil, and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus) and Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus) from Paraguay (new host and geographic records); and Anonchotaenia macrocephala Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot) (new host record) from Brazil, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis) from Chile (new host and geographic record) and Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot) from Paraguay (new host and geographic record). Scanning electron microscopy of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala revealed less microthrix variation than has been reported for other cyclophyllidean taxa. Sequence data were generated for nuclear ssr- and lsr-DNA and mitochondrial rrnL and cox1 for A. prolixa, A. brasiliensis, and A. macrocephala. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses supported each species as distinct, but revealed cryptic diversity among A. brasiliensis specimens from different host families. New host records of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala prompted a formal assessment of host specificity. Anonchotaenia prolixa was found to be oioxenous (HS(S) = 0), A. vaslata and A. macrocephala were found to be metastenoxenous (HS(S) = 3.000 and 3.302, respectively), whereas A. brasiliensis was found to be euryxenous (HS(S) = 5.876). Anonchotaenia brasiliensis has been found parasitising

  8. CRITICAL ILLUMINATION AND FLICKER FREQUENCY IN RELATED FISHES.

    PubMed

    Crozier, W J; Wolf, E; Zerrahn-Wolf, G

    1937-09-20

    Flicker response curves have been obtained at 21.5 degrees C. for three genera of fresh water teleosts: Enneacanthus (sunfish), Xiphophorus (swordtail), Platypoecilius (Platy), by the determination of mean critical intensities for response at fixed flicker frequencies, and for a certain homogeneous group of backcross hybrids of swordtail x Platy (Black Helleri). The curves exhibit marked differences in form and proportions. The same type of analysis is applicable to each, however. A low intensity rod-governed section has added to it a more extensive cone portion. Each part is accurately described by the equation F = F(max.)/(1 + e(-p log(-p logI/I(i) ) )), where F = flicker frequency, I = associated mean critical intensity, and I(i) is the intensity at the inflection point of the sigmoid curve relating F to log I. There is no correlation between quantitative features of the rod and cone portions. Threshold intensities, p, I(i), and F(max.) are separately and independently determined. The hybrid Black Helleri show quantitative agreement with the Xiphophorus parental stock in the values of p for rods and cones, and in the cone F(max.); the rod F(max.) is very similar to that for the Platy stock; the general level of effective intensities is rather like that of the Platy form. This provides, among other things, a new kind of support for the duplicity doctrine. Various races of Platypoecilius maculatus, and P. variatus, give closely agreeing values of I(m) at different flicker frequencies; and two species of sunfish also agree. The effect of cross-breeding is thus not a superficial thing. It indicates the possibility of further genetic investigation. The variability of the critical intensity for response to flicker follows the rules previously found to hold for other forms. The variation is the expression of a property of the tested organism. It is shown that, on the assumption of a frequency distribution of receptor element thresholds as a function of log I, with

  9. Expression of genes related to the human erbB, erbA, pdgf and pdgf-r in tumors of different etiology in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Zechel, C; Peters, H; Schleenbecker, U; Anders, F

    1992-08-19

    The melanoma determining Tu locus of the teleost Xiphophorus contains an accessory gene, x-erbB*a, which is closely related to the EGF receptor gene family, and is probably oncogenic. x-erbB*a exists in allelic forms that are specific for distinct Tu-loci, and shows high homology to a non-allelic non-oncogenic counterpart x-erbB*i which is transcribed into mRNA of 4.6 kb in non-tumorous and tumorous tissues of fish harboring and lacking Tu. Expression of a 4.0-kb mRNA in tumors (melanoma and fibrosarcoma) of different etiology is strictly correlated with the inheritance of X. maculatus x-erbB*a alleles; transcripts of 8.0 kb were detected in melanoma and carcinoma of fish harboring a certain x-erbB*a of X. variatus. The expression of the putative x-erbB*a transcripts parallels the stage of malignancy of the tumor. The expression of the xiphophorine EGF receptor gene (x-erbB) was detected in almost all tumors, is strongly enhanced in carcinoma, and is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy of melanoma and fibrosarcoma. Some tumors show expression of erbA-related genes. The PDGF receptor mRNA is expressed in all tumors analyzed and shows enhanced expression in malignant tumors of neurogenic, epithelial and mesenchymal origin. Expression of x-pdgf was observed in several cases of melanoma, but more frequently in carcinoma and fibrosarcoma. We conclude that x-erbB*a might be involved in initiation of tumors of different cellular origin and etiology in fish harboring Tu, as well as in the determination of the malignancy of the tumor. Furthermore, we assume that x-erbB*i, x-erbB, x-pdgf and x-pdgf-r play a role in secondary events in tumorigenesis by, e.g., conferring a selective growth advantage to the tumor cells. PMID:1323541

  10. CRITICAL ILLUMINATION AND FLICKER FREQUENCY IN RELATED FISHES

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, W. J.; Wolf, E.; Zerrahn-Wolf, Gertrud

    1937-01-01

    Flicker response curves have been obtained at 21.5°C. for three genera of fresh water teleosts: Enneacanthus (sunfish), Xiphophorus (swordtail), Platypoecilius (Platy), by the determination of mean critical intensities for response at fixed flicker frequencies, and for a certain homogeneous group of backcross hybrids of swordtail x Platy (Black Helleri). The curves exhibit marked differences in form and proportions. The same type of analysis is applicable to each, however. A low intensity rod-governed section has added to it a more extensive cone portion. Each part is accurately described by the equation F = Fmax./(1 + e-p log-p logI/Ii), where F = flicker frequency, I = associated mean critical intensity, and Ii is the intensity at the inflection point of the sigmoid curve relating F to log I. There is no correlation between quantitative features of the rod and cone portions. Threshold intensities, p, Ii, and Fmax. are separately and independently determined. The hybrid Black Helleri show quantitative agreement with the Xiphophorus parental stock in the values of p for rods and cones, and in the cone Fmax.; the rod Fmax. is very similar to that for the Platy stock; the general level of effective intensities is rather like that of the Platy form. This provides, among other things, a new kind of support for the duplicity doctrine. Various races of Platypoecilius maculatus, and P. variatus, give closely agreeing values of Im at different flicker frequencies; and two species of sunfish also agree. The effect of cross-breeding is thus not a superficial thing. It indicates the possibility of further genetic investigation. The variability of the critical intensity for response to flicker follows the rules previously found to hold for other forms. The variation is the expression of a property of the tested organism. It is shown that, on the assumption of a frequency distribution of receptor element thresholds as a function of log I, with fluctuation in the excitabilities

  11. Settlement, abundance, growth and mortality of juvenile flatfish in a subtropical tidal estuary (Georgia, U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Marcel J. M.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    The population dynamics of juveniles of some flatfish species were studied in the Duplin River, a tidal creek in a subtropical salt-marsh area in Georgia, U.S.A. from April until September 1990. Seven species were found. Paralichthys dentatus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Paralichthys oblongus and Trinectus maculatus were relatively rare. Etropus crossotus, Citharichthys spilopterus and Symphurus plagiusa were abundant and settled during the period studied. E. crossotus was the most abundant species with a mean abundance of 18 ind·10 -2 m -2 (max. 287). Demersal settlement of E. crossotus took place in shallow areas and over sandy bottoms from mid-May to August. Prolonged settlement hampered the calculation of growth rate and instantaneous mortality rate. However, laboratory growth experiments indicated a mean growth of about 0.50 mm·d -1 at 24-28°C. Juveniles of C. spilopterus were already present in the Duplin River in March. Settling continued until the end of April with a mean abundance of 3.5 ind·10 -2 m -2 (max. 183). With increasing size the juveniles of this species tended to migrate to deeper waters and to the mouth of the river, possibly as a reaction to increasing water temperatures. Maximum growth rate was 1.4 mm·d -1 at about 26°C. The mean instantaneous mortality rate (z) was estimated at 0.03·d -1. Settling of S. plagiusa occurred from mid-May onwards. The mean abundance was 10.3 ind·10 -2 m -2 (max. 98.3). Newly settled juveniles were most abundant on muddy sediments in the shallow river areas. The maximum growth rate was 1.3 mm·d -1 at about 28°C. The mean instantaneous mortality rate (Z) decreased from 0.04·d -1 in April to 0.01·d -1 in August. At all sites the abundance of juveniles of this species decreased with increasing water depth. Predation experiments indicated that blue crabs ( Callinectes similis and C. sapidus) and sea robins ( Prionotus sp.) are potential predators on juvenile flatfish. The high abundances of juvenile flatfish

  12. [Ichthyofauna of karstic wetlands under anthropic impact: the "petenes" of Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, Ivette Liliana; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia; Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacobo; Palacio-Aponte, Gerardo; Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío

    2009-01-01

    "Petenes" are small springs and associated streams that drain into wetlands near the coast in karstic areas. We studied composition, distribution, and abundance of the ichthyofauna in Los Petenes region (northwest Campeche). Two petenes displaying different degrees and types of anthropic impact were selected, Hampolol and El Remate. Hampolol has a smaller area but a longer derived stream; it is located within a protected area, but has been invaded by tilapia. El Remate is a popular spa, with no tilapia; it has a larger area but a shorter derived stream. At each "petén", several sites in the main spring, the associated stream, and secondary (temporary) springs were sampled in the rainy and dry seasons. Fishing gear was variable (throw net, gill net, small and large seine nets), but effort was uniform. We recorded temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and depth at each site and season; also, we noted the different types and intensities of anthropic impact (channelization, presence of exotic species, recreational use, etc.) at each petén. We compared the petenes in terms of their environmental quality and fish fauna (composition, distribution, abundance, biomass); we also tested for effects of season and site within each petén. The study found 27 species of fishes, included in 18 genera and eight families, 24 species in Hampolol and 20 in El Remate. The geographical range of 'Cichlasoma' salvini, Rivulus tenuis, Phallichthys fairweatheri, Xiphophorus hellerii, and X maculatus is extended. The dominant species in both seasons was Astyanax (probable hybrids A. aeneus x altior at Hampolol, pure A. altior at El Remate), which contributed most of the abundance and biomass, together with Vieja synspila and Poecilia velifera. A significantly greater overall diversity (H'n=3.31) was recorded in Hampolol compared to El Remate (H'n=2.10). Cluster analysis of sites by species presence allowed distinction of two groupings within each petén: permanent waters (i.e., main

  13. TEMPERATURE AND CRITICAL ILLUMINATION FOR REACTION TO FLICKERING LIGHT : V. XIPHOPHORUS, PLATYPOECILIUS, AND THEIR HYBRIDS.

    PubMed

    Crozier, W J; Wolf, E

    1939-11-20

    For the teleosts Xiphophorus montezuma, Platypoecilius maculatus, and their F(1) hybrids the temperature characteristics (micro in Arrhenius' equation) are the same for the shift of the low intensity and the high intensity segments of the respective and different flicker response contours (critical intensity I as a function of flash frequency F, with light time fraction constant, at 50 per cent). The value of micro is 12,500 calories or a very little less, over the range 12.5 to 36 degrees . This shows that 1/I can be understood as a measure of excitability, with F fixed, and that the excitability is governed by the velocity of a chemical process common to both the classes of elements represented in the duplex performance curve (rods and cones). It is accordingly illegitimate to assume that the different shapes of the rod and cone branches of the curves are determined by differences in the chemical mechanisms of excitability. It is also forbidden to assume that the differing form constants for the homologous segments in the curves for two forms (X. and P.) are the reflections of a difference in the chemical factors of primary excitability. These differences are determined by statistical factors of the distribution of excitabilities among the elements implicated in the sensory effect vs. intensity function, and are independent of temperature and of the temperature characteristic. It must be concluded that the physicochemical nature of the excitatory process cannot be deduced from the shape of the performance contour. The form constants (sigma'(log I) and F(max.)) for F vs. log I are specifically heritable in F(1), although micro is here the same as for X. and P. In an intergeneric cross one cannot in general expect Mendelian simplicity of segregation in subsequent generations, and in the present case we find that F(2) individuals are indistinguishable from F(1), both as regards F vs. log I and as regards the variation of I within a group of 17 individuals. The

  14. Responses in bird communities to wildland fires in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendelsohn, Mark B.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Stokes, Drew C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    [Psaltriparus minimus]). We detected mixed results for the spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus), which increased in burned chaparral and declined in burned coastal sage scrub within the low-elevation site. We suggest that the observed responses of birds to these fires may be attributed to: (1) the availability of nearby unburned refugia, (2) the continued suitability of post-fire vegetation at the study sites, and (3) the generally high mobility of this taxon.

  15. Behavioral, molecular and integrative mechanisms of amphibian osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, S D

    1999-06-01

    Amphibian water balance has been studied at many levels of biological order. Terrestrial species must react to environmental cues that relate to water availability while some arboreal species have cutaneous skin secretions that can reduce evaporative water loss. The Indian tree frog. Polypedates maculatus, uses cutaneous secretions and wiping behavior to lower evaporation but also relies on moist microclimates to endure prolonged survival away from water. The related species, P. leucomystax, inhabits wetter forest habitats. Preliminary studies with this species are unable to demonstrate the expression of wiping behavior, indicating that arid habitats may be a powerful selective force for this behavior. Laboratory experiments on rehydrating toads in the genus Bufo indicate that animals are able to detect changes in barometric pressure and humidity that might result in the availability of water under field situations. Experiments with Bufonid species and with spadefoot toads, Scaphiopus couchi, show that the peptide hormone, angiotensin II, stimulates cutaneous drinking in a similar manner seen for oral drinking by other vertebrate classes. Amphibian tissues have long been used as a model for the study of basic physiological principles of epithelial ion and water transport. Recent progress with tissue cultures has provided information on the molecular structure of ion and water channels that can be applied to obtain a better understanding, at the molecular level, of ion and water balance strategies used by the wide variety of amphibian species. Terrestrial amphibians are more tolerant of dehydration than are other vertebrates and are able to store dilute urine in their urinary bladder. Toads appear to be able to detect the presence of water in their bladders in addition to the availability of water in their environment. Dehydrated toads are able to rehydrate very rapidly by the coordination of behavioral and physiological mechanisms to enhance cutaneous water

  16. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The calculated values of life time

  17. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler; Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus

  18. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler;  Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n