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1

Madagascar.  

PubMed

Madagascar, in the Indian Ocean near Mozambique, is officially known as the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. This republic has 3 branches of government and includes 6 provinces or subdivisions. Since 1981, it has received more than $62 million in grants and concessional sales from the US. There have been other types of assistance as well, including a development assistance program begun in 1985. Its population is largely of mixed Asian and African origin. There exists an historic rivalry between the Catholic coastal people, Cotiers, and the Protestant Merina, who predominate in civil service, business, and the professions. To combat this, the government has set one of its goals to be the highlighting of nationalism. The beginning of Madagascar's written history can be traced to when the Arabs established trading posts along the coastal areas. Eventually, Madagascar moved toward independence from the French and became an autonomous state in 1958. The president is elected for a 7-year term and is the head, during that time, of the Supreme Revolutionary Council. There is a 3-tiered court system, including a lower court for civil and criminal cases, a criminal court for more serious crimes, and a supreme court. The government represents a strong socialist philosophy and outright criticism of the President and his government is not tolerated. The economy of Malagasy is dominated by agriculture, which employs about 85% of the population. Although it faces some serious problems in the areas of foreign exchange and imports/exports, Madagascar is a potentially prosperous country. It boasts diversified agricultural production, it is rich in minerals, and it maintains strong commercial ties to the West. Madagascar's major trading partners are France, the US, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Soviet Union, Qatar, and Japan. Madagascar maintains the Popular Armed Forces for its defense; however, there is a heavy reliance on the Soviet Union for military equipment and training. US-Malagasy relations have been warm for most of its history until 1971 when the US ambassador and 5 members of his staff were expelled. In 1980, a new ambassador arrived and in 1981, 2 Food for Peace rice agreements were concluded. In 1986, Madagascar became the 1st African country to be the recipient of assistance under the program Food for Progress, given to nations which have undertaken successful economic reform. PMID:12177963

1987-08-01

2

Madagascar 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will follow the directions of your teacher as you move through these different maps. Here is a link to the explanation of the project for teachers: Madagascar explanation You should have two copies of this map: Blank madagascar map to complete the exercise. Here's how you add a document from MyUEN to your IA project: Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Watch this movie about Madagascar. Think about where on this ...

Olsen, Mr.

2010-02-23

3

Madagascar 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will follow the directions of your teacher as you move through these different maps. Here is a link to the explanation of the project for teachers: Madagascar Explanation 1 You should have two copies of this map: Blank madagascar map to complete the exercise. Here's how you add a document from MyUEN to your IA project: Using UEN to link to a document from the IA Watch this movie about Madagascar. Think about where on this ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-02-17

4

Deforestation, Madagascar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This high oblique view shows the majority of the island of Madagascar (22.0S, 45.5E). This Texas sized island is now largely deforested and is suffering from severe soil erosion as well as a declining biological species diversity and productivity. At the turn of the century, the island was almost totally forested but now, forests cover only about 10 percent of the surface. Evidence of soil erosion can be seen in the offshore sediment plumes.

1989-01-01

5

Deforestation, Madagascar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This high oblique view shows the majority of the island of Madagascar (19.0S, 47.5E). This Texas sized island is now largely deforested and is suffering from severe soil erosion as well as a declining biological species diversity and productivity. At the turn of the century, the island was almost totally forested but now, forests cover only about 10 percent of the surface. Evidence of soil erosion can be seen in the offshore sediment plumes.

1990-01-01

6

Conserving Madagascar's Freshwater Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about conserving freshwater diversity in Madagascar. The island nation of Madagascar, an international conservation priority, is now also recognized as a global hotspot for freshwater biodiversity. Three emerging characteristics of Madagascar's threatened freshwater biota deserve increased attention from the scientific and conservation communities. First, species richness is not low, as was once assumed for both the freshwater fishes and the invertebrates. Second, many species are restricted to a specific region or even to single river basins. Often these species are also limited to streams or rivers draining primary forest habitat. Finally, many of the island's freshwater fishes are basal taxa, having diverged earlier than any other extant members of their clade. As such, these taxa assume disproportional phylogenetic importance. In the face of ongoing environmental threats, links among microendemism, forest stream specialization, and basal phylogenetic position highlight the importance and vulnerability of these species and provide a powerful incentive for immediate conservation action.

JONATHAN P. BENSTEAD, PATRICK H. DE RHAM, JEAN-LUC GATTOLLIAT, FRANÃÂOIS-MARIE GIBON, PAUL V. LOISELLE, MICHEL SARTORI, JOHN S. SPARKS, and MELANIE L. J. STIASSNY (;)

2003-11-01

7

Madagascar Fauna Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Madagascar Fauna Group, an "international consortium of zoos and related organizations that pool their talents and resources to work together in one of the world's most endangered places." Readers will find loads of information about the island and its diverse assortment of animal species, many of which are "bizarrely beautiful" and found nowhere else. The site also offers a number of Web links for general information about Madagascar, educational sites about lemurs and other animals, and links geared towards kids.

8

The Madagascar rosewood massacre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuable timber has been exploited from Madagascar's rainforests for many decades, and Malagasy rosewood and palissandre (Dalbergia spp.) are among the most sought after hardwoods in the world. Large quantities have been harvested and exported at an increasing rate over the last decade, almost entirely from illegal logging in protected areas, in particular Masoala and Marojejy National Parks, which comprise

Derek Schuurman; Porter P. Lowry

9

Betsiboka River Valley, Madagascar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of rapid and unregulated deforestation, the eroded watershed of the Betsiboka River in NW Madagascar (16.0N, 46.5E) debouches into a large estuary, the Bay of Bombeteka. The immense sediment loads coming down the river have resulted in the silting of of the estuary since 1947 when the port facility of Majunga was moved from inland to the coast to prevent oceangoing ships from running aground.

1983-01-01

10

Onilahy River, Madagascar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near the southern tip of Madagascar, the Onilahy River (23.5S, 44E) drains a near barren landscape, the result of rapid deforestation for quick profits from the lumber industry with no regard to the environmental impact. At the turn of the century, the island was a lush tropical paradise with about 90 percent of the surface forested. Now, at the close of the century, only about 10 percent of the forests remain in inaccessible rugged terrain.

1982-01-01

11

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

12

Zooplankton of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

2014-05-01

13

Oceanography of East Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface fluorescence and dissolved oxygen showed non homogenous patterns.

Bemiasa, John

2014-05-01

14

Logistical teamwork tames Madagascar wildcats  

SciTech Connect

Amoco Production Company's exploration program in western Madagascar's Sakalaya coastal plain exemplifies the unique logistical challenges both operator and drilling contractor must undergo to reach the few remaining onshore frontier areas. Sakalava is characterized by deep rivers, flood prone tributaries, and a lone 40 km hard-surface road. Problems caused by a lack of port facilities and oil field services are complicated by thousands of square miles of unimproved wooded plains. Rainwater from the nearby mountains of central Madagascar frequently floods rivers in the Sakalava coastal plain leaving impassable marshes in their wake. Prior to this project, about 45 wells had been drilled in Madagascar. Most recently, state oil company Omnis contracted Bawden Drilling International Inc. to drill nine wells for its heavy oil project on the Tsimioro oil prospect. Bawden provided both logistical and drilling services for that program.

Twa, W.

1986-03-01

15

Resistances et initiatives a Madagascar (Resistance and Initiatives in Madagascar).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the cultural, political, and institutional barriers to population education in Madagascar and the strategies and initiatives that have been adopted to overcome them, including emphasizing the national character of a project, accommodating the values and ideals of the people involved, and assuring teachers of their classroom autonomy.…

Georges, Claude

1993-01-01

16

Relationships and traders in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the role that personal relationships play in economic exchange. Original survey data show that agricultural traders in Madagascar perceive relationships as the most important factor for success in their business. Evidence details the extent to which relationships are used to serve a variety of purposes such as: the circulation of information about prices and market conditions; the

Marcel Fafchamps; Bart Minten

1999-01-01

17

The culture history of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar's culture is a unique fusion of elements drawn from the western, northern, and eastern shores of the Indian Ocean, and its past has fascinated many scholars, yet systematic archaeological research is relatively recent on the island. The oldest traces of visitors are from the first century AD. Coastal settlements, with clear evidence of ties to the western Indian Ocean

Robert E. Dewar; Henry T. Wright

1993-01-01

18

Seizing an opportunity in Madagascar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Approximately 50 percent of plant and over 70 percent of vertebrate species are crammed into biodiversity "hotspots" that make up only 2.3 percent of Earth's land surface. Madagascar is one of these hotspots, and its government is planning to triple the amount of the protected land where the plants and animals can live without interference from humans.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-04-10

19

Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning in Madagascar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous tropospheric ozone and aerosols observed using the TOMS satellite instrument are reported for Madagascar during the 1979 through 1999 time period Ozone observations made using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective-cloud differential method show that the tropospheric ozone amount associated with Madagascar has an average monthly value of 30 DU (Dobson units). The average value is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Madagascar and parts of southern Africa. The aerosol index derived from TOMS is examined for correlation with biomass burning in Madagascar and southern Africa. There is good correlation between a satellite observation derived fire index for different parts of Madagascar, tropospheric ozone and the TOMS aerosol index in the same geographical area. Aerosols from fires were found to reach their peak in November and to persist over Madagascar until sometime in December.

Aikin, Arthur C.; Hoegy, Walter R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Thorpe, Arthur; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

20

Dipoles of the South East Madagascar Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite altimetry data covering 18 years together with hydrographic observations around south Madagascar show that after separation from the coast, the South East Madagascar Current (SEMC) propagates southwestward and breaks up into a regular series of symmetric counter-rotating vortex pairs. Most of them split and propagate into the Agulhas retroflection system. Interannual variability of the dipole formation is related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. In the observation period two "early" Agulhas retroflection events appeared both related to strong Madagascar dipoles. The symmetry of the dipoles may originate from the boundary current where negative vorticity on the inshore side is adjacent to positive vorticity further offshore.

Ridderinkhof, W.; Le Bars, D.; Heydt, A. S.; Ruijter, W. P. M.

2013-02-01

21

Country Commercial Guide: Madagascar, Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) offers a comprehensive look at Madagascar's commercial environment, using economic, political and market analyses. The CCG's were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a mul...

1999-01-01

22

Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning in Madagascar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simultaneous tropospheric ozone and aerosols observed using the TOMS satellite instrument are reported for Madagascar during the 1979 through 1999 time period Ozone observations made using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective-cloud differential method s...

A. C. Aikin W. R. Hoegy J. R. Ziemke A. Thorpe

2000-01-01

23

Madagascar basalts: tracking oceanic and continental sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive Upper Cretaceous volcanism in southern Madagascar was fed in part by mantle sources resembling those expressed today in the Indian Ocean at Marion and Prince Edward islands and on the central Southwest Indian Ridge. In addition, very low ?Nd(T) (to -17.4), high (87Sr\\/86Sr)T (to 0.72126) tholeiites in southwestern Madagascar were variably but highly contaminated by ancient continental material broadly

J. Mahoney; C. Nicollet; C. Dupuy

1991-01-01

24

Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data and cannot resolve the difference between eastern and western Madagascar. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the eastern part of the study area, where there is some so-far poorly characterised seismicity. We will present preliminary results on the lithospheric crust and mantle structure based on surface wave dispersion and waveform modelling, focussing on the contrast between the metamorphic areas in the east and the presumably stretched regions in the west. Station distribution Red diamonds: Temporary Broadband Light red squares: Short period Green: permanent stations Other temporary experiments: Open dark blue boxes: RHUM-RUM stations Open light blue boxes: MACOMO stations

Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Rumpker, G.; Heit, B.; Rambolamana, G.; Rindraharisaona, E.; Priestley, K. F.

2013-12-01

25

MADAGASCAR'S BIOGEOGRAPELICALLY MOST INFORMATIVE LAND SNAIL TAXA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar's known native land-snail fauna is currently classified into 540 species (97% endemic) in 68 genera (29% endemic) in 25 families (0% endemic). Recent survey work throughout the island may as much as double this number of species and should provide, for the first time, adequate material and distributional data for robust cladistic and biogeographic analyses. Preliminary analysis of existing

Kenneth C. EMBERTON; Max F. RAKOTOMALALA

1996-01-01

26

Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents comparative qualitative and quantitative evidence from rural Kenya and Madagascar in an attempt to untangle the causality behind persistent poverty. We find striking differences in welfare dynamics depending on whether one uses total income, including stochastic terms and inevitable measurement error, or the predictable, structural component of income based on a household's asset holdings. Our results suggest

Christopher B. Barrett; Paswel Phiri Marenya; John Mcpeak; Bart Minten; Festus Murithi; Willis Oluoch-Kosura; Jean Claude Randrianarisoa; Jhon Rasambainarivo; Justine Wangila

2006-01-01

27

New Primates Discovered in Madagascar and Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nine lemur and two marmoset species native to the forests of Madagascar and Brazil, and new to (Western) science, were described earlier this month. Despite the excitement associated with this discovery, the forest habitats of most of these species appear to be already at risk from development pressures. This news brief from Environment News Service gives an overview of the discovery.

Lazaroff, Cat

2001-01-01

28

Late Quaternary stratigraphic charcoal records from Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic view regarding the cause of the extinction of at least 17 species of large mammals, birds, and reptiles in Madagascar during the late Holocene implicates human use of fire to modify the environment. However, analysis of the charcoal stratigraphy of three sediment cores from Madagascar shows that late Pleistocene and early- to mid-Holocene sediments deposited prior to human settlement often contain more charcoal than postsettlement and modern sediments. This observation, which is confirmed by independent measurements from direct assay and palynological counting techniques, suggests that widely held but previously untested beliefs concerning the importance of anthropogenic fires in late Holocene environmental changes and megafaunal extinctions of Madagascar may be based on an overly simplified version of actual prehistoric conditions. Moderate to low charcoal values characterized only the late Holocene millennia immediately prior to the presumed time of arrival of the first settlers. Human settlement is probably indicated in the stratigraphy by the sharp rise in charcoal content observed beginning ca. 1500 yr B.P. Fire appears to be a significant natural component of prehuman environments in Madagascar, but some factor, probably climate, has modulated the extent of natural burning.

Burney, David A.

1987-09-01

29

A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database has been assembled with 278 age determinations for Madagascar. Materials 14C dated include pretreated sediments and plant macrofossils from cores and excavations throughout the island, and bones, teeth, or eggshells of most of the extinct megafaunal taxa, including the giant lemurs, hippopotami, and ratites. Additional measurements come from uranium-series dates on speleothems and thermoluminescence dating of pottery.Changes documented

David A Burney; Lida Pigott Burney; Laurie R Godfrey; William L Jungers; Steven M Goodman; Henry T Wright; A. J. Timothy Jull

2004-01-01

30

Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly, although this interpretation has recently been questioned. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the eastern part of the study area, where there is some so-far poorly characterised seismicity. We present preliminary results on the lithospheric crust and mantle structure based on surface wave dispersion and waveform modelling, focussing on the contrast between the metamorphic areas in the east and the presumably stretched regions in the west. Interstation Green's functions have been obtained from all pairs of vertical broadband records, with coherent Rayleigh waves being identifiable for periods of 3-40 s. In addition, two-station phase dispersion measurements have allowed us to determine phase dispersion between 25 and 60 s. The ambient noise and earthquake data both indicate a slow-down of surface propagation in the western part of the array for periods < 40-45 s, but faster propagation in the western part for periods >45 s.

Tilmann, Frederik; Yuan, Xiaohui; Rümpker, Georg; Gerard, Rambolamana; Elisa, Rindraharisaona; Priestley, Keith

2014-05-01

31

Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

Ormsby, Alison

2007-01-01

32

Evidence of early butchery of giant lemurs in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here definitive evidence of butchery, most probably associated with hunting, of giant extinct lemurs by early human settlers in Madagascar. Specimens of Palaeopropithecus ingens and Pachylemur insignis from two sites in southwestern Madagascar, Taolambiby and Tsirave, show classic signs of butchering. We compared these to the bones (also from Taolambiby) of butchered Propithecus verreauxi, a lemur still living

Ventura R. Perez; Laurie R. Godfrey; Malgosia Nowak-Kemp; David A. Burney; Jonah Ratsimbazafy; Natalia Vasey

2005-01-01

33

Economie et enseignement a Madagascar. (Economy and Education in Madagascar.) Financement des systemes educatifs: etudes de cas Nationales 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this volume is to analyze the problems of school finance in Madagascar, including those that have arisen in the past decade and those anticipated in the present decade (through 1980). More generally, this book examines past and future connections between the economic and educational systems in Madagascar. The author examines the…

Hugon, Philippe

34

Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day topography is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a dynamic topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ?15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

2012-12-01

35

The Madagascar Bloom - a serendipitous study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late austral summer (February-April) phytoplankton bloom that occurs east of Madagascar, exhibits significant interannual variability and at its largest extent covers ~1% of the world's ocean surface area. The bloom raises many intriguing questions about how it begins, is sustained, propagates to the east, exports carbon and ends. It has been observed and studied using satellite ocean colour observations, but the lack of in situ data makes it difficult to address these questions. Here we describe observations that were made on a cruise in February 2005 serendipitously. These show clearly for the first time the existence of both a deep chlorophyll maximum at ~70-110m depths (seen in SeaSoar fluorimeter data) and a surface chlorophyll signature (seen in SeaWiFS satellite ocean colour data). The observations also show the modulation of biological signature at the surface by the eddy field, but not apparently of the deep chlorophyll maximum. In situ observations indicate that Trichodesmium dominates the bloom nearer to Madagascar, while the diatom Rhizosolenia clevei (and its symbiont Richelia intracellularis) dominates further from the island. In addition, SeaSoar Optical Plankton Counter (OPC), temperature and salinity data suggest that the surface bloom seen in the SeaWiFS data is confined to the shallow (~30m) mixed layer. It is hypothesised that the interannual variability in bloom intensity may be due to variations in coastal upwelling and thus the supply of iron, which is a micronutrient that can limit diazotroph growth.

Srokosz, M. A.; Quartly, G.

2012-12-01

36

The Madagascar Bloom: A serendipitous study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late austral summer (February-April) phytoplankton bloom that occurs east of Madagascar exhibits significant interannual variability and at its largest extent covers ~1% of the world's ocean surface area. The bloom raises many intriguing questions about how it begins, is sustained, propagates to the east, exports carbon, and ends. It has been observed and studied using satellite ocean color observations, but the lack of in situ data makes it difficult to address these questions. Here we describe observations that were made serendipitously on a cruise in February 2005. These show clearly for the first time the simultaneous existence of a deep chlorophyll maximum at ~70-110 m depths (seen in SeaSoar fluorimeter data) and a surface chlorophyll signature [seen in Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite ocean color data]. The observations also show the modulation of the biological signature at the surface by the eddy field but not of the deep chlorophyll maximum. Trichodesmium dominates the bloom nearer to Madagascar, while the diatom Rhizosolenia clevei (and its symbiont Richelia intracellularis) dominates further from the island. The surface bloom seen in the SeaWiFS data is confined to the shallow (~30 m) mixed layer. It is hypothesized that the interannual variability in bloom intensity may be due to variations in coastal upwelling and thus the supply of iron, which is a micronutrient that can limit diazotroph growth.

Srokosz, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.

2013-01-01

37

A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

Cox, Murray P.; Nelson, Michael G.; Tumonggor, Meryanne K.; Ricaut, Francois-X.; Sudoyo, Herawati

2012-01-01

38

A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.  

PubMed

The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing. PMID:22438500

Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

2012-07-22

39

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2001: Madagascar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Madagascar held its second presidential election under the 1992 Constitution in 1996, following the impeachment of then-President Albert Zafy earlier that year. The election was accepted widely as free and fair, and the winner, former Second Republic Pres...

2002-01-01

40

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2002: Madagascar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Madagascar is a multiparty democracy in which the President and a bicameral legislature shared power. The country's Constitution was amended in 1996 and 1998. These amendments significantly strengthened the executive, weakened the National Assembly, and g...

2003-01-01

41

Malagasy dialects and the peopling of Madagascar.  

PubMed

The origin of Malagasy DNA is half African and half Indonesian, nevertheless the Malagasy language, spoken by the entire population, belongs to the Austronesian family. The language most closely related to Malagasy is Maanyan (Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family), but related languages are also in Sulawesi, Malaysia and Sumatra. For this reason, and because Maanyan is spoken by a population which lives along the Barito river in Kalimantan and which does not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, the ethnic composition of the Indonesian colonizers is still unclear. There is a general consensus that Indonesian sailors reached Madagascar by a maritime trek, but the time, the path and the landing area of the first colonization are all disputed. In this research, we try to answer these problems together with other ones, such as the historical configuration of Malagasy dialects, by types of analysis related to lexicostatistics and glottochronology that draw upon the automated method recently proposed by the authors. The data were collected by the first author at the beginning of 2010 with the invaluable help of Joselinà Soafara Néré and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the island. PMID:21632612

Serva, Maurizio; Petroni, Filippo; Volchenkov, Dima; Wichmann, Søren

2012-01-01

42

Cretaceous may hold promise in Majunga basin, Madagascar  

SciTech Connect

Recent drilling in the Majunga basin of northwestern Madagascar revealed unexpected light oil shows in excellent quality reservoir sands of Mid-Cretaceous age. Regional reconstructions show the development of a prograding clastic shelf from the Aptian until the Mid-Turonian that extended laterally from the northwest costs of Madagascar into Northwest India and Southeast Pakistan. Six untested play concepts have been identified in Cretaceous reservoirs of the Majunga basin. These plays offer multiple objectives in the depth range of 800--2,500 m within a well defined area. Further untested plays exist for Tertiary and Dogger objectives. The paper describes the geologic setting, exploration history the Cretaceous reservoirs, source rocks, and other potential plays. Political changes in Madagascar the last four years have led to an open door policy for foreign investment. Favorable terms are on offer for investment in the petroleum sector, and high potential exists for development on this island continent.

Lalaharisaina, J.V. (Office des Mines Nationales et des Industries Stategiques, Antananarivo (Madagascar)); Ferrand, N.J. (Oil and Gas Consultants, Palaiseau (France))

1994-08-01

43

Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

de Wit, Maarten J.

44

Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

2013-01-01

45

Tropical Cyclone Kesiny northeast of Madagascar, Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropical Cyclone Kesiny can be seen over the Indian Ocean in this true color image taken on May 6, 2002, at 6:45 UTC by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. When this image was taken, the cyclone was several hundred miles east of northern Madagascar and packing winds of up to 120 kilometers (75 miles) per hour. As the cyclone continues its approach southwest into Madagascar, it is forecast to increase in intensity and generate sustained winds of up to 139 kilometers (86 miles) per hour. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

46

A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar.  

PubMed

A database has been assembled with 278 age determinations for Madagascar. Materials 14C dated include pretreated sediments and plant macrofossils from cores and excavations throughout the island, and bones, teeth, or eggshells of most of the extinct megafaunal taxa, including the giant lemurs, hippopotami, and ratites. Additional measurements come from uranium-series dates on speleothems and thermoluminescence dating of pottery. Changes documented include late Pleistocene climatic events and, in the late Holocene, the apparently human-caused transformation of the environment. Multiple lines of evidence point to the earliest human presence at ca. 2300 14C yr BP (350 cal yr BC). A decline in megafauna, inferred from a drastic decrease in spores of the coprophilous fungus Sporormiella spp. in sediments at 1720+/-40 14C yr BP (230-410 cal yr AD), is followed by large increases in charcoal particles in sediment cores, beginning in the SW part of the island, and spreading to other coasts and the interior over the next millennium. The record of human occupation is initially sparse, but shows large human populations throughout the island by the beginning of the Second Millennium AD. Dating of the "subfossil" megafauna, including pygmy hippos, elephant birds, giant tortoises, and large lemurs, demonstrates that most if not all the extinct taxa were still present on the island when humans arrived. Many taxa overlapped chronologically with humans for a millennium or more. The extinct lemurs Hadropithecus stenognathus, Pachylemur insignis, Mesopropithecus pithecoides, and Daubentonia robusta, and the elephant birds Aepyornis spp. and Mullerornis spp., were still present near the end of the First Millennium AD. Palaeopropithecus ingens, Megaladapis edwardsi, and Archaeolemur sp. (cf. edwardsi) may have survived until the middle of the Second Millennium A.D. One specimen of Hippopotamus of unknown provenance dates to the period of European colonization. PMID:15288523

Burney, David A; Burney, Lida Pigott; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L; Goodman, Steven M; Wright, Henry T; Jull, A J Timothy

2004-01-01

47

A Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) avifauna from the Maevarano Formation, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field efforts in the Mahajanga Basin of northwestern Madagascar have recovered a diverse Late Cretaceous terrestrial and freshwater vertebrate fauna, including a growing diversity of avialans. Previous work on associated bird skeletons resulted in the description of two named avialans (Rahonavis, Vorona). Other materials, including two synsacra and numerous appendicular elements, represent at least five additional taxa of basal

Patrick M. Oconnor; Catherine A. Forster

2010-01-01

48

Confiage et scolarisation des enfants en milieu rural à Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

(english) Much empirical research found that fostered children are less likely than others to attend school, which suggests that fostering may be disadvantaged human capital investment. This paper tries to analyze the impact of child fostering on school enrollment in rural Madagascar. We examine firstly if schooling is a principal reason of household’s decision to foster a child. Indeed, biological

Nelly Rakoto-Tiana

2012-01-01

49

Crime, Transitory Poverty, and Isolation: Evidence from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between poverty and crime. Following a disputed presidential election, fuel supply to the highlands of Madagascar was severely curtailed in early 2002, resulting in a massive increase in poverty and transport costs. Using original survey data collected in June 2002 at the height of the crisis, we find that crop theft increases with transitory poverty.

Marcel Fafchamps; Bart Minten

2006-01-01

50

Food Marketing Liberalization and Trader Entry: Evidence from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food marketing liberalization was expected to induce massive trader entry and competitive markets in Africa. Despite evidence of trader entry, enterprise expansion remains difficult and many claim market power persists, though perhaps in different hands. This paper confronts this puzzle of substantial market entry that might not foster competition. Data from Madagascar reveal distinct groups within rural food marketing channels,

Christopher B. Barrett

1997-01-01

51

Satellite imagery, human ecology, anthropology, and deforestation in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite images were used to determine rates of deforestation over the past 35 years and to identify current deforestation hotspots in the eastern rainforests and in the dry endemic forests of southern Madagascar. The analysis of population trends, topography, and coincident ethnographic research points to a number of different factors influencing deforestation in these regions. Each of these factors generates

Robert W. Sussman; Glen M. Green; Linda K. Sussman

1994-01-01

52

Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

2011-01-01

53

Revision of the megaloptera (insecta: neuropterida) of madagascar.  

PubMed

The Megaloptera fauna of Madagascar comprise two endemic genera: Haplosialis Navás, 1927 (Sialidae) and Madachauliodes Paulian, 1951 (Corydalidae: Chauliodinae). Here the two genera are revised, with detailed descriptions and illustrations. A new species, Madachauliodes bicuspidatus Liu, Price & Hayashi, sp. nov., is described. Furthermore the phylogeny and biogeography of the Madagascan fauna is discussed. PMID:24870678

Liu, Xingyue; Price, Benjamin W; Hayashi, Fumio; De Moor, Ferdinand; Yang, Ding

2014-01-01

54

High Frequency of Human Enterovirus Species C Circulation in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Four poliomyelitis outbreaks caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses have been reported recently, including one in Madagascar in 2002. In all cases, the viral strains involved were recombinant between poliovirus vaccine strains and nonpoliovirus strains, probably enterovirus species C. Nevertheless, little is known about the circulation and epidemiology of enteroviruses in the regions where these outbreaks occurred. To assess the circulation of enteroviruses (particularly enterovirus species C) in Madagascar, we genetically characterized 55 enterovirus strains isolated between 1994 and 2002. The strains were identified and compared by partially sequencing the region encoding the VP1 capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise comparison with prototype enterovirus strains distinguished two different species: 25 isolates belonged to human enterovirus B species, and 30 isolates were identified as coxsackievirus A13, A15, A17, A18, A20, A21, and A24, belonging to the human enterovirus species C. The relatively high frequency and the wide distribution of species C coxsackie A viruses in different regions of Madagascar suggest that they had been silently and widely circulating in the country during the whole study period. The circulation of coxsackie A viruses, combined with the low routine oral polio vaccine coverage, may have played a role in the emergence of the recent outbreak in Madagascar.

Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Rousset, Dominique; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Chevaliez, Stephane; Guillot, Sophie; Balanant, Jean; Delpeyroux, Francis

2005-01-01

55

An old adaptive radiation of forest dung beetles in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive radiations of mammals have contributed to the exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism in Madagascar. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the endemic dung beetle tribe Helictopleurini (Scarabaeidae) and its relationship to the widely distributed Oniticellini and Onthophagini. Helictopleurini species are dependent on mammals for their resources. We date the single origin of the tribe at 37

Helena Wirta; Luisa Orsini; Ilkka Hanski

2008-01-01

56

The settlement of Madagascar: what dialects and languages can tell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dialects of Madagascar belong to the Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family and it is widely accepted that the Island was colonized by Indonesian sailors after a maritime trek which probably took place around 650 CE. The language most closely related to Malagasy dialects is Maanyan but also Malay is strongly related especially for what concerns navigation

Maurizio Serva

2011-01-01

57

Evidence of early butchery of giant lemurs in Madagascar.  

PubMed

We report here definitive evidence of butchery, most probably associated with hunting, of giant extinct lemurs by early human settlers in Madagascar. Specimens of Palaeopropithecus ingens and Pachylemur insignis from two sites in southwestern Madagascar, Taolambiby and Tsirave, show classic signs of butchering. We compared these to the bones (also from Taolambiby) of butchered Propithecus verreauxi, a lemur still living in the region. The characteristics of the tool-induced extinct-lemur bone alterations (sharp cuts and chop marks near joints, oblique cuts along the shafts, spiral fractures, and percussion striae) suggest skinning, disarticulation, and filleting. Conclusive evidence of megafaunal modification by humans in Madagascar was limited previously to a few hippo and elephant bird bones and one extinct aye-aye tooth. New evidence comes not from archaeological sites, but from specimens collected in the early 1900s, without stratigraphic records, at "subfossil" sites (i.e., sites renowned for their late Pleistocene or Holocene fossils, often lacking human artifacts). Whereas these are hardly the most ideal samples for analysis of this kind, careful scrutiny of the characteristics of the cut marks has allowed us to document butchery beyond any reasonable doubt. One bone with definitive cut marks has been dated to the very earliest part of the human period in Madagascar. Continued, careful research on the bones in subfossil collections is warranted. PMID:16225904

Perez, Ventura R; Godfrey, Laurie R; Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia; Burney, David A; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Vasey, Natalia

2005-12-01

58

Multiple Miocene Melastomataceae dispersal between Madagascar, Africa and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melastomataceae sensu stricto (excluding Memecylaceae) comprise some 3000 species in the neotropics, 1000 in Asia, 240 in Africa, and 230 in Madagascar. Previous family-wide morphological and DNA analyses have shown that the Madagascan species belong to at least three unrelated lineages, which were hypoth- esized to have arrived by trans-oceanic dispersal. An alternative hypothesis posits that the ancestors of Madagascan,

Susanne S. Renner

2004-01-01

59

Phylogeography and Molecular Epidemiology of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Plague was introduced to Madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. It exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of Mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. Despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of Y. pestis in Madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. We examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-genome discovery of SNPs, SNP genotyping and hypervariable variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci to gain insight into the maintenance and spread of Y. pestis in Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a set of 262 Malagasy isolates using a set of 56 SNPs and a 43-locus multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) system. We then analyzed the geographic distribution of the subclades and identified patterns related to the maintenance and spread of plague in Madagascar. We find relatively high levels of VNTR diversity in addition to several SNP differences. We identify two major groups, Groups I and II, which are subsequently divided into 11 and 4 subclades, respectively. Y. pestis appears to be maintained in several geographically separate subpopulations. There is also evidence for multiple long distance transfers of Y. pestis, likely human mediated. Such transfers have resulted in the reintroduction and establishment of plague in the port city of Mahajanga, where there is evidence for multiple transfers both from and to the central highlands. Conclusions/Significance The maintenance and spread of Y. pestis in Madagascar is a dynamic and highly active process that relies on the natural cycle between the primary host, the black rat, and its flea vectors as well as human activity.

Vogler, Amy J.; Chan, Fabien; Wagner, David M.; Roumagnac, Philippe; Lee, Judy; Nera, Roxanne; Eppinger, Mark; Ravel, Jacques; Rahalison, Lila; Rasoamanana, Bruno W.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Achtman, Mark; Chanteau, Suzanne; Keim, Paul

2011-01-01

60

Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Formateur. Langue: Sakalava (Peace Corps Madagascar Teacher's Manual. Language: Sakalava).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's manual for Sakalava, a dialect of Malagasy, is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Madagascar. It is written primarily in French and Sakalava, with some titles in English. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on…

Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

61

Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Stagiare. Langue: Malagasy Ofisialy (Peace Corps Madagascar Volunteer Manual. Language: Official Malagasy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for Malagasy is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel working in Madagascar. It is written primarily in English and Malagasy, with introductory sections in French. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on needed materials,…

Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

62

Satellite Observations of Enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Associated with Biomass Burning in Africa and Madagascar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods.

Aikin, A. C.; Ziemke, J. R.; Thorpe, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

63

Implications of recent geological investigations of the Mozambique Channel for the mammalian colonization of Madagascar.  

PubMed Central

Madagascar separated from continental Africa during the break-up of Gondwanaland early in the Cretaceous. The presence of several terrestrial mammalian groups on Madagascar is paradoxical as (i) these groups postdate the departure of Madagascar from Africa: and ii) terrestrial mammals are poor dispersers across wide water barriers. Recent geological studies focusing on the Davie Fracture Zone of the Mozambique Channel offer a resolution to this situation, by suggesting the presence of a land-bridge from the mid-Eocene to the early Miocene, an interval that matches the ages of Madagascar's mammalian groups.

McCall, R A

1997-01-01

64

[Indigenous medical assistance in Madagascar (1898-1950)].  

PubMed

The foundations of local health services in Madagascar were laid when the island was taken over by the French in 1896. Medical care was a major priority for the first colonial governor named General Galliéni. Local health services expanded greatly from 1896 to 1950 thanks notably to institutions such as the Tananarive Medical School and Pasteur Institute. These services played a crucial role in the fight against smallpox and bubonic plague. However they were also used for political purposes by both colonial and independent governments. In sum the history of local health services in Madagascar can be described as a battle between political power and scientific knowledge. The overall result is positive for some and controversial for others. PMID:12891743

Merlin, J; Mafart, B; Triaud, J L

2003-01-01

65

Exploring the Association Between People and Deforestation in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An island widely recognized for remarkably high biological diversity, Madagascar continues to experience considerable deforestation.\\u000a This study explores possible causes of forest loss between 1990 and 2000. Applying a multivariate probit model, the study\\u000a considers a range of human geographic, physical geographic, and infrastructure data to identify likely reasons for deforestation\\u000a during the final decade of the twentieth century. Results

L. J. Gorenflo; Catherine Corson; Kenneth M. Chomitz; Grady Harper; Miroslav Honzák; Berk Özler

66

Field Museum Researchers Help Trace Origin of Madagascar's Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chicago's Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) Web site currently features museum-sponsored research on the phylogeny of Madagascar's living Carnivora. Previously thought to represent two to four separate lineages, the island's carnivores are now known to have descended from a single species. These findings, recently published in the journal Nature, are presented in the FMNH Web site as a 4-page press release that should appeal to general readers as well as interested researchers.

2003-01-01

67

Strain pattern and late Precambrian deformation history in southern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the thermo-mechanical evolution of the lower crust, in Precambrian times, with an example from southern Madagascar. The finite strain pattern is derived from the study of satellite images complemented by field structural analysis. The finite geometry reflects the superposition of two distinct finite strain patterns, D1 and D2. The geodynamic significance of the D1 event remains unclear.

Jean-Emmanuel Martelat; Jean-Marc Lardeaux; Christian Nicollet; Raymond Rakotondrazafy

2000-01-01

68

AVHRR-LAC estimates of forest area in Madagascar, 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three AVHRR-LAC data sets acquired in September 1990 and January 1991 were used to map the forest resources of Madagascar. The island was partitioned into four strata to include: (1) the western hardwoods, (2) the central grasslands, (3) the eastern rainforest, and (4) spiny forest. Each stratum was classified separately using AVHRR-LAC data in conjunction with 1984-1988 Landsat-MSS photoproducts. The

R. Nelson; N. Horning

1993-01-01

69

Multiple Miocene Melastomataceae dispersal between Madagascar, Africa and India.  

PubMed Central

Melastomataceae sensu stricto (excluding Memecylaceae) comprise some 3000 species in the neotropics, 1000 in Asia, 240 in Africa, and 230 in Madagascar. Previous family-wide morphological and DNA analyses have shown that the Madagascan species belong to at least three unrelated lineages, which were hypothesized to have arrived by trans-oceanic dispersal. An alternative hypothesis posits that the ancestors of Madagascan, as well as Indian, Melastomataceae arrived from Africa in the Late Cretaceous. This study tests these hypotheses in a Bayesian framework, using three combined sequence datasets analysed under a relaxed clock and simultaneously calibrated with fossils, some not previously used. The new fossil calibration comes from a re-dated possibly Middle or Upper Eocene Brazilian fossil of Melastomeae. Tectonic events were also tentatively used as constraints because of concerns that some of the family's fossils are difficult to assign to nodes in the phylogeny. Regardless of how the data were calibrated, the estimated divergence times of Madagascan and Indian lineages were too young for Cretaceous explanations to hold. This was true even of the oldest ages within the 95% credibility interval around each estimate. Madagascar's Melastomeae appear to have arrived from Africa during the Miocene. Medinilla, with some 70 species in Madagascar and two in Africa, too, arrived during the Miocene, but from Asia. Gravesia, with 100 species in Madagascar and four in east and west Africa, also appears to date to the Miocene, but its monophyly has not been tested. The study afforded an opportunity to compare divergence time estimates obtained earlier with strict clocks and single calibrations, with estimates based on relaxed clocks and different multiple calibrations and taxon sampling.

Renner, Susanne S

2004-01-01

70

Deforestation in the Madagascar Highlands – Established `truth' and scientific uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Madagascar central highlands with their red soils and erosion gullies are often held up as a frightening example of the\\u000a consequences of deforestation. They are also used as a model of how the entire island will look if so-called `forest unfriendly\\u000a activities' of local people continue. This insight is based on a narrative that describes the highlands as totally

Jorgen Klein; Hogskoleni Hedmark LUH

2002-01-01

71

The modern diatom spectra of Madagascar and diatom-inferred Late Quaternary climatic changes in northeastern and central Madagascar  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to classify diatoms in modern sediment surface samples in freshwater sites into assemblages and to assess the historical changes in lake level changes and climatic conditions in Madagascar during the Late Quaternary. Analysis of taxonomic percentages of diatoms in recently deposited sediments from various sites shows that diatom communities in these sites can be grouped by means of cluster analysis into distinct assemblages, some of which show similarities to groupings found in East Africa. pH and conductivity appear to be important factors correlating with differences in diatom communities in these study sites. Trends in diatom assemblages in a sediment core taken from Lake Alaotra, supplemented by those in sediments of the paleolake Ampasambazimba, suggest that the late Pleistocene in northeastern Madagascar was arid, though aridity was probably not as constant or as severe as in many areas of eastern and northern Africa; the Holocene was a period of moderate but variable conditions, marked by a distinct dry episode ca 5000 yr B.P. and a drying trend toward the late Holocene. Changes in diatom assemblages in a sediment core from Lake Kavitaha in central Madagascar suggest changes in the surrounding environment during at least two periods in the late Holocene. These coincide with increases in charcoal influx and, around 700 yr B.P., with the intensification of agricultural activity in the area.

Reyes, N.E.

1993-01-01

72

Broken forest: Applying the integrated conservation and development paradigm to Madagascar's protected areas  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of Madagascar's primary forests through agricultural clearing poses a grave threat to the island's biodiversity. The report assesses the potential of the planned Sustainable and Viable Environmental Management (SAVEM) Project to minimize this threat by implementing Integrated Conservation Development Projects (ICDP's), which link resource conservation to income-generating activities, in the peripheral zones of Madagascar's protected areas.

Barbour, R.; Rabezandria, R.; Daviesson, R.; Guyton, W.; Rakotobe.

1992-06-01

73

Earth structure and instrumental seismicity of Madagascar: Implications on the seismotectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to improve the knowledge of the seismotectonics of Madagascar. We first investigate the structure of the Earth beneath Madagascar through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities. Then we use the obtained velocity models to relocate local earthquakes in order to analyse the distribution of seismicity. Finally, we use structural models and earthquake coordinates to compute focal mechanisms. Our retrieved Earth structure models confirm a thin lithosphere beneath Madagascar when compared to the nearby East African Rift. The High Plateau in the Central region coincides with the thinnest lithosphere over the slowest asthenosphere. Our results are in good agreement with the gravity anomalies and likely confirm a localised asthenospheric upwelling beneath the central part of Madagascar. The surface expression of the asthenospheric upwelling consists in a horst-graben structure. The moderate seismicity is localised along pre-existing structures reflecting an E-W extension that is mostly accommodated in the lower crust. Earth structure models show that the lithosphere in Madagascar is thin. We relocate earthquake which indicates that upper and lower crusts are active in Madagascar. Focal mechanism solutions suggest that Madagascar exhibits E-W extension. The present seismicity in Madagascar is localised along pre-existing structures.

Rindraharisaona, Elisa Josiane; Guidarelli, Mariangela; Aoudia, Abdlkarim; Rambolamanana, Gérard

2013-05-01

74

Deforestation history of the eastern rain forests of Madagascar from satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar is biologically one of the richest areas on Earth, and its plants and animals are among the most endangered. Satellite images and vegetation maps based on earlier aerial photographs were used to determine the extent of eastern rain forests in Madagascar and to monitor the rate of deforestation over a 35-year period. In 1985, 3.8 million hectares of rain

G. M. Green; R. W. Sussman

1990-01-01

75

Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

Wagler, Ron

2009-01-01

76

Biogeography of Dwarf Lemurs: Genetic Evidence for Unexpected Patterns in Southeastern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus spp.) are currently recognized after a recent revision of the genus. During a field study in southeastern Madagascar, we observed 3 distinct morphotypes of Cheirogaleus resembling Cheirogaleus medius, C. major and C. crossleyi. In particular, for Cheirogaleus crossleyi southeastern Madagascar was far away from the known distribution range of the species when referring to

Andreas Hapke; Joanna Fietz; Stephen D. Nash; Daniel Rakotondravony; Berthe Rakotosamimanana; Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato; Gisèle F. N. Randria; Hans Zischler

2005-01-01

77

Lower and Middle Cenomanian ammonites from the Morondava Basin, Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kennedy, W.J., Walaszczyk, I., Gale, A.S., Dembicz, K. and Praszkier, T. 2013. Lower and Midle Cenomanian ammonites from the Morondava Basin, Madagascar. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 625-655. Warszawa. Lower and Middle Cenomanian ammonite assemblages have been collected on a bed-by-bed basis from localities at Vohipaly and Mahaboboka, Madagascar, as well as from outcrops around Berekata, all in the Morondava Basin, southwest Madagascar. These collections demonstrate the presence of the upper Lower Cenomanian Mantelliceras dixoni Zone and the lower Middle Cenomanian Cunningtoniceras inerme Zone of the north-western European standard sequence. These records indicate that the striking anomalies in the zonal assemblages of the classic divisions of the Madagascan Cenomanian are based on mixed assemblages, rather than a succession that differs radically from that elsewhere in the world. The dixoni Zone fauna is: Desmoceras cf. latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838), Pachydesmoceras kossmati Matsumoto, 1987, Forbesiceras sp., F. baylissiWright & Kennedy, 1984, F. largilliertianum (d'Orbigny, 1841), Mantelliceras cantianum Spath, 1926a, M. dixoni Spath, 1926b, M. mantelli (J. Sowerby, 1814), M. picteti Hyatt, 1903, M. saxbii (Sharpe, 1857), Sharpeiceras sp., S. falloti (Collignon, 1931), S. mocambiquense (Choffat, 1903), S. cf. florencae Spath, 1925, Acompsoceras renevieri (Sharpe, 1857), A. tenue Collignon, 1964, Calycoceras sp., Mrhiliceras lapparenti (Pervinquière, 1907), Mariella (Mariella) stolizcai (Collignon, 1964), Hypoturrilites taxyfabreae (Collignon, 1964), Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bosc, 1801, Sciponoceras cucullatum Collignon, 1964, and Sciponoceras antanimangaensis (Collignon, 1964). The presence of Calycoceras in a Lower Cenomanian association represents a precocious appearance of a genus typically Middle and Upper Cenomanian in occurrence, and matches records from Tunisia. The inerme Zone yields a more restricted assemblage: Pachydesmoceras kossmati, Forbesiceras baylissi, Acanthoceras sp. juv., Cunningtoniceras cunningtoni (Sharpe, 1855) and Hypoturrilites taxyfabreae.

Kennedy, William James; Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; Gale, Andrew S.; Dembicz, Krzysztof; Praszkier, Tomasz

2013-12-01

78

Age-specific seroprevalence of hepatitis A in Antananarivo (Madagascar)  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enteric, viral, infectious disease endemic in many developing countries such as Madagascar. Infection is often subclinical or asymptomatic in children; however, symptomatic acute infections become more common with increasing age. In some developing countries, improvements in living conditions have led to changes in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection. There are very few reports on the prevalence of HAV in Madagascar. This study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in relation to age in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. Methods Serum samples collected in 2004 during a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged between two and 24 years from Antananarivo were tested for anti-HAV antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Subjects were investigated using a standardized social and medical history questionnaire. Results 926 subjects were enrolled including 406 males and 520 females. There were 251 children under 10 years old and 675 subjects between 10 and 24 years old. Of the 926 serum samples tested, 854 (92.2%) were positive for anti-HAV antibodies. The number of seropositive samples was similar for males and females. The overall seroprevalence was 83.7% (210/251) for children under 10 years old and 95.5% (644/675) for subjects aged between 10 and 24 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion Despite improvements in sanitary conditions and hygiene over the last few years, the prevalence of HAV in Antananarivo is high. Only children under five years old remain susceptible to HAV infection. Immunization against HAV is not needed at the present time in the Madagascan population, but should be recommended for travellers.

Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Carod, Jean-Francois; Ramarokoto, Charles-Emile; Chretien, Jean-Baptiste; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent

2008-01-01

79

Les aspergillomes pulmonaires: ? propos de 37 cas ? Madagascar  

PubMed Central

L'aspergillome pulmonaire est une colonisation par Aspergillus d'une cavité pulmonaire préformée. Nos objectifs étaient de définir le profil épidémio-clinique et thérapeutique des aspergillomes pulmonaires et essayer de dégager les facteurs favorisants de cette affection à Madagascar. Nous avons réalisés une étude prospective, descriptive, analytique durant 59 mois sur les aspergillomes pulmonaires à Antananarivo Madagascar. Etaient inclus dans cette étude les malades ayant un diagnostic d'aspergillome pulmonaire. Trente-sept (37) cas d'aspergillome pulmonaire étaient recensés parmi les 8 392 patients hospitalisés dans le service de Pneumologie (0,44%). Il s'agit de 29 hommes (78,38%) et 8 femmes (21,61%), d’âge moyen de 43 ans. Les facteurs prédisposant étaient dominés par la tuberculose pulmonaire (89,19%). Le délai moyen d'apparition de l'aspergillome chez les malades ayant un antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire à bacilloscopie positive (TPM+) était de 8 ans et 6 mois avec un délai extrême de un mois à 23 ans. L'hémoptysie était le mode de révélation le plus fréquent (91,89%). Le traitement était médical chez 27 patients (72,97%) et médico-chirurgical chez 10 patients (27,03%). Vingt sept patients étaient perdus de vue (72,97%), et pour les 10 patients suivis (27,02%), 70% avaient une évolution favorable avec disparition des signes, et 30% présentaient des hémoptysies récidivantes. Le taux de mortalité postopératoire était de 4% et 50% des patients avaient des complications postopératoires. La surveillance des lésions séquellaires de tuberculose pulmonaire qui constituent les facteurs favorisants prédominant d'aspergillome pulmonaire à Madagascar nécessite une attention particulière. La prise en charge de la tuberculose doit être précoce et adaptée surtout dans les pays à forte prévalence tuberculeuse.

Rakotoson, Joelson Lovaniaina; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Rakotomizao, Jocelyn Robert; Vololontiana, Hanta Marie Danielle; Andrianasolo, Radonirina Lazasoa; Ravahatra, Kiady; Tiaray, Michel; Rajaoarifetra, Jobeline; Rakotoharivelo, Hendriniaina; Andrianarisoa, Ange Christophe Felix

2011-01-01

80

Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also show characteristics of arc-related magmatism, but include both calc-alkaline and tholeiitic compositions. It is not certain when the two Bemarivo terranes were juxtaposed, but ages from metamorphic rims on zircon suggest that both the northern and southern terranes were accreted to the northern cratonic margin of Madagascar at about 540-530 Ma. Terrane accretion included the assembly of the Archaean Antongil and Antananarivo cratons and the high-grade Neoproterozoic Anaboriana Belt. Late- to post-tectonic granitoids of the Maevarano Suite, the youngest plutons of which gave ca. 520 Ma ages, intrude all terranes in northern Madagascar showing that terrane accretion was completed by this time. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Thomas, R. J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D. I.; Goodenough, K. M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J. M.; Ralison, A. V.; Randriamananjara, T.

2009-01-01

81

Proterozoic tectonostratigraphy and paleogeography of central Madagascar derived from detrital zircon U-Pb age populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detrital zircon U-Pb ages determined by SHRIMP distinguish two clastic sequences among Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks from central Madagascar. The Itremo Group is older: zircon data, stromatolite characteristics, and carbon isotope data all point to a depositional age around 1500-1700 Ma. The Molo Group is younger, deposited between ???620 Ma (the age of the youngest zircon) and ???560 Ma (the age of metamorphic overgrowths on detrital cores). Geochronologic provenance analysis of the Itremo Group points to sources in East Africa as well as local sources in central and southern Madagascar but provides no evidence for a detrital contribution from northern and eastern Madagascar nor from southern India. Detrital zircon and sedimentologic similarities between rocks of the Itremo Group and the Zambian Muva Supergroup suggest a lithostratigraphic correlation between the two. The Molo Group has a strong 1000-1100 Ma detrital signature that also indicates an east African provenance and suggests a Neoproterozoic geographic connection with Sri Lanka but shows no indication of input from the Dharwar craton and eastern Madagascar. Central Madagascar was probably juxtaposed with the Tanzanian craton in the Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic, whereas northern and eastern Madagascar were connected to India. Internal assembly of Madagascar postdates Neoproterozoic Molo Group sedimentation and is likely to have occurred at about 560 Ma. ?? 2004 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Cox, R.; Coleman, D. S.; Chokel, C. B.; DeOreo, S. B.; Wooden, J. L.; Collins, A. S.; De Waele, B.; Kroner, A.

2004-01-01

82

Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics in Madagascar (1975-2005)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forests of Madagascar are declining, albeit at a much slower rate than the global average. The forests are declining due to conversion to other land uses and forest degradation. However, accurate and reliable information on their present distribution and their rates, causes, and consequences of change have not been available. Earlier studies used remotely sensed data to map and, in some cases, to monitor mangrove forests at a local scale. Nonetheless, a comprehensive national assessment and synthesis was lacking. We interpreted time-series satellite data of 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of ?? one-half pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. We used a postclassification change detection approach. Our results showed that Madagascar lost 7% of mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of ???2,797 km2. Deforestation rates and causes varied both spatially and temporally. The forests increased by 5.6% (212 km2) from 1975 to 1990, decreased by 14.3% (455 km 2) from 1990 to 2000, and decreased by 2.6% (73 km2) from 2000 to 2005. Similarly, major changes occurred in Bombekota Bay, Mahajamba Bay, the coast of Ambanja, the Tsiribihina River, and Cap St Vincent. The main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation include conversion to agriculture (35%), logging (16%), conversion to aquaculture (3%), and urban development (1%). ?? 2008 by MDPI.

Giri, C.; Muhlhausen, J.

2008-01-01

83

Mangrove Forest Distributions and Dynamics in Madagascar (1975-2005)  

PubMed Central

Mangrove forests of Madagascar are declining, albeit at a much slower rate than the global average. The forests are declining due to conversion to other land uses and forest degradation. However, accurate and reliable information on their present distribution and their rates, causes, and consequences of change have not been available. Earlier studies used remotely sensed data to map and, in some cases, to monitor mangrove forests at a local scale. Nonetheless, a comprehensive national assessment and synthesis was lacking. We interpreted time-series satellite data of 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of ± one-half pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. We used a postclassification change detection approach. Our results showed that Madagascar lost 7% of mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of ?2,797 km2. Deforestation rates and causes varied both spatially and temporally. The forests increased by 5.6% (212 km2) from 1975 to 1990, decreased by 14.3% (455 km2) from 1990 to 2000, and decreased by 2.6% (73 km2) from 2000 to 2005. Similarly, major changes occurred in Bombekota Bay, Mahajamba Bay, the coast of Ambanja, the Tsiribihina River, and Cap St Vincent. The main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation include conversion to agriculture (35%), logging (16%), conversion to aquaculture (3%), and urban development (1%).

Giri, Chandra; Muhlhausen, Joseph

2008-01-01

84

STUDY OF LAND USE ISSUES CHARACTERIZING THE AMBALAVAO-ANDRINGITRA REGION OF MADAGASCAR  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: GF9500572 Title: Study of Land Use Issues Characterizing the Ambalavao-Andringitra Region of Madagascar Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christian Arthur Kull Institution: University of Colorado EPA Grant Representati...

85

Madagascar Flatidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha): state-of-the-art and research challenges  

PubMed Central

Abstract The paper provides a historical review of the research on Flatidae in Madagascar and indicates future prospects. While the first two species of Madagascar Flatidae were described by Guérin-Méneville (1844), it was Signoret (1860) who made the first real attempt to enhance our knowledge of the Hemiptera fauna of Madagascar by describing several additional species. Over the following century and a half, several investigators have turned their attention to this group of insects, with the final number of species recorded for the island reaching 79. Despite this long history of research, it is evident that much still remains to be done. Detailed taxonomic research will allow the natural history of Madagascar and changes in the biological diversity of its endemic ecosystems to be better understood. This paper should be considered as an introduction to a complex study on the systematics and phylogeny of worldwide Flatidae planthoppers.

Swierczewski, Dariusz; Stroinski, Adam

2013-01-01

86

Breeding biology, diet and vocalization of the Helmet Vanga, Euryceros prevostii, on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Morco, G. & Thorstrom, R. 2000. Breeding biology, diet and vocalization of the Helmet Vanga Euryceros prevostii on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Ostrich 71 (3&4): 400-403. The endemic Helmet Vanga, Euryceros prevostii, was studied from October to December 1997, with incidental observations from October to December 1993-1997, on the Masoala Peninsula, northeastern Madagascar. Three types of vocalizations of this

Giuseppe Marca; Russell Thorstrom

2000-01-01

87

Checklist of fishes from madagascar reef, campeche bank, méxico.  

PubMed

This study presents the first list of fish species from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Gulf of México. Field surveys and literature review identified 54 species belonging to 8 orders, 30 families and 43 genera, comprising both conspicuous and cryptic fishes. Species richness was lower at this reef site compared to reefs in the Mexican Caribbean, Veracruz or Tuxpan, but was similar to other reefs in the same region. Species composition was a mixture of species present in all the reef systems of the Mexican Atlantic. Hypoplectrusecosur was recorded here for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico, Mycteropercamicrolepis, Equetuslanceolatus and Chaetodipterusfaber were new records for the reefs of the Campeche Bank, Elacatinusxanthiprora was recorded for the second time in Mexico and expanded its known distribution westwards from Alacranes Reef and Sanopusreticulatus, endemic of the Yucatan state, was recorded here for the first time on a reef. PMID:24891834

Zarco Perello, Salvador; Moreno Mendoza, Rigoberto; Simões, Nuno

2014-01-01

88

Violences conjugales ? Antananarivo (Madagascar): un enjeu de sant? publique  

PubMed Central

Introduction La violence conjugale a été étudiée dans beaucoup de pays développés mais peu en Afrique subsaharienne. Madagascar est un pays où ce phénomène est peu documenté. Méthodes En 2007, une enquête sur la violence conjugale à Antananarivo (ELVICA) a été menée sur la violence conjugale envers les femmes dans la capitale malgache. ELVICA a interrogé 400 femmes en union, de 15 à 59 ans. Des informations sur les caractéristiques démographiques, socioéconomiques des couples ont été collectées ainsi que sur les actes de violences physiques des hommes sur leurs épouses. L’objectif de cet article est d’identifier les facteurs de risques de la violence conjugale grave, celle qui a des conséquences sur la santé physique des femmes. Résultats Trente-cinq pour cent des femmes qui ont déclaré avoir subi au moins une forme de violence physique au cours des 12 mois précédent l’enquête. Presque la moitié (46%) des femmes violentées ont déclaré avoir déjà eu des hématomes, et environ un quart (23%) des plaies avec saignement. Vingt-deux pour cent ont déjà dû consulter un médecin. Parmi les nombreuses variables socioéconomiques et démographiques testées, quelques-unes sont associées positivement au risque de violence conjugale grave: le fait pour une femme d’être en union consensuelle et d’avoir une activité professionnelle. Il y aussi un lien entre la violence subie et l’autonomie des femmes (liberté accordée par le mari de travailler, de circuler, de voir sa famille). Conclusion A Madagascar, comme ailleurs, la lutte contre les violences conjugales est un élément majeur de l’amélioration du statut et de la santé des femmes.

Gastineau, Benedicte; Gathier, Lucy

2012-01-01

89

Recent emergence of new variants of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar.  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has been responsible for at least three pandemics. During the last pandemic, which started in Hong Kong in 1894, the microorganism colonized new, previously unscathed geographical areas where it has become well established. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the genetic stability of Y. pestis strains introduced into a new environment just under a century ago and to follow the epidemiology of any new genetic variant detected. In the present study, 187 strains of Y. pestis isolated between 1939 and 1996 from different regions of Madagascar and responsible mainly for human cases of bubonic and pneumonic plague were studied. Our principal genotyping method was rRNA gene profiling (ribotyping), which has previously been shown to be an effective scheme for typing Y. pestis strains of different geographical origins. We report that all studied Y. pestis strains isolated in Madagascar before 1982 were of classical ribotype B, the ribotype attributed to the Y. pestis clone that spread around the world during the third pandemic. In 1982, 1983, and 1994, strains with new ribotypes, designated R, Q, and T, respectively, were isolated on the high-plateau region of the island. Analysis of other genotypic traits such as the NotI genomic restriction profiles and the EcoRV plasmid restriction profiles revealed that the new variants could also be distinguished by specific genomic and/or plasmid profiles. A follow-up of these new variants indicated that strains of ribotypes Q and R have become well established in their ecosystem and have a tendency to spread to new geographical areas and supplant the original classical strain.

Guiyoule, A; Rasoamanana, B; Buchrieser, C; Michel, P; Chanteau, S; Carniel, E

1997-01-01

90

Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to control measures that limit its impact and help prevent future outbreaks.

2010-01-01

91

Origin of birefringence in andradite from Arizona, Madagascar, and Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structure of four birefringent andradite samples (two from Arizona, one from Madagascar, and one from Iran) was refined with the Rietveld method, space group Iaoverline{3} d, and monochromatic synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. Each sample contains an assemblage of three different cubic phases. From the electron-microprobe (EMPA) results, fine-scale intergrowths in the Arizona-2 and Madagascar samples appear homogeneous with nearly identical compositions of {Ca2.99Mg0.01}?3[{{Fe}}_{1.99}^{3 + } {{Mn}}_{0.01}^{3 + }]?2(Si2.95Al0.03 {{Fe}}_{0.02}^{3 + })?3O12, Adr98 (Arizona-2), and Adr97 (Madagascar). Both samples are near-end-member andradite, ideally {Ca3}[{{Fe}}2^{3 + }](Si3)O12, so cation ordering in the X, Y, or Z sites is not possible. Because of the large-scale intergrowths, the Arizona-1 and Iran samples contain three different compositions. Arizona-1 has compositions Adr97 (phase-1), Adr93Grs4 (phase-2), and Adr87Grs11 (phase-3). Iran sample has compositions Adr86Uv12 (phase-1), Adr69Uv30 (phase-2), and Adr76Uv22 (phase-3). The crystal structure of the three phases within each sample was modeled quite well as indicated by the Rietveld refinement statistics of reduced ?2 and overall R ( F 2) values of, respectively, 1.980 and 0.0291 (Arizona-1); 1.091 and 0.0305 (Arizona-2); 1.362 and 0.0231 (Madagascar); and 1.681 and 0.0304 (Iran). The dominant phase for each sample has the following unit-cell parameters (Å) and weight fractions (%): a = 12.06314(1), 51.93(9) (Arizona-1); 12.04889(1), 52.47(1) (Arizona-2); 12.06276(1), 52.21(8) (Madagascar); and 12.05962(2), 63.3(1) (Iran). For these dominant phases, the distances and site occupancy factors ( sofs) in terms of neutral atoms at the Ca(X), Fe(Y), and Si(Z) sites are as follows: = 2.4348, Fe-O = 2.0121(6), Si-O = 1.6508(6) Å; Ca( sof) = 0.955(2), Fe( sof) = 0.930(2), and Si( sof) = 0.917(2) (Arizona-1); = 2.4288, Fe-O = 2.0148(7), Si-O = 1.6476(7) Å; Ca( sof) = 0.953(2), Fe( sof) = 0.891(2), and Si( sof) = 0.927(2) (Arizona-2); = 2.4319, Fe-O = 2.0220(6), Si-O = 1.6460(6) Å; Ca( sof) = 0.955(2), Fe( sof) = 0.941(2), and Si( sof) = 0.939(2) (Madagascar); and = 2.4344, Fe-O = 2.0156(8), Si-O = 1.6468(8) Å; Ca( sof) = 0.928(2), Fe( sof) = 0.908(2), and Si( sof) = 0.932(3) (Iran). The sofs based on the EMPA results are similar to those obtained from the Rietveld refinement. Each phase in the HRPXRD results can be correlated with a specific chemical composition. For example, the Iran sample composition Adr63Uv30 corresponds to phase-3 that has the smallest unit-cell parameter; Adr76Uv22 corresponds to phase-1 that has the intermediate cell value; and Adr86Uv13 corresponds to phase-2 that has the largest unit-cell parameter. The bond distances compare well with those obtained from radii sum. The three different cubic phases in each sample cause strain that arises from the mismatch of the cubic unit-cell parameters and give rise to birefringence.

Antao, Sytle M.; Klincker, Allison M.

2013-07-01

92

Stone tools and foraging in northern Madagascar challenge Holocene extinction models  

PubMed Central

Past research on Madagascar indicates that village communities were established about AD 500 by people of both Indonesian and East African heritage. Evidence of earlier visits is scattered and contentious. Recent archaeological excavations in northern Madagascar provide evidence of occupational sites with microlithic stone technologies related to foraging for forest and coastal resources. A forager occupation of one site dates to earlier than 2000 B.C., doubling the length of Madagascar’s known occupational history, and thus the time during which people exploited Madagascar’s environments. We detail stratigraphy, chronology, and artifacts from two rock shelters. Ambohiposa near Iharana (Vohémar) on the northeast coast, yielded a stratified assemblage with small flakes, microblades, and retouched crescentic and trapezoidal tools, probably projectile elements, made on cherts and obsidian, some brought more that 200 km. 14C dates are contemporary with the earliest villages. No food remains are preserved. Lakaton’i Anja near Antsiranana in the north yielded several stratified assemblages. The latest assemblage is well dated to A.D. 1050–1350, by 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating and pottery imported from the Near East and China. Below is a series of stratified assemblages similar to Ambohiposa. 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dates indicate occupation from at least 2000 B.C. Faunal remains indicate a foraging pattern. Our evidence shows that foragers with a microlithic technology were active in Madagascar long before the arrival of farmers and herders and before many Late Holocene faunal extinctions. The differing effects of historically distinct economies must be identified and understood to reconstruct Holocene histories of human environmental impact.

Dewar, Robert E.; Radimilahy, Chantal; Wright, Henry T.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Kelly, Gwendolyn O.; Berna, Francesco

2013-01-01

93

[Water and environment in the Southwest of Madagascar].  

PubMed

The dry and arid southwest region of Madagascar is not a desert but resembles the Sahel region of West Africa. The chronic water deficit is aggravated by the heat and constant winds that accelerate evapotranspiration on the permeable soils. The dryness occurs because the southwest region lies outside the main pluviogenic systems. Erosion occurs at all seasons. In the winter the sun and winds are the main causes, while the rare storms are more conducive to run-off and to erosion than to absorption. The acute water shortage in the southwest has prompted hydrogeologic research and well-drilling, but the high salt content of the water and other impurities will be a limiting factor for development of the area. The population of the southwest is extremely mobile. Human settlements are concentrated in the valleys and depressions and along major roads. Customary rights to land under the control of the traditional chiefs regulate tenure in most areas. But especially in the river bottoms, the coming of cash crops cultivated with modern equipment has resulted in significant erosion which has aggravated ecological problems. Accelerating soil degradation has led peasants to extend their lands under cultivation to the detriment of forest cover. Cattle herding remains the principal economic activity in the southwest. Herding has progressed from nomadism to pastoralism, but it remains a sign of power and wealth. Transhumance is the strategy of herders faced with shortages of water and pasturage, demographic pressure, and environmental degradation. Raising of sheep and goats constitutes a supplemental food source, medium of exchange, and form of savings. But angora goats graze on everything in their path, devastating their surrounds. Fear of cattle thefts militates against efforts to improve the quality of the stock. The various problems together have prompted a wasteful exploitation of the forest resources. Development strategies for the area explored by the government have all been forced to consider the high cost of potable water. A water project forms part of the Environmental Plan of Action launched by Madagascar with the assistance of international organizations. PMID:12286688

Razanamparany, L

1993-04-01

94

Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

95

A historical analysis of the accounting development in Madagascar between 1900 to 2005 : The journey from accounting plan to IFRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to document the history of accounting development in Madagascar over the last century. It reports the development and important events that took place between 1900 until the twenty-first century and discusses its impact on the development of accounting systems and practices in Madagascar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In order to do this it uses the Code of

Pran Boolaky; Kumba Jallow

2008-01-01

96

In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus

Joeri S. Strijk; Richard D. Noyes; Dominique Strasberg; Corinne Cruaud; Fredéric Gavory; Mark W. Chase; Richard J. Abbott; Christophe Thébaud

2012-01-01

97

Provenance and tectonic significance of the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary successions of central and nothern Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New detrital zircon U–Pb age data obtained from various quartzite units of three spatially separated supracrustal packages in central and northern Madagascar, show that these units were deposited between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga and have similar aged provenances. The distribution of detrital zircon ages indicates an overwhelming contribution of sources with ages between 2.5 and 1.8 Ga. Possible source rocks with an age of 2.5 Ga are present in abundance in the crustal segments (Antananarivo, Antongil and Masora Domains) either side of a purported Neoproterozoic suture ("Betsimisaraka Suture Zone"). Recently, possible source rocks for the 1.8 Ga age peak have been recognised in southern Madagascar. All three supracrustal successions, as well as the Archaean blocks onto which they were emplaced, are intruded by mid-Neoproterozoic magmatic suites placing a minimum age on their deposition. The similarities in detrital pattern, maximum and minimum age of deposition in the three successions, lend some support to a model in which all of Madagascar's Archaean blocks form a coherent crustal entity (the Greater Dharwar Craton), rather than an amalgamate of disparate crustal blocks brought together only during Neoproterozoic convergence. However, potential source terranes exist outside Madagascar and on either side of the Neoproterozoic sutures, so that a model including a Neoproterozoic suture in Madagascar cannot be dispelled outright.

De Waele, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Macey, P. H.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Tucker, R. D.; Pitfield, P. E. J.; Schofield, D. I.; Goodenough, K. M.; Bauer, W.; Key, R. M.; Potter, C. J.; Armstrong, R. A.; Miller, J. A.; Randriamananjara, T.; Ralison, V.; Rafahatelo, J. M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Bejoma, M.

2011-01-01

98

The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background The tobacco industry has globalized and tobacco use continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, the data and research to inform policy initiatives for addressing this phenomenon is sparse. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of adult tobacco use in 17 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, and to identify key factors associated with adult tobacco consumption choices (smoked, smokeless tobacco and dual use) in Madagascar. Methods We used Demographic Health Survey for estimating tobacco use prevalence among adults in SSA. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify key determinants of adult tobacco consumption choices in Madagascar. Results While differences in tobacco use exist in SSA, Madagascar has exceptionally higher prevalence rates (48.9% of males; 10.3% of females). The regression analyses showed complexity of tobacco use in Madagascar and identified age, education, wealth, employment, marriage, religion and place of residence as factors significantly associated with the choice of tobacco use among males, while age, wealth, and employment were significantly associated with that of females. The effects, however, differ across the three choices of tobacco use compared to non-use. Conclusions Tobacco use in Madagascar was higher than the other 16 SSA countries. Although the government continues to enact policies to address the problem, there is a need for effective implementation and enforcement. There is also the need for health education to modify social norms and denormalize tobacco use.

2013-01-01

99

Insatiable demands: Income, energy and environmental policy in Madagascar  

SciTech Connect

The island nation of Madagascar is suffering the collision of three distinct trends: economic stagnation, a rapidly expanding population and a severely threatened natural resource base. Demands for growth, new energy reserves and environmental conservation, especially of forest resources, are creating a policy dilemma for both government officials and donors. This study seeks to bring new evidence to bear on this policy dilemma. Primary data on urban household income, family size and consumption of various energy types are used to test two main hypothesis (1) that charcoal, which constitutes the fuel of choice for a vast majority of the sample, is a normal rather than an inferior good, and (2) that demand for wood-fuels constitutes a genuine threat to the viability of the forest resource. The data indicate that income elasticities of demand for charcoal are positive over a broad range of per capita income levels, revealing that charcoal is, indeed a normal good for a large portion of the population represented by the sample. A model of forest degradation is built which establishes a clear link between wood-fuel demand and forest degradation. Together, these findings make clear that under current income patterns, and for the forseeable future, charcoal is a normal good and its consumption by urban residents constitutes a serious threat to the natural forest resource. The study concludes with a policy analysis which identifies existing market failures due to government policies and recommends changes based on tested policy prescriptions in other parts of the developing world.

Shaw, C.L.

1993-01-01

100

AVHRR-LAC estimates of forest area in Madagascar, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three AVHRR-LAC data sets acquired in September 1990 and January 1991 were used to map the forest resources of Madagascar. The island was partitioned into four strata to include: (1) the western hardwoods, (2) the central grasslands, (3) the eastern rainforest, and (4) spiny forest. Each stratum was classified separately using AVHRR-LAC data in conjunction with 1984-1988 Landsat-MSS photoproducts. The results of AVHRR classification indicate that approximately 11 percent of the island is covered by forest. Estimates of forest area, by stratum, are as follows: western hardwoods, 6697 sq km; central grasslands, 2830 sq km; eastern rainforest 34,167 sq km; and spiny forest, 17,224 sq km. The total forest area on the 587,041 sq km island is estimated to be 60,918 sq km. The AVHRR forest map was compared to a mid-1970s land cover map which was developed using Landsat-MSS photoproducts. The average class agreement between the mid 1970s ground reference map and the 1990 AVHRR-LAC map was 78.2 percent, the overall accuracy was 81.1 percent. Much of the per-pixel disagreement between the ground reference and AVHRR maps involved areas identified as forest in the 1970s and as nonforest in 1990.

Nelson, R.; Horning, N.

1993-01-01

101

Age progressive volcanism in the Comores Archipelago and Northern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comores islands and Tertiary volcanic province of Northern Madagascar form a sub-linear trend of alkalic shield volvanoes across the northern Mozambique Channel. Potassium-argon dating of shield building lavas confirms an eastward increase in age of volcanism along the chain, consistent with a hotspot origin for the lineament. The rate of migration of the Somali Plate over the mantle source is approximately 45 mm/yr. This new geochronology for the Comores island chain is used to model the absolute motion of the Somali Plate for the last 10 million years. A systematic departure of the Somali Plate absolute motion from the African Plate absolute motion during this period represents a component of relative motion across the East African Rift at the rate of .330 deg/m.y., about an Euler pole located at 63.6 deg. S,2.3. deg. E. The geometry of older portions of the Comores and Reunion trends indicates that there was no significant relative motion between the African and Somali Plates prior to about 10 m.y. ago. Sequential reconstructions from 200-0 m.y. are presented.

Emerick, C. M.

102

Immunological characteristics of malaria antibodies in two regions of Madagascar.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies directed against antigens of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum were studied in the plasma of 29 individuals infected with P. falciparum and living in two areas of Madagascar. These plasma samples were investigated by four immunological methods: indirect fluorescence, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled P. falciparum polypeptides, inhibition of the in vitro growth of P. falciparum, and double diffusion in a gelose plate. A multifactorial correspondence analysis of the results obtained for each sample revealed that the nature of several of the antibodies varied according to the age and place of residence of the subjects. In comparison with plasma samples from older individuals, specimens from young children had a higher immunofluorescence titer, immunoprecipitated several additional peptides (90, 110, and 118 kilodaltons), revealed more precipitation lines in the Ouchterlony plate technique, and did not inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum to the same extent. Furthermore, as opposed to plasma samples from individuals living in the high central plateau, plasma samples from individuals living on the east coast of the island inhibited the penetration of erythrocytes by merozoites of one of the two studied P. falciparum strains and preferentially immunoprecipitated low-, rather than high-, molecular-weight peptides.

Deloron, P; Jaureguiberry, G; Gaudebout, C; Le Bras, J; Savel, J; Pocidalo, J J

1987-01-01

103

Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Johnson, J. A.; Tingay, R. E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M. L.; Mindell, D. P.

2009-01-01

104

Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities.

2013-01-01

105

Delimiting Species without Nuclear Monophyly in Madagascar's Mouse Lemurs  

PubMed Central

Background Speciation begins when populations become genetically separated through a substantial reduction in gene flow, and it is at this point that a genetically cohesive set of populations attain the sole property of species: the independent evolution of a population-level lineage. The comprehensive delimitation of species within biodiversity hotspots, regardless of their level of divergence, is important for understanding the factors that drive the diversification of biota and for identifying them as targets for conservation. However, delimiting recently diverged species is challenging due to insufficient time for the differential evolution of characters—including morphological differences, reproductive isolation, and gene tree monophyly—that are typically used as evidence for separately evolving lineages. Methodology In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from the analysis of mtDNA and nDNA sequence data for the delimitation of a high diversity of cryptically diverged population-level mouse lemur lineages across the island of Madagascar. Our study uses a multi-faceted approach that applies phylogenetic, population genetic, and genealogical analysis for recognizing lineage diversity and presents the most thoroughly sampled species delimitation of mouse lemur ever performed. Conclusions The resolution of a large number of geographically defined clades in the mtDNA gene tree provides strong initial evidence for recognizing a high diversity of population-level lineages in mouse lemurs. We find additional support for lineage recognition in the striking concordance between mtDNA clades and patterns of nuclear population structure. Lineages identified using these two sources of evidence also exhibit patterns of population divergence according to genealogical exclusivity estimates. Mouse lemur lineage diversity is reflected in both a geographically fine-scaled pattern of population divergence within established and geographically widespread taxa, as well as newly resolved patterns of micro-endemism revealed through expanded field sampling into previously poorly and well-sampled regions.

Weisrock, David W.; Rasoloarison, Rodin M.; Fiorentino, Isabella; Ralison, Jose M.; Goodman, Steven M.; Kappeler, Peter M.; Yoder, Anne D.

2010-01-01

106

Climate change and the cost of conserving species in Madagascar.  

PubMed

We examined the cost of conserving species as climate changes. We used a Maxent species distribution model to predict the ranges from 2000 to 2080 of 74 plant species endemic to the forests of Madagascar under 3 climate scenarios. We set a conservation target of achieving 10,000 ha of forest cover for each species and calculated the cost of achieving this target under each scenario. We interviewed managers of projects to restore native forests and conducted a literature review to obtain the net present cost per hectare of management actions to maintain or establish forest cover. For each species, we added hectares of land from lowest to highest cost per additional year of forest cover until the conservation target was achieved throughout the time period. Climate change was predicted to reduce the size of species' ranges, the overlap between species' ranges and existing or planned protected areas, and the overlap between species' ranges and existing forest. As a result, climate change increased the cost of achieving the conservation target by necessitating successively more costly management actions: additional management within existing protected areas (US$0-60/ha); avoidance of forest degradation (i.e., loss of biomass) in community-managed areas ($160-576/ha); avoidance of deforestation in unprotected areas ($252-1069/ha); and establishment of forest on nonforested land within protected areas ($802-2710/ha), in community-managed areas ($962-3226/ha), and in unprotected areas ($1054-3719/ha). Our results suggest that although forest restoration may be required for the conservation of some species as climate changes, it is more cost-effective to maintain existing forest wherever possible. PMID:22497442

Busch, Jonah; Dave, Radhika; Hannah, Lee; Cameron, Alison; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Roehrdanz, Patrick; Schatz, George

2012-06-01

107

Blindness and Cataract Surgical Services in Atsinanana Region, Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness in Atsinanana Region, Madagascar, with the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey. We analyzed the hospital records to supplement the findings for public health care planning. Materials and Methods: Only villages within a two-hour walk from a road, about half of the population of Atsinanana was included. Seventy-two villages were selected by population-proportional-to-size sampling. In each village, compact segment sampling was used to select 50 people over age 50 for eye examination using standard RAAB methods. Records at the two hospitals providing cataract surgery in the region were analyzed for information on patients who underwent cataract surgery in 2010. Cataract incidence rate and target cataract surgery rate (CSR) was modeled from age-specific prevalence of cataract. Results: The participation rate was 87% and the sample prevalence of blindness was 1.96%. Cataract was responsible for 64% and 85.7% of blindness and severe visual impairment, respectively. Visual impairment was due to cataract (69.4%) and refractive error (14.1%). There was a strong positive correlation between cataract surgical rate by district and the proportion of people living within 2 hours of a road. There were marked differences in the profiles of the cataract patients at the two facilities. The estimated incidence of cataract at the 6/18 level was 2.4 eyes per 100 people over age 50 per year. Conclusions: Although the survey included only people with reasonable access, the main cause of visual impairment was still cataract. The incidence of cataract is such that it ought to be possible to eliminate it as a cause of visual impairment, but changes in service delivery at hospitals and strategies to improve access will be necessary for this change.

Randrianaivo, Jean-Baptiste; Anholt, R. Michele; Tendrisoa, Diarimirindra Lazaharivony; Margiano, Nestor Jean; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

2014-01-01

108

THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Muldoon, K. M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E. L.; Chatrath, P. S.

2009-01-01

109

Which Advisory System to Support Innovation in Conservation Agriculture? The Case of Madagascar's Lake Alaotra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To promote sustainable agriculture, various development projects are encouraging farmers around Madagascar's Lake Alaotra to adopt conservation agriculture techniques. This article's objective is to analyze the capacity of a project-funded advisory system to accompany such an innovation and to design and implement an advisory method aimed…

Faure, Guy; Penot, Eric; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostome; Ramahatoraka, Haja Andrisoa; Dugue, Patrick; Toillier, Aurelie

2013-01-01

110

The skull of Rapetosaurus krausei (Sauropoda: Titanosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapetosaurus krausei (Sauropoda: Titanosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of Madagascar is the best-preserved and most complete titanosaur yet described. The skull of Rapetosaurus is particularly significant because most titanosaurs are diagnosed solely on the basis of fragmentary postcranial material, and knowledge of the titanosaur skull has remained incomplete. Material referred to Rapetosaurus includes the type skull from an

Kristina Curry Rogers; Catherine A. Forster

2004-01-01

111

New material of Menadon besairiei (Cynodontia: Traversodontidae) from the Triassic of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

New specimens of the traversodontid cynodont Menadon besairiei from the Middle\\/Late Triassic ‘Isalo II’ beds of southwestern Madagascar are described. The new specimens include a skull and the first postcranial material described for this taxon. Although the referred skull differs from the holotype of M. besairiei in some regards, these differences are interpreted as intraspecific variation and preservational artifacts. The

Christian F. Kammerer; John J. Flynn; Lovasoa Ranivoharimanana; André R. Wyss

2008-01-01

112

A granite–gabbro complex from Madagascar: constraints on melting of the lower crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ranomandry Complex is a Neoproterozoic, nested intrusion from central Madagascar composed of a gabbroic core within a coeval peraluminous granite ring intruding pelitic metasediments. Although xenocryst entrainment and magma mixing have both contributed to marginal phases of the granite, the primary melt is characterised by steep LREE\\/HREE ratios and negligible, or slightly positive, Eu anomalies. Both isotopic and trace

Andy McMillan; Nigel B. W. Harris; Marian Holness; Lewis Ashwal; Simon Kelley; Roger Rambeloson

2003-01-01

113

Effects of Transect Selection and Seasonality on Lemur Density Estimates in Southeastern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated how transect type (trails vs. cut transects) and seasonality influenced density estimates for 5 lemur taxa (Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Eulemur rubriventer, Hapalemur griseus griseus, and Microcebus rufus) in the Vohibola III Classified Forest in SE Madagascar. I surveyed tree height and diameter and lemur populations from June 1 to December 28, 2004 along 2 1250-m trails local people

Shawn M. Lehman

2006-01-01

114

Aye-aye population genomic analyses highlight an important center of endemism in northern Madagascar  

PubMed Central

We performed a population genomics study of the aye-aye, a highly specialized nocturnal lemur from Madagascar. Aye-ayes have low population densities and extensive range requirements that could make this flagship species particularly susceptible to extinction. Therefore, knowledge of genetic diversity and differentiation among aye-aye populations is critical for conservation planning. Such information may also advance our general understanding of Malagasy biogeography, as aye-ayes have the largest species distribution of any lemur. We generated and analyzed whole-genome sequence data for 12 aye-ayes from three regions of Madagascar (North, West, and East). We found that the North population is genetically distinct, with strong differentiation from other aye-ayes over relatively short geographic distances. For comparison, the average FST value between the North and East aye-aye populations—separated by only 248 km—is over 2.1-times greater than that observed between human Africans and Europeans. This finding is consistent with prior watershed- and climate-based hypotheses of a center of endemism in northern Madagascar. Taken together, these results suggest a strong and long-term biogeographical barrier to gene flow. Thus, the specific attention that should be directed toward preserving large, contiguous aye-aye habitats in northern Madagascar may also benefit the conservation of other distinct taxonomic units. To help facilitate future ecological- and conservation-motivated population genomic analyses by noncomputational biologists, the analytical toolkit used in this study is available on the Galaxy Web site.

Perry, George H.; Louis, Edward E.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Burhans, Richard C.; Lei, Runhua; Johnson, Steig E.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Miller, Webb

2013-01-01

115

Population and Territory Stability of the Lemur catta at Berenty, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Lemur catta troops at Berenty, Madagascar have been censused repeatedly since 1963. In 1972, the entire reserve was censused. A recensus in 1975 showed that although some minor changes have occurred in the number of animals in individual troops, the population of the reserve as a whole, the core areas of the lemurs’ territories, and their home range boundaries

Anne S. Mertl-Míllhollen; Herbert L. Gustafson; Norman Budnitz; Kathryn Dainis; Alison Jolly

1979-01-01

116

Has Vicariance or Dispersal Been the Predominant Biogeographic Force in Madagascar? Only Time Will Tell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar is one of the world's hottest biodiversity hot spots due to its diverse, endemic, and highly threatened biota. This biota shows a distinct signature of evolution in isolation, both in the high levels of diversity within lineages and in the imbalance of lineages that are represented. For example, chameleon diversity is the highest of any place on Earth, yet

Anne D. Yoder; Michael D. Nowak

2006-01-01

117

Patterns of amphibian and reptile diversity at Berara Forest (Sahamalaza Peninsula), NW Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibians and reptiles were surveyed at Berara, a forest on the Sahamalaza Peninsula, NW Madagascar. Visual methods and pitfalls were used, leading to the discovery of 12 amphibian and 30 reptile species. The herpetofaunal community appeared as a mosaic of dry forest species and species from the more humid Sambirano Domain. The comparatively low amphibian diversity may be correlated with

Franco Andreone; Miguel Vences; Jasmin Emile Randrianirina

2001-01-01

118

Examining the Environmental Awareness of Children and Adolescents in the Ranomafana Region, Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines children's and adolescents' environmental awareness in rural Madagascar. Two types of school survey among 8- to 21-year-old students and pupils in 18 schools were used for data collection. The objective of this comparative study was to examine the environmental awareness and knowledge of children and adolescents living under…

Korhonen, Kaisa; Lappalainen, Anu

2004-01-01

119

Farmers' Welfare and Changing Food Prices: Nonparametric Evidence from Rice in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses nonparametric density estimation and kernel smoothing techniques to examine the instantaneous distributional implications of rice price changes in Madagascar. While many farmers do not participate in product markets as either buyers or sellers, and net sales or marketable surplus are fairly small for many others, the roughly one-third of rice farmers who fall below the poverty line

Christopher B. Barrett; Paul A. Dorosh

1996-01-01

120

Reconciling fossils and molecules: Cenozoic divergence of cichlid fishes and the biogeography of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The biogeographical origins of the extant vertebrates endemic to Madagascar are largely unsolved, but have often been related to vicariance in the context of fragmentation of the supercontinent Gondwana in the Mesozoic. Such hypotheses are especially appealing in the case of cichlid fishes, which show phylogenetic relationships reflecting the temporal successions of the breakup of Gondwana. We used molecular

M. Vences; J. Freyhof; R. Sonnenberg; J. Kosuch; M. Veith

2001-01-01

121

Tectonic framework of the Precambrian of Madagascar and its Gondwana connections: a review and reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precambrian of Madagascar is divided into two sectors by the north-west trending sinistral Ranotsara shear zone, which continues in the Mozambique belt, probably as the Surma shear zone, and in Southern India as the Achankovil shear zone. South of Ranotsara six north-south trending tectonic belts are recognized that consist largely of granulite and high amphibolite facies paragneisses, phlogopite diopsidites,

B. F. Windley; A. Razafiniparany; T. Razakamanana; D. Ackermand

1994-01-01

122

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a

M. Alex Smith; Brian L. Fisher; Paul D. N. Hebert

2005-01-01

123

Determinants of credit rationing: A study of informal lenders and formal credit groups in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on the determinants of credit rationing exclusively focused on thebehavior of formal lenders who contract directly with an individual borrower. Based on ahousehold survey in Madagascar, this paper presents an analysis of credit rationing behaviorby informal lenders and by members of community-based groups that allocate formal grouploans among themselves. The results show that group members obtain and use

Manfred Zeller

1994-01-01

124

Aligning Conservation Priorities Across Taxa in Madagascar with High-Resolution Planning Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, priority areas for biodiversity are relatively well known, yet few detailed plans exist to direct conservation action within them, despite urgent need. Madagascar, like other globally recognized biodiversity hot spots, has complex spatial patterns of endemism that differ among taxonomic groups, creating challenges for the selection of within-country priorities. We show, in an analysis of wide taxonomic and geographic

C. Kremen; A. Cameron; A. Moilanen; S. J. Phillips; C. D. Thomas; H. Beentje; J. Dransfield; B. L. Fisher; F. Glaw; T. C. Good; G. J. Harper; R. J. Hijmans; D. C. Lees; E. Louis; R. A. Nussbaum; C. J. Raxworthy; A. Razafimpahanana; G. E. Schatz; M. Vences; D. R. Vieites; P. C. Wright; M. L. Zjhra

2008-01-01

125

Understanding Mortality and the Life of the Ancestors in Rural Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across two studies, a wide age range of participants was interviewed about the nature of death. All participants were living in rural Madagascar in a community where ancestral beliefs and practices are widespread. In Study 1, children (8-17 years) and adults (19-71 years) were asked whether bodily and mental processes continue after death. The…

Astuti, Rita; Harris, Paul L.

2008-01-01

126

Designing the Masoala National Park in Madagascar Based on Biological and Socioeconomic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists have developed powerful tools for reserve selection and design over the past two decades, yet seldom are protected areas actually designed on scientific grounds. Using fundamental biological and socioeconomic principles of conservation science, we designed a new protected area and its multiple-use zone on the Masoala Peninsula in the humid forest zone of Madagascar. The explicit design cri-

Claire Kremen; Vincent Razafimahatratra; R. Philip Guillery; Jocelyn Rakotomalala; Andrew Weiss; Jean-Solo Ratsisompatrarivo

1999-01-01

127

TREE-CLIMBING CRABS (POTAMONAUTIDAE AND SESARMIDAE) FROM PHYTOTELMIC MICROHABITATS IN RAINFOREST CANOPY IN MADAGASCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of two species of tree-climbing crabs, Malagasya antongilensis (Rathbun, 1905) (Potamonautidae) and Labuanium gracilipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (Sesarmidae), collected from container microhabitats (phytotelmata) in rainforest in the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar, is described. This is a rare report of a tree-climbing phytotelmic sesarmid crab living in the rainforest canopy, and the first record of a species of true

Neil Cumberlidge; Danté B. Fenolio; Mark E. Walvoord; Jim Stout

2005-01-01

128

Craniofacial morphology of Simosuchus clarki (Crocodyliformes: Notosuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simosuchus clarki is a small, pug-nosed notosuchian crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Originally described on the basis of a single specimen including a remarkably complete and well-preserved skull and lower jaw, S. clarki is now known from five additional specimens that preserve portions of the craniofacial skeleton. Collectively, these six specimens represent all elements of the head skeleton

Nathan J. Kley; Joseph J. W. Sertich; Alan H. Turner; David W. Krause; Patrick M. OConnor; Justin A. Georgi

2010-01-01

129

Drug-Resistant Malaria Parasites Introduced into Madagascar from Comoros Islands  

PubMed Central

To determine risk for drug-resistant malaria parasites entering Madagascar from Comoros Islands, we screened travelers. For the 141 Plasmodium falciparum isolates detected by real-time PCR, frequency of mutant alleles of genes associated with resistance to chloroquine and pyrimethamine was high. International-level antimalarial policy and a regional antimalarial forum are needed.

Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugene; Ahmed, Bedja Said; Jahevitra, Martial; Andriantsoanirina, Landy Valerie; Rasolofomanana, Justin Ranjalahy; Rabarijaona, Leon Paul

2007-01-01

130

Missed opportunities and missing markets: Spatio-temporal arbitrage of rice in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper uses an exceptionallyrich data set to test the extent to which markets in Madagascar are integrated across space, time, and form (in converting from paddy to rice) and to explain some of the factors that limit arbitrage and price equalization within a single country. In particular, we use rice price data across four quarters of 2000-2001 along

Christine Moser; Christopher B. Barrett; Bart Minten

2004-01-01

131

Vetiver Victorious: The Systematic Use of Vetiver to Save Madagascar's FCE Railway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, two cyclones hit the island nation of Madagascar in a two-week period. The devastation to infrastructur es was enormous. Among the worst hit was the FCE train line in the southeastern part of the country that suffered more than 280 landslides. The line was closed for three months, causing severe hardship to the more than 100 000 people

Diti Hengchaovanich; Karen Schoonmaker Freudenberger

132

The osteology of Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small abelisauroid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the osteology of the new small theropod dinosaur Masiakasaurus knopfleri, from the Late Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of northwestern Madagascar. Approximately 40% of the skeleton is known, including parts of the jaws, axial column, forelimb, pelvic girdle, and hind limb. The jaws of Masiakasaurus are remarkably derived, bearing a heterodont, procumbent dentition that is unknown elsewhere among dinosaurs. The

Matthew T. Carrano; Scott D. Sampson; Catherine A. Forster

2002-01-01

133

Phylogenetic relationships of Trachylepis skink species from Madagascar and the Seychelles (Squamata: Scincidae).  

PubMed

Lizards of the genus Trachylepis are a species-rich group of skinks mainly inhabiting Africa, Madagascar, and several other islands in the western Indian Ocean. All except one probably introduced species of Madagascan Trachylepis are endemic. Two species groups have been distinguished on the basis of subocular scale shape but their phylogenetic relationships remained unclear. We inferred a multilocus phylogeny of the Madagascan Trachylepis species, based on a concatenated dataset of 3261 bp from 3 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear genes with a dense Madagascan taxon sampling and find high support for the monophyly of the endemic Madagascan Trachylepis. The two species groups in Madagascar are highly supported as clades. The highland species T. boettgeri is nested in the T. aureopunctata species group of mainly arid-adapted species, suggesting a colonization of highland swamps by ancestors inhabiting dry western Madagascar. The Seychellois species were sister to the T. maculilabris/T. comorensis clade, suggesting their origin directly out of Africa as with Seychellois chameleons. In Madagascar, a high intraspecific molecular variation was confirmed for T. gravenhorstii, T. elegans, and T. vato, indicating a need for taxonomic revision. PMID:23435267

Lima, Alexandra; James Harris, D; Rocha, Sara; Miralles, Aurélien; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

2013-06-01

134

Short message service sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in Madagascar, 2008-2012  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem The revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR) and the threat of influenza pandemics and other disease outbreaks with a major impact on developing countries have prompted bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly in low-resource settings. Approach Surveillance tools with well-timed, validated data are necessary to strengthen disease surveillance. In 2007 Madagascar implemented a sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness (ILI) based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners. Setting Before 2007, Madagascar’s disease surveillance was based on the passive collection and reporting of data aggregated weekly or monthly. The system did not allow for the early identification of outbreaks or unexpected increases in disease incidence. Relevant changes An innovative case reporting system based on the use of cell phones was launched in March 2007. Encrypted short message service, which costs less than 2 United States dollars per month per health centre, is now being used by sentinel general practitioners for the daily reporting of cases of fever and ILI seen in their practices. To validate the daily data, practitioners also report epidemiological and clinical data (e.g. new febrile patient’s sex, age, visit date, symptoms) weekly to the epidemiologists on the research team using special patient forms. Lessons learnt Madagascar’s sentinel ILI surveillance system represents the country’s first nationwide “real-time” surveillance system. It has proved the feasibility of improving disease surveillance capacity through innovative systems despite resource constraints. This type of syndromic surveillance can detect unexpected increases in the incidence of ILI and other syndromic illnesses.

Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Orelle, Arnaud; Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Raoelina, Yolande Nirina; Ravolomanana, Lisette; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ramanjato, Robinson; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugene

2012-01-01

135

Agro-Environmental Determinants of Avian Influenza Circulation: A Multisite Study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004–2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced.

Paul, Mathilde C.; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stephanie; Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, Harena; Peyre, Marisa; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Veronique

2014-01-01

136

Madagascar corals reveal a multidecadal signature of rainfall and river runoff since 1708  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST) influence rainfall variability on multidecadal and interdecadal timescales in concert with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Rainfall variations in locations such as Australia and North America are therefore linked to phase changes in the PDO. Furthermore, studies have suggested teleconnections exist between the western Indian Ocean and Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV), similar to those observed on interannual timescales related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, as instrumental records of rainfall are too short and sparse to confidently assess multidecadal climatic teleconnections, here we present four coral climate archives from Madagascar spanning up to the past 300 yr (1708-2008) to assess such decadal variability. Using spectral luminescence scanning to reconstruct past changes in river runoff, we identify significant multidecadal and interdecadal frequencies in the coral records, which before 1900 are coherent with Asian-based PDO reconstructions. This multidecadal relationship with the Asian-based PDO reconstructions points to an unidentified teleconnection mechanism that affects Madagascar rainfall/runoff, most likely triggered by multidecadal changes in North Pacific SST, influencing the Asian Monsoon circulation. In the 20th century we decouple human deforestation effects from rainfall-induced soil erosion by pairing luminescence with coral geochemistry. Positive PDO phases are associated with increased Indian Ocean temperatures and runoff/rainfall in eastern Madagascar, while precipitation in southern Africa and eastern Australia declines. Consequently, the negative PDO phase that started in 1998 may contribute to reduced rainfall over eastern Madagascar and increased precipitation in southern Africa and eastern Australia. We conclude that multidecadal rainfall variability in Madagascar and the western Indian Ocean needs to be taken into account when considering water resource management under a future warming climate.

Grove, C. A.; Zinke, J.; Peeters, F.; Park, W.; Scheufen, T.; Kasper, S.; Randriamanantsoa, B.; McCulloch, M. T.; Brummer, G.-J. A.

2013-03-01

137

Geological evolution of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Antongil Craton, along with the Masora and Antananarivo cratons, make up the fundamental Archaean building blocks of the island of Madagascar. They were juxtaposed during the late-Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic assembly of Gondwana. In this paper we give a synthesis of the geology of the Antongil Craton and present previously published and new geochemical and U-Pb zircon analyses to provide an event history for its evolution.The oldest rocks in the Antongil Craton form a nucleus of tonalitic gneiss, characteristic of Palaeo-Mesoarchaean cratons globally, including phases dated between 3320 ?? 14. Ma to 3231 ?? 6. Ma and 3187 ?? 2. Ma to 3154 ?? 5. Ma. A series of mafic dykes was intruded into the Mesoarchaean tonalites and a sedimentary succession was deposited on the craton prior to pervasive deformation and migmatisation of the region. The age of deposition of the metasediments has been constrained from a volcanic horizon to around 3178 ?? 2. Ma and subject to migmatisation at around 2597 ?? 49. Ma. A subsequent magmatic episode generated voluminous, weakly foliated granitic rocks, that also included additions from both reworked older crustal material and younger source components. An earlier granodiorite-dominated assemblage, dated between 2570 ?? 18. Ma and 2542 ?? 5. Ma, is largely exposed in xenoliths and more continuously in the northern part of the craton, while a later monzogranite-dominated phase, dated between 2531 ?? 13. Ma and 2513 ?? 0.4. Ma is more widely developed. Together these record the stabilisation of the craton, attested to by the intrusion of a younger dyke swarm, the age of which is constrained by a sample of metagabbro dated at 2147 ?? 6. Ma, providing the first evidence for Palaeoproterozoic rocks from the Antongil Craton.The youngest events recorded in the isotopic record of the Antongil Craton are reflected in metamorphism, neocrystallisation and Pb-loss at 792 ?? 130. Ma to 763 ?? 13. Ma and 553 ?? 68. Ma. These events are interpreted as being the only manifestation of the Pan-African orogeny seen in the craton, which led to the assembly of the tectonic blocks that comprise the island. ?? 2010 NERC.

Schofield, D. I.; Thomas, R. J.; Goodenough, K. M.; De Waele, B.; Pitfield, P. E. J.; Key, R. M.; Bauer, W.; Walsh, G. J.; Lidke, D. J.; Ralison, A. V.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J. M.; Randriamananjara, T.

2010-01-01

138

Revision of the genera Hovadelium Ardoin and Mimolaena Ardoin (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Laenini) from Madagascar, with remarks on tribal assignment.  

PubMed

The genera Hovadelium Ardoin, 1961 and Mimolaena Ardoin, 1961, endemic in Madagascar, are revised and assigned to the tribe Laenini Seidlitz, 1896 (subfamily Lagriinae Latreille, 1825). New species: Hovadelium ardoini sp. n., Hovadelium bremeri sp. n. and Mimolaena janaki sp. n. An identification key is compiled for all taxa. Distribution of Hovadelium (5 species) and Mimolaena (3 species) is mapped. The congeners might be indicator species for the highly endangered mature forests in Madagascar. PMID:24039536

Schawaller, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

139

Revision of the genera Hovadelium Ardoin and Mimolaena Ardoin (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Laenini) from Madagascar, with remarks on tribal assignment1  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genera Hovadelium Ardoin, 1961 and Mimolaena Ardoin, 1961, endemic in Madagascar, are revised and assigned to the tribe Laenini Seidlitz, 1896 (subfamily Lagriinae Latreille, 1825). New species: Hovadelium ardoini sp. n., Hovadelium bremeri sp. n. and Mimolaena janaki sp. n. An identification key is compiled for all taxa. Distribution of Hovadelium (5 species) and Mimolaena (3 species) is mapped. The congeners might be indicator species for the highly endangered mature forests in Madagascar.

Schawaller, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

140

Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.  

PubMed

Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns. PMID:20517634

Wollenberg, Katharina C; Jenkins, Richard K B; Randrianavelona, Roma; Ralisata, Mahefa; Rampilamanana, Roseline; Ramanandraibe, Andrianirina; Ravoahangimalala, Olga Ramilijaona; Vences, Miguel

2010-06-01

141

Deforestation history of the eastern rain forests of Madagascar from satellite images  

SciTech Connect

Madagascar is biologically one of the richest areas on Earth, and its plants and animals are among the most endangered. Satellite images and vegetation maps based on earlier aerial photographs were used to determine the extent of eastern rain forests in Madagascar and to monitor the rate of deforestation over a 35-year period. In 1985, 3.8 million hectares of rain forest remained, representing only 50% of the 7.6 million hectares existing in 1950 and 34% of the estimated original extent (11.2 million hectares). Between 1950 and 1985, the rate of deforestation averaged 111,000 hectares per year. Deforestation was most rapid in areas with low topographic relief and high population density. If cutting of forests continues at the same pace, only forests on the steepest slopes will survive the next 35 years.

Green, G.M.; Sussman, R.W. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-04-13

142

New species of woolly lemur Avahi (primates: lemuriformes) in Bemaraha (Central Western Madagascar).  

PubMed

There are at least three distinct taxa of woolly lemurs (genus Avahi) in western Madagascar. The range of Avahi occidentalis extends north and east of the Betsiboka River to the Bay of Narinda. Avahi unicolor occurs well to the north, including the Ampasindava peninsula and the Manongarivo Special Reserve. Here we describe a third Avahi population in central western Madagascar, which was discovered in the Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve in the Tsingy de Bemaraha region, north of the Manambolo River. The description is based on a released type individual from which we obtained hair samples, photographs, and tape and video recordings. Its entire range is believed to be less than 5,000 km(2), and forest loss, along with an observed continuing decline in numbers, indicates that this species should be considered Endangered or even Critically Endangered, according to the Red List criteria of the World Conservation Union-IUCN. PMID:16287101

Thalmann, Urs; Geissmann, Thomas

2005-11-01

143

Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

Tucker, R. D.; Roig, J. -Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M. H.; Ralison, A. V.; Belcher, R. W.

2011-01-01

144

Chemical Compositions of Aerial Part Essential Oils of Lantana camara L. Chemotypes from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of 12 essential oil samples of the aerial parts of two flower color types of Lantana camara from Madagascar collected each month of the year, have been characterized by GC and GC\\/MS. The main components changed within the two flower color types. The pink-violet flower type contained mainly davanone (23.5%), ?-caryophyllene (11.7%), sabinene (10.4%), linalool (5.9%) and

Jean-Aimé Randrianalijaona; Panja A. R. Ramanoelina; Jean R. E. Rasoarahona; Emile M. Gaydou

2006-01-01

145

Riverbeds demarcate distinct conservation units of the radiated tortoise ( Geochelone radiata ) in southern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata) is an endangered species endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits the semiarid spiny forest of the southern part of the island,\\u000a an ecosystem heavily affected by habitat destruction. Furthermore, illegal harvesting greatly threatens this species. The\\u000a main objective of our study was to acquire better knowledge of its genetic structure, in order to take appropriate management

Sébastien Rioux Paquette; Sandra M. Behncke; Susan H. O’Brien; Rick A. Brenneman; Edward E. Louis; François-Joseph Lapointe

2007-01-01

146

Eddies and dipoles around South Madagascar: formation, pathways and large-scale impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a hydrographic cruise in March 2001, we encountered a dipole-like vortex structure directly southwest of Madagascar. The cruise formed part of the Dutch-South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment (ACSEX). Direct current observations with a lowered ADCP showed that the multipole involved a deep-reaching central jet, with over 20cm\\/s speeds still at 2000m depth, with two contra-rotating eddies on either

Wilhelmus P. M. de Ruijter; Hendrik M. van Aken; Emilio J. Beier; Johann R. E. Lutjeharms; Ricardo P. Matano; Mathijs W. Schouten

2004-01-01

147

The impact of selective logging on forest structure and tenrec populations in western Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette étude met en évidence quelques effets de l'exploitation séléctive de la forêt sur la structure de la végétation et les conséquences pour deux espèces de tenrecs dans une forêt sèche à l'ouest de Madagascar. Dans un domaine limité, l'exploitation de bois de moins de 10 m3 par ha change considérablement la structure de la forêt. Mais si on considère

J. U. Ganzhorn; A. W. Ganzhorn; J.-P. Abraham; L. Andriamanarivo; A. Ramananjatovo

1990-01-01

148

First full genome sequence of a human enterovirus a120, isolated in madagascar.  

PubMed

We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined. PMID:24948760

Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

149

Liberalization and Food Price Distributions: ARCH-M Evidence From Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no well-articulated theory of how stochastic food prices respond to economic liberalization measures, a surprising oversight in the vast literature on market-oriented reforms. This paper presents reduced form estimates of the effects of liberalization measures on food commodity prices in Madagascar using autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic in mean (ARCH-M) methods. The data indicate that the short-term effects of liberalization

Christopher B. Barrett

1997-01-01

150

Cycles of Activity, Group Composition, and Diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6–8 individuals. However, we found the animals

Robert W. Sussman; Ian Tattersall

1976-01-01

151

Troop Continuity and Troop Spacing in Propithecus verreauxi and Lemur catta at Berenty (Madagascar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sifaka troops (Propithecus verreauxi) at Berenty, Madagascar, seem stable numerically, geographically, and in pacing behavior. Recognizeable individuals preserved their 1963–1964 ranges in 1970, in a classical mosaic of defended territories. Lemur catta had twice as many troops of half the mean size in 1970, and had changed from spatial exclusivity to time-plan spacing, both within and between troops, with inter-troop

Alison Jolly

1972-01-01

152

The boundary currents east and north of Madagascar 2. Direct measurements and model comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moored current measurements of 11-month duration were carried out in the boundary currents east of Madagascar, near 12°S at Cape Amber where the mean current flows northwestward and near 23°S where the mean current flows approximately southward. Transports derived from the moored current measurements in the depth range 150-1100 m compare resonably well with those derived from ship sections by

Friedrich Schott; Michèle Fieux; John Kindle; John Swallow; Rainer Zantopp

1988-01-01

153

A Molecular Phylogeny of Four Endangered Madagascar Tortoises Based on MtDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of the five tortoise species in Madagascar,Pyxis arachnoides, P. planicauda, Geochelone radiata,andG. yniphora,are endemic and on the verge of extinction. Their phylogenetic relationships remain controversial and unresolved. Here we address the phylogeny of this group using DNA sequences for the 12S and 16S rDNA and cytbgenes in mitochondrial DNA. As outgroups we used two species ofGeochelone, pardalis(mainland Africa) andnigra(Galápagos),

Adalgisa Caccone; George Amato; Oliver C. Gratry; John Behler; Jeffrey R. Powell

1999-01-01

154

Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire

T. Nobre; P. Eggleton; D. K. Aanen

2010-01-01

155

The evolution of extinction risk: past and present anthropogenic impacts on the primate communities of Madagascar.  

PubMed

There are two possible approaches to understanding natural and human-induced changes in the primate communities of Madagascar. One is to begin with present-day and recent historic interactions and work backwards. A second is to begin with paleoecological records of Malagasy primate communities before and immediately following human arrival, and the associated evidence of human and nonhuman primate interactions, and work forwards. On the basis of biological and climatic studies, as well as historic and ethnohistoric records, we are beginning to understand the abiotic and biotic characteristics of Madagascar's habitats, the lemurs' ecological adaptations to these unique habitats, the extent of forest loss, fragmentation and hunting, and the differential vulnerability of extant lemur species to these pressures. On the basis of integrated paleoecological, archaeological and paleontological research, we have begun to construct a detailed chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar. We are beginning to understand the complex sequence of events that led to one of the most dramatic recent megafaunal extinction/extirpation events. Combining the perspectives of the past and the present, we see a complex set of interactions affecting an initially rich but vulnerable fauna. The total evidence refutes any simple, unicausal (e.g. hunting/habitat destruction/climate change) explanation of megafaunal extinctions, yet unequivocally supports a major role--both direct and indirect--for humans as the trigger of the extinction process. It also supports a change over time in the relative importance of hunting versus habitat loss, and in the trophic characteristics of the primate communities in Madagascar. PMID:17855790

Godfrey, Laurie R; Irwin, Mitchell T

2007-01-01

156

Economic Crisis and Changes in Mortality Due to Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Antananarivo, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar was severely affected by the economic crisis that hit sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s. The crisis, exacerbated\\u000a by a high degree of political instability, led to food shortages in the mid-1980s. The impact on mortality is not well known,\\u000a owing to a lack of statistics for the whole island. Systematic analysis of the registers of the Municipal Hygiene Office

Dominique Waltisperger

157

First Full Genome Sequence of a Human Enterovirus A120, Isolated in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined.

Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

158

An analysis of bird communities in the Tsingy Forest of Madagascar's western domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramanitra, N.A. 2000. An analysis of bird communities in the Tsingy Forest of Madagascar's western domain. Ostrich: 71 (1):51.Composition of the bird communities at different habitats in the Tsingy Forest may be influenced by weather. The species, which occur in this region are important, but the presence of several eastern species was very surprising. Canyon and reservoirs of water in

N. A. Ramanitra

2000-01-01

159

Habitat Use, Roost Selection and Conservation of Bats in Tsingy De Bemaraha National Park, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the land mammals of Madagascar have been the subject of many studies, the island’s bats have yet to feature prominently\\u000a on the research or conservation agenda. In this study we used mist nets, acoustic sampling and cave surveys to assess habitat\\u000a use, seasonality and roost selection. Four microchiropteran species (Triaenops rufus, T. furculus, Miniopterus manavi and Myotis goudoti) appeared

Amyot Kofoky; Daudet Andriafidison; Fanja Ratrimomanarivo; H. Julie Razafimanahaka; Daniel Rakotondravony; Paul A. Racey; Richard K. B. Jenkins

2007-01-01

160

Habitat use, roost selection and conservation of bats in Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the land mammals of Madagascar have been the subject of many studies, the island’s bats have yet to feature prominently\\u000a on the research or conservation agenda. In this study we used mist nets, acoustic sampling and cave surveys to assess habitat\\u000a use, seasonality and roost selection. Four microchiropteran species (Triaenops rufus, T. furculus, Miniopterus manavi and Myotis goudoti) appeared

Amyot Kofoky; Daudet Andriafidison; Fanja Ratrimomanarivo; H. Julie Razafimanahaka; Daniel Rakotondravony; Paul A. Racey; Richard K. B. Jenkins

161

Detecting cryptic speciation in the widespread and morphologically conservative carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis) of Madagascar.  

PubMed

Species delimitation within recently evolved groups can be challenging because species may be difficult to distinguish morphologically. Following the General Lineage Concept, we apply a multiple evidence approach to assess species limits within the carpet chameleon Furcifer lateralis, which is endemic to Madagascar and exported in large numbers for the pet trade. Cryptic speciation within F. lateralis was considered likely because this species (1) has a vast distribution, (2) occupies exceptionally diverse habitats and (3) exhibits subtle regional differences in morphology. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes recovered three well-supported clades corresponding with geography. Morphological results based on canonical variates analysis show that these clades exhibit subtle differences in head casque morphology. Ecological niche modelling results found that these phylogenetic groups also occupy unique environmental space and exhibit patterns of regional endemism typical of other endemic reptiles. Combined, our findings provide diverse yet consistent evidence for the existence of three species. Consequently, we elevate the subspecies F. lateralis major to species rank and name a new species distributed in northern and western Madagascar. Initial ecological divergence, associated with speciation of F. lateralis in humid eastern habitat, fits the Ecographic Constraint model for species diversification in Madagascar. By contrast, the second speciation event provides some support for the Riverine Barrier model, with the Mangoky River possibly causing initial isolation between species. These findings thus support two contrasting models of speciation within closely related species and demonstrate the utility of applying a combined-evidence approach for detecting cryptic speciation. PMID:22686488

Florio, A M; Ingram, C M; Rakotondravony, H A; Louis, E E; Raxworthy, C J

2012-07-01

162

Frugivory in four sympatric lemurs: implications for the future of Madagascar's forests.  

PubMed

Although some conservationists accept that not all species can be saved, we illustrate the difficulty in deciding which species are dispensable. In this article, we examine the possibility that the integrity of a forest relies on its entire faunal assemblage. In Madagascar, one faunal group, the lemurs, accounts for the greatest biomass and species richness among frugivores. For example, 7 of the 13 sympatric lemur species in Madagascar's eastern rainforests consume primarily fruit. Because of this, we suggest that some tree species may rely heavily on particular lemur taxa for both seed dispersal and germination. In Ranomafana National Park, the diets for four of the day-active lemur frugivores have been documented during annual cycles over a 5-year period. We predicted that, although the fruit of some plant taxa would be exploited by multiple lemur species, the fruit of others would be eaten by one lemur species alone. Analyses reveal that while lemurs overlap in a number of fruit taxa exploited, 46% (16/35) of families and 56% (29/52) of genera are eaten exclusively by one lemur species. We, therefore, predict local changes in forest composition and structure if certain of these lemur species are eliminated from a forest owing to hunting, disease, or habitat disturbance. We also suggest that this result may be of global significance because carbon sequestration by the tropical forests in Madagascar may be reduced as a result of this predicted change in forest composition. PMID:21437928

Wright, Patricia C; Tecot, Stacey R; Erhart, Elizabeth M; Baden, Andrea L; King, Stephen J; Grassi, Christina

2011-06-01

163

Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?  

PubMed

The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire these symbionts secondarily from the environment for most species (horizontal symbiont transmission). Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that all extant species of fungus-growing termites of Madagascar are the result of a single colonization event of termites belonging to one of the only two groups with vertical symbiont transmission, and we date this event at approximately 13 Mya (Middle/Upper Miocene). Vertical symbiont transmission may therefore have facilitated long-distance dispersal since both partners disperse together. In contrast to their termite hosts, the fungal symbionts have colonized Madagascar multiple times, suggesting that the presence of fungus-growing termites may have facilitated secondary colonizations of the symbiont. Our findings indicate that the absence of the right symbionts in a new environment can prevent long-distance dispersal of symbioses relying on horizontal symbiont acquisition. PMID:19828546

Nobre, T; Eggleton, P; Aanen, D K

2010-02-01

164

Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?  

PubMed Central

The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire these symbionts secondarily from the environment for most species (horizontal symbiont transmission). Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that all extant species of fungus-growing termites of Madagascar are the result of a single colonization event of termites belonging to one of the only two groups with vertical symbiont transmission, and we date this event at approximately 13 Mya (Middle/Upper Miocene). Vertical symbiont transmission may therefore have facilitated long-distance dispersal since both partners disperse together. In contrast to their termite hosts, the fungal symbionts have colonized Madagascar multiple times, suggesting that the presence of fungus-growing termites may have facilitated secondary colonizations of the symbiont. Our findings indicate that the absence of the right symbionts in a new environment can prevent long-distance dispersal of symbioses relying on horizontal symbiont acquisition.

Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D. K.

2010-01-01

165

The amino acid and stable isotope biogeochemistry of elephant bird ( Aepyornis) eggshells from southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diverse suite of animals became extinct on Madagascar during the Late Holocene. As observed on landmasses elsewhere, the extinction process broadly coincided with the arrival of people. Our research on the amino acid racemisation and the carbon and oxygen isotope biogeochemistry of elephant bird ( Aepyornis) eggshells from southern Madagascar refines models that attempt to explain the extinction process. A correlation between the extent of isoleucine epimerisation (aIle/Ile) and radiocarbon age of eggshells allows aIle/Ile to serve as a proxy for eggshell age. The aIle/Ile values indicate the majority (87%) of eggshells in this study are Holocene, with the remainder representing Pleistocene Aepyornis populations, and that further amino acid analyses would help to constrain the timing of Aepyornis extinction. Carbon isotope ratios in the organic and calcite fractions of eggshells indicate that Aepyornis primarily browsed C 3 vegetation. Oxygen isotope values are more negative and less variable than in eggshells of ostriches living in semi-arid environments, suggesting that Aepyornis populations relied upon groundwater-fed coastal wetlands for their drinking water. The isotope results require that the changing abundances of C 3 vegetation and groundwater-fed watering points be considered in models that aim to understand the extinction of Aepyornis in southern Madagascar.

Clarke, Simon J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Chivas, Allan R.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.

2006-09-01

166

Biodiversity conservation and drug discovery: Can they be combined? The Suriname and Madagascar experiences  

PubMed Central

The approach to new drugs through natural products has proved to be the single most successful strategy for the discovery of new drugs, but in recent years its use has been deemphasized by many pharmaceutical companies in favor of approaches based on combinatorial chemistry and genomics, among others. Drug discovery from natural sources requires continued access to plant, marine, and microbial biomass, and so the preservation of tropical rainforests is an important part of our drug discovery program. Sadly, many of the tropical forests of the world are under severe environmental pressure, and deforestation is a serious problem in most tropical countries. One way to combat this loss is to demonstrate their value as potential sources of new pharmaceutical or agrochemical products. As part of an effort to integrate biodiversity conservation and drug discovery with economic development, we initiated an International Cooperative biodiversity Group (ICBG) to discover potential pharmaceuticals from the plant biodiversity of Suriname and Madagascar. The Group, established with funding from agencies of the United States government, involved participants from the USA, Suriname, and Madagascar. The basic approach was to search for bioactive plants in the Suriname and Malagasy flora, and to isolate their bioactive constituents by the best available methods, but the work included capacity building as well as research. Progress on this project will be reported, drawing on results obtained from the isolation of bioactive natural products from Suriname and Madagascar. The benefits of this general approach to biodiversity and drug discovery will also be discussed.

Cao, Shugeng; Kingston, David G. I.

2009-01-01

167

A molecular phylogeny of four endangered Madagascar tortoises based on MtDNA sequences.  

PubMed

Four of the five tortoise species in Madagascar, Pyxis arachnoides, P. planicauda, Geochelone radiata, and G. yniphora, are endemic and on the verge of extinction. Their phylogenetic relationships remain controversial and unresolved. Here we address the phylogeny of this group using DNA sequences for the 12S and 16S rDNA and cyt b genes in mitochondrial DNA. As outgroups we used two species of Geochelone, pardalis (mainland Africa) and nigra (Galápagos), as well as a more distant North American tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. We conclude that the two Pyxis species are sister taxa and are imbedded in the genus Geochelone, rendering this latter genus paraphyletic. There is moderate support for the sister status of the two Madagascar Geochelone and for the monophyletic origin of all four endemics, suggesting a single colonization of the island. The separation of Madagascar from other land masses (90-165 mya) predates the origin of the endemic tortoises (estimated to be 14-22 mya). This suggests founding by rafting, a process known to have occurred with other tortoises. The derived morphological divergence of the Pyxis species in a relatively short period of time (13-20 my) stands in contrast to the notoriously slow rate of morphological evolution in most lineages of Chelonia. PMID:10222157

Caccone, A; Amato, G; Gratry, O C; Behler, J; Powell, J R

1999-06-01

168

Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.  

PubMed

Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. PMID:20039330

Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

2010-05-01

169

First monogenean flatworm from a microhylid frog host: Kankana, a new polystome genus from Madagascar.  

PubMed

Kankana manampoka n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea, Polystomatidae), is described from the urinary bladder of the narrow-mouthed frog Platypelis pollicaris. This is the first record of a polystome from the Microhylidae and the third polystome genus from Madagascar, next to Metapolystoma and Madapolystoma. The extensive uterus and presence of hamuli resemble Metapolystoma but the vitellarium confined to the lateral fields in Kankana is different. Madapolystoma also has an extensive uterus but contain only up to 32 advanced developed larvae. Based on the extensive uterus filling the body proper and the vitellarium confined to two lateral fields posterior in the body this new polystome resembles Eupolystoma known from Africa and India. However, unlike Eupolystoma, the gonads are in the middle of the body, vaginae are lacking and a pair of hamuli is present. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences supplemented by genetic distances inferred from 28S and COI sequences showed that this new genus is more related to Madapolystoma, a genus only reported from Madagascar, than to Eupolystoma known from Africa and India and Metapolystoma known from Africa and Madagascar. PMID:21856439

Raharivololoniaina, Liliane; Verneau, Olivier; Berthier, Pauline; Vences, Miguel; Du Preez, Louis

2011-12-01

170

Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar.  

PubMed

Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 20 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the characterization of bacterial diversity within small mammals and gave insights into their genetic relationships with Leptospira infecting endemic Malagasy bats (family Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae). We report for the first time the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in Malagasy endemic small mammals, with an overall prevalence of 13%. In addition, these hosts harbour species of Leptospira (L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. borgpetersenii group B) which are different from those reported in introduced rats (L. interrogans) on Madagascar. The diversification of Leptospira on Madagascar can be traced millions of years into evolutionary history, resulting in the divergence of endemic lineages and strong host specificity. These observations are discussed in relation to the relative roles of endemic vs. introduced mammal species in the evolution and epidemiology of Leptospira on Madagascar, specifically how biodiversity and biogeographical processes can shape community ecology of an emerging pathogen and lead to its diversification within native animal communities. PMID:24784171

Dietrich, Muriel; Wilkinson, David A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

2014-06-01

171

Natural selection for the Duffy-null allele in the recently admixed people of Madagascar.  

PubMed

While gene flow between distantly related populations is increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of adaptive genetic variation for humans, fully characterized examples are rare. In addition, the role that natural selection for resistance to vivax malaria may have played in the extreme distribution of the protective Duffy-null allele, which is nearly completely fixed in mainland sub-Saharan Africa and absent elsewhere, is controversial. We address both these issues by investigating the evolution of the Duffy-null allele in the Malagasy, a recently admixed population with major ancestry components from both East Asia and mainland sub-Saharan Africa. We used genome-wide genetic data and extensive computer simulations to show that the high frequency of the Duffy-null allele in Madagascar can only be explained in the absence of positive natural selection under extreme demographic scenarios involving high genetic drift. However, the observed genomic single nucleotide polymorphism diversity in the Malagasy is incompatible with such extreme demographic scenarios, indicating that positive selection for the Duffy-null allele best explains the high frequency of the allele in Madagascar. We estimate the selection coefficient to be 0.066. Because vivax malaria is endemic to Madagascar, this result supports the hypothesis that malaria resistance drove fixation of the Duffy-null allele in mainland sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24990677

Hodgson, Jason A; Pickrell, Joseph K; Pearson, Laurel N; Quillen, Ellen E; Prista, António; Rocha, Jorge; Soodyall, Himla; Shriver, Mark D; Perry, George H

2014-08-22

172

Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences provide new insights into the Polynesian motif and the peopling of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

More than a decade of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have given the ‘Polynesian motif' renowned status as a marker for tracing the late-Holocene expansion of Austronesian speaking populations. Despite considerable research on the Polynesian motif in Oceania, there has been little equivalent work on the western edge of its expansion – leaving major issues unresolved regarding the motif's evolutionary history. This has also led to considerable uncertainty regarding the settlement of Madagascar. In this study, we assess mtDNA variation in 266 individuals from three Malagasy ethnic groups: the Mikea, Vezo, and Merina. Complete mtDNA genome sequencing reveals a new variant of the Polynesian motif in Madagascar; two coding region mutations define a Malagasy-specific sub-branch. This newly defined ‘Malagasy motif' occurs at high frequency in all three ethnic groups (13–50%), and its phylogenetic position, geographic distribution, and estimated age all support a recent origin, but without conclusively identifying a specific source region. Nevertheless, the haplotype's limited diversity, similar to those of other mtDNA haplogroups found in our Malagasy groups, best supports a small number of initial settlers arriving to Madagascar through the same migratory process. Finally, the discovery of this lineage provides a set of new polymorphic positions to help localize the Austronesian ancestors of the Malagasy, as well as uncover the origin and evolution of the Polynesian motif itself.

Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Ricaut, Francois-X; Cox, Murray P; Mormina, Maru; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Randriamarolaza, Louis P; Guitard, Evelyne; Tonasso, Laure; Ludes, Bertrand; Crubezy, Eric

2010-01-01

173

The Hippoboscidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Madagascar, with new records from the "Parc National de Midongy Befotaka"  

PubMed Central

The Hippoboscidae or “louse-flies” is a family of pupiparous Diptera, which in their adult stage are ectoparasites of mammals and birds. This paper presents a comprehensive review of Malagasy Hippoboscidae. In total, amongst the 213 species of this family known worldwide, 14 have been reported in Madagascar, among which six are considered as endemic to the Malagasy region. In addition, data are presented from a collection of 17 Hippoboscidae obtained from seven species of forest-dwelling birds in the “Parc National de Midongy Befotaka”, southeastern Madagascar, in 2003. The flies in this collection belong to three different species: Icosta malagasii (one), Ornithoica podicipis (ten) and Ornithoctona laticornis (six). The two former species were previously only known from single specimens in museum collections; the later species is distributed across much of the Afrotropical region and the records presented herein are the first for Madagascar. All the seven bird species are new hosts for hippoboscids. We present the first description of the male of Icosta malagasii. An illustrated dichotomous determination key of the 14 Malagasy species, based on morphological criteria only, is presented.

Rahola, N.; Goodman, S.M.; Robert, V.

2011-01-01

174

Plants traditionally prescribed to treat tazo (malaria) in the eastern region of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is known as tazo or tazomoka in local terminology in Madagascar. Within the context of traditional practice, malaria (and/or malaria symptoms) is commonly treated by decoctions or infusions from bitter plants. One possible approach to the identification of new antimalarial drug candidates is to search for compounds that cure or prevent malaria in plants empirically used to treat malaria. Thus, it is worth documenting the ethnobotanical data, and testing the antiplasmodial activity of the extractive from plants. Methods We interviewed traditional healers, known locally as ombiasy, at Andasibe in the eastern, rainy part of Madagascar. We recorded details of the preparation and use of plants for medicinal purposes. We extracted five alkaloids from Z. tsihanimposa stem bark, and tested them in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum FCM29. Results We found that traditional healers treat malaria with herbal remedies consisting of one to eight different plants. We identified and listed the medicinal plants commonly used to treat malaria. The plants used included a large number of species from different families. Zanthoxylum sp (Rutaceae) was frequently cited, and plants from this genus are also used to treat malaria in other parts of Madagascar. From the plant list, Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa, bitter plant endemic to Madagascar, was selected and examined. Five alkaloids were isolates from the stem bark of this plant, and tested in vitro against malaria parasite. The geometric mean IC50 values ranged from 98.4 to 332.1 micromolar. The quinoline alkaloid gamma-fagarine exhibited the strongest antiplasmodial activity. Conclusions The current use of plants for medicinal purposes reflects the attachment of the Malagasy people to their culture, and also a lack of access to modern medicine. The possible extrapolation of these in vitro findings, obtained with plant extracts, to the treatment of malaria and/or the signs evoking malaria is still unclear. If plants are to be used as sources of novel antimalarial compounds, we need to increase our knowledge of their empirical use to improve plant selection. In the hope of preserving useful resources, we should now gather and record ethnobotanical data in Madagascar, and should try to bridge the gaps between empirics and realism.

Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rasidimanana, Valerie T; Rabarison, Harison; Cheplogoi, Peter K; Ratsimbason, Michel; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Mauclere, Philippe

2003-01-01

175

Deep phylogenetic divergence between Scolytoplatypus and Remansus, a new genus of Scolytoplatypodini from Madagascar (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Scolytoplatypodini Blandford is a monotypic tribe of ambrosia beetles found in Asia, Madagascar and Africa. Only three species are currently known from Madagascar and four additional species are here described as new to science. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data revealed that four of the seven endemic species are deeply separated from all other species by genetic and distinct morphological characters and therefore placed in a new genus Remansus Jordal. The split between this ancient lineage and Scolytoplatypus Schaufuss was estimated to approximate Palaeocene age (63 Ma), extending the minimum age of ambrosia feeding for this tribe to the beginning of the Palaeocene?Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). In addition to the ancient origin of Remansus in Madagascar during the Palaeocene, a second origin occurred in Scolytoplatypus no more than 13 Ma. A geographical origin of the latter in South-Eastern Africa was unequivocally inferred from the phylogenies.

Jordal, Bjarte H.

2013-01-01

176

A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Current models propose that mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups M and N evolved from haplogroup L3 soon after modern humans left Africa. Increasingly, however, analysis of isolated populations is filling in the details of, and in some cases challenging, aspects of this general model. Results Here, we present the first comprehensive study of three such isolated populations from Madagascar: the Mikea hunter-gatherers, the neighbouring Vezo fishermen, and the Merina central highlanders (n = 266). Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences reveal several unresolved lineages, and a new, deep branch of the out-of-Africa founder clade M has been identified. This new haplogroup, M23, has a limited global distribution, and is restricted to Madagascar and a limited range of African and Southwest Asian groups. Conclusions The geographic distribution, phylogenetic placement and molecular age of M23 suggest that the colonization of Madagascar was more complex than previously thought.

2009-01-01

177

Tectonic significance of granitoid plutons from the Andasibe paragneiss belt, east-central Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the crustal evolution of the central Madagascar is of major significance in the study of the Precambrian basement of Madagascar and the greater Gondwana supercontinent. The study area, known as Andasibe paragneiss defines a fold belt that stretches from Ambatondrazaka to Soavina area in eastern Madagascar and is intruded by extensive granitoid intrusions. The western part of Andasibe paragneiss lies within the crustal scale Angavo shear zone, and is characterized by fine to medium-grained foliated paragneiss, which also include biotite-hornblende gneiss, migmatitic quartzofeldspathic gneiss, sillimanite-bearing gneiss, garnet-bearing gneiss, graphitic gneiss intercalates with schist, quartzite, muscovite-bearing gneiss and marble. Three samples of granitoid plutons intruding the Andasibe paragneiss yielded isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages of 801.2×3.8Ma, 776.5×4.4Ma and 772.1×4.2Ma. These dates are interpreted to represent the crystallization ages of these rocks and are comparable to other reported U-Pb emplacement ages for granitoid plutons within and along the north-central margin of the Angavo shear zone, which are suggested to be related to ca. 820 Ma successor-arc plutonism. These granitoids pre-dates the Angavo shear zone and folds affecting the plutons foliation are believed to have formed during the East-African Orogen, which in this part of the Malagasy Precambrian basement, is considered to have associated with Neoproterozoic extensive magmatism ca. 820 Ma to 540 Ma.

Raharimahefa, T.

2013-12-01

178

Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-05-01

179

The epidemiological transition in Antananarivo, Madagascar: an assessment based on death registers (1900-2012).  

PubMed

Background: Madagascar today has one of the highest life expectancies in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being among the poorest countries in the continent. There are relatively few detailed accounts of the epidemiological transition in this country due to the lack of a comprehensive death registration system at the national level. However, in Madagascar's capital city, death registration was established around the start of the 20th century and is now considered virtually complete. Objective: We provide an overview of trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Antananarivo to document the timing and pace of the mortality decline and the changes in the cause-of-death structure. Design: Death registers covering the period 1976-2012 were digitized and the population at risk of dying was estimated from available censuses and surveys. Trends for the period 1900-1976 were partly reconstructed from published sources. Results: The crude death rate stagnated around 30‰ until the 1940s in Antananarivo. Mortality declined rapidly after the World War II and then resurged again in the 1980s as a result of the re-emergence of malaria and the collapse of Madagascar's economy. Over the past 30 years, impressive gains in life expectancy have been registered thanks to the unabated decline in child mortality, despite political instability, a lasting economic crisis and the persistence of high rates of chronic malnutrition. Progress in adult survival has been more modest because reductions in infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system have been partly offset by increases in cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and other diseases, particularly at age 50 years and over. Conclusions: The transition in Antananarivo has been protracted and largely dependent on anti-microbial and anti-parasitic medicine. The capital city now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The ongoing registration of deaths in the capital generates a unique database to evaluate the performance of the health system and measure intervention impacts. PMID:24848650

Masquelier, Bruno; Waltisperger, Dominique; Ralijaona, Osée; Pison, Gilles; Ravélo, Arsène

2014-01-01

180

Analysis of Patterns of Bushmeat Consumption Reveals Extensive Exploitation of Protected Species in Eastern Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10). The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure that heavily hunted species are adequately protected.

Jenkins, Richard K. B.; Keane, Aidan; Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R.; Rakotomboavonjy, Victor; Randrianandrianina, Felicien H.; Razafimanahaka, H. Julie; Ralaiarimalala, Sylvain R.; Jones, Julia P. G.

2011-01-01

181

Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)  

PubMed Central

Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families.

2013-01-01

182

The GLOBE/Madagascar Malaria Project: Creating Student/Educator/Scientist Partnerships With Regional Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria is a parasitic disease spread by mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles. It causes more than 300,000,000 acute illnesses and more than one million deaths annually, including the death of one African child every 30 seconds. Recent epidemiological trends include increases in malaria mortality and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. Some experts believe that predicted climate changes during the 21st century will bring malaria to areas where it is not now common. The GLOBE Program is currently collaborating with students, educators, scientists, health department officials, and government officials in Madagascar to develop a program that combines existing GLOBE protocols for measuring atmospheric and water quality parameters with a new protocol for collecting and identifying mosquito larvae at the genus (Anopheles and non-Anopheles) level. There are dozens of Anopheles species and sub-species that are adapted to a wide range of micro-environmental conditions encountered in Madagascar's variable climate. Local data collection is essential because mosquitoes typically spend their entire lives within a few kilometers of their breeding sites. The GLOBE Program provides an ideal framework for such a project because it offers a highly structured system for defining experiment protocols that ensure consistent procedures, a widely dispersed network of observing sites, and a centralized data collection and reporting system. Following a series of training activities in 2005, students in Madagascar are now beginning to collect data. Basic environmental parameters and first attempts at larvae collection and identification are presented. Results from this project can be used to increase public awareness of malaria, to provide new scientific data concerning environmental impacts on mosquito breeding, and to provide better information for guiding effective mitigation strategies. Problems encountered include difficulties in visiting and communicating with remote school sites. These are typical problems in developing tropical countries where malaria is endemic and their solution benefits the entire scientific and educational infrastructure in those countries.

Brooks, D.; Boger, R.; Rafalimanana, A.

2006-05-01

183

Edge effects and their influence on lemur density and distribution in Southeast Madagascar.  

PubMed

Edge effects are caused by the penetration of abiotic and biotic conditions from the matrix into forest interiors. Although edge effects influence the biogeography of many tropical organisms, they have not been studied directly in primates. Edge effects are particularly relevant to lemurs due to the loss of 80-90% of forests in Madagascar. In this study, data are presented on how biotic edge effects influenced the distribution and density of lemurs in the Vohibola III Classified Forest in southeastern Madagascar. In total, 415 lemur surveys were conducted during June-October 2003 and May-September 2004 along six 1,250-m transects that ran perpendicular to the forest edge. Data were also collected on lemur food trees along the six transects (density, height, diameter at breast height, area, volume, and distance to forest edge). Four nocturnal species (Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Lepilemur microdon, and Microcebus rufus) and four diurnal species (Eulemur rubriventer, Eulemur fulvus rufus, Hapalemur grisesus griseus, and Propithecus diadema edwardsi) were sighted during surveys. Regression analyses of lemur densities as a function of distance to forest edge provided edge tolerances for A. laniger (edge-tolerant), M. rufus (edge-tolerant), E. rubriventer (edge-tolerant or omnipresent), and H. g. griseus (omnipresent). The density and distribution of M. rufus and their foods trees were correlated. Edge-related variations in food quality and predation pressures may also be influencing lemurs in Vohibola III. Tolerance for edge effects may explain, in part, how lemurs have survived extreme habitat loss and forest fragmentation in southeastern Madagascar. PMID:16323178

Lehman, Shawn M; Rajaonson, Andry; Day, Sabine

2006-02-01

184

Early Permian to Middle Jurassic rifting and sedimentation in East Africa and Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-drift sediments of Madagascar (Early Permian-Middle Jurassic) have been studied palynologically. These studies resulted in a more precise dating of individual stratigraphic units and the recognition of minor and major breaks in the succession. Palynostratigraphic and physical evidence of unconformities have been used to subdivide the pre-drift sediments into depositional cycles and to infer rifting events. A comparison with equivalent strata of Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia shows a general correspondence and provides additional information for the construction of a generalized framework for the East African/Madagascan region which demonstrates the relationships between rifting and sedimentation and elucidates the prehistory of the break-up of Gondwana into a western and eastern fragment during the Middle Jurassic. The predrift succession of East Africa/Madagascar can be subdivided into two major sequences, a Karoo sequence (cycles 1 5, Asselian-early Smithian) and a transitional sequence (cycles 6 9, Ladinian-early Bajocian). The two sequences are separeted by a late Scythian to Anisian hiatus which indicates extensive uplift and erosion before a major rifting event initiated the resumption of sedimentation in the Ladinian. This Middle Triassic event marks the transition from the intracratonic rift stage to the pericratonic basin stage and correlates with a significant event in the Pangaean history, the transition from final coalescence to initial dispersal. The onset of the southward drift of Madagascar is believed to have occurred about 60 Ma later near the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary, contemporaneous with or immediately after the deposition of syntectonic sediments of cycle 9.

Hankel, O.

1994-12-01

185

[Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs: impact on malaria pre-elimination in Madagascar].  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to provide up-to-date information on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the main antimalarials used in Madagascar and to assist implementation of the malaria control and elimination program. In 2006, the failure rate for chloroquine treatment was 44% (n = 300) and was comparable to the rate observed in continental Africa. Most treatment failures occurred after the first week of follow-up. P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine appeared to be special in Madagascar with only 3.2% of isolates showing in vitro resistance (n = 372, 7 sentinel sites) and less than 1% harbouring mutant parasites within the Pfcrt gene. Conversely, the Pfmdr1 N86Y point mutation was found in 64.3% (n = 174) of isolates in 2006 and in 51.7% (n = 343) in 2007. Failure of combined sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine therapy, i.e., the recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, and in vitro resistance to pyrimethamine were rare. However, the Pfdhfr 51I/59R/108N allele showed consistently high prevalence levels reaching 33.3% in 2008. Moreover, the single Pfdhfr 164L mutant allele, a haplotype unique to Madagascar, was discovered in 2006 and showed prevalence rates up to 30% in some locations (southeast) in 2008. Up to now, the quadruple mutant allele Pfdhfr 51I/59R/108N/164L has not been observed. Susceptibility to the other antimalarials tested appeared excellent but the number of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility to artemisinin derivatives has been fallen in recent years and this decline may herald a decrease in the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:21870564

Andriantsoanirina, V; Ménard, D; Tuséo, L; Ratsimbasoa, A; Durand, R

2011-06-01

186

Descriptions and biological notes on three unusual mantellid tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Mantellidae) from southeastern Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The morphologies of three unusual tadpoles from slow-flowing, sandy-bottomed, rain forest streams in southeastern Madagascar are described. The large oral apparatus of the tadpole of Boophis picturatus Glaw, Vences, Andreone, and Vallan, 2001 lacks all keratinized structures and has an elaborately-folded lower labium with five, radially oriented, flattopped ridges. The tadpole of Mantidactylus guttulatus (Boulenger, 1881) lacks all keratinized mouthparts and has three immense papillae where the upper jaw normally occurs. The tadpole of Mantidactylus lugubris (Dumeril, 1853) has an ornate oral apparatus involving greatly hypertrophied derivatives of jaw serrations and unique structures on the lower labium that resemble labial teeth.

Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

2006-01-01

187

[Madagascar: public health situation on the "Big Island" at the beginning of the 21st century].  

PubMed

The main public health issue in Madagascar at the beginning of the 21st century still involves transmissible infectious diseases including re-emerging diseases such as bubonic plague and emerging diseases such as HIV/AIDS, dengue fever and Chikungunya virus infection. Health and hygiene especially access to clean water is still poor especially in rural areas. No improvement in the public health situation with regard to malaria, schistomosomiais or cysticercosis as well as non-infectious diseases such as protein-energy malnutrition is expected within the next decade. PMID:17506269

Andrianarisoa, A C E; Rakotoson, J; Randretsa, M; Rakotondravelo, S; Rakotoarimanana, R D; Rakotomizao, J; Aubry, P

2007-02-01

188

A new Gephyromantis (Phylacomantis) frog species from the pinnacle karst of Bemaraha, western Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe a new mantellid frog of the subfamily Mantellinae from the karstic Bemaraha Plateau, western Madagascar. The new species belongs to the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus Phylacomantis, which previously included Gephyromantis azzurrae, Gephyromantis corvus and Gephyromantis pseudoasper. Gephyromantis atsingy sp. n. has a snout-vent length of 35–43 mm and is a scansorial frog living among the Tsingy de Bemaraha pinnacles and inside the caves present in the area. A morphological analysis and biomolecular comparison revealed the degree of differentiation between these four species of the Phylacomantis subgenus.The new species seems to be endemic to Tsingy de Bemaraha.

Crottini, Angelica; Glaw, Frank; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Jenkins, Richard K.B.; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Randrianantoandro, Christian; Randrianirina, Jasmin E.; Andreone, Franco

2011-01-01

189

Long-term impacts of logging on forest diversity in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Ecological perturbations can either be necessary for maintaining tropical forest diversity or responsible for its decline, depending on the scale, nature, and frequency of the disturbance. Anthropogenic disturbances such as logging and subsistence agriculture may promote the establishment of nonnative, invasive plant species, potentially affecting forest structure and diversity even long after the perturbation has ceased. We investigated the impacts of logging 50 and 150 years ago on tropical forest vegetation in Madagascar, a “hotspot” of biodiversity. Logging was the overriding factor influencing establishment of nonnative plants. Sites once logged never recovered native species diversity because of the dominance and persistence of invasive species.

Brown, Kerry A.; Gurevitch, Jessica

2004-01-01

190

A new threatened species of Pandanaceae from northwestern Madagascar, Pandanus sermolliana  

PubMed Central

Pandanus sermolliana Callmander & Buerki (Pandanaceae) is described from humid forests in the Galoka mountain chain in northwestern Madagascar. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other members of the genus it most closely resembles, P. insuetus Huynh and P. perrieri Martelli, by several morphological characters including drupes that are incompletely fused, with each of the dome-like carpels separated from the base of the pileus, and stigmas that are sub-vertical or rarely sub-horizontal, slightly spinescent, and raised on an incompletely united base. This distinctive species is rare and is classified as Critically Endangered based on IUCN threat criteria.

Callmander, Martin W.; Buerki, Sven; Wohlhauser, Sebastien

2011-01-01

191

A ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a key agent of seed dispersal in southern Madagascar.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) serves as a key agent of seed dispersal in southern Madagascar, where the landscape is heavily fragmented by agriculture and remaining forest patches are protected by local taboos. Lemurs eat fruit and disperse the seeds as they move along the ground between forest patches, thereby providing an important ecological service within a landscape that is strongly impacted by humans. In such heavily fragmented agricultural landscapes, small patches of forest may be essential for maintaining ecosystem services. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:2) in April of 2006.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-12

192

Molecular characterization of a new alphasatellite associated with a cassava mosaic geminivirus in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Two complete nucleotide sequences of an alphasatellite isolated from a cassava plant with mosaic disease symptoms in Madagascar are described and analyzed. While the helper begomovirus was identified as an isolate of East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus (EACMKV), its associated alphasatellite was most closely related (80 % nucleotide sequence identity) to cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite. These satellite molecules have typical features of alphasatellites, with a single gene in the virion sense, an A-rich region and a stem-loop structure. According to the proposed species demarcation threshold of alphasatellites (83 % nucleotide identity), they are isolates of a new species for which we propose the name "Cassava mosaic alphasatellite". PMID:23525698

Harimalala, Mireille; De Bruyn, Alexandre; Hoareau, Murielle; Andrianjaka, Alice; Ranomenjanahary, Sahondramalala; Reynaud, Bernard; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lett, Jean-Michel

2013-08-01

193

A new Gephyromantis (Phylacomantis) frog species from the pinnacle karst of Bemaraha, western Madagascar.  

PubMed

We describe a new mantellid frog of the subfamily Mantellinae from the karstic Bemaraha Plateau, western Madagascar. The new species belongs to the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus Phylacomantis, which previously included Gephyromantis azzurrae, Gephyromantis corvus and Gephyromantis pseudoasper. Gephyromantis atsingysp. n. has a snout-vent length of 35-43 mm and is a scansorial frog living among the Tsingy de Bemaraha pinnacles and inside the caves present in the area. A morphological analysis and biomolecular comparison revealed the degree of differentiation between these four species of the Phylacomantis subgenus.The new species seems to be endemic to Tsingy de Bemaraha. PMID:21594161

Crottini, Angelica; Glaw, Frank; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Jenkins, Richard K B; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Randrianantoandro, Christian; Randrianirina, Jasmin E; Andreone, Franco

2011-01-01

194

Middle to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequences and marine biota of the early Indian Ocean (Southwest Madagascar): some biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiogeographic conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an intradisciplinary project which was concerned with the early rifting processes between Madagascar and East Africa, the Middle to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequences of the Morondava Basin in Southwest Madagascar has been investigated with respect to biostratigraphy, sedimentary facies and palaeoecology. The transgressive sedimentary sections in the Bajocian and Callovian-Oxfordian yield rich macro- and microfossil assemblages which improved the biostratigraphic framework and gave some important information about the palaeoenvironments. Palaeogeographic distribution patterns of the Bajocian ostracod Paradoxorhyncha are suggestive of a migration along the southern shores of Gondwana between Madagascar, Australia and South America. The Callovian ostracods show strong affinities to the Indian faunas, indicating existence of a free migration route for shallow marine benthic organisms between Madagascar and India. Significant faunal differences between Madagascar and Tanzania suggest a physical or environmental migration barrier between Madagascar and East Africa during the Callovian to Kimmeridgian interval. The Upper Jurassic ostracods from the northern and eastern margin of Gondwana show a very high degree of endemism and they can be assigned to two faunal provinces in North Gondwana (Arabia, Near East, North Africa) and South Gondwana (India, Madagascar, East Africa).

Mette, Wolfgang

2004-03-01

195

Analyse macro-sociolinguistique d'une situation de diglossie: le cas de Madagascar (A Macro-Sociolinguistic Analysis of a Diglossic Situation: The Case of Madagascar). Publication H-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The languages used in Madagascar are examined from the following perspectives: the linguistic varieties and functions socially recognized at the community level; the oppositions and complementarities that have become established between languages in contact; and the speakers' attitudes toward those varieties. The report focuses on the following…

Rambelo, Michel

196

Multivariate analysis of management and biosecurity practices in smallholder pig farms in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2005 and 2006 in three geographical areas of Madagascar to investigate and differentiate swine farm management and biosecurity practices in smallholder farming communities. Questionnaire data from a total of 709 pig farms were analysed using multiple factor analysis (MFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Variables describing management and biosecurity practices were organised into five groups: structure of the farm, animal-contacts, person- and vehicle-contacts, feeding, and sanitary aspects. In general, few biosecurity measures were implemented in the pig farms included in the study. Regional differences in management and biosecurity practices emerged from the MFA and were mainly due to, in order of decreasing importance: structure of the farm, sanitary aspects, feeding and animal-contacts and, to a lesser extent, person- and vehicle-contacts. HCA resulted in the differentiation of four distinct types of farms in each of two study areas, Arivonimamo and Marovoay, while no grouping could be identified amongst farms in Ambatondrazaka area. The characterisation of the different types of smallholder pig farms will allow adapting recommendations on husbandry practices and control measures in pig farms of these regions of Madagascar. The development of tailored recommendations is essential for Malagasy smallholders who have limited resources and need to make evidence-based management changes to reduce the risk of contagious diseases in their herds.

Costard, S.; Porphyre, V.; Messad, S.; Rakotondrahanta, S.; Vidon, H.; Roger, F.; Pfeiffer, D.U.

2009-01-01

197

The settlement of Madagascar: what dialects and languages can tell us.  

PubMed

The dialects of Madagascar belong to the Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family and it is widely accepted that the Island was colonized by Indonesian sailors after a maritime trek that probably took place around 650 CE. The language most closely related to Malagasy dialects is Maanyan, but Malay is also strongly related especially for navigation terms. Since the Maanyan Dayaks live along the Barito river in Kalimantan (Borneo) and they do not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, they were probably brought as subordinates by Malay sailors. In a recent paper we compared 23 different Malagasy dialects in order to determine the time and the landing area of the first colonization. In this research we use new data and new methods to confirm that the landing took place on the south-east coast of the Island. Furthermore, we are able to state here that colonization probably consisted of a single founding event rather than multiple settlements. To reach our goal we find out the internal kinship relations among all the 23 Malagasy dialects and we also find out the relations of the 23 dialects to Malay and Maanyan. The method used is an automated version of the lexicostatistic approach. The data from Madagascar were collected by the author at the beginning of 2010 and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the Island. The lists for Maanyan and Malay were obtained from a published dataset integrated with the author's interviews. PMID:22363465

Serva, Maurizio

2012-01-01

198

Investigating Mantle Structure with Broadband Seismic Arrays in Madagascar and Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-one broadband seismometers were installed in Madagascar (25) and Mozambique (6) in 2011-2012 as part of the 2-year MACOMO project of the IRIS PASSCAL program. A major goal is to investigate the occurrence of hot spot intraplate volcanism in Madagascar and its possible connection to other African volcanic activity and the lower mantle LLSVP (large low shear-velocity province). The African LLSVP is the largest seismic anomaly within the earth, and as an enormous thermochemical boundary layer between the mantle and, it plays a vitally important role in controlling the nature of vertical mass flux within the mantle, and therefore both mantle convection and its manifestation at the surface as plate tectonics. The African LLSVP is thought to play an important role in the abundant occurrence of hot spot volcanism on the African plate, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not known due to the extremely limited data sampling available at this location in the Southern Hemisphere. These arrays on the world's 4th-largest island (the first such array of its kind) and in Mozambique, together with existing African Array stations and concurrent temporary installations of land and OBS stations by French and German projects, is providing unprecedented data that will allow us to seismically map (using velocity and attenuation seismic tomography, shear-wave splitting, and receiver function analysis for topography variations on mantle boundaries, and other methods) the connection between surface hot spot volcanism and other mantle seismic anomalies such as the LLSVP.

Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Rambolamanana, G.

2012-12-01

199

Impact of the high topography of Madagascar on the structure of the Findlater Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross-equatorial flow over the western Indian Ocean, known as the Findlater Jet, plays an important role in the monsoonal circulation of the region. During the boreal summer, there is southerly flow across the equator that is concentrated along the East African highlands. During the boreal winter, there is a reversal in wind direction across the equator. Madagascar, the world's fourth largest island, with heights in excess of 1 km represents a significant obstacle to the flow whose impact on this jet has not been fully characterized. Here we use diagnostic tools developed to investigate atmospheric flow distortion by Greenland's high topography to study this interaction. We show that there is a bifurcation of the Findlater Jet by Madagascar during the boreal summer and localized tip jets at the island's northern and southern ends. During the boreal winter, the northern tip jet reverses direction and weakens, while the southern tip jet maintains its direction and magnitude. We show that rotational effects are important for these interactions but not dominant and result in an enhancement of the northern tip jet; while allowing for existence of the southern tip jet. As will also be shown, this flow distortion has impacts on the meteorology and oceanography of the region including the forcing of oceanic eddies in the Mozambique Channel, a modulation of the southward displacement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and a splitting of the boreal summer cross-equatorial mass transport associated with the Findlater Jet into two branches.

Moore, G. W. K.

2013-05-01

200

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a comparison of inventories at four localities in northern Madagascar, patterns of richness were not significantly different when richness was determined using morphological taxonomy (morphospecies) or sequence divergence thresholds (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit(s); MOTU). However, sequence-based methods tended to yield greater richness and significantly lower indices of similarity than morphological taxonomy. MOTU determined using our molecular technique were a remarkably local phenomenon—indicative of highly restricted dispersal and/or long-term isolation. In cases where molecular and morphological methods differed in their assignment of individuals to categories, the morphological estimate was always more conservative than the molecular estimate. In those cases where morphospecies descriptions collapsed distinct molecular groups, sequence divergences of 16% (on average) were contained within the same morphospecies. Such high divergences highlight taxa for further detailed genetic, morphological, life history, and behavioral studies.

Smith, M. Alex; Fisher, Brian L; Hebert, Paul D.N

2005-01-01

201

[KAP study (knowledge-attitude-practice) on seafood poisoning on the southwest coast of Madagascar].  

PubMed

In June and July 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in Tuléar Province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. The family of toxic fishes are Clupeidae, Tetraodontidae, Scaridae and Siganidae. Sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often responsible for poisonings. Three turtle species are involved in poisonings: Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas and Dermochelys coriacea. Clinical patterns were related to marine toxins. Although the communities were aware of the risks, there was no change in seafood meal practice. Preventive measures are not very often used. Practical techniques to detect toxins, although very simple, are not systematically carried out. For a better understanding of the seafood poisoning risk in Madagascar, a retrospective survey in the villages located in coastal areas all around Madagascar was to be carried out in 1997. An eco-toxicological survey will likewise probably be organised in an Indian Ocean regional approach. PMID:10214522

Robinson, R; Champetier de Ribes, G; Ranaivoson, G; Rejely, M; Rabeson, D

1999-02-01

202

Intracoelomic anaplastic sarcoma in an intersex Madagascar tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis).  

PubMed

An adult Madagascar tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis) underwent coeliotomy for investigation of a coelomic mass. At surgery, a large mass originating from the peri-pancreatic adipose tissue and involving the gall bladder was removed. The snake did not recover from general anesthesia. A complete postmortem was performed, and samples were submitted to the University of Glasgow for histopathology. On histological examination, the mass was composed of adipose tissue infiltrated with a poorly demarcated spindle cell neoplasm. The neoplastic cells were highly pleomorphic with abundant cytoplasm and frequent clear cytoplasmic vacuoles, suggestive of adipocyte origin. Immunohistochemical characterization of the mass was inconclusive. Metastatic neoplastic cells were present within vessels in the liver, lungs, and brain. As an incidental finding, the gonads contained both maturing ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules with intact germinal epithelium and evidence of spermatogenesis, along with other features of male and female gonad anatomy. The current report describes a rare neoplasm in snakes within an intersex Madagascar tree boa. PMID:23345276

Sharpe, Sam; Lamm, Catherine G; Killick, Rowena

2013-01-01

203

Vast underestimation of Madagascar's biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory  

PubMed Central

Amphibians are in decline worldwide. However, their patterns of diversity, especially in the tropics, are not well understood, mainly because of incomplete information on taxonomy and distribution. We assess morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic variation of Madagascar's amphibians, one of the first near-complete taxon samplings from a biodiversity hotspot. Based on DNA sequences of 2,850 specimens sampled from over 170 localities, our analyses reveal an extreme proportion of amphibian diversity, projecting an almost 2-fold increase in species numbers from the currently described 244 species to a minimum of 373 and up to 465. This diversity is widespread geographically and across most major phylogenetic lineages except in a few previously well-studied genera, and is not restricted to morphologically cryptic clades. We classify the genealogical lineages in confirmed and unconfirmed candidate species or deeply divergent conspecific lineages based on concordance of genetic divergences with other characters. This integrative approach may be widely applicable to improve estimates of organismal diversity. Our results suggest that in Madagascar the spatial pattern of amphibian richness and endemism must be revisited, and current habitat destruction may be affecting more species than previously thought, in amphibians as well as in other animal groups. This case study suggests that worldwide tropical amphibian diversity is probably underestimated at an unprecedented level and stresses the need for integrated taxonomic surveys as a basis for prioritizing conservation efforts within biodiversity hotspots.

Vieites, David R.; Wollenberg, Katharina C.; Andreone, Franco; Kohler, Jorn; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

2009-01-01

204

Multiple colonization of Madagascar and Socotra by colubrid snakes: evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene phylogenies.  

PubMed Central

Colubrid snakes form a speciose group of unclarified phylogeny. Their almost cosmopolitan distribution could be interpreted as a product of plate-tectonic vicariance. We used sequences of the nuclear c-mos, the mitochondrial cytochrome b and the 16S rRNA genes in 41 taxa to elucidate the relationships between the endemic colubrid genera found in Madagascar and in the Socotra archipelago. The well-resolved trees indicate multiple origins of both the Malagasy and the Socotran taxa. The Malagasy genus Mimophis was nested within the Psammophiinae, and the Socotran Hemerophis was closely related to Old World representatives of the former genus Coluber. The remaining 14 genera of Malagasy colubrids formed a monophyletic sister group of the Socotran Ditypophis (together forming the Pseudoxyrhophiinae). Molecular-clock estimates place the divergence of Malagasy and Socotran colubrids from their non-insular sister groups into a time-frame between the Eocene and Miocene. Over-seas rafting is the most likely hypothesis for the origin of at least the Malagasy taxa. The discovery of a large monophyletic clade of colubrids endemic to Madagascar indicates a need for taxonomic changes. The relationship of this radiation to the Socotran Ditypophis highlights the potential of the Indian Ocean islands to act as an evolutionary reservoir for lineages that have become extinct in Africa and Asia.

Nagy, Zoltan Tamas; Joger, Ulrich; Wink, Michael; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

2003-01-01

205

Affordability of emergency obstetric and neonatal care at public hospitals in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Timely access to emergency obstetric care is necessary to save the lives of women experiencing complications at delivery, and for newborn babies. Out-of-pocket costs are one of the critical factors hindering access to such services in low- and middle-income countries. This study measured out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section and neonatal care at an urban tertiary public hospital in Madagascar, assessed affordability in relation to household expenditure and investigated where families found the money to cover these costs. Data were collected for 103 women and 73 newborns at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Mahajanga in the Boeny region of Madagascar between September 2007 and January 2008. Out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section were catastrophic for middle and lower socio-economic households, and treatment for neonatal complications also created a big financial burden, with geographical and other financial barriers further limiting access to hospital care. This study identified 12 possible cases where the mother required an emergency caesarean section and her newborn required emergency care, placing a double burden on the household. In an effort to make emergency obstetric and neonatal care affordable and available to all, including those living in rural areas and those of medium and lower socio-economic status, well-designed financial risk protection mechanisms and a strong commitment by the government to mobilise resources to finance the country's health system are necessary. PMID:21555082

Honda, Ayako; Randaoharison, Pierana Gabriel; Matsui, Mitsuaki

2011-05-01

206

Isolation of 22 new Haliaeetus microsatellite loci and their characterization in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) and three other Haliaeetus eagle species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We isolated a total of 22 microsatellite loci from two Haliaeetus species: the Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Five loci were monomorphic in both the Madagascar fish-eagle (n = 24-43) and the bald eagle (n = 2-8) but were found to be polymorphic in other Haliaeetus species. Haliaeetus loci have proved useful for investigating gene flow in Haliaeetus and Aquila eagles. Ten loci were polymorphic in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle and will be used to investigate the genetic population structure and mating system in this species. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Tingay, R. E.; Dawson, D. A.; Pandhal, J.; Clarke, M. L.; David, V. A.; Hailer, F.; Culver, M.

2007-01-01

207

Freshwater shrimp genera Caridina and Parisia (Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) of Madagascar, with descriptions of four new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Caridina and one new species of Parisia from caves in northern Madagascar are described and figured. A useful key-character, the presence or absence of an apical hook on the dactylus and propodus of pereiopods 1 and\\/or 2, is re-evaluated. Revised keys are provided for both genera.

Ann R. Gurney

1984-01-01

208

Setting Up a Bibliographic Database from National Inventory of Scientific and Technical Literature. The CIDST Experience in Madagascar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a bibliographic database in Madagascar through a national inventory of scientific and technical literature. The roles of the Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research for Development (MRSTD) and its information service, CIDST, are described; database products are discussed; and future prospects are suggested.…

Andriamparany, Louis Marius; And Others

1991-01-01

209

Plasmodium vivax dhfr and dhps mutations in isolates from Madagascar and therapeutic response to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Four of five Plasmodium species infecting humans are present in Madagascar. Plasmodium vivax remains the second most prevalent species, but is understudied. No data is available on its susceptibility to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, the drug recommended for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. In this study, the prevalence of P. vivax infection and the polymorphisms in the pvdhfr and pvdhps genes were

Céline Barnadas; Magali Tichit; Christiane Bouchier; Arsène Ratsimbasoa; Laurence Randrianasolo; Rogelin Raherinjafy; Martial Jahevitra; Stéphane Picot; Didier Ménard

2008-01-01

210

Two new species of siphonostomatoid copepods (crustacea) associated with the stoloniferan coral tubipora musica (Linnaeus) from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of siphonostomatoid copepods, Asterocheres tubiporae n. sp. and Entomopsyllus stocki n. sp., associated with the stoloniferan coral Tubipora musica (Linnaeus) are described from Madagascar. Asterocheres tubiporae is characterized by the possession of a large posteroventral process on the caudal ramus and the elongated free segment of leg 5. Entomopsyllus stocki is readily distinguished from its congeners by

2004-01-01

211

Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

2009-01-01

212

A new species of the genus Blaberops (Coleoptera: Anthribidae)
from east Madagascar, with a key to species.
 

PubMed

A new species, Blaberops korinae Trýzna & Ba?a? sp. nov. (Anthribidae: Anthribinae: Zygaenodini), from east Madagascar is described. Colour photographs and a key to Madagascan species of the genus Blaberops are provided. Male and female genitalia of the genus are studied and illustrated for the first time. PMID:24990055

Trýzna, Miloš; Ba?a?, Petr

2014-01-01

213

A null model for species richness gradients: bounded range overlap of butterflies and other rainforest endemics in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species richness has classically been thought to increase from the poles towards the Equator, and from high elevations down to sea-level. However, the largest radiation of butterflies in Madagascar, the subtribe Mycalesina (c. 67 spp.) does not exhibit such a monotonic pattern, either for empirical records or for interpolated species ranges. Instead, summation of mycalesine ranges generates a domed curve

DAVID C LEES; CLAIRE KREMEN; LANTO ANDRIAMAMPIANINA

1999-01-01

214

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Native Rodents of Madagascar (Muridae: Nesomyinae): A Test of the Single-Origin Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1143 bp) were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among the native rodents of Madagascar. Specifically, this study examines whether the nine genera of nesomyines form a monophyletic group relative to other Old World murids. All nine of the nesomyine genera, including multiple individuals from 15 of the 21 described species,

Sharon A. Jansa; Steven M. Goodman; Priscilla K. Tucker

1999-01-01

215

Madagascar hissing cockroach mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi, prevents fungal infection in its cockroach host: evidence for a mutualistic symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we provide the first evidence that the mite Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi is beneficial to the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa by participating in a cleaning symbiosis and thus prolonging the life of its host. Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi is a permanent resident of the cockroach and reduces mould levels by removing the food debris from the cockroach that acts as

Jay A. Yoder; Joshua B. Benoit; Brian Z. Hedges; Andrew J. Jajack; Lawrence W. Zettler

2012-01-01

216

Where Community-Based Water Resource Management has Gone Too Far: Poverty and Disempowerment in Southern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar has struggled with the question of decentralisation for more than three decades. Since coming to power in 2002, President Marc Ra- valomanana has both reformed and accelerated this process, granting new roles and responsibilities to regional and community leadership. This politi- cal path is consistent with shifts in natural resource management in the 1990s, notably in the water sector.

Richard R. Marcus

2007-01-01

217

The activation of local service suppliers by incoming tour operators in a “developing” destination – the case of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article elucidates how organised tourism initiated by the international tour operator system can involve local actors in a developing country with a young tourism industry. The empirical basis is incoming tour operators in Madagascar with the focus on their policies and practices in getting involved with local tour operators and individual providers of service by the realisation of their

Oystein Jensen

2009-01-01

218

A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current models propose that mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups M and N evolved from haplogroup L3 soon after modern humans left Africa. Increasingly, however, analysis of isolated populations is filling in the details of, and in some cases challenging, aspects of this general model. RESULTS: Here, we present the first comprehensive study of three such isolated populations from Madagascar: the Mikea

François-X Ricaut; Harilanto Razafindrazaka; Murray P Cox; Jean-M Dugoujon; Evelyne Guitard; Clement Sambo; Maru Mormina; Marta Mirazon-Lahr; Bertrand Ludes; Eric Crubézy

2009-01-01

219

In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful diversification of dispersed lineages, therefore, appears highly dependent on the timing of arrival, as habitat and resource properties change dramatically over the course of oceanic island evolution.

Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Frederic; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thebaud, Christophe

2012-01-01

220

In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful diversification of dispersed lineages, therefore, appears highly dependent on the timing of arrival, as habitat and resource properties change dramatically over the course of oceanic island evolution. PMID:22900068

Strijk, Joeri S; Noyes, Richard D; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W; Abbott, Richard J; Thébaud, Christophe

2012-01-01

221

Animal health studies using participatory epidemiology in the Mandrare Valley, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Pastoral herders in Madagascar have limited access to animal health workers and veterinary medicines, and more information on their livestock diseases is needed, so that effective animal health programmes can be implemented. In this study, participatory epidemiology methods were used to gather such information in the Mandrare Valley. These included pair-wise ranking and matrix scoring. Eleven diseases were deemed to be priorities by pair-wise ranking. Matrix scoring and characterisation showed that the informant groups associated many disease syndromes with the same diseases, indicating agreement and understanding of the key diseases. The Malagasy-named syndromes, Soko, Besorko and Mamany lio, which are gastrointestinal parasitism, clostridial disease and babesiosis, respectively, were identified by every informant group. A greater sample size may be needed to characterise the diseases precisely with matrix scoring because, in this study, the matrices' scores had wide confidence intervals. PMID:23999777

Bardsley, Elise L; Thrusfield, Michael V

2014-01-01

222

Diagnosis and treatment of a pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis).  

PubMed

A 15-yr-old female Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis) presented with a history of anorexia, wheezing, and occasional open-mouth breathing. On oral examination, a firm, caseous mass was noted in the right caudoventral pharyngeal region, which was confirmed as a carcinoma on incisional biopsy. Advanced imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed to evaluate local tumor invasion and to plan for palliative radiation therapy. However, following the second treatment (10 Gy), the mass had increased in size, and the snake was euthanatized. Radiation-associated vasculitis was noted within the soft tissues surrounding the mass and within muscles and the lung, which was verified on histopathology. The squamous cell carcinoma of the snake in this report was resistant to palliative radiation therapy. PMID:23505715

Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; Hecht, Silke; Baine, Katherine; Ramsay, Edward C; Ferguson, Sylvia; Miller, Debra; Lee, Nathan D

2013-03-01

223

[Malaria in the urban highland area of Antananarivo, Madagascar: bioecology of Anopheles arabiensis].  

PubMed

An entomological study was performed to document the transmission of Plasmodium, agents of human malaria in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Human landing mosquitoes were collected at night during two years, between May 2003 and September 2005, in the two sites of Ambohimiandra-Manakambahiny and Ambolokandrina. The genuses of collected mosquitoes were, in order of abundance, Culex, Mansonia and Anopheles. The only potential vector was Anopheles arabiensis. Its maximal abundance was observed in January (22 and 15 bites per man per night, outdoors, respectively in the two sites), during the rainier month of the austral summer This anopheles was biting indoors, in bedrooms, but its agressivity was always higher outdoors than indoors. Its maximal agressivity was observed indoors between 00 and 01 am. The absence of An. gambiae and An. funestus in the catches on the one hand, and the absence of An. arabiensis infected by Plasmodium falciparum on the other hand, are discussed. PMID:18956819

Ravoahangimalala, R O; Randrianambinintsoa, E J; Tchuinkam, T; Robert, V

2008-10-01

224

[Ecoethology of vectors and transmission of malaria in the lowland rice growing region of Mandritsara, Madagascar ].  

PubMed

To evaluate the determining factors of the malaria transmission in the northwest region of Madagascar, transversal studies were carried out through one year, from March 1997 to April 1998, in two villages located near Mandritsara, at less than 300 meters above sea level. The rice-growing region forms an intermediate zone between the central highlands with epidemic and instable malaria and the coastal zone with endemic and stable malaria. Mosquitoes were collected when landing on humans during the night and by pyrethrum spray catches as regards endophilic mosquitoes. Three vectors were identified: Anopheles arabiensis, An. gambiae and An. funestus. An. arabiensis and An. gambiae were exophagic and zoophilic. An. funestus was endo-exophagic and anthropophilic but this species shows also a zoophilic trophic deviation. In both villages, An. funestus is the main vector of human malaria. Malaria transmission was estimated to be around 50 and 70 infective bites/person/year in each village. PMID:14717053

Ravoahangimalala, R O; Rakotoarivony, H L; Le Goff, G; Fontenille, D

2003-11-01

225

Anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Thailand virus detected in rodents from Madagascar.  

PubMed

Until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from Madagascar. To assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between October, 2008, and March, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the Anjozorobe-Angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city Antananarivo. A hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (Rattus rattus) and of the endemic Major's tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus majori). Amazingly, sequence analysis of the S (small), M (medium), and L (large) coding DNA sequence of this virus showed that the Anjozorobe strain (proposed name) was a new genetic variant of Thailand virus (THAIV) that comprises other variants found in Southeast Asia. Because THAIV is suspected of causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, ongoing studies are addressing the risk of infection by this new variant in the Malagasy population. PMID:24575755

Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafindralambo, Nadia Kaloina; Lacoste, Vincent; Olive, Marie-Marie; Barivelo, Tony Andrianaivo; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Lavergne, Anne

2014-03-01

226

Linking coral river runoff proxies with climate variability, hydrology and land-use in Madagascar catchments.  

PubMed

Understanding the linkages between coastal watersheds and adjacent coral reefs is expected to lead to better coral reef conservation strategies. Our study aims to examine the main predictors of environmental proxies recorded in near shore corals and therefore how linked near shore reefs are to the catchment physical processes. To achieve these, we developed models to simulate hydrology of two watersheds in Madagascar. We examined relationships between environmental proxies derived from massive Porites spp. coral cores (spectral luminescence and barium/calcium ratios), and corresponding time-series (1950-2006) data of hydrology, climate, land use and human population growth. Results suggest regional differences in the main environmental drivers of reef sedimentation: on annual time-scales, precipitation, river flow and sediment load explained the variability in coral proxies of river discharge for the northeast region, while El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and temperature (air and sea surface) were the best predictors in the southwest region. PMID:22853989

Maina, Joseph; de Moel, Hans; Vermaat, Jan E; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Guillaume, Mireille M M; Grove, Craig A; Madin, Joshua S; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Zinke, Jens

2012-10-01

227

[The large island--impressions of a medical parasitological trip to Madagascar].  

PubMed

The course of an investigation trip through Madagascar is sketched. It allowed to analyze the parasitological situation. It is explained with the sociological and economical facts and the unusual fauna of this island. The two biggest problems are Malaria tropica and schistosomatosis (bilharziasis). Further, Ancylostoma, Ascaris, taeniids, and Wuchereria occur. Plague is rare. Fasciola gigantica has been introduced since short time only. Introduction of other parasites must be feared. Sleeping illness and nagana are lacking, as well as rabies, yellow fever, Fasciola hepatica, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Trichinella spiralis and Dracunculus medinensis. Effective control measures may not be reasonable at present because of the socio-economic structure as a result of the former colonial status. PMID:7235291

Soprunov, F F

1981-02-01

228

Pilot survey of avahi population (woolly lemurs) in littoral forest fragments of southeast Madagascar.  

PubMed

This study presents a pilot survey of the avahis (pair-living, nocturnal prosimians) living in threatened littoral forest fragments of southeastern Madagascar. In the period of October-December 2004, I evaluated the density of adult and newborn avahis (carried by the mothers) by counting the individuals encountered during 58 night walks in seven fragments of Sainte Luce and Mandena forests, along one trail/fragment. Along each trail, I used random plots (5 m2) for a preliminary characterization of the vegetation. The density of the population was not correlated with fragment size and number of plant morphospecies, while it was correlated with large tree availability. Possibly due to a low energy diet based on leaves and to specialized and energetically expensive vertical leaping, the loss of large trees by selective logging seems to affect avahi populations more than other variables. PMID:17805480

Norscia, Ivan

2008-01-01

229

Antiproliferative and antimalarial anthraquinones of Scutia myrtina from the Madagascar forest1  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of a Madagascar collection of the bark of Scutia myrtina led to the isolation of three new anthrone-anthraquinones, scutianthraquinones A, B and C (1-3), one new bisanthrone-anthraquinone, scutianthraquinone D (4), and the known anthraquinone, aloesaponarin I (5). The structures of all compounds were determined using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY sequences, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were tested against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line for antiproliferative activities, and against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains Dd2 and FCM29 for antiplasmodial activities. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed weak antiproliferative activities against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line, while compounds 1 – 4 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activities against P. falciparum Dd2 and compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activities against P. falciparum FCM29

Hou, Yanpeng; Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Ratovoson, Fidisoa; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Ratsimbason, Michel; Alumasa, John N.; Roepe, Paul D.

2009-01-01

230

Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, M?xico  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study presents the first list of fish species from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Gulf of México. Field surveys and literature review identified 54 species belonging to 8 orders, 30 families and 43 genera, comprising both conspicuous and cryptic fishes. Species richness was lower at this reef site compared to reefs in the Mexican Caribbean, Veracruz or Tuxpan, but was similar to other reefs in the same region. Species composition was a mixture of species present in all the reef systems of the Mexican Atlantic. Hypoplectrus ecosur was recorded here for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico, Mycteroperca microlepis, Equetus lanceolatus and Chaetodipterus faber were new records for the reefs of the Campeche Bank, Elacatinus xanthiprora was recorded for the second time in Mexico and expanded its known distribution westwards from Alacranes Reef and Sanopus reticulatus, endemic of the Yucatan state, was recorded here for the first time on a reef.

2014-01-01

231

Cytotoxic Prenylated Stilbenes and Flavonoids from Macaranga alnifolia from the Madagascar Rainforest#  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract of the fruit of Macaranga alnifolia from Madagascar led to the isolation of four new prenylated stilbenes, schweinfurthins E–H (1–4), and one new geranylated dihydroflavonol, alnifoliol (5). The known prenylated stilbene, vedelianin (6), and the known geranylated flavonoids, bonanniol A (7), diplacol (8), bonannione A (9) and diplacone (10), were also isolated. All ten compounds were tested for antiproliferative activity in the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line assay. Vedelianin (IC50 = 0.13 µM) exhibited the greatest activity among all isolates, while schweinfurthin E (IC50 = 0.26 µM) was the most potent of the new compounds.

Yoder, Brent J.; Cao, Shugeng; Norris, Andrew; Miller, James S.; Ratovoson, Fidy; Razafitsalama, Jeremi; Andriantsiferana, Rabodo; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

2008-01-01

232

Anthropophilic mosquitoes and malaria transmission in the eastern foothills of the central highlands of Madagascar.  

PubMed

Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar, as it is the first cause of morbidity in health care facilities. Its transmission remains poorly documented. An entomological study was carried out over 1 year (October 2003-September 2004) in Saharevo, a village located at an altitude of 900m on the eastern edge of the Malagasy central highlands. Mosquitoes were sampled weekly upon landing on human volunteers and in various resting-places. Out of 5515 mosquitoes collected on humans, 3219 (58.4%) were anophelines. Eleven anopheline species were represented, among which Anopheles funestus, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles mascarensis. Out of 677 mosquitoes collected in bedrooms by pyrethrum spray catches and in Muirhead-Thomson pits, 656 (96.9%) were anopheline belonging to these four latter species. The proportion of mosquitoes that fed on human varied according to the resting-places and the mosquito species: 86% of An. funestus resting in bedrooms fed on humans, whereas only 16% of An. funestus and 0% of An. mascarensis resting in pits fed on humans. The proportion of anopheline mosquitoes infected with human Plasmodium was measured by circumsporozoite protein-ELISA: 10/633 An. funestus (1.58%), 1/211 An. gambiae s.l. (0.48%) and 2/268 An. mascarensis (0.75%). The annual entomological inoculation rate (number of bites of infected anophelines per adult) was estimated at 2.78. The transmission was mainly due to An. funestus and only observed in the second half of the rainy season, from February to May. These results are discussed in the context of the current malaria vector control policy in Madagascar. PMID:20804715

Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Domarle, Olivier; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Le Goff, Gilbert; Talman, Arthur; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent

2010-12-01

233

Forest Management Devolution: Gap Between Technicians' Design and Villagers' Practices in Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1980s, tropical forest-management principles underwent a shift toward approaches giving greater responsibilities to rural people. One argument for such a shift were the long-term relations established between rural people and their natural resources. In Madagascar, a new law was drawn up in 1996 (Gelose law), which sought to integrate rural people into forest management. A gap was observed between the changes foreseen by the projects implementing the Gelose law and the actual changes. In this article, we use the concept of the social-ecological system (SES) to analyze that gap. The differences existing between the planned changes set by the Gelose contract in the village of Ambatoloaka (northwest of Madagascar) and the practices observed in 2010 were conceptualized as a gap between two SESs. The first SES is the targeted one (i.e., a virtual one); it corresponds to the designed Gelose contract. The second SES is the observed one. It is characterized by the heterogeneity of forest users and uses, which have several impacts on forest management, and by very dynamic social and ecological systems. The observed SES has been reshaped contingent on the constraints and opportunities offered by the Gelose contract as well as on other ecological and social components. The consequences and opportunities that such an SES reshaping would offer to improve the implementation of the Gelose law are discussed. The main reasons explaining the gap between the two SESs are as follows: (1) the clash between static and homogeneous perceptions in the targeted SES and the dynamics and heterogeneity that characterize the observed SES; and (2) the focus on one specific use of forest ecosystems (i.e., charcoal-making) in the targeted SES. Forest management in the observed SES depends on several uses of forest ecosystems.

Rives, Fanny; Carrière, Stéphanie M.; Montagne, Pierre; Aubert, Sigrid; Sibelet, Nicole

2013-10-01

234

Geochronology and 4+ thermometry of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism in southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) metamorphism--regional metamorphism at >900° C--in a collisional setting requires some combination of: i) unusually radiogenic crust, ii) advection of heat by magmatism, iii) conduction of mantle-derived heat, and iv) shear heating. The Neoproterozoic continental collision zone exposed in Madagascar provides a good opportunity to investigate these potential causes; we use three 4+ thermometers (Zr-in-rutile, Ti-in-zircon, and Ti-in-quartz) and U/Th-Pb geochronology of monazite and zircon to evaluate the magnitude, timing, and duration of UHT metamorphism in southern Madagascar. U-Pb dates from metamorphic monazite and zircon with complex intragrain (re)crystallization textures range from ~600 Ma to ~500 Ma. Zircon and monazite with HREE depletion and dates of 600-540 Ma suggest (re)crystallization in the presence of garnet. All monazite shows negative Eu anomalies (compatible with the presence of plagioclase), but monazite with dates from ~570 to ~530 Ma has more pronounced anomalies. Zr-in-rutile temperatures span 700 to 960° C and Ti-in-quartz temperatures span 600 to 950° C. The UHT metamorphism is assumed to postdate both the accretion of an arc terrane to West Gondwana at ~600 Ma and the suturing of East and West Gondwana prior to ~570 Ma. The 40 Myr between distinct episodes of alkali plutonism at ~570 Ma (deformed) and ~530 Ma (nondeformed) coincide with more-negative Eu anomalies in monazite, and may reflect the period of orogenesis associated with UHT metamorphism. The measured K, Th, and U contents of rocks within the UHT domain [GAF-BGR, 2008] indicate an average heat production of >5 ?W/m3. This is sufficient to produce UHT metamorphism in 60-km thick crust within 40 Myr.

Horton, F.; Hacker, B. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

2013-12-01

235

Madagascar Highland erosion: What can we learn from the archive precipitation data?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Madagascar, soil erosion is significant even when it is compared to world averages, resulting in special geomorphic forms known as lavakas appearing in the Highland regions of the island. The development of these features is due to rather unique multifactorial environmental conditions. Among many factors (geology, soil composition, human influence, etc.) the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation is a key factor. The presence of the dry and wet season seems to be responsible for the enhanced generation of small cracks that might eventually lead to the development of a gully. However, the way of the development of such gully erosions are unknown. To what extent of the actual precipitation pattern to what extent the weather contributes to the aforementioned phenomenon has not yet been studied in great detail. The aim of our research is to study the climatic and weather conditions of lavaka-prone areas for the last decades. The typical cyclonal pattern affects the Madagascar Highlands in various ways. The precipitation and the soil moisture data show that the spatial distribution can be correlated with the appearance of lavakas to a given extent, however the local distribution cannot be explained only based on the precipitation pattern. The severity of the wet season varies strongly in the various decades leading to different precipitation maxima in January-March period. In general the effectiveness of the gully erosion is thought to be highly enhanced if the run-off of the area show large temporal variations. According to our studies this variability is quite high in certain seasons, and, despite of the low spatial resolution, related to the lavaka-prone areas. However, neither the amount of the precipitation, nor the variability alone cannot explain the high variation found in the spatial density and length distribution. Further multidisciplinary studies are necessary to draw conclusions about lavaka formation and describe the process of lavaka development. This is ILARG-contribution Nr. 11.

Imola Szabó, Amanda; Raveloson, Andrea; Székely, Balázs

2014-05-01

236

Population genetic structure and isolation by distance of Helicobacter pylori in Senegal and Madagascar.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori has probably infected the human stomach since our origins and subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. The genetic population history of H. pylori can therefore be used as a marker for human migration. We analysed seven housekeeping gene sequences of H. pylori strains isolated from 78 Senegalese and 24 Malagasy patients and compared them with the sequences of strains from other geographical locations. H. pylori from Senegal and Madagascar can be placed in the previously described HpAfrica1 genetic population, subpopulations hspWAfrica and hspSAfrica, respectively. These 2 subpopulations correspond to the distribution of Niger-Congo speakers in West and most of subequatorial Africa (due to Bantu migrations), respectively. H. pylori appears as a single population in Senegal, indicating a long common history between ethnicities as well as frequent local admixtures. The lack of differentiation between these isolates and an increasing genetic differentiation with geographical distance between sampling locations in Africa was evidence for genetic isolation by distance. The Austronesian expansion that started from Taiwan 5000 years ago dispersed one of the 10 subgroups of the Austronesian language family via insular Southeast Asia into the Pacific and Madagascar, and hspMaori is a marker for the entire Austronesian expansion. Strain competition and replacement of hspMaori by hpAfrica1 strains from Bantu migrants are the probable reasons for the presence of hspSAfrica strains in Malagasy of Southeast Asian descent. hpAfrica1 strains appear to be generalist strains that have the necessary genetic diversity to efficiently colonise a wide host spectrum. PMID:24498084

Linz, Bodo; Vololonantenainab, Clairette Romaine Raharisolo; Seck, Abdoulaye; Carod, Jean-François; Dia, Daouda; Garin, Benoit; Ramanampamonjy, Rado Manitrala; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Raymond, Josette; Breurec, Sebastien

2014-01-01

237

A genome sequence resource for the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a nocturnal lemur from Madagascar.  

PubMed

We present a high-coverage draft genome assembly of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual nocturnal primate from Madagascar. Our assembly totals ~3.0 billion bp (3.0 Gb), roughly the size of the human genome, comprised of ~2.6 million scaffolds (N50 scaffold size = 13,597 bp) based on short paired-end sequencing reads. We compared the aye-aye genome sequence data with four other published primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus macaque) as well as with the mouse and dog genomes as nonprimate outgroups. Unexpectedly, we observed strong evidence for a relatively slow substitution rate in the aye-aye lineage compared with these and other primates. In fact, the aye-aye branch length is estimated to be ~10% shorter than that of the human lineage, which is known for its low substitution rate. This finding may be explained, in part, by the protracted aye-aye life-history pattern, including late weaning and age of first reproduction relative to other lemurs. Additionally, the availability of this draft lemur genome sequence allowed us to polarize nucleotide and protein sequence changes to the ancestral primate lineage-a critical period in primate evolution, for which the relevant fossil record is sparse. Finally, we identified 293,800 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms in the donor individual for our aye-aye genome sequence, a captive-born individual from two wild-born parents. The resulting heterozygosity estimate of 0.051% is the lowest of any primate studied to date, which is understandable considering the aye-aye's extensive home-range size and relatively low population densities. Yet this level of genetic diversity also suggests that conservation efforts benefiting this unusual species should be prioritized, especially in the face of the accelerating degradation and fragmentation of Madagascar's forests. PMID:22155688

Perry, George H; Reeves, Darryl; Melsted, Páll; Ratan, Aakrosh; Miller, Webb; Michelini, Katelyn; Louis, Edward E; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Mason, Christopher E; Gilad, Yoav

2012-01-01

238

Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess whether individual clinic?based counselling as a supplement to peer education for male and female condom promotion leads to greater use of protection and lower STI prevalence among sex workers in Madagascar already exposed to intensive male condom promotion. Methods In two public dispensaries in Madagascar, a total of 901 sex workers were randomly allocated between two alternative male and female condom promotion interventions: peer education only, or peer education supplemented with individual clinic?based counselling. Participants were followed for 12?months. Every 2?months they made clinic visits, where they were interviewed on condom use. Peer educators counselled all participants on condom use as they accompanied their assigned participants to study visits. Participants assigned to receive the supplemental intervention were counselled by a trained clinician following study interviews. Participants were tested and treated for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis every 6?months. We used logistic regression to assess whether the more intensive intervention was associated with reduced STI prevalence. Use of protection with clients and non?paying partners was assessed by study arm, site, and visit. Results There was no statistically significant association between study arm and aggregated STI prevalence. No substantial differences in levels of reported protection were noted between study groups. Conclusions This study found little evidence for gains from more thorough clinical counselling on male and female condom use. These findings suggest that less clinically intensive interventions such as peer education could be suitable for male and female condom promotion in populations already exposed to barrier method promotion.

Hoke, Theresa H; Feldblum, Paul J; Van Damme, Kathleen; Nasution, Marlina D; Grey, Thomas W; Wong, Emelita L; Ralimamonjy, Louisette; Raharimalala, Leonardine; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

2007-01-01

239

Association between Proximity to a Health Center and Early Childhood Mortality in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. Methods From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1), nested within 584 village locations (level 2), and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3). We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. Results Compared with those who lived >1.5–3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0–10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92–2.01) and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06–1.90), respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. Conclusions Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality) in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve better infant health.

Kashima, Saori; Suzuki, Etsuji; Okayasu, Toshiharu; Jean Louis, Razafimahatratra; Eboshida, Akira; Subramanian, S. V.

2012-01-01

240

Deep flow in the Madagascar-Mascarene Basin over the last 150,000 years.  

PubMed

The SW Indian Ocean contains at least four layers of water masses with different sources: deep Antarctic (Lower Circumpolar Deep Water) flow to the north, midwater North Indian Deep Water flow to the south and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water to the north, meridional convergence of intermediate waters at 500-1500 m, and the shallow South Equatorial Current flowing west. Sedimentation rates in the area are rather low, being less than 1 cm ka(-1) on Madagascar Ridge, but up to 4 cm ka(-1) at Amirante Passage. Bottom flow through the Madagascar-Mascarene Basin into Amirante Passage varies slightly on glacial-interglacial time-scales, with faster flow in the warm periods of the last interglacial and minima in cold periods. Far more important are the particularly high flow rates, inferred from silt grain size, which occur at warm-to-cold transitions rather than extrema. This suggests the cause is changing density gradient driving a transiently fast flow. Corroboration is found in the glacial-interglacial range of benthic delta18O which is ca. 2 per thousand, suggesting water close to freezing and at least 1.2 more saline and thus more dense glacial bottom waters than present. Significant density steps are inferred in isotope stage 6, the 5e-5d, and 5a-4 transitions. Oxygen isotope data suggest little change by mixing in glacial bottom water on their northward path. Benthic carbon isotope ratios at Amirante Passage differ from glacial Southern Ocean values, due possibly to absence of a local productivity effect present in the Southern Ocean. PMID:15598625

McCave, I N; Kiefer, T; Thornalley, D J R; Elderfield, H

2005-01-15

241

Landscape attributes driving avian influenza virus circulation in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar.  

PubMed

While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist. PMID:24893021

Guerrini, Laure; Paul, Mathilde C; Leger, Lucas; Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina R; Maminiaina, Olivier F; Jourdan, Marion; Molia, Sophie; Rakotondravao, René; Chevalier, Véronique

2014-05-01

242

Immune Responses to Plague Infection in Wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A Role in Foci Persistence?  

PubMed Central

Background Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Conclusion/Significance Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A.; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan

2012-01-01

243

Tracing Arab-Islamic inheritance in Madagascar: study of the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro.  

PubMed

Madagascar is located at the crossroads of the Asian and African worlds and is therefore of particular interest for studies on human population migration. Within the large human diversity of the Great Island, we focused our study on a particular ethnic group, the Antemoro. Their culture presents an important Arab-Islamic influence, but the question of an Arab biological inheritance remains unresolved. We analyzed paternal (n=129) and maternal (n=135) lineages of this ethnic group. Although the majority of Antemoro genetic ancestry comes from sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian gene pools, we observed in their paternal lineages two specific haplogroups (J1 and T1) linked to Middle Eastern origins. This inheritance was restricted to some Antemoro sub-groups. Statistical analyses tended to confirm significant Middle Eastern genetic contribution. This study gives a new perspective to the large human genetic diversity in Madagascar. PMID:24278350

Capredon, Mélanie; Brucato, Nicolas; Tonasso, Laure; Choesmel-Cadamuro, Valérie; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rakotondrabe, Andriamihaja Bakomalala; Ratolojanahary, Mamisoa Adelta; Randriamarolaza, Louis-Paul; Champion, Bernard; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

244

Tracing Arab-Islamic Inheritance in Madagascar: Study of the Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro  

PubMed Central

Madagascar is located at the crossroads of the Asian and African worlds and is therefore of particular interest for studies on human population migration. Within the large human diversity of the Great Island, we focused our study on a particular ethnic group, the Antemoro. Their culture presents an important Arab-Islamic influence, but the question of an Arab biological inheritance remains unresolved. We analyzed paternal (n=129) and maternal (n=135) lineages of this ethnic group. Although the majority of Antemoro genetic ancestry comes from sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian gene pools, we observed in their paternal lineages two specific haplogroups (J1 and T1) linked to Middle Eastern origins. This inheritance was restricted to some Antemoro sub-groups. Statistical analyses tended to confirm significant Middle Eastern genetic contribution. This study gives a new perspective to the large human genetic diversity in Madagascar.

Capredon, Melanie; Brucato, Nicolas; Tonasso, Laure; Choesmel-Cadamuro, Valerie; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rakotondrabe, Andriamihaja Bakomalala; Ratolojanahary, Mamisoa Adelta; Randriamarolaza, Louis-Paul; Champion, Bernard; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

245

La dynamique de pauvreté provinciale et le marché du travail à Madagascar. Une analyse fondée sur une décomposition de régression  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’étude considère que l’identification de la distribution et de la dynamique spatiale des activités et des opportunités économiques, en relation avec l’accès au marché du travail, est fondamentale pour la politique économique, et examine les déterminants de l’évolution de la pauvreté provinciale à Madagascar, au cours de la période 2001-2005. Premièrement, les équations du ratio de bien-être des ménages mettent

Jean-Pierre Lachaud

2007-01-01

246

The structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Mozambique and Madagascar from combined surface wave and ambient noise tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results based on applying the two-plane wave method to the observed amplitude and phase of fundamental mode surface waves from the NSF-funded MACOMO IRIS PASSCAL broadband seismometer deployment in Madagascar and Mozambique. The two-plane wave method (Forsyth and Li, 2005) involves modeling arriving surface waves by a two-plane-wave field. Combining this method with ambient noise will allow the joint inversion of phase velocities from 5 to 180 s, to generate a high-resolution 3-D shear wave velocity model from the surface to a depth of ~200 km beneath Madagascar, Mozambique and the surrounding regions. Using the two-plane wave method, the phase and amplitude of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves from distant earthquakes recorded at MACOMO are inverted for 2-D phase velocity maps at periods from 18 to 180 s. The ambient noise method (a separate study) is limited to short periods and therefore it is sensitive only to the crust and uppermost mantle structure. The 3-D shear-wave velocity structure beneath East Africa (Mozambique and Madagascar) where the East African Orogeny was instrumental in the amalgamation of Gondwana (~540 Ma) is investigated by using the implicit relation between phase-velocity dispersion and shear-wave structure. The phase velocities, at selected periods and at each node of the phase velocity maps, are inverted for a 1-D structure; the 1-D models at each node form the 3-D shear-wave model. Phase-velocity tomographic images show 2-D lateral variations in phase velocities at each period. Preliminary results show that above periods of 124 sec we noticed a rapid vertical transition to low phase velocities beneath southern Madagascar.

Shore, P.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wysession, M. E.; Pratt, M. J.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Rambolamana, G.; Rakotondraibe, T.; Sy Tanjona Andriampenomanana ny Ony, F.

2013-12-01

247

A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the “out-of-Africa” hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen–Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52–2.48Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha

R. D. Tucker; J. Y. Roig; P. H. Macey; C. Delor; Y. Amelin; R. A. Armstrong; M. H. Rabarimanana; A. V. Ralison

2011-01-01

248

Randomized clinical trial of artemisinin versus non-artemisinin combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data concerning antimalarial combination treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Madagascar are largely lacking. Randomized clinical trial was designed to assess therapeutic efficacies of chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination (AQ+SP) and artesunate plus amodiaquine combination (AQ+AS). METHODS: 287 children between 6 months and 15 years of age, with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, were enrolled in the

Didier Ménard; Nohary Nina Harimanana Andrianina; Zakaherizo Ramiandrasoa; Arthur Randriamanantena; Noéline Rasoarilalao; Martial Jahevitra; Arsène Ratsimbasoa; Luciano Tuseo; Andrianirina Raveloson

2007-01-01

249

New species and distribution records of selenopid spiders of the genus Hovops Benoit in Madagascar (Araneae, Selenopidae).  

PubMed

Hovops Benoit is a heterogeneous genus of selenopid spiders that was prior to this study represented by seven species that are endemic to Madagascar. Here, we describe four new species: H. antakarana sp. n. (?), H. ikongo sp. n. (?), H. menabe sp. n. (?), and H. vezo sp. n. (?). A map of the new species is provided as well as new records on two of the known species H. pusillus (Simon, 1897) and H. legrasi (Simon, 1887). PMID:24871850

Artigas, Sandra Mónica Rodriguez; Corronca, Jose Antonio

2014-01-01

250

Cross-species chromosome painting in bats from Madagascar: the contribution of Myzopodidae to revealing ancestral syntenies in Chiroptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae.\\u000a While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity\\u000a of the island’s fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four\\u000a species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic

Leigh R. Richards; Ramugondo V. Rambau; Jennifer M. Lamb; Peter J. Taylor; Fengtang Yang; M. Corrie Schoeman; Steven M. Goodman

2010-01-01

251

Influence of slash-and-burn farming practices on fallow succession and land degradation in the rainforest region of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slash-and-burn agriculture (tavy) is the major cause of upland degradation and deforestation in eastern Madagascar. Upland degradation studies are largely based on floristic loss and have ignored the link to agriculture, the main activity on the uplands. The objectives were to analyze jointly with the Betsimisaraka farmers how slash-and-burn practices influence fallow species succession, and how current fallow\\/cropping regimes influence

Erika Styger; Harivelo M. Rakotondramasy; Max J. Pfeffer; Erick C. M. Fernandes; David M. Bates

2007-01-01

252

Nesogordonia tricarpellata (Dombeyaceae), a new species from Madagascar that compels modification of the morphological circumscription of the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nesogordonia tricarpellata Skema & Dorr, sp. nov., a new species from southeastern Madagascar, is described and illustrated. It differs from all other species of Nesogordonia Baill. in having 6–9 stamens, 3 staminodes, a 3-carpellate ovary, and a 3-valved capsule. These androecial and gynoecial characters require modification of the long-standing circumscription of the genus. The new species also has the southernmost geographic range of any species in the genus.

Skema, Cynthia; Dorr, Laurence J.

2011-01-01

253

Petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic mafic alkaline rocks of the Nosy Be archipelago (northern Madagascar): relationships with the Comorean magmatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a geochemical and isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) study of mafic volcanic rocks outcropping in the Nosy Be archipelago are reported. This volcanic area (10–7 Ma) is part of the igneous province extending throughout northern Madagascar. Lava flows and spatter cones are present in the northern and western sides of the Nosy Be island, while the central part is characterized by

Leone Melluso; Vincenzo Morra

2000-01-01

254

Stable carbon isotope values document how a Late Holocene expansion in grasslands impacted vertebrates in northwestern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Madagascar is home to some of the world's most distinctive plants and animals. Unfortunately, forest loss and habitat degradation has had a dramatic impact on both floral and faunal communities. Here we use carbon isotope values in radiocarbon-dated bones to examine how the vertebrate community at Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar, responded to a Late Holocene increase in C4 grass abundance. Our data demonstrate that major changes in the vegetation and animal community are recent phenomena at Anjohibe. Extinct lemurs and hippopotamuses were present until ca. 1500 years ago. These taxa relied exclusively on C3 resources. Locally extirpated fauna were present until 300 years ago. The majority of these species also relied on C3 resources. Their presence strongly suggests that the region surrounding the cave was more wooded than it is now, possibly as recently as 300 years ago. All introduced individuals are modern. Rats (Rattus sp.), shrews (Suncus murinus), and the giant frog Hoplobatrachus cf. tigrinus, have remarkably high carbon isotope values, implicating substantial ingestion of C4 foods. It is possible that grass abundance has increased dramatically in the past 100 years. Alternatively, opportunistically granivorous rats and shrews may selectively consume seeds from C4 grasses. In agreement with previous studies, stable isotope data reveal details of vegetation and faunal turnover in Northwestern Madagascar. Grasses have increased, forest dwelling species have vanished, and introduced taxa are exploiting a novel niche.

Crowley, B. E.; Samonds, K.

2012-12-01

255

Does Diversity Matter In Modeling? Testing A New Version Of The FORMIX3 Growth Model For Madagascar Rainforests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological forecasting has become an essential tool used by ecologists to understand the dynamics of growth and disturbance response in threatened ecosystems such as the rainforests of Madagascar. In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic factors, resulting in a heightened need for accurate assessment of biomass before these ecosystems disappear. The objective of this study was to test a new Madagascar rainforest specific version of the FORMIX3 growth model (Huth and Ditzer, 2000; Huth et al 1998) to assess how accurately biomass can be simulated in high biodiversity forests using a method of functional type aggregation in an individual-based model framework. Rainforest survey data collected over three growing seasons, including 265 tree species, was aggregated into 12 plant functional types based on size and light requirements. Findings indicated that the forest study site compared best when the simulated forest reached mature successional status. Multiple level comparisons between model simulation data and survey plot data found that though some features, such as the dominance of canopy emergent species and relative absence of small woody treelets are captured by the model, other forest attributes were not well reflected. Overall, the ability to accurately simulate the Madagascar rainforest was slightly diminished by the aggregation of tree species into size and light requirement functional type groupings.

Armstrong, A. H.; Fischer, R.; Shugart, H. H.; Huth, A.

2012-12-01

256

Density estimates of two endangered nocturnal lemur species from northern Madagascar: new results and a comparison of commonly used methods.  

PubMed

Very little information is known of the recently described Microcebus tavaratra and Lepilemur milanoii in the Daraina region, a restricted area in far northern Madagascar. Since their forest habitat is highly fragmented and expected to undergo significant changes in the future, rapid surveys are essential to determine conservation priorities. Using both distance sampling and capture-recapture methods, we estimated population densities in two forest fragments. Our results are the first known density and population size estimates for both nocturnal species. In parallel, we compare density results from four different approaches, which are widely used to estimate lemur densities and population sizes throughout Madagascar. Four approaches (King, Kelker, Muller and Buckland) are based on transect surveys and distance sampling, and they differ from each other by the way the effective strip width is estimated. The fifth method relies on a capture-mark-recapture (CMR) approach. Overall, we found that the King method produced density estimates that were significantly higher than other methods, suggesting that it generates overestimates and hence overly optimistic estimates of population sizes in endangered species. The other three distance sampling methods provided similar estimates. These estimates were similar to those obtained with the CMR approach when enough recapture data were available. Given that Microcebus species are often trapped for genetic or behavioral studies, our results suggest that existing data can be used to provide estimates of population density for that species across Madagascar. PMID:22311681

Meyler, Samuel Viana; Salmona, Jordi; Ibouroi, Mohamed Thani; Besolo, Aubin; Rasolondraibe, Emmanuel; Radespiel, Ute; Rabarivola, Clément; Chikhi, Lounes

2012-05-01

257

Genetic Evidence for Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Madagascar Resulting from Virus Introductions from the East African Mainland rather than Enzootic Maintenance?†‡  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006–2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006–2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland.

Carroll, Serena A.; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L.; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2011-01-01

258

Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic disturbance, resulting in a heightened need for an accurate assessment of biomass and the gaining of predictive capability before these ecosystems disappear. The combination of multi-temporal remote sensing data, field data and forest growth modeling to quantify carbon stocks and flux is therefore of great importance. In this study, we utilize these methods to (1) improve forest biomass and carbon flux estimates for the study region in Eastern Madagascar, and (2) initialize an individual-based growth model that incorporates the anthropogenic factors causing deforestation to project ecosystem response to future environmental change. Recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between the international rice market and rates of deforestation in tropical countries such as Madagascar (see Minten et al., 2006). Further, although law protects the remaining forest areas, dictatorships and recent political unrest have lead to poor or non-existent enforcement of precious wood and forest protection over the past 35 years. Our approach combined multi-temporal remote sensing analysis and ecological modeling using a theoretical and mathematical approach to assess biomass change and to understand how tree growth and life history (growth response patterns) relate to past and present economic variability in Madagascar forests of the eastern Toamasina region. We measured rates of change of deforestation with respect to politics and the price of rice by classifying and comparing biomass using 30m Landsat during 5 political regime time periods (1985-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2001, 2002-2008, 2009 to present). Forest biomass estimations were calibrated using forest inventory data collected over 3 growing seasons over the study region (130 small circular plots in primary forest). This information was then built into the previously parameterized (Armstrong et al., in prep and Fischer et al in review) Madagascar FORMIX3 Model (see Huth and Ditzer, 2000) by incorporating rice economy, selective logging and political stability modules into the model to control certain species groups (i.e. selective harvest) and fire frequency (encroachment). The improved FORMIX3 model was then used to investigate and project forest growth response to a variety of impact scenarios ranging from an increase in overall deforestation to a decrease in deforestation and increase in protection enforcement. Our findings showed a significant positive correlation between increasing deforestation rates and higher local rice prices due to political regime and international market factors. This research resulted in the first quantitative analysis of the relationship between the international rice market and local land-use in terms of slash and burn agriculture, illegal logging of precious hardwood in Madagascar.

Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

2013-12-01

259

Preparer une firme-reseau dans le transport routier des hydrocarbures le cas de TOTAL Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a dynamic context, a network firm is more and more suggested in scientific writings as a prevalent strategy to develop several firms in subcontracting link in order to satisfy the needs of their customers asking for products which are complex to manufacture. However, due to lack of sufficient preparation, most of network organizations fail. That's why it seems legitimate to explore an avenue of research on the preparation step of a network firm. How a third intermediary can develop and try out a change process in order to stimulate the commitment of films to organize themselves in network? This study is developed inside the framework of an intervention-research applied to the case of the oil distribution company TOTAL Madagascar. 71 weeks of intervention actions carried out with 27 subcontracting firms of hydrocarbon road transport located to Antananarivo are recorded within this framework. One of the critical elements in the oil distribution in Madagascar is the scarcity of the subcontracting firms of hydrocarbon road transport which are able to meet the required quality criterions. A lack of management standards observed in several small and medium enterprises of hydrocarbon road transport, a growth of the number of tankers accidents, and an insufficiency of individual resources to develop competences constitute the main reasons which explain this scarcity. By this way, a preparation step of a network firm was developed in order to increase the management competences of the subcontracting firms of hydrocarbon road transport, and to develop their capacity of collective learning. This step comes from the evolutionary perspective which consists in elaborating and implementing uprooting, movement and rooting activities related to a change implementation model taking reactions of the participating enterprises into consideration, through a change understanding process from objection to exploration until engagement. The realization of theses activities had been allowed: 44 managers of 27 participating firms to be trained, certified and sensitized with the network firm practice, 78% of the participating firms to be enthusiastic to pass to the creation of a network firm, and the enterprise pivot TOTAL Madagascar to record a significant diminution of the number of tankers accidents which is passed from 10 (77% of the total number of the tankers accidents) at the beginning of the process in 2003 to 5 (36%) at the end of this process in 2005 and to 3 (27%) in 2007. These tangible and positive results seem to prove the commitment of firms participating in the preparation step of the network firm. In this way, it is appropriate to put the hypothesis according to the experience done within the framework of this study that could be considered as a learning trajectory type of the preparation step which efficiently stimulates the intention of the participating firms to be organized in network. This present case, through these results, strengthens the consideration according to the success of the network firm which depends in the efficiency of the change process related to its preparation. Thus, a main scientific contribution of this present step rely on its originality which is the integration of two change models (implementation and understanding) inside the same research conceptual framework. In a managerial side, the essential of this step may be transferable to the other contexts which look upon the determinant role of the researcher acting as a change co-leader. That shows the utility of this step within the framework of a doctorate applied in administration. Keywords: Subcontracting -- Change -- Network firm -- Hydrocarbon Road Transport -- Small and Medium Enterprises

Razakamanifidiny, Patrick Dany

260

Imaging the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary beneath South Africa and Madagascar using S receiver functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Africa's lithosphere preserves a nearly un-interrupted geological history of more than 3.5 billion years. It was formed during the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana over a period of 80 million years and therefore is the longest, best-preserved geological record of the planet Earth. Investigation of the thickness of continental roots, which migrate coherently with plates, therefore belongs to the most systematic keys in order to understand the continental evolution. This goal will be achieved using the novel technique of S receiver function. This technique employing S-to-P conversions appears promising for detecting the LAB and has already proven its power for mapping the LAB in the tectonically different regions. We used the available data from more than 85 temporary and permanent broadband stations in South Africa and Madagascar to detect the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Our results obtain detailed images of the LAB with improved resolution. S receiver functions clearly resolve the Moho boundary at depths ranging between 35 and 45 km beneath South Africa in good agreement with the previous studies. Even though we can not find any correlation between the crustal thickness and the age of the terrains. Deeper structure can be also well imaged by S receiver functions. Our results clearly show the presence of more than one negative converted phase beneath Kalahari Craton. On the other hand, they reveal the presence of two distinct lithospheric layers throughout the stable part of the South African continent. The first discontinuity can be seen at depths ranging between 160-220 km beneath the Archean Cratons and surrounding Phanerozoic belts, whereas the deeper discontinuity at about 300 km can be only imaged beneath the Archean Cratons. We interpret the deeper boundary at 300 km as the LAB of the old Archean Craton beneath South Africa. The shallower discontinuity at 160-220 km depth may show a mid-lithospheric boundary, which probably reveals a relict of the old mantle lithosphere. Our results obtained from the stations located in Madagascar can only confirm the presence of the mid-lithopheric boundary at 170 km depth.

Sodoudi, F.; Kaestle, E.; Kind, R.

2012-12-01

261

Campylobacter infection in a cohort of rural children in Moramanga, Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Campylobacter infection is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in developing countries, including Madagascar. Reports of pathogenicity have not been consistent and repeated exposures over time seem to lead to the development of protective immunity in developing areas. We conducted this study to support evidence for these hypotheses by exploring the association between infection and age, the reoccurrence of infection and the pathogenicity of Campylobacter. Methods We carried out a community-based longitudinal study of children under the age of 24 months in two rural villages in Moramanga, Madagascar. Children were visited twice a week and a stool specimen was collected in cases of diarrhoea. Stools specimens were collected bimonthly from all children enrolled, regardless of symptoms. Children were followed-up until the age of 36 months. Results Between January 2010 and May 31st 2012, 508 children were included in the cohort. We detected 319 episodes of Campylobacter infection in total, and 43.3% (n?=?220) of the children had at least one episode of intestinal Campylobacter infection. The rate of Campylobacter isolation from stool specimens was 9.3%. The annual incidence rate for symptomatic Campylobacter infection was 0.05 episodes/child. The probability of Campylobacter infection was highest between the ages of six and 23 months. Taking children under six months of age as the reference group, the age-specific odds ratio for the association was 5.0 (95% CI: 2.9-8.6) for children aged six to 11 months, 5.7 (95% CI: 3.3-10.0) for children aged 12 to 17 months and 3.3 (95% CI: 1.8-5.8) for children aged 18 to 23 months. A second episode of infection occurred 63 days after the first episode in children with primary infections, and after 137 days in children with multiple infections (p?

2014-01-01

262

Flow at intermediate depths around Madagascar based on ALACE float trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1994-1996, 215 Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorers (ALACE floats) were released at a nominal 900 m depth in the Indian Ocean as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Of these, 66 entered the region around Madagascar (2-30°S, 35-55°E), generally at a depth of 800-900 m. Floats approaching the island from the east were deflected either northward or southward depending on latitude, with the bifurcation point being near 20°S. Mean southward velocities in the western boundary current were 8.5 cm s -1 during each 25-day observation period, with mean northward velocities 7.7 cm s -1. Speeds past Cape Amber were about 11 cm s -1. These figures are comparable to those obtained from in situ current meter measurements. Floats rounding the island to the north frequently drifted north of the Comores for many months with no discernable pattern, before exiting the region either to the north in the East African Coastal Current and the equatorial current system or to the south via the Mozambique Channel. Flow rates in this region were highly skewed towards low (less than 5 cm s -1) velocities. Floats passing south of Madagascar showed little northward movement into the Mozambique Channel, but tended to move steadily westwards towards the African coast, becoming entrained in the Agulhas Current and its recirculation gyres near 28°S. Similarly, floats released within the southern portion of the Channel all tended to move to the south and west despite occasional entanglement with eddies. Mean flow in the Agulhas region was about 18 cm s -1, with maximum velocities over 25 days of up to about 35 cm s. All flows were extremely variable because of the ubiquity of eddies. In essence, the flow observed near 800 m resembled closely that seen at the surface from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and at 845 m in the OCCAM global model. Temperature data collected by the floats were used to determine when a given float was being acted on by an anticyclonic eddy. Deviations, which were typically 0.5°C or more from the background temperature field, were found only in eddies south of 12°S and occurred in about 9% of float records within the Mozambique Channel. The results support the idea of a net southward flow of water through the Channel from the tropics to the Agulhas Current, with the eddies playing a major role in the transport in the southern part of the region. In the northern and eastern parts of the region, however, eddies were far less prevalent, and topographic steering by the Mascarene Ridge became important.

Chapman, P.; Marco, S. F. Di; Davis, R. E.; Coward, A. C.

2003-07-01

263

Viral Etiology of Influenza-Like Illnesses in Antananarivo, Madagascar, July 2008 to June 2009  

PubMed Central

Background In Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs). Methodology/Principal Findings From July 2008 to June 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from patients who presented ILIs symptoms in public and private clinics in Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar). ILIs were defined as body temperature ?38°C and cough and at least two of the following symptoms: sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache and muscular pain, for a maximum duration of 3 days. We screened these specimens using five multiplex real time Reverse Transcription and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction assays for detection of 14 respiratory viruses. We detected respiratory viruses in 235/313 (75.1%) samples. Overall influenza virus A (27.3%) was the most common virus followed by rhinovirus (24.8%), RSV (21.2%), adenovirus (6.1%), coronavirus OC43 (6.1%), influenza virus B (3.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (2.9%), and parainfluenza virus-1 (2.3%). Co-infections occurred in 29.4% (69/235) of infected patients and rhinovirus was the most detected virus (27.5%). Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ILI. In this age group, compared to those ?5 years, the risk of detecting more than one virus was higher (OR?=?1.9), as was the risk of detecting of RSV (OR?=?10.1) and adenovirus (OR?=?4.7). While rhinovirus and adenovirus infections occurred year round, RSV, influenza virus A and coronavirus OC43 had defined period of circulation. Conclusions In our study, we found that respiratory viruses play an important role in ILIs in the Malagasy community, particularly in children under 5 years old. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of outpatients with ILI and describe for the first time importance of these viruses in different age group and their period of circulation.

Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Richard, Vincent; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcellin; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Heraud, Jean-Michel

2011-01-01

264

Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation.  

PubMed

Decreased activity has been reported in both nocturnal and diurnal primates during the prolonged dry season in western Madagascar, and this has been interpreted as a reaction to the severe environment, with its food scarcity and/or thermal stress. Several day-active lemurs rest more as trees defoliate, although the reason for this is unclear. To understand the mechanism underpinning the diurnal resting of lemurs in seasonal deciduous forests, I observed common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) for one year in Ankarafantsika National Park, northwestern Madagascar. In Ankarafantsika, despite high fruit availability during the dry season, brown lemurs are known to engage in diurnal resting. To examine the effects of thermal factors and defoliation on lemur inactivity, I recorded the activity of a troop at 1 min intervals, hourly ambient temperature, daily rainfall, and weather during observations (06:00-18:00). I quantified the amount of leaves biweekly for 680 trees. I tested correlations between percentages of resting time and each factor across hours during the day and across seasons. During the rainy season, resting time did not differ between sunny and cloudy days, and lemurs were active throughout the daytime. At the hourly level during the dry season, lemurs rested exclusively at midday, apparently at peak sunlight intensity rather than at peak ambient temperature. At seasonal level, percentages of total resting time from 08:00 to 16:00 were greater during dry season (81.9%) than during rainy season (62.6%), and percentages increased as ambient temperatures increased. Defoliation was related to seasonal decrease in weekly rainfall, which served as an index of water retained in the forest. Defoliation probably reflected aridification as well as the penetration of sunlight into the forest. Diurnal resting increased as both the amount of leaves and weekly rainfall decreased seasonally. These results suggest that heat stress under dry conditions may promote resting. Diurnal resting may function as behavioral thermoregulation to avoid overheating and to minimize water loss via excessive evaporative respiration. PMID:22388421

Sato, Hiroki

2012-07-01

265

Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region  

PubMed Central

The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species’ habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed.

Quemere, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounes

2012-01-01

266

Geometry and kinematics of the late Proterozoic Angavo Shear Zone, Central Madagascar: Implications for Gondwana Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper documents the 20 to 60 km wide N-S trending Angavo Shear Zone (ASZ) in central Madagascar and its tectonic implications by examining its structural styles, kinematics and geometry. Our study indicates that the ASZ is characterized by at least two ductile Late Proterozoic deformation events (D1 and D2) followed by a brittle neotectonic deformation (D3). The early D1 event produced a regionally extensive S1 foliation, stretching/flattening mineral lineation L1 and symmetrical structural fabrics such as recumbent and isoclinal intra-folial folds (F1), implying a flattening deformation. D1 deformational fabrics are locally overprinted by D2 structures. D2 is characterized by a penetrative S2 foliation, shallow south plunging L2 lineation, asymmetric and sheath folds (F2) consistent with a right lateral sense of movement exhibited by delta- and sigma-type porphyroclast systems and asymmetric boudinage fabrics. D2 represents a non-coaxial flow regime formed in a dextral west over east shear zone during a partitioned transpression in response to east-west-directed compression during the assembly of Gondwana. A close resemblance with the Achankovil shear zone in India is noticed; however the continuation of the ASZ in Africa is uncertain.

Raharimahefa, Tsilavo; Kusky, Timothy M.; Toraman, Erkan; Rasoazanamparany, Christine; Rasaonina, Imboarina

2013-04-01

267

High resolution regional soil carbon mapping in Madagascar : towards easy to update maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil organic carbon plays an important role in climate change regulation through carbon emissions and sequestration due to land use changes, notably tropical deforestation. Monitoring soil carbon emissions from shifting-cultivation requires to evaluate the amount of carbon stored at plot scale with a sufficient level of accuracy to be able to detect changes. The objective of this work was to map soil carbon stocks (30 cm and 100 cm depths) for different land use at regional scale using high resolution satellite dataset. The Andohahela National Parc and its surroundings (South-Est Madagascar) - a region with the largest deforestation rate in the country - was selected as a pilot area for the development of the methodology. A three steps approach was set up: (i) carbon inventory using mid infra-red spectroscopy and stock calculation, (ii) spatial data processing and (iii) modeling and mapping. Soil spectroscopy was successfully used for measuring organic carbon in this region. The results show that Random Forest was the inference model that produced the best estimates on calibration and validation datasets. By using a simple and robust method, we estimated uncertainty levels of of 35% and 43% for 30-cm and 100-cm carbon maps respectively. The approach developed in this study was based on open data and open source software that can be easily replicated to other regions and for other time periods using updated satellite images.

Grinand, Clovis; Dessay, Nadine; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razakamanarivo, Herintsitoaina; Albrecht, Alain; Vaudry, Romuald; Tiberghien, Matthieu; Rasamoelina, Maminiaina; Bernoux, Martial

2013-04-01

268

Case-Control Study of the Etiology of Infant Diarrheal Disease in 14 Districts in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Acute diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the rainy seasons from 2008 to 2009 in 14 districts in Madagascar. Methods Stool specimens of 2196 children with acute diarrhea and 496 healthy children were collected in a community setting. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and bacteria by culturing methods. Rota-, astro and adenoviruses were identified using commercially available ELISA kits and rotaviruses were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Intestinal microorganisms were isolated from 54.6% of diarrheal patients and 45.9% of healthy subjects (p?=?<0.01). The most common pathogens in diarrheic patients were intestinal parasites (36.5%). Campylobacter spp. and Rotavirus were detected in 9.7% and 6.7% of diarrheic patients. The detection rates of Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas intestinalis and Giardia lamblia were much greater in diarrheal patients than in non diarrheal subjects (odds ratios of 5.1, 3.2, 1.7 respectively). The abundance of other enteropathogens among the non diarrheal group may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. Conclusion In developing countries, where the lack of laboratory capacities is great, cross sectional studies of enteropathogens and their spatial distribution, including diarrheal and non diarrheal subjects, are interesting tools in order to advise regional policies on treatment and diarrheic patient management.

Dubois, Natasha; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Hariniana, Elisoa Ratsima; Garin, Benoit; Randriamanantena, Arthur; Rakotonirina, Hanitra Clara; Ramparany, Lovasoa; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent

2012-01-01

269

Renaud Paulian et le programme du CNRS sur les hautes montagnes ? Madagascar: ?tage vs domaine  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le programme intitulé « Étude des écosystémes montagnards dans la région malgache» (RCP 225/CNRS; responsable: Recteur Renaud Paulian) avait pour ambition de dégager leurs caractères généraux, l'origine des éléments constitutifs et de tester la validité d'un Domaine malgache des Hautes Montagnes proposé par Humbert dès 1951. De 1970 à 1973, trois campagnes (Andringitra; Chaînes anosyennes et Ankaratra; Itremo, Ibity et Marojejy) ont permis une caractérisation écologique des milieux particuliers ainsi que des analyses de systématique sur certains taxa connus pour leur intérêt biogéographique. La succession altitudinale des formations végétales, définies par des critères physionomiques et structuraux, est précisée par massif. Le dernier étage caractérisé par le fourré éricoïde et ses groupements associés ne correspond pas à l'Étage des Hautes Montagnes de l'Est africain. Des groupes de la faune (invertébrés hexapodes: Collemboles et Dermaptères) indiquent une disjonction entre les massifs du Nord (Tsaratanana, Marojejy), ceux du Centre et du Sud; des éléments de la flore (Pandanaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae) sont en cours d'analyse dans le même sens. Le Domaine des Hautes montagnes à Madagascar est une réalité écologique mais ne peut être défini floristiquement; chaque massif montagneux est une entité phytogéographique d'étages de végétation interdépendants inclus dans les différents Sous-Domaines du Centre. Les groupes peu mobiles de la faune indiquent globalement une dépendance trophique et bioclimatique (effet tampon du climat intraforestier) vis-à-vis des étages de végétation, mais peuvent réagir à des microclimats locaux par des décalages à leurs limites.

Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Callmander, Martin W.

2011-01-01

270

Biomedical evaluation of black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) in Lokobe Reserve, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Complete medical evaluations were performed on 25 wild black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) in Lokobe Reserve, northwestern Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination. Weight, body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected for complete blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, hemoparasite examination, serum biochemical profile, fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, and Toxoplasma gondii and viral serology. Fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and endoparasite examination. Ectoparasites were collected and identified. Values were compared to established ranges from captive black lemurs in North American zoos. Significant differences exist between captive and wild animals for total white blood cell count, segmented neutrophil count, band neutrophil count, eosinophil count, monocyte count, and basophil count, and for serum biochemistry values of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatine phosphokinase. One animal had a positive Toxoplasma titer. Detected endoparasites were identified as Lemuricola and Callistroura. Two ectoparasite mites were identified, one within the Psoroptes genus and one within the Laelapidae family. Enteric bacterial flora included Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Klebsiella ozaenae and Bacillus cereus. PMID:17469278

Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

2007-03-01

271

Vinca drug components accumulate exclusively in leaf exudates of Madagascar periwinkle  

PubMed Central

The monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) continue to be the most important source of natural drugs in chemotherapy treatments for a range of human cancers. These anticancer drugs are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline to yield powerful dimeric MIAs that prevent cell division. However the precise mechanisms for their assembly within plants remain obscure. Here we report that the complex development-, environment-, organ-, and cell-specific controls involved in expression of MIA pathways are coupled to secretory mechanisms that keep catharanthine and vindoline separated from each other in living plants. Although the entire production of catharanthine and vindoline occurs in young developing leaves, catharanthine accumulates in leaf wax exudates of leaves, whereas vindoline is found within leaf cells. The spatial separation of these two MIAs provides a biological explanation for the low levels of dimeric anticancer drugs found in the plant that result in their high cost of commercial production. The ability of catharanthine to inhibit the growth of fungal zoospores at physiological concentrations found on the leaf surface of Catharanthus leaves, as well as its insect toxicity, provide an additional biological role for its secretion. We anticipate that this discovery will trigger a broad search for plants that secrete alkaloids, the biological mechanisms involved in their secretion to the plant surface, and the ecological roles played by them.

Roepke, Jonathan; Salim, Vonny; Wu, Maggie; Thamm, Antje M. K.; Murata, Jun; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm; De Luca, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

272

Dental microwear texture analysis of two families of subfossil lemurs from Madagascar.  

PubMed

This study employs dental microwear texture analysis to reconstruct the diets of two families of subfossil lemurs from Madagascar, the archaeolemurids and megaladapids. This technique is based on three-dimensional surface measurements utilizing a white-light confocal profiler and scale-sensitive fractal analysis. Data were recorded for six texture variables previously used successfully to distinguish between living primates with known dietary differences. Statistical analyses revealed that the archaeolemurids and megaladapids have overlapping microwear texture signatures, suggesting that the two families occasionally depended on resources with similar mechanical properties. Even so, moderate variation in most attributes is evident, and results suggest potential differences in the foods consumed by the two families. The microwear pattern for the megaladapids indicates a preference for tougher foods, such as many leaves, while that of the archaeolemurids is consistent with the consumption of harder foods. The results also indicate some intraspecific differences among taxa within each family. This evidence suggests that the archaeolemurids and megaladapids, like many living primates, likely consumed a variety of food types. PMID:19285707

Scott, J R; Godfrey, L R; Jungers, W L; Scott, R S; Simons, E L; Teaford, M F; Ungar, P S; Walker, A

2009-04-01

273

Bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei from Madagascar: investigation of steam-distillation conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of the distillation time on the yield and chemical composition of the bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. was investigated. Distillation kinetics were determined for three batches of bark sampled from two sites, i.e., Itampolo (batches IT1 and IT2) and Salary (SAL), located in a region in the south of Madagascar with characteristically large populations of C. grevei. The bark samples were subjected to steam distillation, and the essential oil was collected at 3-h intervals. The total yield (calculated after 14?h of distillation) varied from 0.9 to 1.7%, according to the batch tested. Moreover, the essential oils obtained were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. During the course of the distillation, the relative percentages of the most volatile components (monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) diminished progressively, whereas the least volatile ones (oxygenated derivatives) increased at a consistent rate. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (AHC) of the results, performed on 13 principal components, allowed distinguishing three chemical groups, corresponding to the three batches, irrespective of the distillation time. This indicated that the chemical variability currently observed with commercial samples is not mainly linked to the experimental conditions of the extraction process, as the distillation time did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:24591320

Rakotobe, Miarantsoa; Menut, Chantal; Andrianoelisoa, Hanitriniaina Sahondra; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Tsy, Jean Michel Leong Pock; Rakotoarimanana, Vonjison; Ramavovololona, Perle; Danthu, Pascal

2014-02-01

274

Biomedical evaluation of Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) from Kirindy Mitea National Park in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the health, prevalence, and incidence of diseases in wild populations is a critical component of wildlife management. In addition, the establishment of reference physiologic parameters can Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) from Kirindy Mitea National Park, Madagascar, during two field captures incontribute to the assessment of population risks. Complete medical evaluations were performed on 33 wild June 2010 and June 2011. Each animal received a complete physical examination: weight, body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded, and ectoparasites collected. Blood samples were collected for complete blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, hemoparasite examination, serum biochemical profile, fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, and toxoplasmosis and viral serology. Fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and endoparasite examination. Significant differences exist between age classes for neutrophil and lymphocyte count, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine values. Parasites detected were Callistoura sp., Bertiella lemuriformis, and Dipetalonema petteri. This publication reports the first complete biomedical evaluation of the P. verreauxi and provides a basis for hematologic and biochemical comparisons of P. verreauxi in the wild. PMID:25000684

Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E; Lewis, Rebecca J

2014-06-01

275

Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

Goodenough, K. M.; Thomas, R. J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R. M.; Schofield, D. I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R. D.; Rafahatelo, J. -M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A. V.; Randriamananjara, T.

2010-01-01

276

Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

Key, R. M.; Pitfield, P. E. J.; Thomas, R. J.; Goodenough, K. M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D. I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Styles, M. T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D. J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R. A.; Walsh, G. J.; Ralison, A. V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J. -M.; Rabarimanana, M.

2011-01-01

277

Vinca drug components accumulate exclusively in leaf exudates of Madagascar periwinkle.  

PubMed

The monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) continue to be the most important source of natural drugs in chemotherapy treatments for a range of human cancers. These anticancer drugs are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline to yield powerful dimeric MIAs that prevent cell division. However the precise mechanisms for their assembly within plants remain obscure. Here we report that the complex development-, environment-, organ-, and cell-specific controls involved in expression of MIA pathways are coupled to secretory mechanisms that keep catharanthine and vindoline separated from each other in living plants. Although the entire production of catharanthine and vindoline occurs in young developing leaves, catharanthine accumulates in leaf wax exudates of leaves, whereas vindoline is found within leaf cells. The spatial separation of these two MIAs provides a biological explanation for the low levels of dimeric anticancer drugs found in the plant that result in their high cost of commercial production. The ability of catharanthine to inhibit the growth of fungal zoospores at physiological concentrations found on the leaf surface of Catharanthus leaves, as well as its insect toxicity, provide an additional biological role for its secretion. We anticipate that this discovery will trigger a broad search for plants that secrete alkaloids, the biological mechanisms involved in their secretion to the plant surface, and the ecological roles played by them. PMID:20696903

Roepke, Jonathan; Salim, Vonny; Wu, Maggie; Thamm, Antje M K; Murata, Jun; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm; De Luca, Vincenzo

2010-08-24

278

Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change.

Harvey, Celia A.; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S.; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; MacKinnon, James L.

2014-01-01

279

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rift Valley Fever Viruses after Febrile Illness Outbreak, Madagascar  

PubMed Central

In October 2009, two–3 months after an outbreak of a febrile disease with joint pain on the eastern coast of Madagascar, we assessed serologic markers for chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in 1,244 pregnant women at 6 locations. In 2 eastern coast towns, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 45% and 23%; IgM seroprevalence was 28% and 5%. IgG seroprevalence against DENV was 17% and 11%. No anti-DENV IgM was detected. At 4 locations, 450–1,300 m high, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 0%–3%, suggesting CHIKV had not spread to higher inland-altitudes. Four women had IgG against RVFV, probably antibodies from a 2008 epidemic. Most (78%) women from coastal locations with CHIKV-specific IgG reported joint pain and stiffness; 21% reported no symptoms. CHIKV infection was significantly associated with high bodyweight. The outbreak was an isolated CHIKV epidemic without relevant DENV co-transmission.

Girmann, Mirko; Randriamampionona, Njary; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Njarasoa, Christine; Rajanalison, Jeanne Fleury; Ramandrisoa, Herly Daniel; Randriarison, Maurice Lucien; May, Jurgen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael

2012-01-01

280

First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182) of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

2010-01-01

281

Addressing data deficiency in classifying extinction risk: a case study of a radiation of Bignoniaceae from Madagascar.  

PubMed

Of the roughly 12,000 known plant species in Madagascar only 3% are found in the IUCN (World Conservation Union) Red List of Threatened Species. We assigned preliminary IUCN categories of threat to the species of a comparatively well-known tribe, Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which comprises an endemic, species-rich radiation in Madagascar Because the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria 3.1 discourage the use of the data-deficient category, we developed a novel method for differentiating between range-limited species and poorly sampled species. We used the Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG) gazetteer to determine where other collection efforts had taken place. We drew buffers around each Coleeae locality and determined how many times the surrounding area bad been visited since the last sighting of the specimens by intersecting the buffers with all known botanical localities from the MBG gazetteer We determined that at least 54% of the Coleeae species are threatened with extinction. Assignments of species to this category were often due to predicted future decline within their current area of occupancy and their lack of inclusion within the protected-area network (only 42% of species are known to occur in protected areas). Three species were presumed extinct, and an additional 12 have not been seen in decades. Among the species threatened with extinction, we "rescued" six of them from the data-deficient category by considering both the sample dates and localities of places where they occurred in relation to additional collections that took place in the immediate area. Due to their recent discovery, 15 species remained in the data-deficient category If Coleeae is representative of the Malagasy flora, or at least of other endemic-radiated plant groups, then species loss in Madagascar may be even more extreme than is realized. PMID:16922226

Good, Tatjana C; Zjhra, Michelle L; Kremen, Claire

2006-08-01

282

Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

One of the predicted biological responses to climate warming is the upslope displacement of species distributions. In the tropics, because montane assemblages frequently include local endemics that are distributed close to summits, these species may be especially vulnerable to experiencing complete habitat loss from warming. However, there is currently a dearth of information available for tropical regions. Here, we present a preliminary appraisal of this extinction threat using the herpetological assemblage of the Tsaratanana Massif in northern Madagascar (the island's highest massif), which is rich with montane endemism. We present meteorological evidence (individual and combined regional weather station data and reanalysis forecast data) for recent warming in Madagascar, and show that this trend is consistent with recent climate model simulations. Using standard moist adiabatic lapse rates, these observed meteorological warming trends in northern Madagascar predict upslope species displacement of 17–74 m per decade between 1993 and 2003. Over this same period, we also report preliminary data supporting a trend for upslope distribution movements, based on two surveys we completed at Tsaratanana. For 30 species, representing five families of reptiles and amphibians, we found overall mean shifts in elevational midpoint of 19–51 m upslope (mean lower elevation limit 29–114 m; mean upper elevation limit ?8 to 53 m). We also found upslope trends in mean and median elevational observations in seven and six of nine species analysed. Phenological differences between these surveys do not appear to be substantial, but these upslope shifts are consistent with the predictions based on meteorological warming. An elevational range displacement analysis projects complete habitat loss for three species below the 2 °C ‘dangerous’ warming threshold. One of these species is not contracting its distribution, but the other two were not resampled in 2003. A preliminary review of the other massifs in Madagascar indicates potential similar vulnerability to habitat loss and upslope extinction. Consequently, we urgently recommend additional elevational surveys for these and other tropical montane assemblages, which should also include, when possible, the monitoring of local meteorological conditions and habitat change.

RAXWORTHY, CHRISTOPHER J; PEARSON, RICHARD G; RABIBISOA, NIRHY; RAKOTONDRAZAFY, ANDRY M; RAMANAMANJATO, JEAN-BAPTISTE; RASELIMANANA, ACHILLE P; WU, SHENGHAI; NUSSBAUM, RONALD A; STONE, DAITHI A

2008-01-01

283

Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion.

2012-01-01

284

New species from the Galoka and Kalabenono massifs: two unknown and severely threatened mountainous areas in NW Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The Galoka mountain chain, comprising principally the Galoka and Kalabenono massifs, situated at the northern edge of the Sambirano Region in NW Madagascar is an area that was virtually unknown botanically. It was visited three times between 2005 and 2007 as part of a floristic inventory. Both massifs contain the last remaining primary forests in the Galoka chain, which extends parallel to the coastline from South of Ambilobe to North of Ambanja. Several new species have been discovered amongst the collections, eight of which are described here.

Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotovao, Charles; Razafitsalama, Jeremi; Phillipson, Peter B.; Buerki, Sven; Hong-Wa, Cynthia; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Andriambololonera, Sylvie; Koopman, Margaret M.; Johnson, David M.; Deroin, Thierry; Ravoahangy, Andriamandranto; Solo, Serge; Labat, Jean-Noel; Lowry, Porter P.

2011-01-01

285

Patterns of Loss and Regeneration of Tropical Dry Forest in Madagascar: The Social Institutional Context  

PubMed Central

Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000) and covering 5500 km2, and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1) loss of forest cover, 2) increased forest cover, and 3) stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984–2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993–2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use.

Elmqvist, Thomas; Pyykonen, Markku; Tengo, Maria; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Rabakonandrianina, Elisabeth; Radimilahy, Chantal

2007-01-01

286

Symbolic capital and health: the case of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Public health research on sex work has been criticized both for representing sex work as a monolithic entity and for focusing only on individual behavioral determinants of health. When broader determinants are acknowledged, they are often described in solely economic terms (ie, comparing health risks of higher class versus lower class sex workers). Drawing from Pierre Bourdieu, I describe women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar as a social 'field' and demonstrate that this field is both highly complex and highly structured. Fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (December 2002-December 2003; May-June 2004) in Antananarivo with women sex workers (n approximately 60) and community members (n approximately 85) informed a description of the community's understanding of the sex work field and its contrast to the lived experience of key informant sex workers. Women who sell sex were categorized by their communities into three social positions--ambony (high), antonony (middle) and ambany (low)--which were differentiated by economic capital (earnings per sexual exchange) and symbolic capital (prestige associated with race, ethnicity and moral demeanor). Women who occupied the antonony social position held the greatest volumes of symbolic capital both because they were identified as belonging to the local dominant ethnic group, and because they demonstrated discretion and shame in their sex work practice. Alternatively, women who occupied the ambony and ambany positions openly practiced their sex work and were associated with ethnic or racial minority identities, contributing to their lower volumes of symbolic capital. Symbolic capital influenced unique health vulnerabilities, such as to sexually transmitted disease, by social position through mechanisms operating from the institutional to the interpersonal level. This analysis illustrates the value of examining sex work as a social field, specifically the importance of capturing more than economic capital in order to understand sex workers' unique health vulnerabilities and concerns. PMID:19362403

Stoebenau, Kirsten

2009-06-01

287

Successful contracting of prevention services: fighting malnutrition in Senegal and Madagascar.  

PubMed

There are very few documented large-scale successes in nutrition in Africa, and virtually no consideration of contracting for preventive services. This paper describes two successful large-scale community nutrition projects in Africa as examples of what can be done in prevention using the contracting approach in rural as well as urban areas. The two case-studies are the Secaline project in Madagascar, and the Community Nutrition Project in Senegal. The article explains what is meant by 'success' in the context of these two projects, how these results were achieved, and how certain bottlenecks were avoided. Both projects are very similar in the type of service they provide, and in combining private administration with public finance. The article illustrates that contracting out is a feasible option to be seriously considered for organizing certain prevention programmes on a large scale. There are strong indications from these projects of success in terms of reducing malnutrition, replicability and scale, and community involvement. When choosing that option, a government can tap available private local human resources through contracting out, rather than delivering those services by the public sector. However, as was done in both projects studied, consideration needs to be given to using a contract management unit for execution and monitoring, which costs 13-17% of the total project's budget. Rigorous assessments of the cost-effectiveness of contracted services are not available, but improved health outcomes, targeting of the poor, and basic cost data suggest that the programmes may well be relatively cost-effective. Although the contracting approach is not presented as the panacea to solve the malnutrition problem faced by Africa, it can certainly provide an alternative in many countries to increase coverage and quality of services. PMID:10787654

Marek, T; Diallo, I; Ndiaye, B; Rakotosalama, J

1999-12-01

288

Phase equilibrium modeling of Pan-African incipient charnockite from southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dark brownish patches and/or veins of coarse-grained orthopyroxene-bearing felsic granulite (charnockite) within foliated amphibolite-facies gneiss/migmatite, are considered as examples of 'metamorphic' charnockite, and represent the transformation of amphibolite-facies rocks to dry granulites on a local scale. Such 'incipient' charnockites have been reported so far from many localities in southern India and Sri Lanka which corresponds to the central part of the East African - Antarctic Orogenic Belt related to the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent. Detailed petrological investigations of incipient charnockites therefore provide important insights into granulite-forming processes in the lower crust during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. Here, we report the first occurrence of incipient charnockite from Ihosy area in southern Madagascar, and discuss the petrogenesis of granulite formation in an arrested stage on the basis of petrography, geothermobarometry, fluid inclusion study, and mineral equilibrium modeling. In the study area, patches of brownish charnockite (Pl+ Qtz + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Opx + Ilm + Mag) of about 20 to 50 cm in length occur within host orthopyroxene-free garnet-biotite gneiss (Pl + Qtz + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Mag). The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on charnockite assemblage in NCKFMASHTO system to constrain the conditions of charnockitization defines a P - T range of 8-10.5 kbar and 820-880° C, which is broadly consistent with the results from the conventional geothermobarometry (820-880° C at 9 kbar) on Grt-Bt gneiss. The result of T versus mole H2O (M(H2O)) modeling demonstrated that orthopyroxene-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stable only at M(H2O) >0.1 mol.%, while orthopyroxene in charnockite occurs as a stable mineral at very low M(H2O) condition of

Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Endo, Takahiro; Santosh, Mw; Thierry Rakotonandrasana, N. O.; Shaji, Erath; Rambeloson, Roger A.

2013-04-01

289

Spatial linkages between coral proxies of terrestrial runoff across a large embayment in Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral cores provide vital climate reconstructions for site-specific temporal variability in river flow and sediment load. Yet, their ability to record spatial differences across multiple catchments is relatively unknown. Here, we investigate spatial linkages between four coral proxies of terrestrial runoff and their relationships between sites. Coral cores were drilled in and around Antongil Bay, the largest bay in Madagascar, and individually analysed for fifteen years of continuous luminescence (G / B), Ba / Ca, ?18Osw and ?13C data. Each coral core was drilled close to individual river mouths (? 7 km), and proxy data were compared to modelled river discharge and sediment runoff data for the three corresponding catchments. A reasonable agreement between terrestrial runoff proxies with modelled river discharge and sediment yield was observed. Some inconsistencies between proxy and modelled data are likely linked to proxy behaviour, watershed size and local environmental physiochemical parameters. In general, the further a coral resided from its river source, the weaker the proxy relationship was with modelled data and other corals, due to mixing gradients and currents. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that two coral Ba / Ca and luminescence (G / B) records influenced by the same watershed are reproducible. Furthermore, a strong Ba / Ca relationship was observed between two cores from distant watersheds, with baseline averages in agreement with modelled sediment runoff data. As humic acids behave conservatively in the water column, luminescence (G / B) data gave the highest regional correlations between cores, and showed the most consistent relationship with site specific modelled discharge. No statistical relationship was observed between cores in terms of interannual ?18Osw and ?13C, meaning corals were recording a localised signal at their respective sites, confounded by vital effects. Comparing proxy baseline averages and mean seasonal cycles provided a good overview of the runoff dynamics of the bay system.

Grove, C. A.; Zinke, J.; Scheufen, T.; Maina, J.; Epping, E.; Boer, W.; Randriamanantsoa, B.; Brummer, G.-J. A.

2012-08-01

290

Epidemiology of Pathogenic Enterobacteria in Humans, Livestock, and Peridomestic Rodents in Rural Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Among the families of enteric bacteria are globally important diarrheal agents. Despite their potential for zoonotic and environmental transmission, few studies have examined the epidemiology of these pathogens in rural systems characterized by extensive overlap among humans, domesticated and peridomestic animals. We investigated patterns of infection with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia spp. (enterocolitica, and pseudotuberculosis) in Southeastern Madagascar where the potential for the aforementioned interactions is high. In this pilot project we conducted surveys to examine behaviors potentially associated with risk of infection and if infection with specific enterobacteria species was associated with diarrheal disease. Methodology/Principal Findings PCR was conducted on DNA from human, livestock, and rodent fecal samples from three villages. Overall, human prevalence was highest (77%), followed by rodents (51%) and livestock (18%). Rodents were ?2.8 times more likely than livestock to carry one of the bacteria. The incidence of individual species varied between villages, with the observation that, E. coli and Shigella spp. were consistently associated with co-infections. As an aggregate, there was a significant risk of infection linked to a water source in one village. Individually, different pathogens were associated with certain behaviors, including: those who had used medication, experienced diarrhea in the past four weeks, or do not use toilets. Conclusions/Significance Different bacteria were associated with an elevated risk of infection for various human activities or characteristics. Certain bacteria may also predispose people to co-infections. These data suggest that a high potential for transmission among these groups, either directly or via contaminated water sources. As these bacteria were most prevalent in humans, it is possible that they are maintained in humans and that transmission to other species is infrequent. Further studies are needed to understand bacterial persistence, transmission dynamics, and associated consequences in this and similar systems.

Bublitz, DeAnna C.; Wright, Patricia C.; Bodager, Jonathan R.; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T.; Bliska, James B.; Gillespie, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

291

Petrology of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkaline rocks of northern Madagascar (Nosy Be Archipelago)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Miocene basanites of Nosy Be and Nosy Sakatia islands (Nosy Be Archipelago, northern Madagascar) carry spinel-facies anhydrous ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites). Geothermobarometric estimates indicate that these xenoliths derive from shallow mantle depths of 35-40 km, with those from Nosy Be island showing equilibration T (averages in the range of 945-985 °C) lower than the Nosy Sakatia analogues (averages ranging from 1010 to 1110 °C). One Nosy Sakatia mantle xenolith exhibits relatively fertile lherzolite composition, with trace and major element mineral chemistry consistent with a residual character after low degrees (1-2%) of mafic melt extraction. We interpret this composition as that resembling a depleted mantle (DM)-like lithospheric composition before metasomatic overprints. The other lherzolites and harzburgites display petrochemical characters consistent with variable extent of partial melting (up to 18%), associated with pronounced metasomatic overprints caused by migrating melts, as highlighted by enrichments in highly incompatible trace elements (e.g. light rare earth elements, LREE and Sr), together with the abundant occurrence of wehrlitic lithologies. The variability of petrochemical features points to different styles of metasomatism and metasomatic agents. The estimated composition of the parental melts of wehrlites matches that of host basanites. The combination of this evidence with the petrographic features, characterized by coarse-granular to porphyroclastic textures and by the presence of olivine without kink-banding, suggests that wehrlites are veins or pockets of high pressure cumulates within the mantle peridotite. The same melts also metasomatized via porous-flow percolation some lherzolites and harzburgites. Distinctly, a group of lherzolites and harzburgites was metasomatized by a different alkaline melt having markedly lower incompatible trace element contents. Late infiltration of metasomatic fluids is responsible for the spongy texture of some clinopyroxenes of lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites.

Rocco, Ivana; Lustrino, Michele; Zanetti, Alberto; Morra, Vincenzo; Melluso, Leone

2013-01-01

292

Semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of Three Hapalemur species in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Three sympatric Hapalemur species (H. g. griseus, H. aureus, and H. (Prolemur) simus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar are known to eat bamboo food parts that contain cyanide. How these lemurs avoid cyanide poisoning remains unknown. In this study, we tested for the presence/absence of cyanide in bamboo lemur foods and excreta to (1) document patterns of cyanide consumption among species with respect to diet, (2) identify routes of elimination of cyanide from the gastrointestinal tract, and (3) determine whether cyanide is absorbed from the diet. We tested 102 food, urine, and fecal samples for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during two "pre-dry" seasons (April 2006, May 2007) using commercially available Cyantesmo test strips. The test strips changed color in the presence of HCN, and we recorded color change on a scale of 0 (no change) to 5 (cobalt) at preset intervals with a final score taken at 24 hr. We detected cyanide in bamboo food parts and urine of all three Hapalemur species. Time to color change of the test strips ranged from almost instantaneous to >12 hr incubation. Of the foods tested, only bamboo contained cyanide, but results differed among bamboo species and plant parts of the same species. Specifically, branch shoot and culm pith of the giant bamboo produced strong, immediate reactions to the test paper, whereas parts of liana bamboos produced either weak or no color change. Cyanide was present in almost all urine samples but rarely in fecal samples. This suggests that dietary cyanide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the Hapalemur species and excreted, at least in part, by the kidneys. Samples from H. griseus exhibited lower, though still detectable, cyanide levels compared with H. simus and H. aureus. Differences among lemur species appear to be related to the specific bamboo parts consumed. PMID:19790190

Yamashita, Nayuta; Tan, Chia L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Cathy

2010-01-01

293

Co-Circulation and Evolution of Polioviruses and Species C Enteroviruses in a District of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Between October 2001 and April 2002, five cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the southern province of the Republic of Madagascar. To determine viral factors that favor the emergence of these pathogenic VDPVs, we analyzed in detail their genomic and phenotypic characteristics and compared them with co-circulating enteroviruses. These VDPVs appeared to belong to two independent recombinant lineages with sequences from the type 2 strain of the oral poliovaccine (OPV) in the 5?-half of the genome and sequences derived from unidentified species C enteroviruses (HEV-C) in the 3?-half. VDPV strains showed characteristics similar to those of wild neurovirulent viruses including neurovirulence in poliovirus-receptor transgenic mice. We looked for other VDPVs and for circulating enteroviruses in 316 stools collected from healthy children living in the small area where most of the AFP cases occurred. We found vaccine PVs, two VDPVs similar to those found in AFP cases, some echoviruses, and above all, many serotypes of coxsackie A viruses belonging to HEV-C, with substantial genetic diversity. Several coxsackie viruses A17 and A13 carried nucleotide sequences closely related to the 2C and the 3Dpol coding regions of the VDPVs, respectively. There was also evidence of multiple genetic recombination events among the HEV-C resulting in numerous recombinant genotypes. This indicates that co-circulation of HEV-C and OPV strains is associated with evolution by recombination, resulting in unexpectedly extensive viral diversity in small human populations in some tropical regions. This probably contributed to the emergence of recombinant VDPVs. These findings give further insight into viral ecosystems and the evolutionary processes that shape viral biodiversity.

Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Guillot, Sophie; Iber, Jane; Balanant, Jean; Blondel, Bruno; Riquet, Franck; Martin, Javier; Kew, Olen; Randriamanalina, Bakolalao; Razafinimpiasa, Lalatiana; Rousset, Dominique; Delpeyroux, Francis

2007-01-01

294

Acceptability and feasibility of continuous diaphragm use among sex workers in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The diaphragm, a woman controlled, reusable contraceptive device, might prevent some sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of use of silicone Wide-Seal Arcing Diaphragms (Milex Products, Chicago, IL, USA) by sex workers in Madagascar. Methods: Over 8 weeks, we evaluated method acceptability by examining patterns of and problems with women's diaphragm use. We also evaluated several measures of study feasibility, including recruitment and follow up methods. Results: 91 women from three cities (Antananarivo, Tamatave, and Mahajanga) participated, and 87 (96%) completed follow up. At enrolment, participants reported a median of six sex acts with five clients in the previous week. During the follow up period, participants reported a median of three sex acts with three clients during the previous 2 days, and self reported continuous diaphragm use during the previous day increased from 87% to 93%. Seven women became pregnant (incidence 53 pregnancies per 100 woman years). Self reported use of male condoms and diaphragms was fairly constant over the study period: women reported condom use in 61% to 70% of acts and diaphragms in 95% to 97% of acts. The number of participants reporting diaphragm problems decreased from 15 (16%) at the first visit to six (7%) at the final visit. 20 women (22%) needed replacement devices during follow up because their original diaphragms were lost, were the wrong size, or became seriously damaged. Conclusions: Given the high use and steady decrease in reported problems during the study, we believe diaphragms are acceptable and feasible in this resource poor, low education sex worker population.

Behets, F; Turner, A; Van Damme, K; Rabenja, N; Ravelomanana, N; Zeller, K; Rasolofomanana, J

2005-01-01

295

A Decade of Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar: Insights into the Global Maritime Spread of Pandemic Plague  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A cluster of human plague cases occurred in the seaport city of Mahajanga, Madagascar, from 1991 to 1999 following 62 years with no evidence of plague, which offered insights into plague pathogen dynamics in an urban environment. We analyzed a set of 44 Mahajanga isolates from this 9-year outbreak, as well as an additional 218 Malagasy isolates from the highland foci. We sequenced the genomes of four Mahajanga strains, performed whole-genome sequence single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery on those strains, screened the discovered SNPs, and performed a high-resolution 43-locus multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of the isolate panel. Twenty-two new SNPs were identified and defined a new phylogenetic lineage among the Malagasy isolates. Phylogeographic analysis suggests that the Mahajanga lineage likely originated in the Ambositra district in the highlands, spread throughout the northern central highlands, and was then introduced into and became transiently established in Mahajanga. Although multiple transfers between the central highlands and Mahajanga occurred, there was a locally differentiating and dominant subpopulation that was primarily responsible for the 1991-to-1999 Mahajanga outbreaks. Phylotemporal analysis of this Mahajanga subpopulation revealed a cycling pattern of diversity generation and loss that occurred during and after each outbreak. This pattern is consistent with severe interseasonal genetic bottlenecks along with large seasonal population expansions. The ultimate extinction of plague pathogens in Mahajanga suggests that, in this environment, the plague pathogen niche is tenuous at best. However, the temporary large pathogen population expansion provides the means for plague pathogens to disperse and become ecologically established in more suitable nonurban environments.

Vogler, Amy J.; Chan, Fabien; Nottingham, Roxanne; Andersen, Genevieve; Drees, Kevin; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Wagner, David M.; Chanteau, Suzanne; Keim, Paul

2013-01-01

296

Physical influence on biological production along the western shelf of Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2009, the R.V. Dr. Fridtjof Nansen surveyed the western coast of Madagascar. Environmental parameters of temperature, salinity, fluorescence and oxygen were profiled with a CTD probe and continuously underway at 5 m utilising a thermosalinograph equipped with a fluorescence sensor. A ship mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) provided current profiles down to 250 m, while estimates of biomass were obtained from acoustics and trawling was used for species identification. In addition, visual whale observations were conducted. The survey revealed three areas that were identified as upwelling regions, namely the Southern Coast (26°S), offshore from Cap St. André (16°S) and near Nosy Be Island (13°S). In these upwelling regions, acoustic estimates, trawling and whale observations indicated high biological productivity. The total acoustic estimate for the whole western coast was as low as 62 000 t, typical for tropical waters. In addition to the upwelling areas, high biological productivity was also found outside river mouths. Ship born wind measurements, as well as re-analysed wind fields, indicated that the southern coast upwelling cell was wind-driven and had a larger extent than reported earlier. The wind conditions were not favourable for upwelling in the two northernmost upwelling cells. Here the ADCP showed high bottom velocities (>1 m s-1) oriented northeast. These currents were probably forced by the migrating eddies in the area as indicated by the remotely sensed Sea Level Anomaly (SLA). Such currents induce bottom friction layer transport oriented towards the coast, thus driving upwelling, although not necessarily penetrating all the way to the surface layer as was the case near Cap St. André.

Pripp, T.; Gammelsrød, T.; Krakstad, J. O.

2014-02-01

297

How Much Variation Can One Ant Species Hold? Species Delimitation in the Crematogaster kelleri-Group in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

We investigated the species-level taxonomy of the Malagasy Crematogaster (Crematogaster) kelleri-group and an additional more distantly related species of the same subgenus. Morphological data from worker, queen and male ants, as well as genetic data from three nuclear genes (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and one mitochondrial marker (cytochrome oxidase I) led to the recognition of six species. Within the C. kelleri-group, three new species are described: C. hazolava Blaimer sp. n., C. hafahafa Blaimer sp. n. and C. tavaratra Blaimer sp. n. The previously described taxa C. kelleri Forel and C. madagascariensis André are validated by our analysis. Conversely, our data suggests synonymy of C. adrepens Forel (with C. kelleri) and C. gibba Emery (with C. madagascariensis). A more distantly related and phylogenetically isolated species, C. tsisitsilo Blaimer sp. n., is further described. We report high levels of morphological and molecular variation in C. kelleri and illustrate that this variation can be explained partly by geography. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker ants, as well as on queen and male ants where available, are presented for all six species. Our work highlights the elevated species richness of Crematogaster ants throughout Madagascar’s humid forests, especially in the far northern tip of the island, and the need to use multiple data sources to ensure clear demarcation of this diversity.

Blaimer, Bonnie B.; Fisher, Brian L.

2013-01-01

298

A glance to the past: subfossils, stable isotopes, seed dispersal, and lemur species loss in Southern Madagascar.  

PubMed

The Spiny Thicket Ecoregion (STE) of Southern and southwestern Madagascar was recently home to numerous giant lemurs and other "megafauna," including pygmy hippopotamuses, giant tortoises, elephant birds, and large euplerid carnivores. Following the arrival of humans more than 2,000 years ago, dramatic extinctions occurred. Only one-third of the lemur species which earlier occupied the STE survive today; other taxa suffered even greater losses. We use stable isotope biogeochemistry to reconstruct past diets and habitat preferences of the recently extinct lemurs of the STE. We show that the extinct lemurs occupied a wide range of niches, often distinct from those filled by coeval non-primates. Many of the now-extinct lemurs regularly exploited habitats that were drier than the gallery forests in which the remaining lemurs of this ecoregion are most often protected and studied. Most fed predominantly on C3 plants and some were likely the main dispersers of the large seeds of native C3 trees; others included CAM and/or C4 plants in their diets. These new data suggest that the recent extinctions have likely had significant ecological ramifications for the communities and ecosystems of Southern and southwestern Madagascar. PMID:20205184

Crowley, Brooke E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Irwin, Mitchell T

2011-01-01

299

Developpement, amenagement linguistique et terminologie: Un mythe? L'exemple de la malgachisation (Development, Language Planning, and Terminology: A Myth? The Example of Madagascar).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French language provides a context for comparison of the modernization efforts of Quebec and Madagascar, looking at the following issues: the beginning role of the language in the society, political influences, language needs for technology transfer and the introduction of terminology in societies with well-documented and poorly-documented…

Boulanger, Jean-Claude

1989-01-01

300

A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1  

PubMed Central

A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence.

Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

2011-01-01

301

Similarities, differences, and seasonal patterns in the diets of Eulemur rubriventer and Eulemur fulvus rufus in the Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the diets of two sympatric species ofEulemur (E. fulvus rufus andE. rubriventer) in the Ranomafana National Part in southeastern Madagascar from July 1988 through August 1989. Both species were highly frugivorous throughout the year and devoted similar amounts of time to feeding daily; the composition of their diets were similar. Three aspects of both lemur species' diets were

Deborah J. Overdorff

1993-01-01

302

The skull and pectoral girdle of the parasemionotid fish Watsonulus eugnathoides from the Early Triassic Sakamena Group of Madagascar, with comments on the relationships of the holostean fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watsonulus eugnathoides (Piveteau, 1935) is a parasemionotid fish from Early Triassic rocks of Madagascar. The skull and pectoral girdle of this holostean are described from new material. The braincase retains a number of primitive chondrostean-like characters such as an open lateral cranial fissure and frequently open vestibular fontanelle, presence of an endochondral intercalar without membranous outgrowths, and fusion between most

Paul Eric Olsen

1984-01-01

303

Look at That!: Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Develop and Enhance the Scientific Inquiry Skill of Observation in Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…

Wagler, Ron

2011-01-01

304

"Even with Higher Education You Remain a Woman": A Gender Perspective on Higher Education and Social Change in the Toliara Region of Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates some issues related to gender and education based on a qualitative, empirical study of women in higher education in the Toliara region of Madagascar. The focus is on how women's participation in higher education has created changes in gender relations, and how these women have succeeded in achieving higher education. In…

Skjortnes, Marianne; Zachariassen, Heidi Holt

2010-01-01

305

Phylogenetic relationships of a new species of pseudoxyrhophiine snake (Reptilia: Lamprophiidae: Thamnosophis) suggest a biogeographical link between western and northern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new species of the pseudoxyrhophiine snake genus Thamnosophis from a dry forest of the karstic massif Tsingy de Bemaraha in central western Madagascar. Thamnosophis mavotenda sp. n. is characterised by 19 dorsal scale rows, 188 ventrals, 110 subcaudals, and by colouration (e.g. yellow head sides). Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data indicate that the species is most closely

Frank Glaw; Zoltán T. Nagy; Jörn Köhler; Michael Franzen; Miguel Vences

2009-01-01

306

Consuming sex: the association between modern goods, lifestyles and sexual behaviour among youth in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnographic evidence suggests that transactional sex is sometimes motivated by youth’s interest in the consumption of modern goods as much as it is in basic survival. There are very few quantitative studies that examine the association between young people’s interests in the consumption of modern goods and their sexual behaviour. We examined this association in two regions and four residence zones of Madagascar: urban, peri-urban and rural Antananarivo, and urban Antsiranana. We expected risky sexual behaviour would be associated with interests in consuming modern goods or lifestyles; urban residence; and socio-cultural characteristics. Methods We administered a population-based survey to 2, 255 youth ages 15–24 in all four residence zones. Focus group discussions guided the survey instrument which assessed socio-demographic and economic characteristics, consumption of modern goods, preferred activities and sexual behaviour. Our outcomes measures included: multiple sexual partners in the last year (for men and women); and ever practicing transactional sex (for women). Results Overall, 7.3% of women and 30.7% of men reported having had multiple partners in the last year; and 5.9% of women reported ever practicing transactional sex. Bivariate results suggested that for both men and women having multiple partners was associated with perceptions concerning the importance of fashion and a series of activities associated with modern lifestyles. A subset of lifestyle characteristics remained significant in multivariate models. For transactional sex bivariate results suggested perceptions around fashion, nightclub attendance, and getting to know a foreigner were key determinants; and all remained significant in multivariate analysis. We found peri-urban residence more associated with transactional sex than urban residence; and ethnic origin was the strongest predictor of both outcomes for women. Conclusions While we found indication of an association between sexual behaviour and interest in modern goods, or modern lifestyles, such processes did not single-handedly explain risky sexual behaviour among youth; these behaviours were also shaped by culture and conditions of economic uncertainty. These determinants must all be accounted for when developing interventions to reduce risky transactional sex and vulnerability to HIV.

2013-01-01

307

Ethnobotanical and economic value of Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. in Eastern Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Known worldwide as the “traveler’s tree”, the Malagasy endemic species Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. (Strelitziaceae) is considered as an iconic symbol of Madagascar. It is a widespread species in the eastern part of the country with four different varieties which are well represented in Ambalabe community. All of them are used for different purposes and the species represents an important cultural value in the lives of the local population. However, uses of Ravenala are only generally well known by local population. Thus, in this study, we report on the different uses of Ravenala and its importance to the Ambalabe local people. Methods Semi-structured interviews among 116 people, 59 men and 57 women with ages ranging from 17 to 84 years old, free listing and market surveys were conducted in order to collect the vernacular names, the uses of Ravenala madagascariensis and the price of plant parts sold in local market. Then, the uses were categorized according to Cámara-Leret et al. classification. Results Different parts of the plant are currently used by local population, which are grouped as heart, trunk, leaves, petioles and rachis. Seven categories of use were recorded, most cited include: human food, utensils and tools, and house building. The most commonly used parts are trunk, heart, leaves and petioles for which the price varies between $3-15. Uses mentioned for construction (floor, roofs and wall), human food and utensils and tools are the most frequent and salient for local population. But the use of the plant as first materials for house building is revealed to be the most important for them. Conclusions Ravenala madagascariensis is very important to the Ambalabe communities because for local population, it represents the Betsimisaraka cultural and traditional use of the plant for house building. Moreover, none of its parts are discarded. The harvest and sale of R. madagascariensis for building materials can also provide an additional source of income to the family. Besides, using Ravenala in house construction reduces the use of slow growing trees and contributes to the sustainable use of natural forest resources.

2014-01-01

308

Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a similar efficacy of DDT and pyrethroid and (3) a similar efficacy of alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin. The use of IRS with DDT and pyrethroid greatly decreased the vector-human contact, with an associated decrease of the plasmodial index. However malaria transmission did not reach zero, probably due to the exophilic host-seeking and resting behaviours of the malaria vectors, thus avoiding contact with insecticide-treated surfaces indoors. The study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the IRS implementation and the need for complementary tools for an optimal vector control in Madagascar.

2014-01-01

309

Titanite and apatite fission track analyses on basement rocks of central-southern Madagascar: constraints on exhumation and denudation rates along the eastern rift shoulder of the Morondava basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanite and apatite fission-track (FT) thermochronology from basement rocks in central-southern Madagascar reveals a protracted post Late Neoproterozoic\\/Early Cambrian history of extensional tectonism, denudation and sedimentation. Titanite FT ages range between 379±38 and 276±17 Ma and apatite FT ages vary between 379±19 and 150±8 Ma. Combined titanite and apatite FT data from the western palaeo margin of Madagascar suggest denudation

B. Emmel; J. Jacobs; T. Razakamanana

2004-01-01

310

The genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier in northern Madagascar with description of four new species and two lectotypifications  

PubMed Central

A recent review of Bignoniaceae for the “Catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar” has revealed new species in most of the genera present on the island. We provide descriptions of four new species in the genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier, a genus that is endemic to the Malagasy region: Ophiocolea ambrensis Callm. & Phillipson, Ophiocolea darainensis Callm., Phillipson & Nusb., Ophiocolea pauciflora Callm., Phillipson & Razan. and Ophiocolea ratovosonii Callm. & Phillipson. Field photographs and line drawings are provided for each of these four new species. Two species described previously, Ophiocolea decaryi H. Perrier and Ophiocolea velutina H. Perrier, are lectotypified. For all six treated species, we provide a short discussion on morphological affinities and eco-geography, and perform a conservation threat analysis based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.

Callmander, Martin W.; Phillipson, Peter B.; Razanajatovo, Mialy; Nusbaumer, Louis

2011-01-01

311

Regression of severe tungiasis-associated morbidity after prevention of re-infestation: a case series from rural Madagascar.  

PubMed

Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical disease. Heavy infestation results in mutilation of the feet and difficulty in walking. We identified eight individuals with extremely severe tungiasis in rural Madagascar. To prevent reinfestation, four individuals received solid shoes and four received a daily application of an herbal repellent effective against Tunga penetrans. Over a period of 10 weeks the feet were examined and the severity of tungiasis-associated morbidity was measured. Within this period, the severity score for acute tungiasis decreased 41% in the shoe group and 89% in the repellent group. The four major inflammation-related symptoms disappeared in the four patients of the repellent group, but only in two patients of the shoe group. Those observations indicate that cases with extremely severe tungiasis, associated morbidity almost totally disappears within 10 weeks if the feet are protected by a repellent. Wearing shoes reduced acute morbidity only marginally. PMID:24043689

Thielecke, Marlene; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Rogier, Christophe; Richard, Vincent; Feldmeier, Hermann

2013-11-01

312

Late Quaternary history of the Vakinankaratra volcanic field (central Madagascar): insights from luminescence dating of phreatomagmatic eruption deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary Vakinankaratra volcanic field in the central Madagascar highlands consists of scoria cones, lava flows, tuff rings, and maars. These volcanic landforms are the result of processes triggered by intracontinental rifting and overlie Precambrian basement or Neogene volcanic rocks. Infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating was applied to 13 samples taken from phreatomagmatic eruption deposits in the Antsirabe-Betafo region with the aim of constraining the chronology of the volcanic activity. Establishing such a chronology is important for evaluating volcanic hazards in this densely populated area. Stratigraphic correlations of eruption deposits and IRSL ages suggest at least five phreatomagmatic eruption events in Late Pleistocene times. In the Lake Andraikiba region, two such eruption layers can be clearly distinguished. The older one yields ages between 109 ± 15 and 90 ± 11 ka and is possibly related to an eruption at the Amboniloha volcanic complex to the north. The younger one gives ages between 58 ± 4 and 47 ± 7 ka and is clearly related to the phreatomagmatic eruption that formed Lake Andraikiba. IRSL ages of a similar eruption deposit directly overlying basement laterite in the vicinity of the Fizinana and Ampasamihaiky volcanic complexes yield coherent ages of 68 ± 7 and 65 ± 8 ka. These ages provide the upper age limit for the subsequently developed Iavoko, Antsifotra, and Fizinana scoria cones and their associated lava flows. Two phreatomagmatic deposits, identified near Lake Tritrivakely, yield the youngest IRSL ages in the region, with respective ages of 32 ± 3 and 19 ± 2 ka. The reported K-feldspar IRSL ages are the first recorded numerical ages of phreatomagmatic eruption deposits in Madagascar, and our results confirm the huge potential of this dating approach for reconstructing the volcanic activity of Late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanic provinces.

Rufer, Daniel; Preusser, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Gnos, Edwin; Berger, Alfons

2014-05-01

313

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion. PMID:23789079

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-06-01

314

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and metals in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Like most of Madagascar's endemic primates, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) face a number of threats to their survival. Although habitat loss is of greatest concern, other anthropogenic factors including environmental contamination may also affect lemur health and survival. In this study, we examined ring-tailed lemurs from the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), southern Madagascar for exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metals and examined differences in contaminant concentrations between sexes and among age groups, troops, and habitats. A total of 14 pesticides and 13 metals was detected in lemur blood (24 individuals) and hair (65 individuals) samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin were among the most prevalent pesticides detected. Surprisingly, the persistent metabolite of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, was not detected. The most commonly detected metals were aluminum, zinc, boron, phosphorus, silicon, and copper, whereas metals considered more hazardous to wildlife (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, vanadium) were not found above detection limits. Overall, concentrations of OC pesticides and metals were low and similar to those considered to be background concentrations in other studies examining the ecotoxicology of wild mammals. Few inter-sex, -age, -troop, and -habitat differences in contaminant concentrations were observed, suggesting a uniform distribution of contaminants within the reserve. Several statistically significant relationships between lemur body size and contaminant concentrations were observed, but owing to the lack of supportive data regarding contaminant exposure in wild primates, the biological significance of these findings remains uncertain. Results of this study document exposure of ring-tailed lemurs at BMSR to multiple OC pesticides and metals and provide essential baseline data for future health and toxicological evaluations of lemurs and other wild primates, especially those in regions with expanding agricultural and mining operations. PMID:19746443

Rainwater, Thomas R; Sauther, Michelle L; Rainwater, Katherine A E; Mills, Rachel E; Cuozzo, Frank P; Zhang, Baohong; McDaniel, Les N; Abel, Michael T; Marsland, Eric J; Weber, Martha A; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

2009-12-01

315

Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism.

Glaw, Frank; Kohler, Jorn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel

2012-01-01

316

Stratigraphic Analysis of Upper Cretaceous Rocks in the Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar: Implications for Ancient and Modern Faunas.  

PubMed

Upper Cretaceous strata of the Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar, yield some of the most significant and exquisitely preserved vertebrate fossils known from Gondwana. The sedimentology of these strata and their stratigraphic relations have been the focus of renewed geological investigations during the course of five expeditions since 1993. We here designate stratotypes and formalize the terrestrial Maevarano Formation, with three new members (Masorobe, Anembalemba, Miadana), and the overlying marine Berivotra Formation. The Maevarano Formation accumulated on a broad, semiarid alluvial plain bounded to the southeast by crystalline highlands and to the northwest by the Mozambique Channel. The Berivotra Formation was deposited in an open marine setting that evolved from a clastic- to a carbonate-dominated shelf, resulting in deposition of the overlying Betsiboka limestone of Danian age. New stratigraphic data clearly indicate that the Maevarano Formation correlates, at least in part, with the Maastrichtian Berivotra Formation, and this in turn indicates that the most fossiliferous portions of the Maevarano Formation are Maastrichtian in age, rather than Campanian as previously reported. This revised age for the Maevarano vertebrate assemblage indicates that it is approximately contemporaneous with the vertebrate fauna recovered from the Deccan basalt volcano-sedimentary sequence of India. The comparable age of these two faunas is significant because the faunas appear to be more similar to one another than either is to those from any other major Gondwanan landmass. The revised age of the Maevarano Formation, when considered in the light of our recent fossil discoveries, further indicates that the ancestral stocks of Madagascar's overwhelmingly endemic modern vertebrate fauna arrived on the island in post-Mesozoic times. The basal stocks of the modern vertebrate fauna are conspicuously absent in the Maevarano Formation. Finally, the revised age of the Maevarano Formation serves to expand our global perspective on the K/T event by clarifying the age of a diverse, and arguably the best preserved, sample of Gondwanan vertebrates from the terminal Cretaceous. PMID:10769157

Rogers; Hartman; Krause

2000-05-01

317

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion.

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-01-01

318

Assessing Water Management of Mining Effluent Using Temporal and Spatial Hydrologic Analyses: The Case of QIT Madagascar Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Associated with the commencement of any water-intensive mining operation is the formation of a set of policies, standards, and sampling protocols that guide the management of all water resources connected to the mining facility, surrounding environment, and affected communities. This study explores the interface between corporate water management and hydrologic methods by evaluating changes in water quality over the course of the mining cycle at QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM) in Tolagnaro, Madagascar. Sampling and lab research of processed water were conducted following established QMM procedures and then analyzed in conjunction with the complete QMM water quality database. Water quality was analyzed spatially to exhibit how processed water changes as it moves throughout the mining cycle before release into the environment. Graphical representation of the spatial changes in various parameters exhibit deterioration in water quality relative to the source, improvement in quality before being released as effluent, and natural remediation by wetlands before discharge into the Mandromondromotra River. In addition, water quality parameters were evaluated temporally, using data supplied by QMM's Service de l'Eau et Déchets. Yearly and monthly comparisons of hydrological parameters highlight data gaps, the effects of seasonality, and the evolution of water quality monitoring at QMM. Technical evaluation of processed water as it flows through the mining system provides insight into how water monitoring and management can best be adapted at the corporate level to prevent negative impacts on the environment. Water quality data for various parameters from April 2013 at each of the sampling locations. The graphs highlight spatial changes in parameters as water moves from the sources (WD90, Paddock 3), to sites on the mine (500M, Basmin, SCC2), to release points (WMC703, WMC803), to discharge points into the MMM River.

Hoagland, N. E.

2013-12-01

319

Preliminary study of a radiological survey in an abandoned uranium mining area in Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region of Vinaninkarena located in central Madagascar (47°02'40"E, 19°57'17"S), is known to be a high natural radioactive area. Uranium ore was extracted in this region during the 1950s and the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, mining activities were stopped and the site abandoned. In the meantime, the region, which used to be without any inhabitants, has recently been occupied by new settlers with presumed increase in exposure of the local population to natural ionizing radiation. In order to assess radiological risk, a survey to assess the soil natural radioactivity background was conducted during the year 2004. This study was implemented in the frame of the FADES Project SP99v1b_21 entitled: Assessment of the environmental pollution by multidisciplinary approach, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Cooperation Project MAG 7002 entitled: Effects of air and water pollution on human health. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the geographical coordinates of the top soil samples (0-15cm) collected. The sampling was performed using a multi integrated scale approach to estimate the spatial variability of the parameters under investigation (U, Th and K) using geo-statistical approach. A total of 205 soil samples was collected in the study site (16 km2). After humidity correction, the samples were sealed in 100 cm3 cylindrical air-tight plastic containers and stored for more than 6 months to reach a secular equilibrium between parents and short-lived progeny (226Ra and progeny, 238U and 234Th). Measurements were performed using a high-resolution HPGe Gamma-detector with a 30% relative efficiency and an energy resolution of 1.8 keV at 1332.5 keV, allowing the determination of the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In case of secular equilibrium, a non-gamma-emitting radionuclide activity was deduced from its gamma emitting progeny. This was the case for 238U (from 234Th), 226Ra (from 214Pb and 214Bi) and 232Th (from 228Ac, 212Pb or 208Tl). Furthermore, in order to assess the radiological effect, the kerma rate in the air at 1 m above ground level was calculated for each sampled points using standard activity-kerma rate conversion coefficients for uranium, thorium series and potassium. Geostatistical interpolation tools (e.g. Inverse Distance Weighting power 2 and Ordinary Kriging) were used to optimize the data set mapping. The measured Potassium-40 activity was 333 Bq kg-1 ± 95% (Mean ± Coefficient of Variation), the Uranium activity was 195 Bq kg-1 ± 53% and the Thorium activity was 139 Bq kg-1 ± 29%. The world average concentrations are reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) as 400 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 35 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 30 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. The results show that generally, 40K concentrations in soils of the area are slightly lower than the world average value, whereas uranium and thorium series activities are noticeably higher. On average the kerma rate reaches 143 nGy h-1 with a standard deviation of 41 nGy h-1 and a coefficient of variation of 28%. The information obtained was mapped and the dose exposition was also assessed for the local settlers. Key-words: soil contamination, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, dose exposure.

N, Rabesiranana; M, Rasolonirina; F, Solonjara A.; Andriambololona., Raoelina; L, Mabit

2010-05-01

320

A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “system of rice intensification” (SRI) that evolved in the 1980s and 1990s in Madagascar permits resource-limited farmers to realise yields of up to 15 t of paddy\\/hectare on infertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation and without external inputs. This paper reviews the plant physiological and bio-ecological factors associated with agronomic practices that could explain the extraordinary yields

Willem A. Stoop; Norman Uphoff; Amir Kassam

2002-01-01

321

Mountain Refugia Play a Role in Soil Arthropod Speciation on Madagascar: A Case Study of the Endemic Giant Fire-Millipede Genus Aphistogoniulus  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the speciation mechanisms prevalent within hotspots of biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes behind the rise of their species-rich and endemic biota, we investigated the phylogeny of the giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, a Malagasy endemic. This study is the first comprehensive (molecular and morphological) phylogenetic study focusing on millipede (class Diplopoda) speciation on Madagascar. The morphological analysis is based on 35 morphological characters and incorporates ten described as well as two newly described species (A. rubrodorsalis n. sp. and A. jeekeli n. sp.) of Aphistogoniulus. The molecular analysis is based on both mitochondrial (COI and 16S), and nuclear genes (complete 18S rDNA), together comprised of 3031 base pairs, which were successfully sequenced for 31 individual specimens and eight species of Aphistogoniulus. In addition to the null-model (speciation by distance), two diversification models, mountain refugia and ecotone shift, were discovered to play a role in the speciation of soil arthropods on Madagascar. Mountain refugia were important in the speciation of the A. cowani clade, with three species occurring in the Andringitra and Ranomafana Mountains in the southeast (A. cowani), the Ambohijanahary and Ambohitantely Mountains in the mid-west (A. sanguineus), and the Marojejy Mountain in the northeast (A. rubrodorsalis n. sp.). An ecotone shift from the eastern rainforest to the unique subarid spiny forest of Mahavelo was discovered in the A. vampyrus - A. aridus species-pair. In the monophyletic A. diabolicus clade, evidence for divergent evolution of sexual morphology was detected: species with greatly enlarged gonopods are sister-taxa to species with normal sized gonopods. Among the large-bodied Spirobolida genera of Madagascar, Colossobolus and Sanguinobolus were found to be close sister-genera to Aphistogoniulus. Forest destruction has caused forest corridors between populations to disappear, which might limit the possible resolution of biogeographic analyses on Madagascar.

Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J.; Decker, Peter

2011-01-01

322

First Large-Scale DNA Barcoding Assessment of Reptiles in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar, Based on Newly Designed COI Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsRepresentatives

Zoltán T. Nagy; Gontran Sonet; Frank Glaw; Miguel Vences

2012-01-01

323

The effects of soil drying and rewetting on rice growth in lowland aquatic Ferralsols in the southeastern forest region of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southeastern-forest region of Madagascar, the year-around anaerobic condition of most lowlands favors soil organic\\u000a matter (SOM) accumulation, while the inherently nutrient-poor soils limit rice yields. Accelerating decomposition of the accumulated\\u000a SOM through the soil surface drainage before transplanting is a conceivable approach to improve rice production. However,\\u000a the effect of soil drying on rice growth has been little

Yasuhiro Tsujimoto; Koki Homma; Tatsuhiko Shiraiwa

2010-01-01

324

Phlebotomine sand flies from Madagascar (Diptera: Psychodidae). VII. An identification key for Phlebotomus with the description of Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp.  

PubMed Central

An identification key of the Phlebotomus in Madagascar is proposed as well as the description of the male and female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp. from Mikea Forest in the south-west of Madagascar. The assignation of this new species to the genus Phlebotomus is based on the presence of mesanepisternal setae. Its inclusion in the subgenus Anaphlebotomus is based on the males on the presence of four spines on the style, the lack of a coxite basal process and the existence of a bifurcated paramere. The female has cibarial and pharyngeal armature and spermathecal architecture similar to Phlebotomus fertei and Phlebotomus berentiensis, two other Malagasy species which belong to Anaphlebotomus. Male and female are held to belong to the same species because of their morphological characters, the homology (100%) of their partial cytochrome b mtDNA sequences and their capture in the same trap. P. vaomalalae n. sp. is a small species compared to the other Phlebotomus species of Madagascar. The cibarium of the male and the female of P. vaomalalae n. sp. is armed with teeth, like those of other Malagasy Phlebotomus. However, it differs in the arrangement and shape of the respective teeth and denticles. The male of P. vaomalalae n. sp. looks like that of P. fontenillei due to its tuft of coxal setae (lacking in P. berentiensis and P. fertei) but differs from this species by the location of this tuft. As P. fertei and P. berentiensis, there is no spermathecal common duct in P. vaomalalae n. sp.

Randrianambinintsoa, Fano Jose; Leger, Nicole; Robert, Vincent; Depaquit, Jerome

2013-01-01

325

Redescription of 'Polyzonium' malagassum, a new synonym of Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894), with notes about the occurrence of the order Polyzoniida on Madagascar (Diplopoda).  

PubMed

Polyzonium malagassum de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902, the only indigenous record of the order Polyzoniida from Madagascar, is redescribed after a study of the type specimens. The only male specimen is selected as the lectotype and illustrated. P. malagassum is discovered to be a synonym of the widespread tropical tramp species Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894). A mapping of additional locality data of R. pupureus shows that the species is widespread in Malagasy rainforests and montane rainforests, and occurs locally in high densities. Seven potentially indigenous Polyzoniida morphospecies also occur on Madagascar, but these undescribed species are more localized and show a lower abundance than R. purpureus. Brief notes, locality data, and Museum acronyms are given for the undescribed Polyzoniida species, which will hopefully assist future studies on Malagasy representatives of this little-known but biogeographically interesting order. With the discovery of the ubiquitous presence of R. purpureus on Madagascar, the similarity of the defense secretions of South American and of endemic Malagasy poison dart frogs (family Mantellidae) might derive from the fact that both groups prey on and sequester alkaloids from the same species of millipede.  PMID:24869890

Wesener, Thomas

2014-01-01

326

The Spread of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Madagascar Described by a Sentinel Surveillance Network  

PubMed Central

Background The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been a challenge for public health surveillance systems in all countries. In Antananarivo, the first imported case was reported on August 12, 2009. This work describes the spread of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar. Methods The diffusion of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar was explored using notification data from a sentinel network. Clinical data were charted to identify peaks at each sentinel site and virological data was used to confirm viral circulation. Results From August 1, 2009 to February 28, 2010, 7,427 patients with influenza-like illness were reported. Most patients were aged 7 to 14 years. Laboratory tests confirmed infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 in 237 (33.2%) of 750 specimens. The incidence of patients differed between regions. By determining the epidemic peaks we traced the diffusion of the epidemic through locations and time in Madagascar. The first peak was detected during the epidemiological week 47-2009 in Antananarivo and the last one occurred in week 07-2010 in Tsiroanomandidy. Conclusion Sentinel surveillance data can be used for describing epidemic trends, facilitating the development of interventions at the local level to mitigate disease spread and impact.

Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Orelle, Arnaud; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Rajaona, Yolande Raoelina; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugene; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Richard, Vincent

2012-01-01

327

Longitudinal survey of malaria morbidity over 10 years in Saharevo (Madagascar): further lessons for strengthening malaria control  

PubMed Central

Background Madagascar has been known for having bio-geo-ecological diversity which is reflected by a complex malaria epidemiology ranging from hyperendemic to malaria-free areas. Malaria-related attacks and infection are frequently recorded both in children and adults living in areas of low malaria transmission. To integrate this variability in the national malaria control policy, extensive epidemiological studies are required to up-date previous records and adjust strategies. Methods A longitudinal malaria survey was conducted from July 1996 to June 2005 among an average cohort of 214 villagers in Saharevo, located at 900 m above the sea. Saharevo is a typical eastern foothill site at the junction between a costal wet tropical area (equatorial malaria pattern) and a drier high-altitude area (low malaria transmission). Results Passive and active malaria detection revealed that malaria transmission in Saharevo follows an abrupt seasonal variation. Interestingly, malaria was confirmed in 45% (1,271/2,794) of malaria-presumed fevers seen at the health centre. All four Plasmodia that infect humans were also found: Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. Half of the malaria-presumed fevers could be confirmed over the season with the highest malaria transmission level, although less than a quarter in lower transmission time, highlighting the importance of diagnosis prior to treatment intake. P. falciparum malaria has been predominant (98%). The high prevalence of P. falciparum malaria affects more particularly under 10 years old children in both symptomatic and asymptomatic contexts. Children between two and four years of age experienced an average of 2.6 malaria attacks with P. falciparum per annum. Moreover, estimated incidence of P. falciparum malaria tends to show that half of the attacks (15 attacks) risk to occur during the first 10 years of life for a 60-year-old adult who would have experienced 32 malaria attacks. Conclusion The incidence of malaria decreased slightly with age but remained important among children and adults in Saharevo. These results support that a premunition against malaria is slowly acquired until adolescence. However, this claims for a weak premunition among villagers in Saharevo and by extension in the whole eastern foothill area of Madagascar. While the Malagasy government turns towards malaria elimination plans nowadays, choices and expectations to up-date and adapt malaria control strategies in the foothill areas are discussed in this paper.

2009-01-01

328

First Isolation and Direct Evidence for the Existence of Large Small-Mammal Reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis has long been a major public health concern in the southwestern Indian Ocean. However, in Madagascar, only a few, old studies have provided indirect serological evidence of the disease in humans or animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a large animal study focusing on small-mammal populations. Five field trapping surveys were carried out at five sites, from April 2008 to August 2009. Captures consisted of Rattus norvegicus (35.8%), R. rattus (35.1%), Mus musculus (20.5%) and Suncus murinus (8.6%). We used microbiological culture, serodiagnosis tests (MAT) and real-time PCR to assess Leptospira infection. Leptospira carriage was detected by PCR in 91 (33.9%) of the 268 small mammals, by MAT in 17 of the 151 (11.3%) animals for which serum samples were available and by culture in 9 of the 268 animals (3.3%). Rates of infection based on positive PCR results were significantly higher in Moramanga (54%), Toliara (48%) and Mahajanga (47.4%) than in Antsiranana (8.5%) and Toamasina (14%) (p?=?0.001). The prevalence of Leptospira carriage was significantly higher in R. norvegicus (48.9%), S. murinus (43.5%) and R. rattus (30.8%) than in M. musculus (9.1%) (p<0.001). The MAT detected antibodies against the serogroups Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Isolates were characterized by serology, secY sequence-based phylogeny, partial sequencing of rrs, multi-locus VNTR analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The 10 isolates obtained from nine rats were all identified as species L. interrogans serogroup Canicola serovar Kuwait and all had identical partial rrs and secY sequences. Conclusions/Significance We present here the first direct evidence of widespread leptospiral carriage in small mammals in Madagascar. Our results strongly suggest a high level of environmental contamination, consistent with probable transmission of the infection to humans. This first isolation of pathogenic Leptospira strains in this country may significantly improve the detection of specific antibodies in human cases.

Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Leon, Albertine; Harstskeerl, Rudy A.; Sertour, Natacha; Ahmed, Ahmed; Raharimanana, Claudine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Garnier, Martine; Chartier, Loic; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rahalison, Lila; Cornet, Muriel

2010-01-01

329

How much variation can one ant species hold? Species delimitation in the Crematogaster kelleri-group in Madagascar.  

PubMed

We investigated the species-level taxonomy of the Malagasy Crematogaster (Crematogaster) kelleri-group and an additional more distantly related species of the same subgenus. Morphological data from worker, queen and male ants, as well as genetic data from three nuclear genes (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and one mitochondrial marker (cytochrome oxidase I) led to the recognition of six species. Within the C. kelleri-group, three new species are described: C. hazolava Blaimer sp. n., C. hafahafa Blaimer sp. n. and C. tavaratra Blaimer sp. n. The previously described taxa C. kelleri Forel and C. madagascariensis André are validated by our analysis. Conversely, our data suggests synonymy of C. adrepens Forel (with C. kelleri) and C. gibba Emery (with C. madagascariensis). A more distantly related and phylogenetically isolated species, C. tsisitsilo Blaimer sp. n., is further described. We report high levels of morphological and molecular variation in C. kelleri and illustrate that this variation can be explained partly by geography. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker ants, as well as on queen and male ants where available, are presented for all six species. Our work highlights the elevated species richness of Crematogaster ants throughout Madagascar's humid forests, especially in the far northern tip of the island, and the need to use multiple data sources to ensure clear demarcation of this diversity. PMID:23874503

Blaimer, Bonnie B; Fisher, Brian L

2013-01-01

330

[Factors justifying the choice of labor epidural analgesia by nulliparous women: experience at a maternity center in Antananarivo, Madagascar].  

PubMed

Epidural analgesia is the most effective method for pain relief during labor. This 10-year exploratory descriptive study on factors underlying women's decisions to request or refuse labor epidural analgesia (LEA) was carried out at a level III maternity hospital in Antananarivo, Madagascar. All patients underwent a pre-anesthesia check-up (PAC) between 32 and 34 weeks of amenorrhea. During the PAC, a questionnaire was administered to determine socio-economic aspects, level of education, and knowledge about labor pain and LEA. In addition, LEA was proposed and patients were asked to explain their reasons for accepting or refusing the procedure. The purpose of this report was to describe the factors underlying acceptance or refusal of EA by nulliparous women. A total of 41 nulliparous women were included. Fourteen (34.14%) accepted LEA and 27 (63.86%) refused. Mean age was 27 years in the acceptance group and 25 years in the refusal group. No patient had good knowledge about LEA. Nulliparous women that accepted EA had a higher socio-economic level, expected stronger labor pain, were better informed about EA, and expressed greater confidence in medical care. In addition to economic aspects, the main reasons for refusing EA involved fear and family background. PMID:22235633

Ramorasata, J A C; Raveloson, N E; Randriamahavonjy, R; Tohaina, D; Keita, H

2011-10-01

331

Biomedical evaluation of two sympatric lemur species (Propithecus verreauxi deckeni and Eulemur fulvus rufus) in Tsiombokibo Classified Forest, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Complete medical examinations were performed on 20 wild Decken's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi deckeni) and 20 wild red-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus rufus) from western Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination, and weight, body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded and ectoparasites collected. Blood samples were collected for complete blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, hemoparasite examination, serum biochemical profile, fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, and toxoplasmosis and viral serology. Fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and endoparasite examination. Significant differences exist between the species for serum chemistry values for creatine phosphokinase, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphorus, potassium, and chloride; for fat-soluble vitamins 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, retinol, retinyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein + zeaxanthin; and serum copper. Parasites detected include Lemurostrongylus spp., Lemuricola spp., Trichurus spp., and ectoparasites Haemaphysalis lemuris, Psoroptes, and mites identified to the family Laelapidae. Enteric bacterial flora included Escherichia coli, Citrobacter ssp., Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella ozaenae, Acinetobacter lwofii, and Enterobacter amnigenus. PMID:17312713

Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

2005-12-01

332

Palaeo-precipitation is a major determinant of palm species richness patterns across Madagascar: a tropical biodiversity hotspot  

PubMed Central

The distribution of rainforest in many regions across the Earth was strongly affected by Pleistocene ice ages. However, the extent to which these dynamics are still important for modern-day biodiversity patterns within tropical biodiversity hotspots has not been assessed. We employ a comprehensive dataset of Madagascan palms (Arecaceae) and climate reconstructions from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) to assess the relative role of modern environment and LGM climate in explaining geographical species richness patterns in this major tropical biodiversity hotspot. We found that palaeoclimate exerted a strong influence on palm species richness patterns, with richness peaking in areas with higher LGM precipitation relative to present-day even after controlling for modern environment, in particular in northeastern Madagascar, consistent with the persistence of tropical rainforest during the LGM primarily in this region. Our results provide evidence that diversity patterns in the World's most biodiverse regions may be shaped by long-term climate history as well as contemporary environment.

Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Baker, William J.; Dransfield, John; Moat, Justin; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2013-01-01

333

Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in the Defense and Stress Response of Spiroplasma citri Infected Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine ?-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine ?-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties.

Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Dickinson, Matthew

2012-01-01

334

DNA barcoding assessment of genetic variation in two widespread skinks from Madagascar, Trachylepis elegans and T. gravenhorstii (Squamata: Scincidae).  

PubMed

Trachylepis elegans and T. gravenhorstii are two of the most widespread reptiles in Madagascar, inhabiting a wide variety of habitats. Previous studies have indicated a considerable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within these species, but the geographic distribution of the major haplotype lineages is poorly known. Herein we analyse the phylogeography of these lizards based on 107 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, 101 of which newly determined. As in previous mtDNA assessments, T. elegans and T. gravenhorstii were not reciprocally monophyletic, although recent analyses including nuclear markers indicated their probable monophyly, respectively. The main lineages within T. gravenhorstii were found in strict allopatry and could be divided into a subclade of roughly northern and eastern distribution (lineages 1 and 2) and a subclade of roughly southern and western distribution (lineages 3, 4a, 4b, and 5, plus T. elegans). Our data serve to identify more precisely the probable contact zones among T. gravenhorstii lineages. The two main mtDNA clades (represented by lineages 2 and 3, respectively) can be expected to come into close contact in the area of the upper Mangoro river and Alaotra Lake, and (lineages 2 and 4a) in the Southern Central East between Mananjary and Ranomafana. Future studies intensively sampling these contact zones have the potential to assess hybridization and admixture among these lineages, and to test whether they are deep conspecific lineages of T. gravenhorstii as currently understood, or might represent distinct species. PMID:24869835

Vences, Miguel; Lima, Alexandra; Miralles, Aurélien; Glaw, Frank

2014-01-01

335

A 7-Deoxyloganetic Acid Glucosyltransferase Contributes a Key Step in Secologanin Biosynthesis in Madagascar Periwinkle[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Iridoids form a broad and versatile class of biologically active molecules found in thousands of plant species. In addition to the many hundreds of iridoids occurring in plants, some iridoids, such as secologanin, serve as key building blocks in the biosynthesis of thousands of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) and many quinoline alkaloids. This study describes the molecular cloning and functional characterization of three iridoid glucosyltransfeases (UDP-SUGAR GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE6 [UGT6], UGT7, and UGT8) from Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) with remarkably different catalytic efficiencies. Biochemical analyses reveal that UGT8 possessed a high catalytic efficiency toward its exclusive iridoid substrate, 7-deoxyloganetic acid, making it better suited for the biosynthesis of iridoids in periwinkle than the other two iridoid glucosyltransfeases. The role of UGT8 in the fourth to last step in secologanin biosynthesis was confirmed by virus-induced gene silencing in periwinkle plants, which reduced expression of this gene and resulted in a large decline in secologanin and MIA accumulation within silenced plants. Localization studies of UGT8 using a carborundum abrasion method for RNA extraction show that its expression occurs preferentially within periwinkle leaves rather than in epidermal cells, and in situ hybridization studies confirm that UGT8 is preferentially expressed in internal phloem associated parenchyma cells of periwinkle species.

Asada, Keisuke; Salim, Vonny; Masada-Atsumi, Sayaka; Edmunds, Elizabeth; Nagatoshi, Mai; Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Mizukami, Hajime; De Luca, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

336

Comportement piezometrique des nappes d'alterites en zone intertropicale humide d'altitude (hauts plateaux de Madagascar)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of rice-cultivated peaty valley-bottoms on a weathered crystalline schist, located in a high altitude humid intertropical zone (Madagascar) is under study to define the water and mineral balance of these areas with an economic objective. Analysis of the groundwaters' piezometric level on a reference site allowed the differentiation of inflows and outflows and enabled us to specify the hydraulics of the media. (1) The clay alteration products form a free aquifer broken up by the morphology of the land (valleys, surrounding interfluves); this aquifer discharges by outlets located in the lowlands and thus contributes to the prolonged flooding (nine months a year) of rice-fields; recharge depends on the spatial variability of local precipitation. (2) The granite-gneiss basement constitutes a regional aquifer; the groundwater is semi-confined and outcrops in large valleys with free water-tables draining to the low coastal plains of the island; for the most part its recharge is ensured by discontinuous outcrops (residual ridges); it remains confined for several months after the rainy season. (3) In the lowlands, underlying sands are also water bearing, recharged from superficial flows. The groundwater is confined during the rainy season, which favours ascending flows towards the rice rooting zone.

Grillot, J. C.; Raunet, M.; Ferry, L.

1990-12-01

337

Phlebotomine sand flies from Madagascar (Diptera: Psychodidae). VII. An identification key for Phlebotomus with the description of Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp.  

PubMed

An identification key of the Phlebotomus in Madagascar is proposed as well as the description of the male and female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp. from Mikea Forest in the south-west of Madagascar. The assignation of this new species to the genus Phlebotomus is based on the presence of mesanepisternal setae. Its inclusion in the subgenus Anaphlebotomus is based on the males on the presence of four spines on the style, the lack of a coxite basal process and the existence of a bifurcated paramere. The female has cibarial and pharyngeal armature and spermathecal architecture similar to Phlebotomus fertei and Phlebotomus berentiensis, two other Malagasy species which belong to Anaphlebotomus. Male and female are held to belong to the same species because of their morphological characters, the homology (100%) of their partial cytochrome b mtDNA sequences and their capture in the same trap. P. vaomalalae n. sp. is a small species compared to the other Phlebotomus species of Madagascar. The cibarium of the male and the female of P. vaomalalae n. sp. is armed with teeth, like those of other Malagasy Phlebotomus. However, it differs in the arrangement and shape of the respective teeth and denticles. The male of P. vaomalalae n. sp. looks like that of P. fontenillei due to its tuft of coxal setae (lacking in P. berentiensis and P. fertei) but differs from this species by the location of this tuft. As P. fertei and P. berentiensis, there is no spermathecal common duct in P. vaomalalae n. sp. PMID:23419267

Randrianambinintsoa, Fano José; Léger, Nicole; Robert, Vincent; Depaquit, Jérôme

2013-01-01

338

Small effect of fragmentation on the genetic diversity of Dalbergia monticola, an endangered tree species of the eastern forest of Madagascar, detected by chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The oriental forest ecosystem in Madagascar has been seriously impacted by fragmentation. The pattern of genetic diversity was analysed on a tree species, Dalbergia monticola, which plays an important economic role in Madagascar and is one of the many endangered tree species in the eastern forest. Methods Leaves from 546 individuals belonging to 18 small populations affected by different levels of fragmentation were genotyped using eight nuclear (nuc) and three chloroplast (cp) microsatellite markers. Key Results For nuclear microsatellites, allelic richness (R) and heterozygosity (He,nuc) differed between types of forest: R = 7·36 and R = 9·55, He,nuc = 0·64 and He,nuc = 0·80 in fragmented and non-fragmented forest, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Only the mean number of alleles (Na,nuc) and the fixation index FIS differed significantly: Na,nuc = 9·41 and Na,nuc = 13·18, FIS = 0·06 and FIS = 0·15 in fragmented and non-fragmented forests, respectively. For chloroplast microsatellites, estimated genetic diversity was higher in non-fragmented forest, but the difference was not significant. No recent bottleneck effect was detected for either population. Overall differentiation was low for nuclear microsatellites (FST,nuc = 0·08) and moderate for chloroplast microsatellites (FST,cp = 0·49). A clear relationship was observed between genetic and geographic distance (r = 0·42 P < 0·01 and r = 0·42 P = 0·03 for nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites, respectively), suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance. Analysis of population structure using the neighbor-joining method or Bayesian models separated southern populations from central and northern populations with nuclear microsatellites, and grouped the population according to regions with chloroplast microsatellites, but did not separate the fragmented populations. Conclusions Residual diversity and genetic structure of populations of D. monticola in Madagascar suggest a limited impact of fragmentation on molecular genetic parameters.

Andrianoelina, O.; Favreau, B.; Ramamonjisoa, L.; Bouvet, J.-M.

2009-01-01

339

Ammonite and inoceramid biostratigraphy and biogeography of the Cenomanian through basal Middle Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Morondava Basin, western Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic distribution of ammonite and inoceramid faunas of the richly fossiliferous Cenomanian through basal Middle Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) succession of the Morondava Basin, western Madagascar, is provided, and biozonations, based on both groups, are established. The correlation with former schemes is discussed and the chronostratigraphic potential of each of the groups is evaluated, with reference to their biogeographic affinities. The study is based on entirely new field collections at four sections in the central and southern part of the Morondava Basin: (1) Antsirasira-Ampolipoly, (2) Mahaboboka, (3) Vohipaly, and (4) Manasoa-on-Onilahy. Geological logs and field details of these sections are also provided.

Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; James Kennedy, William; Dembicz, Krzysztof; Gale, Andrew S.; Praszkier, Tomasz; Rasoamiaramanana, Armand H.; Randrianaly, Hasina

2014-01-01

340

The possibility of using photogrammetric and remote sensing techniques to model lavaka (gully erosion) development in Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is a worldwide problem for it has a number of undesirable effects and their development is hard to follow. Madagascar is one of the most affected countries for its highlands are densely covered with gullies named lavakas. Lavaka formation and development seems to be triggered by many regional and local causes but the actual reasons are still poorly understood. Furthermore lavakas differ from normal gullies due to their enormous size and special shape. Field surveys are time consuming and data from two-dimensional measurements and pictures (even aerial) might lack major information for morphologic studies. Therefore close range surveying technologies should be used to get three-dimensional information about these unusual and complex features. This contribution discusses which remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques are adequate to survey the development of lavakas, their volume change and sediment budget. Depending on the types and properties (such as volume, depth, shape, vegetation) of the lavaka different methods will be proposed showing pros and cons of each one of them. Our goal is to review techniques to model, survey and analyze lavakas development to better understand the cause of their formation, special size and shape. Different methods are evaluated and compared from field survey through data processing, analyzing cost-effectiveness, potential errors and accuracy for each one of them. For this purpose we will also consider time- and cost-effectiveness of the softwares able to render the images into 3D model as well as the resolution and accuracy of the outputs. Further studies will concentrate on using the three dimensional models of lavakas which will be later on used for geomorphological studies in order to understand their special shape and size. This is ILARG-contribution #07.

Raveloson, Andrea; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Rasztovits, Sascha

2013-04-01

341

Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior.

Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

342

Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in Cathariostachys madagascariensis-the main food plant of bamboo lemurs in Southeastern Madagascar.  

PubMed

Giant bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis) is a major food plant for three sympatric species of bamboo-eating lemurs (Hapalemur aureus, H. griseus, and Prolemur simus) in the rain forests of southeastern Madagascar. This plant species is strongly cyanogenic. However, quantitative data on cyanide concentration in C. madagascariensis are scarce. Previous studies reported 15 mg cyanide per 100 g fresh shoot material (corresponding to approx. 57 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight). However, we found mean concentrations (+/-SE) ranging from 139.3+/-19.32 in ground shoots to 217.7+/-16.80 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight in branch shoots. Thus, cyanogenesis of C. madagascariensis was up to four times higher than reported before. In contrast to the strongly cyanogenic shoots no cyanide could be detected in differently aged leaves of C. madagascariensis confirming earlier studies. Within individual shoots fine-scaled analysis revealed a characteristic ontogenetic pattern of cyanide accumulation. Highest concentrations were found in youngest parts near the apical meristem, whereas concentrations decreased in older shoot parts. Beyond the general intra-individual variability of cyanogenic features analyses indicated site-specific variability of both, the ontogenetic pattern of cyanide concentration as well as the total amount of cyanide accumulated in shoots. Additionally, analyses of soluble proteins-one important nutritive measure affecting food plant quality-demonstrated a converse quantitative relation of protein concentrations in leaves to cyanide concentration in shoots at the site-specific level. We, thus, suggest integrative analyses on quantitative variation of cyanogenesis together with nutritive plant parameters in future studies. This approach would allow obtaining more detailed insights into spatial variability of giant bamboo's overall browse quality and its impact on lemur herbivores. PMID:19132732

Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny P

2009-04-01

343

Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of a Madagascar Periwinkle Root-Specific Minovincinine-19-Hydroxy-O-Acetyltransferase1  

PubMed Central

The terminal steps in the biosynthesis of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids vindoline and minovincinine are catalyzed by separate acetyl coenzyme A-dependent O-acetyltransferases in Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus G. Don). Two genes were isolated that had 63% nucleic acid identity and whose deduced amino acid sequences were 78% identical. Active enzymes that were expressed as recombinant His-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli were named minovincinine-19-O-acetyltransferase (MAT) and deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase (DAT) because they catalyzed the 19-O-acetylation of indole alkaloids such as minovincinine and hörhammericine and the 4-O-acetylation of deacetylvindoline, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that the catalytic efficiency of recombinant MAT (rMAT) was very poor compared with that of recombinant DAT (rDAT), whose turnover rates for Acetyl-coenzyme A and deacetylvindoline were approximately 240- and 10,000-fold greater than those of rMAT. Northern-blot analyses showed that MAT is expressed in cortical cells of the root tip, whereas DAT is only expressed in specialized idioblast and laticifer cells within light exposed tissues like leaves and stems. The coincident expression of trytophan decarboxylase, strictosidine synthase, and MAT within root cortical cells suggests that the entire pathway for the biosynthesis of tabersonine and its substituted analogs occurs within these cells. The ability of MAT to catalyze the 4-O-acetylation of deacetylvindoline with low efficiency suggests that this enzyme, rather than DAT, is involved in vindoline biosynthesis within transformed cell and root cultures, which accumulate low levels of this alkaloid under certain circumstances.

Laflamme, Pierre; St-Pierre, Benoit; De Luca, Vincenzo

2001-01-01

344

Cross-species chromosome painting in bats from Madagascar: the contribution of Myzopodidae to revealing ancestral syntenies in Chiroptera.  

PubMed

The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n?=?26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n?=?48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n?=?46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n?=?44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera. PMID:20596765

Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M

2010-09-01

345

[Assessment of the management of cases of fever and malaria by general practitioners in the central Highlands of Madagascar, 2009-2010].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of confirmed malaria among patients with fever in the central Highlands of Madagascar, the clinical utility of treating this fever, and the involvement of community general practitioners in improving malaria management. This descriptive, prospective study took place from July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. Patients consulting for fever were classified into 2 groups: the first (G1) included all children younger than 5 years and the second group (G2) children 5 years or older and adults. In G1, 1383 cases of fever included 145 (10.5%) confirmed cases of malaria. The corresponding numbers in G2 were 1172 and 276 (23.5%). The prevalence of malaria was highest between December and May. In G1, the main clinical signs associated with a positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT) were pallor, jaundice, seizures, and failure to eat. In G2, a positive RDT was associated with pallor, coma, and jaundice. Treatment of patients with positive RDTs was based on quinine (51%) or artemisinin-based combination therapy (49%). Malaria remains endemic in the central Highlands of Madagascar. Efforts should be undertaken to improve prescription of antimalarial drugs. PMID:23174525

Rakotoarivelo, R A; Razakarison, C; Gottot, S; Ravony Harintsoa, L; Randrianiriana, G; Andriamanjato, D; Harilalarisoa, H; Ramaniraka, I; Rakotondramanga, J; Rafaliarivony, N; Ranaivoson, F; Rakotonirina, J F; Desplats, D

2012-01-01

346

First direct evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species ( Cheirogaleus crossleyi) from the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nocturnal dwarf lemurs of Madagascar (genus Cheirogaleus) are the only primates known to be obligate hibernators. Although the physiology of hibernation has been studied widely in the western, small-bodied species, Cheirogaleus medius, no direct evidence of hibernation, i.e., body temperature recordings, has been reported for any of the three recognized eastern dwarf lemur species. We present skin temperature data collected by external collar transmitters from two eastern dwarf lemur individuals ( Cheirogaleus crossleyi) captured in the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar. Our study species is larger in body size than western dwarf lemurs and inhabits much colder environments. We present the first evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species, and we compare the results with data available for the western species. Although the hibernation period is shorter in dwarf lemurs from Tsinjoarivo, minimum body temperatures are lower than those reported for C. medius. Both individuals at Tsinjoarivo showed limited passive and extended deep hibernation during which they did not track ambient temperature as observed in most western dwarf lemurs. Because ambient temperatures at Tsinjoarivo never exceed 30°C, dwarf lemurs have to experience arousals to maintain homeostasis during periods of hibernation. We show that large dwarf lemurs (>400 g) are capable of undergoing deep hibernation and suggest that cold, high-altitude forests may render hibernation highly advantageous during periods of food scarcity. This study has implications for understanding the physiology of hibernation in small-bodied lemurs.

Blanco, Marina B.; Rahalinarivo, Vololonirina

2010-10-01

347

The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically???104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was <10 colony-forming units (cfu) for all three species. In comparison, the LD50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105?cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates that infected hemocytes can fuse while flowing through the insect’s open circulatory system in vivo. Conclusions The results demonstrate that MH cockroaches are an attractive alternative to mammals to study host-pathogen interactions and may allow the identification of new Burkholderia virulence determinants. The importance of T6SS-1 as a virulence factor in MH cockroaches and rodents suggests that the primary role of this secretion system is to target evasion of the innate immune system.

2012-01-01

348

A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen-Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52-2.48. Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha Groups) each with a common and diagnostic signature of Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.2-1.8. Ga). The central domain (Ikalamavony-Itremo) consists of two distinct parts. The Itremo Sub-domain, in the east, is a structurally intercalated sequence of Neoarchean gneiss and shallow marine metasedimentary rocks of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic age (Itremo Group), the latter with Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons ranging in age between 2.2 and 1.8. Ga. The Ikalamavony Sub-domain, to the west, contains abundant volcano-clastic metasediments and lesser quartzite (Ikalamavony Group), formed between 1.03. Ga and 0.98. Ga, and intruded by igneous rocks (Dabolava Suite) of Stenian-Tonian age. Structurally intercalated with these are sheets of Neoarchean gneiss (~2.5. Ga) and Neoproterozoic metaclastic rocks (Molo Group). Like the Itremo Group, quartzite of the Ikalamavony Group has detrital zircons of Paleoproterozoic age (2.1-1.8. Ga). The southern domain of Anosyen-Androyen consists of a newly recognized suite of Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks (2.0-1.8. Ga), and stratified supracrustal rocks also having Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.3-1.8. Ga). The contact between the Anosyen-Androyen and Ikalamavony-Itremo domains, formerly known as the Ranotsara-Bongolava shear zone, is a tightly folded and highly flattened boundary that was ductilely deformed in Ediacaran time. It is roughly equivalent to the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone in south India, and it defines approximately the boundary between the Archean Greater Dharwar Craton (to the north) and the Paleoproterozoic terrane of Anosyen-Androyen (to the south).

Tucker, R. D.; Roig, J. Y.; Macey, P. H.; Delor, C.; Amelin, Y.; Armstrong, R. A.; Rabarimanana, M. H.; Ralison, A. V.

2011-01-01

349

Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones in southwestern Madagascar, with implications for Gondwana studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Madagascar comprises a complex Precambrian terrain of high-grade metamorphic rocks with a history of polyphase deformation and metamorphism. Two prominent N-S trending late Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones, the Ampanihy and Vorokafotra shears, each with projected strike length of > 450 km and between 10 and 20 km in width, crosscut the region. A third set of en echelon shears forms part of the early Paleozoic Ranotsara Shear Zone that cuts the basement in a NW-SE direction over a combined strike length of > 400 km. The host rocks of these shears comprise paragneisses (metasediments) with detrital zircons ranging in age between 720 and 1900 Ma. A felsic layer, interpreted as a metavolcanic rock, gives a date of 722±1 Ma. Remnants of late Archean orthogneisses in the central part of the study area may represent basement to the paragneisses. Four episodes of deformation and metamorphism have been recognized on the combined basis of field observations, petrogenesis, and U/Pb analyzes of zircons, monazites, sphenes, and rutiles. Two episodes of early simple shear deformation (D1 and D2) at midcrustal levels occurred between 627 and 647 Ma, during which northeast verging recumbent sheath folds and ductile thrusts were formed and peak prograde metamorphism reached 7-12 kbar at 750°-900°C. Early prolate mineral fabrics (L1/L2) are preserved in massif-type anorthosite bodies and their marginal country rocks. D1 occurred between 630 and 647 Ma, while D2 occurred at 627-628 Ma. This was followed by a 10-15 Myr period of static, annealing metamorphism until 609-614 Ma when bulk shortening (D3) took place. D2 and D3 are coaxial but are separated in time by leucocratic dykes that intruded between 610 and 620 Ma. D3 was focused zonally, forming the prominent N-S shear zones between 607 and 609 Ma; its oblate strain resulted in a strong composite D2/D3 fabric defined by subvertical S-tectonites and subhorizontal intersection lineations. A variety of post-D3 pegmatites accompanied ˜85 Myr of relatively static annealing and metasomatic/metamorphic mineral growth, during which numerous occurrences of phlogopite, uranium, and rare earth elements formed. A continuum of concordant monazite dates suggests that this thermal event is part of an extended period of low-pressure (3-5 kbar) charnockite-producing processes between 520 and 605 Ma. The continuum, however, appears to be punctuated at ˜580, 550, and 520 Ma. Deformation (D4) recorded within the Ranotsara Shear Zone overlaps with the youngest parts of the regional metamorphic conditions between 520 and 550 Ma. Prevailing low-pressure, high-temperature amphibolite-granulite facies rapidly gave way to greenschist facies conditions between 490 and 530 Ma, as is evident from overlapping ages of zircon, monazite, sphene, and rutile. We conclude that D1 to D3 represents a period of 40 Myr of compressional deformation that we interpret to be related to collisional events during the amalgamation of Gondwana. The first part of the thermal continuum between 550 and 605 Ma reflects ˜55 Myr of slow cooling and annealing at midcrustal levels, while the onset of the last episode, between 520 and 530 Ma, heralds accelerated exhumation accompanied by extensional tectonics between 490 and 520 Ma. We believe that this postcollisional time span represents a prolonged period of evolution of a Tibetan-style plateau into an Aegean-style extensional terrain. This ˜100 Myr event in southern Madagascar is similar to that recorded throughout large sectors of the East African Orogen between ca. 500 and 600 Ma. We believe that this type of postconvergent thermotectonism best represents the original definition of "Pan-African" [Kennedy, 1964], which in today's terminology equates with "postorogenic extensional collapse" [Dewey, 1988], or "destabilization of an orogen" [Lipps, 1998]. Kennedy's Pan-African was widespread throughout the interior a supercontinent, when Gondwana's periferal margins were subjected to far-field tensional forces. This suggests that neith

de Wit, Maarten J.; Bowring, Sam A.; Ashwal, Lew D.; Randrianasolo, Leon G.; Morel, Vincent P. I.; Rambeloson, Roger A.

2001-02-01

350

Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.  

PubMed

Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control in the Lac Alaotra area. This result is of primary importance in the ongoing efforts to effectively improve the wellbeing of people in the region. PMID:24681223

Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

2014-07-01

351

Discovery of Sympatric Dwarf Lemur Species in the High-Altitude Rain Forest of Tsinjoarivo, Eastern Madagascar: Implications for Biogeography and Conservation  

PubMed Central

The number of species within the Malagasy lemur genus Cheirogaleus is currently under debate. Museum collections are spotty, and field work, supplemented by morphometric and genetic analysis, is essential for documenting geographic distributions, ecological characteristics and species boundaries. We report here field evidence for 2 dwarf lemur species at Tsinjoarivo, an eastern-central high-altitude rain forest: one, from a forest fragment, displaying coat and dental characteristics similar to C. sibreei (previously described only from museum specimens) and the other, from the continuous forest, resembling individuals of Cheirogaleus found today at Ranomafana National Park, further to the south. This study represents the first confirmation of a living population of grey-fawn, C.-sibreei-like, dwarf lemurs in Madagascar.

Blanco, Marina B.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Rakotondratsima, Mamihasimbola; Rahalinarivo, Vololonirina; Samonds, Karen E.; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Irwin, Mitchell T.

2009-01-01

352

A 3-year serological and virological cattle follow-up in Madagascar highlands suggests a non-classical transmission route of Rift Valley fever virus.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne infection of livestock and human which causes a potentially severe disease. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak occurred in a temperate and mountainous area located on the highlands of Madagascar. A three-year cattle follow-up (2009-2011) was conducted in a pilot area of this highland. A seroprevalence rate of 28% was estimated in 2009 and a seroconversion rate of 7% in 2009-2010. A third cross-sectional survey showed a seroconversion rate of 14% in 2010-2011. In 2011 the longitudinal study suggested a RVFV circulation during the year. In this area where vectors density is low and cattle exchanges are linked to the virus local spread, we raise hypotheses that may explain the local persistence of the virus. PMID:24366500

Nicolas, Gaëlle; Durand, Benoit; Rakotoarimanana, Tafika Tojofaniry; Lacote, Sandra; Chevalier, Véronique; Marianneau, Philippe

2014-02-01

353

"... But Then He Became My Sipa": The Implications of Relationship Fluidity for Condom Use Among Women Sex Workers in Antananarivo, Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that sex workers use condoms less consistently with regular (i.e., nonpaying) partners than with clients. Few studies have examined the extent to which these 2 categories are mutually exclusive. In an ethnographic study of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar, we examined how the meaning of women sex workers’ sexual relationships could shift among 3 different forms of sex work. Condom use was less likely in forms in which the distinction between client and lover (sipa in Malagasy) was fluid. For many sex workers, therefore, relationships they understood to be intimate imparted the greatest health vulnerability. It is important to examine the influence of the meaning of sexual relationships on condom use for HIV prevention. Policy implications for HIV prevention work with sex workers are considered.

Hindin, Michelle J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette

2009-01-01

354

Impacts and Limits of the Use of Isotope Techniques in the Determination of the Origin of Groundwater Salinity in the Southern Crystalline Basement of Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of groundwater salinity in the crystalline basement of southern Madagascar is examined by means of chemical and isotope signatures. These include the isotopes (18O, 2H, 3H) of water and (87Sr/86Sr, 13C, 14C) of solutes. Chemical signatures are characterized by trace elements (Br, Sr, F) and the major ion composition. The results suggest two possible mechanisms of mineralization in the Graphite and Androy formations. In the former, palaeomarine intrusion might have contributed to the salinity, whereas water-rock interaction seems to be important in the latter. In both cases, marine aerosols seem to contribute to groundwater salinity. Environmental isotopes have contributed to assessing the origin of the groundwater salinity, although the overall mechanism is not yet clear.

Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Mamifarananahary, E.; Verhagen, B. Th.; Weinberg, A.

2002-07-01

355

Increased population sampling confirms low genetic divergence among Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats of Madagascar and other western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus occur throughout the Austral-Asian region west to islands off the eastern coast of Africa. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Pteropus from the western Indian Ocean found low sequence divergence and poor phylogenetic resolution among several morphologically defined species. We reexamine the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa by using multiple individuals per species. In addition, we estimate population genetic structure in two well-sampled taxa occurring on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (P. rufus and P. seychellensis comorensis). Despite finding a similar pattern of low sequence divergence among species, increased sampling provides insight into the phylogeographic history of western Indian Ocean Pteropus, uncovering high levels of gene flow within species.

Chan, Lauren M.; Goodman, Steven M.; Nowak, Michael D.; Weisrock, David W.; Yoder, Anne D.

2011-01-01

356

Description and analysis of the cattle trade network in the Madagascar highlands: potential role in the diffusion of Rift Valley fever virus.  

PubMed

In 2008-2009 a Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreak occurred in the Anjozorobe area, a temperate and mountainous area of the Madagascar highlands. The results of a serosurvey conducted in 2009 suggested recurrent circulation of RVF virus (RVFV) in this area and potential involvement of the cattle trade in RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the cattle trade network of the area and analyse the link between network structure and RVFV circulation. Five hundred and sixteen animals that tested negative in 2009 were sampled again in 2010. The 2009-2010 cattle-level seroconversion rate was estimated at 7% (95% CI: 5-10%). Trade data from 386 breeders of 48 villages were collected and analysed using social network analysis methodology, nodes being villages and ties being any movements of cattle connecting villages. The specific practice of cattle barter, known as kapsile, that involves frequent contacts between cattle of two breeders, was observed in addition to usual trade. Trade data were analysed using a logistic model, the occurrence of seroconversion at the village level being the outcome variable and the network centrality measures being the predictors. A negative association was observed between the occurrence of seroconversion in the village and introduction of cattle by trade (p=0.03), as well as the distance to the nearest water point (p=0.002). Conversely, the practice of kapsile, was a seroconversion risk factor (p=0.007). The kapsile practice may be the support for inter-village RVFV circulation whereas the trade network is probably rather implicated in the introduction of RVFV to the area from other parts of Madagascar. The negative association of the distance to the nearest water point suggests that after RVFV introduction, a substantial part of transmission may be due to vectors. PMID:23295911

Nicolas, Gaëlle; Durand, Benoît; Duboz, Raphaël; Rakotondravao, René; Chevalier, Véronique

2013-04-01

357

Madagascar Explanation 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is planned for third grade students. Students are provided a series of maps illustrating the geographic factors that influence the location of cities. Based upon these maps, students develop and revise hypotheses about why major cities are located where they are. This lesson serves as an introduction to a unit on the development of various communities, especially those indigenous to Utah. The purpose of the lesson is to have student develop initial generalizations concerning the influence that geographic features have upon the building of communities. Objectives Utah Core Curriculum Standards Standard 1: Students show how environments and communities change over time through the influence of people. Objective 1: Predict how human activity will influence environments and communities. b. Identify the influences of people on environments and environments on people. Standard 6: Students use map skills ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-02-17

358

Madagascar Explanation 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is planned for third grade students. Students are provided a series of maps illustrating the geographic factors that influence the location of cities. Based upon these maps, students develop and revise hypotheses about why major cities are located where they are. This lesson serves as an introduction to a unit on the development of various communities, especially those indigenous to Utah. The purpose of the lesson is to have student develop initial generalizations concerning the influence that geographic features have upon the building of communities. Objectives Utah Core Curriculum Standards Standard 1: Students show how environments and communities change over time through the influence of people. Objective 1: Predict how human activity will influence environments and communities. b. Identify the influences of people on environments and environments on people. Standard 6: Students use map skills ...

Olsen, Mr.

2010-02-24

359

Nuclear factors GT1 and 3AF1 interact with multiple sequences within the promoter of the Tdc gene from Madagascar periwinkle: GT1 is involved in UV light-induced expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant secondary metabolites of the terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) class comprise several compounds with pharmaceutical applications.\\u000a A key step in the TIA biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), which channels the primary\\u000a metabolite tryptophan into TIA metabolism. In Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), the Tdc gene is expressed throughout plant development. Moreover, Tdc gene expression is induced

P. B. F. Ouwerkerk; T. O. Trimborn; F. Hilliou; J. Memelink

1999-01-01

360

The geology, SHRIMP U Pb geochronology and metallogenic significance of the Ankisatra-Besakay District, Andriamena belt, northern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ankisatra-Besakay District (A-BD), located about 200 km north of Antananarivo and 75 km east of Maevatanana in central-northern Madagascar, hosts two historical mines, the Ankisatra Pb-Zn ± Au and Besakay Pb-Ag mines. These shear-hosted en echelon quartz veins at Besakay and deformed tensional quartz veins at Ankisatra produced a total of 4446 t of lead and 156 t of zinc in the early 1940s. In addition, there is Pb-Zn-Cu mineralisation in both quartz-feldspar leucosome veins/bands and metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss, Cu-Zn and associated Fe-Mn mineralisation in magnetite-pyrite enderbite breccia, and Cu-Zn mineralisation in retrograde shear zones in granulite-facies paragneiss in the A-BD. The country rocks in the A-BD consist of amphibolite to granulite-facies mafic and granitoid orthogneisses and paragneisses with horizons of silicate-facies BIF. The paragneissic rocks in the district tectonically overlie the biotite-granitoid hornfels and sub-volcanic mangeritic rocks, which are separated from amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid and enderbitic rocks by a major structure. The A-BD is structurally characterised by: (1) E-W-trending tensional fractures, quartz veins and dolerite dykes; (2) buckling-related axial-planar fractures; and (3) N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW trending dextral strike-slip shear zones, dolerite sills and quartz veins in transpressional extensional zones. Uranium-Pb SHRIMP II geochronology of zircon constrains the peak of magmatic, metamorphic, deformational and metasomatic events in the A-BD. An important constraint is whether hosting terranes contain signatures of the ca. 1690-1590 Ma critical age window for world-class BHT Pb-Zn-Ag deposits elsewhere in the world. At least two magmatic events are recorded from the A-BD. An early magmatic event is recorded by a 2725 ± 12 Ma single xenocrystic magmatic zircon in the >2676 ± 6 Ma precursor to the granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss. A ca. 2503-2460 Ma event is recorded by a 2465 ± 6 Ma minimum age of magmatism for the precursor to metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss and 2483 ± 20 Ma for the precursor to biotite-granitoid hornfels. Zircons extracted from both the metasomatised and unaltered granulite-facies mafic orthogneisses record peak metamorphic ages of 2465 ± 12 and 2390 ± 10 Ma, probably representing compressional deformation, partial melting, and associated local magmatic events within the ca. 2475-2380 Ma period. Inherited zircons from the quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses return ages of protolithic supracrustal rocks ranging from ca. 2870 to 1700 Ma. A widespread period of rifting, anatectic magmatism, basic-ultrabasic and mangerite magmatism, and related granulite-facies metamorphism occurred between ca. 820 and 780 Ma. The possible exhalative units (silicate-facies BIF and metasomatic, garnet-quartz-plagioclase rock) are of late-Archaean to early-Palaeoproterozoic, rather than Mesoproterozoic age. The terrane lacks the critical evolution age window of ca. 1770-1550 Ma, characteristic of well-documented BHT Provinces in the Broken Hill Block and Mt. Isa Block, Australia and ca. 1959-1135 Ma from the Bushmanland Ore District, South Africa. This suggests that either such an event did not occur in the crust now forming the A-BD or that the equivalent supracrustal rocks containing these age signatures were eroded during Proterozoic times. It is less likely that the intense 780-820 Ma event destroyed evidence for their prior existence. The galenas from the Ankisatra and Besakay deposits have signatures characteristic of small-scale mineralised systems which derived most of their lead from local crustal rocks older than ca. >2.7 Ga. They are thus atypical of BHT deposits and associated vein-style mineralisation from well-endowed terranes. It is concluded that there are neither direct signs nor indirect temporal signals of giant stratiform/stratabound BHT Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation, nor clear evidence for the presence of characteristic transitional sequences and alteration styles asso

Kabete, J.; Groves, D.; McNaughton, N.; Dunphy, J.

2006-05-01

361

Aspect Epidemiologique des Sequelles de Brulures a Marrakech, Maroc, a Travers Deux Observations  

PubMed Central

Summary La brûlure est un accident qui reste toujours très fréquent au Maroc, ce qui fait d'elle un problème de la santé publique. Les brûlures, quand elles sont graves ou profondes, entraînent de façon quasi inéluctable des séquelles fonctionnelles et esthétiques. A travers deux observations de deux enfants présentant des séquelles de brûlures graves, ayant retenti péjorativement sur leurs scolarités, on a essayé de mettre en évidence quelques facteurs incriminés dans cette tragédie (feu, petites bouteilles de gaz et le manque d'infrastructure, du personnel médical et paramédical, du matériel ainsi que de la prévention) comme étant une grande cause dans la survenue de ces séquelles. Le but de notre travail est d'énumérer ces différents facteurs intriqués, ainsi que de proposer quelques solutions, tout en insistant sur la prévention.

Ettalbi, S.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Droussi, H.; Wahbi, S.; Bahaichar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2009-01-01

362

Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc  

PubMed Central

Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ? 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%.

Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2011-01-01

363

Petrogenesis of high-K metagranites in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: a possible magmatic-arc link between India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India preserves a distinct high-grade terrain that is interpreted to have been situated adjacent to Madagascar and Sri Lanka during Gondwana assembly. As such, it has become a major focus for testing models of supercontinent amalgamation and dispersal. The lithounits of KKB have remarkable petrological similarities to the Highland Complex (HC) of Sri Lanka and south-central Madagascar. However, there is no well-constrained petrogenetic model for the KKB that fits explicitly within a supercontinent reconstruction model. We present here results from our on-going studies on the origin and evolution of K-rich (potassic, where K2O/Na2O > 1) gneisses of KKB in relation to Proterozoic supercontinent events. Our results show, in a major departure from earlier metasedimentary origin, that potassic gneisses are metamorphosed granitoids. The metagranitoid samples display high K2O contents and low Al2O3/(FeO + MgO + TiO2) values. They are moderate to strongly peraluminous (ASI values ranging from 1.05 to 1.47) rocks showing mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical characteristics distinctive of the high-K calc-alkaline suites. Typical of igneous suites, the high-K metagranites show minor variation in chemical compositions with most oxides showing negative correlation with SiO2. Geochemistry illustrates distinctive features of arc-related magmas with LILE (K, Rb, and Th) and LREE enriched patterns and considerable depletion of HSFE (Nb, Zr, and Ti). The high-K metagranites are further characterized by strong negative anomalies of Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.10-0.44) and Sr, suggesting melting in plagioclase stability field and retention of plagioclase in the residual phase. Petrogenetic discrimination for granitoids, using major and trace elements demonstrates that the high-K metagranites of the KKB formed by partial melting of igneous source in lower- to middle-crust levels. Overall the geochemical features are supportive of origin in relation to a convergent margin setting, possibly in a continental magmatic arc system, which can be connected to the amalgamation and dispersal of continental fragments in a supercontinent event. This study, therefore, provides a lead towards more robust comparisons between the Proterozoic supercontinent events and processes.

Sreejith, C.; Ravindra Kumar, G. R.

2013-01-01

364

Biological variation in a large sample of mouse lemurs from Amboasary, Madagascar: implications for interpreting variation in primate biology and paleobiology.  

PubMed

A thorough knowledge of biological variation in extant primates is imperative for interpreting variation, and for delineating species in primate biology and paleobiology. This is especially the case given the recent, rapid taxonomic expansion in many primate groups, notably among small-bodied nocturnal forms. Here we present data on dental, cranial, and pelage variation in a single-locality museum sample of mouse lemurs from Amboasary, Madagascar. To interpret these data, we include comparative information from other museum samples, and from a newly collected mouse lemur skeletal sample from the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar. We scored forty dental traits (n = 126) and three pelage variants (n = 19), and collected 21 cranial/dental measures. Most dental traits exhibit variable frequencies, with some only rarely present. Individual dental variants include misshapen and supernumerary teeth. All Amboasary pelage specimens display a "reversed V" on the cap, and a distinct dorsal median stripe on the back. All but two displayed the dominant gray-brown pelage coloration typical of Microcebus griseorufus. Cranial and dental metric variability are each quite low, and craniometric variation does not illustrate heteroscedasticity. To assess whether this sample represents a single species, we compared dental and pelage variation to a documented, single-species M. griseorufus sample from BMSR. As at Amboasary, BMSR mouse lemurs display limited odontometric variation and wide variation in non-metric dental traits. In contrast, BMSR mouse lemurs display diverse pelage, despite reported genetic homogeneity. Ranges of dental and pelage variation at BMSR and Amboasary overlap. Thus, we conclude that the Amboasary mouse lemurs represent a single species - most likely (in the absence of genetic data to the contrary) M. griseorufus, and we reject their previous allocation to Microcebus murinus. Patterns of variation in the Amboasary sample provide a comparative template for recognizing the degree of variation manifested in a single primate population, and by implication, they provide minimum values for this species' intraspecific variation. Finally, discordance between different biological systems in our mouse lemur samples illustrates the need to examine multiple systems when conducting taxonomic analyses among living or fossil primates. PMID:23245834

Cuozzo, Frank P; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R; Sauther, Michelle L; Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho; LaFleur, Marni M

2013-01-01

365

Late Quaternary climatic vegetational shifts in an ecological transition zone of northern Madagascar: insights from genetic analyses of two endemic rodent species.  

PubMed

The Loky-Manambato region, located in northern Madagascar, is a biotically rich contact zone between different forest biomes. Local current forest cover is composed of both humid and dry formations, which show elevational stratification. A recent phylogeographical study of a regional dry forest rodent, Eliurus carletoni (subfamily Nesomyinae), found genetic evidence of forest contractions between 18 750 and 7500 years BP, which based on extrapolation of the pollen subfossil record, was thought to be associated with an expansion of local humid forests. Herein, we conduct a genetic test of this hypothesis and focused on populations on two neighbouring massifs of forest-dependent rodent species, one associated with low-elevation dry forests (E. carletoni) and the other with higher elevation humid forests (Eliurus tanala). Using mitochondrial markers and a combination of traditional and coalescent-based phylogeographical, historical demographic and population genetic methods, we found evidence of historical connections between populations of E. tanala. Adjacent populations of E. carletoni and E. tanala exhibit opposite historical demographic patterns, and for both, evidence suggests that historical demographic events occurred within the last 25 000 years BP. These findings strongly support the proposed late Quaternary shifts in the floristic composition of the Loky-Manambato region. PMID:23621368

Rakotoarisoa, J-E; Raheriarisena, M; Goodman, S M

2013-05-01

366

Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia (Mantellidae: Anura) reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar.  

PubMed

We describe a new mantelline frog of the genus Blommersia found in rainforest in North East Madagascar, from the protected areas of Ambatovaky, Betampona, Masoala, and Zahamena. Blommersia angolafa n.sp. is a small frog, with a body size of 17-21 mm, expanded finger and toe tips, and colouration ranging from yellow to dark brown, with pale-bluish spots on the flanks and light tips of fingers and toes. A peculiar aspect characterising this new species is its novel life history and reproductive mode. Both sexes live and breed in a phytotelmic habitat of water accumulated within fallen prophylls and fallen leaf sheaths of at least three species of Dypsis palms. Within these phytotelmata, egg laying and complete larval development occur. Thus, B. angolafa n.sp. represents a new evolutionary lineage of Malagasy frogs in which phytotelmy is known. Up to now, reproduction in phytotelmata in Malagasy frogs has been reported for many cophyline microhylids, most species of Guibemantis, Mantella laevigata, and possibly in a still-undescribed species belonging to the genus Spinomantis. We consider the reproductive mode of B. angolafa as a derived character, having evolved from the more typical reproduction in lentic water bodies. The general scarcity of lentic habitats in Malagasy rainforests may have provided the conditions that favoured the evolution of this phytotelmic breeding strategy. The new species, being specialised to a habitat represented by a few selected Dypsis species, potentially suffers the selective exploitation of these palms. PMID:20401457

Andreone, Franco; Rosa, Gonçalo M; Noël, Jean; Crottini, Angelica; Vences, Miguel; Raxworthy, Christopher J

2010-06-01

367

Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia (Mantellidae: Anura) reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new mantelline frog of the genus Blommersia found in rainforest in North East Madagascar, from the protected areas of Ambatovaky, Betampona, Masoala, and Zahamena. Blommersia angolafa n.sp. is a small frog, with a body size of 17-21 mm, expanded finger and toe tips, and colouration ranging from yellow to dark brown, with pale-bluish spots on the flanks and light tips of fingers and toes. A peculiar aspect characterising this new species is its novel life history and reproductive mode. Both sexes live and breed in a phytotelmic habitat of water accumulated within fallen prophylls and fallen leaf sheaths of at least three species of Dypsis palms. Within these phytotelmata, egg laying and complete larval development occur. Thus, B. angolafa n.sp. represents a new evolutionary lineage of Malagasy frogs in which phytotelmy is known. Up to now, reproduction in phytotelmata in Malagasy frogs has been reported for many cophyline microhylids, most species of Guibemantis, Mantella laevigata, and possibly in a still-undescribed species belonging to the genus Spinomantis. We consider the reproductive mode of B. angolafa as a derived character, having evolved from the more typical reproduction in lentic water bodies. The general scarcity of lentic habitats in Malagasy rainforests may have provided the conditions that favoured the evolution of this phytotelmic breeding strategy. The new species, being specialised to a habitat represented by a few selected Dypsis species, potentially suffers the selective exploitation of these palms.

Andreone, Franco; Rosa, Gonçalo M.; Noël, Jean; Crottini, Angelica; Vences, Miguel; Raxworthy, Christopher J.

2010-06-01

368

Geochemistry of phlogopite, diopside, calcite, anhydrite and apatite pegmatites and syenites of southern Madagascar: evidence for crustal silicocarbonatitic (CSC) melt formation in a Panafrican collisional tectonic setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phlogopite, diopside, calcite, anhydrite and apatite pegmatites of Ampandrandava and Beraketa are examples for the many other pegmatites of similar silicocarbonatitic composition found in the Bekily and Betroka-Beraketa Precambrian belts of southern Madagascar. The two studied pegmatites and associated syenites crystallised from immiscible silicocarbonatitic and peralkaline syenitic melts in a time span between 515 and 504 Ma in the final extensional phase of the Panafrican continental collision and connected metamorphic/metasomatic event. Model T Nd ages suggest that the melts were produced by partial melting of 3.5 Ga partially evaporitic continental crust. The studied pegmatites and genetically associated syenitic rocks are very rare examples for crustal silicocarbonatitic melts generated in a Panafrican collisional setting. The overwhelming majority of carbonatites and associated peralkaline rocks are mantle derived, much poorer in phosphate and sulfate and found in a cratonic environment. In light of the present results, genetic models for other sulfate- and phosphate-rich magmatic rocks (e.g., phlogopite-apatite-calcite mineralisations in the Grenville-Hasting formation in Canada and in the Sludyanka group in Eastern Siberia) should be reevaluated.

Morteani, G.; Kostitsyn, Y. A.; Gilg, H. A.; Preinfalk, C.; Razakamanana, T.

2013-04-01

369

Household malaria knowledge and its association with bednet ownership in settings without large-scale distribution programs: Evidence from rural Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide–treated bednets are effective at preventing malaria. This study focuses on household–level factors that are associated with bednet ownership in a rural area of Madagascar which had not been a recipient of large–scale ITN distribution. Methods Data were gathered on individual and household characteristics, malaria knowledge, household assets and bednet ownership. Principal components analysis was used to construct both a wealth index based on household assets and a malaria knowledge index based on responses to questions about malaria. Bivariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine predictors of household bednet ownership and malaria knowledge. Results Forty–seven of 560 households (8.4%) owned a bednet. In multivariate analysis, higher level of malaria knowledge among household members was the only variable significantly associated with bednet ownership (odds ratio 3.72, P?

Krezanoski, Paul J.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Comfort, Alison B.; Bangsberg, David R.

2014-01-01

370

Cation distribution in a Fe-bearing K-feldspar from Itrongay,Madagascar. A combined neutron- and X-ray single crystal diffractionstudy  

SciTech Connect

We determined the cation distribution and ordering of Si, Al and Fe on the tetrahedral sites of a monoclinic low-sanidine from Itrongay, Madagascar, by combined neutron- and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The cation distribution was determined by means of a simultaneous refinement using neutron- and X-ray data, as well as by combining scattering densities obtained from separate refinements with chemical data from a microprobe experiment. The two methods give the same results and show that Fe is fully ordered on T1, whereas Al shows a high degree of disorder. Based on this and previously published temperature-dependent X-ray data, we conclude that it is preferential ordering of Fe on T1 even at high temperature, rather than a high diffusion kinetics of Fe, which causes this asymmetry in ordering behavior between Al and Fe. The preferential ordering of Fe3+ relative to Al3+ in T1 is consistent with its 25 percent larger ionic radius.

Ackermann, Sonia; Kunz, Martin; Armbruster, Thomas; Schefer,Jurg; Hanni, Henry

2005-05-02

371

Integrative revision of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus from Madagascar, with the description of seven new species (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).  

PubMed

The Malagasy giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902 is revised. Seven new species, S. titanus sp. n., S. vatovavy sp. n., S. lavasoa sp. n., S. andohahela sp. n., S. ivohibe sp. n., S. saintelucei sp. n., and S. andrahomana sp. n. were discovered, in one case with the help of sequence data, in the rainforests of southeastern Madagascar. The species are described using light- and scanning electron microscopy. A key to all 10 species of the genus is presented. All but one (S. andohahela) of the newly discovered species are microendemics each occurring in isolated forest fragments. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 18 Sphaeromimus specimens, and a dataset containing COI sequences of 28 specimens representing all Sphaeromimus species (except S. vatovavy) was analyzed. All species are genetically monophyletic. Interspecific uncorrected genetic distances were moderate (4-10%) to high (18-25%), whereas intraspecific variation is low (0-3.5%). Sequence data allowed the correct identification of three colour morphs of S. musicus, as well as the identity of a cave specimen, which although aberrant in its morphology and colouration, was genetically identical to the holotype of S. andrahoma. PMID:25009417

Wesener, Thomas; Le, Daniel Minh-Tu; Loria, Stephanie F

2014-01-01

372

Integrative revision of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus from Madagascar, with the description of seven new species (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Malagasy giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902 is revised. Seven new species, S. titanus sp. n., S. vatovavy sp. n., S. lavasoa sp. n., S. andohahela sp. n., S. ivohibe sp. n., S. saintelucei sp. n., and S. andrahomana sp. n. were discovered, in one case with the help of sequence data, in the rainforests of southeastern Madagascar. The species are described using light- and scanning electron microscopy. A key to all 10 species of the genus is presented. All but one (S. andohahela) of the newly discovered species are microendemics each occurring in isolated forest fragments. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 18 Sphaeromimus specimens, and a dataset containing COI sequences of 28 specimens representing all Sphaeromimus species (except S. vatovavy) was analyzed. All species are genetically monophyletic. Interspecific uncorrected genetic distances were moderate (4–10%) to high (18–25%), whereas intraspecific variation is low (0–3.5%). Sequence data allowed the correct identification of three colour morphs of S. musicus, as well as the identity of a cave specimen, which although aberrant in its morphology and colouration, was genetically identical to the holotype of S. andrahoma.

Wesener, Thomas; Le, Daniel Minh-Tu; Loria, Stephanie F.

2014-01-01

373

Providing family planning services to remote communities in areas of high biodiversity through a Population-Health-Environment programme in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Population-Health-Environment (PHE) is an interdisciplinary model of programme design which recognises the complex interconnections between people, their health and their environment. PHE responds holistically to the challenges faced by ecosystems and the communities dependent on them, with thematically distinct but interconnected work strands sharing the same infrastructure, resources and goals. This has been shown to achieve better outcomes than tackling health and environmental issues in isolation. This paper shows how PHE programme design has been used by Blue Ventures for providing family planning services in a remote, biodiverse coastal region in southwest Madagascar. The PHE programme has integrated family planning services into a pre-existing, community-based conservation programme, aided by the established infrastructure and good community relations developed by the conservation workers. Implementation of the programme has led to a strong uptake of family planning services, and couples in the region are now able to make their own family planning choices. Successes and challenges of the programme are discussed. PMID:24908460

Mohan, Vik; Shellard, Tess

2014-06-01

374

Fifty years of changes in reef flat habitats of the Grand Récif of Toliara (SW Madagascar) and the impact of gleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grand Récif of Toliara (GRT) in Madagascar is a large (33 km2) barrier reef system of the SW Indian Ocean that had been well investigated in the 1960s and early 1970s. A massive degradation of the reef has been reported since at least the early 1980s, just a few years after research activities ceased in the area. Examination of historical aerial photographs and modern high-resolution remote sensing images confirms a continuous loss of coral habitat on GRT outer reef flats between 1962 and 2011, with an average loss of 65 % and a range of 37-79 % loss during this 50-year period. The usual suspects of coral community declines (cyclones, bleaching and sedimentation) may have contributed to the demise of the GRT. However, an independent study (Salimo 1997) suggests that the chronic pressure of fisherman gleaning on reef flats with destructive tools is the main driver of the observed changes. Salimo's reported level of frequentation (6.8 fishermen per day and per km-2) and rates of destruction per fisherman (7.7 m2 of coral habitat h-1) yield a cumulated overall loss in agreement with the image-based rates of habitat loss. The GRT is unlikely to recover because this chronic stress is unlikely to decrease in the near future. Indeed, the GRT daily provides subsistence fishery resources for local Vezo people and to agriculturalist or pastoralist ethnic groups who have turned to exploiting coastal resources due to increasing aridity and dwindling agricultural and livestock production.

Andréfouët, S.; Guillaume, M. M. M.; Delval, A.; Rasoamanendrika, F. M. A.; Blanchot, J.; Bruggemann, J. H.

2013-09-01

375

Ecological effects of the invasive giant madagascar day gecko on endemic mauritian geckos: applications of binomial-mixture and species distribution models.  

PubMed

The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma. PMID:24785293

Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Gallagher, Laura E; Henshaw, Sion M; Besnard, Aurélien; Tucker, Rachel M; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

2014-01-01

376

Prevention of Tungiasis and Tungiasis-Associated Morbidity Using the Plant-Based Repellent Zanzarin: A Randomized, Controlled Field Study in Rural Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Tungiasis, a parasitic skin disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans, is a prevalent condition in impoverished communities in the tropics. In this setting, the ectoparasitosis is associated with important morbidity. It causes disfigurement and mutilation of the feet. Feasible and effective treatment is not available. So far prevention is the only means to control tungiasis-associated morbidity. Methodology In two villages in Central Madagascar, we assessed the efficacy of the availability of closed shoes and the twice-daily application of a plant-based repellent active against sand fleas (Zanzarin) in comparison to a control group without intervention. The study population was randomized into three groups: shoe group, repellent group and control group and monitored for ten weeks. The intensity of infestation, the attack rate and the severity of tungiasis-associated morbidity were assessed every two weeks. Findings In the repellent group, the median attack rate became zero already after two weeks. The intensity of the infestation decreased constantly during the observation period and tungiasis-associated morbidity was lowered to an insignificant level. In the shoe group, only a marginal decrease in the intensity of infestation and in the attack rate was observed. At week 10, the intensity of infestation, the attack rate and the severity score for acute tungiasis remained significantly higher in the shoe group than in the repellent group. Per protocol analysis showed that the protective effect of shoes was closely related to the regularity with which shoes were worn. Conclusions Although shoes were requested by the villagers and wearing shoes was encouraged by the investigators at the beginning of the study, the availability of shoes only marginally influenced the attack rate of female sand fleas. The twice-daily application of a plant-based repellent active against sand fleas reduced the attack to zero and lowered tungiasis-associated morbidity to an insignificant level.

Thielecke, Marlene; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Rogier, Christophe; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Richard, Vincent; Feldmeier, Hermann

2013-01-01

377

First Large-Scale DNA Barcoding Assessment of Reptiles in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar, Based on Newly Designed COI Primers  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings Representatives of the majority of Madagascan non-avian reptile species (including Squamata and Testudines) were sampled and successfully DNA barcoded. The new primer pair achieved a constantly high success rate (72.7–100%) for most squamates. More than 250 species of reptiles (out of the 393 described ones; representing around 64% of the known diversity of species) were barcoded. The average interspecific genetic distance within families ranged from a low of 13.4% in the Boidae to a high of 29.8% in the Gekkonidae. Using the average genetic divergence between sister species as a threshold, 41–48 new candidate (undescribed) species were identified. Simulations were used to evaluate the performance of DNA barcoding as a function of completeness of taxon sampling and fragment length. Compared with available multi-gene phylogenies, DNA barcoding correctly assigned most samples to species, genus and family with high confidence and the analysis of fewer taxa resulted in an increased number of well supported lineages. Shorter marker-lengths generally decreased the number of well supported nodes, but even mini-barcodes of 100 bp correctly assigned many samples to genus and family. Conclusions/Significance The new protocols might help to promote DNA barcoding of reptiles and the established library of reference DNA barcodes will facilitate the molecular identification of Madagascan reptiles. Our results might be useful to easily recognize undescribed diversity (i.e. novel taxa), to resolve taxonomic problems, and to monitor the international pet trade without specialized expert knowledge.

Nagy, Zoltan T.; Sonet, Gontran; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

2012-01-01

378

Biology of mosquitoes that are potential vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus in different biotopes of the central highlands of Madagascar.  

PubMed

There were epidemic-epizootics of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) affecting humans and cattle in Madagascar in the district of Anjozorobe in 2008. Little is known about the role of Malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of RVF virus. Therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential RVF virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of Anorana), and savanna biotope (village of Antanifotsy) of this district between November 2008 and July 2010. We captured 56,605 adults of 35 different species. Anopheles squamosus (Theobald), Anopheles coustani (Laveran), Culex antennatus (Becker), Culex pipiens (L.), and Culex univittatus (Theobald) were the most abundant during the rainy season with Cx. pipiens the most abundant species in the rainforest (47%), and An. squamosus the most abundant species in the rainforest edge and in the savanna biotope (56%, 60%, respectively). Only Cx. univittatus was abundant in the dry season. The parous rate was > 60% throughout the rainy season for An. squamosus and it was > 50% from the middle to the end of the rainy season for Cx. pipiens. Two additional species have been found only at larval stage. Cattle were the most attractive bait for all species, followed by sheep and poultry. Human was the least attractive for all species. Most of the 163 bloodmeals tested were taken from cattle. Three were from poultry, one was from dog and one was a mixed bloodmeal taken from sheep and cattle. These results on vectorial capacity parameters may allow considering the involvement of mosquito transmission of the virus in the district of Anjozorobe during the recent epidemic-epizootic. PMID:23802456

Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Rakotoniaina, Jean-Claude; Tata, Etienne; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Razafindrasata, Fidimanana; Fontenille, Didier; Elissa, Nohal

2013-05-01

379

The Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don: Plastid Genome Evolution, Molecular Marker Identification, and Phylogenetic Implications in Asterids  

PubMed Central

The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthusroseus in the family Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant and is the source of several widely marketed chemotherapeutic drugs. It is also commonly grown for its ornamental values and, due to ease of infection and distinctiveness of symptoms, is often used as the host for studies on phytoplasmas, an important group of uncultivated plant pathogens. To gain insights into the characteristics of apocynaceous plastid genomes (plastomes), we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete plastome of C. roseus, which could be applied to other C. roseus-related studies. The C. roseus plastome is the second completely sequenced plastome in the asterid order Gentianales. We performed comparative analyses with two other representative sequences in the same order, including the complete plastome of Coffeaarabica (from the basal Gentianales family Rubiaceae) and the nearly complete plastome of Asclepiassyriaca (Apocynaceae). The results demonstrated considerable variations in gene content and plastome organization within Apocynaceae, including the presence/absence of three essential genes (i.e., accD, clpP, and ycf1) and large size changes in non-coding regions (e.g., rps2-rpoC2 and IRb-ndhF). To find plastome markers of potential utility for Catharanthus breeding and phylogenetic analyses, we identified 41 C. roseus-specific simple sequence repeats. Furthermore, five intergenic regions with high divergence between C. roseus and three other euasterids I taxa were identified as candidate markers. To resolve the euasterids I interordinal relationships, 82 plastome genes were used for phylogenetic inference. With the addition of representatives from Apocynaceae and sampling of most other asterid orders, a sister relationship between Gentianales and Solanales is supported.

Ku, Chuan; Chung, Wan-Chia; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

2013-01-01

380

Ecological Effects of the Invasive Giant Madagascar Day Gecko on Endemic Mauritian Geckos: Applications of Binomial-Mixture and Species Distribution Models  

PubMed Central

The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma.

Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C.; Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus; Gallagher, Laura E.; Henshaw, Sion M.; Besnard, Aurelien; Tucker, Rachel M.; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

2014-01-01

381

Characterization of the plastidial geraniol synthase from Madagascar periwinkle which initiates the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway in internal phloem associated parenchyma.  

PubMed

Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus [L.] G. Don, Apocynaceae) produces monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), secondary metabolites of high interest due to their therapeutic value. A key step in the biosynthesis is the generation of geraniol from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) in the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA pathway. Here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of C. roseus geraniol synthase (CrGES). The full-length CrGES was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein catalyzed the conversion of GPP into geraniol with a K(m) value of 58.5 ?M for GPP. In vivo CrGES activity was evaluated by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain mutated in the farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene. Analysis of culture extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the excretion of geraniol into the growth medium. Transient transformation of C. roseus cells with a Yellow Fluorescent Protein-fusion construct revealed that CrGES is localized in plastid stroma and stromules. In aerial plant organs, RNA in situ hybridization showed specific labeling of CrGES transcripts in the internal phloem associated parenchyma as observed for other characterized genes involved in the early steps of MIA biosynthesis. Finally, when cultures of Catharanthus cells were treated with the alkaloid-inducing hormone methyl jasmonate, an increase in CrGES transcript levels was observed. This observation coupled with the tissue-specific expression and the subcellular compartmentalization support the idea that CrGES initiates the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:23102596

Simkin, Andrew J; Miettinen, Karel; Claudel, Patricia; Burlat, Vincent; Guirimand, Grégory; Courdavault, Vincent; Papon, Nicolas; Meyer, Sophie; Godet, Stéphanie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Fischer, Marc J C; Memelink, Johan; Clastre, Marc

2013-01-01

382

Can Churches Play a Role in Combating the HIV/AIDS Epidemic? A Study of the Attitudes of Christian Religious Leaders in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Introduction Churches occupy an important social and cultural position in Madagascar. The sexual transmission of HIV raises controversies about the role that Churches can play in preventing HIV/AIDS. This cross-sectional survey investigated recommendations by religious leaders for condom use and other preventive strategies in the context of international guidelines. Methods A questionnaire was self-administered to a random sample of religious leaders. The questions related to preventive methods against HIV/AIDS such as: condom use, marital fidelity, sexual abstinence before marriage, and HIV-testing. Associations with recommendations for condom use were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Of 231 religious leaders, 215 (93.1%) were willing to share their knowledge of HIV/AIDS with their congregations. The majority received their information from the media (N?=?136, 58.9%), a minority from their church (N?=?9, 3.9%), and 38 (16.4%) had received prior training on HIV. Nearly all (N?=?212, 91.8%) knew that HIV could be sexually transmitted though only a few (N?=?39, 16.9%) were aware of mother-to-child transmission or unsafe injections (N?=?56, 24.2%). A total of 91 (39.4%) were willing to, or had recommended (N?=?64, 27.7%), condom use, while 50 (21.6%) had undergone HIV testing. Only nine (3.9%) had ever cared for a person living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Multivariable logistic regression shows that condom use recommendations by religious leaders were negatively associated with tertiary level education (OR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7), and positively associated with knowing a person at risk (OR: 16.2, 95% CI 3.2–80.2), knowing of an ART center (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.8), and receiving information about HIV at school (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.6). Conclusions Malagasy church leaders could potentially become key players in HIV/AIDS prevention if they improved their knowledge of the illness, their commitment to international recommendations, and extended their interaction with people most at risk.

Rakotoniana, Jerry S.; Rakotomanga, Jean de Dieu M.; Barennes, Hubert

2014-01-01

383

The world's richest tadpole communities show functional redundancy and low functional diversity: ecological data on Madagascar's stream-dwelling amphibian larvae  

PubMed Central

Background Functional diversity illustrates the range of ecological functions in a community. It allows revealing the appearance of functional redundancy in communities and processes of community assembly. Functional redundancy illustrates the overlap in ecological functions of community members which may be an indicator of community resilience. We evaluated patterns of species richness, functional diversity and functional redundancy on tadpole communities in rainforest streams in Madagascar. This habitat harbours the world's most species-rich stream tadpole communities which are due to their occurrence in primary habitat of particular interest for functional diversity studies. Results Species richness of tadpole communities is largely determined by characteristics of the larval habitat (stream structure), not by adult habitat (forest structure). Species richness is positively correlated with a size-velocity gradient of the streams, i.e. communities follow a classical species-area relationship. While widely observed for other taxa, this is an unusual pattern for anuran larvae which usually is expected to be hump-shaped. Along the species richness gradient, we quantified functional diversity of all communities considering the similarity and dissimilarity of species in 18 traits related to habitat use and foraging. Especially species-rich communities were characterised by an overlap of species function, i.e. by functional redundancy. By comparing the functional diversity of the observed communities with functional diversity of random assemblages, we found no differences at low species richness level, whereas observed species-rich communities have lower functional diversity than respective random assemblages. Conclusions We found functional redundancy being a feature of communities also in primary habitat, what has not been shown before using such a continuous measure. The observed species richness dependent pattern of low functional diversity indicates that communities with low species richness accumulate functional traits randomly, whereas species in species-rich communities are more similar to each other than predicted by random assemblages and therefore exhibit an accumulation of stream-specific functional traits. Beyond a certain species richness level, therefore, stream-specific environmental filters exert influence whereas interspecific competition between species does not influence trait assemblage at any species richness level.

2010-01-01

384

[The campaign against malaria in central western Madagascar: comparison of the efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT house spraying. I--Entomological study].  

PubMed

For malaria vector control in Madagascar, the efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin 10% wettable powder (ICON 10 WP) was compared with DDT 75% WP for house-spraying. This evaluation was conducted from November 1997 to September 1998 in highland villages of Vakinankaratra Region, at the fringe of the malaria epidemic zone, outside the zone covered by routine DDT house-spraying (Opération de pulvérisation intro-domiciliaire de DDT: OPID zone). Treatments were compared by house-spraying in four areas: 1) application of DDT 2g ai/m2 and 2) lambda-cyhalothrin 30 mg ai/m2 in previously unsprayed villages; 3) no intervention (control); 4) OPID 5th cycle of DDT 2g ai/m2. The prevalent vector Anopheles funestus almost disappeared from both the DDT and ICON sprayed areas, whereas in the unsprayed (control) area An. funeslus density went up to 60 females per room in April and there were two seasonal peaks of malaria transmission in January and March (see following paper). In the area sprayed with ICON, the parous rate of An. funestus decreased from 47% pre-spray to 39% six months post-spraying, while the parous rate increased in DDT-sprayed area (from 57% pre-spray to 64% six months post-spray). Bioassays of An. funestus on treated walls, six months post-spray, gave mortality rates of 100% on DDT and 90% on ICON. Conversely, ICON appeared to be more effective than DDT on thatched roofs (66% versus 100%, respectively, six months post-spray). In areas sprayed with DDT or ICON the density of An. arabiensis were little affected. This study demonstrated that, under equivalent conditions, both DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin were effective in reducing malaria transmission on the western fringes of the malaria epidemic zone of the malagasy highlands, with a residual effect lasting at least for six months. Lambda-cyhalothrin appeared to be more effective than DDT in reducing the longevity of malaria vectors. In addition to efficacy, the choice of insecticide for malaria vector control should take into account their acceptability by human populations and their toxicity and persistence in the environment. PMID:11802266

Brutus, L; Le Goff, G; Rasoloniaina, L G; Rajaonarivelo, V; Raveloson, A; Cot, M

2001-12-01

385

Determining areas that require indoor insecticide spraying using Multi Criteria Evaluation, a decision-support tool for malaria vector control programmes in the Central Highlands of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background The highlands of Madagascar present an unstable transmission pattern of malaria. The population has no immunity, and the central highlands have been the sites of epidemics with particularly high fatality. The most recent epidemic occurred in the 1980s, and caused about 30,000 deaths. The fight against malaria epidemics in the highlands has been based on indoor insecticide spraying to control malaria vectors. Any preventive programme involving generalised cover in the highlands will require very substantial logistical support. We used multicriteria evaluation, by the method of weighted linear combination, as basis for improved targeting of actions by determining priority zones for intervention. Results Image analysis and field validation showed the accuracy of mapping rice fields to be between 82.3% and 100%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.86 to 0.99. A significant positive correlation was observed between the abundance of the vector Anopheles funestus and temperature; the correlation coefficient was 0.599 (p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was observed between vector abundance and human population density: the correlation coefficient was -0.551 (p < 0.003). Factor weights were determined by pair-wise comparison and the consistency ratio was 0.04. Risk maps of the six study zones were obtained according to a gradient of risk. Nine of thirteen results of alert confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Post were in concordance with the risk map. Conclusion This study is particularly valuable for the management of vector control programmes, and particularly the reduction of the vector population with a view to preventing disease. The risk map obtained can be used to identify priority zones for the management of resources, and also help avoid systematic and generalised spraying throughout the highlands: such spraying is particularly difficult and expensive. The accuracy of the mapping, both as concerns time and space, is dependent on the availability of data. Continuous monitoring of malaria transmission factors must be undertaken to detect any changes. A regular case notification allows risk map to be verified. These actions should therefore be implemented so that risk maps can be satisfactorily assessed.

Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Randremanana, Rindra V; Rabarijaona, Leon P; Duchemin, Jean Bernard; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Ariey, Frederic; Rudant, Jean Paul; Jeanne, Isabelle

2007-01-01

386

Dinosaur Cannibal Unearthed in Madagascar  

NSF Publications Database

... M. Vital Select image for larger version (Size: 65KB) , or download a high-resolution TIFF version ... distinctive sets of tooth marks that match the size and spacing of teeth in Majungatholus' jaws, and ...

387

Tropical Cyclone Bejisa Near Madagascar  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Cyclone Bejisa on December 29, 2013 at 1507 UTC. This 3-D animation of TRMM data revealed strong thunderstorms around Bejisa's center were reaching heights above 16....

388

Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle