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  1. Cirripedia of Madeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter; Araújo, Ricardo; Southward, Alan J.

    2006-09-01

    We give a list of Cirripedia from Madeira Island and nearby deep water, based on specimens in the collection of the Museu Municipal do Funchal (História Natural) (MMF), records mentioned in the literature, and recent collections. Tesseropora atlantica Newman and Ross, 1976 is recorded from Madeira for the first time. The Megabalanus of Madeira is M. azoricus. There are 20 genera containing 27 species, of which 22 occur in depths less than 200 m. Of these shallow water species, eight are wide-ranging oceanic forms that attach to other organisms or to floating objects, leaving just 13 truly benthic shallow water barnacles. This low diversity is probably a consequence of the distance from the continental coasts and the small area of the available habitat. No endemic species have been found.

  2. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  3. Plastic optical fibre sensor for Madeira wine monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    Madeira wine is a fortified wine produced in Madeira Island, Portugal. Its characteristics are strongly influenced by the winemaking method used which includes a typical and unique step called estufagem. This process consists on heating the wine up to 55 ºC for at least 3 months. In this paper, the characterization of the sensor for the pilot scale facility of estufagem installed in Madeira University is presented, being the device an optimization of a previous version. The response of the sensor was tested towards colour and refractive index, showing a good performance. Madeira wine with different estufagem times was also analysed.

  4. Human activity and damaging landslides and floods on Madeira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, D.

    2011-11-01

    Over the last few decades, the island of Madeira has become an important offshore tourism and business center, with rapid economic and demographic development that has caused changes to the landscape due to human activity. In Madeira's recent history, there has been an increase over time in the frequency of occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events. As a result, the costs of restoration work due to damage caused by landslide and flood events have become a larger and larger component of Madeira's annual budget. Landslides and floods in Madeira deserve particular attention because they represent the most serious hazard to human life, to property, and to the natural environment and its important heritage value. The work reported on in this paper involved the analysis of historical data regarding damaging landslide and flood events on Madeira (in particular from 1941 to 1991) together with data on geological characteristics, topographic features, and climate, and from field observations. This analysis showed that the main factor triggering the occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events is rainfall, but that the increase in the number of damaging events recorded on Madeira Island, especially in recent times, seems to be related mostly to human activity, specifically to economic development and population growth, rather than to natural factors.

  5. The 20 February 2010 Madeira flash flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. M. A.; Tomé, R.; Azevedo, E. B.; Cardoso, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    On February 20, 2010, Madeira Island was struck by a violent rain storm, which led to a major flash flood leading to more than 50 casualties and an estimated property loss above 1G€. The storm was not well forecasted by the Institute of Meteorology, based on the global ECMWF forecast. However, the operational forecasts made by our group at the University of Lisbon, with MM5 and WRF at 2 km resolution, consistently indicated heavy precipitation for that day, starting on the 72h from 18 February at 00 UTC, and including all intermediate forecasts, issued every 12h, until the day of the event. At the same time, many important details of the forecasts, concerning in particular the timing of precipitation in low level stations, have discrepancies with observations. In the present study we analyze not only the quality of the high resolution forecasts of the rain storm, with the two models at different resolutions, but also review the MM5 model performance in all forecasts from 2006 to 2010, where other important orographic precipitation events have occurred, but no flash flood was triggered. The analysis emphasizes the relative importance of the state of the terrain, due to accumulated precipitation in days and weeks before a major rain storm, in the occurrence of flash floods.

  6. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  7. Optical fibre monitoring of Madeira wine estufagem process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Ferreira, R.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the study of a particular step of Madeira's winemaking process called estufagem with a plastic optical fibre sensor is presented. Madeira wine is a type of fortified wine produced in the Madeira island of Portugal. The characteristic aroma and exceptional stability of these wines result from the singular used winemaking method that consists in the estufagem where the wine is heated up to 55 °C for at least 3 months, among other steps. This heating based process can produce significant changes in wine colour, aroma and taste. By measuring the transmitted optical power through the wine in three different cells at three different wavelengths it is possible to monitor wine colour evolution during the estufagem. The plastic optical fibres offer easy non-skilled handling, ruggedness and low cost, overcoming the difficulties of the electronic and conventional systems and improving the time of the laboratory offline methods. Results show that it is possible to distinguish the different Madeira wines (from sweet to dry wines) obtained based on different wine grapes as well as the colour evolution during the diverse months of the estufagem.

  8. An outbreak of salmonellosis amongst holidaymakers in Madeira, July 1988.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, B.; McCann, R.; Stewart, D.

    1989-01-01

    In July 1988, 20 of 49 tourists from Northern Ireland became ill with gastrointestinal symptoms while on holiday in Madeira and four were admitted to hospital. Salmonella enteritidis was subsequently isolated from eight members of the party. Epidemiological investigations implicated fried and/or scrambled eggs as the vehicle of infection. PMID:2773169

  9. Morphodynamics and anabranching patterns generated in the Madeira River, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Bonthius, C.; Abad, J. D.; Stevaux, J.; Filizola, N.; Frias, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Madeira River is the largest tributary in water discharge and sediment transport of the Amazon River. At present, this river is at the center of a controversial political discussion because the Brazilian government is building two hydroelectric plants on the Bolivia-Brazil border, flooding a long reach from near Cachuela Esperanza in the tributary Beni River, close to the Brazil-Bolivia border, up to Porto Velho. We present results from three field expeditions carried out in July-August 2011, December 2012 and March 2013. The main scope of this article is to disseminate the environmental threat suffered by the Madeira from regulation/disruption, and to present preliminary results on the geomorphologic characteristics of the Madeira channel and floodplain. Using historical radar and satellite imagery, the floodplain morpho-sedimentary units and morphology of the channel were assessed and quantified. Sediment bed and bank sampling, bathymetric surveys and velocity measurements were recorded using a single beam echo sounder and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), respectively. Velocity data were analyzed using TRDI's WinRiverII and a MATLAB-based software package Velocity Mapping Tool. We consider that the Madeira River offers some ideal conditions to provide information on critical conditions and geomorphologic thresholds in mega-rivers. The Madeira River has been classified as a simple to moderate anabranching low-sinuosity river. The Madeira flows through a relatively simple pattern, alternating straight reaches with others that exhibit an incipient tendency to anabranch. Single beam and ADCP data yields insight into the bathymetry and flow characteristics in the channel through straight, pseudo-meandering, and anabranching stretches. We studied in detail three selected three reaches zones where three primary mechanisms for anabranching were identified: a) branches upstream and downstream in box shape pseudo-meanders; b) simple branch patterns

  10. New species of Bryozoa from Madeira associated with rhodoliths.

    PubMed

    Souto, Javier; Reverter-Gil, Oscar; Ostrovsky, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Four new species of cheilostomate Bryozoa encrusting rhodoliths on Maërl beds are described from material collected at a single locality at Madeira Island. These are Coronellina atlantica n. sp., Hippothoa muripinnata n. sp., Chorizopora rosaria n. sp. and Hippoporella maderensis n. sp. A species of Schizomavella is left in open nomenclature. The genus Coronellina is transferred from the family Calescharidae and assigned to Microporidae. The close similarity of C. atlantica n. sp., a non-opesiulate species with deep depressions, to Coronellina fagei with opesiules, implies that the generally accepted evolutionary sequence from non-opesiulate to opesiulate species might not be the rule. PMID:24870467

  11. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    PubMed

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images. PMID:25781763

  12. Thirty Years of Music and Drama Education in the Madeira Island: Facing Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Graça; Abreu, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of relevant findings of a three years long case study that was carried out in the Madeira Island, Portugal. It addresses a thirty years old project in music and drama education in primary schools, which involves all children within the school curriculum, but also in extra-curriculum activities. The study used…

  13. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira River basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil), as revealed by paleomorphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Ericson H; Rossetti, Dilce F

    2015-03-01

    Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i) straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii) northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii) several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics. PMID:25806978

  14. The Contribution of Vocational Training to Employment, Job-Related Skills and Productivity: Evidence from Madeira

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budria, Santiago; Telhado-Pereira, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the transition to the labor market of participants in vocational training in Madeira in Portugal. The analysis is in two stages. First, we investigate how the employment status at different dates (1 month, 1 year, and 2 years after the completion of the training program) depends on relevant variables, such as age, gender,…

  15. Music and Drama in Primary Schools in the Madeira Island--Narratives of Ownership and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Graça; Araújo, Maria Jose

    2013-01-01

    A three-year-case study funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education was designed to study a 30-year project of music and drama in primary schools in Madeira. This article reports on the narratives of the three main figures in the project as they elaborate on its…

  16. Hydrochemistry, weathering and weathering rates on Madeira island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.; Pacheco, Fernando A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Madeira island consists of Miocene to Pleistocene lavas and pyroclasts. Major rock types are alkali-basalts, basanites and hawaiites; principal soil types are leptosols, andosols and cambisols. Our main objective was to link the chemistry of ground waters to weathering reactions and rates. We collected 40 shallow groundwater samples, remote from human activities. With a few exceptions, the ranges of electrical conductivities were 29-176 μS/cm and of pH 5.8-8.5. The calculated PCO 2 was generally higher than the atmospheric value. The contribution of sea salt to the water chemistry was 30±9%. Corrected for sea salt, the cation concentrations (in meq/l) decrease in the order Ca 2+≈Mg 2+>Na +>>>K +. The concentrations of SO 42- and NO 3- are very low. We calculated that the total annual chemical denudation rate in the studied area amounts to 37±12 g/m 2, consuming 0.86±0.38 mol CO 2/m 2. To achieve our main objective, a set of mole balance equations— ( AX= B)—was used, where A is a composite matrix of coefficients, including ratios between stoichiometric coefficients as determined by the weathering reactions and coefficients accounting for unconstrained contributions, B is the vector with a water composition, and X is the set of mole fractions of dissolved primary minerals plus the residual concentrations of the unconstrained contributions. Olivine (Ol), pyroxene (Py) and plagioclase (Pl) were considered to be the major primary minerals, and smectite, vermiculite, halloysite, allophane, gibbsite and hematite the secondary minerals in the weathering reactions. Using iterative procedures, whereby mixtures of secondary products as well as the composition of plagioclase are allowed to change, we selected one best-fit set of weathering reactions for each spring by checking all possible solutions of the mole balances against predefined boundary conditions. At odds with Goldich (1938) sequence, our model results indicate—for most best-fit sets—a weathering rate

  17. Molecular epidemiology suggests Venezuela as the origin of the dengue outbreak in Madeira, Portugal in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Pagan, I; Serre Del Cor, N; Schunk, M; Neumayr, A; Molero, F; Potente, A; Hatz, C; Wilder-Smith, A; Sánchez-Seco, M P; Tenorio, A

    2015-07-01

    An explosive epidemic occurred in Madeira Island (Portugal) from October 2012 to February 2013. Published data showed that dengue virus type 1 introduced from South America was the incriminated virus. We aim to determine the origin of the strain introduced to Madeira by travellers returning to Europe. Using phylogeographic analysis and complete envelope sequences we have demonstrated that the most probable origin of the strain is Venezuela. PMID:25843502

  18. The 2012 Madeira dengue outbreak: epidemiological determinants and future epidemic potential.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, José; Recker, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Dengue, a vector-borne viral disease of increasing global importance, is classically associated with tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Urbanisation, globalisation and climate trends, however, are facilitating the geographic spread of its mosquito vectors, thereby increasing the risk of the virus establishing itself in previously unaffected areas and causing large-scale epidemics. On 3 October 2012, two autochthonous dengue infections were reported within the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. During the following seven months, this first 'European' dengue outbreak caused more than 2000 local cases and 81 exported cases to mainland Europe. Here, using an ento-epidemiological mathematical framework, we estimate that the introduction of dengue to Madeira occurred around a month before the first official cases, during the period of maximum influx of airline travel, and that the naturally declining temperatures of autumn were the determining factor for the outbreak's demise in early December 2012. Using key estimates, together with local climate data, we further propose that there is little support for dengue endemicity on this island, but a high potential for future epidemic outbreaks when seeded between May and August-a period when detection of imported cases is crucial for Madeira's public health planning. PMID:25144749

  19. Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Pieper, Harald; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the catastrophic extinction events that occurred following the Holocene arrival of alien species, extant oceanic island biotas are a mixture of recently incorporated alien fauna and remnants of the original fauna. Knowledge of the Late Quaternary pristine island faunas and a reliable chronology of the earliest presence of alien species on each archipelago are critical in understanding the magnitude and tempo of Quaternary island extinctions. Until now, two successive waves of human arrivals have been identified in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands): ‘aboriginal’, which is limited to the Canary Islands around two millennia ago, and ‘colonial’, from the fourteenth century onwards. New surveys in Ponta de São Lourenço (Madeira Island) have allowed us to obtain and date ancient bones of mice. The date obtained (1033 ± 28 BP) documents the earliest evidence for the presence of mice on the island. This date extends the time frame in which the most significant ecological changes occurred on the island. It also suggests that humans could have reached Madeira before 1036 cal AD, around four centuries before Portugal officially took possession of the island. PMID:24523273

  20. The impacts of land use changes in the mercury flux in the Madeira River, Western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Luiz D; Bastos, Wanderley R; Almeida, Marcelo D

    2012-03-01

    Changes in hydrochemistry and Hg distribution in the Madeira River from Porto Velho to the confluence with the Amazon River were studied in two cruises in 1997 and 2002. Water conductivity was similar in both periods, but the pH was significantly higher in 2002, in particular along the middle reaches of the river. Total suspended matter concentrations also increased from 1997 to 2002 along the same river portion, which is a result of forest conversion to other land uses, in particular pastures and agriculture accelerated during the interval between the cruises. Dissolved Hg concentrations were similar along the river in both cruises, but particulate Hg concentrations increased significantly along the middle portion of the river, although the suspended matter from 2002 was relatively poorer in Hg compared to that from 1997. Since particulate Hg represents more than 90% of the total Hg present in the river water, there was a significant increase in the total Hg transport in the Madeira River. Although gold mining has nearly ceased to exist in the region, the remobilization of Hg from forest soils through conversion to other land uses is responsible for maintaining relatively high Hg content in the Madeira River environment. PMID:22441596

  1. Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago.

    PubMed

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Pieper, Harald; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-04-01

    Owing to the catastrophic extinction events that occurred following the Holocene arrival of alien species, extant oceanic island biotas are a mixture of recently incorporated alien fauna and remnants of the original fauna. Knowledge of the Late Quaternary pristine island faunas and a reliable chronology of the earliest presence of alien species on each archipelago are critical in understanding the magnitude and tempo of Quaternary island extinctions. Until now, two successive waves of human arrivals have been identified in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands): 'aboriginal', which is limited to the Canary Islands around two millennia ago, and 'colonial', from the fourteenth century onwards. New surveys in Ponta de São Lourenço (Madeira Island) have allowed us to obtain and date ancient bones of mice. The date obtained (1033 ± 28 BP) documents the earliest evidence for the presence of mice on the island. This date extends the time frame in which the most significant ecological changes occurred on the island. It also suggests that humans could have reached Madeira before 1036 cal AD, around four centuries before Portugal officially took possession of the island. PMID:24523273

  2. A composite, isotopically-depleted peridotite and enriched pyroxenite source for Madeira magmas: Insights from olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Sobolev, Alexander V.

    2013-06-01

    The Madeira and Canary island/seamount chains represent two adjacent hotspot tracks in the eastern North Atlantic, which were derived from mixed peridotite-pyroxenite mantle sources. They possess systematically different Sr-Nd-Pb, Os and Hf isotope signatures, implying mixing of DMM-, HIMU- and EM-type components from different mantle lithologies. The lithological nature of these postulated mantle endmembers (e.g., if formed by peridotite, pyroxenite and/or eclogite) is still a subject of debate. We studied the chemical composition of olivine phenocrysts (focusing on their Ni, Mn and Ca concentrations) from the lavas covering the entire volcanic history of the Madeira Archipelago (~ 0-5 Ma). We demonstrate that Ni × FeO/MgO and Mn/FeO ratios and Ca-concentrations of olivine correlate with Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of their host lavas. The amounts of peridotite- and pyroxenite-derived melt fractions in the parental Madeira magmas were inferred from olivine compositions and independently confirmed by modeling of two-component source melting using trace elements. Our calculations demonstrate that the amount of recycled crust (= eclogite) in the Madeira magma source varies but does not exceed ~ 10%. Strong linear relationships between chemical composition of olivine and radiogenic isotopes of the host lavas allow us to determine the isotopic composition of peridotite and pyroxenite endmembers of the Madeira hotspot. The peridotite endmember has a highly depleted isotopic composition 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7022-0.7026, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5132-0.5135, 206Pb/204Pb = 17.4-18.6, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.4-15.49, and 208Pb/204Pb = 36.8-38.2, whereas the pyroxenite endmember has an enriched composition 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7031-0.7035, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5127-0.5130, 206Pb/204Pb = 19.9-21.3, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59-15.69, and 208Pb/204Pb = 39.6-41.2. Our new data confirm the existence of recycled (pyroxenitic) lithology in the Madeira magma source that was previously interpreted to represent

  3. DDT AND ITS METABOLITES IN BREAST MILK FROM THE MADEIRA RIVER BASIN IN THE AMAZON, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Antonio; Torres, João P. M.; de Freitas Fonseca, Márlon; Britto, José Lailson; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Azevedo e Silva, Cláudio E.; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Claudio, Luz; Markowitz, Steven; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Until the 1990’s the 1,1,1-trichloro-bis-2,2′-(4chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) was sprayed in the walls of the house in the along the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon, a region well known by its large number of malaria cases. In the 1910, the relate of Oswaldo Cruz about health conditions in Madeira River region describes the presence of malaria in rates ranging until 100% of infected people in some localities. Data available in the literature points to the DDT contamination in fishes captured in Madeira River region. Fish is the major source of dietary protein to this people. DDT tends to accumulate in lipid rich tissues being eliminated by different events, including lactation. Considering the importance of the breast milk to the children feeding, the associated risks of DDT exposure via breast milk intake to children must be assessed. This is the main objective of this work: to analyse the presence of the p,p′-DDT and its metabolites p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDD in 69 human milk samples and to estimate the intake of DDT and its metabolite in terms of total DDT (total DDT = p,p′-DDE+ p,p′-DDD+ p,p′-DDT). All sample showed contamination with DDT and its metabolites ranging from 25.4 to 9361.9 ng of total DDT / g of lipid (median=369.6 ng of total DDT / g of lipid) and 8.7 % of the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), in terms of total DDT, was higher than the Acceptable Daily Intake proposed by the WHO. Key words: DDT, breast milk, children, organochlorine pesticide, fish. PMID:18495200

  4. Atmospheric conditions associated to an extreme rainfall event on Madeira Island (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Flavio; Salgado, Rui; João Costa, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Located in the Noth Atlantic Ocean (32°75'N and 17°00'W), the Madeira Island presents favourable conditions for orographic precipitation development, sometimes responsible for high records and floods, such as on 20 February 2010, when the island was affected by the worst flash floods in its recent history, causing more than 40 deaths and huge economic losses. After this disaster, there is a growing interest in understanding the main mechanisms and atmospheric conditions that are relevant to the establishment of extreme rainfall and consequently flash flood occurrences in the island. This study describes the meteorological aspects associated to a case study of high rainfall amounts in Madeira on 25 January 2011. In this case, flash floods and socio-economic damages were not reported, but precipitation above 300 mm in less than 24 hours were observed in Madeira's highlands. The heavy rainfall episode is studied based on rain gauge and satellite observations, as well as numerical simulation with the Mesoscale Non-Hydrostatic Model (MESO-NH). The MESO-NH simulation initialized and forced by ECMWF analysis have been performed with 3 horizontal domains (9, 3 and 1 km resolution), making use of the grid nesting technique. The evolution of the mean sea level pressure field (MSLP) was analyzed from the outer domain outputs, while the other meteorological variables were further explored using the 1 km resolution results. The simulation showed that the orography is crucial in the formation and intensification of the localized heavy rainfall in the island. A remarkable aspect is the fact that this episode occurred in a low-cape environment. Related to the synoptic environment, this event was characterized by a low pressure system centered to the southeastern of the island, in opposition to the results obtained for other extreme events occurred in the past two years, when the high precipitation amounts were due to the effects of the orography on the passage of cold fronts

  5. (210)Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350km sector of the river. The (21)(0)Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess (21)(0)Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess (21)(0)Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the (21)(0)Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. PMID:25699663

  6. Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs preshipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (= PFR 97®) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs before shipping plant products was assessed under laboratory conditions. Hibiscus leaves were dipped into beakers filled with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 g of PFR 97® / L of water and t...

  7. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el

  8. Using stable isotopes to characterize groundwater recharge sources in the volcanic island of Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, Susana; Cruz, J. Virgílio; Figueira, Celso

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogeology of volcanic islands remains poorly understood, despite the fact that populations that live on them rely on groundwater as a primary water source. This situation is exacerbated by their complex structure, geological heterogeneity, and sometimes active volcanic processes that hamper easy analysis of their hydrogeological dynamics. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool that has been used to assess groundwater dynamics in complex terrains. In this work, stable isotopes are used to better understand the hydrogeology of Madeira Island and provide a case-study that can serve as a basis for groundwater studies in other similar settings. The stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δ2H) of rain at the main recharge areas of the island is determined, as well as the sources and altitudes of recharge of several springs, groundwater in tunnels and wells. The water in tunnels was found to be recharged almost exclusively by rain in the deforested high plateaus, whilst several springs associated with shallow perched aquifers are recharged from rain and cloud water interception by the vegetated slopes. Nevertheless some springs thought to be sourced from deep perched aquifers, recharge in the central plateaus, and their isotopic composition is similar to the water in the tunnels. Recharge occurs primarily during autumn and winter, as evidenced by the springs and tunnels Water Lines (WL). The groundwater in wells appears to originate from runoff from rain that falls along the slopes that infiltrates near the streams' mouths, where the wells are located. This is evident by the evaporation line along which the wells plot. Irrigation water is also a possible source of recharge. The data is compatible with the hydrogeological conceptual model of Madeira. This work also shows the importance of cloud water interception as a net contributor to groundwater recharge, at least in the perched aquifers that feed numerous springs. As the amount of rainfall is expected to

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. PMID:25733151

  10. Biodegradable PELA block copolymers: in vitro degradation and tissue reaction.

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Nataf, P R; Cohn, D; Appelbaum, Y J; Pizov, G; Uretzky, G

    1988-01-01

    Degradation of, and tissue reaction elicited by a series of polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polylactic acid (PLA) PELA block copolymers were studied in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the effect of pH, temperature and enzymatic activity was addressed. The mass loss was faster, the more basic the media, while, expectedly, PELA copolymers degraded faster with the higher temperature. The addition of an enzyme (carboxylic ester hydrolase) had no effect. The degradation process strongly affected the mechanical properties of the materials under investigation, the elongation at break dropping drastically after two days of degradation. After seven days, only gross observation of the extensively degraded samples was possible. The in vivo studies compared the tissue reaction elicited by various PELA copolymers to that evoked by PLA. Evaluation of tissue reaction observed with a PELA sample after sterilization with gamma radiation showed acute inflammation with considerable dispersion of the material, 12 days after implantation. The granulomatous reaction observed with PELA copolymers after ethylene oxide sterilization was identical to the reaction observed with PLA. PMID:3064826

  11. Identification, Rearing, and Distribution of Stick Insects of Madeira Island: An Example of Raising Biodiversity Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, António M. F.; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M.

    2014-01-01

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on island-wide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. PMID:25373196

  12. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in communities along the Madeira River, Western Brazilian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Mourão, Dennys de Souza; Gomes, Núbia; Costa, Janaina Mara C; Souza, Andreia Vasconcelos de; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Marlon de Freitas; Mariani, Carolina Fiorillo; Abbad, Guilherme; Hacon, Sandra S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adults (n = 841) in communities along the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon, prior to startup of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The study gathered information on sociodemographic conditions, history of diseases, habits, fish consumption, and anthropometric parameters. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and the respective confidence intervals. Among the riverine communities, 26% (95%CI: 23%-29%) of adults presented hypertension (29% in men [95%CI: 24%-33%] and 23% in women [95%CI: 19%-27%]). Factors associated with hypertension were age, BMI, and place of residence in men and age, triglycerides, and blood glucose in women. The findings can contribute to strategies for state and municipal health services to monitor and prevent cardiovascular events. PMID:24005927

  13. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

  14. Provenance of sands from the confluence of the Amazon and Madeira rivers based on detrital heavy minerals and luminescence of quartz and feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Daniel R.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Guedes, Carlos C. F.; Giannini, Paulo C. F.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ferreira, Manuela P.

    2015-03-01

    Source-to-sink systems are poorly known in tropical rivers. For the Amazonian rivers, the majority of the provenance studies remain focused on the suspended load, implying a poor understanding of the processes governing production and distribution of sands. In this study, we perform heavy mineral and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) analysis to cover the entire spectrum (heavy and light minerals fraction) of 29 sand samples of the Lower Madeira river region (Amazon and Madeira rivers), of which the main goal was to find provenance indicators specific to these rivers. Despite the tropical humid climate, the sands of the Amazon and Lower Madeira rivers are rich in unstable heavy minerals as augite, hypersthene, green hornblende and andalusite. The Madeira river is highlighted by its higher content of andalusite, with source attributed to the Amazon Craton (medium-to-high grade metamorphic rocks), while the Amazon river, upstream of the Madeira river mouth, has a signature of augite and hypersthene, that suggests an Andean provenance (volcanic rocks). Sands from the Madeira river can be tracked in the Amazon river by the increasing concentration in andalusite. OSL analysis of the light minerals fraction was used as an index of feldspar concentration and sedimentary history of quartz grains. Lower feldspar concentration and quartz grains with longer sedimentary history (higher OSL sensitivity) also point to a major contribution of cratonic sources for the sands in the Madeira river. While the sands from the Lower Madeira would be mainly supplied by cratonic rocks, previous work recognised that suspended sediments (silt and clay) are derived from Andean rocks. Therefore, we interpret a decoupling between the sources of sand and mud (silt and clay) under transport in the Madeira river. Andean sands (rich in augite and hypersthene) would be trapped in the foreland zones of the Beni and Mamoré tributaries. In the Amazon river sands, the low OSL sensitivity of the

  15. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcelo C; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13-19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  16. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marcelo C.; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13–19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  18. Age and Geochemical Data From the Madeira-Tore Rise and Surrounding Seamounts: New Insights Into East Atlantic Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldmacher, J.; Hoernle, K. A.; Kluegel, A.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2003-12-01

    Located off the NW African continental margin is a >3000 km long belt of volcanic archipelagoes (e.g. Canary, Madeira Islands) and large seamounts including the 900 km long Madeira-Tore Rise (MTR). The cause of the East Atlantic volcanism, and in particular the origin and age of the MTR, which is composed of a widespread plateau with several seamount groups, is controversial. Proposed models include an origin of the MTR at the Mid Atlantic Ridge, formation over a hotspot, or as a product of diffuse small-scale mantle convection. All recently dredged volcanic samples (RV Meteor cruise M51/1) from the MTR and nearby off-rise seamounts exhibit enriched Ocean Island Basalt-like incompatible trace element signatures similar to HIMU (high time integrated 238U/204Pb) ocean islands. Their isotope compositions are similar to those from Madeira with 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd overlapping Atlantic N-MORB to a large extent, but Pb isotope ratios plotting well below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line and extending to 206Pb/204Pb values of 19.90. Our preliminary data confirm the existence of at least two distinct isotopic domains in the eastern North Atlantic: 1) a Madeira-like domain (as characterized above) stretching from Madeira Island along the MTR to the NE as far as the Azores Gibraltar fracture zone, and 2) a Canary-like domain with Sr, Nd, Pb isotope ratios intermediate between N-MORB and HIMU (206Pb/204Pb = 19.0-20.2; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.66) but with lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios (<0.5130) than the Madeira domain. We interpret the distinct compositions of these domains to reflect spatial zonation in the deeper sources of the mantle upwellings. The domains include zones influenced by Enriched Mantle (EM) I and II, which appear to be orientated along the extension of the Oceanographer (at ˜ 34° N) and the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zones (at ˜ 37° N), respectively. The first zone includes a hitherto unknown seamount that exhibits the most extreme EM I composition yet

  19. Spatial Factors Play a Major Role as Determinants of Endemic Ground Beetle Beta Diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva

    PubMed Central

    Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  20. Analysis and assessment of Madeira wine ageing over an extended time period through GC-MS and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Marques, José C

    2010-02-15

    Wine is one of the world's higher value agricultural products. The present work is centred on Madeira wine, a fine and prestigious example among Portuguese liqueur wines,with the main goal to deepen our understanding of relevant phenomena going on during the winemaking process, in particular during ageing of "Malmsey" Madeira wine. In this paper we present the results obtained from the chemical characterization of how its aroma composition evolves during ageing, and the development of a robust framework for analyzing the identity of aged Madeira wines. An extended ageing period was considered, covering a time frame of twenty years, from which several samples were analyzed in terms of their aromatic composition. The multivariate structure of this chemical information was then processed through multivariate statistical feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), in order to identify the relevant patterns corresponding to trends associated with wine ageing. Classification methodologies for age prediction were developed, using data from the lower dimensional sub-spaces obtained after projecting the original data to the latent variable spaces provided by PCA or PLS-DA. Finally, the performance for each classification methodology developed was evaluated according to their error rates using cross-validation methodologies (Leave-One-Out and k-fold Monte Carlo). Results obtained so far show that quite interesting classification performances can indeed be achieved, despite the natural variability present in wine products. These results also provide solid bases which can be used to build up available frameworks which assist quality monitoring and identity assurance tasks. PMID:20103138

  1. Endohelminth parasites of the leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788) (Squaliformes:Centrophoridae) off Madeira Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Costa, Graça; Chada, Tomás; Melo-Moreira, Egberto; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The endohelminth parasite fauna of a deep water shark, the leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus, examined from Madeiran waters, from September 2009 to January 2010, consisted of larval and juvenile cestodes of two orders, namely Trypanorhyncha and Tetraphyllidea, and L3 stages of Anisakis spp. Infection with Anisakis spp. could be due to the shark's opportunistic feeding on squids and black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo, which is heavily parasitized by Anisakis spp. in Madeira waters. The occurrence of larval and juvenile cestodes only, in this shark, suggests that the leafscale gulper shark features as a paratenic or a dead-end host for the parasites. PMID:24827105

  2. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  3. Mercury in fish of the Madeira river (temporal and spatial assessment), Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Wanderley R; Dórea, José G; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Lauthartte, Leidiane C; Mussy, Marilia H; Lacerda, Luiz D; Malm, Olaf

    2015-07-01

    The Madeira River is the largest tributary of the Amazon River Basin and one of the most impacted by artisanal gold-mining activities, deforestation for agricultural projects, and recent hydroelectric reservoirs. Total Hg (and methylmercury-MeHg) concentrations was determined in 3182 fish samples of 84 species from different trophic levels as a function of standard size. Species at the top of the trophic level (Piscivorous, Carnivorous) showed the highest mean total Hg concentrations (51-1242 µg/kg), Planctivorous and Omnivorous species showed intermediate total Hg concentrations (26-494 µg/kg), while Detritivorous and Herbivorous species showed the lowest range of mean total Hg concentrations (9-275 µg/kg). Significant correlations between fish size (standard length) and total Hg concentrations were seen for Planctivorous (r=0.474, p=0.0001), Piscivorous (r=0.459, p=0.0001), Detritivorous (r=0.227, p=0.0001), Carnivorous (r=0.212, p=0.0001), and Herbivorous (r=0.156, p=0.01), but not for the Omnivorous species (r=-0.064, p=0.0685). Moreover, fish trophic levels influenced the ratio of MeHg to total Hg (ranged from 70% to 92%). When adjusted for standard body length, significant increases in Hg concentrations in the last 10 years were species specific. Spatial differences, albeit significant for some species, were not consistent with time trends for environmental contamination from past alluvial gold mining activities. Fish-Hg bioaccumulation is species specific but fish feeding strategies are the predominant influence in the fish-Hg bioaccumulation pattern. PMID:25863592

  4. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. PMID:23747562

  5. Candidates for the light entrainment pathway to the circadian clock of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Schendzielorz, Julia; Stengl, Monika

    2014-02-01

    The circadian pacemaker controlling locomotor activity rhythms in the Madeira cockroach is located at the accessory medulla (AMe). The ipsi- and contralateral compound eyes provide light input to the AMe, possibly via the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (-ir) distal tract, which connects the glomeruli of the AMe to the ipsilateral medulla and lamina. To identify possible light-entrainment pathways, double-label immunocytochemistry was performed employing antibodies against GABA, myoinhibitory peptide (MIP), allatotropin (AT) and orcokinin (ORC). While all antisera tested, except the anti-ORC, prominently stained the glomeruli of the AMe, colocalization with anti-GABA was detected neither in the glomeruli nor in the distal tract. However, one median neuron that colocalized GABA-, AT- and MIP-immunoreactivity appeared to connect all glomeruli of the AMe to the medulla and lamina. Furthermore, one distal-frontoventral local neuron with arborizations in all glomeruli of the AMe colocalized anti-AT- and anti-MIP immunoreactivity. As candidates for contralateral light entrainment pathways, one ventromedian and one ventral neuron colocalized MIP- and ORC immunoreactivity, projecting via posterior and anterior commissures. Both branched in the interglomerular region of the AMe, where arborizations co-labeled with anti-ORC- and anti-MIP antisera. A possible role for MIP in light entrainment is supported also by injections of Rhyparobia maderae-specific MIP-2, which generated an all-advance phase-response curve late at night. Future experiments will challenge our hypothesis that GABA-, MIP- and AT-ir neurons provide ipsilateral light entrainment to all glomeruli, while MIP- and ORC-ir neurons carry contralateral light entrainment to the AMe's interglomerular region, either delaying or advancing AMe neurons light-dependently. PMID:24322392

  6. Mercury concentration in fish from the Upper Madeira River, Brazil -- 1991 and 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Boischio, A.A.P.; Henshel, D.S.; Barbosa, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The informal small-scale gold mining in the Amazon releases metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) into the aquatic and atmospheric ecosystems. Metallic Hg is oxidized and the resultant divalent Hg (Hg{sup 2+}) is organified to methyl Hg (MeHg). The MeHg is bioaccumulated in the aquatic food chain. Fish is the major route of MeHg exposure for humans. The authors have been studying the Hg concentration in food fish from approximately 590 fish samples collected in 1991 and 1993 from the Upper Madeira river, downstream from an intense gold mining area. These samples include 40 species, covering 5 trophic levels. Their data indicate that the study food chain is unevenly contaminated. The mean Hg concentration ranged from 0.1 {micro}g/g ({+-} 0.1) among herbivorous species (n = 82) to 0.6 {micro}g/g ({+-} 0.5) among piscivorous species (n = 230), with a total population low of non detectable and a high of 11.2 {micro}g/g in one omnivorous specimen. Their results indicate that Hg biomagnification is probably occurring in the study food chain, although the trophic categories are very flexible for most of the fish species in the Amazonian ecosystems. This flexibility in the fish diet might explain the wide variation in fish Hg concentration observed in this study, Other relevant factors for fish Hg concentration are the body weight, the migration pattern of fish and fish prey, and the habitat from which these specimens were collected (main channels, lakes and streams).

  7. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance. PMID:25269074

  8. A new species of nurse-frog (Aromobatidae, Allobates) from the Madeira River basin with a small geographic range.

    PubMed

    Simões, Pedro Ivo

    2016-01-01

    I describe the seventh species of nurse-frog (Allobates) from the Madeira River basin in Brazilian Amazonia. The new species is distinguished from similar congeneric species by its small body size (snout-to-vent length ranging between 14.0-14.7 mm in adult males and between 14.7-14.9 mm in adult females), by the absence of dark brown regular shapes (e.g. hourglass, "X" or polygon-like marks) on the dorsum, by the absence of transverse dark bars on the dorsal surface of the thigh, and by the light gray to white ventral surfaces, light to dark gray only on throat in live male and female specimens. Males have a distinctive advertisement call characterized by the emission of long (7-11 s) trills of short notes (0.04 s in average) with dominant frequency at 5.9-6.3 kHz and emission rate ranging between 6.7-8.7 notes/s. DNA barcode analyses based on a fragment of the 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene provides additional support to the recognition of the new taxon, which is probably distributed on the east riverbank of the Madeira River, in the interfluve between the Aripuanã and Ji-Paraná rivers. PMID:27394243

  9. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  10. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  11. Bimodal oscillations of cyclic nucleotide concentrations in the circadian system of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Schendzielorz, Julia; Schendzielorz, Thomas; Arendt, Andreas; Stengl, Monika

    2014-10-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is the most important coupling factor of the circadian system in insects, comparable to its functional ortholog vasoactive intestinal polypeptide of the mammalian circadian clock. In Drosophila melanogaster, PDF signals via activation of adenylyl cyclases, controlling circadian locomotor activity rhythms at dusk and dawn. In addition, PDF mediates circadian rhythms of the visual system and is involved in entrainment to different photoperiods. We examined whether PDF daytime-dependently elevates cAMP levels in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae and whether cAMP mimics PDF effects on locomotor activity rhythms. To determine time windows of PDF release, we searched for circadian rhythms in concentrations of cAMP and its functional opponent cGMP in the accessory medulla (AMe), the insect circadian pacemaker controlling locomotor activity rhythms, and in the optic lobes, as the major input and output area of the circadian clock. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected PDF-dependent increases of cAMP in optic lobes and daytime-dependent oscillations of cAMP and cGMP baseline levels in the AMe, both with maxima at dusk and dawn. Although these rhythms disappeared at the first day in constant conditions (DD1), cAMP but not cGMP oscillations returned at the second day in constant conditions (DD2). Whereas in light-dark cycles the cAMP baseline level remained constant in other optic lobe neuropils, it oscillated in phase with the AMe at DD2. To determine whether cAMP and cGMP mimic PDF-dependent control of locomotor activity rhythms, both cyclic nucleotides were injected at different times of the circadian day using running-wheel assays. Whereas cAMP injections generated delays at dusk and advances at dawn, cGMP only delayed locomotor activity at dusk. For the first time we found PDF-dependent phase advances at dawn in addition to previously described phase delays at dusk. Thus, we hypothesize that PDF release at dusk and dawn

  12. Automated Detection Of Small And Shallow Landslides After The 2010 Madeira Island Flash-Floods In VHR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, Sandra; Lousada, Maura; Pereira, Maria Joao; Pina, Pedro

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we use very high spatial resolution images (GeoEye-1, 0.5m/pixel and orthophotos with 0.4m/pixel) acquired before and after the February 20, 2010 flash-floods in Madeira Island, to test several automated detection methods, seeking for a robust approach able to produce a detailed and complete identification of landslides. We perform an accurate segmentation (delineation of contours) of all the structures (objects) resolved in the remotely sensed images, aiming at landslides scars about tens of squared-metres in area. The best classification performance of segmented objects into landslides/non- landslides is obtained through the combined use of watershed transform for segmentation and support vector machine for classification. We present our preliminary findings, supported and validated by in-situ measurements in different locations of Funchal basin.

  13. Semiautomated object-based classification of rain-induced landslides with VHR multispectral images on Madeira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, Sandra; Matias, Magda; Pina, Pedro; Sousa, António Jorge

    2016-04-01

    A method for semiautomated landslide detection and mapping, with the ability to separate source and run-out areas, is presented in this paper. It combines object-based image analysis and a support vector machine classifier and is tested using a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after a major damaging landslide event that occurred on Madeira Island (20 February 2010), and a pre-event lidar digital terrain model. The testing is developed in a 15 km2 wide study area, where 95 % of the number of landslides scars are detected by this supervised approach. The classifier presents a good performance in the delineation of the overall landslide area, with commission errors below 26 % and omission errors below 24 %. In addition, fair results are achieved in the separation of the source from the run-out landslide areas, although in less illuminated slopes this discrimination is less effective than in sunnier, east-facing slopes.

  14. Automated object-based classification of rain-induced landslides with VHR multispectral images in Madeira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, S.; Matias, M.; Pina, P.; Sousa, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    A method for semi-automatic landslide detection, with the ability to separate source and run-out areas, is presented in this paper. It combines object-based image analysis and a Support Vector Machine classifier on a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after the major damaging landslide event that occurred in Madeira island (20 February 2010), with a pre-event LIDAR Digital Elevation Model. The testing is developed in a 15 km2-wide study area, where 95 % of the landslides scars are detected by this supervised approach. The classifier presents a good performance in the delineation of the overall landslide area. In addition, fair results are achieved in the separation of the source from the run-out landslide areas, although in less illuminated slopes this discrimination is less effective than in sunnier east facing-slopes.

  15. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new myths

  16. Neuropeptidergic input pathways to the circadian pacemaker center of the Madeira cockroach analysed with an improved injection technique.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Julia; Schendzielorz, Thomas; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Stengl, Monika

    2013-09-01

    Light entrainment pathways synchronize the circadian clock of almost all species of the animal and plant kingdom to the daily light dark cycle. In the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae, the circadian clock is located in the accessory medulla of the brain's optic lobes. The clock has abundant neuropeptides with unknown functions. Previous studies suggested that myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), orcokinins (ORCs), and allatotropin (AT) take part in light input pathways to the circadian clock. As the sequences of AT and ORCs of R. maderae have not yet been determined, with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, the respective Rhyparobia peptides were characterized. To search for light-like phase-shifting inputs to the circadian clock, Rhyparobia-MIP-1, Rhyparobia-AT, and Rhyparobia-ORC were injected at different circadian times, combined with locomotor activity assays. An improved, less invasive injection method was developed that allowed for the analysis of peptide effects within <2 weeks after injection. Rhyparobia-MIP-1 and Rhyparobia-AT injections resulted in dose-dependent monophasic phase response curves with maximum delays at the beginning of the subjective night, similar to light-dependent phase delays. In contrast to Manduca sexta-AT, Rhyparobia-AT did not phase advance locomotor activity rhythms. Only injections of Rhyparobia-ORCs resulted in a biphasic light-like phase response curve. Thus, it is hypothesized that Rhyparobia-MIP-1 and -AT are candidates for relaying light-dependent delays and/or non-photic inputs to the clock, whereas Rhyparobia-ORCs might be part of the light-entrainment pathways relaying phase delays and advances to the circadian clock of the Madeira cockroach. PMID:23802608

  17. INVESTIGATION OF PARTIAL VOLUME EFFECT IN DIFFERENT PET/CT SYSTEMS: A COMPARISON OF RESULTS USING THE MADEIRA PHANTOM AND THE NEMA NU-2 2001 PHANTOM.

    PubMed

    Chipiga, L; Sydoff, M; Zvonova, I; Bernhardsson, C

    2016-06-01

    Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) is a quantitative technique used for diagnosing various diseases and for monitoring treatment response for different types of tumours. However, the accuracy of the data is limited by the spatial resolution of the system. In addition, the so-called partial volume effect (PVE) causes a blurring of image structures, which in turn may cause an underestimation of activity of a structure with high-activity content. In this study, a new phantom, MADEIRA (Minimising Activity and Dose with Enhanced Image quality by Radiopharmaceutical Administrations) for activity quantification in PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to investigate the influence on the PVE by lesion size and tumour-to-background activity concentration ratio (TBR) in four different PET/CT systems. These measurements were compared with data from measurements with the NEMA NU-2 2001 phantom. The results with the MADEIRA phantom showed that the activity concentration (AC) values were closest to the true values at low ratios of TBR (<10) and reduced to 50 % of the actual AC values at high TBR (30-35). For all scanners, recovery of true values became closer to 1 with an increasing diameter of the lesion. The MADEIRA phantom showed good agreement with the results obtained from measurements with the NEMA NU-2 2001 phantom but allows for a wider range of possibilities in measuring image quality parameters. PMID:26940437

  18. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    PubMed

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-03-01

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics. PMID:24577285

  19. The Influence of Changes in Lifestyle and Mercury Exposure in Riverine Populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a Hydroelectric Project

    PubMed Central

    Hacon, Sandra S.; Dórea, José G.; Fonseca, Márlon de F.; Oliveira, Beatriz A.; Mourão, Dennys S.; Ruiz, Claudia M. V.; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A.; Mariani, Carolina F.; Bastos, Wanderley R.

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics. PMID:24577285

  20. Evidences of intraplate deformation in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain (eastern North Atlantic) from seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque, C.; Simões, M.; Lourenço, N.; Pinto de Abreu, M.

    2009-04-01

    The West Madeira Abyssal Plain is located in the eastern North Atlantic off Madeira Islands, forming part of the Canary Basin and reaching a mean water depth of 5300 m. This region is also located within Africa plate at about 500 km southwards from the Açores-Gibraltar plate boundary, and for that reason lacks seismic activity. Although this region being located in an intraplate setting, the presence of faulted sediments was reported in several works published during the eighties of last century following a study conducted in late 1970s to evaluate the feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the ocean. According these works, the Madeira Abyssal Plain sediments are cut by many normal growth faults and this deformation is a result of compaction and dewatering of the sediments. Evidences of tectonic deformation of oceanic sediments in intraplate settings are uncommon, but folded sediments and reverse faults extending into the basement, were recognized in the equatorial Indian Ocean and in the West African continental margin. Recently, during 2006 multi-channel seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry surveys were carried out in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain by EMEPC in order to prepare the Portuguese proposal for the extension of the continental shelf. The seismic lines were acquired onboard R/V Akademik Shatskiy using a source of 5720 cu in bolt gun array, cable length of 7950 m and shot interval of 50.00 m. The multibeam swath bathymetry was acquired onboard NRP Gago Coutinho, and allowed a high resolution mapping of the main geomorphological features. The multichannel seismic lines, oriented WNW-ESE, image the Madeira island lower slope located at about 4000 m water depth and the almost flat abyssal plain at about 5300 m water depth. These seismic lines show a thick sedimentary succession that reaches a maximum thickness of about 1.5 sec twt in the deepest parts of the West Madeira Abyssal Plain, overlying an irregular diffractive

  1. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  2. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  3. Y-chromosome lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores record elements of Sephardim and Berber ancestry.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Freitas, Ana; Branco, Marta; Rosa, Alexandra; Fernandes, Ana T; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Underhill, Peter A; Kivisild, Toomas; Brehm, António

    2005-07-01

    A total of 553 Y-chromosomes were analyzed from mainland Portugal and the North Atlantic Archipelagos of Açores and Madeira, in order to characterize the genetic composition of their male gene pool. A large majority (78-83% of each population) of the male lineages could be classified as belonging to three basic Y chromosomal haplogroups, R1b, J, and E3b. While R1b, accounting for more than half of the lineages in any of the Portuguese sub-populations, is a characteristic marker of many different West European populations, haplogroups J and E3b consist of lineages that are typical of the circum-Mediterranean region or even East Africa. The highly diverse haplogroup E3b in Portuguese likely combines sub-clades of distinct origins. The present composition of the Y chromosomes in Portugal in this haplogroup likely reflects a pre-Arab component shared with North African populations or testifies, at least in part, to the influence of Sephardic Jews. In contrast to the marginally low sub-Saharan African Y chromosome component in Portuguese, such lineages have been detected at a moderately high frequency in our previous survey of mtDNA from the same samples, indicating the presence of sex-related gene flow, most likely mediated by the Atlantic slave trade. PMID:15996172

  4. Sensitivity of the WRF model to the lower boundary in an extreme precipitation event - Madeira island case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, J. C.; Carvalho, A. C.; Carvalho, M. J.; Luna, T.; Rocha, A.

    2014-08-01

    The advances in satellite technology in recent years have made feasible the acquisition of high-resolution information on the Earth's surface. Examples of such information include elevation and land use, which have become more detailed. Including this information in numerical atmospheric models can improve their results in simulating lower boundary forced events, by providing detailed information on their characteristics. Consequently, this work aims to study the sensitivity of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model to different topography as well as land-use simulations in an extreme precipitation event. The test case focused on a topographically driven precipitation event over the island of Madeira, which triggered flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island. Difference fields between simulations were computed, showing that the change in the data sets produced statistically significant changes to the flow, the planetary boundary layer structure and precipitation patterns. Moreover, model results show an improvement in model skill in the windward region for precipitation and in the leeward region for wind, in spite of the non-significant enhancement in the overall results with higher-resolution data sets of topography and land use.

  5. New 40Ar / 39Ar age and geochemical data from seamounts in the Canary and Madeira volcanic provinces: Support for the mantle plume hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldmacher, J.; Hoernle, K.; Bogaard, P. v. d.; Duggen, S.; Werner, R.

    2005-08-01

    The role of mantle plumes in the formation of intraplate volcanic islands and seamount chains is being increasingly questioned. Particular examples are the abundant and somewhat irregularly distributed island and seamount volcanoes off the coast of northwest Africa. New 40Ar / 39Ar ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of volcanic rocks from seamounts northeast of the Madeira Islands (Seine and Unicorn) and northeast of the Canary Islands (Dacia and Anika), however, provide support for the plume hypothesis. The oldest ages of shield stage volcanism from Canary and Madeira volcanic provinces confirm progressions of increasing age to the northeast. Average volcanic age progression of ∼1.2 cm/a is consistent with rotation of the African plate at an angular velocity of ∼0.20° ± 0.05 /Ma around a common Euler pole at approximately 56° N, 45° W computed for the period of 0-35 Ma. A Euler pole at 35° N, 45° W is calculated for the time interval of 35-64 Ma. The isotope geochemistry further confirms that the Madeira and Canary provinces are derived from different sources, consistent with distinct plumes having formed each volcanic group. Conventional hotspot models, however, cannot easily explain the up to 40 m.y. long volcanic history at single volcanic centers, long gaps in volcanic activity, and the irregular distribution of islands and seamounts in the Canary province. A possible explanation could involve interaction of the Canary mantle plume with small-scale upper mantle processes such as edge-driven convection. Juxtaposition of plume and non-plume volcanism could also account for observed inconsistencies of the classical hotspot concept in other volcanic areas.

  6. PelA Deacetylase Activity Is Required for Pel Polysaccharide Synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelly M.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Baker, Perrin; Whitney, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The Pel polysaccharide serves as an intercellular adhesin for the formation and maintenance of biofilms in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pel biosynthesis requires the products of a seven-gene operon, pelA-pelG, all of which are necessary for Pel-dependent biofilm formation and Pel-related phenotypes. One of the genes, pelA, encodes a protein with a predicted polysaccharide deacetylase domain. In this work, the role of the putative deacetylase domain in Pel production was examined. We first established that purified recombinant PelA hydrolyzed the pseudosubstrate p-nitrophenyl acetate in vitro, and site-specific mutations of predicted deacetylase active-site residues reduced activity greater than 10-fold. Additionally, these mutants were deficient in Pel-dependent biofilm formation and wrinkly colony morphology in vivo. Subcellular fractionation experiments demonstrate that PelA localizes to both the membrane and periplasmic fractions. Finally, antiserum against the Pel polysaccharide was generated, and PelA deacetylase mutants do not produce Pel-reactive material. Taken together, these results suggest that the deacetylase activity of PelA is important for the production of the Pel polysaccharide. PMID:23504011

  7. Impact of a Dengue Outbreak Experience in the Preventive Perceptions of the Community from a Temperate Region: Madeira Island, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island. After Madeira’s first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined ‘minimal understanding’’. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new

  8. Strengthening the perception-assessment tools for dengue prevention: a cross-sectional survey in a temperate region (Madeira, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community participation is mandatory in the prevention of Dengue outbreaks. Taking public views into account is crucial to guide more effective planning and quicker community participation in preventing campaigns. This study aims to assess community perceptions of Madeira population in order to explore their involvement in the A. aegypti’s control and reinforce health-educational planning. Due to the lack of accurate methodologies for measuring perception, a new tool to assess the community’s perceptions was built. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in the Island’s aegypti-infested area, exploring residents’ perceptions regarding most critical community behaviour: aegypti-source reduction and their domestic aegypti-breeding sites. A novel tool defining five essential topics which underlie the source reduction’s awareness and accession was built, herein called Essential-Perception (EP) analysis. Results Of 1276 individuals, 1182 completed the questionnaire (92 · 6%). EP-Score analysis revealed that community’s perceptions were scarce, inconsistent and possibly incorrect. Most of the population (99 · 6%) did not completely understood the five essential topics explored. An average of 54 · 2% of residents only partially understood each essential topic, revealing inconsistencies in their understanding. Each resident apparently believed in an average of four false assumptions/myths. Significant association (p<0.001) was found between both the EP-Score level and the domestic presence of breeding sites, supporting the validity of this EP-analysis. Aedes aegypti’s breeding sites, consisting of décor/leisure containers, presented an atypical pattern of infestation comparing with dengue prone regions. Conclusions The studied population was not prepared for being fully engaged in dengue prevention. Evidences suggest that EP-methodology was efficient and accurate in assessing the community perception and its compliance to

  9. Elevated mercury concentrations in soils, sediments, water, and fish of the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon: a function of natural enrichments?

    PubMed

    Lechler, P J; Miller, J R; Lacerda, L D; Vinson, D; Bonzongo, J C; Lyons, W B; Warwick, J J

    2000-10-01

    Previous site-specific investigations have found that mercury concentrations in water, sediments, and biota of the Brazilian Amazon are elevated above global averages, and that these concentrations are a direct result of widespread mercury amalgamation mining operations conducted by non-organized prospectors. In order to assess the regional impacts of Hg contamination from these non-organized gold mining activities, water, sediments, and fish were systematically collected in 1997 along a 900-km reach of the Madeira River. The sampling program extended from the Amazon River upstream to Porto Velho, the site of historic and ongoing mercury amalgamation mining. Mercury concentrations were found to be elevated above global averages in all sampled media. However, the geochemical data suggest that the high mercury levels are due largely to natural sources and natural biogeochemical processes, and that the impacts of anthropogenically released mercury from mine sites is relatively localized. PMID:11032118

  10. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  11. 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone levels in fortified Madeira wines: relationship to sugar content.

    PubMed

    Câmara, José Sousa; Marques, José C; Alves, María A; Silva Ferreira, Antonio C

    2004-11-01

    The maturation of Madeira wines usually involves exposure to relatively high temperatures and humidity levels >70%, which affect the aroma and flavor composition and lead to the formation of the typical and characteristic bouquet of these wines. To estimate the levels of sotolon [3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] and their behavior over time, 86 aged Madeira wines samples (1-25 years old), with different sugar concentrations, respectively, 90 g L(-)(1) for Boal, 110 g L(-)(1) for Malvazia, 25 g L(-)(1) for Sercial, and 65 g L(-)(1) for Verdelho varieties, were analyzed. Isolation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane followed by chromatographic analysis by GC-MS. The reproducibility of the method was found to be 4.9%. The detection and quantification limits were 1.2 and 2.0 microg L(-)(1), respectively. The levels of sotolon found ranged from not detected to 2000 microg L(-)(1) for wines between 1 and 25 years old. It was observed that during aging, the concentration of sotolon increased with time in a linear fashion (r = 0.917). The highest concentration of sotolon was found in wines with the highest residual sugar contents, considering the same time of storage. The results show that there is a strong correlation between sotolon and sugar derivatives: furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 5-ethoxymethylfurfural. These compounds are also well correlated with wine aging. These findings indicate that the kinetics of sotolon formation is closely related with residual sugar contents, suggesting that this molecule may come from a component like sugar. PMID:15506814

  12. Preparation of 4-arm star PELA and its encapsulation of rotavirus for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Qingcong, Li; Xiaoxia, Pan; Hongli, Li; Minglong, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    A relatively high molecular weight of 4-arm star PELA was obtained by ring-opening polymerization of l-lactic acid O-carboxyanhydride with 4-arm-PEG in the presence of DMAP as an initiator. The results via(1)H NMR and (13)C NMR show that the end of the star PELA chain is a hydroxyl group and the central core is a PEG group. Rotavirus (strain SA11) was incorporated into 4-arm star PELA microspheres formulated by the water in oil in water emulsification solvent extraction method. The microspheres produced were spherical, and the mean diameter was 1.34 μm with a narrow size distribution. The drug release profile displayed a low burst release effect of 1.8% on the first day and a sustained release of antigen over 100 days. After the immunization of mice, the microsphere-entrapped RV elicited improved and long-lasting IgA and IgG antibody response in serum detected by ELISA in comparison to the free RV antigen. This study shows that 4-arm-PEG is an effective initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of Lac-OCA by DMAP as an initiator and that the resulting polymer is useful as a delivery system for the rotavirus vaccine. PMID:26073940

  13. Effects of sequentially released BMP-2 and BMP-7 from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds on the bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xialin; Yi, Weihong; Jin, Anmin; Duan, Yang; Min, Shaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are helpful for the therapy of large bone defects and provide an alternative to autogenous bone and allografts. Recently, multiple growth factors are delivered to mimic the natural process of bone healing in the bone tissue engineering. Herein, we investigated the effects of sequential released bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) from polylactide-poly (ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PELA) microcapsule-based scaffolds on the bone regeneration. Through improving the double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, BMP-7 was encapsulated in PELA microcapsules, to the surface of which BMP-2 was attached. Then, the scaffold (BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7) was fused by these microcapsules with dichloromethane vapor method. In vitro, it sequentially delivered bioactive BMP-2 and BMP-7 and partially imitated the profile of BMPs expression during the fracture healing. To determine the bioactivity of released BMP-2 and BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was analyzed in MC3T3-E1 cells. When compared with simple BMP-2 plus BMP-7group and pure PELA group, the AKP activity in BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7 group significantly increased. MTT assay indicated the BMP-loaded PELA scaffold had no adverse effects on cell activity. In addition, the effects of BMP-loaded scaffolds were also investigated in a rat femoral defect model by micro-computed tomographic (mCT) and histological examination. At 4 and 8 weeks post-implantation, BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7 significantly promoted osteogenesis as compared to other groups. The scaffold underwent gradual degradation and replacement by new bones at 8 weeks. Our findings suggest that the sequential release of BMP-2 and BMP-7from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds is promising for the therapy of bone defects. PMID:26396672

  14. Mathematical modelling of the transport of a poorly sorted granular mixture as a debris-flow. The case of Madeira Island torrential floods in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Oliveira, Rodrigo P.; Conde, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    On the 20th February 2010, heavy rainfall was registered at Madeira Island, North Atlantic. Stony debris flows, mudflows and mudslides ensued causing severe property loss, 1.5 m thick sediment deposits at downtown Funchal including 16th century monuments, and a death toll of 47 lives. Debris-flow fronts propagated downstream while carrying very high concentrations of solid material. These two-phase solid-fluid flows were responsible for most of the infrastructural damage across the island, due to their significantly increased mass and momentum. The objective of the present modelling work is to validate a 2DH model for torrential flows featuring the transport and interaction of several size fractions of a poorly-sorted granular mixture typical of stony debris flow in Madeira. The module for the transport of poorly-sorted material was included in STAV-2D (CERIS-IST), a shallow-water and morphology solver based on a finite-volume method using a flux-splitting technique featuring a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, with appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. STAV-2D also includes formulations of flow resistance and bedload transport adequate for debris-flows with natural mobile beds (Ferreira et al., 2009) and has been validated with both theoretical solutions and laboratory data (Soares-Frazão et al., 2012; Canelas et al., 2013). The modelling of the existing natural and built environment is fully explicit. All buildings, streets and channels are accurately represented within the mesh geometry. Such detail is relevant for the reliability of the validation using field data, since the major sedimentary deposits within the urban meshwork of Funchal were identified and characterized in terms of volume and grain size distribution during the aftermath of the 20th February of 2010 event. Indeed, the measure of the quality of the numerical results is the agreement between simulated and estimated volume of deposited sediment and between estimated and

  15. Fertility assessment in hybrids between monobrachially homologous Rb races of the house mouse from the island of Madeira: implications for modes of chromosomal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, A C; Catalan, J; Lopez, J; Ramalhinho, M da Graça; Mathias, M da Luz; Britton-Davidian, J

    2011-01-01

    The speciation model of divergence by monobrachially homologous fusions (that is, with one arm in common) benefits from a wide conceptual acceptance, because heterozygotes between populations carrying such fusions suffer from high levels of meiotic dysfunction. The same meiotic configurations can also be generated by WART (whole-arm reciprocal translocation), rearrangements that are known to occur in mammals. Estimating the disadvantage of heterozygotes carrying monobrachially homologous fusions is required to evaluate the relevance of this mode of chromosomal evolution in diversification and speciation. House mice are an excellent study models because chromosomal races exist carrying monobrachially homologous fusions, and WARTs have been documented in this species. The fertility of heterozygote mice carrying the smallest number of monobrachially homologous fusions (that is, a chain of four chromosomes, C4) was investigated in laboratory-bred hybrids between two parapatric chromosomal races from the island of Madeira. Meiotic nondisjunction analyses and histological sections of testes showed that aneuploidy (16.7%) and germ cell death (50.9%) rates reached significantly higher mean values in hybrids than in homozygotes. In females, however, the histological analysis of ovarian follicle parameters revealed no significant differences between hybrid and homozygous individuals. Overall, the reproductive assays indicated that these C4-carrying hybrids were not sterile but showed an approximately 50% decrease in fertility compared to homozygous parental mice. Implications for modes of chromosomal evolution involving monobrachially homologous fusions are discussed. PMID:20531448

  16. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of selected fruits from Madeira Island by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and screening for their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Spínola, Vítor; Pinto, Joana; Castilho, Paula C

    2015-04-15

    Five fruits species commonly cultivated and consumed in Madeira Island (Portugal) were investigated for their phenolic profile by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) and antioxidant potential. A large number of compounds were characterised, flavonoids and phenolic acids being the major components found in target samples, 39 compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, cyanogenic glycosides and organic acids) were identified in cherimoyas, lemons, papayas, passion-fruits and strawberries for the first time. Furthermore, all samples were systematically analysed for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents along with two radical scavenging methods (ABTS and ORAC) for antioxidant activity measurement. Target fruits presented high phenolic contents which is responsible for most of the antioxidant activity against radical reactive species (R(2)>0.80). Quantitative data showed that anthocyanins, in particular pelargonidin-3-O-hexoside (>300 mg/100 mL), present only in strawberries were the compounds in largest amounts but are the ones which contribute less to the antioxidant activity. PMID:25465990

  17. Fertility assessment in hybrids between monobrachially homologous Rb races of the house mouse from the island of Madeira: implications for modes of chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Nunes, A C; Catalan, J; Lopez, J; Ramalhinho, M da Graça; Mathias, M da Luz; Britton-Davidian, J

    2011-02-01

    The speciation model of divergence by monobrachially homologous fusions (that is, with one arm in common) benefits from a wide conceptual acceptance, because heterozygotes between populations carrying such fusions suffer from high levels of meiotic dysfunction. The same meiotic configurations can also be generated by WART (whole-arm reciprocal translocation), rearrangements that are known to occur in mammals. Estimating the disadvantage of heterozygotes carrying monobrachially homologous fusions is required to evaluate the relevance of this mode of chromosomal evolution in diversification and speciation. House mice are an excellent study models because chromosomal races exist carrying monobrachially homologous fusions, and WARTs have been documented in this species. The fertility of heterozygote mice carrying the smallest number of monobrachially homologous fusions (that is, a chain of four chromosomes, C4) was investigated in laboratory-bred hybrids between two parapatric chromosomal races from the island of Madeira. Meiotic nondisjunction analyses and histological sections of testes showed that aneuploidy (16.7%) and germ cell death (50.9%) rates reached significantly higher mean values in hybrids than in homozygotes. In females, however, the histological analysis of ovarian follicle parameters revealed no significant differences between hybrid and homozygous individuals. Overall, the reproductive assays indicated that these C4-carrying hybrids were not sterile but showed an approximately 50% decrease in fertility compared to homozygous parental mice. Implications for modes of chromosomal evolution involving monobrachially homologous fusions are discussed. PMID:20531448

  18. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. PMID:24704345

  19. Genetic diversity and variability in populations of the white wax insect Ericerus pela, assessed by AFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; He, R; Wang, Z L; Wang, S Y; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z C; Chen, X M

    2015-01-01

    The white wax insect Ericerus pela Chavannes (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) is an economically valuable insect species that has been used for over a thousand years in China. The present study focuses on assessing the genetic variability in different populations of E. pela collected from seven Chinese provinces. The amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to generate DNA fingerprints of individuals from each population using nine primer combinations (EcoRI-MseI). A total of 435 polymorphic loci were generated; fragment sizes ranged from 200 to 1000 bp. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 85.29%. Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon index indicated consistency in the results, which showed that the Sichuan population had the highest diversity, followed by Yunnan and Zhejiang populations. Dendrogram analysis showed the shortest genetic distance between the Sichuan and Yunnan populations, suggesting that they probably form sister groups. High genetic differentiation between population values among all sampled populations indicated a low degree of genetic variability within each population (40.85%) and higher variation among populations (59.15%). Gene flow estimate values were low in all samples, suggesting low gene flow from events such as interbreeding and migration. Low gene flow values also suggested that populations among species of E. pela might become genetically heterogeneous, due to counteracting forces such as strong differential selection. Our data support the probability that E. pela will remain localized, and has a low potential to spread beyond current habitats. PMID:26782427

  20. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Príncipe.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Tamira; Brehm, António; Fernandes, Ana Teresa

    2006-12-01

    There is evidence that the CCR5-delta32 mutation confers protection against HIV-1 infection to homozygous individuals. It is believed that this mutation spread through Europe with the Vikings and that it has been subjected to positive selection, leading to a high frequency in Europe (approximately 10%). We carried out the present study to determine the 32-bp deletion allele and genotype frequencies of the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Principe. These Atlantic archipelagos were all colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries, but the latter two received most of their settlers from the West African coast. The frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation varies between 0% in São Tomé e Príncipe and 16.5% in the Azores. The Azores Islands have one of the highest frequencies of homozygotes found in Europe (4.8%). There are significant differences (P < 0.05) between some of these populations, for example, between São Tomé e Príncipe and Cabo Verde, and even within populations (e.g., Portugal, Madeira, and the Azores). PMID:17564248

  1. The Intersection between the Gloria Transform Fault and the Tore-Madeira Rise in the NE Atlantic: New Tectonic Insights from Analog Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, F. M.; Tomas, R.; Duarte, J. C.; Schellart, W. P.; Terrinha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The intersection between the Gloria Fault (GF) and the Tore-Madeira rise (TMR) in NE Atlantic marks a transition from a discrete to a diffuse nature along a critical segment of the Eurasia/Africa plate boundary. To the West of such intersection, approximately since the Azores triple junction, this plate boundary is mostly characterized by a set of closely aligned and continuous strike-slip faults that make up the narrow active dextral transcurrent system of the GF (with high magnitude M>7 historical earthquakes). While intersecting the TMR the closely E-W trending trace of the GF system is slightly deflected (changing to WNW-ESE), and splays into several fault branches that often coincide with aligned (TMR related?) active volcanic plugs. The segment of the plate boundary between the TMR and the Gorringe Bank (further to the East) corresponds to a more complex (less discrete) tectonic configuration, within which the tectonic connection between the Gloria Fault and another major dextral transcurrent system (the so called SWIM system) occurs. This SWIM fault system has been described to extend even further to the East (almost until the Straits of Gibraltar) across the Gulf of Cadiz domain. In this domain the relative movement between the Eurasian and the African plates is thought to be accommodated through a diffuse manner, involving large scale strain partition between a dextral transcurrent fault-system (the SWIM system), and a set of active west-directed én-échelon major thrusts extending to the North along the SW Iberian margin. We present new analog modeling results, in which we employed different experimental settings to address (namely) the following main questions (as a first step to gain new insight on the tectonic evolution of the TRM-GF critical intersection area): Could the observed morphotectonic configuration of such intersection be simply caused by a bathymetric anomaly determined by a postulated thickened oceanic crust, or is it more compatible with

  2. Characteristics of Polygalacturonate Lyase C from Bacillus subtilis 7-3-3 and Its Synergistic Action with PelA in Enzymatic Degumming

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Mouyong; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    An alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL) from Bacillus subtilis 7-3-3, PelC, with diverse depolymerization abilities for different pectin substrates was found. The PGL activity of PelC decreased with increasing degree of methyl esterification of the substrate. PelA and PelC displayed notable synergistic effects in the enzymatic degumming of ramie fibers. Gum loss rates increased by 62% when PelC was used to replace up to three-eighths of the PelA dose (PelC, 60 U g−1 ramie fibers). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the synergistic action of members of polysaccharide lyase families 1 and 3, represented by PelA and PelC, respectively. The present paper provides new insights into the improvement and production of enzymes used in enzymatic degumming. PMID:24236123

  3. Biochemical characteristics of an alkaline pectate lyase PelA from Volvariella volvacea: roles of the highly conserved N-glycosylation site in its secretion and activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Aiqin; Hu, Hang; Zheng, Fei; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    Alkaline pectate lyases have great application potential in the bioscouring of textiles. They are isolated predominantly from bacteria and a few fungi. Here, we report the biochemical characteristics of a novel alkaline pectate lyase PelA from the basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea. The full-length pelA encodes a 321-amino-acid polypeptide containing a putative 18-residue signal peptide and a pectate lyase family 1 catalytic domain. It contains one conserved and one non-conserved potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) at the residues N95 and N198, respectively. The enzyme showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 10, although it was stable between pH 4 and pH 11. Additional Ca(2+) was not required to measure PelA activity in vitro, but it could significantly enhance its activity and thermal stability. The V max values using polygalacturonic acid as substrate were increased from 50.71 to 89.96 IU mg(-1) by the addition of 0.1 mM Ca(2+), whereas the K m values were decreased from 0.681 to 0.514 mg ml(-1). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed PelA has only one N-glycan attached to the residue N95. This N-glycan is crucial to its efficient secretion and activity possibly due to its role in maintaining the secondary structure of PelA. Amino acid substitution at the residue N198 had no effect on PelA secretion, but resulted in a slight (5.16 %) to modest (27.37 %) decrease in specific activity and less thermal stability, indicating the amino acid itself is also important for activity due to it being highly conserved and because of its proximity to the catalytic site. PMID:25341402

  4. Analogue modelling of strike-slip fault propagation across a rheological/morphological crustal anisotropy: implications for the morphotectonic evolution of the Gloria Fault - Tore Madeira Rise area in NE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe M.; Duarte, João C.; Terrinha, Pedro; Kullberg, Maria C.; Almeida, Jaime; Barata, Frederico; Carvalho, Bruno; Almeida, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The Gloria Fault (GF) marks the E-W dextral transcurrent plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in NE Atlantic, displaying complying high magnitude (historical and instrumental) seismic activity (e.g. M=7.1 in 1939 and M=8.4 in 1941, Bufforn et al., 1988), and cutting across a NNE-SSW 1000 km long bathymetric ridge: the so called Tore-Madeira Rise - TMR (rising in average 3km above the abyssal plain). The precise origin and tectono-magmatic evolution of the TMR is still not fully understood, although reported wide-angle refraction data points to a rheological configuration comprising an isostatically compensated thickened oceanic crust, possibly formed during a period of high accretion in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Pierce and Barton, 1991). Widespread evidence for volcanic activity has also been recognized, spanning from late Cretaceous to Present (Geldmacher et al. 2006, Merle et al. 2009), noticeably with the most recent volcanism (~500 Ky) occurring as tectonically aligned volcanic plugs, distributed along the E-W tectonic trend of the GF-related structures. To better understand the complex interference at play in this key area between the tectonic structures (essentially determined by the Gloria Fault system), the present and past magmatic activity and the resulting seafloor morphology, a series of dynamically scaled analogue modelling experiments have been conceived and carried out. The main focus of this experimental work was to decipher the potential influence of a rheological vs. morphological anisotropy (accounting for the TMR) on the lateral propagation of a major right-lateral strike-slip fault (representing the GF). The preliminary comparison of the obtained experimental results with the natural morphotectonic pattern in the study area reveals, not only a strong tectonic control of the ongoing volcanism, manifested by the observed preferred directions of aligned volcanic plugs, but also a so far unsuspected deflection/distributed pattern of several

  5. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  6. Historical Human Footprint on Modern Tree Species Composition in the Purus-Madeira Interfluve, Central Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Carolina; de Souza, Priscila Figueira; Schietti, Juliana; Emilio, Thaise; Pinto, José Luiz Purri da Veiga; Clement, Charles R.; Costa, Flavia R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Native Amazonian populations managed forest resources in numerous ways, often creating oligarchic forests dominated by useful trees. The scale and spatial distribution of forest modification beyond pre-Columbian settlements is still unknown, although recent studies propose that human impact away from rivers was minimal. We tested the hypothesis that past human management of the useful tree community decreases with distance from rivers. Methodology/Principal Findings In six sites, we inventoried trees and palms with DBH≥10 cm and collected soil for charcoal analysis; we also mapped archaeological evidence around the sites. To quantify forest manipulation, we measured the relative abundance, richness and basal area of useful trees and palms. We found a strong negative exponential relationship between forest manipulation and distance to large rivers. Plots located from 10 to 20 km from a main river had 20–40% useful arboreal species, plots between 20 and 40 km had 12–23%, plots more than 40 km had less than 15%. Soil charcoal abundance was high in the two sites closest to secondary rivers, suggesting past agricultural practices. The shortest distance between archaeological evidence and plots was found in sites near rivers. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly suggest that past forest manipulation was not limited to the pre-Columbian settlements along major rivers, but extended over interfluvial areas considered to be primary forest today. The sustainable use of Amazonian forests will be most effective if it considers the degree of past landscape domestication, as human-modified landscapes concentrate useful plants for human sustainable use and management today. PMID:23185264

  7. Exopolysaccharide production by a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain isolated from Madeira Archipelago ocean sediments.

    PubMed

    Roca, Christophe; Lehmann, Mareen; Torres, Cristiana A V; Baptista, Sílvia; Gaudêncio, Susana P; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-06-25

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are polymers excreted by some microorganisms with interesting properties and used in many industrial applications. A new Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain, MD12-642, was isolated from marine sediments and cultivated in bioreactor in saline culture medium containing glucose as carbon source. Its ability to produce EPS under saline conditions was demonstrated reaching an EPS production of 4.4g/L within 17hours of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 0.25g/Lh, the highest value so far obtained for Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains. The compositional analysis of the EPS revealed the presence of galacturonic acid (41-42mol%), glucuronic acid (25-26mol%), rhamnose (16-22mol%) and glucosamine (12-16mol%) sugar residues. The polymer presents a high molecular weight (above 1000kDa). These results encourage the biotechnological exploitation of strain MD12-642 for the production of valuable EPS with unique composition, using saline by-products/wastes as feedstocks. PMID:26923806

  8. Rockfall hazard assessment by using terrestrial laser scanning. A case study in Funchal (Madeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu Trung; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Domingos, Rodriguez; Wiatr, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    Rockfall hazard assessment in a high-relief volcanic environment is a difficult task, facing the challenge of missing standard rating systems and procedures. Likewise mountainous areas, further handicaps are a restricted accessibility to the rock faces and the high efforts in terms of time and labour force to identify and rate these problems. To develop a procedure for rockfall hazard assessment, the island of Maderia is a good research area to investigate rockfalls in a volcanic environment under sub-tropic humid climate conditions. As the entire island is characterised by high mountain ridges and steep deep valleys in lavaflows and tuff layers, the occurrence of rockfalls is a frequent and a serious problem. These hazards are the most frequent causing severe damage to infrastructure and fatalities. In this research, slopes in Funchal city have been mapped and investigated regarding their rock fall hazard potential. The analysed slopes are build-up of lava flows with column structures and intercalated breccias, pyroclatics or tuff layers. Many of the columns already lack basal support and show a wide joint spacing, threatening houses and streets in the city. TLS data acquisitions in May and December 2008 provide information for detailed structural analysis, detection of unstable areas within a slope and rockfall simulations. High resolution scans have been recorded on uncovered rock surfaces with detectable joints while in areas with dense vegetation a lower resolution has been chosen. Although it makes sense to scan an entire area with the best acquirable resolution, the resulting enormous data require powerful computing environments and will slow down data processing. To speed up the data processing, a conventional local digital elevation model (DEM) built up the geometric basic model. Its main disadvantage is that it is not possible to project overhanging parts or notches within the steep slopes which have an important influence on the accuracy of any rockfall simulations. By implantation of the high resolution scans of the TLS into the local DEM, an improvement close to a solely high-resolution digital elevation model (HRDEM) can be achieved. The rockfall hazard assessment starts by comparison of time-shifted datasets and with additional automatic jointing analysis. Based on this data 3-D displacements and associated kinematical failure mechanism can be identified. Using on this information, it becomes possible to determine specific parameters for numerical rockfall simulations like average block sizes, shape or potential sources. Including additional data like surface roughness the results of numerical rockfall simulations allow to classify different areas of hazard based on run-out distances, frequency of impacts and related kinetic energy. The analysis shows that rockfall favourable occurs in areas where notches and undercuts, due to the lesser erosionresistence of pyroclatics or tuff layers, appear. In case of a rockfall the typical blocks have a cylindrical shape, a volume of 1 m3 and are able to hit the entire area. The results can help to provide useful information for civil protection and engineering countermeasures. Repeated TLS scans on the same area will continue the observation and the progress of instability and mass movement occurrence.

  9. Environmental Literacy in Madeira Island (Portugal): The Influence of Demographic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinola, Hélder

    2016-01-01

    Demographic factors are among those that influence environmental literacy and, particularly, environmentally responsible behaviours, either directly or due to an aggregation effect dependent on other types of variables. Present study evaluates a set of demographic variables as predictors for environmental literacy among 9th grade students from…

  10. Environmental Literacy Comparison between Students Taught in Eco-Schools and Ordinary Schools in the Madeira Island Region of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinola, H.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of environmental education is to improve environmental literacy, including not just more knowledge but also a better attitude toward the environment and a higher prevalence of pro-environmental behaviours. The Eco-School Program is considered the world largest environmental education program for schools, but it keeps growing without…

  11. Levels of mercury in scalp hair of fishermen and their families from Camara de Lobos-Madeira (Portugal): A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Gaggi, C.; Zino, F.; Duccini, M.; Renzoni, A.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury is probably one of the most investigated natural and anthropogenic contaminants, especially in aquatic environments. Among the inorganic forms, elemental mercury (HgO) presents a marked tendency to reach the air as vapor, and in terrestrial systems to bioaccumulate in plant biomass, whereas other inorganic compounds (e.g., mercury sulphide) are characterized by low mobility and bioavailability. These last compounds once in water (and especially at the water-sediment interface) can undergo a process of methylation. Methylmercury (MeHg) is readily bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and leads to a phenomenon of enrichment from lower to higher trophic level. The extensive literature on MeHg and human health shows that the consumption of fish and/or shellfish is the main source of exposure, the contribution from air and water being negligible and mainly related to inorganic forms. A human population consuming large amounts of seafood with high MeHg levels can be considered at risk when consumption exceeds a certain amount. This level has been set by the WHO and other agencies, at 300 {mu}g/week of total mercury (totHg) of which there should be no more than 200 {mu}g as MeHg. The nervous system is the principal target of the effects of MeHg in humans. The most common functions affected are the sensory, visual and auditory functions, together with those of the cerebellum, which is concerned with coordination. As far as prenatal exposure is concerned, the developing central nervous system of humans and animals has been found to be more sensitive to damage from MeHg than the adult nervous system. This preliminary study obtains and examines information about eating habits and general health of a group of fisherman and their families living in a fishing village, at high risk because of the high frequency of seafood in their normal diet. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Datação do disco galáctico pela nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    A nucleocosmocronologia emprega abundâncias de nuclídeos radioativos na datação de escalas de tempo astrofísicas. O 232Th é um nuclídeo radioativo com meia-vida de 14 Gano, enquanto que os dois isótopos mais abundantes do Eu são estáveis. O decaimento radioativo do Th modifica as razões de abundâncias [Th/Eu], fornecendo assim um meio de sondar a escala de formação das populações estelares. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar a possibilidade de estimar uma idade para o disco Galáctico através da nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu] e investigar o nível de incerteza associado a esta estimativa. Para tanto, foi selecionada uma amostra de 20 estrelas anãs ou subgigantes de tipos espectrais F5 a G9, com -1,00 £ [Fe/H] £ +0,30 e idade(Gano) £ 13. As abundâncias de Th e Eu foram obtidas por síntese espectral das linhas localizadas em 4019,1 Å e 4129,7 Å, respectivamente. Uma comparação destas abundâncias com outros resultados da literatura demonstra que nossos valores apresentam dispersão 2 a 3 vezes menor que qualquer trabalho anterior. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias dos elementos que contaminam as regiões espectrais destas linhas foram determinados por nós, de maneira totalmente autoconsistente, através de análise espectral detalhada diferencial em relação ao Sol. As idades estelares individuais foram determinadas através de curvas isócronas teóricas no diagrama HR. Foi realizada, então, uma análise cronológica dos gráficos [Th/Eu] vs. [Fe/H] e [Th/Eu] vs. idade. Os dados estelares foram comparados a curvas calculadas para 3 idades do disco Galáctico - 9, 12, 15 Gano - e foi estudada a sensibilidade à idade assumida no cálculo do ajuste destas curvas aos dados. Estas curvas foram calculadas com base num modelo analítico de evolução química da Galáxia que leva em consideração a formação de refugos, que são compostos pelos remanescentes da evolução estelar, pelos resíduos da formação de estrelas de baixa massa (planetas, cometas, etc.) e por quaisquer outros objetos de massa não-estelar. A formação de resíduos tem o efeito indireto de diluir o meio interestelar, levando a um enriquecimento mais lento deste e a um bom ajuste de diversos vínculos da evolução química da Galáxia, como a distribuição de anãs-G e a relação idade-metalicidade. Os efeitos da destruição do Th por reações fotonucleares em interiores estelares também foram considerados.

  13. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  14. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  15. Farm It Out. An Interview with Steve Kramer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Assistant Superintendent Steve Kramer explains that the primary objective of privatization in Madeira (Ohio) schools was to create more time for administrators to spend on educational issues. Transportation, food service, and custodial services are run by private companies. (MLF)

  16. Molecular studies on the colonization of the Madeiran archipelago by house mice.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, I; Auffray, J C; Britton-Davidian, J; Catalan, J; Ganem, G; Ramalhinho, M G; Mathias, M L; Searle, J B

    2001-08-01

    To study the colonization history of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) on the Madeiran archipelago, complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences were obtained for 44 individuals from Madeira, Porto Santo and Ilhas Desertas. Altogether, 19 D-loop haplotypes were identified which formed part of a single clade in a phylogeny incorporating haplotypes from elsewhere in the range of M. m. domesticus, indicating that the Madeiras were colonized from a single source. Similarities between the sequences found in the Madeiras and those in Scandinavia and northern Germany suggest that northern Europe was the source area, and there is the intriguing possibility that the Vikings may have accidentally brought house mice to the archipelago. However, there is no record of Vikings visiting the Madeiras; on historical grounds, Portugal is the most likely source area for Madeiran mice and further molecular data from Portugal are needed to rule out that possibility. PMID:11555245

  17. 22 CFR 89.1 - Prohibitions on Longshore work by U.S. nationals; listing by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Azores and Madeira) (a) All longshore activities. (b) Exceptions: (1) Military operations, (2) Operations... equipment and line handling by the crews of bulk vessels calling at private terminals, (3) Opening...

  18. 22 CFR 89.1 - Prohibitions on Longshore work by U.S. nationals; listing by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Azores and Madeira) (a) All longshore activities. (b) Exceptions: (1) Military operations, (2) Operations... equipment and line handling by the crews of bulk vessels calling at private terminals, (3) Opening...

  19. 22 CFR 89.1 - Prohibitions on Longshore work by U.S. nationals; listing by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Azores and Madeira) (a) All longshore activities. (b) Exceptions: (1) Military operations, (2) Operations... equipment and line handling by the crews of bulk vessels calling at private terminals, (3) Opening...

  20. 22 CFR 89.1 - Prohibitions on Longshore work by U.S. nationals; listing by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Azores and Madeira) (a) All longshore activities. (b) Exceptions: (1) Military operations, (2) Operations... equipment and line handling by the crews of bulk vessels calling at private terminals, (3) Opening...

  1. Sunny Side Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Energy conservation high on the client's priority list led to a solar collector roof for the new science building at the Madeira School, located in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C. (Author/MLF)

  2. Monitoring water level in large trans-boundary ungauged basins with altimetry: the example of ENVISAT over the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Frederique; Calmant, Stephane; da Silva, Joecila; Filizola, Naziano; Roux, Emmanuel; Cochonneau, Gerard; Vauchel, Philippe; Bonnet, Marie-Paule

    2009-01-01

    Brasil and Bolivia have water plans projects on the Beni-Madeira river, a major tributary of the Amazon. There are four main tributaries to the Rio Madeira: the Guapore, the Mamore and the Beni rivers into the Bolivian territory, and the Madre de Dios River crossing the North of Bolivia, coming from Peru. Most parts of these rivers are very far from the Andean capital cities of Bolivia and Peru, unreachable for long periods of time. Very few gauging stations are in operation, either for the Bolivian or the Peruvian part, most of them being located at the Andes piedmont or near the confluence at the Brazilian border as they form the Madeira river. This situation is exemplary of large transboundary basins in the tropical part of the world. We have computed 39 water level time series using ENVISAT altimetry data over the four tributaries of the Madeira and the Madeira itself. We present a preliminary study mostly conducted onto the Guapore river, in order to assess the quality of these time series for a variety of situations, but mostly narrow and meandering riverbeds. Comparison between water levels variation in the mainstream and within the inundations plains and lakes are drawn. We conclude by the perspectives offered by the combined use of radar altimetry and SAR imagery for the global monitoring of water resources, in large tropical transboundary basins.

  3. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion. PMID:26242952

  4. “BIOLOGY AND HOST SPECIFICITY OF PLECTONYCHA CORRENTINA LACORDAIRE (CHRYSOMELIDAE), A CANDIDATE FOR THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TENORE) STEENIS (BASELLACEAE) ”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis (Basellaceae) is a perennial climber native to southern South America. Known as Madeira vine, it has become a serious environmental weed in Australia, South Africa, Hawaii, New Zealand and other Pacific islands, where it forms mats over trees and shrubs disruptin...

  5. The SWAT Team: Successfully Integrating Technology into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathey, Marcy E.

    The Madeira School (McLean, Virginia) had been behind on advanced technology as compared to many of its competitor schools. In the fall of 1996, the cornerstone for the Savvy With All Technology (SWAT) team program was laid. The idea of SWAT was to infiltrate departments with technology specialists and users so that technology would be used across…

  6. Vaccinium Species of Section Hemimyrtillus: Their value to cultivated blueberry and approaches to utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Section Hemimyrtillus represents species that are part of the tertiary gene pool of Vaccinium. Two species of Section Hemimyrtillus, native to the Portuguese islands of Madeira (V. padifolium Smith), and the Azores (V. cylindraceum Smith) have features of notable value to conventional blueberry deve...

  7. 77 FR 45656 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Pistoia Alliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... 6(b) of the Act on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34364). The last notification was filed with the Department... on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28404). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division... circumstances. Specifically, Certara L.P. Portugal, Funchal, Madeira, PORTUGAL; Deloitte Consulting LLP,...

  8. Distribution of HLA alleles in Portugal and Cabo Verde. Relationships with the slave trade route.

    PubMed

    Spínola, H; Brehm, A; Williams, F; Jesus, J; Middleton, D

    2002-07-01

    HLA-A, -B, and -DR frequencies were analysed in populations from Portugal and the Madeira and Cabo Verde Archipelagos, aiming to characterize their genetic composition. Portuguese settlers colonized both Archipelagos in the 15th and 16th centuries. Madeira received many sub-Saharan slaves to work in the sugar plantations, and Cabo Verde served as a pivotal market in the Atlantic slave trade and was populated by individuals coming from the Senegambia region of the West African coast. The population of Madeira shows the highest genetic diversity and the presence of alleles and haplotypes usually linked to sub-Saharan populations, the haplotypes accounting for 3.5% of the total. Cabo Verde presents typical markers acknowledged to be of European or Ibero-Mediterranean origin, thus revealing the admixture of European settlers with Sub-Saharan slaves. Altogether the number of European haplotypes reaches 15% of the total. The Portuguese population shows a perceivable and significant heterogeneity both in allele and haplotype frequencies, unveiling a differential input of peoples from different origins. A PCA of the populations studied, plus other relevant ones, clearly shows gene heterogeneity in mainland Portugal as well as the differences and relationships between these populations and Madeira and Cabo Verde. PMID:12418969

  9. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  10. The family experience of care in chronic situation.

    PubMed

    Bellato, Roseney; Araújo, Laura Filomena Santos de; Dolina, Janderléia Valéria; Musquim, Cleciene Dos Anjos; Corrêa, Geovana Hagata de Lima Souza Thaines

    2016-06-01

    An essay that aims to reflect on the family experience of care in chronic situation, increasing the understanding of the family as the primary caregiver. It is based on comprehensive approach in studies conducted in three matrix searches from family care experiences. We have taken three axes to organize our reflections: a) conformation of family care in chronic situation, highlighting the multiple costs incurred to the family, which can exhaust the potential of care and establish or increase its vulnerability if it is not backed by networks support and sustenance; b) family rearrangements for the care, giving visibility to care cores in which many loved family members share the care, dynamic, plural and changeable way; c) self care modeling family care, pointing to the range of possibilities of the person taking care of diseased conditions supported by people close to them. We learn that the family takes care of itself in everyday life and in the illness experience, creating networks that can provide you support and sustenance. Thus, professionals in health practices should shape up in a longitudinal and very personal way, by reference to the family care, supporting him in what is his own. Ensaio que tem por objetivo refletir sobre a experiência familiar de cuidado na situação crônica, ampliando a compreensão da família como cuidadora primária. Embasa-se em estudos de abordagem compreensiva realizados em três pesquisas matriciais que abordaram experiências familiares de cuidado. Tomamos três eixos para organizar nossas reflexões: a) conformação do cuidado familiar na situação crônica, destacando os múltiplos custos gerados à família, que podem exaurir seus potenciais de cuidado, instaurando ou ampliando sua vulnerabilidade se não for amparada por redes de apoio e sustentação; b) rearranjos familiares para o cuidado, dando visibilidade aos núcleos de cuidado compartilhados pelos diversos entes familiares, de modo dinâmico, plural e mut

  11. Seasonal and provenance controls on Nd Sr isotopic compositions of Amazon rivers suspended sediments and implications for Nd and Sr fluxes exported to the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viers, Jérôme; Roddaz, Martin; Filizola, Naziano; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Sondag, Francis; Brunet, Pierre; Zouiten, Cyril; Boucayrand, Carole; Martin, François; Boaventura, Géraldo Resende

    2008-10-01

    This study reports daily water discharge and suspended sediment load concentrations and Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics and major and trace elements concentrations of twelve monthly sampled suspended load sediments of the Solimões and Madeira rivers, the two major Andean tributaries of the Amazon, during the year 2004. As observed in other long-term monitoring studies of Amazon Rivers, the maximum of suspended sediment load occurs before or during the rising water period (i.e. during the rainy season). In 2004, the Solimões River exported ˜ 289 × 10 6 tonnes of suspended sediments and the Madeira River 294 × 10 6 tonnes which correspond to erosion rates of 129 and 214 T/km 2/yr for the Solimoes and Madeira rivers basins, respectively. Both the Solimoes and Madeira suspended sediments are enriched in LREE over HREE and exhibit similar MREE enrichment; the difference being that the Madeira sediments are more fractionated than the Solimoes ones. When plotted in Al 2O 3-CaO + Na 2O-K 2O diagram, the suspended sediments of the Solimoes and Madeira rivers exhibit two different weathering trends which suggests that these sediments evolved along two different trends starting from felsic rocks with different chemical compositions. The Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd) of the Solimoes sediments (- 8.9 to 9.9) are slightly more radiogenic than the corresponding values of the Madeira sediments (- 10.8 to - 12.1). The 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic compositions of the Madeira sediments (0.728 to 0.740) are significantly more radiogenic than those of the Solimoes (0.713 to 0.717). Together with other major elements and REE evidences, these isotopic compositions suggest that the Solimoes sediments are more influenced by Andean volcanic arc detritus than the Madeira sediments that might be due to input of young basaltic products owing to strong volcanic activity in Ecuador. Mineralogical compositions as well as Nd isotopic compositions do not vary seasonally. Based on our data set

  12. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente

  13. Performance comparison of mid-aperture broadband arrays at an ocean island and in the deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, Katrin; Krüger, Frank; Dahm, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Between 2011 and 2012, three mid-aperture broadband arrays were deployed on the island of Madeira, in western Portugal, and north of the Gloria fault in the Mid Atlantic within the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test ARray) project. Here, we compare performance parameters for the ocean island array on Madeira and the deep ocean array. The Madeira array consists of 24 temporary stations (12 broadband stations (8 Guralp 60s & 4 STS2), 12 temporary LE3D 5s stations). The mean inter-station distance is about 5 km and the array has an aperture of about 20 by 40 km on the island of Madeira if the broadband station(STS2) on the nearby island of Desertas is excluded. Furthermore, there are 3 permanent stations installed on Madeira (one Guralp 120s and 2 LE3D 5s) and 2 on the neighbouring island Porto Santo (one Guralp 120s and one LE3D 5S). The deep ocean array consists of 12 ocean bottom stations (broadband seismometer (Guralp 60s) combined with a HTI hydrophone (DEPAS type instruments)) and was deployed at the sea floor close to the Gloria fault between 5000 m and 4000 m water depth. The inter-station distance was about 10 km and the aperture about 70 km. One purpose of the experiment is to test the possible advantage of ocean bottom arrays in comparison to ocean island installations. Therefore, we compare different aspects: (1) the experimental effort and the specific problems of data processing (e.g. data loss, clock drift and station location problematic in case of the deep ocean array). Special emphasis will be given to the orientation of three component stations by waveform comparison methods and results from the use of a portable Gyrocompass on Madeira. (2) the ambient noise spectra as a function of frequency and time, (3) examples of fk analysis and the specific problems on the ocean floor and volcanic, oceanic islands (topography and scattering effects). (4) detection thresholds and frequency content of local and regional events. The presentation finally gives our

  14. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b). PMID:27470724

  15. A tribute to Robert Willan in Bloomsbury Square.

    PubMed

    Walker, S L

    2011-08-01

    Robert Willan is commemorated by a blue plaque on the house in which he lived in Bloomsbury Square in London. He lived there during a productive period of his career, until ill-health caused him to travel to Madeira, where he died. This fitting tribute to Willan is the result of the efforts of Dr. Henry MacCormac, himself an eminent British dermatologist of the first half of the 20th century. PMID:21771020

  16. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  17. Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: Potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Tânia Gonçalves; Santos, Filipa; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Beatriz Oliveira, M; Bento, Ana Cristina; Costa, Helena S

    2016-02-15

    Annona cherimola Mill., commonly known as cherimoya, is a tropical fruit well known due to its tasty flavour. In the present study the antioxidant activity of pulp, peel and seeds of four cultivars from A. cherimola Mill. from Madeira Island (Madeira, Funchal, Perry Vidal and Mateus II) was analysed. Moreover, nutritional composition (proximates and vitamins) and bioactive compounds content were determined. The peel of Madeira cultivar showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with an EC50 of 0.97mg/mL, and total flavonoids (44.7 epicatechin equivalents/100g). The most abundant carotenoid was lutein, with values ranging from 129 to 232μg/100g. The highest l-ascorbic acid content (4.41mg/100g) was found in the peel of Perry Vidal cultivar. These results highlight A. cherimola Mill. antioxidant properties, especially in its by-products and encourage their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food processing industries, as added value natural extracts. PMID:26433307

  18. Madeira—a tourist destination for asthma sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Irene; Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Camacho, Roberto; Berenguer, Pedro; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    Madeira Island is a famous tourist destination due to its natural and climatic values. Taking into account optimal weather conditions, flora richness and access to various substrates facilitating fungal growth, we hypothesised a very high risk of elevated fungal spore and pollen grain concentrations in the air of Funchal, the capital of Madeira. Concentration levels of the most allergenic taxa were measured from 2003 to 2009, using a 7-day volumetric air sampler, followed by microscopy analysis. Dependence of bioaerosols on the weather conditions and land use were assessed using spatial and statistical tools. Obtained results were re-visited by a comparison with hospital admission data recorded at the Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital in Funchal. Our results showed that despite propitious climatic conditions, overall pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations in the air were very low and did not exceed any clinically established threshold values. Pollen and spore peak concentrations also did not match with asthma outbreaks in the winter. Identification of places that are "free" from biological air pollution over the summer, such as Madeira Island, is very important from the allergic point of view.

  19. A useful approach for the differentiation of wines according to geographical origin based on global volatile patterns.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Silva, Catarina; Câmara, José S

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in tandem with partial least squares discriminant analysis was evaluated as a useful strategy to differentiate wines according to geographical origin (Azores, Canary and Madeira Islands) and types (white, red and fortified wine) based on their global volatile patterns. For this purpose, 34 monovarietal wines from these three wine grape-growing regions were investigated, combining the high throughput extraction efficiency of the solid-phase extraction procedure with the separation and identification ability. The partial least squares discriminant analysis results suggested that Madeira wines could be clearly discriminated from Azores and Canary wines. Madeira wines are mainly characterized by 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 3,5,5-trimethylhexan-1-ol, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl dl-2-hydroxycaproate, decanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and (E)-whiskey lactone, whereas 3-ethoxypropan-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate, 4-(methylthio)-1-butanol, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, isoamyl lactate, 4-methylphenol, γ-octalactone and 4-(methylthio)-1-butanol, are mainly associated with Azores and Canary wines. The data obtained in this study revealed that solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry data and partial least squares discriminant analysis provides a suitable tool to discriminate wines, both in terms of geographical origin as well as wine type and vintage. PMID:24830411

  20. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira. PMID:26701473

  1. Aroma ageing trends in GC/MS profiles of liqueur wines.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Marques, José C

    2010-02-01

    Madeira wine has been studied with the main goal of acquiring a better understanding about the evolution of its properties over time. For that purpose, flexible and reliable data analysis tools were employed to characterize wines at different ageing stages, using flavour chromatography measurements. In this paper we present the results from such a study, where the main differences in the aroma profiles and their development in different types of aged Madeira wines are analyzed and evaluated according to their discriminating power. An exploratory multivariate data analysis was conducted using two different tools, namely biplots and contributions plots obtained through principal component analysis (PCA). In order to take advantage of the maximum amount of information provided by the chromatography data sets, a new approach that incorporates samples variability in the analysis of the statistical significance of contributions estimates, was developed and tested. In this way, it was possible to analyze which volatile compounds have statistically significant and/or similar contributions regarding the observed separation of wine samples from different groups. Furthermore, since several chemical compounds are expected to change together as a result of the ageing-related chemical reactions, they were clustered according to a similarity criterion relative to their importance in the trends observed in the scores space. Results obtained provide a sound basis for the differentiation and characterization of the ageing process followed by Madeira wines. PMID:20103109

  2. Reproductive and feeding spatial dynamics of the black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839, in NE Atlantic inferred from fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Inês; Figueiredo, Ivone; Janeiro, Ana Isabel; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria; Batista, Irineu; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    The black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) is a benthopelagic species widely distributed across the NE Atlantic, where it is admitted to perform a clockwise migration throughout its life cycle stimulated by feeding and reproduction. To overcome the limitations of direct observation of this species, fatty acids profile (FA) and δ15N and δ13C stable isotopes (SI) were analyzed in the muscle tissue of the black scabbardfish and related with diet and maturity. Specimens were collected in four geographic areas in the NE Atlantic: Iceland, the west of the British Isles, mainland Portugal, and Madeira. For all areas, the FA profile was related with the different phases of the reproductive cycle and with diet, whereas the SI were related with diet, environmental characteristics, such as latitude and depth, and particulate organic matter (POM). Stomach content of black scabbardfish caught off mainland Portugal was analyzed and the most frequent prey item identified was the lophogastrid crustacean Gnathophausia zoea, followed by the cephalopod Mastigotheutis spp. and the teleost Rouleina maderensis. For specimens from Iceland and the west of the British Isles, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the most important FA, followed by polyunsaturated (PUFA) and saturated FA (SFA), whereas for specimens from mainland Portugal and from Madeira the sequences were PUFA>MUFA>SFA and PUFA>SFA>MUFA, respectively. Immature specimens from the first three areas were found to be accumulating oleic acid which is an intermediate product of the metabolic pathway that transforms SFA to MUFA and these into PUFA. Specimens caught off Madeira were mature and showed a significant prevalence of ARA and DHA which are PUFA with an important role in reproduction. δ15N was significantly higher in the muscle of black scabbardfish from Madeira, whereas δ13C was significantly lower in specimens from Iceland. The low isotopic ratios as well as the prevalence of certain fatty acid trophic markers (FATM

  3. Sex-structure, depth distribution, intermoult period and reproductive pattern of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon affinis (Brachyura, Geryonidae) in two populations in the north-eastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscoito, Manuel; Freitas, Mafalda; Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; Costa, Ana L.; Delgado, João; González, José A.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the biology of Chaceon affinis in two isolated populations of the Atlantic Ocean, including depth distribution, sexual structure, reproductive patterns and intermoult period. Males were larger and heavier than females. Mean size decreased with depth for both males and females. The highest abundance was found at 600-799 m of depth for males and at 800-999 m depth stratum for females. The highest abundance of ovigerous females was found at the 800-999 m depth stratum. Of the different ovaries' colour or colour shades recorded, only six categories were histologically characterized. The presence of spermatophores in the spermatheca of females in carapace stages II and III suggests that spermatophores are viable and used during the intermoult period. The size at sexual maturity in females was estimated at 104.4-104.7 mm carapace width (CW) in Madeira, and 109.3-110.5 mm CW in the Canary Islands. Only three categories of testes were identified. Mature testes consisted in a large mass, with highly coiled vasa deferentia visible to the naked eye. The size at sexual maturity in males was estimated at 113.8 mm CW in Madeira and 118.9 mm CW in the Canaries. The relative growth of males showed significant changes along the ontogeny and size at which allometric growth changes, as an indicator of morphometric maturity, occurred between 103.2 and 103.6 mm CW in Madeira and between 111.4 and 113.1 mm CW in the Canaries. In females, size at which allometric growth changes was found for maximum width of fifth abdominal somite (AS5W) at 98.2 mm CW in Madeira and 103.0 mm CW in the Canaries. The size at maturity obtained for C. affinis indicates that the minimum landing size (MLS) should not be set smaller than 125 mm CW in Madeira and 130 mm CW in the Canaries. This conservative MLS, higher than length at functional maturity, would safeguard immature individuals until they reach the size at which they can contribute to the reproductive capacity of the

  4. Trophic ecology of black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo in the NE Atlantic—Assessment through stomach content and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ana Ribeiro; Trueman, Clive; Connolly, Paul; Rogan, Emer

    2013-07-01

    The black scabbardfish is a deep water species of high commercial interest in the NE Atlantic. Specimens were collected from commercial trawls to the west of the British Isles and from longliners operating near Madeira between September 2008 and May 2010. Stomach content analysis was confined to samples from the northern area, because of a high number of empty stomachs from Madeira. Stable isotope analyses identified that black scabbardfish feeds on species with epipelagic and benthopelagic affinities. For the west of British Isles, the δN values were significantly different between seasons suggesting a change in the diet throughout the year. Black scabbardfish have higher δN and δC values compared with other co-occurring benthopelagic feeders and lower nitrogen values than the true benthic predators and/or scavengers. Comparison with stable isotope analysis in samples from Madeira indicated that black scabbardfish feed at a similar trophic level and has the same trophic niche width in both areas, assuming similar baseline isotope compositions. The diet in the northern area comprised fish (68% N), crustaceans (22% N) and cephalopods (15% N) with blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) constituting 40% of the prey. Seasonal shift in diet was observed, with a predominance of blue whiting (70%) in the first quarter of the year, shifting to a more diverse diet in the remainder of the year. These results indicate that the diet of black scabbardfish is closely linked with the seasonal migration of blue whiting and that they likely select prey in proportion to availability. This study demonstrates that the combined used of both methods can elucidate the trophic ecology of black scabbardfish, in situations where conventional methods alone provide insufficient data.

  5. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  6. Structure and origin of the J Anomaly Ridge, western North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucholke, Brian E.; Ludwig, William J.

    1982-11-01

    The J Anomaly Ridge is a structural ridge or step in oceanic basement that extends southwest from the eastern end of the Grand Banks. It lies beneath the J magnetic anomaly at the young end (M-4 to M-0) of the M series magnetic anomalies. Its structural counterpart beneath the J anomaly in the eastern Atlantic is the Madeira-Tore Rise, but this feature has been overprinted by post-middle Cretaceous deformation and volcanism. In order to study the origin and evolution of the J Anomaly Ridge-Madeira-Tore Rise system, we obtained seismic refraction and multichannel reflection profiles across the J Anomaly Ridge near 39°N latitude. The western ridge flank consists of a series of crustal blocks downdropped along west-dipping normal faults, but the eastern slope to younger crust is gentle and relatively unfaulted. The western flank also is subparallel to seafloor isochrons, becoming younger to the south. Anomalously smooth basement caps the ridge crest, and it locally exhibits internal, eastward-dipping reflectors similar in configuration to those within subaerially emplaced basalt flows on Iceland. When isostatically corrected for sediment load, the northern part of the J Anomaly Ridge has basement depths about 1400 m shallower than in our study area, and deep sea drilling has shown that the northern ridge was subaerially exposed during the middle Cretaceous. We suggest that most of the system originated under subaerial conditions at the time of late-stage rifting between the adjacent Grand Banks and Iberia. The excess magma required to form the ridge may have been vented from a mantle plume beneath the Grand Banks-Iberia rift zone and channelled southward beneath the rift axis of the abutting Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Resulting edifice-building volcanism constructed the ridge system between anomalies M-4 and M-0, moving southward along the ridge axis at about 50 mm/yr. About M-0 time, when true drift began between Iberia and the Grand Banks, this southward venting rapidly

  7. Sequence analysis of the replicase gene of 'sweet potato caulimo-like virus' suggests that this virus is a distinct member of the genus Cavemovirus.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Joao; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2011-03-01

    Virion purification from indicator plants and partial sequencing of the replicase region of a 'sweet potato caulimo-like virus' (SPCV) isolate from Madeira, Portugal, are described. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that SPCV is a distinct member of the genus Cavemovirus (family Caulimoviridae). These results explain previous failed attempts to characterize SPCV based on antibodies or primers designed for other members of the Caulimoviridae. Using a quick DNA extraction protocol and PCR primers flanking the RT motif region, we were able to detect SPCV directly in sweet potato, thus saving considerable time during routine virus indexing. PMID:21184242

  8. Shipboard measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX. Technical progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kropfil, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    ASTEX is a large multi-agency program to investigate all aspects of marine stratus clouds because of their overall importance in regulating the earth`s climate system. The program focused on clouds in the Eastern Atlantic during the month of June, 1992 because of the expected frequency of low clouds in that area. The experiment was based on the islands of Santa Maria in the Azores and Porto Santo about 800 km away in the Madeira Archipelago with large complements of remote sensors operated from both islands. To form an equilateral triangle of remote sensors, a ship was used as the third platform.

  9. Shipboard measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX. Technical progress report, February 7--September 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kropfli, R.A.

    1992-09-16

    ASTEX is a large multi-agency program to investigate all aspects of marina stratus clouds because of their overall importance in regulating the earth`s climate system. During the month of June, 1992, the ASTEX field program focused on clouds in the Eastern Atlantic because of the expected frequency of low clouds in that area. The experiment was based on the islands of Santa Maria in the Azores and Porto Santo about 800 km away in the Madeira Archipelago with large contingents of remote sensors operated from both islands. To form an equilateral triangle of remote sensors, a ship was used as the third platform.

  10. The evolution of north-east Atlantic gadfly petrels using statistical phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, B; Zino, F; Shirihai, H; González-Solís, J; Couloux, A; Pasquet, E; Bretagnolle, V

    2013-01-01

    Macaronesia (north-east Atlantic archipelagos) has been host to complex patterns of colonization and differentiation in many groups of organisms including seabirds such as gadfly petrels (genus Pterodroma). Considering the subspecies of widely distributed soft-plumaged petrel for many years, the taxonomic status of the three gadfly petrel taxa breeding in Macaronesia is not yet settled, some authors advocating the presence of three, two or one species. These birds have already been the subject of genetic studies with only one mtDNA gene and relatively modest sample sizes. In this study, using a total of five genes (two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear introns), we investigated the population and phylogeographical histories of petrel populations breeding on Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos. Despite confirming complete lineage sorting with mtDNA, analyses with nucDNA failed to reveal any population structuring and Isolation with Migration analysis revealed the absence of gene flow during the differentiation process of these populations. It appears that the three populations diverged in the late Pleistocene in the last 150 000 years, that is 10 times more recently than previous estimates based solely on one mtDNA gene. Finally, our results suggest that the Madeira petrel population is ancestral rather than that from Cape Verde. This study strongly advocates the use of nuclear loci in addition to mtDNA in demographical and phylogeographical history studies. PMID:23171163

  11. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  12. A Merging of Pale and Dark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Close to the city of Manaus, Brazil the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera was acquired on July 23, 2000 during Terra orbit 3178. Manaus is the gray patch to the right of image center.

    The pale, murky color of the Rio Solimoes heralds its burden of glacial silt and sand, which results from its origin in the Peruvian Andes mountains. The dark color of the Rio Negro is characteristic of clear waters that originate in areas of basement rock and carry little sediment. East of Manaus the pale and dark waters flow side-by-side as distinct flows before they eventually merge.

    Northwest of Manaus on the Rio Negro is the Anavilhanas Archipelago, the largest group of freshwater islands in the world and a wildlife reserve. At the top of the image, a portion of the dark-colored Uatuma River is visible. In the lower right is the very light-colored Rio Madeira, formed from mountain streams originating near the Brazil-Bolivia border. Madeira is Portuguese for wood, and the river is named for the large amount of driftwood that floats on its waters.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. The use of microsatellites for germplasm management in a Portuguese grapevine collection.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M S; Sefc, K M; Eiras Dias, E; Steinkellner, H; Laimer Câmara Machado, M; Câmara Machado, A

    1999-08-01

    To initiate the characterization of the Portuguese grapevine genepool, we have genotyped 49 Portuguese grapevine cultivars at 11 microsatellite loci. The markers proved to be informative in the Portuguese cultivars, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.67 to 0.84. At most loci, an excess of heterozygous individuals was observed, while the deficiency of heterozygotes at 1 locus (VVMD6) indicated the presence of null alleles. On the basis of the microsatellite allele data several previously assumed synonyms were verified: (1) 'Fernão Pires'='Maria Gomes', (2) 'Moscatel de Setúbal'='Muscat of Alexandria', (3) 'Boal Cachudo'='Boal da Madeira'='Malvasia Fina', (4) 'Síria'='Crato Branco'= 'Roupeiro' and (5) 'Periquita'='Castelão Francês'='João de Santarém'='Trincadeira'. Although the three varieties 'Verdelho da Madeira', 'Verdelho dos Açores', and 'Verdelho roxo' are regarded by the Lista Nacional de Sinónimos as distinct cultivars, they displayed identical SSR profiles at 17 loci and appear to represent types of 1 single cultivar. The genetic profiles of all 49 cultivars were searched for possible parent-offspring groups. The data obtained revealed the descendence of 'Boal Ratinho' from 'Malvasia Fina' and 'Síria'. PMID:22665212

  14. Source, transport and fluxes of Amazon River particulate organic carbon: Insights from river sediment depth-profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez, Julien; Galy, Valier; Hilton, Robert G.; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Pérez, Marcela Andrea; France-Lanord, Christian; Maurice, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    In order to reveal particulate organic carbon (POC) source and mode of transport in the largest river basin on Earth, we sampled the main sediment-laden tributaries of the Amazon system (Solimões, Madeira and Amazon) during two sampling campaigns, following vertical depth-profiles. This sampling technique takes advantage of hydrodynamic sorting to access the full range of solid erosion products transported by the river. Using the Al/Si ratio of the river sediments as a proxy for grain size, we find a general increase in POC content with Al/Si, as sediments become finer. However, the sample set shows marked variability in the POC content for a given Al/Si ratio, with the Madeira River having lower POC content across the measured range in Al/Si. The POC content is not strongly related to the specific surface area (SSA) of the suspended load, and bed sediments have a much lower POC/SSA ratio. These data suggest that SSA exerts a significant, yet partial, control on POC transport in Amazon River suspended sediment. We suggest that the role of clay mineralogy, discrete POC particles and rock-derived POC warrant further attention in order to fully understand POC transport in large rivers.

  15. Geographical origin of Amazonian freshwater fishes fingerprinted by ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr ratios on fish otoliths and scales.

    PubMed

    Pouilly, Marc; Point, David; Sondag, Francis; Henry, Manuel; Santos, Roberto V

    2014-08-19

    Calcified structures such as otoliths and scales grow continuously throughout the lifetime of fishes. The geochemical variations present in these biogenic structures are particularly relevant for studying fish migration and origin. In order to investigate the potential of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio as a precise biogeochemical tag in Amazonian fishes, we compared this ratio between the water and fish otoliths and scales of two commercial fish species, Hoplias malabaricus and Schizodon fasciatus, from three major drainage basins of the Amazon: the Madeira, Solimões, and Tapajós rivers, displaying contrasted (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios. A comparison of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios between the otoliths and scales of the same individuals revealed similar values and were very close to the Sr isotopic composition of the local river where they were captured. This indicates, first, the absence of Sr isotopic fractionation during biological uptake and incorporation into calcified structures and, second, that scales may represent an interesting nonlethal alternative for (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio measurements in comparison to otoliths. Considering the wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr variations that exist across Amazonian rivers, we used variations of (87)Sr/(86)Sr to discriminate fish origin at the basin level, as well as at the sub-basin level between the river and savannah lakes of the Beni River (Madeira basin). PMID:24971992

  16. Non-indigenous species in Portuguese coastal areas, coastal lagoons, estuaries and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainho, Paula; Fernandes, António; Amorim, Ana; Ávila, Sérgio P.; Canning-Clode, João; Castro, João J.; Costa, Ana C.; Costa, José L.; Cruz, Teresa; Gollasch, Stephan; Grazziotin-Soares, Clarissa; Melo, Ricardo; Micael, Joana; Parente, Manuela I.; Semedo, Jorge; Silva, Teresa; Sobral, Dinah; Sousa, Mónica; Torres, Paulo; Veloso, Vera; Costa, Maria J.

    2015-12-01

    Trends in abundance, temporal occurrence and spatial distribution of marine and brackish non-indigenous species (NIS) are part of the indicators to assess the compliance of Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU-MSFD). European-wide regional and national databases for NIS will be useful for the implementation of the EU-MSFD but there are still spatial gaps for some regions and taxonomic groups. In 2009, Portugal was among the countries with the lowest reported numbers of NIS in Europe and a national online database on NIS was not available. This study provides an updated list of NIS registered in Portuguese coastal and estuarine waters, including mainland Portugal and the Azores and Madeira archipelagos. A list of 133 NIS was cataloged, most of which recorded in the last three decades, showing that this area of the North Atlantic is no less prone to introductions than neighboring areas. Most NIS reported in the current inventory are native in the Indo-Pacific region. Fouling and ballast water are the most likely introduction vectors of NIS in the studied area but shipping routes connecting to the NIS native regions are rare, indicating that most species are secondary introductions. The high number of NIS in the Azores and Madeira islands indicates that this ecosystem type seems to be more susceptible to invasions but these preliminary results might be biased by a higher number of studies and knowledge on the NIS occurrence on the islands.

  17. Iron isotope composition of the suspended matter along depth and lateral profiles in the Amazon River and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Pinheiro, Giana Márcia; Poitrasson, Franck; Sondag, Francis; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Pimentel, Márcio Martins

    2013-07-01

    Samples of suspended matter were collected at different locations, seasons, depths and lateral profiles in the Amazon River and three of its main tributaries, the Madeira, the Solimões and the Negro rivers. Their iron isotope compositions were studied in order to understand the iron cycle and investigate the level of isotopic homogeneity at the river cross-section scale. Samples from four depth profiles and three lateral profiles analyzed show suspended matter δ57Fe values (relative to IRMM-14) between -0.501 ± 0.075‰ and 0.196 ± 0.083‰ (2SE). Samples from the Negro River, a blackwater river, yield the negative values. Samples from other stations (whitewater rivers, the Madeira, the Solimões and the Amazon) show positive values, which are indistinguishable from the average composition of the continental crust (δ57FeIRMM-14 ˜ 0.1‰). Individual analyses of the depth and lateral profiles show no significant variation in iron isotope signatures, indicating that, in contrast to certain chemical or other isotopic tracers, one individual subsurface sample is representative of river deeper waters. This also suggests that, instead of providing detailed information on the riverine iron cycling, iron isotopes of particulate matter in rivers will rather yield a general picture of the iron sources.

  18. Applying DEM-SRTM for reconstructing a late Quaternary paleodrainage in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Ericson H.; Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Márcio M.

    2010-08-01

    Remote sensing is a particularly invaluable tool that has helped the detection of paleomorphologies produced by river dislocation in a variety of landscapes, which has contributed in reconstructing the geological evolution of many fluvial systems. This technique might provide useful information to discuss the evolution of large fluvial systems, in special those located in areas of difficult access where the acquisition of field data is difficult. Application of remote sensing for paleodrainage characterization in densely vegetated tropical areas is scarce in the literature. This work records processing of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which succeeded in revealing an ancient drainage complex of the Madeira River, one of the main Amazonas tributaries, where other remote sensing products failed the detection. Analysis of this paleodrainage and of its modern counterpart within the geological framework available for this region leads to propose that activity along pre-existent faults during the latest Quaternary would have promoted the southeastward dislocation of a nearly 200 km long segment of the Madeira River. During this process, an impressive paleodrainage network was left behind, which was only able to be detected using the DEM-SRTM. Application of this technique might be of great help to the detection of paleodrainage morphologies in densely vegetated areas similar to the Amazonas lowland. The dynamics of channel migration in this and many other large scale tropical river systems might benefit from the investigation based on data derived from DEM-SRTM.

  19. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  20. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino's petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  1. Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

    2014-05-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni-Madeira

  2. Cretaceous seamounts along the continent ocean transition of the Iberian margin: U Pb ages and Pb Sr Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Renaud; Schärer, Urs; Girardeau, Jacques; Cornen, Guy

    2006-10-01

    To elucidate the age and origin of seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic, 54 titanite and 10 zircon fractions were dated by the U-Pb chronometer, and initial Pb, Sr, and Hf isotope ratios were measured in feldspars and zircon, respectively. Rocks analyzed are essentially trachy-andesites and trachytes dredged during the "Tore Madeira" cruise of the Atalante in 2001. The ages reveal different pulses of alkaline magmatism occurring at 104.4 ± 1.4 (2 σ) Ma and 102.8 ± 0.7 Ma on the Sponge Bob seamount, at 96.3 ± 1.0 Ma on Ashton seamount, at 92.3 ± 3.8 Ma on the Gago Coutinho seamount, at 89.3 ± 2.3 Ma and 86.5 ± 3.4 Ma on the Jo Sister volcanic complex, and at 88.3 ± 3.3 Ma, 88.2 ± 3.9, and 80.5 ± 0.9 Ma on the Tore locality. No space-time correlation is observed for alkaline volcanism in the northern section of the Tore-Madeira Rise, which occurred 20-30 m.y. after opening of the eastern North Atlantic. Initial isotope signatures are: 19.139-19.620 for 206Pb/ 204Pb, 15.544-15.828 for 207Pb/ 204Pb, 38.750-39.936 for 208Pb/ 204Pb, 0.70231-0.70340 for 87Sr/ 86Sr, and +6.9 to +12.9 for initial epsilon Hf. These signatures are different from Atlantic MORB, the Madeira Archipelago and the Azores, but they lie in the field of worldwide OIB. The Cretaceous seamounts therefore seem to be generated by melts from a OIB-type source that interact with continental lithospheric mantle lying formerly beneath Iberia and presently within the ocean-continent transition zone. Inheritance in zircon and high 207Pb of initial Pb substantiate the presence of very minor amounts of continental material in the lithospheric mantle. A long-lived thermal anomaly is the most plausible explanation for alkaline magmatism since 104 Ma and it could well be that the same anomaly is still the driving force for tertiary and quaternary alkaline magmatism in the eastern North Atlantic region. This hypothesis is agreement with the plate-tectonic position of the region since Cretaceous time

  3. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha

  4. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape

  5. Reciprocal Education Experiences In Two GK-12 Programs: Teachers Learning And Students Teaching In Diverse Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, M.; Williams, C.; Rodriguez, T.; Greely, T.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Rivera-Rentas, A. L.; Vilches, M.

    2004-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) Program has enabled science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate schools across the country to become more active in local area K-12 schools. An overview of a graduate student's experiences, insights gained and lessons learned as a Fellow in the 2003-2004 Universidad Metropolitana's (UMET) environmental science and the 2004-2005 University of South Florida's (USF) ocean science GK-12 Programs is presented. The major goals of the 2003-2004 UMET GK-12 Program were 1) to enrich environmental science teaching and learning via a thematic approach in eight local public schools and 2) to provide UMET graduate students with exposure to teaching methodologies and practical teaching experience. Utilizing examples from local environments in and nearby Carolina, Puerto Rico to teach key science principles at Escuela de la Comunidad Juana Rodriguez Mundo provided numerous opportunities to relate science topics to students' daily life experiences. By 2004, the UMET GK-12 Program had successfully engaged the entire student body (primarily comprised of bilingual minority kindergarten to sixth graders), teachers and school administrators in environment-focused teaching and learning activities. Examples of such activities include tree planting projects to minimize local erosion, conducting a science fair for the first time in many years, and numerous opportunities to experience what "real scientists do" while conducting environmental science investigations. During the 2004-2005 academic year, skills, insights and lessons learned as a UMET GK-12 Fellow are being further enhanced through participation in the USF GK-12 OCEANS Program. The overall objectives of the 2004-2005 USF GK-12 OCEANS assignment at Madeira Beach Elementary School in Saint Petersburg, Florida are to 1) engage students from various ethnic backgrounds and cultures in hands-on science activities, 2) enhance the

  6. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal; Pollard, Peter J.; Born, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE-SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC). Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels. Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5-1 km. Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer. The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics ( TDM=2.2-2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data ( ɛNd initial=-2.1 to +0

  7. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zé-Zé, L.; Prata, M.B.; Teixeira, T.; Marques, N.; Mondragão, A.; Fernandes, R.; Saraiva da Cunha, J.; Alves, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  8. NR/HEP: roadmap for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake (editors, Ulrich; Chesler, Paul M.; Lehner, Luis; Park, Seong Chan; Reall, Harvey S.; Sopuerta (section coordinators, Carlos F.; Alic, Daniela; Dias, Oscar J. C.; Emparan, Roberto; Ferrari, Valeria; Giddings, Steven B.; Godazgar, Mahdi; Gregory, Ruth; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Landsberg, Greg; Lousto, Carlos O.; Mateos, David; Moeller, Vicki; Okawa, Hirotada; Pani, Paolo; Parker, M. Andy; Pretorius, Frans; Shibata, Masaru; Sotani, Hajime; Wiseman, Toby; Witek, Helvi; Yunes, Nicolas; Zilhão, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Physic in curved spacetime describes a multitude of phenomena, ranging from astrophysics to high-energy physics (HEP). The last few years have witnessed further progress on several fronts, including the accurate numerical evolution of the gravitational field equations, which now allows highly nonlinear phenomena to be tamed. Numerical relativity simulations, originally developed to understand strong-field astrophysical processes, could prove extremely useful to understand HEP processes such as trans-Planckian scattering and gauge-gravity dualities. We present a concise and comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art and important open problems in the field(s), along with a roadmap for the next years. This writeup is a summary of the ‘NR/HEP Workshop’ held in Madeira, Portugal from 31 August to 3 September 2011.

  9. Stratus cloud measurements with a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the Environmental Technology Laboratory`s cloud sensing Doppler radar and three-channel microwave radiometer were deployed in the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a carbon dioxide Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model that related the model`s three parameters to the first three Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, we are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water, and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  10. Stratus cloud liquid water and turbulence profiles using a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability, and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the ETL cloud sensing Doppler radar and three channel microwave radiometer were deployed on the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a CO{sub 2} Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model which related the three parameters of the model to the first 3 Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, the authors are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  11. Sideritis spp.: uses, chemical composition and pharmacological activities--a review.

    PubMed

    González-Burgos, E; Carretero, M E; Gómez-Serranillos, M P

    2011-05-17

    The genus Sideritis (Lamiaceae) comprises more than 150 perennial and annual vegetal species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, together with Canary and Madeira islands. It is a controversial botanic genus, with a complex taxonomical classification due to the high number of hybridizations that occur between species; their study requires a deep research experience. Sideritis species have been traditionally used as teas for feeding, flavoring agents and in folk medicine as antiinflammatory, antiulcerative, antimicrobial, vulnerary, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and carminative agents. The chemical components found in Sideritis genus include terpenes, flavonoids, essential oil, iridoids, coumarins, lignanes and sterols, among others. Diterpenes, flavonoids and essential oil occur in almost every species and are the main compounds responsible for the observed in vivo and in vitro pharmacological activities. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects from the genus Sideritis, with the objective of establishing scientific basis that explains its ethnopharmacological use. PMID:21420484

  12. The fish fauna of Ampère Seamount (NE Atlantic) and the adjacent abyssal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bernd; Vieira, Rui P.; Christiansen, Sabine; Denda, Anneke; Oliveira, Frederico; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2015-03-01

    An inventory of benthic and benthopelagic fishes is presented as a result of two exploratory surveys around Ampère Seamount, between Madeira and the Portuguese mainland, covering water depths from 60 to 4,400 m. A total of 239 fishes were collected using different types of sampling gear. Three chondrichthyan species and 31 teleosts in 21 families were identified. The collections showed a vertical zonation with little overlap, but indications for an affinity of species to certain water masses were only vague. Although most of the species present new records for Ampère Seamount, all of them have been known for the NE Atlantic; endemic species were not found. The comparison with fish communities at other NE Atlantic seamounts indicates that despite a high ichthyofaunal similarity, which supports the "stepping stone" hypothesis of species dispersal, some differences can be attributed to the local features of the seamounts.

  13. Decrease of aged beer aroma by the reducing activity of brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Vanbeneden, Nele; Daenen, Luk; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2010-03-10

    The flavor profile of beer is subject to changes during storage. Since, possibly, yeast has an influence on flavor stability, the aim of this study was to examine if there is a direct impact of brewing yeast on aged aroma. This was achieved by refermentation of aged beers. It was shown that several aged aroma notes, such as cardboard, ribes, Maillard and Madeira, were removed almost entirely by brewing yeast, independently of the yeast or the beer type. This was explained by the reduction of aldehydes, mainly (E)-2-nonenal, Strecker aldehydes, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and diacetyl, to their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, it became evident that the reducing capacity of brewing yeast is high, but that yeast strain and compound specific residual concentrations remained in the refermented beer independently of the initial concentration. Finally, it appeared that aldehydes were not only reduced but also formed during refermentation. PMID:20143776

  14. A revision of Artemia biodiversity in Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a biogeographical context, the term Macaronesia broadly embraces the North Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde. The peculiar arid climatic conditions in some of these places have led to the development of marine salt exploitations, which can be counted among the hypersaline habitats of the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca). Parthenogenetic populations of this anostracan were described in the Canary Islands during the last decades of the 20th century, while the American Artemia franciscana species was recently found in the Cape Verde archipelago. Following an invasive pattern, this exotic species has recently reached the Canary Islands, too. This paper reports information dealing with biotope loss (solar saltworks) in this biogeographical region, together with possible consequences concerning the arrival of invasive species, two factors that frequently promote dramatic biodiversity losses. The discussion of this threat focuses mainly on the Canary Islands archipelago where native species of Artemia still exist. PMID:23075404

  15. Bankfull Discharge Using Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, J. O.; Silva, J. S.; Research Team Of Rhasa

    2013-05-01

    Satellite altimetry is now a mature tool to collect water levels over large and medium-size rivers. The present study is dedicated to the determination of bankfull discharge using satellite altimetry and imagery to determine hydrological parameters such as the phase of the bankfull discharge at the crossing of the river bed with the ground track of the altimetry missions or the surface slope of the river. We applied the methodology to the two major tributaries of the Amazon river, namely the Rio Madeira and the Rio Negro. The results are a significzant difference in the values of bankfull discharge in the two basins, together with significant difference in along-course slopes, reflecting the difference in geomorphological context between the two watersheds.

  16. High resolution downscaling with WRF: reproducing observed climate in high topography islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. M.; Tome, R.; Azevedo, E. B.; Teixeira, M.

    2013-12-01

    Isolated islands are specially vulnerable to climate change. However, their climate is generally not explicitly reproduced in GCMs, or even in most Regional Climate Models, due to their size and complex topography. On the other hand, the isolated nature of their location may allow the use of high resolution in domains of limited size, with oceanic boundary conditions all around directly given by a GCM. It is important to know, though, how far do we need to go in horizontal resolution in order to reproduce the main features of observed climate and if the proposed method has significant advantages in relation to simpler procedures. This paper uses the WRF model to downscale global fields given by ERA-Interim and by three runs of the EC-Earth Climate Model (Hazeleger et al 2010): a control run representing the 1961-1990 climate, and two scenario runs corresponding to scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 up to the end of the 21st century. The WRF simulations builds on experience reproducing the climate in Iberia, at 9km horizontal resolution (Soares et al 2012, Cardoso et al 2013), which resulted in a good match with observations not only in what concerns the mean values of temperature and precipitation, but also the statistical distribution of high rank quantiles of daily precipitation (up to percentile 99.9). Here the WRF model is used on a nested grid configuration, with a larger domain simulated at 27km resolution and an inner domain at 6km. The cases of Madeira and Azores, 11 islands of different sizes in the subtropical North Atlantic, are simulated. Broadly speaking, results indicate significant improvements in the representation of observed precipitation in all islands in the ERA-Interim period, at the highest resolution. In the case of Madeira, the largest and bulkiest of the set, the improvement is the most remarkable, whereas in smaller islands there is a suggestion that the used resolution is still too coarse. The excellent results obtained by WRF in the Madeira ERA

  17. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823), in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dias, C A R; Queirogas, V L; Pedersoli, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea. PMID:25945625

  18. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of woodiness and a New World biogeographic connection of the Macaronesian Island endemic Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae)

    PubMed Central

    Panero, Jose L.; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Jansen, Robert K.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of woody species in oceanic islands has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than a century. We used a phylogeny based on sequences of the internal-transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to trace the evolution of woodiness in Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a genus endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Our results show that woodiness in Pericallis originated independently at least twice in these islands, further weakening some previous hypotheses concerning the value of this character for tracing the continental ancestry of island endemics. The same data suggest that the origin of woodiness is correlated with ecological shifts from open to species-rich habitats and that the ancestor of Pericallis was an herbaceous species adapted to marginal habitats of the laurel forest. Our results also support Pericallis as closely related to New World genera of the tribe Senecioneae. PMID:10570168

  19. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found. PMID:26593603

  20. A Metalloproteomics Study on the Association of Mercury With Breast Milk in Samples From Lactating Women in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Felipe André; Cavecci, Bruna; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Santos, Ademir; de Lima Leite, Aline; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Zara, Luiz Fabrício; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify metalloproteins that lose their metal ions in the presence of mercury (Hg) and bind to Hg in breast milk samples collected from the riverine population of the Madeira River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Initially, total Hg was determined from the hair of lactating women to identify individuals who were contaminated followed by a proteomic analysis of breast milk samples through two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after acetone precipitation. The presence of Hg in the obtained protein spots was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These determinations indicated the presence of Hg in one protein spot, which was then characterized through electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Based on searches in the UniProt database, this protein spot was identified as lysozyme C. PMID:25981408

  1. Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Marta; López, Josefa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The herbarium of University of Extremadura (UNEX Herbarium) is formed by 36451 specimens of vascular plants whose main origin is the autonomous region of Extremadura (Spain) and Portugal, although it also contains a smaller number of specimens from different places, including the rest of peninsular Spain, the Baleares Islands, the Macaronesian region (Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores), northwest of Africa (Morocco) and Brazil. 98% of the total records are georeferenced. It is an active collection in continuous growth. Its data can be accessed through the GBIF data portal at http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/255 and http://www.eweb.unex.es/eweb/botanica/herbario/. This paper describes the specimen associated data set of the UNEX Herbarium, with an objective to disseminate the data contained in a data set with potential users, and promote the multiple uses of the data. PMID:24198707

  2. Exportation of organic carbon from the Amazon River and its main tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Seyler, Patrick; Loup Guyot, Jean; Etcheber, Henri

    2003-05-01

    As part of a joint Brazilian-French project, entitled Hydrology and Geochemistry of the Amazon Basin, we carried out a seven-year study (1994-2000) on the distribution, behaviour and flux of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the Amazon River and its main tributaries (the Negro, Solimões, Branco, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingú and Trombetas rivers).The concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon varied from one river to another and according to the season, but dissolved organic carbon (DOC) always accounted for about 70% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The mean concentration of dissolved organic carbon was 6·1 mg l-1 in the Madeira River, 5·83 mg l-1 in the Solimões River and 12·7 mg l-1 in the Negro River. The percentage in weight of the particulate organic carbon decreased as the concentration of suspended matter increased. The Solimões River contributed the most carbon to the Amazon River: about 500 kg C s-1 during the high water period and about 300 kg C s-1 during the low water period. However, the temporal variations in organic carbon in the Amazon River (i.e. downstream of Manaus) are basically controlled by inputs from the Negro River and its variations. The Negro River does not produce a simple dilution effect. During the high water period (between March and August) the TOC flux, calculated as the sum of the Solimões, Negro and Madeira tributaries, was about 5·7 × 1013 g C yr-1, whereas during the low water period (between September and February) the TOC flux was about 2·6 × 1013 g C yr-1.The mean annual flux of TOC at Óbidos (the final gauging station upstream of the estuary) was about 3·27 × 10

  3. Anti-Atlas Moroccan Chain as the source of lithogenic-derived micronutrient fluxes to the deep Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, V.; Waniek, J. J.; Atkin, D.; Milton, J. A.; Leipe, T.; Green, D. R. H.; Bahlo, R.; Hayes, T. E. F.; Schulz-Bull, D. E.

    2007-11-01

    Identifying the source of atmospheric dust is crucial to better understand the global marine biogeochemical cycle as phytoplankton growth relies on dissolved micronutrient elements available in the open ocean. Mineralogical, geochemical and Sr isotope analyses of a one year-time series (April 2003-April 2004) of deep ocean particle flux at the Madeira Abyssal Plain in the subtropical northeast Atlantic are presented. The lithogenic fraction has a high occurrence of palygorskite and smectite and an absence of kaolinite together with Sr isotopic compositions similar to the Northeast Atlantic aerosols. This indicates the Anti-Atlas Moroccan chain of Paleozoïc age as the source region. The lithogenic fraction supplies 4 times more Fe during a dust event than during the spring-summer aeolian input. A continuous input of only 1% of the lithogenic iron made available over a year period, could lead to an increase in primary productivity of 40% relative to today's value.

  4. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  5. What is “colonial” about medieval colonial medicine? Iberian health in global context

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Colonial medicine is a thriving field of study in the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century medicine. Medicine can be used as a lens to view colonialism in action and as a way to critique colonialism. This article argues that key debates and ideas from that modern field can fruitfully be applied to the Middle Ages, especially for the early empires of Spain and Portugal (mid-fourteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries). The article identifies key modern debates, explores approaches to colonization and colonialism in the Middle Ages and discusses how medieval and modern medicine and healthcare could be compared using colonial and postcolonial discourses. The article ends with three case studies of healthcare encounters in Madeira, Granada and Hispaniola at the end of the fifteenth century. PMID:26550030

  6. Geochemical evidence of multistage retrogressive failure during the 160,000ka Icod landslide from turbidite facies analysis: multidisciplinary investigative approaches using destructive and non-destructive methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, James; Wynn, Russell; Masson, Doug; Croudace, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The study of modern deep-sea systems through targeted piston coring has enabled detailed investigations into the process mechanics of turbidity currents. In complex systems such as the Moroccan Turbidite System the derivation of provenance is of vital importance, since flows from different sources in this system have been found to behave differently. Early provenance studies in the Madeira Abyssal Plain found that bulk sand-fraction geochemical analysis through ICP-AES could enable successful attribution of provenance to specific turbidites alongside electron microprobe analysis (de Lange, Jarvis & Kuijpers, 1987; Pearce & Jarvis, 1992). These sources including the Moroccan siliclastic shelf, Tenerife, Las Palma, El Hierro and Madeira. ICP-AES, MC-ICP-MS and XRF have been utilised here, however these present destructive methodologies, using 0.1-5g of material >63µm. Deep-sea piston cores are also expensive to collect, and often there is not enough material to remove for analysis without compromising the core. Furthermore, routine sampling, preparation and analysis using the destructive methods stated above are undertaken at considerable cost and analytical time. The successful use of non-destructive instruments to yield quantitative geochemical has become paramount at the NOC. This presentation serves to show the successful application of the TM-1000 tabletop SEM EDS analyser, ITRAX micro-XRF analyser and the GEOTEK XYZ logger, in coincidence with traditional destructive methods. These instruments can only supply semi-quantitative data, unless correct calibration can be achieved, and will be shown here. The 160,000ka Icod landslide from Tenerife generated a 150km3 debris avalanche with a runout of 105km and a >180km3 turbidity, which will form the case study for application of these instruments. The vertically stacked subunit facies of the Icod turbidite has been attributed to generation from a multistage retrogressive failure (Wynn & Masson, 2003). Here there

  7. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  8. Object-based classification of vegetation and terrain topography in Southwestern Amazonia (Brazil) as a tool for detecting ancient fluvial geomorphic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, Thiago de Castilho; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Albuquerque, Paulo Cesar Gurgel

    2013-10-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of large tropical fluvial systems over the geological time is challenging, particularly in areas such as the Amazonian lowlands where basic geological and geomorphological data are still scarce relatively to the large dimension of the region. In such areas, remote sensing data are useful for detecting ancient morphological features that may reveal past fluvial dynamics. In this study, we explored object-based image analysis (OBIA) in the Madeira-Purus interfluve, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, integrating geospatial data including Landsat satellite multispectral images, the digital elevation model (DEM) acquired during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and stream channels digitized from topographic maps. This approach provided the basis to categorize automatically classes with contrasting vegetation and/or topographic characteristics within the dense tropical forest over an extensive and relatively flat forested area. The main goal was to use these classes as a surrogate for the recognition of ancient geomorphic features consisting mainly of paleochannels that may help reconstructing fluvial history in space and time. Landsat optical images with stream vector were appropriate to classify open vegetation areas that grow over paleochannels, but failed to identify these objects when they were located over forested areas. However, the digital elevation model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was successful to detect these objects even in forested areas. Topographic survey undertaken in the field increased the classification reliability by demonstrating true terrain variations along transects measured across the paleochannels. Based on this technique, networks of dendritic paleochannels were mapped and related to ancient tributaries of the Madeira River that had their courses flowing opposite to main modern streams. This denotes a significant change in fluvial dynamics over time, most likely

  9. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952

  10. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Güimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (≈ 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  11. Weathering and transport of sediments in the Bolivian Andes: Time constraints from uranium-series isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosseto, A.; Bourdon, B.; Gaillardet, J.; Maurice-Bourgoin, L.; Allègre, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    Rivers from the upper Rio Madeira basin (Bolivia) have been studied with uranium-series isotopes in order to constrain the timescales of weathering and sediment transfer from the Andes through the Amazon tropical plain. Uranium (U), thorium (Th) and radium (Ra) isotopes ( 238U- 234U- 230Th- 226Ra and 232Th) have been analyzed in the suspended load (> 0.2 μm) of rivers. Increasing 230Th excesses relative to 238U in suspended particles from the Andes to the tropical plain is interpreted as an increasing duration of weathering during sediment transport and storage in the foreland basin. Model calculations for ( 230Th/ 238U) and ( 226Ra/ 230Th) activity ratios in suspended particles using a continuous weathering model indicates that: (i) the timescale for production, storage and transport of sediments in the Andean Cordillera is only a few kyr, (ii) the storage time of suspended sediments in the foreland basin is 5 ± 1 kyr and (iii) the average transfer time of suspended sediments from the Andes to the confluence of Rio Madeira with the Amazon River is 17 ± 3 kyr. An implication of these short timescales is that the bedrock eroded must have lost part of its uranium during one or several past erosion cycles. This demonstrates the recycling of sediments through several erosion cycles before transfer to the oceans. The calculation of long-term (> 1 kyr), steady-state erosion rates indicates that they are much lower than present-day rates. This increase in denudation rates must be recent and could be explained by an increase in precipitation ˜ 4 ka ago, as suggested by palaeoclimatic evidences and the draining of transient sedimentary basins encountered on the Altiplano and easily eroded. This suggests that climatic variability rather than tectonics alone produces high erosion rates.

  12. Molecular characterization of Portuguese populations of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using cytochrome b and cellulase genes.

    PubMed

    Valadas, V; Laranjo, M; Mota, M; Oliveira, S

    2013-12-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of pine wilt disease and a worldwide pest with high economic impact. Since its first diagnosis in Portugal in 1999, it has been subjected to quarantine measures with impact on forest health and ecosystem stability, significantly affecting international trade of wood products. The disease was detected in the north and centre of continental Portugal and, since 2008, the whole country has been considered an affected area. Recently, it was detected in Madeira Island. In order to avoid new outbreaks, it has become of major importance to understand the patterns of spread, introduction points and to characterize the new populations from continental Portugal and Madeira Island. Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and parasitic cellulase gene sequences were used to evaluate the genetic relationships among isolates that could indicate possible origins of the new outbreaks. Portuguese isolates were compared with isolates from USA, China, Japan and South Korea, in order to investigate possible infection pathways and disease spread patterns in Portugal. Phylogenetic trees based on both genes show that Portuguese isolates group with Asian isolates. Isolates from USA are in a separate position in both gene trees. However, the phylogenetic tree based on the cellulase gene sequences shows higher differentiation among Portuguese isolates than that of cytb. These results agree with those previously obtained using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). This was the first study to use cytb and cellulase genes to characterize pinewood nematode (PWN) populations. This study suggests that cellulase is a better marker than cytb to study genetic diversity in B. xylophilus. PMID:23067571

  13. A Comparison Between Three IMUs for Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres-Sampaio, Diogo; Deurloo, Richard; Bos, Machiel; Magalhães, Américo; Bastos, Luísa

    2015-07-01

    Strapdown airborne gravimetry relies on the combination of an inertial measuring unit (IMU) and a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) to measure the Earth's gravity field. Early results with navigation-grade IMUs showed similar accuracies to those obtained with scalar gravimetric systems in the down component. This paper investigates the accuracy of three IMUs used for strapdown airborne gravimetry under the same flight conditions. The three systems considered were navigation-grade IMUs, iXSea AIRINS and iMAR iNAV-FMS, and a tactical-grade Litton LN-200. The data were collected in 2010 over the Island of Madeira, Portugal, in the scope of GEOid over MADeira campaign. The coordinates and orientation of the aircraft were computed using an extended Kalman filter based on the inertial navigation approach. GNSS position and velocity observations were used to update the filter, and the gravity disturbance was considered to be a stochastic process and was part of the state vector. A new crossover point-based serial tuning was introduced to deal with the uncertainty of choosing the filter's a priori information. The results show that with the iXSea accuracies of 2.1 and 1.6 mGal can be obtained for 1.7 and 5.0 km of spatial resolution (half-wavelength), respectively. iMAR's results were significantly affected by a nonlinear drift, which led to lower accuracies of 4.1-5.5 mGal. Remarkably, Litton showed very consistent results and achieved an accuracy of about 4.5 mGal at 5 km of spatial resolution (half-wavelength).

  14. On The Source Of The 25 November 1941 - Atlantic Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Lisboa, F. B.; Miranda, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze the tsunami recorded in the North Atlantic following the 25 November 1941 earthquake. The earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3, located on the Gloria Fault, was one of the largest strike slip events recorded. The Gloria fault is a 500 km long scarp in the North Atlantic Ocean between 19W and 24W known to be a segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary between Iberia and the Azores. Ten tide stations recorded the tsunami. Six in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira Islands), two in Morocco, one in the United Kingdom and one in Spain (Tenerife-Canary Islands). The tsunami waves reached Azores and Madeira Islands less than one hour after the main shock. The tide station of Casablanca (in Morocco) recorded the maximum amplitude of 0.54 m. All amplitudes recorded are lower than 0.5 m but the tsunami reached Portugal mainland in high tide conditions where the sea flooded some streets We analyze the 25 November 1941 tsunami data using the tide-records in the coasts of Portugal, Spain, Morocco and UK to infer its source. The use of wavelet analysis to characterize the frequency content of the tide-records shows predominant periods of 9-13min e 18-22min. A preliminary location of the tsunami source location was obtained Backward Ray Tracing (BRT). The results of the BRT technique are compatible with the epicenter location of the earthquake. We compute empirical Green functions for the earthquake generation area, and use a linear shallow water inversion technique to compute the initial water displacement. The comparison between forward modeling with observations shows a fair agreement with available data. This work received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe)"

  15. Colonization history of atlantic island common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) revealed by mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H D; Baker, A J

    1999-03-01

    Common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) are thought to have colonized the Atlantic island archipelagoes (the Azores, Madeira, and the Canaries) from neighboring continental populations (Iberia and north Africa) within the last million years. However, colonization may have occurred separately from north Africa to the Canaries and from Iberia to the Azores (as would be predicted geographically) or in one wave from Iberia to the Azores and then to Madeira and the Canaries. These alternatives have different implications for the evolution of morphometric and plumage differentiation in island chaffinches. To determine the most likely colonization route, we estimated the phylogenetic relationships among island and continental subspecies of common chaffinch using sequences from four mtDNA genes (cytochrome b, ATPase 6, NADH 5, and the control region). The most strongly supported mtDNA phylogeny places the continental subspecies together as the sister group to a monophyletic clade containing the island subspecies. This is consistent with a single wave of colonization, and suggests that patterns of similarity among Atlantic island common chaffinches, such as blue pigmentation, short wings, and long tarsi, are due to common colonization history rather than to convergent evolution in a common island environment. However, spectral analysis of phylogenetic splits showed that although monophyly of island haplotypes is favored, there is also substantial support for their polyphyletic origin. We attribute the latter to the confounding effect of homoplasy at multistate sites and to the relatively rapid sequence of colonization events which provided insufficient time for the accumulation of strong phylogenetic signal. These problems are likely to be significant impediments in attempts to test hypotheses of phylogenetic histories of recently evolved populations and taxa. PMID:10191065

  16. Ecomorphology of the external flight apparatus of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with different migration behavior.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    An analysis of the external flight apparatus of 700 blackcaps from eight different populations (sedentary to long-distance migrators) is presented. With increasing migration distances of populations, (1) wing length, aspect ratio, and wing pointedness increase; (2) wing load decreases; (3) slots on the wing tips become relatively shorter; (4) the alula tends to be shorter in relation to wing length; and (5) the tail is shorter in relation to wing length. Although body mass increases from southern to northern populations, changes in wing length and wing area are two to three times larger than expected for simple isometric relationships. Regarding the aerodynamic background of these changes, it can be stated that traits for energy-effective flight are more strongly developed and traits for maneuverability are less developed in birds traveling longer distances, presumably as a consequence of trade-offs. Nonmigratory blackcaps from Madeira and the Cape Verde islands do not always show the traits we would expect in view of their sedentary behavior. This can be seen as a result of recent colonization of these islands by migrants or of selection by factors other than migration behavior. In migratory populations, changes between the first and the second set of primaries during first complete molt show almost the same pattern as the changes from nonmigratory to migratory populations. During molt of the primaries, blackcaps of nonmigratory populations do not show these changes. Hybrids between migrating and nonmigrating blackcap populations (Moscow and Madeira) showed intermediate values between parent populations in wing length, wing shape, and wing area; in the other variables they resembled either parent population. PMID:16055858

  17. Latitudinal variation in invertebrate megafaunal abundance and biomass in the North Atlantic Ocean Abyss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, M. H.; Rice, A. L.; Bett, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    Megafauna was collected by otter trawl at two widely separated abyssal sites in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. The northern site, on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP, 4850 m), is subject to strong seasonal pulses of phytodetritus deposition, whereas the southern site, on the Madeira Abyssal Plain (OLIGO, 4500-4650 m), showed no indication of such deposition. Data from these two sites were compared with those from a third site (GME), also apparently not affected by phytodetritus, but on the Madeira Abyssal Plain 1200 km from OLIGO. Mean abundance and biomass of invertebrate megafauna at PAP were 72.6 individuals ha -1 and 1974 g ha -1 respectively. The corresponding values for OLIGO were 10.2 individuals ha -1 and 63.4 g ha -1 and for GME 21.7 individuals ha -1 and 112.9 g ha -1. Size-spectral curves of abundance and biomass based on PAP samples showed peaks in the 40-80 g wet weight class, thus confirming the megafauna as a functional entity. No evidence for seasonal variation of abundance or biomass was found. At OLIGO, abundance declined more or less regularly over the organism size range sampled, and biomass was spread fairly evenly across the larger size classes. Major differences in trophic structure among the three sites were evident, with OLIGO and GME more similar to one another than either were to PAP, with much of the higher biomass at PAP represented by particle-selective detritivorous holothurians. The contribution of invertebrates to overall megafaunal biomass at OLIGO (8%) and GME (30%) was lower than at PAP (48%), but a high proportion of fish biomass at OLIGO and GME, and almost all at PAP, belonged to macrophagous species trophically independent of benthic production.

  18. Long-term effect of ropivacaine nanoparticles for sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi; Huang, Haizhen; Yang, Shaozhong; Huang, Shanshan; Guo, Jingxuan; Tang, Qi; Qi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analgesic effect of ropivacaine (Rop) for nerve block lasts only ~3–6 hours for single use. The aim of this study was to develop long-acting regional anesthetic Rop nanoparticles and investigate the effects of sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats. Materials and methods Rop nanoparticles were developed using polyethylene glycol-co-polylactic acid (PELA). One hundred and twenty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30, each): Con (control group; 0.9% saline, 200 µL), PELA (PELA group; 10 mg), Rop (Rop group; 0.5%, 200 µL), and Rop-PELA (Rop-PELA group; 10%, 10 mg). Another 12 rats were used for the detection of Rop concentration in plasma. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured at 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after incision. The expression of c-FOS was determined by immunohistochemistry at 2 hours, 8 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days. Nerve and organ toxicities were also evaluated at 7 days. Results The duration of Rop absorption in the plasma of the Rop-PELA group was longer (>8 hours) than that of the Rop group (4 hours). Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency in the Rop-PELA group were higher than that in other groups (4 hours–3 days). c-FOS expression in the Rop-PELA group was lower than that in the control group at 2 hours, 8 hours, and 48 hours and lower than that in the Rop group at 8 hours and 48 hours after paw incision. Slight foreign body reactions were observed surrounding the sciatic nerve at 7 days. No obvious pathophysiological change was found in the major organs after Rop-PELA administration at 7 days. Conclusion Rop-PELA provides an effective analgesia for nerve block over 3 days after single administration, and the analgesic mechanism might be mediated by the regulation of spinal c-FOS expression. However, its potential long-term tissue toxicity needs to be further investigated. PMID:27274236

  19. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells. Quarterly technical report No. 2, 1 July-30 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions of crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed during the first quarter of this program showed that the use of ion implantation and PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for a hypothetical baseline diffusion process that it is assumed to yield cells with an average efficiency of 14%. A cost advantage may be attained, however, if the implant-PELA process yields an improvement in the average cell efficiency from 14 to 16%; this improvement would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. The technical goal of this research is to develop an optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production, and to demonstrate increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis. During the second quarter of this program, it was shown that the laser chosen for this work, operating with an output power of 50 watts, demonstrated sufficient processing speed for commercial production. Also during this time period, the PELA process was optimized for annealing phosphorus implants in polished p-type silicon wafers. The best solar cell obtained in this way had an efficiency of 10.5% at AM1 illumination withour AR coating. This efficiency is equal to that of co-processed furnace annealed ion-implanted controls. Work planned during the next quarter includes optimization of the PELA process parameters for use with screen printed contacts, optimization of the PELA process for use with texture-etched material, and development of a set of parameters to anneal boron or boron-trifluoride implants.

  20. A novel sustained-release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone and its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety profiles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Wang, Yuxia; Kang, Aijun; Wang, Wei; Ho, Sa V; Gao, Junfeng; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-07-01

    An effective and safe formulation of sustained-release rhGH for two months using poly(monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-co-D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PLA, PELA) microspheres was developed to reduce the frequency of medication. The rhGH-loaded PELA microspheres with a narrow size distribution were successfully prepared by a double emulsion method combined with a premix membrane emulsification technique without any exogenous stabilizing excipients. The narrow size distribution of the microspheres would guarantee repeatable productivity and release behavior. Moreover, the amphiphilic PELA improved the bioactivity retention of protein drugs since it prevented protein contact with the oil/water interface and the hydrophobic network, and modulated diffusion of acidic degradation products from the carrier system. These PELA microspheres were compared in vivo with commercial rhGH solution, conventional poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Administration of rhGH-PELA could extend the duration of rhGH release (for up to 56 days) and increase area under the curve (AUC) compared to rhGH solution, PLA or PLGA microspheres in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In addition, rhGH-PELA microspheres induced a greater response in total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) than other rhGH formulations. With a hypophysectomized SD rat model, the pharmacological efficacy of rhGH-PELA microspheres was shown to be better than that from daily administration of rhGH solutions over 6 days based on body weight gain and width of the tibial growth plate. Histological examination of the injection sites indicated a significantly milder inflammatory response than that observed after injection of PLA and PLGA microspheres. Neither anti-rhGH antibodies nor the toxic effects on heart, liver and kidney were detectable after administration of rhGH-PELA microspheres in SD rats. These results suggest that rhGH-PELA

  1. Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds with Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Gurijala, Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  2. An amphiphilic degradable polymer/hydroxyapatite composite with enhanced handling characteristics promotes osteogenic gene expression in bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Kutikov, Artem B; Song, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Electrospun polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites combining biodegradability with osteoconductivity are attractive for skeletal tissue engineering applications. However, most biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) are hydrophobic and do not blend with adequate interfacial adhesion with HA, compromising the structural homogeneity, mechanical integrity and biological performance of the composite. To overcome this challenge, we combined a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) block with poly(d,l-lactic acid) to improve the adhesion of the degradable polymer with HA. The amphiphilic triblock copolymer PLA-PEG-PLA (PELA) improved the stability of HA-PELA suspension at 25wt.% HA content, which was readily electrospun into HA-PELA composite scaffolds with uniform fiber dimensions. HA-PELA was highly extensible (failure strain>200% vs. <40% for HA-PLA), superhydrophilic (∼0° water contact angle vs. >100° for HA-PLA), and exhibited an 8-fold storage modulus increase (unlike deterioration for HA-PLA) upon hydration, owing to the favorable interaction between HA and PEG. HA-PELA also better promoted osteochondral lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal cells in unstimulated culture and supported far more potent osteogenic gene expression upon induction than HA-PLA. We demonstrate that the chemical incorporation of PEG is an effective strategy to improve the performance of degradable polymer/HA composites for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23791675

  3. Multi-layer electrospun membrane mimicking tendon sheath for prevention of tendon adhesions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shichao; Yan, Hede; Fan, Dapeng; Song, Jialin; Fan, Cunyi

    2015-01-01

    Defect of the tendon sheath after tendon injury is a main reason for tendon adhesions, but it is a daunting challenge for the biomimetic substitute of the tendon sheath after injury due to its multi-layer membrane-like structure and complex biologic functions. In this study, a multi-layer membrane with celecoxib-loaded poly(l-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PELA) electrospun fibrous membrane as the outer layer, hyaluronic acid (HA) gel as middle layer, and PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the inner layer was designed. The anti-adhesion efficacy of this multi-layer membrane was compared with a single-layer use in rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model. The surface morphology showed that both PELA fibers and celecoxib-loaded PELA fibers in multi-layer membrane were uniform in size, randomly arrayed, very porous, and smooth without beads. Multi-layer membrane group had fewer peritendinous adhesions and better gliding than the PELA membrane group and control group in gross and histological observation. The similar mechanical characteristic and collagen expression of tendon repair site in the three groups indicated that the multi-layer membrane did not impair tendon healing. Taken together, our results demonstrated that such a biomimetic multi-layer sheath could be used as a potential strategy in clinics for promoting tendon gliding and preventing adhesion without poor tendon healing. PMID:25822877

  4. An amphiphilic degradable polymer/hydroxyapatite composite with enhanced handling characteristics promotes osteogenic gene expression in bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Song, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrospun polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites combining biodegradability with osteoconductivity are attractive for skeletal tissue engineering applications. However, most biodegradable polymers such as PLA are hydrophobic and do not blend with adequate interfacial adhesion with HA, compromising the structural homogeneity, mechanical integrity, and biological performance of the composite. To overcome this challenge, we incorporated a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) block to poly(D,L-lactic acid) to improve the adhesion of the degradable polymer with HA. The amphiphilic triblock copolymer PLA-PEG-PLA (PELA) improved the stability of HA-PELA suspension at 25 wt% HA content, which was readily electrospun into HA-PELA composite scaffolds with uniform fiber dimensions. HA-PELA was highly extensible (failure strain >200% vs. <40% for HA-PLA), superhydrophilic (~0° water contact angle vs. >100° for HA-PLA), and exhibited an 8-fold storage modulus increase (unlike deterioration for HA-PLA) upon hydration, owing to the favorable interaction between HA and PEG. HA-PELA also better promoted osteochondral lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal cells in unstimulated culture and supported far more potent osteogenesis upon induction than HA-PLA. We demonstrate that the chemical incorporation of PEG is an effective strategy to improve the performance of degradable polymer/HA composites for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23791675

  5. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells. Quarterly technical report No. 1, 26 March-30 June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this research is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed during the first quarter of this program shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process described by JPL. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. The technical goal of this research is to develop an optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production, and to demonstrate increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis. During the first quarter of this program an excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon. Preliminary results showed that the PELA processed cells had overall efficiencies comparable to furnace annealed ion implanted controls, and that texture-etched material requires lower fluence for annealing than polished silicon. Process optimization will be carried out in the second quarter.

  6. Demersal fish assemblages off the Seine and Sedlo seamounts (northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Melo, Octávio; Pinho, Mário R.

    2009-12-01

    Seamounts are thought to support special biological communities, and often maintain high standing stocks of demersal and benthopelagic fishes. Seamount fish fauna have been described in several studies but few works have included species taken below 600 m. The demersal fish assemblages of the Seine and Sedlo seamounts (northeast Atlantic) from the summits to 2000 m depth were investigated based on longline survey catch data, conducted as part of the OASIS project. A total of 41 fish species from 24 families were caught at Seine near Madeira, and 30 species from 19 families were caught at Sedlo north of the Azores. Both fish faunas have high affinities with the neighbouring areas of the Azores, Madeira and with the eastern North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Overall abundances and mean body weights were slightly higher at Sedlo seamount, appearing in conformity with the latitudinal effect of increasing species abundance and productivity from south to north. The differential influence of the Mediterranean Water at each seamount may contribute to explain (a) the differences found in vertical distribution of common species, which tend to distribute deeper at Seine, and (b) the observed changes in the species composition and dominance in deeper waters. Multivariate analysis revealed a vertical structure that is approximately coincident with the expected zonation of water masses at each seamount. Physiological tolerance to the prevailing vertical hydrological conditions may explain the species distribution and the large-scale vertical assemblage structure found. However, further ecological factors like productivity patterns affecting the amount and quality of the available food appear to shape the abundance, diversity or dominance patterns of functional groups within those main assemblages. At Seine, the species Trachurus picturatus dominated the catches, mainly at the shallower edge of the plateau, appearing consistent with the sound-scattering layer interception

  7. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  8. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  9. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species diversity in the NE Atlantic and NW Arabian sea: a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Bett, Brian J.; Shires, Rizpah; Lambshead, P. John D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a synthesis of species diversity data (Fishers' alpha index, Shannon-Wiener (log 2), ES(100), Rank 1 Dominance) for "live" (stained) foraminifera from five bathyal (1340 m depth) and abyssal (4450-4950 m depth) sites in the NE Atlantic and a 3400 m-deep site in the Arabian Sea. Three Atlantic sites (Porcupine Seabight, BIOTRANS, Porcupine Abyssal Plain) are subject to seasonal phytodetritus inputs that support low diversity populations (8-17 species). In other respects the foraminifera are highly diverse. The meiofaunal fractions (>45 or >63 μm; including fragmented and phytodetritus species) of abyssal Atlantic samples yielded >110 and >170 species in the 0-1 cm and 0-10 cm layers, respectively; the Arabian Sea sample (0-1 cm layer only) yielded 232 species. In both cases, values for diversity measures were very high. Diversity was rather lower in bathyal Porcupine Seabight samples (0-1 cm layer), which yielded <100 species. The foraminiferal macrofauna (>500 μm; Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plains) was also speciose (113-133 species), but diversity measures were lower and dominance higher than for the meiofauna. All assemblages contained numerous undescribed species, many belonging to poorly known monothalamous, soft-bodied taxa. Sample diversity was influenced by several factors. Combining phytodetrital and sediment populations reduced diversity and increased dominance slightly; the inclusion of deeper sediment layers and finer sieve fractions had the opposite effect. The inclusion of fragments had more impact on macrofaunal than on meiofaunal diversity, although in both cases the effect was inconsistent (either positive or negative). Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plain multicore samples (>63 μm fraction) contained substantially more foraminiferal species than nematode species; the numbers of foraminiferal species in boxcore samples (>500 μm fraction) were comparable to, or greater than, literature values for macrofaunal taxa such as polychaetes

  10. Effect of acclimation to outdoor condition on the sexual performance of mass-produced Medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated area-wide programs to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) require that the released males attract wild females and transfer sterile sperm. However, knowledge about male sexual performance after they are released is scarce. We conducted a study to evaluate male sexual performance in field cage tests, according to standard quality control procedures. Mass-reared 5-d-old sterile males from the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 7mix2000 were acclimated for 0, 1, and 3 d to outdoor conditions before competing with wild males for wild females. Although the proportion of mating (PM) in the test was satisfactory, the resulting relative sterility index (RSI) data showed no significant differences among the treatments. The data indicate that pre-conditioning males to outdoor conditions in Madeira did not confer an advantage in field cage sexual performance. (author) [Spanish] La aplicacion de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) como parte de un programa integrado de amplio efecto para el control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) requiere que los machos liberados atraigan las hembras naturales y transfieran su esperma. Sin embargo, el conocimiento del desempeno sexual de los machos despues de ser liberados es muy escaso. Nosotros realizamos un estudio para evaluar el desempeno sexual de los machos en pruebas usando jaulas del campo, segun los procedimientos estandardizados de calidad. Machos esteriles de 5 dias de edad de la raza que separa los sexos geneticamente VIENNA 7mix2000 criados en masa fueron aclimatados por 0, 1 y 3 dias en condiciones de campo antes de competir con machos naturales para las hembras naturales. Aunque la proporcion del apareamiento en la prueba fue satisfactorio, el indice relativo de esterilidad (IRS) resultante no mostro ninguna diferencia significativa entre los tratamientos. Los datos indicaron que al

  11. PREFACE: 2014 Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Science Behind Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, João A.; Ribeiro, Álvaro S.; Filipe, Eduarda

    2015-02-01

    The 2014 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium was organized by RELACRE - Portuguese Association of Accredited Laboratories and the Portuguese Society for Metrology, on 3-5 September 2014. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: - TC1 Education and Training in measurement and Instrumentation - TC7 Measurement Science - TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine The effort towards excellence of previous events, in this well established series, is maintained. There has been a special focus on measurement science behind safety and security, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and the importance of metrology in our daily lives. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in biometrics, health monitoring and social sciences, to promote useful interactions with scientists from different disciplines. The Symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Japan and China, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over fifty papers are included in the volume, organized according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Funchal, capital of Madeira Islands, known as the Atlantic Pearl. This wonderful Atlantic archipelago, formed by Madeira and Porto Santo islands, discovered in the 14th century, was chosen to host the 2014 IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Joint Symposium ''Measurement Science behind Safety and Security''. It was the first territory discovered by the Portuguese sailors, when set out to discover a new world, in an epic journey where instrumentation and quality of measurement played a central role in the success of the enterprise, and gave an

  12. Evidence for the control of river-water chemical stratification on the geochemistry of Amazonian floodplain sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddaz, Martin; Viers, Jérôme; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Blondel, Camille; Sontag, Francis; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Moreira, Luciane

    2014-05-01

    Holocene and historical Amazonian floodplain deposits collected from two cores of the Varzea Curuai flooded area (Brazil) were analysed for major and trace element geochemistry as well as Nd-Sr isotopic compositions (21 samples). The TA11 and TA14 cores (110 cm and 270 cm in depth, respectively) were collected at different locations in the varzea, near a channel inlet connecting the Amazon River to the varzea and at the centre of the varzea, respectively. The two cores represent records of sedimentation on different time-scales, with TA11 covering the last 100 years and TA14 extending back to 5600 years cal BP. Although the sediments are generally coarser in TA11 than in TA14, the major and trace element concentrations, Cr/Th and Th/Sc and Eu anomalies and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions in both cores fail to show any clear variations with depth. However, there are some chemical differences between the two analysed cores. The TA14 sediments have higher Al/Si and CIA values than those of TA11. The TA14 sediments are enriched in Th, U, Y, Nb, REE, Cs, Rb, V and Ni but show slightly depleted MgO, CaO and Sr and more strongly depleted Na2O, Zr and Hf compared with TA11. In addition, the Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of the TA11 sediment core are on the whole similar to the Solimões suspended particulate matter (SPM), whereas TA14 has a similar Nd-Sr isotopic composition compared with the SPM of the Amazon River at Obidos. These differences are best explained by chemical stratification of the Amazon River. During flooding of the Amazon River, coarser grained particulates supplied by the Solimões River are deposited in the deepest environments near the channel inlet, as recorded in the TA11 sediment core. By contrast, finer grained suspended sediments derived from the Madeira River are transported into the shallower environments of the varzea system and deposited as a result of flow expansion and loss of carrying power, as recorded in the TA14 sediment core. We calculate

  13. Seasonal variations in methane emission from Amazon River and tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, H. O.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Richey, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Inland waters are known as important sources of methane to atmosphere. Methane is produced in anaerobic environments usually found in lake and floodplain bottom sediments, which is the main reason why most of the information regarding methane fluxes come from this environments. However, while floodplains dry during low water season, reducing methanogenesis, rivers keep the capacity to emit methane throughout the year. Here we present results of CH4 flux measurements from 4 large tropical rivers within the Amazon basin obtained with floating chambers in 10 sampling sites during low water (between September and November of 2011) and high water seasons (May, 2012). Sampling sites were located in three main tributaries of Amazon Rivers, Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós, and in the Amazon River mainstem. In the Madeira River high water fluxes ranged from 2.85 to 30.99 mmol m-2 yr-1 while during low water from 77.47 to 183.31 mmol m-2 yr-1. Fluxes for the Amazon and Tapajós were, respectively, 110.99 and 80.01 mmol m-2 yr-1 for the high water season and 169.71 and 193.18 mmol m-2 yr-1 for low water. In the Xingu River two sites had higher fluxes during low water, 314.90 and 571.49 mmol m-2 yr-1 (91.93 and 51.11 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the high water respectively). The two other sites had an opposite pattern with 296.56 and 60.80 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the low water and 846.95 and 360.93 mmol m-2 yr-1 during high water; one site showed equal fluxes for both seasons. Most of the fluxes were higher during low water, with the exception of the three sites at the Xingu River, where fluxes during high water were higher or equal than in low water. These results show a different pattern than described before for these riverine systems, in which higher methane fluxes during high water were expected due to inputs from surrounding anoxic floodplain environments. Instead, our data shows that methane in rivers can be produced within river channels. Lower fluxes during high water could be related to

  14. Time scale and conditions of weathering under tropical climate: Study of the Amazon basin with U-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosseto, A.; Bourdon, B.; Gaillardet, J.; Allègre, C. J.; Filizola, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Rio Solimões/Amazonas (Amazon River) and its major tributaries have been analyzed for U-series nuclides. 238U- 234U- 230Th- 226Ra disequilibria have been measured in the dissolved (<0.2 μm) and suspended loads (>0.2 μm) as well as bed sands. U-series disequilibria are closely related to major and trace element compositions and therefore reflect elemental fractionation during chemical weathering. Moreover, while the dissolved load records present-day weathering, suspended particles integrate the erosion history over much longer time scales (>100 ka). Lowland rivers are characterized by long time scales of chemical erosion (⩾100 ka) resulting in a high weathering intensity. Moreover, exchange between suspended particles and the dissolved load may explain the U-series signature for these rivers. By combining U-series and Pb isotopes in suspended particles, we show that erosion in the Rio Madeira basin occurred as a multi-step process, whereby the pristine continental crust was eroded several hundreds of Ma ago to produce sediments that have then been integrated in the Cordillera by crustal shortening and are currently eroded. In contrast, recent erosion of a pristine crust is more likely for the Rio Solimões/Amazonas (<10 ka). The suspended particles of the rivers draining the Andes (Solimões/Amazonas, Madeira) suggest time scales of weathering ranging between 4 and 20 ka. This indicates that suspended particles transported by those rivers are not stored for long periods in the Andean foreland basin and the tropical plain. The sediments delivered to the ocean have resided only a few ka in the Amazon basin (6.3 ± 1 ka for the Rio Amazonas at Óbidos). Nevertheless, a large fraction of the sediments coming out from the Andes are trapped in the foreland basin and may never reach the ocean. Erosion in the Andes is not operating in steady state. U-series systematics shows unambiguously that rivers are exporting a lot more sediments than predicted by steady

  15. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  16. Issues in Post-Entry Language Assessment in English-Medium Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, John

    2015-01-01

    Students entering English-medium universities around the world come from diverse linguistic backgrounds and many find it difficult to cope with the language demands of their degree courses. This speech focuses first on the motivations for introducing what are known in Australia as post-entry language assessments (PELAs). I discuss in particular…

  17. The Effectiveness of an Early-Grade Literacy Intervention on the Cognitive Achievement of Brazilian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Leandro Oliveira; Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, the Literacy Program at the Right Age (Pacto pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa [PAIC]) in Brazil's Ceará state required municipal schools to implement a tiered, whole-school early-grade literacy intervention. This intervention was complemented by other policies to help municipalities improve student achievement. The present…

  18. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. An optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production is to be developed, and increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis demonstrated. An excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon.

  19. Pectate lyase C from Bacillus subtilis: a novel endo-cleaving enzyme with activity on highly methylated pectin.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Margarita; Diaz, Pilar; Pastor, Francisco I Javier

    2006-03-01

    The gene yvpA from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It encoded a pectate lyase of 221 amino acids that was denominated PelC. The heterologously expressed enzyme was purified by His-tag affinity chromatography and characterized. PelC depolymerized polygalacturonate and pectins of methyl esterification degree from 22 % to 89 %, exhibiting maximum activity on 22 % esterified citrus pectin. It showed an absolute Ca2+ requirement and the optimum temperature and pH were 65 degrees C and pH 10, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of PelC showed 53 % identity to pectate lyase PelA from Paenibacillus barcinonensis, which was also characterized. Similarly to PelC, purified PelA showed activity on polygalacturonate and pectins with a high degree of methyl esterification. The two enzymes cleaved pectic polymers to a mixture of oligogalacturonates, indicating an endo mode of action. Analysis of activity on trigalacturonate showed that PelC cleaved it to galacturonic acid and unsaturated digalacturonate, whereas PelA did not show activity on this substrate. PelC and PelA showed high homology to a few recently identified pectate lyases of family 3 and form with them a cluster of small-sized pectate lyases from non-pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:16514142

  20. Diagnostic English Language Needs Assessment (DELNA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Tests measuring academic language are traditionally associated with visible, high-stakes decisions of whether or not English language learners are admitted to post-secondary institutions. However, a new form of assessment in higher education is now gaining prominence. Post-entry (or post-enrolment) language assessments (PELA) determine the…

  1. Evaluation of portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld X-ray fluorescence analysis (hXRF) for the direct analysis of glyptics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauwers, D.; Candeias, A.; Coccato, A.; Mirao, J.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2016-03-01

    In archaeometry, the advantages of a combined use of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are extensively discussed for applications such as the analysis of paintings, manuscripts, pottery, etc. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the advantage of using both techniques for analysing glyptics. These engraved gemstones or glass materials were originally used as stamps, to identify the owner, for instance on letters, but also on wine vessels. For this research, a set of 64 glyptics (42 Roman glass specimens and 22 modern ones), belonging to the collection of the museum 'Quinta das Cruzes' in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), was analysed with portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF). These techniques were also used to confirm the gemological identification of these precious objects and can give extra information about the glass composition. Raman spectroscopy identifies the molecular composition as well as on the crystalline phases present. On the other hand, hXRF results show that the antique Roman glass samples are characterised with low Pb and Sn levels and that the modern specimens can be discriminated in two groups: lead-based and non-lead-based ones.

  2. Evaluation of portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld X-ray fluorescence analysis (hXRF) for the direct analysis of glyptics.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, D; Candeias, A; Coccato, A; Mirao, J; Moens, L; Vandenabeele, P

    2016-03-15

    In archaeometry, the advantages of a combined use of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are extensively discussed for applications such as the analysis of paintings, manuscripts, pottery, etc. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the advantage of using both techniques for analysing glyptics. These engraved gemstones or glass materials were originally used as stamps, to identify the owner, for instance on letters, but also on wine vessels. For this research, a set of 64 glyptics (42 Roman glass specimens and 22 modern ones), belonging to the collection of the museum 'Quinta das Cruzes' in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), was analysed with portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF). These techniques were also used to confirm the gemological identification of these precious objects and can give extra information about the glass composition. Raman spectroscopy identifies the molecular composition as well as on the crystalline phases present. On the other hand, hXRF results show that the antique Roman glass samples are characterised with low Pb and Sn levels and that the modern specimens can be discriminated in two groups: lead-based and non-lead-based ones. PMID:26761414

  3. Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.).

    PubMed

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Camacho, João F; Cordeiro, Nereida; Gouveia, Manuela; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-11-15

    The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars ('Perry Vidal', 'Mateus I', 'Mateus III' and 'Funchal') from Madeira Island, were studied for the first time. The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes (42.2-59.6%), fatty acids (18.0-35.6%) and sterols (9.6-23.7%). Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between 554 and 1350mgkg(-1) of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavan-3-ols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin and procyanidin tetramer. 'Mateus I' and 'Mateus III' cultivars present the highest content of phenolic compounds (6299 and 9603mgkg(-1) of dry weight, respectively). These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. PMID:27283704

  4. Seasonal dissolved rare earth element dynamics of the Amazon River main stem, its tributaries, and the Curuaí floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroux, GwéNaëL.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Boaventura, Geraldo; Viers, JéRôMe; Godderis, Yves; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Sondag, Francis; Gardoll, SéBastien; Lagane, Christelle; Seyler, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    We present a comprehensive dissolved rare earth element (REE) data set for the Amazon River and its main tributaries, Rio Negro, Solimões, and Madeira, as well as the Curuaí floodplain. The two-year time series show that REE vary seasonally with discharge in each of the tributaries, and indicate a hydrologically dominated control. Upper crust normalized REE patterns are relatively constant throughout the year, with Ce/Ce* anomalies being positively related to discharge. We propose revised annual dissolved REE fluxes to the surface Atlantic Ocean based on an integration of the seasonal data. For Nd (<0.22 μm) this results in an average flux of 607 ± 43 T/yr, which is at least 1.6 times larger than the previous estimate of 374 T/yr (<0.45 μm) based on low water stage data. Moreover, during the high water season the maximum Nd flux measures 1277 t.yr-1, constituting 30% of the required flux to the Atlantic Ocean (Tachikawa et al., 2003). Consequently, a smaller contribution of Nd from atmospheric and river particle desorption is required than was previously suggested. A mass balance of Amazon tributaries and observed fluxes at Óbidos indicates that dissolved LREE behave quasi-conservatively. Conversely, the HREE mass balance presents a deficit during the high water stages, which could be related to the passage of water through the floodplain system accompanied by solid/dissolved phase transfer.

  5. A first quantitative estimate of trace metal fluxes from Amazon river and its main tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, P. T.; Pinelli, M.; Boaventura, G. R.

    2003-05-01

    The trace metal (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, U) concentrations and temporal variabilities of the Amazon river and its main tributaries are studied on time series basis in the major tributaries of Amazon river (Negro, Madeira and Solimões Rivers) and at Obidos station on the Amazon mainsteem which represents 90% of the total discharge of Amazon river to the Ocean. Variations of river chemistry may reflect variations of the sources. The “Shield” rivers (as the Rio Negro) have typically depleted concentrations in As, Sr, Ba, Cu, and V as compared with Andean rivers. Elements such Mn and As are mainly transported by the flood flows. These elements are known to be concentrated in lateric (ferricrete) soils which represent 80% in the Amazon basin, suggesting that these elements are washed away in solution during the high discharge. Moreover, these elements can be stored in the surrounding floodplain areas (varzea) where deposition/resuspension cycles as well as the exchange rate between floodplain and mainstream channel may control at least partially the temporal variation of redox element concentrations such Mn and As. Implication on these results on the trace element flux from Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean is discussed.

  6. Isostatic geoid anomalies over mid-plate swells in the Central North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo

    1999-08-01

    The relation of geoid height data from Geosat/ERM altimeter measurements to seafloor topography from recent shipborne data is investigated for eight igneous provinces located in the Central North Atlantic. The long wavelength undulations of the geoid, reflecting deep-seated density anomalies, were removed by subtracting a low degree and order spherical harmonic representation of the geoid. After converting residual geoid heights and topography to anomalies related to the thermal plate model, both maps were low-pass filtered to isolate the signal associated with local compensation from surface loading. Finally, the ratio of geoid height to topography was determined by fitting a straight line to the data. Cape Verde, Bermuda, Canary and Madeira swells exhibit high geoid/topography ratios, which signify reheating of the lower lithosphere. These features were classified as thermal swells. Geoid/topography ratios occurring over the New England, Corner, Azores and Great Meteor seamount chains can be explained by Airy compensation model of crustal thickening. This requires non-hotspot processes to be active within the Azores and Great Meteor seamounts.

  7. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew. PMID:14752556

  8. Dengue and dengue vectors in the WHO European region: past, present, and scenarios for the future.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    After 55 years of absence, dengue has re-emerged in the WHO European region both as locally transmitted sporadic cases and as an outbreak in Madeira, driven by the introduction of people infected with the virus and the invasion of the vector mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Models predict a further spread of A albopictus, particularly under climate change conditions. Dengue transmission models suggest a low risk in Europe, but these models too rarely include transmission by A albopictus (the main established vector). Further information gaps exist with regard to the Caucasus and central Asian countries of the WHO European region. Many European countries have implemented surveillance and control measures for invasive mosquitoes, but only a few include surveillance for dengue. As long as no dengue-specific prophylaxis or therapeutics are available, integrated vector management is the most sustainable control option. The rapid elimination of newly introduced A aegypti populations should be targeted in the European region, particularly in southern Europe and the Caucasus, where the species was present for decades until the 1950s. PMID:25172160

  9. Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel Brandon; Sudre, Bertrand; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Brady, Oliver; Bogoch, Isaac I; Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Semenza, Jan C; Ong, Mark; Aaslav, Kaja Kaasik; Khan, Kamran

    2016-07-01

    The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d.) there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013). Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe), and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources. PMID:27344225

  10. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916).

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Javier; Manent, Pablo; Pérez-Diéguez, Lois; González, José A; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; González-Henríquez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  11. Compartmental model of 18F-choline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, T.; Tavola, F.; Giussani, A.; Cantone, M. C.; Uusijärvi, H.; Mattsson, S.; Zankl, M.; Petoussi-Henß, N.; Hoeschen, C.

    2010-03-01

    The MADEIRA Project (Minimizing Activity and Dose with Enhanced Image quality by Radiopharmaceutical Administrations), aims to improve the efficacy and safety of 3D functional imaging by optimizing, among others, the knowledge of the temporal variation of the radiopharmaceuticals' uptake in and clearance from tumor and healthy tissues. With the help of compartmental modeling it is intended to optimize the time schedule for data collection and improve the evaluation of the organ doses to the patients. Administration of 18F-choline to screen for recurrence or the occurrence of metastases in prostate cancer patients is one of the diagnostic applications under consideration in the frame of the project. PET and CT images have been acquired up to four hours after injection of 18F-choline. Additionally blood and urine samples have been collected and measured in a gamma counter. The radioactivity concentration in different organs and data of plasma clearance and elimination into urine were used to set-up a compartmental model of the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical. It features a central compartment (blood) exchanging with organs. The structure describes explicitly liver, kidneys, spleen, plasma and bladder as separate units with a forcing function approach. The model is presented together with an evaluation of the individual and population kinetic parameters, and a revised time schedule for data collection is proposed. This optimized time schedule will be validated in a further set of patient studies.

  12. Monitoring the response of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere to a greenhouse gas scenario. Final report, 1 May 1990--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Cox, S.K.

    1994-09-25

    A measurement system for examining the possible linkage between an increased concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GGs) and symptoms of climate change has been designed and evaluated. The system consists of a dual port emission interferometer and supporting data analysis algorithms for the remote sensing the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere from a high elevation ground site deployment. Two blackbody systems were designed and tested to provide necessary calibration targets for the interferometer. The interferometer was deployed during four different periods at climatologically distinct locations to test the capabilities of the system. Over two hundred spectra were collected in a variety of conditions ranging from a clear middle latitude atmosphere viewed from mountain site at 3.0 km ASL to sub-tropical marine stratocumulus cloudiness measured at Porto Santo Island near Madeira. The algorithm has been used successfully to retrieve temperature and moisture profiles from both the mountain and sea level deployments. These initial retrievals indicate that ground based systems may only be effective in sensing the temperature and moisture profiles for the first few kilometers above the instrument. The interferometric data have been used to estimate the size of ``equivalent spherical`` ice particles in cirrus clouds. The data from the sea level deployment were examined in order to retrieve the absorption coefficients of marine stratocumulus clouds and a double iteration algorithm has been developed to deduce the emittance of cirrus clouds from interferometric spectral measurements.

  13. [Dengue fever--not just a tropical infectious disease].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, i. e., A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Other species are rarely involved. The disease is caused by dengue virus, an enveloped RNA virus which belongs to the family of flaviviridae. Although most infections are asymptomatic, in 20 to 30 percentages all cases infections are accompanied with high fever and other influenza-like signs of illness. Serious medical conditions with lethal complications also occur. During the last decades, the incidence of dengue fever rose sharply in many tropical and subtropical countries. In some of these regions, dengue is one of the leading causes of death in children. In Europe, since a few years a strong clustering of dengue fever cases has been registered in travelers returning from certain tropical or subtropical regions. Recently, autochthonous outbreaks have been observed on the Atlantic island of Madeira and in a few other regions of South Europe. Treatment of dengue fever is supportive and symptomatic, a specific therapy does not exist. For prevention of disease, vector control is of crucial importance. PMID:27120872

  14. Ferromanganese crusts as indicators for paleoceanographic events in the NE Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Hein, J.R.; Mangini, A.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the seawater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12 Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts. 10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2-5 Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30-40 Ma.

  15. Assessment of the Geographic Origins of Pinewood Nematode Isolates via Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Joana; Simões, Maria José; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Pinho, Diogo; Conceição, Luci; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4), China (1), Japan (1) and USA (1), were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2), China (1), USA (1), Japan (2) and South Korea (2). The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification. PMID:24391785

  16. Species diversity of the genus Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Macaronesian region.

    PubMed

    Machín-Sánchez, María; Rousseau, Florence; Le Gall, Line; Cassano, Valéria; Neto, Ana I; Sentíes, Abel; T Fujii, Mutue; Gil-Rodríguez, María Candelaria

    2016-08-01

    Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section). Specimens were sequenced for COI-5P (39 specimens) and three species delimitation methods (Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, and Poisson Tree Processes) were used to assess the threshold between infra- and interspecific relationships. Subsequently, one or several sequences of plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (21 specimens) per delimited species were generated to assess the phylogenetic relationships among Macaronesian Osmundea. Moreover, for each delineated species, vegetative and reproductive anatomy was thoroughly documented and, when possible, specimens were either assigned to existing taxa or described as novel species. This integrative approach has provided data for (i) the presence of O. oederi, O. pinnatifida, and O. truncata in Macaronesia; (ii) the proposal of two novel species, O. prudhommevanreinei sp. nov. and O. silvae sp. nov.; and (iii) evidence of an additional species referred as "Osmundea sp.1," which is a sister taxon of O. hybrida. PMID:27221970

  17. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Density and Biomass Estimates by Removal for an Amazonian Crocodilian, Paleosuchus palpebrosus.

    PubMed

    Campos, Zilca; Magnusson, William E

    2016-01-01

    Direct counts of crocodilians are rarely feasible and it is difficult to meet the assumptions of mark-recapture methods for most species in most habitats. Catch-out experiments are also usually not logistically or morally justifiable because it would be necessary to destroy the habitat in order to be confident that most individuals had been captured. We took advantage of the draining and filling of a large area of flooded forest during the building of the Santo Antônio dam on the Madeira River to obtain accurate estimates of the density and biomass of Paleosuchus palpebrosus. The density, 28.4 non-hatchling individuals per km2, is one of the highest reported for any crocodilian, except for species that are temporarily concentrated in small areas during dry-season drought. The biomass estimate of 63.15 kg*km-2 is higher than that for most or even all mammalian carnivores in tropical forest. P. palpebrosus may be one of the World´s most abundant crocodilians. PMID:27224473

  19. Long period seismic noise modulated by atmospheric tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Helffrich, George

    2016-04-01

    The amplitudes of long-period (LP) seismic noise often exhibit a daily modulation, which is particularly visible on data recorded by temporary stations and horizontal components. These daily variations of the LP noise have been associated with temperature fluctuations. Temperature has been suggested to affect the noise recorded by seismometers by means of thermal convection around the sensor or by causing thermally induced tilts. Recently, we observed a semi-diurnal (12.0 hr) modulation of LP seismic noise amplitudes in seismometers in Portugal, SW Europe. This modulation was associated with the variation of atmospheric pressure, the only environmental signal to display a dominant 12-hr periodicity (at some locations). In this presentation we will present an analysis of this semi-diurnal modulation of long-period seismic noise. We show that the modulation: 1) is not instrument dependent, being recorded in a variety of sensors; 2) is observed in stations in mainland Portugal, Madeira island (N Atlantic), Florida (USA) and Mozambique, where it is strongest; 3) is seen only at a minority of sites without a clear geographical association, thus appearing to be strongly site-dependent; 5) is stronger during the Summer than during the Winter; and 6) is more clearly seen on vertical components. We will use data from the Transportable Array (EarthScope, USA) to investigate the admittance between LP seismic noise variations and co-located atmospheric pressure measurements.

  20. Antimalarials and the fight against malaria in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carmargo, Luiz Ma; de Oliveira, Saulo; Basano, Sergio; Garcia, Célia Rs

    2009-08-01

    Malaria, known as the "fevers," has been treated for over three thousand years in China with extracts of plants of the genus Artemisia (including Artemisia annua, A. opiacea, and A. lancea) from which the active compound is artemisin, a sesquiterpene that is highly effective in the treatment of the disease, especially against young forms of the parasite. South American Indians in the seventeenth century already used an extract of the bark of chinchona tree, commonly named "Jesuits' powder." Its active compound was isolated in 1820 and its use spread all over the world being used as a prophylactic drug during the construction of the Madeira-Mamoré railroad in the beginning of the twentieth century. During the 1920s to the 1940s, new antimalarial drugs were synthesized to increase the arsenal against this parasite. However, the parasite has presented systematic resistence to conventional antimalarial drugs, driving researchers to find new strategies to treat the disease. In the present review we discuss how Brazil treats Plasmodium-infected patients. PMID:19753125

  1. Colonization and diversification of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae, Pholcidae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos: evidence for long-term occupancy yet rapid recent speciation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Arnedo, Miquel A; Ribera, Carles

    2008-08-01

    Macaronesian archipelagos stand apart from other oceanic islands reputed as laboratories for the study of evolution by their proximity to the mainland, lack of subsidence, and steep ecological gradients. The genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805, commonly known as daddy-long-leg spiders, is one of the most speciose arthropod groups in the region, with 25 endemic species. In the present study, we use information from four mitochondrial genes, along with morphological data, to examine the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns of the genus in the region. Phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of Macaronesian Pholcus including the Moroccan species Pholcus vachoni and hence a single colonization event in the archipelagos. Madeira colonizers most likely originated from the Canaries, and a back-colonization of the nearby mainland receives further support. Estimated lineage divergence times suggest a long-time presence of Pholcus in the region, but also reveal that most present-day species are the result of recent, and probably rapid, speciation events. Diagnostic characters among Macaronesian Pholcus are confined to structures involved in copulation. Coupled with the extremely high diversification rate, the highest recorded for spiders, these copulatory characters suggest that sexual selection has played a key role in the local diversification of Pholcus in Macaronesia. PMID:18524631

  2. A fast and environment-friendly MEPSPEP/UHPLC-PDA methodology to assess 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone in fortified wines.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Jorge; Perestrelo, Rosa; Cassaca, Rubina; Castillo, Mariangie; Santos, Mariana; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2017-01-01

    Sotolon is widely associated with the quality of fortified aged wines, and has also been linked to premature oxidative aging (premox). Here we developed a single, fast and environmental-friendly microextraction by packed sorbent ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (MEPS/UHPLC-PDA) for sotolon quantification in different wines. The best extraction conditions (loading three times 250μL samples through the MEPSPEP sorbent and elution with 100μL of 50% MeOH) were combined with a fast UHPLC separation (5min separation using acidified 10% MeOH isocratic flow in a CORTECS C18 column) to allow unparalleled minimum sample and solvents volumes usage. The validated methodology showed good linearity (r(2)>0.993) and precision (<5.6%); high recovery (>81%) and detection limits (0.45-2.51μg/L) far below sotolon odor threshold for any type of wine. The methodology was successfully applied to selected white table and Madeira wines, encompassing therefore a wide range of alcohol and sugar contents. Furthermore, as far we may know, this is the first time a single methodology can be used to assess both wine aging or premox according to the type of wine. PMID:27507526

  3. Post-rift flood-basalt-like volcanism on the Newfoundland Basin nonvolcanic margin: The U event mapped with spectral decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deemer, S.; Hurich, C.; Hall, J.

    2010-10-01

    Diabase sills emplaced at less than .5 km depth (presently ~ 7 km) are imaged throughout the Newfoundland Basin as an extraordinarily high amplitude package of seismic reflections historically referred to as the U event. The sills are extensive, covering roughly 20,000 km 2, and represent a post-rift voluminous magmatic episode along an otherwise nonvolcanic rifted margin. Spectral decomposition is used to estimate a total magmatic volume at roughly 1000-2000 km 3. On an individual basis the major sills are comparable to flows in flood basalt volcanic environments. A proposed mechanism for generating these large volumes of magma which are also very limited in time to perhaps only two major intrusive episodes (2 sills) is the approach of the Canary and Madeira hot spots. Suppressed volcanism while the hot spots traveled under full thickness continental lithosphere of Newfoundland resulted in a local accumulation of magma which was suddenly released when the hot spots approached thinned lithosphere at the eastern edge of the Grand Banks. The emplacement of the sills 'anticipated' the arrival of the hot spots geographically.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and symbiotic selectivity of the green algal genus Dictyochloropsis s.l. (Trebouxiophyceae): a polyphyletic and widespread group forming photobiont-mediated guilds in the lichen family Lobariaceae.

    PubMed

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Beck, Andreas; Cornejo, Carolina; Singh, Garima; Cheenacharoen, Saran; Nelsen, Matthew P; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Dictyochloropsis s.l. is an ecologically important, common but little-studied genus of green algae. Here, we examined the diversity and host selectivity of algae attributed to this genus at both species-to-species and species-to-community levels. We conducted a molecular investigation of 15 cultured strains and several lichen photobionts, using 18S rRNA, rbcL and ITS sequence data. We further used seven alga-specific microsatellite markers to study algal sharing among fungi of the family Lobariaceae in two populations in Madeira and Taiwan (454 lichens). We found that the genus Dictyochloropsis s.l. is polyphyletic. Dictyochloropsis clade 1 comprises only free-living algae whereas Dictyochloropsis clade 2 includes lichenized algae as well as free-living algae. Fungal selectivity towards algae belonging to Dictyochloropsis clade 2 is high. Selectivity varies geographically, with photobionts being restricted to a single region. Finally, we showed that Dictyochloropsis clade 2 individuals are shared among different fungal hosts in communities of lichens of the Lobariaceae. As for other green algal lineages, there is a high amount of cryptic diversity in Dictyochloropsis. Furthermore, co-evolution between Dictyochloropsis clade 2 algae and representatives of the Lobariaceae is manifested at the community level, with several unrelated fungal species being horizontally connected by shared photobiont clones. PMID:24443895

  5. Assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. Atlantic margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ten Brink, Uri; Chaytor, Jason; Geist, Eric L.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Andrews, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Tsunamis caused by atmospheric disturbances and by coastal earthquakes may be more frequent than those generated by landslides, but their amplitudes are probably smaller. Among the possible far-field earthquake sources, only earthquakes located within the Gulf of Cadiz or west of the Tore-Madeira Rise are likely to affect the U.S. coast. It is questionable whether earthquakes on the Puerto Rico Trench are capable of producing a large enough tsunami that will affect the U.S. Atlantic coast. More information is needed to evaluate the seismic potential of the northern Cuba fold-and-thrust belt. The hazard from a volcano flank collapse in the Canary Islands is likely smaller than originally stated, and there is not enough information to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of flank collapse from the Azores Islands. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods to evaluate the tsunami hazard from the margin are available for application to the Atlantic margin, but their implementation requires more information than is currently available.

  6. Density and Biomass Estimates by Removal for an Amazonian Crocodilian, Paleosuchus palpebrosus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Direct counts of crocodilians are rarely feasible and it is difficult to meet the assumptions of mark-recapture methods for most species in most habitats. Catch-out experiments are also usually not logistically or morally justifiable because it would be necessary to destroy the habitat in order to be confident that most individuals had been captured. We took advantage of the draining and filling of a large area of flooded forest during the building of the Santo Antônio dam on the Madeira River to obtain accurate estimates of the density and biomass of Paleosuchus palpebrosus. The density, 28.4 non-hatchling individuals per km2, is one of the highest reported for any crocodilian, except for species that are temporarily concentrated in small areas during dry-season drought. The biomass estimate of 63.15 kg*km-2 is higher than that for most or even all mammalian carnivores in tropical forest. P. palpebrosus may be one of the World´s most abundant crocodilians. PMID:27224473

  7. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Evasion from Amazonian Rivers and Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Barbosa, P.; Schofield, V.; Amaral, J.; Forsberg, B.; Farjalla, V.

    2013-12-01

    Floodplains, with their mosaic of aquatic habitats, constitute the majority of the wetlands of South America. We report 1) estimates of CH4 and CO2 flux from Amazonian floodplain lakes and rivers during low, rising and high water periods, and 2) identify environmental factors regulating these fluxes. We sampled 10 floodplain lakes, 4 tributaries of Solimões River, 6 stations on the Solimões main stem and 1 station on the Madeira, Negro and Amazonas rivers. Diffusive fluxes were measured with static floating chambers. CH4 fluxes were highly variable, with the majority of the values lower than 5 mmol m-2 d-1. For the lakes, no significant differences among the periods were found. CH4 concentration in the water and water temperature were the two main environmental factors regulating the diffusive flux. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the spatial and temporal scales when estimating CH4 fluxes for a region. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere ranged between 327 and -21 mmol m-2 d-1, averaging 58 mmol m-2 d-1. We found higher evasion rates in lakes than in rivers. For both systems the lowest rates were found in low water. pH and dissolved oxygen, phosphorous and organic carbon were the main factors correlated to CO2 evasion from the water bodies.

  8. Predictive Modeling of Tokamak Configurations*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, T. A.; Lodestro, L. L.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Bulmer, R. H.; Jong, R. A.; Kaiser, T. B.; Moller, J. M.

    2001-10-01

    The Corsica code provides comprehensive toroidal plasma simulation and design capabilities with current applications [1] to tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and spheromak configurations. It calculates fixed and free boundary equilibria coupled to Ohm's law, sources, transport models and MHD stability modules. We are exploring operations scenarios for both the DIII-D and KSTAR tokamaks. We will present simulations of the effects of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) relevant to the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime on DIII-D exploring long pulse operation issues. KSTAR simulations using ECH/ECCD in negative central shear configurations explore evolution to steady state while shape evolution studies during current ramp up using a hyper-resistivity model investigate startup scenarios and limitations. Studies of high bootstrap fraction operation stimulated by recent ECH/ECCD experiments on DIIID will also be presented. [1] Pearlstein, L.D., et al, Predictive Modeling of Axisymmetric Toroidal Configurations, 28th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madeira, Portugal, June 18-22, 2001. * Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  9. Island colonization and evolution of the insular woody habit in Echium L. (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Böhle, U R; Hilger, H H; Martin, W F

    1996-10-15

    Numerous island-inhabiting species of predominantly herbaceous angiosperm genera are woody shrubs or trees. Such "insular woodiness" is strongly manifested in the genus Echium, in which the continental species of circummediterranean distribution are herbaceous, whereas endemic species of islands along the Atlantic coast of north Africa are woody perennial shrubs. The history of 37 Echium species was traced with 70 kb of noncoding DNA determined from both chloroplast and nuclear genomes. In all, 239 polymorphic positions with 137 informative sites, in addition to 27 informative indels, were found. Island-dwelling Echium species are shown to descend from herbaceous continental ancestors via a single island colonization event that occurred < 20 million years ago. Founding colonization appears to have taken place on the Canary Islands, from which the Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos were invaded. Colonization of island habitats correlates with a recent origin of perennial woodiness from herbaceous habit and was furthermore accompanied by intense speciation, which brought forth remarkable diversity of forms among contemporary island endemics. We argue that the origin of insular woodiness involved response to counter-selection of inbreeding depression in founding island colonies. PMID:8876207

  10. Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno; Alves, Joana; Sousa, Carla A; Santa-Ana, Marta; Vieira, Inês; Silva, Teresa L; Almeida, António PG; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2012-01-01

    The Culex pipiens complex includes two widespread mosquito vector species, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The distribution of these species varies in latitude, with the former being present in temperate regions and the latter in tropical and subtropical regions. However, their distribution range overlaps in certain areas and interspecific hybridization has been documented. Genetic introgression between these species may have epidemiological repercussions for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. Bayesian clustering analysis based on multilocus genotypes of 12 microsatellites was used to determine levels of hybridization between these two species in Macaronesian islands, the only contact zone described in West Africa. The distribution of the two species reflects both the islands' biogeography and historical aspects of human colonization. Madeira Island displayed a homogenous population of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cape Verde showed a more intriguing scenario with extensive hybridization. In the islands of Brava and Santiago, only Cx. quinquefasciatus was found, while in Fogo and Maio high hybrid rates (∼40%) between the two species were detected. Within the admixed populations, second-generation hybrids (∼50%) were identified suggesting a lack of isolation mechanisms. The observed levels of hybridization may locally potentiate the transmission to humans of zoonotic arboviruses such as WNV. PMID:22957190

  11. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916)

    PubMed Central

    González, José A.; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  12. Assessment of the geographic origins of pinewood nematode isolates via single nucleotide polymorphism in effector genes.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Joana; Simões, Maria José; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Pinho, Diogo; Conceição, Luci; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4), China (1), Japan (1) and USA (1), were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2), China (1), USA (1), Japan (2) and South Korea (2). The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification. PMID:24391785

  13. Determination of the Mercury Fraction Linked to Protein of Muscle and Liver Tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José C S; Cavecci, Bruna; Queiroz, João V; Braga, Camila P; Padilha, Cilene C F; Leite, Aline L; Figueiredo, Wllyane S; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Zara, Luiz F; Padilha, Pedro M

    2015-11-01

    This study used metalloproteomic techniques to characterize mercury (Hg)-bound proteins in the muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) collected at the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant in Madeira River Basin, Brazil. The proteome of the muscle and liver tissue was obtained after two steps of fractional precipitation and separating the proteins by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hg was identified and quantified in the protein spots by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization in an ultrasound bath. Hg with a molecular weight <20 kDa and a concentration between 13.30 and 33.40 mg g(-1) was found in the protein spots. These protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion. From a total of 12 analyzed spots, seven proteins showing Hg biomarker characteristics were identified: parvalbumin and its isoforms, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, zinc (Zn) finger and BTB domain-containing protein 24, and dual-specificity protein phosphatase 22-B. PMID:25981407

  14. Sediment transport and sedimentation along the Amazon floodplain

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, T.; Mertes, A.K.L.; Meade, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    As the Amazon River leaves the Andean foothills and crosses the structural trough in its Brazilian segment, it receives a large increment of discharge, but a small increase in sediment load from the bounding cratons. The gradient of the river declines gradually from Iquitos, Peru, downstream to Coari, Brazil, before increasing downstream to the vicinity of Manaus as the river crosses a structural arch. Between Manaus and Obidos, the river slope declines sharply. The interplay of the variable gradient and increasing discharge creates a pattern of boundary shear stress and sediment transport which the authors have defined by measurement and calculation. The downstream divergence of suspended and bed load transport is responsible for the patterns of aggradation, channel behavior and floodplain morphology. Aggradation has been computed on the basis of three years of sediment transport measurements; floodplain morphology was documented from radar photography and navigation charts; and channel migration from these charts and from aerial and satellite photography. In the reach between the Peruvian border and Coari, the river deposits sand bars within and alongside the channel and shifts laterally at a relatively rapid rate, forming a scroll-bar floodplain topography with long, narrow lakes. In the middle, steeper reach no net aggradation was measured, sand-bar development and channel shifting are limited. Below Manaus, the rapid decline in gradient and the large influx of Andean sediment from the Rio Madeira result in deposition of almost the entire sand load and a portion of the silt.

  15. Reactive and dissolved meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Hella; Dannhaus, Nadine; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Suessenberger, Annette; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Maurice, Laurence; Filizola, Naziano; Gaillardet, Jerome; Christl, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the ratio of the meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be to stable 9Be has been established as a weathering and erosion proxy where meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in reactive phases of secondary weathering products leached from detrital Amazonian river sediment were measured[1]. For this dataset, we derived a new 10Be-based mass balance, which compares the fluxes exported during erosion and weathering, Fout, calculated by the sum of [10Be]reac multiplied by gauging-derived sediment discharge and [10Be]dissmultiplied by water discharge, to the meteoric depositional flux Fin. This assessment allows evaluating the weathering state of the Amazon basin. Further, in order to assess equilibration of reactive phases in the water column, we measured (10Be/9Be)reac ratios leached from suspended sediments for two depth profiles of the Amazon (55m depth) and Madeira (12m depth) Rivers, their corresponding surface dissolved 10Be/9Be ratios, as well as dissolved ratios of smaller Amazon tributaries (Beni, Madre de Dios) to compare with published reactive ratios[1]. In these rivers, modest pH and salinity fluctuations help to constrain a 'simple' system that might however still be affected by seasonally changing isotopic compositions between water and suspended sediment[2] and seasonal fluctuations of TSS and TDS[3]. The 10Be-based mass balance shows that in Andean source areas Fout/Fin ≡1, indicating a balance between ingoing and exported flux, whereas in the Shield headwaters, Fout/Fin=0.3, indicating a combination of decay of 10Be during storage and little export of 10Be associated with particulate and dissolved loads. In central Amazonia, the export of 10Be decreases slightly relative to its atmospheric flux as evidenced by Fout/Fin=0.8 for the Amazon and Madeira Rivers. This value is interpreted as being close to steady state, but its modification could be due to additions of Shield-derived sediment to sediment carried in the main river[4]. Regarding the depth profiles, our

  16. Seasonal genetic partitioning in the neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. In spite of being considered a riverine, forest-dwelling species, this mosquito is becoming more abundant in peri-urban areas, increasing malaria risk. This has been associated with human-driven environmental changes such as deforestation. Methods Microsatellites were used to characterize A. darlingi from seven localities along the Madeira River, Rondônia (Brazil), collected in the early and late periods of the rainy season. Results Two genetically distinct subpopulations were detected: one (subpopulation A) was associated with the late rainfall period and seems to be ecologically closer to the typical forest A. darlingi; the other (subpopulation B) was associated with the early rainfall period and is probably more adapted to drier conditions by exploiting permanent anthropogenic breeding sites. Results suggest also a pattern of asymmetric introgression, with more subpopulation A alleles introgressed into subpopulation B. Both subpopulations (and admixed mosquitoes) presented similar malaria infection rates, highlighting the potential for perennial malaria transmission in the region. Conclusions The co-occurrence of two genetically distinct subpopulations of A. darlingi adapted to different periods of rainfall may promote a more perennial transmission of malaria throughout the year. These findings, in a context of strong environmental impact due to deforestation and dam construction, have serious implications for malaria epidemiology and control in the Amazonian region. PMID:24885508

  17. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of the Neotropical peacock basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; Nunes, Mario S; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2007-07-01

    To investigate forces influencing diversification in Neotropical fishes, the phylogenetic relationships among species and populations of the cichlid genus Cichla were examined. Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced for 454 individuals of the 5 nominal Cichla species and several putative undescribed species. Phylogenetic analyses support the distinction of two major clades of Cichla. Clade A includes C. temensis and two undescribed species from the lower Amazonas and Xingu Rivers. Clade B includes C. orinocensis, C. monoculus, C. ocellaris. C, intermedia, and an undescribed species from the upper Madeira River. Species boundaries were relatively well-circumscribed for clade B, while incomplete lineage sorting was inferred for clade A. Three probable instances of introgression were observed, including a regional population of C. orinocensis from the Negro River that shows a history of introgression. Biogeographic patterns from Cichla are partially congruent with those seen in several other Neotropical fish clades, and the diversification of Cichla species is inferred to result from both vicariance and sympatric divergence. PMID:17275345

  18. Methane emissions from Amazonian Rivers and their contribution to the global methane budget.

    PubMed

    Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Bastviken, David; Sawakuchi, André O; Krusche, Alex V; Ballester, Maria V R; Richey, Jeffrey E

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4 ) fluxes from world rivers are still poorly constrained, with measurements restricted mainly to temperate climates. Additional river flux measurements, including spatio-temporal studies, are important to refine extrapolations. Here we assess the spatio-temporal variability of CH4 fluxes from the Amazon and its main tributaries, the Negro, Solimões, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingu, and Pará Rivers, based on direct measurements using floating chambers. Sixteen of 34 sites were measured during low and high water seasons. Significant differences were observed within sites in the same river and among different rivers, types of rivers, and seasons. Ebullition contributed to more than 50% of total emissions for some rivers. Considering only river channels, our data indicate that large rivers in the Amazon Basin release between 0.40 and 0.58 Tg CH4  yr(-1) . Thus, our estimates of CH4 flux from all tropical rivers and rivers globally were, respectively, 19-51% to 31-84% higher than previous estimates, with large rivers of the Amazon accounting for 22-28% of global river CH4 emissions. PMID:24890429

  19. Description of three new species of Moenkhausia (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) with the definition of the Moenkhausia jamesi species complex.

    PubMed

    Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-01-01

    From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla. PMID:26250196

  20. Proteome data to explore the impact of pBClin15 on Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jean-Paul; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Armengaud, Jean; Omer, Hélène; Duport, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    This data article reports changes in the cellular and exoproteome of B. cereus cured from pBClin15.Time-course changes of proteins were assessed by high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS. We report all the peptides and proteins identified and quantified in B. cereus with and without pBClin15. Proteins were classified into functional groups using the information available in the KEGG classification and we reported their abundance in term of normalized spectral abundance factor. The repertoire of experimentally confirmed proteins of B. cereus presented here is the largest ever reported, and provides new insights into the interplay between pBClin15 and its host B. cereus ATCC 14579. The data reported here is related to a published shotgun proteomics analysis regarding the role of pBClin15, "Deciphering the interactions between the Bacillus cereus linear plasmid, pBClin15, and its host by high-throughput comparative proteomics" Madeira et al. [1]. All the associated mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/), with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD001568, PRIDE: PXD002788 and PRIDE: PXD002789. PMID:27547804

  1. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-01-01

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system. PMID:24854445

  2. Prototype Early Warning Systems for Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3) Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1) The environmental suitability of malaria transmission in Greece was mapped in order to target epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control activities. Malaria transmission in these areas was interrupted in 2013 through such integrated preparedness and response activities. (2) Since 2010, recurrent West Nile fever outbreaks have ensued in South/eastern Europe. Temperature deviations from a thirty year average proved to be associated with the 2010 outbreak. Drivers of subsequent outbreaks were computed through multivariate logistic regression models and included monthly temperature anomalies for July and a normalized water index. (3) Dengue is a tropical disease but sustained transmission has recently emerged in Madeira. Autochthonous transmission has also occurred repeatedly in France and in Croatia mainly due to travel importation. The risk of dengue importation into Europe in 2010 was computed with the volume of international travelers from dengue affected areas worldwide.These prototype early warning systems indicate that monitoring drivers of infectious diseases can help predict vector-borne disease threats. PMID:26042370

  3. Climate Change and Aedes Vectors: 21st Century Projections for Dengue Transmission in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Quam, Mikkel; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Stenlund, Hans; Ebi, Kristie; Massad, Eduardo; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-05-01

    Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC) based on historic and projected temperature (1901-2099). VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence-if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe. PMID:27322480

  4. Complexities within distal sheet turbidite deposits: case study 160,000ka Icod Turbidite, Moroccan Turbidite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, James; Wynn, Russell

    2010-05-01

    The Icod landslide from the northern flank of Tenerife not only generated a debris avalanche phase (Watts & Masson, 1995; Masson et al. 2002), but produced a volcaniclastic turbidite that spans three interconnected basins. The Icod turbidite (160,000ka) was reported and correlated during work in the Madeira Abyssal Plain (Pearce & Jarvis, 1992; Rothwell, Pearce & Weaver, 1992). Here it forms a series of vertically stacked sand bodies accumulating into a single event bed. However, the Madeira Abyssal Plain is fed from the Agadir Basin by a series of channels, thus invoking a level of complexity to the deposit with the flow exiting channels at different times. The Icod turbidite can be found deposited more proximally to source in the Agadir Basin as a 0.3-0.6m stacked sand with accompanying 0.2-1.5m mudcap. With this stacked sand facies present here a number of other mechanisms can still be viable: (1) multistage retrogressive landslide failure, (2) flow reflection and (3) internal waves. Geochemical methodologies including ICP-AES, ICP-MS, XRF, ITRAX micro-XRF, SEM EDS and laser-diffraction grain-size analysis have been employed here to investigate the potential of a retrogressive failure at source being the driver of this facies. Evidence suggests that this stacked sand facies in this case is derived from the failure mechanism at source. Five vertical sand packages have been identified and correlated through the Agadir Basin, with the initial basal package representing the thickest. However, this amalgamated sand displays degrees of complexity with correlated internal erosional surfaces marked by sand-sand grain-size breaks. There are also sand-sand grain-size breaks found at the transition between facies associated with flow properties i.e. Bouma Tb parallel laminations and Bouma Tc ripple laminations. Each of the stacked sand intervals also has a sand-mud grain-size break present at the top of the package. This sand-mud break could possibly indicate (1) bypass of

  5. Prototype early warning systems for vector-borne diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C

    2015-06-01

    Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3) Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1) The environmental suitability of malaria transmission in Greece was mapped in order to target epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control activities. Malaria transmission in these areas was interrupted in 2013 through such integrated preparedness and response activities. (2) Since 2010, recurrent West Nile fever outbreaks have ensued in South/eastern Europe. Temperature deviations from a thirty year average proved to be associated with the 2010 outbreak. Drivers of subsequent outbreaks were computed through multivariate logistic regression models and included monthly temperature anomalies for July and a normalized water index. (3) Dengue is a tropical disease but sustained transmission has recently emerged in Madeira. Autochthonous transmission has also occurred repeatedly in France and in Croatia mainly due to travel importation. The risk of dengue importation into Europe in 2010 was computed with the volume of international travelers from dengue affected areas worldwide.These prototype early warning systems indicate that monitoring drivers of infectious diseases can help predict vector-borne disease threats. PMID:26042370

  6. Upper mantle magma storage and transport under a Canarian shield-volcano, Teno, Tenerife (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Troll, Valentin R.; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2008-08-01

    We use clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry, aided by petrography and mineral major element chemistry, to reconstruct the magma plumbing system of the late Miocene, largely mafic Teno shield-volcano on the island of Tenerife. Outer rims of clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts show patterns best explained by decompression-induced crystallization upon rapid ascent of magmas from depth. The last equilibrium crystallization of clinopyroxene occurred in the uppermost mantle, from ˜20 to 45 km depth. We propose that flexural stresses or, alternatively, thermomechanical contrasts create a magma trap that largely confines magma storage to an interval roughly coinciding with the Moho at ˜15 km and the base of the long-term elastic lithosphere at ˜40 km below sea level. Evidence for shallow magma storage is restricted to the occurrence of a thick vitric tuff of trachytic composition emplaced before the Teno shield-volcano suffered large-scale flank collapses. The scenario developed in this study may help shed light on some unresolved issues of magma supply to intraplate oceanic volcanoes characterized by relatively low magma fluxes, such as those of the Canary, Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagoes, as well as Hawaiian volcanoes in their postshield stage. The data presented also support the importance of progressive magmatic underplating in the Canary Islands.

  7. Seasonal anomalies in the Canary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    Along the northwestern coast of Africa lies an important fishery, stimulated by an upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich, deep-ocean water. Driven by a complex convergence of ocean currents, the waters between the coast, the Portuguese island of Madeira, and the Canary Islands are known to vary dramatically throughout the year, seeing coastal current reversals near the shore and the location of the large-scale Canary Current drifting seasonally, moving offshore in the winter before returning toward the coast in the summer. To sort out the trigger for this seasonal drift, Mason et al. produced a high-resolution model of the Canary Current that captures details of its interaction with the coastal region where the deep water upwelling occurs. The authors found a pair of circular seasonal anomalies that they suggest control the strength and location of the Canary Current. The first, formed in late autumn, is a persistent, clockwise-spinning region of elevated sea surface height and increased flow rates. Its counterpart, a counterclockwise-rotating sea surface depression, is formed in the spring. Both anomalies spawn near the African coast and meander westward at around 2.6 kilometers per day, pushing their way out of the region over the course of a year. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2010JC006665, 2011)

  8. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogeny of Gymnocorymbus Eigenmann, 1908 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Benine, Ricardo C; Melo, Bruno F; Castro, Ricardo M C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Characidae, one of the most diverse families of Characiformes and one of the largest clades of fishes in the world, has a complex taxonomic background, with one issue being the placement of various genera, including Gymnocorymbus. Herein, we generate the first molecular phylogeny for the genus using three nuclear and two mitochondrial loci and review the systematics of Gymnocorymbus. This genus includes the black tetra, a well-known and popular species among aquarists. Molecular phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of Gymnocorymbus, with this hypothesis corroborated by the presence of three morphological synapomorphies. Of the six previously known nominal species of Gymnocorymbus, three are considered valid herein: Gymnocorymbus bondi from the Río Orinoco basin, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi from the Rio Paraguay basin, and Gymnocorymbus thayeri from the Corantijn and Amazon basin and rivers of northeastern Brazil. A fourth species, Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai sp. n., is described from the Rio Madeira, Amazon basin. Lectotypes are designated for G. ternetzi and G. thayeri. Our results support previous hypotheses of the alignment of Gymnocorymbus close to the subfamily Stethaprioninae and also support the sister relationship between G. ternetzi and G. thayeri, and of that clade as sister to G. bondi. PMID:26248902

  9. The extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin: the role of tropical-subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Marengo, José Antonio; Ronchail, Josyane; Molina Carpio, Jorge; Noriega Flores, Luís; Loup Guyot, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented wet conditions are reported in the 2014 summer (December-March) in South-western Amazon, with rainfall about 100% above normal. Discharge in the Madeira River (the main southern Amazon tributary) has been 74% higher than normal (58 000 m3 s-1) at Porto Velho and 380% (25 000 m3 s-1) at Rurrenabaque, at the exit of the Andes in summer, while levels of the Rio Negro at Manaus were 29.47 m in June 2014, corresponding to the fifth highest record during the 113 years record of the Rio Negro. While previous floods in Amazonia have been related to La Niña and/or warmer than normal tropical South Atlantic, the 2014 rainfall and flood anomalies are associated with warm condition in the western Pacific-Indian Ocean and with an exceptionally warm Subtropical South Atlantic. Our results suggest that the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient is a main driver for moisture transport from the Atlantic toward south-western Amazon, and this became exceptionally intense during summer of 2014.

  10. Size distribution and genetic diversity of the offshore rockfish (Pontinus kuhlii) from three Atlantic archipelagos and seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarino, Diana; Stefanni, Sergio; Menezes, Gui M.

    2013-12-01

    The offshore rockfish (Pontinus kuhlii) is a widespread demersal fish in the temperate eastern Atlantic. This species inhabits hard bottoms at depths between 100 and 600m and it is an important resource for the Azorean commercial fishing fleet. During several research fishing surveys in the Azores, Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos diverse biological data on this species were collected. The degree of geographical population differentiation across the three Atlantic archipelagos was examined using two mitochondrial markers, control region (CR) and cytochrome b (cyt b). A total of 44 specimens were sequenced for each marker revealing high haplotypic diversity (CR: Hd=0.9736; cyt b: Hd=0.8520) and low nucleotide diversity (CR: π=0.0171; cyt b: π=0.0059). The sample size from the different subareas was limited but sufficient to reveal that no genetic structure was evident (ΦST=-0.0465 to -0.0224), suggesting the existence of one panmictic population. Despite very different exploitation rates between archipelagos, the size structure of P. kuhlii was very similar and inter-annual variation was also low. Exploitation rates are probably too low to significantly affect the size structure, even in the Azores where the species is a secondary target of the commercial fishery. In the Azores region this species is more abundant on seamounts, however bigger fishes tend to occur on island slope than on seamounts.