Science.gov

Sample records for madness picking upsets

  1. Metric Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Cindy D.

    2007-01-01

    Created for a Metric Day activity, Metric Madness is a board game for two to four players. Students review and practice metric vocabulary, measurement, and calculations by playing the game. Playing time is approximately twenty to thirty minutes.

  2. Complete Madness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, David C.

    1997-05-01

    The use of MAD notation for the representation of charged particle optical systems has proved to be surprisingly popular. Originally, the MAD notation was intended to be used in other computer programs only for the representation of the beam line itself. Preliminary specifications, calculations to be done, and fitting procedures would all continue to be expressed in the notation peculiar to the various programs. hspace*1.5cm One such program is TRANSPORT. Retention of the original notation has been a source of much confusion. It is better to have everything in the data be in the MAD style format. We have now accomplished this change. Details will be provided. *Operated by the Universities Research Association, Inc. under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. ^1 TRANSPORT, D.C. Carey, K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker, SLAC Report No. R-95-462, May 1995.

  3. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  4. March Money Madness: The Coaches vs. the Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    College basketball's March Madness has come at a time when one prominent coach's salary has been held up for inspection. Apparently, the fact that the $1.6-million annual income of the University of Connecticut's Jim Calhoun makes him the highest-paid public employee in his state has rankled some people. Or are they more upset that he was caught…

  5. [Madness in Foucault: art and madness, madness and unreason].

    PubMed

    Providello, Guilherme Gonzaga Duarte; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    After presenting the ideas on madness and its interface with art as expressed in the writings of Michel Foucault, Peter Pál Pelbart, and Gilles Deleuze, the article explores how these authors question the relationship between art and madness. It begins with the notion that madness does not tell the truth about art, and vice versa, but that there are links between both that must be delved into if we are to engage in deeper reflection on the topic. The text problematizes the statement that madness is the absence of an oeuvre and examines how this impacts the possibility of achieving an artistic oeuvre. It further problematizes the idea of madness as excluded language, that is, the idea that madness implies not only the exclusion of the body but also the disqualification of discourse. PMID:24473649

  6. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision. (a... preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation. (b) Effect of an upset. An Upset shall...

  7. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  8. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  9. Laser simulation of single event upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S.P.; Wilson, D.; Kang, K.; Gill, D.; Mazer, J.A.; Raburn, W.D.; Campbell, A.B.; Knudson, A.R.

    1987-12-01

    A pulsed picosecond laser was used to produce upsets in both a commercial bipolar logic circuit and a specially designed CMOS SRAM test structure. Comparing the laser energy necessary for producing upsets in transistors that have different upset sensitivities with the single event upset (SEU) level predicted from circuit analysis showed that a picosecond laser could measure circuit sensitivity to SEUs. The technique makes it possible not only to test circuits rapidly for upset sensitivity but also, because the beam can be focussed down to a small spot size, to identify sensitive transistors.

  10. Computer simulation of upset welding

    SciTech Connect

    Spingarn, J R; Mason, W E; Swearengen, J C

    1982-04-01

    Useful process modeling of upset welding requires contributions from metallurgy, welding engineering, thermal analysis and experimental mechanics. In this report, the significant milestones for such an effort are outlined and probable difficult areas are pointed out. Progress to date is summarized and directions for future research are offered. With regard to the computational aspects of this problem, a 2-D heat conduction computer code has been modified to incorporate electrical heating, and computations have been run for an axisymmetric problem with simple viscous material laws and d.c. electrical boundary conditions. In the experimental endeavor, the boundary conditions have been measured during the welding process, although interpretation of voltage drop measurements is not straightforward. The ranges of strain, strain rate and temperature encountered during upset welding have been measured or calculated, and the need for a unifying constitutive law is described. Finally, the possible complications of microstructure and interfaces are clarified.

  11. Single event upset in avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Taber, A. ); Normand, E. )

    1993-04-01

    Data from military/experimental flights and laboratory testing indicate that typical non radiation-hardened 64K and 256K static random access memories (SRAMs) can experience a significant soft upset rate at aircraft altitudes due to energetic neutrons created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that error detection and correction (EDAC) circuitry be considered for all avionics designs containing large amounts of semi-conductor memory.

  12. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    Niemann-Pick disease is a group of diseases passed down through families (inherited) in which fatty substances called lipids ... Niemann-Pick disease types A and B occur when cells in the body do not have an enzyme called ...

  13. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  14. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Upset provision. 403.16 Section 403.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision....

  15. Pick: A Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kevin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the derivation of Pick's theorem. However, this derivation is beyond the grasp of most high school students. Therefore, a sequence of simple exploratory activities is provided which will enable students to discover and apply Pick's theorem for finding the area of a polygon whose vertices are lattice points. (JN)

  16. MAD - Monitoring ALICE Dataflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Grigoras, C.; Wegrzynek, A.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Following a successful Run 1, which ended in February 2013, the ALICE data acquisition (DAQ) entered a consolidation phase to prepare for Run 2 which will start in the beginning of 2015. A new software tool has been developed by the data acquisition project to improve the monitoring of the experiment's dataflow, from the data readout in the DAQ farm up to its shipment to CERN's main computer centre. This software, called ALICE MAD (Monitoring ALICE Dataflow), uses the MonALISA framework as core module to gather, process, aggregate and distribute monitoring values from the different processes running in the distributed DAQ farm. Data are not only pulled from the data sources to MAD but can also be pushed by dedicated data collectors or the data source processes. A large set of monitored metrics (from the backpressure status on the readout links to event counters in each of the DAQ nodes and aggregated data rates for the whole data acquisition) is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the DAQ status. MAD also injects alarms in the Orthos alarm system whenever abnormal conditions are detected. The MAD web-based GUI uses WebSockets to provide dynamic and on-time status displays for the ALICE shift crew. Designed as a widget-based system, MAD supports an easy integration of new visualization blocks and also customization of the information displayed to the shift crew based on the ALICE activities.

  17. Transient upset models in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Essential factors for the design of transient upset monitors for computers are discussed. The upset is a system level event that is software dependent. It can occur in the program flow, the opcode set, the opcode address domain, the read address domain, and the write address domain. Most upsets are in the program flow. It is shown that simple, external monitors functioning transparently relative to the system operations can be built if a detailed accounting is made of the characteristics of the faults that can happen. Sample applications are provided for different states of the Z-80 and 8085 based system.

  18. Process Upsets Involving Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.; Perry, Jay; Wright, John; Bahr, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Paradoxically, trace contaminant control systems that suffer unexpected upsets and malfunctions can release hazardous gaseous contaminants into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere causing potentially serious toxicological problems. Trace contaminant control systems designed for spaceflight typically employ a combination of adsorption beds and catalytic oxidation reactors to remove organic and inorganic trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. Interestingly, the same design features and attributes which make these systems so effective for purifying a spacecraft's atmosphere can also make them susceptible to system upsets. Cabin conditions can be contributing causes of phenomena such as adsorbent "rollover" and catalyst poisoning can alter a systems performance and in some in stances release contamination into the cabin. Evidence of these phenomena has been observed both in flight and during ground-based tests. The following discussion describes specific instances of system upsets found in trace contaminant control systems, groups these specific upsets into general hazard classifications, and recommends ways to minimize these hazards.

  19. Activities: Pick's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christian R.

    1974-01-01

    A series of activities are presented on worksheets marked off with lattice points (like a geoboard). Students are led to discover and apply Pick's Theorem for finding the area of a polygon whose vertices are lattice points. (JP)

  20. Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

  1. Ice Pick Headache.

    PubMed

    Chua, Abigail L; Nahas, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    Ice pick headache, also called idiopathic or primary stabbing headache, is a unique headache type associated with ultra-brief stabs of pain, most commonly in the frontal or temporal area. It occurs predominantly in women and is estimated to affect 2-35 % of the population. Unlike other headache types of short duration, such as short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT), ice pick headache is not associated with any cranial autonomic symptoms but has been known to occur with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and dizziness. It exists in two forms: primary and secondary, with examples of secondary causes being herpes zoster meningoencephalitis, meningiomas, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Ice pick headache is one of the "indomethacin responsive headaches," but up to 35 % of patients fail to show significant benefit with that treatment. Other treatment options include gabapentin, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, melatonin, and external hand warming. PMID:27038969

  2. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  3. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence. PMID:25153978

  4. MAD data collection - current trends.

    SciTech Connect

    Dementieva, I.; Evans, G.; Joachimiak, A.; Sanishvili, R.; Walsh, M. A.

    1999-09-20

    The multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction, or MAD, method of determining protein structure is becoming routine in protein crystallography. An increase in the number of tuneable synchrotrons beamlines coupled with the widespread availability position-sensitive X-ray detectors based on charged-coupled devices and having fast readout raised MAD structure determination to a new and exciting level. Ultra-fast MAD data collection is now possible. Recognition of the value of selenium for phasing protein structures and improvement of methods for incorporating selenium into proteins in the form of selenomethionine have attracted greater interest in the MAD method. Recent developments in crystallographic software are complimenting the above advances, paving the way for rapid protein structure determination. An overview of a typical MAD experiment is described here, with emphasis on the rates and quality of data acquisition now achievable at beamlines developed at third-generation synchrotrons sources.

  5. Single-event upset testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, T.L.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Measel, P.R.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to characterize single event upset phenomena in selected bipolar memory devices irradiated with relativistic heavy ions. The principle objective was to determine the multibit upset rate at normal and parallel beam incidence angles. The impetus for this objective is that multibit errors are not generally detectable by the simple Hamming codes currently used on spacecraft. Multibit errors significantly reduce spacecraft reliability in initiating spurious commands. It was found in this program that the multibit error cross section is equal to or greater than the projected area of the depletion regions for parallel and for normal to 60 degree incidence beams.

  6. Single event upsets correlated with environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vampola, A.L.; Albin, F. ); Lauriente, M. ); Wilkinson, D.C.; Allen, J. )

    1994-12-01

    Single Event Upset rates on satellites in different Earth orbits are correlated with solar protons and geomagnetic activity and also with the NASA AP8 proton model to extract information about satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. An extensive discussion of the SEU data base from the TOMS solid state recorder and an algorithm for correcting spontaneous upsets in it are included as an Appendix. SAMPEX and TOMS, which have the same memory chips, have similar normalized responses in the South Atlantic Anomaly. SEU rates due to solar protons over the polar caps are within expectations. No geomagnetic activity effects can be discerned in the SEU rates.

  7. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for these forms of Niemann-Pick are available. Genetic defects have been identified in the DNA of many patients with type C. It may be possible to diagnose people who carry the abnormal gene. A few centers offer tests to diagnose a baby still in the womb.

  8. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  9. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  10. Mad-X a worthy successor for MAD8?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2006-03-01

    MAD-X is the successor at CERN to MAD8, a program for accelerator design and simulation with a long history. We had to give up on MAD8 since the code had evolved in such a way that the maintenance and upgrades had become increasingly difficult. In particular, the memory management with the Zebra banks seemed outdated. MAD-X was first released in June, 2002. It offers most of the MAD8 functionality, with some additions, corrections, and extensions. The most important of these extensions is the interface to PTC, the Polymorphic Tracking Code by E. Forest. The most relevant new features of MAD-X are: languages: C, Fortran77, and Fortran90; dynamic memory allocation: in the core program written in C; strictly modular organization, modified and extended input language; symplectic and arbitrary exact description of all elements via PTC; Taylor Maps and Normal Form techniques using PTC. It is also important to note that we have adopted a new style for program development and maintenance that relies heavily on active maintenance of modules by the users themselves. Proposals for collaboration as with KEK, Japan and GSI, Germany are therefore very welcome.

  11. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  12. Studies Of Single-Event-Upset Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents latest in series of investigations of "soft" bit errors known as single-event upsets (SEU). In this investigation, SEU response of low-power, Schottky-diode-clamped, transistor/transistor-logic (TTL) static random-access memory (RAM) observed during irradiation by Br and O ions in ranges of 100 to 240 and 20 to 100 MeV, respectively. Experimental data complete verification of computer model used to simulate SEU in this circuit.

  13. Predicting transient upset in gate arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, R.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Scherr, S.

    1987-12-01

    A simulation program for predicting dose rate upset has been adapted from the Power Analysis for Integrated Circuits program (PANIC). The program provides detailed analysis on the V/sub CC/V/sub SS/ difference at any location within the array as well as the amount of photocurrent being collected, as a function of design. The simulation has been compared to experiment for a specific design and was found to correlate to within 20% at 5 volts.

  14. Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Elleder, M

    1989-09-01

    Results of the investigation carried out during this decade brought unambigous evidence of biochemical heterogeneity inside the complex of Niemann-Pick disease according to which two entirely different metabolic disorders can be recognized. 1. Niemann-Pick sphingomyelinosis, a clear-cut enzymopathy, the pivotal lesion of which is the deficiency of lysosomal spingomyelinase leading to widespread lysosomal deposition of sphingomyelin liquid crystals. Two main allelic variants are known. The first one, neuronopathic (former type A) known as infantile with rapid course, may also manifest considerably prolonged course or an atypical course with predominantly visceral symptomatology. Patients with the second, visceral, variant (former type B), display mainly slow clinical course and often reach adulthood. With rare exceptions the neuronopathic variant can be biochemically recognized from the visceral one by much lower values of the in vivo sphingomyelin degradation test in the former. 2. The rest of the complex comprising types C-D differs substantially from the sphingomyelinase deficiency group by the remarkable heterogeneity in the lysosomal stored lipid pattern given by differences among the affected cell populations. Sphingomyelin storage could be proved histochemically solely in the histiocytic population together with cholesterol, neutral glycosphingolipids and lysobisphosphatidic acid, whereas the brain neurons displayed only neutral glycosphingolipid storage. There is an increasing evidence of the crucial biochemical lesion in this group being an altered intracellular traffic of exogenously derived cholesterol caused probably by its deficient translocation from lysosomes to other intracellular membrane sites. This leads to decreased cholesterol esterification rate which is the basis of the newly developed diagnostic test. Inconstant depression of sphingomyelinase activity is considered to be a secondary phenomenon. The so-called lactosylceramidosis is a rare

  15. Picking up the pieces.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    The idea of managing patients who have experienced unimaginable horror or suffering can be very daunting. As general practitioners (GPs) we are often the first port of call for people after a significant event or, alternatively, become involved when the patient emerges from the tertiary care system. Part of our role is to help 'pick up the pieces', whether the effects have been predominantly physical, psychological or a combination of both. Sometimes the person before you is fragmented, the pieces so fragile and far flung, that putting them back together seems an impossible task. PMID:25551866

  16. New Developments in MadGraph/MadEvent

    SciTech Connect

    Alwall, Johan; Artoisenet, Pierre; de Visscher, Simon; Duhr, Claude; Frederix, Rikkert; Herquet, Michel; Mattelaer, Olivier; /IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve

    2011-11-08

    We here present some recent developments of MadGraph/MadEvent since the latest published version, 4.0. These developments include: Jet matching with Pythia parton showers for both Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model processes, decay chain functionality, decay width calculation and decay simulation, process generation for the Grid, a package for calculation of quarkonium amplitudes, calculation of Matrix Element weights for experimental events, automatic dipole subtraction for next-to-leading order calculations, and an interface to FeynRules, a package for automatic calculation of Feynman rules and model files from the Lagrangian of any New Physics model.

  17. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    PubMed

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response. PMID:20222267

  18. ALSC & YALSA Book Picks 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a list of ALSC and YALSA Book Picks 2010. The list includes (1) ALSC Notable Children's Books; (2) YALSA Booklists; (3) Best Books for Young Adults; (4) Great Graphic Novels for Teens; and (5) the Top 10 Quick Picks.

  19. Shugoshin is a Mad1/Cdc20-like interactor of Mad2

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Michael; Mayer, Bernd; Rehm, Kinga; Rothweiler, Ulli; Heidmann, Doris; Holak, Tad A; Stemmann, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian centromeric cohesin is protected from phosphorylation-dependent displacement in mitotic prophase by shugoshin-1 (Sgo1), while shugoshin-2 (Sgo2) protects cohesin from separase-dependent cleavage in meiosis I. In higher eukaryotes, progression and faithful execution of both mitosis and meiosis are controlled by the spindle assembly checkpoint, which delays anaphase onset until chromosomes have achieved proper attachment to microtubules. According to the so-called template model, Mad1–Mad2 complexes at unattached kinetochores instruct conformational change of soluble Mad2, thus catalysing Mad2 binding to its target Cdc20. Here, we show that human Sgo2, but not Sgo1, specifically interacts with Mad2 in a manner that strongly resembles the interactions of Mad2 with Mad1 or Cdc20. Sgo2 contains a Mad1/Cdc20-like Mad2-interaction motif and competes with Mad1 and Cdc20 for binding to Mad2. NMR and biochemical analyses show that shugoshin binding induces similar conformational changes in Mad2 as do Mad1 or Cdc20. Mad2 binding regulates fine-tuning of Sgo2's sub-centromeric localization. Mad2 binding is conserved in the only known Xenopus laevis shugoshin homologue and, compatible with a putative meiotic function, the interaction occurs in oocytes. PMID:21666598

  20. Instrumented Pick Detects Coal/Rock Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Erkes, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumented pick installed on cutting drum of coal shearer for longwall mining measures cutting force with strain-gage-bridge load cell. Force signal transmitted to remote recorder. Transmitter located in base of pick assembly. Antenna located in shadow of rotating pick. Changes in characteristics of force signals from pick used to determine whether pick is cutting coal or rock.

  1. Mechanisms and modeling of single-event upset

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, Paul E.

    1998-10-12

    The basic mechanisms of single-event upset are reviewed, including charge collection in silicon junctions and transistors, and properties of single-event upset in CMOS static random access memory (SRAM) cells. The mechanisms are illustrated through the use of three-dimensional device and circuit simulations. Technology trends and implications for commercial devices are discussed.

  2. Performance analysis of a generalized upset detection procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blough, Douglas M.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for upset detection in complex systems, called the data block capture and analysis upset monitoring process is described and analyzed. The process consists of repeatedly recording a fixed amount of data from a set of predetermined observation lines of the system being monitored (i.e., capturing a block of data), and then analyzing the captured block in an attempt to determine whether the system is functioning correctly. The algorithm which analyzes the data blocks can be characterized in terms of the amount of time it requires to examine a given length data block to ascertain the existence of features/conditions that have been predetermined to characterize the upset-free behavior of the system. The performance of linear, quadratic, and logarithmic data analysis algorithms is rigorously characterized in terms of three performance measures: (1) the probability of correctly detecting an upset; (2) the expected number of false alarms; and (3) the expected latency in detecting upsets.

  3. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-12-01

    Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

  4. ALSC & YALSA Book Picks 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a list of ALSC's notable children's books, YALSA's best books for young adults, YALSA's great graphic novels for teens, and YALSA's quick picks for reluctant young adult readers.

  5. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  6. Testing Electronic Devices for Single-Event Upset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report prepared describes equipment and summarizes both pretest and onsite procedures for testing of digital electronic devices for susceptibility to single-event upset. Term "single-event upset" denotes variety of temporary or permanent bit flips or latchup induced by single particles of ionizing radiation. Vacuum chamber houses device under test while exposed to ion beam. Vacuum chamber and associated equipment must be brought to ion-beam facility for test.

  7. More About Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup; Edmonds, Larry D.; Zoutendyk, John A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports describe preliminary theoretical and experimental studies based on method described in "Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets" (NPO-18216). Laser-scan and heavy-ion data found correlated within factor of two. Method of testing for single-event upsets intended to overcome disadvantages of, complement, and/or substitute for more-expensive cyclotron-testing method, which does not provide spatial resolution.

  8. Measuring Critical Charges For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.

    1988-01-01

    Concept for determining susceptibility of integrated circuits to single-event upsets (SEU's) based on direct measurement of critical charge causing upset. Test circuit is modified version of standard complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor static cell. Contains six transistors, connected to form latch that retains state of cell set by input pulses. Makes possible to evaluate vulnerability to SEU during design and development of digital equipment.

  9. [Women and madness in the Eneid].

    PubMed

    Totola, Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    The article presents female cases of madness in Latin Vergilian Literature, comparing the Greek Dyonisian divine possession of the Maenads and Bacchae with the madness of Dido and Amata. Transcultural psychiatry is here proposed as a useful tool for reading the descriptions of the Aeneid - to try to understand every kind of world where barriers disappear between visible and invisible. PMID:25807735

  10. The madness of Gerard de Nerval.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Allan

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the madness of Gerard de Nerval, the nineteenth-century French writer. It looks at his account of mental disturbance, how he responded to the psychiatric profession and how he reacted to being diagnosed as insane. It considers his autobiographical novella of madness, Aurelia, which he began at the suggestion of his alienist, Dr Emile Blanche, and while he was still an asylum inmate. Nerval's story raises important questions about the nature of madness. Is it, as he contended, a mystical experience revealing truths about spiritual worlds inaccessible to the 'sane'? Does psychiatry fail to understand it and inappropriately reduce it to the categories of scientific reason? Or are such notions of the spiritual value of madness guilty of the charge that they romanticise insanity? Do they make extravagant claims for an experience that is often disturbing and debilitating? What is the relationship between madness and recovery? Should an individual try to forget their experience of mental disturbance once they recover, or should they examine what the event reveals about themselves? Can the language of madness be decoded to unveil profound truths as Carl Jung and R.D. Laing have suggested, or is it, as the psychiatrist German Berrios maintains, merely a series of 'empty speech acts', signifying nothing? And finally, how does one avoid writing about madness, and instead write madness? PMID:24284501

  11. New mechanism for upset of electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Molina, Luis Leroy; Salazar, Robert Austin; Patterson, Paull Edward; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2004-03-01

    For many decades, engineers and scientists have studied the effects of high power microwaves (HPM) on electronics. These studies usually focus on means of delivering energy to upset electronic equipment and ways to protect equipment from HPM. The motivation for these studies is to develop the knowledge necessary either to cause disruption or to protect electronics from disruption. Since electronic circuits must absorb sufficient energy to fail and the source used to deliver this energy is far away from the electronic circuit, the source must emit a large quantity of energy. In free space, for example, as the distance between the source and the target increases, the source energy must increase by the square of distance. The HPM community has dedicated substantial resources to the development of higher energy sources as a result. Recently, members of the HPM community suggested a new disruption mechanism that could potentially cause system disruptions at much lower energy levels. The new mechanism, based on nonlinear dynamics, requires an expanded theory of circuit operation. This report summarizes an investigation of electronic circuit nonlinear behavior as it applies to inductor-resistor-diode circuits (known as the Linsay circuit) and phased-locked-loops. With the improvement in computing power and the need to model circuit behavior with greater precision, the nonlinear effects of circuit has become very important. In addition, every integrated circuit has as part of its design a protective circuit. These protective circuits use some variation of semiconductor junctions that can interact with parasitic components, present in every real system. Hence, the protective circuit can behave as a Linsay circuit. Although the nonlinear behavior is understandable, it is difficult to model accurately. Many researchers have used classical diode models successfully to show nonlinear effects within predicted regions of operation. However, these models do not accurately predict

  12. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

  13. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  14. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  15. A Bub1–Mad1 interaction targets the Mad1–Mad2 complex to unattached kinetochores to initiate the spindle checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Mark W.; Kim, Taekyung; Hattersley, Neil; Espeut, Julien; Cheerambathur, Dhanya K.; Oegema, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment of Mad1–Mad2 complexes to unattached kinetochores is a central event in spindle checkpoint signaling. Despite its importance, the mechanism that recruits Mad1–Mad2 to kinetochores is unclear. In this paper, we show that MAD-1 interacts with BUB-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutagenesis identified specific residues in a segment of the MAD-1 coiled coil that mediate the BUB-1 interaction. In addition to unattached kinetochores, MAD-1 localized between separating meiotic chromosomes and to the nuclear periphery. Mutations in the MAD-1 coiled coil that selectively disrupt interaction with BUB-1 eliminated MAD-1 localization to unattached kinetochores and between meiotic chromosomes, both of which require BUB-1, and abrogated checkpoint signaling. The identified MAD-1 coiled-coil segment interacted with a C-terminal region of BUB-1 that contains its kinase domain, and mutations in this region prevented MAD-1 kinetochore targeting independently of kinase activity. These results delineate an interaction between BUB-1 and MAD-1 that targets MAD-1–MAD-2 complexes to kinetochores and is essential for spindle checkpoint signaling. PMID:24567362

  16. Closed MAD2 (C-MAD2) is selectively incorporated into the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC)

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Aaron R; Tipton, Michael; Yen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint is a specialized signal transduction pathway that monitors kinetochore-microtubule attachment to achieve faithful chromosome segregation. MAD2 is an evolutionarily conserved mitotic checkpoint protein that exists in open (O) and closed (C) conformations. The increase of intracellular C-MAD2 level during mitosis, through O→C-MAD2 conversion as catalyzed by unattached kinetochores, is a critical signaling event for the mitotic checkpoint. However, it remains controversial whether MAD2 is an integral component of the effector of the mitotic checkpoint—the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). We show here that endogenous human MCC is assembled by first forming a BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 complex in G2 and then selectively incorporating C-MAD2 during mitosis. Nevertheless, MCC can be induced to form in G1/S cells by expressing a C-conformation locked MAD2 mutant, indicating intracellular level of C-MAD2 as a major limiting factor for MCC assembly. In addition, a recombinant MCC containing C-MAD2 exhibits effective inhibitory activity toward APC/C isolated from mitotic HeLa cells, while a recombinant BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 ternary complex is ineffective at comparable concentrations despite association with APC/C. These results help establish a direct connection between a major signal transducer (C-MAD2) and the potent effector (MCC) of the mitotic checkpoint, and provide novel insights into protein-protein interactions during assembly of a functional MCC. PMID:22037211

  17. The Mad2 partial unfolding model: regulating mitosis through Mad2 conformational switching.

    PubMed

    Skinner, John J; Wood, Stacey; Shorter, James; Englander, S Walter; Black, Ben E

    2008-12-01

    The metamorphic Mad2 protein acts as a molecular switch in the checkpoint mechanism that monitors proper chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules during cell division. The remarkably slow spontaneous rate of Mad2 switching between its checkpoint inactive and active forms is catalyzed onto a physiologically relevant time scale by a self-self interaction between its two forms, culminating in a large pool of active Mad2. Recent structural, biochemical, and cell biological advances suggest that the catalyzed conversion of Mad2 requires a major structural rearrangement that transits through a partially unfolded intermediate. PMID:19029339

  18. Investigation for single-event upset in MSI devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, J. P.; Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation shows that low-power TTL, standard TTL, low-power Schottky, and Schottky devices are all subject to upset by heavy ions. Low-power Schottky was the most sensitive of the device technologies tested. No evidence was found to correlate sensitivity to cosmic rays with any particular device manufacturer. The probability of upset of the logic devices is comparable to that of RAM's on a per-flip-flop basis, based on RAM data obtained by Kolasinski et al. (1979). The testing was performed by subjecting the devices to 120 MeV krypton ions from a cyclotron.

  19. Upset welding process for 21-6-9 spherical vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanne, W. R., Jr.

    1993-02-01

    An upset resistance welding process which was developed to fabricate high quality spherical vessels from forged 21-6-9 stainless steel is discussed. The two hemishells of the vessels were joined at the girth using solid-state upset welding. Vessels passed nondestructive examinations (X-ray radiography, proof and leak tests, volume and dimensional measurements) and destructive examinations (burst tests and metallography). A set of six high quality vessels was produced. These vessels are 1.86 inches in diameter with a threaded boss and tube on top.

  20. Single event upset (SEU) sensitivity dependence of linear integrated circuits (ICs) on bias conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Penzin, S.H.; Crawford, K.B.; Crain, W.R.; Moss, S.C.; Pinkerton, S.D.; LaLumondiere, S.D.; Maher, M.C.

    1997-12-01

    The single event upset (SEU) sensitivity of certain types of linear microcircuits is strongly affected by bias conditions. For these devices, a model of upset mechanism and a method for SEU control have been suggested.

  1. Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup; Soli, George A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

    1992-01-01

    Microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) is opto/electro/mechanical apparatus for nondestructive testing of integrated memory circuits, logic circuits, and other microelectronic devices. Multipurpose diagnostic system used to determine ultrafast time response, leakage, latchup, and electrical overstress. Used to simulate some of effects of heavy ions accelerated to high energies to determine susceptibility of digital device to single-event upsets.

  2. Single-Event-Upset Laser Scanner With Optical Bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup

    1992-01-01

    Light-assisted microelectronic advanced laser scanner (LAMEALS) is augmented version of microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) described in article, "Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets", (NPO-18216). Only major difference, steady illumination from helium/neon laser, argon-ion laser, and/or other source(s) combined with pulsed dye-laser illumination of MEALS into single illuminating beam.

  3. The SEU Figure of Merit and proton upset rate calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, E.L.

    1998-12-01

    This paper re-examines the use of the SEU Figure of Merit for heavy ion upset rate predictions. Slightly different orbit dependent rate coefficients are used for unhardened and hardened parts. The two different coefficients allow for the slight changes of LET spectra that occur due to the earth`s magnetic shielding. Accurate heavy ion predictions can be made for any orbit and any part. The authors show that the Figure of Merit can also be used to predict upset rate due to protons in the proton radiation belt. A proton rate coefficient is introduced to describe the upset likelihood in orbits with proton exposures. These results mean that a part susceptibility can be described by a single parameter, rather than the four Weibull parameters and two Bendel parameters used previously. The Figure of Merit completely describes a part`s SEU susceptibility and can be obtained from either proton or heavy ion measurements, eliminating the expense of making both types of experiment. The total upset rate for a part in a particular orbit can be calculated using its characteristic Figure of Merit and a single orbit specific rate coefficient, the sum of the heavy ion and proton rate coefficients.

  4. Electrical upsetting of metal sheet forms weld edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherba, E. S.

    1966-01-01

    Electric gathering of sheet stock edges forms metal sheets in the shape of gore sections with heavier edge areas that can be welded without loss of strength. The edges are gathered by progressive resistance heating and upsetting, and are formed automatically. This process avoids disturbance of the metals internal structure.

  5. Modeling and experimental verification of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, T. N.; Attia, J. O.; Kumar, A. A.; Tang, T. S.; Lindner, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed and the results obtained at the Laboratory for Radiation Studies, Prairie View A&M University and Texas A&I University, on the problem of Single Events Upsets, the various schemes employed to limit them and the effects they have on the reliability and fault tolerance at the systems level, such as robotic systems are reviewed.

  6. Frequency Dependence of Single-Event Upset in Highly Advanced PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; White, Mark; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions were measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes at three frequencies of 500, 1066 and 1600 MHz. Frequency dependence of single-event upsets is discussed. The results of our studies suggest the single-event upset in registers and D-Cache tend to increase with frequency. This might have important implications for the overall single-event upset trend as technology moves toward higher frequencies.

  7. MADS-Box Transcription Factor SsMADS Is Involved in Regulating Growth and Virulence in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Baodong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Xianghui; Li, Guihua; Zhang, Dongjing; Li, Le; Wang, Xueliang; Wang, Lu; Chen, Jingyuan; Mu, Wenhui; Pan, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box proteins, a well-conserved family of transcription factors in eukaryotic organisms, specifically regulate a wide range of cellular functions, including primary metabolism, cell cycle, and cell identity. However, little is known about roles of the MADS-box protein family in the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this research, the S. sclerotiorum MADS-box gene SsMADS was cloned; it encodes a protein that is highly similar to Mcm1 orthologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi, and includes a highly conserved DNA-binding domain. MADS is a member of the MADS box protein SRF (serum response factor) lineage. SsMADS function was investigated using RNA interference. Silenced strains were obtained using genetic transformation of the RNA interference vectors pS1-SsMADS and pSD-SsMADS. SsMADS expression levels in silenced strains were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that SsMADS mRNA expression in these silenced strains was reduced to different degrees, and growth rate in these silenced strains was significantly decreased. Infecting tomato leaflets with silenced strains indicated that SsMADS was required for leaf pathogenesis in a susceptible host. Our results suggest that the MADS-box transcription factor SsMADS is involved in S. sclerotiorum growth and virulence. PMID:24815067

  8. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  9. RH1020 Single Event Clock Upset Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Wang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the testing and analysis of "single event clock upset' in the RH1020. Also included are SEU-rate predictions and design recommendations for risk analysis and reduction. The subject of "upsets" in the RH1020 is best understood by using a model consisting of a global clock buffer and a D-type flip-flop as the basic memory unit. The RH1020 is built on the ACT 1 family architecture. As such, it has one low-skew global clock buffer with a TTL-level input threshold that is accessed via a single dedicated pin. The clock signal is driven to full CMOS levels, buffered, and sent to individual row buffers with one buffer per channel. For low-skew performance, the outputs of all of the RH1020 row buffers are shorted together via metal lines, as is done in the A1020B. All storage in the RH1020 consists of routed flip-flops, constructed with multiplexors and feedback through the routing segments. A simple latch can be constructed from a single (combinatorial or C) module; an edge-triggered flip-flop is constructed using two concatenated latches. There is no storage in the I/O modules. The front end of the clock buffering circuitry, at a common point relative to the row buffer, is a sub-circuit that was determined to be the most susceptible to heavy ions. This is due, in part, to its smaller transistors compared to the rest of the circuitry. This conclusion is also supported by SPICE simulations and an analysis of the heavy ion data, described in this report. The edge triggered D flip-flop has two single-event-upset modes. Mode one, called C-module upset, is caused by a heavy ion striking the C-module's sensitive area on the silicon and produces a soft single bit error at the output of the flip-flop. Mode two, called clock upset, is caused by a heavy ion strike on the clock buffer, generating a runt pulse interpreted as a false clock signal and consequently producing errors at the flip-flop outputs. C-module upset sensitivity in the RH1020 is essentially

  10. Single event upset sensitivity of low power Schottky devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Measel, P. R.; Wahlin, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Data taken from tests involving heavy ions in the Berkeley 88 in. cyclotron being directed at low power Schottky barrier devices are reported. The tests also included trials in the Harvard cyclotron with 130 MeV protons, and at the U.C. Davis cyclotron using 56 MeV protons. The experiments were performed to study the single event upsets in MSI logic devices containing flip-flops. Results are presented of single-event upsets (SEU) causing functional degradation observed in post-exposure tests of six different devices. The effectiveness of the particles in producing SEUs in logic device functioning was found to be directly proportional to the proton energy. Shielding was determined to offer negligible protection from the particle bombardment. The results are considered significant for the design and fabrication of LS devices for space applications.

  11. Single event upset cross sections at various data rates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; Marshall, C.J.; McMorrow, D.; Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W.; Buchner, S.; La Macchia, M.; Mathes, B.

    1996-12-01

    The authors present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. They show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. They also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies. Knowledge of the relationship between SEU cross section and frequency is important for estimates of on-orbit SEU rates.

  12. Simulating Single-Event Upsets in Bipolar RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation technique saves testing. Uses interactive version of SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis). Device and subcircuit models available in software used to construct macromodel for an integrated bipolar transistor. Time-dependent current generators placed inside transistor macromodel to simulate charge collection from ion track. Significant finding of experiments is standard design practice of reducing power in unaddressed bipolar RAM cell increases sensitivity of cell to single-event upsets.

  13. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. New MADS-box gene in fern: cloning and expression analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75 bp 5'-UTR and a 169 bp 3'-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans. PMID:24466046

  15. America's Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  16. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H; De Robertis, Edward M

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state. PMID:21990430

  17. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants

    PubMed Central

    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. Methods The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Key Results Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11–14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14–16 Type II MADS-box genes. Conclusions The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS

  18. Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Jayesh J; Sheth, Frenny J; Oza, Nrupesh

    2008-06-01

    A 4-year-old Afghan girl born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive neurological regression and hepatomegaly noticed after one year of age. The child had hypotonia, repeated unexplained falls and facial dyskinesia. Bone marrow examination revealed presence of storage cells suggestive of Gauchers or Niemann Pick. Confirmatory study by lysosomal enzyme from leucocytes was normal for beta-Glucosidase and sphingomyelinase specific for Gauchers and Niemann Pick type A or B respectively. Further study was carried out on cultured skin fibroblasts in lipid deficient medium using filipin stain which showed presence of dark punctate granules confirming the diagnosis of Neimann-Pick type C, a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PMID:18599941

  19. Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, P.E.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the author reviews the current status of device simulation of ionizing-radiation-induced charge collection and single-event upset (SEU), with an emphasis on significant results of recent years. The author presents an overview of device-modeling techniques applicable to the SEU problem and the unique challenges this task presents to the device modeler. He examines unloaded simulations of radiation-induced charge collection in simple p/n diodes, SEU in dynamic random access memories (DRAM`s), and SEU in static random access memories (SRAM`s). The author concludes with a few thoughts on future issues likely to confront the SEU device modeler.

  20. Effects of cosmic rays on single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Zajic, V.; Lowe, C. W.; Olidapupo, A.; Fogarty, T. N.

    1989-01-01

    Assistance was provided to the Brookhaven Single Event Upset (SEU) Test Facility. Computer codes were developed for fragmentation and secondary radiation affecting Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) in space. A computer controlled CV (HP4192) test was developed for Terman analysis. Also developed were high speed parametric tests which are independent of operator judgment and a charge pumping technique for measurement of D(sub it) (E). The X-ray secondary effects, and parametric degradation as a function of dose rate were simulated. The SPICE simulation of static RAMs with various resistor filters was tested.

  1. High performance static latches with complete single event upset immunity

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, W.T.; Weaver, H.T.

    1994-04-26

    An asymmetric response latch providing immunity to single event upset without loss of speed is described. The latch has cross-coupled inverters having a hardened logic state and a soft state, wherein the logic state of the first inverter can only be changed when the voltage on the coupling node of that inverter is low and the logic state of the second inverter can only be changed when the coupling of that inverter is high. One of more of the asymmetric response latches may be configured into a memory cell having complete immunity, which protects information rather than logic states. 5 figures.

  2. High performance static latches with complete single event upset immunity

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, Wayne T.; Weaver, Harry T.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric response latch providing immunity to single event upset without loss of speed. The latch has cross-coupled inverters having a hardened logic state and a soft state, wherein the logic state of the first inverter can only be changed when the voltage on the coupling node of that inverter is low and the logic state of the second inverter can only be changed when the coupling of that inverter is high. One of more of the asymmetric response latches may be configured into a memory cell having complete immunity, which protects information rather than logic states.

  3. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  4. Pick-up ions at Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemety, K.; Cravens, T. E.

    1993-04-01

    Methane molecules escaping from Pluto's atmosphere are ionized, and the resulting ions are picked up by the solar wind. The mass loading associated with this ion pick-up can produce a cometlike interaction of the solar wind with Pluto. Heavy ion gyroradii are as large as a half million km in the weak interplanetary magnetic field that exists at 30 AU, which is about an order of magnitude larger than the size of the 'interaction region'. We have calculated velocity space distributions of pick-up ions using numerically determined ion trajectories. The predicted pick-up ion fluxes are high enough to be detectable by standard charged particle detectors as far upstream of Pluto as 10 exp 6 km.

  5. Think Safety When Picking, Packing School Backpacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160523.html Think Safety When Picking, Packing School Backpacks Heavy, unbalanced loads can cause injury that is ... Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many students use backpacks to carry their school books and supplies, but ...

  6. Pick-up ions at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kecskemety, K.; Cravens, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Methane molecules escaping from Pluto's atmosphere are ionized, and the resulting ions are picked up by the solar wind. The mass loading associated with this ion pick-up can produce a cometlike interaction of the solar wind with Pluto. Heavy ion gyroradii are as large as a half million km in the weak interplanetary magnetic field that exists at 30 AU, which is about an order of magnitude larger than the size of the 'interaction region'. We have calculated velocity space distributions of pick-up ions using numerically determined ion trajectories. The predicted pick-up ion fluxes are high enough to be detectable by standard charged particle detectors as far upstream of Pluto as 10 exp 6 km.

  7. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  8. HELAS and MadGraph/MadEvent with spin-2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Kanzaki, J.; Li, Q.; Mawatari, K.

    2008-08-01

    Fortran subroutines to calculate helicity amplitudes with massive spin-2 particles (massive gravitons), which couple to the standard model particles via the energy momentum tensor, are added to the HELAS ( HELicity Amplitude Subroutines) library. They are coded in such a way that arbitrary scattering amplitudes with one graviton production and its decays can be generated automatically by MadGraph and MadEvent, after slight modifications. All the codes have been tested carefully by making use of the invariance of the helicity amplitudes under the gauge and general coordinate transformations.

  9. Gender, splitting and non-recognition in Mad Men.

    PubMed

    Slochower, Joyce

    2011-12-01

    The world of Mad Men is one in which life lived on the surface and repression dominates the scene. A superficial reading seems to suggest that the classically gendered subject-object split characterizes Mad Men: women in the series appear devoid of desire, while men possess power, sexuality and agency. But despite its blatant sexism, Mad Men's rendering has turned traditional 1960s American culture on its head. There is no subject-object split in Mad Men because men do not have access to the subject position; they, as much as women, remain objects to themselves and their partners. In the absence of mutual recognition, serotics ultimately fails. PMID:22143509

  10. A lex-based mad parser and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Krivosheev et al.

    2001-07-03

    An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which processes the front-end data to generate an input file or data structures compatible with user applications. Three working programs are described, namely, a MAD to C++ converter, a dynamic C++ object factory and a MAD-MARS beam line builder. Design and implementation issues are discussed.

  11. Single event upset in irradiated 16k CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Axness, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Koga, R.

    1988-12-01

    The Single Event Upset (SEU) characteristics of a CMOS SRAM cell irradiated under conditions that simulate the total-dose degradation anticipated in space applications are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Simulations of SEU sensitivity utilizing a 2D circuit/device simulator, with measured transistor threshold-voltage shifts and mobility degradations as inputs, are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data at high total dose. Both simulation and experiment show a strong SRAM cell SEU imbalance, resulting in a more SEU tolerant preferred state and a less tolerant non-preferred state. The resulting cell imbalance causes an overall degradation in SEU immunity which increases with increasing total dose and which should be taken into account in SEU testing and part characterization.

  12. Single event upset studies using the ATLAS SCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinca, A.; Henderson, J.; Weidberg, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Other possible locations for SEU were not investigated in this study. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  13. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2.

    PubMed

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-09-01

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1-Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1-C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. Here, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2. Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2-binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2-C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2. PMID:26305957

  14. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. Here, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2. Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2. PMID:26305957

  15. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  16. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  17. Fast Object Registration and Robotic Bin Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnke, Kay; Gottscheber, Achim

    Businesses have invested a lot of money into intelligent machine vision, industrial robotics and automation technology. The proposed solution of this paper deals with industrial applications of robotic bin picking. In this paper, a pose estimation approach is introduce to determine the coarse position and rotation of a known object using commonly available image processing tools applied to 3D laser range data. This position and orientation is refined by a combination of the well-known Iterative Closest Points Algorithm with the hierarchical object representation of Progressive Meshes to find objects in a industrial environment. This approach is integrated in an object localization system for industrial robotic bin picking.

  18. Modular Pick-and-Bucket Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Concept for improved conventional pick-and-bucket mining machine offered as backup for hydrojet-jaw mining machine. Picks on chain dislodge coal and buckets on chain scoop it up. Depending on width cut, unit composed of only two end modules or end modules plus one, two, or three incremental modules. Folding curved shields protect sides of miner from falling coal and rock. Two side stabilizers - extendable hydraulic members - anchor miner against lateral drift. Unlike conventional machines, new version tilts cutters vertically and skews them horizontally to changing floor slopes and seam heights.

  19. Interdisciplinary Critical Inquiry: Teaching about the Social Construction of Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Theories and treatments of mental illness reflect the social, philosophical, and historical context in which they developed. This article describes ways to invite students to grapple with complex questions about "madness" from an interdisciplinary perspective. Looking at the construct of madness through multiple lenses (e.g., literature,…

  20. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and Arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard L; Koia, Jonni H; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James; Botella, Jose R

    2014-11-01

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of ethylene in climacteric tomato. LeMADS-RIN has been proposed to be a global ripening regulator shared among climacteric and non-climacteric species, although few functional homologs of LeMADS-RIN have been identified in non-climacteric species. AcMADS1 shares 67 % protein sequence similarity and a similar expression pattern in ripening fruits as LeMADS-RIN. However, in this study AcMADS1 was not able to complement the tomato rin mutant phenotype, indicating AcMADS1 may not be a functionally conserved homolog of LeMADS-RIN or has sufficiently diverged to be unable to act in the context of the tomato network of interacting proteins. The AcMADS1 promoter directed strong expression of the GUS reporter gene to fruits and developing floral organs in tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting AcMADS1 may play a role in flower development as well as fruitlet ripening. The AcMADS1 promoter provides a useful molecular tool for directing transgene expression, particularly where up-regulation in developing flowers and fruits is desirable. PMID:25139231

  1. Teaching Children with Niemann-Pick Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Cooley, Jennifer; Barnett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease (NPD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that are both systemic and degenerative. Knowledge of the disease, its characteristics, and its progression are essential for the teacher and related service personnel to provide an appropriate educational experience for the student. For the teacher who has a student with NPC in…

  2. An Elementary Proof of Pick's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, Howard W.

    1979-01-01

    Pick's Theorem, a statement of the relationship between the area of a polygonal region on a lattice and its interior and boundary lattice points, is familiar to those whose students have participated in activities and discovery lessons using the geoboard. The proof presented, although rather long, is well within the grasp of the average geometry…

  3. Cep57 is a Mis12-interacting kinetochore protein involved in kinetochore targeting of Mad1-Mad2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haining; Wang, Tianning; Zheng, Tao; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) arrests cells in mitosis by sensing unattached kinetochores, until all chromosomes are bi-oriented by spindle microtubules. Kinetochore accumulation of the SAC component Mad1-Mad2 is crucial for SAC activation. However, the mechanism by which Mad1-Mad2 accumulation at kinetochores is regulated is not clear. Here we find that Cep57 is localized to kinetochores in human cells, and binds to Mis12, a KMN (KNL1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex) network component. Cep57 also interacts with Mad1, and depletion of Cep57 results in decreased kinetochore localization of Mad1-Mad2, reduced SAC signalling and increased chromosome segregation errors. We also show that the microtubule-binding activity of Cep57 is involved in the timely removal of Mad1 from kinetochores. Thus, these findings reveal that the KMN network-binding protein Cep57 is a mitotic kinetochore component, and demonstrate the functional connection between the KMN network and the SAC. PMID:26743940

  4. Cep57 is a Mis12-interacting kinetochore protein involved in kinetochore targeting of Mad1–Mad2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haining; Wang, Tianning; Zheng, Tao; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) arrests cells in mitosis by sensing unattached kinetochores, until all chromosomes are bi-oriented by spindle microtubules. Kinetochore accumulation of the SAC component Mad1–Mad2 is crucial for SAC activation. However, the mechanism by which Mad1–Mad2 accumulation at kinetochores is regulated is not clear. Here we find that Cep57 is localized to kinetochores in human cells, and binds to Mis12, a KMN (KNL1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex) network component. Cep57 also interacts with Mad1, and depletion of Cep57 results in decreased kinetochore localization of Mad1–Mad2, reduced SAC signalling and increased chromosome segregation errors. We also show that the microtubule-binding activity of Cep57 is involved in the timely removal of Mad1 from kinetochores. Thus, these findings reveal that the KMN network-binding protein Cep57 is a mitotic kinetochore component, and demonstrate the functional connection between the KMN network and the SAC. PMID:26743940

  5. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  6. Method for characterizing the upset response of CMOS circuits using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. A technique utilizing test structures to quickly and inexpensively characterize the SEU sensitivity of standard cell latches intended for use in a space environment. This bench-level approach utilizes alpha particles to induce upsets in a low LET sensitive 4-k bit test SRAM. This SRAM consists of cells that employ an offset voltage to adjust their upset sensitivity and an enlarged sensitive drain junction to enhance the cell's upset rate.

  7. Markovian Statistical Data Analysis of Single-Event Upsets Triggered by High Intensity Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakdawala, Anushka V.; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from a single-event upset experiment conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Statistical tools, based on well-known x(sup 2) hypothesis testing theory, are used to determine if sequences of upsets can be modeled as a homogeneous Markov chain of a specific order. The experiment consisted of radiating a new experimental flight control computer (FCC) with a high intensity neutron beam while the FCC controlled a simulation of a Boeing 737. The analyzed data is a sequence of states that indicates when the FCC is under an upset condition.

  8. MAD2γ, a novel MAD2 isoform, reduces mitotic arrest and is associated with resistance in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Ramírez-Otero, Miguel; Díaz-Chávez, José; Cáceres-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo; Justo-Garrido, Monserrat; Andonegui, Marco A.; Mendoza, Julia; Downie-Ruíz, Ángela; Cortés-González, Carlo; Reynoso, Nancy; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Santibáñez, Miguel; Fabián-Morales, Eunice; Pruefer, Franz; Luna-Maldonado, Fernando; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Herrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Prolonged mitotic arrest in response to anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, such as DNA-damaging agents, induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Disruptions in mitotic checkpoints contribute resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer. MAD2 has been associated with checkpoint failure and chemotherapy response. In this study, a novel splice variant of MAD2, designated MAD2γ, was identified, and its association with the DNA damage response was investigated. Methods: Endogenous expression of MAD2γ and full-length MAD2 (MAD2α) was measured using RT-PCR in cancer cell lines, normal foreskin fibroblasts, and tumor samples collected from patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A plasmid expressing MAD2γ was transfected into HCT116 cells, and its intracellular localization and checkpoint function were evaluated according to immunofluorescence and mitotic index. Results: MAD2γ was expressed in several cancer cell lines and non-cancerous fibroblasts. Ectopically expressed MAD2γ localized to the nucleus and reduced the mitotic index, suggesting checkpoint impairment. In patients with TGCTs, the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, was associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Likewise, cisplatin induced the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, in HCT116 cells. Conclusions: Overexpression of MAD2γ may play a role in checkpoint disruption and is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in TGCTs. PMID:27315568

  9. Data and results of a laboratory investigation of microprocessor upset caused by simulated lightning-induced analog transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed a assess the upset susceptibility/reliability of a computer system onboard an aircraft flying through a lightning environment. Upset error modes in a general purpose microprocessor were studied. The upset tests involved the random input of analog transients which model lightning induced signals onto interface lines of an 8080 based microcomputer from which upset error data was recorded. The program code on the microprocessor during tests is designed to exercise all of the machine cycles and memory addressing techniques implemented in the 8080 central processing unit. A statistical analysis is presented in which possible correlations are established between the probability of upset occurrence and transient signal inputs during specific processing states and operations. A stochastic upset susceptibility model for the 8080 microprocessor is presented. The susceptibility of this microprocessor to upset, once analog transients have entered the system, is determined analytically by calculating the state probabilities of the stochastic model.

  10. 'The verses of madness': schizophrenia and poetry.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Holloway, David; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    In the early 19th century, Lombroso introduced the concept of hereditary taint to describe the coexistence of 'madness' and creativity. In a recent investigation, Rust et al reported a study designed to test the traditionally assumed relationship between creativity and schizophrenia. They uncovered an association between creative originality and the positive cognitive aspects of schizotypal thinking. Poetry is not only the 'product' of psychopathology but it can also be utilised as a form of therapy: "My name is David Holloway, I am a 33 year old poet/blogger with paranoid schizophrenia. A poet called Charles Bukowski has described poetry as the 'ultimate psychiatrist', and I am a firm believer in this. The strongest part of my personality is my belief in the power of love. My recovery has relied heavily on medication, diet and exercise. However it is the power of poetry that has been my true inspiration." PMID:23264155

  11. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  12. Condensing the Moon from a MAD Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, S. J.; Stewart, S. T.; Petaev, M. I.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Mace, M.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Cuk, M.

    2015-12-01

    The favored theory for lunar origin is the giant impact hypothesis, where a protoplanet collides with the growing Earth and creates an orbiting disk of material that forms the Moon. However, the astonishing isotopic similarity between the Earth and Moon cannot be explained by current giant impact models without appealing to highly specific circumstances. Here, we demonstrate that a condensation model for lunar origin, achieved via a previously unrecognized class of post-impact states, produces the Moon's major characteristics. The required class of post-impact states is defined by (i) a high degree of vaporization and (ii) rapid rotation. When these two criteria are met, the mantle, atmosphere and disk (MAD) form a dynamically and thermodynamically continuous structure that quickly mixes, thereby diluting initial compositional heterogeneities. Then, partial condensation from the pressure-supported mass beyond the Roche limit produces a Moon that is isotopically similar to the bulk silicate Earth and depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements. Initially, the condensed liquid is composed of silicates. As the structure cools, metal exsolves in the accreting Moon and moonlets. We calculate ~2wt% metal is exsolved from a bulk silicate Earth composition, which is consistent with estimates of the mass of the lunar core. Thus, similar tungsten isotopes are established in the Earth and Moon as metal is exsolved in both bodies after mixing. In our model, the criterion for lunar origin shifts, away from specific impact parameters that inject terrestrial material into orbit, to any collision that transforms the Earth into a rapidly rotating and substantially vaporized MAD planet. Impacts that can transform the Earth are common during the end stages of planet formation. Therefore, the characteristics of our Moon are a natural consequence of forming the Earth.

  13. Single event upsets caused by solar energetic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.; Dietrich, W.F.; Smith, E.C.

    1996-12-01

    The authors calculate single event upset (SEU) rates due to protons, alphas, and heavier ions in two satellite systems for the major solar particle events of 1989--92, using a new and complete analysis of GOES proton data and high-energy heavy-ion fluences from the University of Chicago Cosmic Ray Telescope on IMP-8. These measurements cover the entire range of energies relevant to SEU studies and therefore overcome shortcomings of previous studies, which relied upon theoretical or semi-empirical estimates of high-energy heavy-ion spectra. They compare the results to the observed SEU rates in these events. The SEU rates in one device were overwhelmingly dominated by protons. However, even after taking into account uncertainties in the ground-test cross-section data, the authors find that at least {approximately}45% of the SEUs in the other device must have been caused by heavy ions. The results demonstrate that both protons and heavy ions must be considered in order to make a reliable assessment of SEU vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the GOES/Chicago database of solar particle events provides a basis for making accurate solar particle SEU calculations and credible worst-case estimates. In particular, measurements of the historic solar particle events of October 1989 are used in worst week and worst day environment models in CREME96, a revision of NRL`s Cosmic Ray Effects on MicroElectronics code.

  14. The single event upset environment for avionics at high latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L. . Space and Communications Dept.); Johansson, K.; Pettersson, H. ); Farren, J. . Harwell Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    Modern avionic systems for civil and military applications are becoming increasingly reliant upon embedded microprocessors and associated memory devices. The phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) is well known in space systems and designers have generally been careful to use SEU tolerant devices or to implement error detection and correction (EDAC) techniques where appropriate. In the past, avionics designers have had no reason to consider SEU effects but is clear that the more prevalent use of memory devices combined with increasing levels of IC integration will make SEU mitigation an important design consideration for future avionic systems. To this end, it is necessary to work towards producing models of the avionics SEU environment which will permit system designers to choose components and EDAC techniques which are based on predictions of SEU rates correct to much better than an order of magnitude. Measurements of the high latitude SEU environment at avionics altitude have been made on board a commercial airliner. Results are compared with models of primary and secondary cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrons. Ground based SEU tests of static RAMs are used to predict rates in flight.

  15. An Approach for the Assessment of System Upset Resilience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes an approach for the assessment of upset resilience that is applicable to systems in general, including safety-critical, real-time systems. For this work, resilience is defined as the ability to preserve and restore service availability and integrity under stated conditions of configuration, functional inputs and environmental conditions. To enable a quantitative approach, we define novel system service degradation metrics and propose a new mathematical definition of resilience. These behavioral-level metrics are based on the fundamental service classification criteria of correctness, detectability, symmetry and persistence. This approach consists of a Monte-Carlo-based stimulus injection experiment, on a physical implementation or an error-propagation model of a system, to generate a system response set that can be characterized in terms of dimensional error metrics and integrated to form an overall measure of resilience. We expect this approach to be helpful in gaining insight into the error containment and repair capabilities of systems for a wide range of conditions.

  16. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia.

  17. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  19. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  1. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  3. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  7. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM Based FPGAs from the Xilinix Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Yui, Candice C.; Carmichael, Carl; Koga, Rocky; George, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the single event upset static testing of the Virtex II field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) that were tested in protons and heavy-ions. The test designs and static and dynamic test results are reviewed.

  8. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  9. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  10. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources.

  11. Statistics and methodology of multiple cell upset characterization under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrev, G. I.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Useinov, R. G.; Emeliyanov, V. V.; Ozerov, A. I.; Anashin, V. S.; Kozyukov, A. E.; Zemtsov, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Mean and partial cross-section concepts and their connections to multiplicity and statistics of multiple cell upsets (MCUs) in highly-scaled digital memories are introduced and discussed. The important role of the experimental determination of the upset statistics is emphasized. It was found that MCU may lead to quasi-linear dependence of cross-sections on linear energy transfer (LET). A new form of function for interpolation of mean cross-section dependences on LET has been proposed.

  12. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environmentsmore » for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.« less

  13. Further development of the Heavy Ion Cross section for single event UPset: Model (HICUP)

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, L.W.; Sexton, F.W.; Prinja, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The Heavy Ion Cross section for single event UPset (HICUP) models the angular dependent heavy ion upset cross section. It pulls together many of the parameters and concepts used to characterize the Single Event Upset (SEU) phenomena, unifying them in a single cohesive model. HICUP is based on a Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) geometry for the sensitive volume and the Weibull density function for the upset threshold energy. Excellent agreement is obtained between the model and heavy ion test data. HICUP is used to derive the correct scaling laws for transforming angular cross section data to normal incidence, reconciling two previously proposed inverse cosine scaling corrections. The angle integrated HICUP model, I-HICUP, is used in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) upset rate calculations with results nearly identical to the Space Radiation{trademark} code. Letaw has produced an automated SEU parameter fitting routine based on HICUP and the {chi}{sup 2} method. It ferrets out the best-fit critical SEU parameters embedded within the raw angular test data, including charge collection depth and funnel length. His method couples directly to the upset rate calculation in a self-consistent manner eliminating the need to arbitrarily assume a device depth. Results of this new procedure are presented.

  14. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Labello, R.; Nichols, J.; Weeden-Wright, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environments for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.

  15. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of the pick cutting hoads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telementry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder.

  16. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there by W. Scot Appel under the direction of Dr. John E. Finn. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia and at Vanderbilt University by W. Scot Appel under the direction of M. Douglas LeVan. All three participants collaborated in all of the various phases of the research. The most comprehensive document describing the research is the Ph.D. dissertation of W. Scot Appel. Results have been published in several papers and presented in talks at technical conferences. All documents have been transmitted to Dr. John E. Finn.

  17. Active Transport Can Greatly Enhance Cdc20:Mad2 Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Bashar; Henze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee genomic integrity and viability, the cell must ensure proper distribution of the replicated chromosomes among the two daughter cells in mitosis. The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a central regulatory mechanism to achieve this goal. A dysfunction of this checkpoint may lead to aneuploidy and likely contributes to the development of cancer. Kinetochores of unattached or misaligned chromosomes are thought to generate a diffusible “wait-anaphase” signal, which is the basis for downstream events to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The rate of Cdc20:C-Mad2 complex formation at the kinetochore is a key regulatory factor in the context of APC/C inhibition. Computer simulations of a quantitative SAC model show that the formation of Cdc20:C-Mad2 is too slow for checkpoint maintenance when cytosolic O-Mad2 has to encounter kinetochores by diffusion alone. Here, we show that an active transport of O-Mad2 towards the spindle mid-zone increases the efficiency of Mad2-activation. Our in-silico data indicate that this mechanism can greatly enhance the formation of Cdc20:Mad2 and furthermore gives an explanation on how the “wait-anaphase” signal can dissolve abruptly within a short time. Our results help to understand parts of the SAC mechanism that remain unclear. PMID:25338047

  18. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals. PMID:25518816

  19. The design of the MAD Design Program

    SciTech Connect

    Niederer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included.

  20. The design of the MAD Design Program

    SciTech Connect

    Niederer, J.

    1992-12-31

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included.

  1. Simulation of MAD Cow Disease Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.; Gołdasz, J.

    Computer simulation of dynamic of BSE disease is presented. Both vertical (to baby) and horizontal (to neighbor) mechanisms of the disease spread are considered. The game takes place on a two-dimensional square lattice Nx×Ny = 1000×1000 with initial population randomly distributed on the net. The disease may be introduced either with the initial population or by a spontaneous development of BSE in an item, at a small frequency. Main results show a critical probability of the BSE transmission above which the disease is present in the population. This value is vulnerable to possible spatial clustering of the population and it also depends on the mechanism responsible for the disease onset, evolution and propagation. A threshold birth rate below which the population is extinct is seen. Above this threshold the population is disease free at equilibrium until another birth rate value is reached when the disease is present in population. For typical model parameters used for the simulation, which may correspond to the mad cow disease, we are close to the BSE-free case.

  2. Mad about Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jargodzki, Christopher; Potter, Franklin

    2000-11-01

    Why is there eight times more ice in Antarctica than in the Arctic? Why can you warm your hands by blowing gently, and cool your hands by blowing hard? Why would a pitcher scuff a baseball?Which weighs more-a pound of feathers or a pound of iron? Let science experts Christopher Jargodzki and Franklin Potter guide you through the curiosities of physics and you'll find the answers to these and hundreds of other quirky conundrums. You'll discover why sounds carry well over water (especially in the summer), how a mouse can be levitated in a magnetic field, why backspin is so important when shooting a basketball, and whether women are indeed as strong as men. With nearly 400 questions and answers on everything from race cars to jumping fleas to vanishing elephants, Mad about Physics presents a comprehensive collection of braintwisters and paradoxes that will challenge and entertain even the brainiest of science lovers. Whether you're a physicist by trade or just want to give your brain a power workout, this collection of intriguing and unusual physics challenges will send you on a highly entertaining ride that reveals the relevance of physics in our everyday lives.

  3. UpSET recruits HDAC complexes and restricts chromatin accessibility and histone acetylation at promoter regions

    PubMed Central

    Rincon-Arano, Hector; Halow, Jessica; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Parkhurst, Susan M.; Groudine, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Developmental gene expression results from the orchestrated interplay between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Here we describe upSET, a transcriptional regulator encoding a SET domain-containing protein recruited to active and inducible genes in Drosophila. However, unlike other Drosophila SET proteins associated with gene transcription, UpSET is part of an Rpd3/Sin3-containing complex that restricts chromatin accessibility and histone acetylation to promoter regions. In the absence of UpSET, active chromatin marks and chromatin accessibility increase and spread to genic and flanking regions due to destabilization of the histone deacetylase complex. Consistent with this, transcriptional noise increases, as manifest by activation of repetitive elements and off-target genes. Interestingly, upSET mutant flies are female sterile due to up-regulation of key components of Notch signaling during oogenesis. Thus UpSET defines a class of metazoan transcriptional regulators required to fine tune transcription by preventing the spread of active chromatin. PMID:23177352

  4. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Zhen-Yang

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61403395), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 13JCYBJC39000), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Civil Aircraft Airworthiness and Maintenance in Civil Aviation of China (Grant No. 104003020106), and the Fund for Scholars of Civil Aviation University of China (Grant No. 2012QD21x).

  5. Further development of the ion cross section for single event upset: model (HICUP)

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, L.W.; Sexton, F.W.; Prinja, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    The HICUP models are shown to be useful tools for both analyzing cross section data and performing upset rate calculations, thereby allowing the cross section concept to be used in both areas. The angular dependent HICUP model is developed from the RPP geometry and the Weibull density function. It is compared with angular cross section data, showing good agreement. The HICUP model is used to derive the correct scaling laws for transforming cross section data taken off-normal to normal incidence. The HICUP scaling reconciles two previously proposed inverse cosine scaling corrections which are shown to be asymptotic forms of the HICUP scaling. The angle-integrated form, I-HICUP, is developed and used in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) upset rate calculations on several devices. Results are nearly identical to SPACE RADIATION{trademark} calculations. I-HICUP is used to perform an uncertainty analysis of GCR upset rate, examining the sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters. The GCR upset rate shows the greatest sensitivity to upset threshold, device depth (and funnel depth if applicable), and saturation cross section, the least sensitivity to RPP length-to-width aspect ratio. The other Weibull parameters, width, W, and shape, b, are of intermediate sensitivity.

  6. Prospects for improvement of mining machines' cutting picks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, S.; Kurzina, I.; Lesin, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of tangential rotary picks widely used in mining machines are described. A prospective line of picks design improvement has been found based on a change in the principle of destruction. A new design of blade-type cutting picks with a reinforcing tip is proposed having extended service life, requiring less energy for rock breaking, reducing yield of fine dust and increasing the grade of the mined coal.

  7. Coal/rock interface detection by sensitized pick, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, P. T. K.; Erkes, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to increase the operating margins of the detector for safe, reliable operation under difficult in-mine conditions the transmitted signal strength was increased to provide additional signal margin for in-mine conditions and the transmitter section was redesigned to reduce frequency pulling of the transmitter frequency with variations in antenna load. The linearity of the pick load SCO signal with true pick load was increased, and hysteresis effects were minimized. The sensitized pick hardware was ruggedized for rough inmine use. The sensitized pick and telemetry system provided excellent, high quality signals proportional to cutting load under all conditions experienced during testing.

  8. Single-Event Upset and Snapback in Silicon-on-Insulator Devices and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    DODD,PAUL E.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; WALSH,DAVID S.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; HASH,GERALD L.; LOEMKER,RHONDA ANN; DRAPER,BRUCE L.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    The characteristics Of ion-induced charge collection and single-event upset are studied in SOI transistors and circuits with various body tie structures. Impact ionization effects including single-event snapback are shown to be very important. Focused ion microbeam experiments are used to find single-event snapback drain voltage thresholds in n-channel SOI transistors as a function of device width. Three-Dimensional device simulations are used to determine single-event upset and snapback thresholds in SOI SRAMS, and to study design tradeoffs for various body-tie structures. A window of vulnerability to single-event snapback is shown to exist below the single-event upset threshold. The presence of single-event snapback in commercial SOI SRAMS is confirmed through broadbeam ion testing, and implications for hardness assurance testing of SOI integrated circuits are discussed.

  9. Comparison of threshold transient upset levels induced by flash x-rays and pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Raburn, W.D.; Buchner, S.P.; Kang, K.; Singh, R.; Sayers, S.

    1988-12-01

    The use of pulsed laser testing as a method of evaluating the transient radiation (..gamma..) upset thresholds of integrated circuits is discussed. By comparing upset levels using a pulsed laser with those obtained using a flash x-ray which has long been accepted ..gamma.. simulator, we show that the laser can be used as a reliable source for 100% screening and also as an efficient development tool. Differences in the responses of the two sources are pointed out, and we show that upset levels of CMOS SRAMs using the two sources are in good agreement when these factors are taken into account. Results for both wafer level and packaged parts testing are presented.

  10. Diverse roles for MADS box genes in Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed Central

    Rounsley, S D; Ditta, G S; Yanofsky, M F

    1995-01-01

    Members of the MADS box gene family play important roles in flower development from the early step of determining the identity of floral meristems to specifying the identity of floral organ primordia later in flower development. We describe here the isolation and characterization of six additional members of this family, increasing the number of reported Arabidopsis MADS box genes to 17. All 11 members reported prior to this study are expressed in flowers, and the majority of them are floral specific. RNA expression analyses of the six genes reported here indicate that two genes, AGL11 and AGL13 (AGL for AGAMOUS-like), are preferentially expressed in ovules, but each has a distinct expression pattern. AGL15 is preferentially expressed in embryos, with its onset at or before the octant stage early in embryo development. AGL12, AGL14, and AGL17 are all preferentially expressed in root tissues and therefore represent the only characterized MADS box genes expressed in roots. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the two genes expressed in ovules are closely related to previously isolated MADS box genes, whereas the four genes showing nonfloral expression are more distantly related. Data from this and previous studies indicate that in addition to their proven role in flower development, MADS box genes are likely to play roles in many other aspects of plant development. PMID:7549482

  11. Evidence for an interaction of the metalloprotease-disintegrin tumour necrosis factor alpha convertase (TACE) with mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), and of the metalloprotease-disintegrin MDC9 with a novel MAD2-related protein, MAD2beta.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K K; Schlöndorff, J; Blobel, C P

    1999-01-01

    Metalloprotease-disintegrins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that have a role in fertilization, sperm migration, myoblast fusion, neural development and ectodomain shedding. In the present study we used the yeast two-hybrid system to search for proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of two metalloprotease-disintegrins, tumour necrosis factor alpha convertase (TACE; ADAM17) and MDC9 (ADAM9; meltrin gamma). We have identified mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) as a binding partner of the TACE cytoplasmic domain, and a novel MAD2-related protein, MAD2beta, as a binding partner of the MDC9 cytoplasmic domain. MAD2beta has 23% sequence identity with MAD2, which is a component of the spindle assembly (or mitotic) checkpoint mechanism. Northern blot analysis of human tissues indicates that MAD2beta mRNA is expressed ubiquitously. The interaction of the TACE and MDC9 cytoplasmic domains with their binding partners has been confirmed biochemically. The independent identification of MAD2 and MAD2beta as potential interacting partners of distinct metalloprotease-disintegrins raises the possibility of a link between metalloprotease-disintegrins and the cell cycle, or of functions for MAD2 and MAD2beta that are not related to cell cycle control. PMID:10527948

  12. MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met interaction with smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xueqin; Zhu, Beibei; Lou, Jiao; Li, Jiaoyuan; Shen, Na; Yang, Yang; Gong, Yajie; Zhu, Ying; Yuan, Jing; Xia, Xiaoping; Miao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) has been established as an important mechanism of driving aneuploidy, which occurs at a high frequency in the colorectal tumorigenesis. Two important components of SAC are MAD1L1 and MAD2L1, which function together in an interactive manner to initiate the checkpoint signal. We hypothesize that genetic variants in the binding domains of MAD1L1 and MAD2L1 may modulate protein structures and eventually contribute to CRC susceptibility. A case-control study including 710 CRC cases and 735 controls was performed to examine MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met’s conferring susceptibility to CRC. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were applied to assess the effect of two functional variants on chromosomal instability (CIN). Significant associations with CRC risk were observed for MAD1L1 Arg558His (OR = 1.38,95% CI: 1.09–1.75) and MAD2L1 Leu84Met in a dominant model (OR = 1.48,95% CI: 1.09–2.01). Moreover, significant multiplicative gene-smoking interactions were found in MAD1L1 Arg558His (P = 0.019) and MAD2L184 Leu/Met (P = 0.016) to enhance CRC risk. Additionally, the frequencies of lymphocytic micro-nucleated binucleated cells for MAD1L1 Arg558His polymorphism were significantly different in the exposed group (P = 0.013), but not in the control group. The study emphasized that MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met can significantly interact with smoking to enhance CRC risk, and the genetic effects of MAD1L1Arg558His on CIN need to be further clarified in follow-up studies. PMID:26183163

  13. Functional Characterization of OsMADS18, a Member of the AP1/SQUA Subfamily of MADS Box Genes1[w

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Fabio; Pařenicová, Lucie; Falasca, Giuseppina; Pelucchi, Nilla; Masiero, Simona; Ciannamea, Stefano; Lopez-Dee, Zenaida; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Colombo, Lucia; Kater, Martin M.

    2004-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors controlling flower development have been isolated and studied in a wide variety of organisms. These studies have shown that homologous MADS box genes from different species often have similar functions. OsMADS18 from rice (Oryza sativa) belongs to the phylogenetically defined AP1/SQUA group. The MADS box genes of this group have functions in plant development, like controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, determination of floral organ identity, and regulation of fruit maturation. In this paper we report the functional analysis of OsMADS18. This rice MADS box gene is widely expressed in rice with its transcripts accumulated to higher levels in meristems. Overexpression of OsMADS18 in rice induced early flowering, and detailed histological analysis revealed that the formation of axillary shoot meristems was accelerated. Silencing of OsMADS18 using an RNA interference approach did not result in any visible phenotypic alteration, indicating that OsMADS18 is probably redundant with other MADS box transcription factors. Surprisingly, overexpression of OsMADS18 in Arabidopsis caused a phenotype closely resembling the ap1 mutant. We show that the ap1 phenotype is not caused by down-regulation of AP1 expression. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that some of the natural partners of AP1 interact with OsMADS18, suggesting that the OsMADS18 overexpression phenotype in Arabidopsis is likely to be due to the subtraction of AP1 partners from active transcription complexes. Thus, when compared to AP1, OsMADS18 during evolution seems to have conserved the mechanistic properties of protein-protein interactions, although it cannot complement the AP1 function. PMID:15299121

  14. Conformation-specific anti-Mad2 monoclonal antibodies for the dissection of checkpoint signaling.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Garry G; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Lischetti, Tiziana; Streicher, Werner; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa Rakownikow; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis by delaying the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores. The Mad2 protein is essential for a functional checkpoint because it binds directly to Cdc20, the mitotic co-activator of the APC/C, thereby inhibiting progression into anaphase. Mad2 exists in at least 2 different conformations, open-Mad2 (O-Mad2) and closed-Mad2 (C-Mad2), with the latter representing the active form that is able to bind Cdc20. Our ability to dissect Mad2 biology in vivo is limited by the absence of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) useful for recognizing the different conformations of Mad2. Here, we describe and extensively characterize mAbs specific for either O-Mad2 or C-Mad2, as well as a pan-Mad2 antibody, and use these to investigate the different Mad2 complexes present in mitotic cells. Our antibodies validate current Mad2 models but also suggest that O-Mad2 can associate with checkpoint complexes, most likely through dimerization with C-Mad2. Furthermore, we investigate the makeup of checkpoint complexes bound to the APC/C, which indicate the presence of both Cdc20-BubR1-Bub3 and Mad2-Cdc20-BubR1-Bub3 complexes, with Cdc20 being ubiquitinated in both. Thus, our defined mAbs provide insight into checkpoint signaling and provide useful tools for future research on Mad2 function and regulation. PMID:26986935

  15. Upset welded 304L and 316L vessels for storage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of vessels for tritium storage tests were fabricated using upset welding. A solid-state resistance upset weld was used to join the two halves of each vessel at the girth. The vessels differ from production reservoirs in design, material, and fabrication process. One set was made from forged 304L stainless steel and the other from forged 316L stainless steel. Six vessels of each type were loaded with a tritium mix in November 1995 and placed in storage at 71 C. This memo describes and documents the fabrication of the twelve vessels.

  16. The Reliability of FPGA circuit designs in the presence of radiation induced configuration upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Wirthlin, M. J.; Johnson, E.; Rollins, N.; Caffrey, M. P.; Graham, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    FPGAs are an appealing solution for space-based remote sensing applications. However, an a low-earth orbit, FPGAs are susceptible t o Single-Event Upsets (SEUs). In an effort to understand the effects of SEUs, an SEU simulator based on the SLAAC-1V computing board has been developed. This simulator artifically upsets the conjiguration memory of an FPGA and measures its impact on FPGA designs. The accuracy of this simulation environment has been verified using ground-based radiation testing. This sim{approx}ulataon tool is being used to characterize the reliabilitg of SEU mitigation techniques for PI'GAs.

  17. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  18. A vital fluid: risk, controversy and the politics of blood donation in the era of "mad cow disease".

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Kate

    2003-10-01

    This article examines the reasons for, and likely impact of, the decision by the US and other countries to permanently defer blood donors who have spent time in Britain or Europe, for fear they may transmit new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the human form of "mad cow disease". It begins by discussing how vCJD and blood transfusion are linked, and how these have been translated into policy. First, maintaining a safe and stable supply of blood entails not only maintaining the trust of recipients in the system, but also that of donors, who need to be assured that their blood will be welcomed and used. Often, the balance, once upset, is regained by sacrificing donors, but accompanying costs might also be high. Second, the article highlights the impact of various forms of globalization -of commerce, disease and travel, and immigration- on blood policies and public and policy attitudes. Third, it assesses the decision by the US to restrict blood donations from Europeans and travelers to combat such a pervasive risk. The conclusion discusses how donor deferral policies may be interpreted by the public in the light of earlier discussions, and raises issues for future research. PMID:14971395

  19. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sari Dogan, Fatma; Ozaydin, Vehbi; Incealtin, Onur; Guneysel, Ozlem; Demireller, Merve

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto. In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. PMID:27239626

  20. John Locke on madness: redressing the intellectualist bias.

    PubMed

    Charland, Louis C

    2014-05-19

    Locke is famous for defining madness as an intellectual disorder in the realm of ideas. Numerous commentators take this to be his main and only contribution to the history of psychiatry. However, a detailed exegetical review of all the relevant textual evidence suggests that this intellectualist interpretation of Locke's account of madness is both misleading and incomplete. Affective states of various sorts play an important role in that account and are in fact primordial in the determination of human conduct generally. Locke's legacy in this domain must therefore be revised and the intellectualist bias that dominates discussions of his views must be redressed. PMID:24840214

  1. The interaction of banana MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in banana was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating banana fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest banana fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:23007689

  2. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  3. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  4. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  5. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  6. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  7. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  8. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of pick cutting loads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telemetry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder. The design of components in the test data system were finalized, the required instruments were assembled, the instrument system was evaluated in an above-ground simulation test, and an underground test series to obtain tape recorded sensor data was conducted.

  9. Single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices - A summary of JPL test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    The data summarized describe single event upset (bit-flips) for 60 device types having data storage elements. The data are from 15 acceleration tests with both protons and heavier ions. Tables are included summarizing the upset threshold data and listing the devices tested for heavy ion induced bit-flip and the devices tested with protons. With regard to the proton data, it is noted that the data are often limited to one proton energy, since the tests were usually motivated by the engineering requirement of comparing similar candidate devices for a system. It is noted that many of the devices exhibited no upset for the given test conditions (the maximum fluence and the maximum proton energy Ep are given for these cases). It is believed, however, that some possibility of upset usually exists because there is a slight chance that the recoil atom may receive up to 10 to 20 MeV of recoil energy (with more energy at higher Ep).

  10. Single event upset vulnerability of selected 4K and 16K CMOS static RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, W. A.; Koga, R.; Blake, J. B.; Brucker, G.; Pandya, P.; Petersen, E.; Price, W.

    1982-01-01

    Upset thresholds for bulk CMOS and CMOS/SOS RAMS were deduced after bombardment of the devices with 140 MeV Kr, 160 MeV Ar, and 33 MeV O beams in a cyclotron. The trials were performed to test prototype devices intended for space applications, to relate feature size to the critical upset charge, and to check the validity of computer simulation models. The tests were run on 4 and 1 K memory cells with 6 transistors, in either hardened or unhardened configurations. The upset cross sections were calculated to determine the critical charge for upset from the soft errors observed in the irradiated cells. Computer simulations of the critical charge were found to deviate from the experimentally observed variation of the critical charge as the square of the feature size. Modeled values of series resistors decoupling the inverter pairs of memory cells showed that above some minimum resistance value a small increase in resistance produces a large increase in the critical charge, which the experimental data showed to be of questionable validity unless the value is made dependent on the maximum allowed read-write time.

  11. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in the orchid Erycina pusilla.

    PubMed

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Chang, Wan-Jung; Chou, Ming-Lun; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chen, Jeremy J W; Ko, Swee-Suak; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Orchids exhibit a range of unique flower shapes and are a valuable ornamental crop. MADS-box transcription factors are key regulatory components in flower initiation and development. Changing the flower shape and flowering time can increase the value of the orchid in the ornamental horticulture industry. In this study, 28 MADS-box genes were identified from the transcriptome database of the model orchid Erycina pusilla. The full-length genomic sequences of these MADS-box genes were obtained from BAC clones. Of these, 27 were MIKC-type EpMADS (two truncated forms) and one was a type I EpMADS. Eleven EpMADS genes contained introns longer than 10 kb. Phylogenetic analysis classified the 24 MIKC(c) genes into nine subfamilies. Three specific protein motifs, AG, FUL and SVP, were identified and used to classify three subfamilies. The expression profile of each EpMADS gene correlated with its putative function. The phylogenetic analysis was highly correlated with the protein domain identification and gene expression results. Spatial expression of EpMADS6, EpMADS12 and EpMADS15 was strongly detected in the inflorescence meristem, floral bud and seed via in situ hybridization. The subcellular localization of the 28 EpMADS proteins was also investigated. Although EpMADS27 lacks a complete MADS-box domain, EpMADS27-YFP was localized in the nucleus. This characterization of the orchid MADS-box family genes provides useful information for both orchid breeding and studies of flowering and evolution. PMID:25917508

  12. Myxedema madness complicating postoperative follow-up of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Morosán Allo, Yanina J; Rosmarin, Melanie; Urrutia, Agustina; Faingold, Maria Cristina; Musso, Carla; Brenta, Gabriela

    2015-08-01

    Although hypothyroidism is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, myxedema madness is rarely observed. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with no prior history of psychiatric disorders, who presented to the emergency department with psychomotor agitation 6 weeks after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on admission was 62.9 mIU/L and free T4 was < 0.35 ng/dL, indicating severe hypothyroidism. After ruling out other possible causes, the diagnosis of myxedema madness was considered; hence, antipsychotic drug treatment and intravenous levothyroxine were prescribed. Behavioral symptoms returned to normal within 4 days of presentation, while levels of thyroid hormones attained normal values 1 week after admission. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen®) was used successfully to prevent new episodes of mania due to thyroid hormone withdrawal in further controls for her thyroid cancer. This case illustrates that myxedema madness can occur in the setting of acute hypothyroidism, completely reverting with levothyroxine and antipsychotic treatment. Recombinant TSH may be a useful tool to prevent myxedema madness or any severe manifestation of levothyroxine withdrawal for the follow-up of thyroid cancer. PMID:26331326

  13. [The madness of Herakles in Euripides and Sophocles].

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In the ancient Greek world madness was conceived as a punishment sent by the gods to men found guilty of various sins. Heralkes, who kills his wife Megara and their sons, is the best example of Greek literature offers of the tragic consequences of mental disease. The article conducts a medical observation of Sophocles' and Euripides' descriptions of Herakles' insanity. PMID:15682552

  14. Reviewing the Link between Creativity and Madness: A Postmodern Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Researchers on creativity and psychology have long been fascinated with the high incidence of psychotic behavior amongst geniuses and individuals of exceptional creativity. The aims of this paper are first, to review the existing findings for a better insight into the socio-contextual factors underpinning the mad genius conundrum, and secondly, to…

  15. The "Mad Genius" Controversy: Implications for Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the idea that "genius is akin to madness" and notes that studies of distinguished individuals suggest that mental instability is incompatible with the prolonged and goal-directed effort required for high achievement. The issue of emotional stability is examined from the perspective of childhood giftedness as a…

  16. The "mad" vs. the "bad" revisited: managing predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Tucker, W

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the Englightenment, western democracies have maintained separate institutions for the "mad" and for the "bad." For the mad they provided protection and treatment, and for the bad, deterrence and punishment. During the past decade, however, increasing social conservatism and the apparent failure of the criminal justice system have resulted in a series of changes in social policy. In order to protect the public adequately from repeatedly violent predators, legislation has been introduced in several states that remands those predators to mental institutions on completion of their prison terms. Challenges to this legislation, based on ex post facto, double jeopardy, and civil rights considerations were effectively dismissed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Kansas v Hendricks in June, 1997. An effect, however unintended, of upholding these laws and of policy changes leading up to them, is that they have effectively blurred the separation between mad and bad. This paper details the following: 1) the events that have led to these changes in policy and law; 2) the preparations being made in New York State's mental health system to prepare for managing such predators when and if such laws are enacted; 3) the dangers and drawbacks these changes have brought in states where they have already been legislatively mandated; and 4) suggestions for alternatives that would reaffirm the separation between mad and bad. PMID:10457547

  17. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  18. Banana Ovate family protein MaOFP1 and MADS-box protein MuMADS1 antagonistically regulated banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  19. The relationship of psychological trauma with trichotillomania and skin picking

    PubMed Central

    Özten, Eylem; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Eryılmaz, Gül; Kağan, Gaye; Işık, Sibel; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder. Methods The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events. Results There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07). But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as developing trichotillomania or skin picking symptoms helps the patient to cope with intrusive thoughts related to trauma. Future longitudinal research must focus on whether trauma and post-traumatic stress or trichotillomania and skin picking precede the development of mental disorder. PMID:26028973

  20. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interation with ethylene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MADS-box genes (MaMADS1-6), potential components of the developmental control of ripening have been cloned from Grand Nain banana cultivar. Similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is very low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns...

  1. Brain gangliosides in the presenile dementia of Pick.

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, P E; den Hartog Jager, W A; Maathuis, J; de Groot, P A; de Jong, J M; Bolhuis, P A

    1986-01-01

    Histochemical analysis of frontal and temporal lobes from four patients with Pick presenile dementia indicated intracellular and extracellular deposits of gangliosides. Thin layer chromatography of gangliosides disclosed the presence of an unknown ganglioside, a decrease of N-acetylgalactosamine-GDla and an increase of GTla and/or GD2 in white matter of Pick brain. Chromatography of gray matter and quantitation of the sialic acid content yielded results similar to controls. It is suggested that degradation and removal of gangliosides is incomplete in Pick disease. Images PMID:3746324

  2. Pick-Up and Kicker Electrodes for the CR

    SciTech Connect

    Peschke, C.; Nolden, F.; Thorndahl, L.

    2006-03-20

    The collector ring (CR) of the proposed GSI project FAIR includes a fast stochastic cooling system for exotic nuclei and antiprotons. To reach a good signal to noise ratio of the pick-up even with a low number of particles, a novel pick-up and kicker electrode system based on slotlines is presented. The sensitivity and noise properties of electrode models are calculated. These are compared with other types of electrodes. Different options for signal processing and layout of a pick-up or kicker with many electrodes for different beam velocities are discussed.

  3. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  4. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in sesame.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-09-10

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oil crop that contributes to the daily oil and protein requirements of almost half of the world's population; therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family is needed. Fifty-seven MADS-box genes were identified from 14 linkage groups of the sesame genome. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana, Utricularia gibba and Solanum lycopersicum MADS-box genes was performed. Sesame MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: 28 MIKC(c)-type, 5 MIKC(⁎)-type, 14 Mα-type and 10 Mγ-type. Gene structure analysis revealed from 1 to 22 exons of sesame MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes greatly exceeded the number in type I genes. Motif distribution analysis of sesame MADS-box genes also indicated that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that type II sesame MADS-box genes had more complex structures. By analyzing expression profiles of MADS-box genes in seven sesame transcriptomes, we determined that MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes played significant roles in sesame flower and seed development. Although most MADS-box genes in the same clade showed similar expression features, some gene functions were diversified from the orthologous Arabidopsis genes. This research will contribute to uncovering the role of MADS-box genes in sesame development. PMID:25967387

  5. Use of PuBe source to simulate neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Wert, J.L.; Doherty, W.R.; Oberg, D.L.; Measel, P.R.; Criswell, T.L.

    1988-12-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets were measured in static memory devices using a 10 curie PuBe source. The PuBe source conservatively overestimates the spectrum of fast neutrons emitted by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). For the 93L422, the neutron-induced upset rate compared favorably with calculated values derived using the burst generation concept. By accounting for the production of the ionizing particles by the PuBe and RTG neutron spectra, convenient upper bound SEU upset rates for memory devices near an RTG can be derived.

  6. Slow-wave synchronous pick-up and kicker

    SciTech Connect

    DiMassa, G.

    1988-01-01

    Slow-wave synchronous pick-up (PU) and Kicker (K) are proposed for the stochastic cooling of bunched beams in RHIC. A corrugated waveguide is used to support a slow wave that is synchronous with the beam.

  7. Single event upsets in gallium arsenide pseudo-complementary MESFET logic

    SciTech Connect

    Fouts, D.J.; Wolfe, K.; Van Dyk, S.E.; Weatherford, T.R.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Tran, L.H.; Campbell, A.B.

    1995-12-01

    An introduction to gallium arsenide (GaAs) Pseudo-Complementary MESFET Logic (PCML) circuits is presented. PCML was developed to reduce the sensitivity of high-speed GaAs logic to radiation-induced single event upsets (SEUs). Experiments for testing the single-event upset (SEU) sensitivity of GaAs PCML integrated circuits (ICs) are described. The results of the experiments are analyzed. This new type of high-speed, low-power, GaAs logic provides decreased sensitivity to SEUs compared to more traditional circuit designs such as Directly-Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). PCML is fully compatible with existing GaAs E/D MESFET fabrication processes, such as those commonly used to make DCFL.

  8. Simulation of the characteristics of low-energy proton induced single event upset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Xi, Kai; Liu, TianQi; Liu, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation results are reported on the single event upset (SEU) triggered by the direct ionization effect of low-energy proton. The SEU cross-sections on the 45 nm static random access memory (SRAM) were compared with previous research work, which not only validated the simulation approach used herein, but also exposed the existence of saturated cross-section and the multiple bit upsets (MBUs) when the incident energy was less than 1 MeV. Additionally, it was observed that the saturated cross-section and MBUs are involved with energy loss and critical charge. The amount of deposited charge and the distribution with respect to the critical charge as the supplemental evidence are discussed.

  9. Modeling and assessing the influence of linear energy transfer on multiple bit upset susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Liu, Jie; Xi, Kai; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Gu, Song; Liu, Tian-Qi

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the metric of linear energy transfer (LET) on single event upset (SEU), particularly multiple bit upset (MBU) in a hypothetical 90-nm static random access memory (SRAM) is explored. To explain the odd point of higher LET incident ion but induced lower cross section in the curve of SEU cross section, MBUs induced by incident ions 132Xe and 209Bi with the same LET but different energies at oblique incidence are investigated using multi-functional package for single event effect analysis (MUFPSA). In addition, a comprehensive analytical model of the radial track structure is incorporated into MUFPSA, which is a complementation for assessing and interpreting MBU susceptibility of SRAM. The results show that (i) with the increase of incident angle, MBU multiplicity and probability each present an increasing trend; (ii) due to the higher ion relative velocity and longer range of δ electrons, higher energy ions trigger the MBU with less probability than lower energy ions.

  10. The single event upset response of the analog devices, ADSP2100A, digital signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Seran, H.; Armbruster, P.; Adams, L. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a radiation evaluation program carried out by ESTEC on the Analog Devices, ADSP2100A, which is a single chip microprocessor optimized for 12.5 Mips Digital Signal Processing (DSP). Single Event Upset/Latch-up (SEU/SEL) testing using Californium-252 was the primary aim of this program, however, accelerator heavy ion and proton SEU/SEL data as well as total ionizing dose data are also presented. The hardware design and software used will be described and details of the various tests and test facilities will be given. Finally, the authors report on the use of the SEU data for the calculation of expected in-orbit upset rates using the CREME suite of programs.

  11. Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin; Fremaux, Charles M.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, research has been in progress to develop aerodynamic modeling methods for simulations that accurately predict the flight dynamics characteristics of large transport airplanes in upset conditions. The motivation for this research stems from the recognition that simulation is a vital tool for addressing loss-of-control accidents, including applications to pilot training, accident reconstruction, and advanced control system analysis. The ultimate goal of this effort is to contribute to the reduction of the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control. Research activities have involved accident analyses, wind tunnel testing, and piloted simulation. Results have shown that significant improvements in simulation fidelity for upset conditions, compared to current training simulations, can be achieved using state-of-the-art wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic modeling methods. This paper provides a summary of research completed to date and includes discussion on key technical results, lessons learned, and future research needs.

  12. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene. PMID:18820933

  13. OsMADS32 interacts with PI-like proteins and regulates rice flower development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Liang; Cai, Qiang; Hu, Yun; Jin, Zhenming; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Fan, Wei; Huang, Qianming; Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-05-01

    OsMADS32 is a monocot specific MIKC(c) type MADS-box gene that plays an important role in regulating rice floral meristem and organs identity, a crucial process for reproductive success and rice yield. However, its underlying mechanism of action remains to be clarified. Here, we characterized a hypomorphic mutant allele of OsMADS32/CFO1, cfo1-3 and identified its function in controlling rice flower development by bioinformatics and protein-protein interaction analysis. The cfo1-3 mutant produces defective flowers, including loss of lodicule identity, formation of ectopic lodicule or hull-like organs and decreased stamen number, mimicking phenotypes related to the mutation of B class genes. Molecular characterization indicated that mis-splicing of OsMADS32 transcripts in the cfo1-3 mutant resulted in an extra eight amino acids in the K-domain of OsMADS32 protein. By yeast two hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we revealed that the insertion of eight amino acids or deletion of the internal region in the K1 subdomain of OsMADS32 affects the interaction between OsMADS32 with PISTILLATA (PI)-like proteins OsMADS2 and OsMADS4. This work provides new insight into the mechanism by which OsMADS32 regulates rice lodicule and stamen identity, by interaction with two PI-like proteins via its K domain. PMID:25081486

  14. ZmMADS47 Regulates Zein Gene Transcription through Interaction with Opaque2.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenyi; Qi, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Feng, Ya'nan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Shanshan; Tang, Yuanping; Song, Rentao

    2016-04-01

    Zeins, the predominent storage proteins in maize endosperm, are encoded by multiple genes and gene families. However, only a few transcriptional factors for zein gene regulation have been functionally characterized. In this study, a MADS-box protein, namely ZmMADS47, was identified as an Opaque2 (O2) interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid screening. The N-terminal portion of ZmMADS47 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), and its C-terminal portion contains a transcriptional activation domain (AD). Interestingly, the transcriptional activation activity is blocked in its full length form, suggesting conformational regulation of the AD. Molecular and RNA-seq analyses of ZmMADS47 RNAi lines revealed down regulation of α-zein and 50-kD γ-zein genes. ZmMADS47 binds the CATGT motif in promoters of these zein genes, but ZmMADS47 alone is not able to transactivate the promoters. However, when both O2 and ZmMADS47 are present, the transactivation of these promoters was greatly enhanced. This enhancement was dependent on the AD function of ZmMADS47 and the interaction between ZmMADS47 and O2, but it was independent from the AD function of O2. Therefore, it appears interaction with O2 activates ZmMADS47 on zein gene promoters. PMID:27077660

  15. ZmMADS47 Regulates Zein Gene Transcription through Interaction with Opaque2

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhenyi; Qi, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Feng, Ya’nan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Shanshan; Tang, Yuanping; Song, Rentao

    2016-01-01

    Zeins, the predominent storage proteins in maize endosperm, are encoded by multiple genes and gene families. However, only a few transcriptional factors for zein gene regulation have been functionally characterized. In this study, a MADS-box protein, namely ZmMADS47, was identified as an Opaque2 (O2) interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid screening. The N-terminal portion of ZmMADS47 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), and its C-terminal portion contains a transcriptional activation domain (AD). Interestingly, the transcriptional activation activity is blocked in its full length form, suggesting conformational regulation of the AD. Molecular and RNA-seq analyses of ZmMADS47 RNAi lines revealed down regulation of α-zein and 50-kD γ-zein genes. ZmMADS47 binds the CATGT motif in promoters of these zein genes, but ZmMADS47 alone is not able to transactivate the promoters. However, when both O2 and ZmMADS47 are present, the transactivation of these promoters was greatly enhanced. This enhancement was dependent on the AD function of ZmMADS47 and the interaction between ZmMADS47 and O2, but it was independent from the AD function of O2. Therefore, it appears interaction with O2 activates ZmMADS47 on zein gene promoters. PMID:27077660

  16. Single event upset tests of a RISC-based fault-tolerant computer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Butner, D.N.; Colella, N.J.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Shaeffer, D.L.; McKnett, C.L.; Coakley, P.G.; Casteneda, C.

    1996-03-23

    The project successfully demonstrated that dual lock-step comparison of commercial RISC processors is a viable fault-tolerant approach to handling SEU in space environment. The fault tolerant approach on orbit error rate was 38 times less than the single processor error rate. The random nature of the upsets and appearance in critical code section show it is essential to incorporate both hardware and software in the design and operation of fault-tolerant computers.

  17. Characterizing SRAM Single Event Upset in Terms of Single and Double Node Charge Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. D.; Ball, D. R., II; Robinson, W. H.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Reed, R. A.; Black, D. A.; Warren, K. M.; Tipton, A. D.; Dodd, P. E.; Haddad, N. F.; Xapsos, M. A.; Kim, H.; Friendlich, M.

    2008-01-01

    A well-collapse source-injection mode for SRAM SEU is demonstrated through TCAD modeling. The recovery of the SRAM s state is shown to be based upon the resistive path from the p+-sources in the SRAM to the well. Multiple cell upset patterns for direct charge collection and the well-collapse source-injection mechanisms are then predicted and compared to recent SRAM test data.

  18. Fluoride-added Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets with increased electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F.; Gabay, A. M.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2009-04-01

    This work reports the effect of NdF{sub 3}, DyF{sub 3}, and CaF{sub 2} additions on the electrical resistivity and magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B hot-pressed and die-upset permanent magnets. Composite magnets were synthesized from ground Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 79.5}B{sub 6} melt-spun ribbons blended with 5 wt % of fluoride fine powders and consolidated by hot pressing at 650 deg. C, followed by die upsetting at 800 deg. C. While CaF{sub 2} is stable at the processing temperatures, the rare earth atoms separate from their fluorides to a certain degree with the assistance of the Pr-rich phase from the magnet matrix. Addition of fluorides increased the resistivity of the hot-pressed specimens by more than 200%. The resistivity of the die-upset specimens measured perpendicularly to the direction of the applied pressure, which is also the direction of magnetization, is, however, only slightly increased compared to the magnet counterparts without the fluoride addition. The intrinsic coercivity of Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 79.5}B{sub 6} die-upset specimens is increased from 14.5 kOe to 15.3, 17.1, and 17.7 kOe for the addition of CaF{sub 2}, DyF{sub 3}, and NdF{sub 3}, respectively, at a slight expense of the residual flux.

  19. Possible role for secondary particles in proton-induced single event upsets of modern devices

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.W.; McNulty, P.J.; Roth, D.R.; Foster, C.C.

    1998-12-01

    Increases in the SEU sensitivity of some modern COTS devices suggest that other reactions besides the direct spallation reaction may begin to play a role in proton SEU events, but only in devices with upset thresholds significantly lower than devices currently flown in space or sold commercially for terrestrial applications. Triple coincidence tagged proton exposures and neutron exposures are combined to demonstrate these reactions in the same device.

  20. Single event upset susceptibility testing of the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yui, C.; Swift, G.; Carmichael, C.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of the Xilinx Virtex IZ was conducted on the configuration, block RAM and user flip flop cells to determine their single event upset susceptibility using LETs of 1.2 to 60 MeVcm^2/mg. A software program specifically designed to count errors in the FPGA is used to reveal L1/e values and single-event-functional interrupt failures.

  1. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  2. The world of Mad Men: power, surface and passion.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2011-12-01

    Mad Men is disturbing to post-millennium viewers, particularly those of a "certain" age, on three counts. First, it invokes a particular historical context of gender oppression; second it captures the prevailing post-War injunction that emotional distress is unseemly and distasteful; and third, it captures the zeitgeist's celebration of surface over substance in relationship. However, just as disturbing as these historically situated interpersonal premises is the niggling question that each relationship pairing and each episode leaves with the viewer. To wit: How much of the disconnection and the unrequited longings are reflective of a particular historical era, and to what degree do they reflect timeless aspects of character and relationship? Thus Mad Men provides an exquisitely rendered sociocultural tableau in which the viewer struggles, however articulated or not, with one of the essential knots of psychoanalytic as well as couples treatment: the complicated interpenetration of culture and character, of time and timelessness. PMID:22143507

  3. Mad About Modern Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Franklin; Jargodzki, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    More mind-bending fun in physics The sequel to the popular Mad About Physics, Mad About Modern Physics promises endless hours of entertaining, challenging fun. With detailed answers to hundreds of questions ("Are fluorescent lights dangerous to your health?", "What is a fuel cell?"), the book is also a treasure trove of fun science trivia. Featuring diagrams and illustrations throughout, this fascinating physics compendium will educate and captivate students, teachers, and science buffs alike. FRANKLIN POTTER, Ph.D., is a retired physicist from the University of California at Irvine. He continues to conduct research in elementary particle physics and cosmology, as well as consult in physics education. CHRISTOPHER JARGODZKI, Ph.D., is Professor of Physics at Central Missouri State University. He is also founder and director of Center for Cooperative Phenomena. He was born and raised in Poland, and received his Ph.D. in quantum field theory from the University of California at Irvine.

  4. Solid-state resistance upset welding: A process with unique advantages for advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Solid-state resistance upset welding is suitable for joining many alloys that are difficult to weld using fusion processes. Since no melting takes place, the weld metal retains many of the characteristics of the base metal. Resulting welds have a hot worked structure, and thereby have higher strength than fusion welds in the same mate. Since the material being joined is not melted, compositional gradients are not introduced, second phase materials are minimally disrupted, and minor alloying elements, do not affect weldability. Solid-state upset welding has been adapted for fabrication of structures considered very large compared to typical resistance welding applications. The process has been used for closure of capsules, small vessels, and large containers. Welding emphasis has been on 304L stainless steel, the material for current applications. Other materials have, however, received enough attention to have demonstrated capability for joining alloys that are not readily weldable using fusion welding methods. A variety of other stainless steels (including A-286), superalloys (including TD nickel), refractory metals (including tungsten), and aluminum alloys (including 2024) have been successfully upset welded.

  5. Could inhibition of the proteasome cause mad cow disease?

    PubMed

    Hooper, Nigel M

    2003-04-01

    The proteasome is the cellular machinery responsible for the degradation of normal and misfolded proteins. Inhibitors of the proteasome are being evaluated as therapeutic agents and recent work suggests that such inhibition might promote the neurotoxic properties of the prion protein (the causative agent of mad cow disease) and its conformational conversion to the infectious form, thus raising the question as to whether proteasome inhibitors might facilitate the development of prion diseases. PMID:12679058

  6. MAD COW DISEASE: New Recruits for French Prion Research.

    PubMed

    Casassus, B

    2000-12-01

    As panic over "mad cow disease" engulfs France and threatens to spread to other countries in Western Europe, French research minister Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg last week unveiled detailed plans for spending $27 million the government has earmarked for prion disease research in 2001. Next year's budget for studying prions--infectious, abnormal proteins linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and its human form, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease--will triple France's current prion research spending. PMID:17798203

  7. ‘Wanting’ and ‘liking’ skin picking: A validation of the Skin Picking Reward Scale

    PubMed Central

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P.; Houghton, David C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Lee, Han-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is often conceptualized as a behavioral addiction in which aberrant reward processing may play an important role. The current study sought to develop a self-report instrument – the Skin Picking Reward Scale (SPRS) – that measures how strongly skin picking is ‘liked’ (i.e., the degree of pleasurable feelings while receiving the reward) and ‘wanted’ (i.e., the degree of the motivation to seek the reward). Methods We administered the SPRS to individuals who endorsed excessive skin picking in online surveys and examined the scale’s factor structure (Studies 1 and 2). We then asked individuals with documented pathological skin picking to complete the SPRS and other relevant questionnaires on two occasions one week apart (Study 3). Results Exploratory (Study 1; n = 330) and confirmatory (Study 2; n = 144) factor analyses consistently supported a two-factor structure reflecting the ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ constructs. Results from Study 3 (N = 36) indicated that the Wanting and the Liking scales had adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Additionally, consistent with predictions, the Wanting scale, but not the Liking scale, was associated with picking urges the following week, greater cue-reactivity, and more picking-related routines/habits. Discussion These initial findings suggest that SPRS is a psychometrically sound measure of ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ in pathological skin picking. The SPRS may facilitate research on reward processing anomalies in SPD and serve as a useful clinical instrument (e.g., to identify those at risk for cue-induced relapse). PMID:26690620

  8. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  9. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. PMID:27159240

  10. Excessive Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Phenomenological Aspects and Comorbid Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigren, Margareta; Heimann, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 37 individuals (ages 12-30) with Prader-Willi syndrome revealed two-thirds displayed skin picking with a frequency ranging from chronic to transient, episodic symptoms. Many individuals with skin picking also exhibited comorbid picking behaviors And individuals with excessive skin picking also had frequent tantrums and…

  11. Is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, L

    2004-01-01

    Transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (TSE's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called BSE or "mad cow disease"), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. They remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. But between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in England came down with CJD, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. Current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, gene-less, misfolded proteins, somehow claimed to cause the disease. Yet laboratory preparations of prions contain other things, which could include unidentified bacteria or viruses. Furthermore, the rigors of prion purification alone, might, in and of themselves, have killed the causative virus or bacteria. Therefore, even if samples appear to infect animals, it is impossible to prove that prions are causative. Manuelidis found viral-like particles, which even when separated from prions, were responsible for spongiform STE's. Subsequently, Lasmezas's study showed that 55% of mice injected with cattle BSE, and who came down with disease, had no detectable prions. Still, incredibly, prions, are held as existing TSE dogma and Heino Dringer, who did pioneer work on their nature, candidly predicts "it will turn out that the prion concept is wrong." Many animals that die of spongiform TSE's never show evidence of misfolded proteins, and Dr. Frank Bastian, of Tulane, an authority, thinks the disorder is caused by the bacterial DNA he found in this group of diseases. Recently, Roels and Walravens isolated Mycobacterium bovis it from the brain of a cow with the clinical and histopathological signs of mad cow. Moreover, epidemiologic maps of the origins and peak incidence of BSE in the UK, suggestively match those of England's areas of highest bovine tuberculosis, the Southwest, where Britain's mad cow epidemic began. The neurotoxic potential for cow tuberculosis was shown in pre-1960

  12. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Elitzur, Tomer; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Friedman, Haya

    2010-03-01

    Six MaMADS-box genes have been cloned from the banana fruit cultivar Grand Nain. The similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns, specifically in fruit and the induction during ripening and in response to ethylene and 1-MCP, suggest that some of these genes may participate in ripening. MaMADS1, 2, and 3, are highly expressed in fruit only, while the others are expressed in fruit as well as in other organs. Moreover, the suites of MaMADS-box genes and their temporal expression differ in peel and pulp during ripening. In the pulp, the increase in MaMADS2, 3, 4, and 5 expression preceded an increase in ethylene production, but coincides with the CO(2) peak. However, MaMADS1 expression in pulp coincided with ethylene production, but a massive increase in its expression occurred late during ripening, together with a second wave in the expression of MaMADS2, 3, and 4. In the peel, on the other hand, an increase in expression of MaMADS1, 3, and to a lesser degree also of MaMADS4 and 2 coincided with an increase in ethylene production. Except MaMADS3, which was induced by ethylene in pulp and peel, only MaMADS4, and 5 in pulp and MaMADS1 in peel were induced by ethylene. 1-MCP applied at the onset of the increase in ethylene production, increased the levels of MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 in pulp, while it decreased MaMADS1, 3, 4, and 5 in peel, suggesting that MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 are negatively controlled by ethylene at the onset of ethylene production only in pulp. Only MaMADS2 is neither induced by ethylene nor by 1-MCP, and it is expressed mainly in pulp. Our results suggest that two independent ripening programs are employed in pulp and peel which involve the activation of mainly MaMADS2, 4, and 5 and later on also MaMADS1 in pulp, and mainly MaMADS1, and 3 in peel. Hence, our results are consistent with MaMADS2, a SEP3 homologue, acting in the pulp upstream of the

  13. MADS1, a novel MADS-box protein, is involved in the response of Nicotiana benthamiana to bacterial harpin(Xoo).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Teng, Wenjun; Liang, Jingang; Liu, Xinyu; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor genes are well known for their role in floral organ and seed development. In this study, a novel MADS-box-containing gene, designated NbMADS1, was isolated from leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The full-length cDNA was 666 bp and encoded a putative polypeptide of 221 aa with a mass of 24.3 kDa. To assess the role of NbMADS1 in the defence response to bacterial harpin(Xoo), an elicitor of the hypersensitive response, a loss-of-function experiment was performed in N. benthamiana plants using virus-induced gene silencing. Analyses of electrolyte leakage revealed more extensive cell death in the control plants than in NbMADS1-silenced plants. The NbMADS1-silenced plants showed impaired harpin(Xoo)-induced stomatal closure, decreased harpin(Xoo)-induced production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells, and reduced harpin(Xoo)-induced resistance to Phytophthora nicotianae. The compromised stomatal closure observed in the NbMADS1-silenced plants was inhibited by the application of H2O2 and sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor). Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NbMADS1-H2O2-NO pathway mediates multiple harpin(Xoo)-triggered responses, including stomatal closure, hypersensitive cell death, and defence-related gene expression, suggesting that NbMADS1 plays an important role in regulating the response to harpin(Xoo) in N. benthamiana plants. PMID:26466663

  14. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  15. Pick-up and drop transfer of diamond nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Seshan, V; Island, J O; van Leeuwen, R; Venstra, W J; Schneider, B H; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Sudhölter, E J R; de Smet, L C P M; van der Zant, H S J; Steele, G A; Castellanos-Gomez, A

    2015-03-27

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) is a promising material for electronic and mechanical micro- and nanodevices. Here we introduce a versatile pick-up and drop technique that makes it possible to investigate the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of as-grown NCD films. Using this technique, NCD nanosheets, as thin as 55 nm, can be picked-up from a growth substrate and positioned on another substrate. As a proof of concept, electronic devices and mechanical resonators are fabricated and their properties are characterized. In addition, the versatility of the method is further explored by transferring NCD nanosheets onto an optical fiber, which allows measuring its optical absorption. Finally, we show that NCD nanosheets can also be transferred onto two-dimensional crystals, such as MoS2, to fabricate heterostructures. Pick-up and drop transfer enables the fabrication of a variety of NCD-based devices without requiring lithography or wet processing. PMID:25742057

  16. Preparation and Preliminary Application of MAdCAM-1 Polyclonal Antibody in Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chang, Qiaocheng; Xia, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyou

    2015-08-01

    MAdCAM-1 plays an important role in mediating immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to express and purify a fusion protein of MAdCAM-1 in prokaryotic cells and to prepare rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibodies. Prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-MAdCAM-1 and pET-28a-MAdCAM-1 were constructed, respectively. The above plasmids were transformed into BL21 Escherichia coli strain. These recombinant strains were induced by IPTG and identified by Western blot analysis and SDS-PAGE. Wistar rats were immunized with recombinant protein (pET-28a-MAdCAM-1) emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, and antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody titers reached the highest value (1:128,000) after the third immunization. Western blot showed that rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody can not only recognize recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein expressed in E. coli but also recognizes natural MAdCAM-1 protein extracted from bovine tissues. However, commercial anti-mouse MAdCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies did not recognize the recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein or natural protein, which indicated no cross-reactivity between bovine MAdCAM-1 and mouse MAdCAM-1. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that MAdCAM-1 expression was limited in mammary lymphoid nodes of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. We speculate that MAdCAM-1 expression is inconsistent in different periods of the dairy cows. The successful preparation of rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody and its preliminary application in dairy cows provide the foundation for further study of the mechanism of anti-inflammation of MAdCAM-1 in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. PMID:26301930

  17. Upset Characterization of the PowerPC405 Hard-core Processor Embedded in Virtex-II Pro Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Allen, Gregory S.; Farmanesh, Farhad; George, Jeffrey; Petrick, David J.; Chayab, Fayez

    2006-01-01

    Shown in this presentation are recent results for the upset susceptibility of the various types of memory elements in the embedded PowerPC405 in the Xilinx V2P40 FPGA. For critical flight designs where configuration upsets are mitigated effectively through appropriate design triplication and configuration scrubbing, these upsets of processor elements can dominate the system error rate. Data from irradiations with both protons and heavy ions are given and compared using available models.

  18. Rituals of Madness in the Practices of Place.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Joel

    2016-03-01

    While completing a PhD in literature with a focus on the practices of physical and linguistic spaces, I was also working and sleeping (on call) at a dilapidated house in a poorer part of Bristol in case I was needed by one of five paranoid or clinically psychotic residents. I gave out medication in the morning, then went home to study in a small rented room. I began to see ritual everywhere--in my professors' routines; my own habits; the behaviours of the mentally ill patients. This paper is the story of a number of madnesses and the problems with reading ritual performance in everything we do. PMID:25118862

  19. Does UV CETI Suffer from the Mad Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analyzed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the (EUV) Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in metals in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere.

  20. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM-Based FPGAs from the Xilinx Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G. M.; Yui, C. C.; Carmichael, C.; Koga, R.; George, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) upset rates in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) from the Xilinx Virtex 2 family have been tested for radiation effects on configuration memory, block RAM and the power-on-reset (POR) and SelectMAP single event functional interrupts (SEFIs). Dynamic testing has shown the effectiveness and value of Triple Module Redundancy (TMR) and partial reconfiguration when used in conjunction. Continuing dynamic testing for more complex designs and other Virtex 2 capabilities (i.e., I/O standards, digital clock managers (DCM), etc.) is scheduled.

  1. Single event upset and charge collection measurements using high energy protons and neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Ness, J.D.; Majewski, P.P. ); Wender, S.; Gavron, A. )

    1994-12-01

    RAMs, microcontrollers and surface barrier detectors were exposed to beams of high energy protons and neutrons to measure the induced number of upsets as well as energy deposition. The WNR facility at Los Alamos provided a neutron spectrum similar to that of the atmospheric neutrons. Its effect on devices was compared to that of protons with energies of 200, 400, 500, and 800 MeV. Measurements indicate that SEU cross sections for 400 MeV protons are similar to those induced by the atmospheric neutron spectrum.

  2. Reprogrammable field programmable gate array with integrated system for mitigating effects of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Herath, Jeffrey A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An integrated system mitigates the effects of a single event upset (SEU) on a reprogrammable field programmable gate array (RFPGA). The system includes (i) a RFPGA having an internal configuration memory, and (ii) a memory for storing a configuration associated with the RFPGA. Logic circuitry programmed into the RFPGA and coupled to the memory reloads a portion of the configuration from the memory into the RFPGA's internal configuration memory at predetermined times. Additional SEU mitigation can be provided by logic circuitry on the RFPGA that monitors and maintains synchronized operation of the RFPGA's digital clock managers.

  3. Single event upset suspectibility testing of the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, C.; Swift, C.; Yui, G.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of the Xilinx Virtex II was conducted on the configuration, block RAM and user flip flop cells to determine their static single-event upset susceptibility using LETs of 1.2 to 60 MeVcm^2/mg. A software program specifically designed to count errors in the FPGA was used to reveal L1/e, values (the LET at which the cross section is l/e times the saturation cross-section) and single-event functional-interrupt failures.

  4. Comparison of photocurrent enhancement and upset enhancement in CMOS devices in a medium-energy x-ray environment

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, D.E.; Beezhold, W.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Counts, N.E. ); Knott, D.P. ); Freshman, C.L.; Conners, M.P. )

    1990-08-01

    Radiation-induced upset levels in SA3001 static random access memories (SRAM's) and SA 3246 clock integrated circuits (IC's) have been measured in a medium-energy flash X-ray environment (average photon energy {approximately}100 keV) where dose-enhancing effects are very important. By comparing device responses using a non-dose-enhancing ceramic package lid and a dose-enhancing Kovar/gold lid, dose-enhancement factors for photocurrent and upset were generated. The observed upset enhancement factors of 3.0 {plus minus} 0.5 (SRAM) and 2.2 {plus minus} 0.2 (clock IC) are in excellent agreement with measurements of photocurrent enhancement factors (2.5 {plus minus} 0.5) in diodes processed with the same diffusions as the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) IC's irradiated in a steady-state X-ray environment. These results indicate that upset is dominated by the radiation-induced transient supply current in these IC's, and that steady-state diode photocurrent measurements are a good predictor of both photocurrent and upset enhancement for IC's made with this technology.

  5. Characterization of MADS-domain transcription factor complexes in Arabidopsis flower development

    PubMed Central

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Immink, Richard G. H.; Muiño, Jose M.; Blanvillain, Robert; Busscher, Marco; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Dinh, Q. D. (Peter); Liu, Shujing; Westphal, Adrie H.; Boeren, Sjef; Parcy, François; Xu, Lin; Carles, Cristel C.; Angenent, Gerco C.; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Floral organs are specified by the combinatorial action of MADS-domain transcription factors, yet the mechanisms by which MADS-domain proteins activate or repress the expression of their target genes and the nature of their cofactors are still largely unknown. Here, we show using affinity purification and mass spectrometry that five major floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins (AP1, AP3, PI, AG, and SEP3) interact in floral tissues as proposed in the “floral quartet” model. In vitro studies confirmed a flexible composition of MADS-domain protein complexes depending on relative protein concentrations and DNA sequence. In situ bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays demonstrate that MADS-domain proteins interact during meristematic stages of flower development. By applying a targeted proteomics approach we were able to establish a MADS-domain protein interactome that strongly supports a mechanistic link between MADS-domain proteins and chromatin remodeling factors. Furthermore, members of other transcription factor families were identified as interaction partners of floral MADS-domain proteins suggesting various specific combinatorial modes of action. PMID:22238427

  6. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE–Like MADS box transcription factors linked to endodormancy induction. We have cloned and characterized several cDNA and genomic clones of DAM genes from the model perennial weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). We present evidence fo...

  7. TRIP13PCH-2 promotes Mad2 localization to unattached kinetochores in the spindle checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian R.; Hwang, Tom; Chen, Pin-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint acts during cell division to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancer. During checkpoint activation, Mad1 recruits Mad2 to kinetochores to generate a signal that delays anaphase onset. Yet, whether additional factors contribute to Mad2’s kinetochore localization remains unclear. Here, we report that the conserved AAA+ ATPase TRIP13PCH-2 localizes to unattached kinetochores and is required for spindle checkpoint activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. pch-2 mutants effectively localized Mad1 to unattached kinetochores, but Mad2 recruitment was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we show that the C. elegans orthologue of the Mad2 inhibitor p31(comet)CMT-1 interacts with TRIP13PCH-2 and is required for its localization to unattached kinetochores. These factors also genetically interact, as loss of p31(comet)CMT-1 partially suppressed the requirement for TRIP13PCH-2 in Mad2 localization and spindle checkpoint signaling. These data support a model in which the ability of TRIP13PCH-2 to disassemble a p31(comet)/Mad2 complex, which has been well characterized in the context of checkpoint silencing, is also critical for spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:26527744

  8. MadDM: New dark matter tool in the LHC era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backović, Mihailo; Martini, Antony; Kong, Kyoungchul; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mohlabeng, Gopolang

    2016-06-01

    We present the updated version of MadDM, a new dark matter tool based on MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework. New version includes direct detection capability in addition to relic abundance computation. In this article, we provide short description of the implementation of relevant effective operators and validations against existing results in literature.

  9. MADS-box genes in maize: Frequent targets of selection during domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are key regulators of plant inflorescence and flower development. We examined DNA sequence variation in 32 maize MADS-box genes and 32 random loci from the maize genome and investigated their involvement in maize domestication and improvement. Using n...

  10. 61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  11. A Conjunctive Parallelogram Model for Pick Any/"n" Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenen, Iwin; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a multidimensional generalization of Coombs' (1964) parallelogram model for "pick any/'n'" data, which result from each of a number of subjects having selected a number of objects (s)he likes most from a prespecified set of "n" objects. In the model, persons and objects are represented in a low dimensional space defined by a…

  12. Start the Year Right-Discover Pick's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcock, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Describes a problem to challenge students as they come back from summer vacation. Working in small groups, students discover Pick's Theorem, the formula to calculate the area of a polygon constructed on a geoboard. A writing assignment evaluates the students' efforts. (MDH)

  13. Systematic Approaches to Experimentation: The Case of Pick's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two 10th graders having an accumulated experience on problem-solving ancillary to the concept of area confronted the task to find Pick's formula for a lattice polygon's area. The formula was omitted from the theorem in order for the students to read the theorem as a problem to be solved. Their working is examined and emphasis is…

  14. "Micro-robots" pick up a glass bead

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    "Micro-robots", which are really collections of particles animated by magnetic fields, pick up a glass bead and move it around the screen. Each movement is precisely controlled. The "asters" were designed by Alexey Snezkho and Igor Aronson at Argonne National Laboratory. Video courtesy Nature Materials. Read the full story at http://go.usa.gov/KAT

  15. A MAD model for gamma-ray burst variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 s or so), in the context of a magnetically arrested disc (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disc. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the variable luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic time-scale defined by the free-fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and time-scales, and compare them to GRB observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time-scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. We also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse.

  16. Grain Size Estimation of Superalloy Inconel 718 After Upset Forging by a Fuzzy Inference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Luis; Cavazos, Alberto; Colás, Rafael

    2009-12-01

    A fuzzy logic inference system was designed to predict the grain size of Inconel 718 alloy after upset forging. The system takes as input the original grain size, temperature, and reduction rate at forging and predicts the final grain size at room temperature. It is assumed that the system takes into account the effects that the heterogeneity of deformation and grain growth exerts in this particular material. Experimental trials were conducted in a factory that relies on upset forging to produce preforms for ring rolling. The grain size was reported as ASTM number, as this value is used on site. A first attempt was carried out using a series of 15 empirically based set of rules; the estimation error with these was above two ASTM numbers; which is considered to be very high. The system was modified and expanded to take into account 28 rules; the estimation error of this new system resulted to be close to one ASTM number, which is considered to be adequate for the prediction.

  17. Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun

    2013-12-16

    The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

  18. Uncertainty Modeling for Robustness Analysis of Control Upset Prevention and Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Khong, Thuan H.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Kwatny, Harry; Chang, Bor-Chin; Balas, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. Such systems (developed for failure detection, identification, and reconfiguration, as well as upset recovery) need to be evaluated over broad regions of the flight envelope and under extreme flight conditions, and should include various sources of uncertainty. However, formulation of linear fractional transformation (LFT) models for representing system uncertainty can be very difficult for complex parameter-dependent systems. This paper describes a preliminary LFT modeling software tool which uses a matrix-based computational approach that can be directly applied to parametric uncertainty problems involving multivariate matrix polynomial dependencies. Several examples are presented (including an F-16 at an extreme flight condition, a missile model, and a generic example with numerous crossproduct terms), and comparisons are given with other LFT modeling tools that are currently available. The LFT modeling method and preliminary software tool presented in this paper are shown to compare favorably with these methods.

  19. High LET Single Event Upset Cross Sections For Bulk and SOI CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, F.D.; Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Dodd, P.E.; Rossi, P.

    2003-08-26

    Electronics in spacecraft and satellites are exposed to high-energy cosmic radiation. In addition, terrestrial radiation can also affect earth-based electronics. To study the effects of radiation upon integrated circuits and to insure the reliability of electronic devices, cosmic and terrestrial radiations are simulated with ion beams from particle accelerators. A new, higher Linear Energy Transfer (LET) acceleration system for heavy ions has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Heavy ions from a 6.5 MV EN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at 0.25 MeV/amu are injected into a two-stage Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which accelerates the ions to 1.9 MeV/amu. These ions together with those from the Brookhaven National Laboratory MP Tandem have been used to measure single event upset (SEU) cross sections as a function of LET for both bulk and Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, Static Random Access Memories. The magnitudes of these cross sections indicate that the upsets in both the SOI and bulk parts are caused by OFF-drain strikes.

  20. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) microscopy of ICs: Relation to Single Event Upsets (SEU)

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.; Sexton, F.W. ); Laird, J.S.; Saint, A.; Cholewa, M.; Legge, G.J.F. . Micro Analytical Research Center )

    1992-01-01

    Single Event Upset (SEU) Imaging is a new diagnostic technique recently developed using Sandia's nuclear microprobe. This technique directly images, with micron resolution, those regions within an integrated circuit which are susceptible to ion-induced malfunctions. Such malfunctions are an increasing threat to space-based systems which make use of current generation IC designs. A complimentary technique to SEU-Imaging involves measurement of the charge collection volumes within integrated circuits; charge collection is the underlying physical process responsible for single event phenomena. This technique, which we term. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) has been used here and elsewhere to generate micron resolution maps of the charge collection response of integrated circuits. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of combining the SEU-Imaging and IBICC techniques in order to gain a better understanding of single event upset phenomena. High resolution IBICC images are used to extract more detailed information from charge collection spectra than that obtained from conventional broad-area ion exposures, such as from radioactive sources. Lastly, we will comment on the applications for IBICC as a replacement of Electron Beam Induced Conduction/Current (EBIC) measurements. As reductions in circuit feature size continue in the sub-micron regime, IBICC could certainly prove to be a technologically valuable replacement for EBlC and an important business opportunity for all nuclear microprobe facilities. 12 ref.

  1. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) microscopy of ICs: Relation to Single Event Upsets (SEU)

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Laird, J.S.; Saint, A.; Cholewa, M.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1992-07-01

    Single Event Upset (SEU) Imaging is a new diagnostic technique recently developed using Sandia`s nuclear microprobe. This technique directly images, with micron resolution, those regions within an integrated circuit which are susceptible to ion-induced malfunctions. Such malfunctions are an increasing threat to space-based systems which make use of current generation IC designs. A complimentary technique to SEU-Imaging involves measurement of the charge collection volumes within integrated circuits; charge collection is the underlying physical process responsible for single event phenomena. This technique, which we term. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) has been used here and elsewhere to generate micron resolution maps of the charge collection response of integrated circuits. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of combining the SEU-Imaging and IBICC techniques in order to gain a better understanding of single event upset phenomena. High resolution IBICC images are used to extract more detailed information from charge collection spectra than that obtained from conventional broad-area ion exposures, such as from radioactive sources. Lastly, we will comment on the applications for IBICC as a replacement of Electron Beam Induced Conduction/Current (EBIC) measurements. As reductions in circuit feature size continue in the sub-micron regime, IBICC could certainly prove to be a technologically valuable replacement for EBlC and an important business opportunity for all nuclear microprobe facilities. 12 ref.

  2. The board implementation of AVR microcontroller checking for single event upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lho, Young Hwan; Jang, Dae Jin; Seo, Kang Kuk; Jung, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Yup

    2005-12-01

    Radiation hardening parts are to be used for satellites and nuclear power plants due to various kinds of radiation particles in space and radiation environment. Here, our focus is to implement a testing board of AVR Microcontroller checking for Single Event Upsets (SEU); the effects of protons on the electronic devices. The SEU results form the level change of stored information due to photon radiation and temperature in the space environment. The impact of SEU on PLD (Programmable Logic Devices) technology is most apparent in SRAM/ROM/DRAM devices wherein the state of storage cell can be upset. In this research, a simple and powerful test technique is suggested, and the results are presented for the analysis and future reference. In our experiment, the proton radiation facility (having the energy of 30 MeV with a beam current of 20 uA in the cyclotron) available at KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences) has been applied on two kinds of commercially available SRAM and EEPROM.

  3. Neutron induced single-word multiple-bit upset in SRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Ohlsson, M.; Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.U.

    1999-12-01

    The Single-word Multiple-bit Upset (SMU) frequency for nine commercial Static Random Access Memories (SRAM) have been evaluated at eight different neutron energies: 0-11MeV, 14MeV, 22MeV, 35MeV, 45MeV, 75MeV, 96MeV, 160MeV. The SRAM types used at these experiments have sizes from 256Kbit up to 1Mbit, with date-codes ranging from 9209 up to 9809. The result showed a slightly rising dependence on the neutron energy. Also experiments at two neutron energies, 45MeV and 96MeV, were performed where the supply voltage influence on the SMU-rate was studied. Five device types were used at 96MeV and the supply voltage was changed between 5V, 3.3V and 2.5V. At 45MeV three devices at 5V and 3.3V were irradiated. The experiments showed a relation between the amount of total upset and SMU that indicates no clear supply voltage dependence.

  4. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  5. DMSP dosimetry data: a space measurement and mapping of upset-causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite-dosimeter star-event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star-event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term star event is used because linear-energy-transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high-energy proton or heavy-ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star-type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high-energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high-energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high-energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7, the star-count maps of the 840-km region of space, and their relation to upset phenomena are described.

  6. DMSP dosimetry data: A space measurement and mapping of upset causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite dosimeter star event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term ''star event'' is used because linear energy transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high energy proton or heavy ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Here the authors first describe the properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7; then present the star count maps of the 840 km region of space; and finally discuss their relation to upset phenomena.

  7. Aircraft Flight Envelope Determination using Upset Detection and Physical Modeling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.; McKillip, Robert M. Jr.; Kim, Singwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of flight control systems to enhance aircraft safety during periods of vehicle impairment or degraded operations has been the focus of extensive work in recent years. Conditions adversely affecting aircraft flight operations and safety may result from a number of causes, including environmental disturbances, degraded flight operations, and aerodynamic upsets. To enhance the effectiveness of adaptive and envelope limiting controls systems, it is desirable to examine methods for identifying the occurrence of anomalous conditions and for assessing the impact of these conditions on the aircraft operational limits. This paper describes initial work performed toward this end, examining the use of fault detection methods applied to the aircraft for aerodynamic performance degradation identification and model-based methods for envelope prediction. Results are presented in which a model-based fault detection filter is applied to the identification of aircraft control surface and stall departure failures/upsets. This application is supported by a distributed loading aerodynamics formulation for the flight dynamics system reference model. Extensions for estimating the flight envelope due to generalized aerodynamic performance degradation are also described.

  8. Ferromagnetic grain boundary signature in die-upset RE-Fe-B magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson Lewis, L.; Zhu, Y.; Welch, D.O.

    1994-07-01

    Previous nanostructural and nanocompositional studies performed on the boundaries of deformed grains in two die-upset rare earth magnets with bulk compositions Nd{sub 13.75}Fe{sub 80.25}B{sub 6}, and Pr{sub 13.75}Fe{sub 80.25}B{sub 6} indicate that the intergranular phase in many grain boundaries is enriched in iron relative to the bulk. Preliminary magnetic data are presented that provide further evidence that this grain boundary phase is indeed iron-rich, and in fact appears to be ferromagnetic. Hysteresis loops were performed at 800 K on die-upset magnets with the above compositions. Each sample showed a clear hysteresis with coercivities between 34 and 40 Oe average remanence 4{pi}M{sub R} of 6.8 G for the Nd-based sample and 10.3 G for the Pr-based sample. The ferromagnetic signals measured at high temperature in these magnets are attributed to the iron-rich grain boundary phase. The implications of this conclusion with respect to coercivity are discussed.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an ancient and well-studied transcription factor family that functions in almost every developmental process in plants. There are a number of reports about the MADS-box family in different plant species, but systematic analysis of the MADS-box transcription factor family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is still lacking. In this study, 160 MADS-box transcription factors were identified from the entire Chinese cabbage genome and compared with the MADS-box factors from 21 other representative plant species. A detailed list of MADS proteins from these 22 species was sorted. Phylogenetic analysis of the BrMADS genes, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, showed that the BrMADS genes were categorised into type I (Mα, Mβ, Mγ) and type II (MIKC(C), MIKC*) groups, and the MIKC(C) proteins were further divided into 13 subfamilies. The Chinese cabbage type II group has 95 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis type II group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage type II genes have been retained more frequently than the type I genes. Finally, RNA-seq transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BrMADS genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner similar to Arabidopsis. Interestingly, a number of BrMIKC genes showed responses to different abiotic stress treatments, suggesting a function for some of the genes in these processes as well. Taken together, the characterization of the B. rapa MADS-box family presented here, will certainly help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and further facilitate functional studies in Chinese cabbage. PMID:25216934

  10. The RZZ complex requires the N-terminus of KNL1 to mediate optimal Mad1 kinetochore localization in human cells.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Gina V; Lynch, Tina R; Anderson, Ryan; Afreen, Sana; Varma, Dileep; DeLuca, Jennifer G

    2015-11-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that blocks anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Checkpoint activity requires kinetochore localization of Mad1/Mad2 to inhibit activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome in the presence of unattached kinetochores. In budding yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, Bub1, recruited to kinetochores through KNL1, recruits Mad1/Mad2 by direct linkage with Mad1. However, in human cells it is not yet established which kinetochore protein(s) function as the Mad1/Mad2 receptor. Both Bub1 and the RZZ complex have been implicated in Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment; however, their specific roles remain unclear. Here, we investigate the contributions of Bub1, RZZ and KNL1 to Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. We find that the RZZ complex localizes to the N-terminus of KNL1, downstream of Bub1, to mediate robust Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization. Our data also point to the existence of a KNL1-, Bub1-independent mechanism for RZZ and Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. Based on our results, we propose that in humans, the primary mediator for Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization is the RZZ complex. PMID:26581576

  11. The RZZ complex requires the N-terminus of KNL1 to mediate optimal Mad1 kinetochore localization in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, Gina V.; Lynch, Tina R.; Anderson, Ryan; Afreen, Sana; Varma, Dileep; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that blocks anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Checkpoint activity requires kinetochore localization of Mad1/Mad2 to inhibit activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome in the presence of unattached kinetochores. In budding yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, Bub1, recruited to kinetochores through KNL1, recruits Mad1/Mad2 by direct linkage with Mad1. However, in human cells it is not yet established which kinetochore protein(s) function as the Mad1/Mad2 receptor. Both Bub1 and the RZZ complex have been implicated in Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment; however, their specific roles remain unclear. Here, we investigate the contributions of Bub1, RZZ and KNL1 to Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. We find that the RZZ complex localizes to the N-terminus of KNL1, downstream of Bub1, to mediate robust Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization. Our data also point to the existence of a KNL1-, Bub1-independent mechanism for RZZ and Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. Based on our results, we propose that in humans, the primary mediator for Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization is the RZZ complex. PMID:26581576

  12. Observations of single-event upsets in non-hardened high-density SRAMs in sun-synchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, C. I.; Ward, J. W.; Dyer, C. S.; Sims, A. J.

    1992-12-01

    Observations of single-event upset (SEU) activity in nonhardened static and dynamic RAMs of both low (16-kb) and high (256-kb, 1-Mb), density are presented for a family of small spacecraft in low-earth, near-polar, sun-synchronous orbits. The observation of single-event multiple-bit upset (MBU) in these devices is discussed, and the implications of such events for error-protection coding schemes are examined. Contrary to expectations, the 1-Mb static RAMs (SRAMs) are more resilient to SEU than the 246-kb SRAMs, and one type of commercial 1-Mb SRAM shows a particularly low error rate.

  13. Implications of the spatial dependence of the single-event-upset threshold in SRAMs measured with a pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S. SFA Inc., Landover, MD ); Langworthy, J.B.; Stapor, W.J.; Campbell, A.B. ); Rivet, S. )

    1994-12-01

    Pulsed laser light was used to measure single event upset (SEU) thresholds for a large number of memory cells in both CMOS and bipolar SRAMs. Results showed that small variations in intercell upset threshold could not explain the gradual rise in the curve of cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET). The memory cells exhibited greater intracell variations implying that the charge collection efficiency within a memory cell varies spatially and contributes substantially to the shape of the curve of cross section versus LET. The results also suggest that the pulsed laser can be used for hardness-assurance measurements on devices with sensitive areas larger than the diameter of the laser beam.

  14. Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

  15. Improvements in the process of boss bar upset forging into a horizontal forging machine with the aim of joint knuckle forging quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Nizamov, R. S.; Kharisov, I. Zh

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for tapered composing transition shaping has been put forward in the process of upset forging with the use of an experimental tool. The results of the upset forging process with the use of a new composing transition has been computer simulated.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of the Phenomenology of Skin-Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica R.; Storch, Eric A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bodzin, Danielle; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the nature and psychosocial correlates of skin-picking behavior in youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Parents of 67 youth (aged 5-19 years) with PWS were recruited to complete an internet-based survey that included measures of: skin-picking behaviors, the automatic and/or focused nature of skin-picking, severity of skin-picking…

  17. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1235 U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1236 U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1235 U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1236 U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Upset and Recovery of the National Ignition Facility's Optics Module

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bernardin

    1999-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being constructed as the latest in a series of high-power laser facilities to study inertial confinement fusion. In particular, the NIF will generate and amplify 192 laser beams and focus them onto a fusion fuel capsule the size of a BB. The energy deposited by the laser beams will raise the core temperature of the target to 100,OOO,OOO C, which will ignite the fusion fuel and produce a fusion energy output that is several times greater than the energy input. The ability to generate, condition, and focus 192 laser beams onto a target the size of a BB, requires precision optical hardware and instrumentation. One of the most critical pieces of optical hardware within the NIF is the Optics Module (OM), a mechanical apparatus which is responsible for optical focusing and frequency conversion of the laser beam to optimize the energy deposition at the fusion target. The OM contains two potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens. The functionality of the KDP crystals is extremely temperature sensitive. Small temperature changes on the order of 0.1 C can significantly alter the performance of these components. Consequently, to maximize NIF system availability and minimize beam conditioning problems, accurate temperature control of the OM optical components was deemed a necessity. In this study, an experimental OM prototype, containing mock frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens, was used determine the thermal stability provided by a prototype water temperature control system. More importantly, the OM prototype was used to identify and characterize potential thermal upsets and corresponding recovery times of the KDP crystals. The results of this study indicate that the water temperature control system is adequate in maintaining uniform steady-state temperatures within the OM. Vacuum pump-down and venting of the OM generated significant

  8. Drosophila Dullard functions as a Mad phosphatase to terminate BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Hugo; Aleman, Abigail; Eivers, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration. We show that a hypomorphic Dullard allele or Dullard knockdown leads to increased Mad phosphorylation levels, while Dullard overexpression resulted in reduced Mad phosphorylations. Co-immunoprecipitation binding assays demonstrate phosphorylated Mad and Dullard physically interact, while mutation of Dullard's phosphatase domain still allowed Mad-Dullard interactions but abolished its ability to regulate Mad phosphorylations. Finally, we demonstrate that linker and C-terminally phosphorylated Mad can be regulated by one of two terminating mechanisms, degradation by proteasomes or dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Dullard. PMID:27578171

  9. OsMADS26 Negatively Regulates Resistance to Pathogens and Drought Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Giang Ngan; Richaud, Frédérique; Parizot, Boris; Mai, Chung Duc; Bès, Martine; Bourrié, Isabelle; Meynard, Donaldo; Beeckman, Tom; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Manabu, Ishitani; Brugidou, Christophe; Nang Do, Vinh; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Gantet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Functional analyses of MADS-box transcription factors in plants have unraveled their role in major developmental programs (e.g. flowering and floral organ identity) as well as stress-related developmental processes, such as abscission, fruit ripening, and senescence. Overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa) MADS26 gene in rice has revealed a possible function related to stress response. Here, we show that OsMADS26-down-regulated plants exhibit enhanced resistance against two major rice pathogens: Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae. Despite this enhanced resistance to biotic stresses, OsMADS26-down-regulated plants also displayed enhanced tolerance to water deficit. These phenotypes were observed in both controlled and field conditions. Interestingly, alteration of OsMADS26 expression does not have a strong impact on plant development. Gene expression profiling revealed that a majority of genes misregulated in overexpresser and down-regulated OsMADS26 lines compared with control plants are associated to biotic or abiotic stress response. Altogether, our data indicate that OsMADS26 acts as an upstream regulator of stress-associated genes and thereby, a hub to modulate the response to various stresses in the rice plant. PMID:26424158

  10. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0412

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  11. Drosophila Dullard functions as a Mad phosphatase to terminate BMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Hugo; Aleman, Abigail; Eivers, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration. We show that a hypomorphic Dullard allele or Dullard knockdown leads to increased Mad phosphorylation levels, while Dullard overexpression resulted in reduced Mad phosphorylations. Co-immunoprecipitation binding assays demonstrate phosphorylated Mad and Dullard physically interact, while mutation of Dullard’s phosphatase domain still allowed Mad-Dullard interactions but abolished its ability to regulate Mad phosphorylations. Finally, we demonstrate that linker and C-terminally phosphorylated Mad can be regulated by one of two terminating mechanisms, degradation by proteasomes or dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Dullard. PMID:27578171

  12. Periodic Density Functional Theory Solver using Multiresolution Analysis with MADNESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert; Thornton, William

    2011-03-01

    We describe the first implementation of the all-electron Kohn-Sham density functional periodic solver (DFT) using multi-wavelets and fast integral equations using MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation; http://code.google.com/p/m-a-d-n-e-s-s). The multiresolution nature of a multi-wavelet basis allows for fast computation with guaranteed precision. By reformulating the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue equation into the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, we can avoid using the derivative operator which allows better control of overall precision for the all-electron problem. Other highlights include the development of periodic integral operators with low-rank separation, an adaptable model potential for nuclear potential, and an implementation for Hartree Fock exchange. This work was supported by NSF project OCI-0904972 and made use of resources at the Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  13. Whatever happened to the 'mad, bad' scientist? Overturning the stereotype.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Roslynn D

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of myths relating to the pursuit of knowledge has perpetuated the archetype of the alchemist/scientist as sinister, dangerous, possibly mad and threatening to society's values. Shelley's Frankenstein provided imagery and a vocabulary universally invoked in relation to scientific discoveries and technological innovation. The reasons for the longevity of this seemingly antiquated, semiotic imagery are discussed. In the twenty-first century, this stereotype has been radically revised, even overturned. Scientists are now rarely objects of fear or mockery. Mathematicians, both real-life and fictional, are discussed here as being representative of scientists now depicted empathically. This article examines possible sociological reasons for this reversal; what the revisionist image suggests about society's changed attitudes to science; and what might be the substitute fears and sources of horror. PMID:24916194

  14. How not to salt popcorn, and other mad experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-12-01

    For experimentally minded readers, the warning "don't try this at home" is a real killjoy. However, coming from Theo Gray, it is also a seriously good piece of advice. Mad Science: Experiments You Can Do At Home - But Probably Shouldn't is a catalogue of inventive and terrifying things that Gray, a columnist with the Popular Science website and co-founder of the company behind Mathematica software, has done in the name of science. The book features step-by-step instructions, safety guidance and background information for 55 different experiments that range from a liquid-mercury motor to a dry-ice cloud chamber. As these two examples show, some of the experiments are far safer than others, and many have no place whatsoever in your garden shed - at least not if you want to see the shed again afterwards.

  15. Tetramer formation in Arabidopsis MADS domain proteins: analysis of a protein-protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MADS domain proteins are transcription factors that coordinate several important developmental processes in plants. These proteins interact with other MADS domain proteins to form dimers, and it has been proposed that they are able to associate as tetrameric complexes that regulate transcription of target genes. Whether the formation of functional tetramers is a widespread property of plant MADS domain proteins, or it is specific to few of these transcriptional regulators remains unclear. Results We analyzed the structure of the network of physical interactions among MADS domain proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined the abundance of subgraphs that represent the connection pattern expected for a MADS domain protein heterotetramer. These subgraphs were significantly more abundant in the MADS domain protein interaction network than in randomized analogous networks. Importantly, these subgraphs are not significantly frequent in a protein interaction network of TCP plant transcription factors, when compared to expectation by chance. In addition, we found that MADS domain proteins in tetramer-like subgraphs are more likely to be expressed jointly than proteins in other subgraphs. This effect is mainly due to proteins in the monophyletic MIKC clade, as there is no association between tetramer-like subgraphs and co-expression for proteins outside this clade. Conclusions Our results support that the tendency to form functional tetramers is widespread in the MADS domain protein-protein interaction network. Our observations also suggest that this trend is prevalent, or perhaps exclusive, for proteins in the MIKC clade. Because it is possible to retrodict several experimental results from our analyses, our work can be an important aid to make new predictions and facilitates experimental research on plant MADS domain proteins. PMID:24468197

  16. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  17. Transcriptional regulation of mitotic checkpoint gene MAD1 by p53.

    PubMed

    Chun, Abel C S; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2003-09-26

    p53 regulates a number of genes through transcriptional activation and repression. p53-dependent mitotic checkpoint has been described, but the underlying mechanism is still obscure. Here we examined the effect of p53 on the expression of a human mitotic checkpoint protein, Mitosis Arrest Deficiency 1 (MAD1), in cultured human cells. The expression of MAD1 was reduced when the cells were overexpressing exogenously introduced wild-type p53. The same reduction was also observed when the cells were treated with anticancer agents 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin or were irradiated with UV. Consistently, MAD1 promoter activity diminished in a dose-dependent manner when induced by p53, indicating that p53 repressed MAD1 at a transcriptional level. Intriguingly, several tumor hot spot mutations in p53 (V143A, R175H, R248W, and R273H) did not abolish the ability of p53 to repress MAD1 expression. By serial truncation of the MAD1 promoter, we confined the p53-responsive element to a 38-bp region that represents a novel sequence distinct from the known p53 consensus binding site. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, relieved the p53 transrepression activity on MAD1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that p53, histone deacetylase 1, and co-repressor mSin3a associated with the MAD1 promoter in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest a regulatory mechanism for the mitotic checkpoint in which MAD1 is inhibited by p53. PMID:12876282

  18. The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

    2011-05-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression. PMID:21524372

  19. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  20. An Examination of Environment Perturbation Effects on Single Event Upset Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Michele M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Lewis, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity of single event upset (SEU) rate predictions to changes in the direct ionization-inducing environment. An examination based on the nature of the SEU rate equation is presented for the case in which the perturbation is constant across varying particle linear energy transfer (LET). It is shown that the relative variation in SEU rate is equal to the relative perturbation in flux. Results are also presented for the case in which the environment perturbations exist in small LET bins. Through this analysis it is shown that the relative variation in expected SEU rate is equal to that in flux only for the LET regime in which the product of the cross section and differential flux is maximum.

  1. Simulation of temporal characteristics of ion-velocity susceptibility to single event upset effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Xi, Kai; Liu, Tian-Qi; Gu, Song; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Using a Monte Carlo simulation tool of the multi-functional package for SEEs Analysis (MUFPSA), we study the temporal characteristics of ion-velocity susceptibility to the single event upset (SEU) effect, including the deposited energy, traversed time within the device, and profile of the current pulse. The results show that the averaged dposited energy decreases with the increase of the ion-velocity, and incident ions of 209Bi have a wider distribution of energy deposition than 132Xe at the same ion-velocity. Additionally, the traversed time presents an obvious decreasing trend with the increase of ion-velocity. Concurrently, ion-velocity certainly has an influence on the current pulse and then it presents a particular regularity. The detailed discussion is conducted to estimate the relevant linear energy transfer (LET) of incident ions and the SEU cross section of the testing device from experiment and simulation and to critically consider the metric of LET.

  2. Influence of edge effects on single event upset susceptibility of SOI SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Song; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Fazhan; Zhang, Zhangang; Bi, Jinshun; Geng, Chao; Hou, Mingdong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Tianqi; Xi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility for heavy ions at tilted incidence was performed. The differences of SEU cross-sections between tilted incidence and normal incidence at equivalent effective linear energy transfer were 21% and 57% for the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) of 0.5 μm and 0.18 μm feature size, respectively. The difference of SEU cross-section raised dramatically with increasing tilt angle for SOI SRAM of deep-submicron technology. The result of CRÈME-MC simulation for tilted irradiation of the sensitive volume indicates that the energy deposition spectrum has a substantial tail extending into the low energy region. The experimental results show that the influence of edge effects on SEU susceptibility cannot be ignored in particular with device scaling down.

  3. The effect of yield strength on side-bonding upset welds

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Perkins, M.A.

    1991-09-24

    During the course of 9{degree} tapered side-bonding resistance upset weld development at Mound, various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of yield strength on welds in 304L stainless steel. The results of these studies have concluded that at high yield strengths there may be a minor reduction in the length of Class 2 or better bond. Satisfactory welds have been produced with materials having yield strengths ranging from 36.0 to 141.0 ksi. However, when body yield strengths exceed 80.0 ksi a minor decrease in bond lengths begins. A significant inverse relationship between stem yield strength and bond length was shown to exist. 8 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Heavy-ion induced single-event upset in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic ray environment in space can affect the operation of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices via the phenomenon of Single Event Upset (SEU). In particular, heavy ions passing through an IC can induce sufficient integrated current (charge) to alter the state of a bistable circuit, for example a memory cell. The SEU effect is studied in great detail in both static and dynamic memory devices, as well as microprocessors fabricated from bipolar, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and N channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) technologies. Each device/process reflects its individual characteristics (minimum scale geometry/process parameters) via a unique response to the direct ionization of electron hole pairs by heavy ion tracks. A summary of these analytical and experimental SEU investigations is presented.

  5. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  6. A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for Single Event Upset (SEU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C.

    1984-01-01

    A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for single event upset was prepared to assist new experimenters in preparing and directing tests. How to estimate parts vulnerability and select an irradiation facility is described. A broad brush description of JPL equipment is given, certain necessary pre-test procedures are outlined and the roles and testing guidelines for on-site test personnel are indicated. Detailed descriptions of equipment needed to interface with JPL test crew and equipment are not provided, nor does it meet the more generalized and broader requirements of a MIL-STD document. A detailed equipment description is available upon request, and a MIL-STD document is in the early stages of preparation.

  7. Application of RADSAFE to Model Single Event Upset Response of a 0.25 micron CMOS SRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Kevin M.; Weller, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian; Reed, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Massengill, Lloyd; Porter, Mark; Wilkerson, Jeff; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Adams, James

    2006-01-01

    The RADSAFE simulation framework is described and applied to model Single Event Upsets (SEU) in a 0.25 micron CMOS 4Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM). For this circuit, the RADSAFE approach produces trends similar to those expected from classical models, but more closely represents the physical mechanisms responsible for SEU in the SRAM circuit.

  8. Causal relationships between solar proton events and single event upsets for communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Cahoy, K.; Liu, Shiyang

    In this work, we analyze a historical archive of single event upsets (SEUs) maintained by Inmarsat, one of the world's leading providers of global mobile satellite communications services. Inmarsat has operated its geostationary communication satellites and collected extensive satellite anomaly and telemetry data since 1990. Over the course of the past twenty years, the satellites have experienced more than 226 single event upsets (SEUs), a catch-all term for anomalies that occur in a satellite's electronics such as bit-flips, trips in power supplies, and memory changes in attitude control systems. While SEUs are seemingly random and difficult to predict, we correlate their occurrences to space weather phenomena, and specifically show correlations between SEUs and solar proton events (SPEs). SPEs are highly energetic protons that originate from solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is thought that when these particles impact geostationary (GEO) satellites they can cause SEUs as well as solar array degradation. We calculate the associated statistical correlations that each SEU occurs within one day, one week, two weeks, and one month of 10 MeV SPEs between 10 - 10,000 particle flux units (pfu). However, we find that SPEs are most prevalent at solar maximum and that the SEUs on Inmarsat's satellites occur out of phase with the solar maximum. Ultimately, this suggests that SPEs are not the primary cause of the Inmarsat SEUs. A better understanding of the causal relationship between SPEs and SEUs will help the satellite communications industry develop component and operational space weather mitigation techniques as well as help the space weather community to refine radiation models.

  9. Characterization of Inorganic Biocarriers That Moderate System Upsets during Fixed-Film Biotreatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Don R.; Marshall, Leda C.; Miller, James G.; Chmurny, Alan B.

    1994-01-01

    Inorganic matrices were developed for fixed-film bioreactors affording protection to microorganisms and preventing loss of bioreactor productivity during system upsets. These biocarriers, designated Type-Z, contain ion-exchange properties and possess high porosity and a high level of surface area, which provide a suitable medium for microbial colonization. Viable cell populations of 109/g were attainable, and scanning electron micrographs revealed extensive external colonization and moderate internal colonization with aerobic microorganisms. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were established with various biocarriers and colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and comparative studies were performed. The data indicated that bioreactors containing the Type-Z biocarriers were more proficient at removing phenol (1,000 ppm) than bioreactors established with Flexirings (plastic) and Celite R635 (diatomaceous earth) biocarriers. More significantly, these biocarriers were shown to moderate system upsets that affect operation of full-scale biotreatment processes. For example, subjecting the Type-Z bioreactor to an influent phenol feed at pH 2 for periods of 24 h did not decrease the effluent pH or reactor performance. In contrast, bioreactors containing either Celite or Flexirings demonstrated an effluent pH drop to ∼2.5 and a reduction in reactor performance by 75 to 82%. The Celite reactor recovered after 5 days, whereas the bioreactors containing Flexirings did not recover. Similar advantages were noted during either nutrient or oxygen deprivation experiments as well as alkali and organic system shocks. The available data suggest that Type-Z biocarriers represent an immobilization medium that provides an amenable environment for microbial growth and has the potential for improving the reliability of fixed-film biotreatment processes. Images PMID:16349386

  10. The role of MADS-box transcription factors in secondary metabolism and sexual development in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carlos S; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) regulate functionally diverse gene targets in eukaryotes. In select ascomycetes, MADS-box TFs have been shown to play a role in virulence, and vegetative and sexual development. Here, we characterized Fusarium verticillioides MADS-box TFs, Mads1 and Mads2, in terms of their roles in secondary metabolism and sexual mating. Sequence analyses showed that MADS1 and MADS2 encode TFs with a SRF-type dimerization domain and a MEF2-type dimerization domain, respectively. The MADS1 and MADS2 knockout mutants (Fmt1 and Fmt2 strains, respectively) exhibited decreased vegetative growth and FB1 production when compared to the wild-type. Fmt1 showed reduced expression of 14 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes present in the organism, whereas Fmt2 did not display a change in PKS gene expression. Significantly, the deletion of MADS1 and MADS2 in the MAT1-2 genotype (Fmt4 and Fmt5 strains, respectively) led to strains that failed to produce perithecia and ascospores when crossed with the MAT1-1 wild-type strain. Notably, deletion of either gene did not have an effect on the ability of the fungus to colonize maize stalk or kernels. FB1 production and PKS expression data suggest that Mads1 is a broad regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides, and may target regulons upstream of Mads2 to influence FB1 production. In addition, MADS-box TFs in F. verticillioides play a critical role in the perithecia development. PMID:23985144

  11. The Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS): initial development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Walther, Michael R; Flessner, Christopher A; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin picking (MIDAS), a measure designed to assess "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. Data were collected from 92 participants who completed an anonymous internet-based survey. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution. Factors 1 ("focused" picking scale) and 2 ("automatic" picking scale) each consisted of 6 items, and preliminary data demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good construct validity, and good discriminant validity. The MIDAS provides researchers with a reliable and valid assessment of "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. PMID:18725154

  12. Tradeoffs in Flight Design Upset Mitigation in State of the Art FPGAs: Hardened by Design vs. Design Level Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Roosta, Ramin

    2004-01-01

    This presentation compares and contrasts the effectiveness and the system/designer impacts of the two main approaches to upset hardening: the Actel approach (RTSX-S and RTAX-S) of low-level (inside each flip-flop) triplication and the Xilinx approach (Virtex and Virtex2) of design-level triplication of both functional blocks and voters. The effectiveness of these approaches is compared using measurements made in conjunction with each of the FPGAs' manufacturer: for Actel, published data [1] and for Xilinx, recent results from the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium (note that the author is an active and founding member). The impacts involve Actel advantages in the areas of transistor-utilization efficiency and minimizing designer involvement in the triplication while the Xilinx advantages relate to the ability to custom tailor upset hardness and the flexibility of re-configurability. Additionally, there are currently clear Xilinx advantages in available features such as the number of I/O's, logic cells, and RAM blocks as well as speed. However, the advantage of the Actel anti-fuses for configuration over the Xilinx SRAM cells is that the latter need additional functionality and external circuitry (PROMs and, at least a watchdog timer) for configuration and configuration scrubbing. Further, although effectively mitigated if done correctly, the proton upset-ability of the Xilinx FPGAs is a concern in severe proton-rich environments. Ultimately, both manufacturers' upset hardening is limited by SEFI (single-event functional interrupt) rates where it appears the Actel results are better although the Xilinx Virtex2-family result of about one SEFI in 65 device-years in solar-min GCR (the more intense part of the galactic cosmic-ray background) should be acceptable to most missions

  13. BeMADS1 is a key to delivery MADSs into nucleus in reproductive tissues-De novo characterization of Bambusa edulis transcriptome and study of MADS genes in bamboo floral development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bamboo Bambusa edulis has a long juvenile phase in situ, but can be induced to flower during in vitro tissue culture, providing a readily available source of material for studies on reproductive biology and flowering. In this report, in vitro-derived reproductive and vegetative materials of B. edulis were harvested and used to generate transcriptome databases by use of two sequencing platforms: Illumina and 454. Combination of the two datasets resulted in high transcriptome quality and increased length of the sequence reads. In plants, many MADS genes control flower development, and the ABCDE model has been developed to explain how the genes function together to create the different whorls within a flower. Results As a case study, published floral development-related OsMADS proteins from rice were used to search the B. edulis transcriptome datasets, identifying 16 B. edulis MADS (BeMADS). The BeMADS gene expression levels were determined qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Most BeMADS genes were highly expressed in flowers, with the exception of BeMADS34. The expression patterns of these genes were most similar to the rice homologs, except BeMADS18 and BeMADS34, and were highly similar to the floral development ABCDE model in rice. Transient expression of MADS-GFP proteins showed that only BeMADS1 entered leaf nucleus. BeMADS18, BeMADS4, and BeMADS1 were located in the lemma nucleus. When co-transformed with BeMADS1, BeMADS15, 16, 13, 21, 6, and 7 translocated to nucleus in lemmas, indicating that BeMADS1 is a key factor for subcellular localization of other BeMADS. Conclusion Our study provides abundant B. edulis transcriptome data and offers comprehensive sequence resources. The results, molecular materials and overall strategy reported here can be used for future gene identification and for further reproductive studies in the economically important crop of bamboo. PMID:24989161

  14. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  15. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-Hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  16. 'We are all a little mad in one or other particular'. The presentation of madness in the novels of Muriel Spark.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Allan

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the presentation of madness in the novels of the great Scottish writer, Muriel Spark (1918-2006). In her work, there is a large cast of mad characters as well as a succession of psychiatrists and psychoanalysts. Spark suggests several explanations as to the origins of madness. We see mental disturbance conceived in terms of the supernatural, the religious and the Gothic. She also depicts insanity as a form of personality defect, eccentricity or mental enfeeblement. She drew on Romantic notions of the madman as a seer and speaker of truth. In her portrayal of psychiatrists, both the pill-prescribers and the psychoanalysts, Spark is frequently sceptical of the two: medication can erase positive qualities in an individual, and analysts can spout meaningless gibberish. PMID:26865569

  17. Emotional and deliberative reactions to a public crisis: Mad Cow disease in France.

    PubMed

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Heath, Chip; Cole, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Although most theories of choice are cognitive, recent research has emphasized the role of emotions. We used a novel context--the Mad Cow crisis in France--to investigate how emotions alter choice even when consequences are held constant. A field study showed that individuals reduced beef consumption in months after many newspaper articles featured the emotional label "Mad Cow," but beef consumption was unaffected after articles featured scientific labels for the same disease. The reverse pattern held for the disease-related actions of a government bureaucracy. A lab study showed that the Mad Cow label induces people to make choices based solely on emotional reactions, whereas scientific labels induce people to consider their own probability judgments. Although the Mad Cow label produces less rational behavior than scientific labels, it is two to four times more common in the environment. PMID:15733207

  18. Characterisation and fate of grayanatoxins in mad honey produced from Rhododendron ponticum nectar.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Arzum Bahar; Yavuz, Recep; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2014-10-15

    Mad honey from Rhododendron ponticum nectar is produced in a large quantity in the western Black Sea region of Turkey and causes poisoning due to consumption of grayanatoxins (GTX I and III). There are a few studies about characterisation of GTXs in mad honey produced from R.ponticum. This study quantified basic properties including concentrations of GTX I and GTX III in mad honey samples collected in three consecutive years. Although the chemical composition of mad honey varied annually depending on the production year, mean GTX I and GTX III contents were estimated at 20.4±1.69 and 8.20±1.93mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of GTXs did not change significantly during storage of 6months. PMID:24837920

  19. MADS-box genes in plant ontogeny and phylogeny: Haeckel's 'biogenetic law' revisited.

    PubMed

    Theissen, G; Saedler, H

    1995-10-01

    Data currently accumulating with impressive speed indicate that the molecular evolution of MADS-box genes was a decisive aspect of the morphological evolution of plants. Studies on MADS-box genes in diverse plant species thus help us to understand the emergence of morphological novelties, such as the flower, in evolution. This furthers our understanding of the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny, which has been a controversial issue since Ernst Haeckel published his 'biogenetic law' more than a century ago. PMID:8664551

  20. Changes in ethylene signaling and MADS box gene expression are associated with banana finger drop.

    PubMed

    Hubert, O; Piral, G; Galas, C; Baurens, F-C; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D

    2014-06-01

    Banana finger drop was examined in ripening banana harvested at immature (iMG), early (eMG) and late mature green (lMG) stages, with contrasting ripening rates and ethylene sensitivities. Concomitantly, 11 ethylene signal transduction components (ESTC) and 6 MADS box gene expressions were comparatively studied in median (control zone, CZ) and pedicel rupture (drop zone DZ) areas in peel tissue. iMG fruit did not ripen or develop finger drop while eMG and lMG fruits displayed a similar finger drop pattern. Several ESTC and MADS box gene mRNAs were differentially induced in DZ and CZ and sequentially in eMG and lMG fruits. MaESR2, 3 and MaEIL1, MaMADS2 and MaMADS5 had a higher mRNA level in eMG and acted earlier, whereas MaERS1, MaCTR1, MaEIL3/AB266319, MaEIL4/AB266320 and MaEIL5/AB266321, MaMADS4 and to a lesser extent MaMADS2 and 5 acted later in lMG. In this fruit, MaERS1 and 3, MaCTR1, MaEIL3, 4 and MaEIL5/AB266321, and MaMADS4 were enhanced by finger drop, suggesting their specific involvement in this process. MaEIL1, MaMADS1 and 3, induced at comparable levels in DZ and CZ, are probably related to the overall fruit ripening process. These findings led us to consider that developmental cues are the predominant finger drop regulation factor. PMID:24767119

  1. Enhanced magnetic and mechanical properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering via alloy powder blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. H.; Dong, H.; Ma, D. W.; Luo, C.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic and mechanical properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering via alloy powder blends have been investigated. The results showed that the MQP-C powder addition could improve the remanence and maximum energy product of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets. The maximum fracture toughness of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets was obtained at the MQP-C powder content ratio of 0.4, which indicates the proper MQP-C powder addition contributed to improve the mechanical properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets. Meanwhile, the MQP-C powder addition could improve the microstructure and crystallographic alignment of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets, and we presumed that the intrinsic coercivity of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets was mainly determined by the anisotropy field of Nd-Fe-B magnets, and the influence of microstructure defects on the mechanical properties was more sensitive than the magnetic properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  2. Functional characterization of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 homologs from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wei, Jianghui; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Chengshe; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis flowering pathway, MADS-box genes encode transcription factors, with their structures and functions highly conserved in many species. In our study, two MADS-box genes GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cloned from upland cotton CCRI36 and transformed into Arabidopsis. GhSOC1 was additionally transformed into upland cotton. Comparative analysis demonstrated sequence conservation between GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 and genes of other plant species. Tissue-specific expression analysis of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 revealed spatiotemporal expression patterns involving high transcript levels in leaves, shoot apical buds, and flowers. In addition, overexpression of both GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 in Arabidopsis accelerated flowering, with GhMADS42 transgenic plants showing abnormal floral organ phenotypes. Overexpression of GhSOC1 in upland cotton also produced variations in floral organs. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that GhSOC1 could regulate GhMADS41 and GhMADS42, but not FLOWERING LOCUS T, by directly binding to the genes promoter. Finally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches were undertaken to better understand the interaction of GhSOC1 and other MADS-box factors. These experiments showed that GhSOC1 can interact with APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like proteins in cotton. PMID:26566835

  3. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening. PMID:25980771

  4. SVP-like MADS-box protein from Carya cathayensis forms higher-order complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Chuanming; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-03-01

    To properly regulate plant flowering time and construct floral pattern, MADS-domain containing transcription factors must form multimers including homo- and hetero-dimers. They are also active in forming hetero-higher-order complexes with three to five different molecules. However, it is not well known if a MADS-box protein can also form homo-higher-order complex. In this study a biochemical approach is utilized to provide insight into the complex formation for an SVP-like MADS-box protein cloned from hickory. The results indicated that the protein is a heterogeneous higher-order complex with the peak population containing over 20 monomers. Y2H verified the protein to form homo-complex in yeast cells. Western blot of the hickory floral bud sample revealed that the protein exists in higher-order polymers in native. Deletion assays indicated that the flexible C-terminal residues are mainly responsible for the higher-order polymer formation and the heterogeneity. Current results provide direct biochemical evidences for an active MADS-box protein to be a high order complex, much higher than a quartermeric polymer. Analysis suggests that a MADS-box subset may be able to self-assemble into large complexes, and thereby differentiate one subfamily from the other in a higher-order structural manner. Present result is a valuable supplement to the action of mechanism for MADS-box proteins in plant development. PMID:25602439

  5. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme

  6. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-09-01

    Conical pick is a widely used tool for cutting coal in mines. It has a cemented carbide tip inserted in a steel body. Cemented carbide has been in use for many years for coal/rock cutting because it has the optimum combination of hardness, toughness and resistance against abrasive wear. As coal/rock is a heterogeneous substance, the cutting tool has to undergo various obstructions at the time of excavation that cause the tool to wear out. The cracks and fractures developing in the cemented carbide limit the life of the tool. For a long time, different wear mechanisms have been studied to develop improved grades of cemented carbide with high wear resistance properties. The research is still continuing. Moreover, due to the highly unpredictable nature of coal/rock, it is not easy to understand the wear mechanisms. In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the wear mechanisms in four conical picks, which were used in a continuous miner machine for underground mining of coal. The wearing pattern of the conical pick indicates damage in its cemented carbide tip as well as the steel body. The worn out parts of the tools have been critically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) point analysis. Mainly four types of wear mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, plastic deformation, rock channel formation and crushing and cracking, have been detected. The presence of coal/rock material and their respective concentrations in the selected area of worn out surface were observed using the spectra generated by EDX analysis.

  7. Upset Simulation and Training Initiatives for U.S. Navy Commercial Derived Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Steven; Priest, James; Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Militarized versions of commercial platforms are growing in popularity due to many logistical benefits in the form of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts, established production methods, and commonality for different certifications. Commercial data and best practices are often leveraged to reduce procurement and engineering development costs. While the developmental and cost reduction benefits are clear, these militarized aircraft are routinely operated in flight at significantly different conditions and in significantly different manners than for routine commercial flight. Therefore they are at a higher risk of flight envelope exceedance. This risk may lead to departure from controlled flight and/or aircraft loss1. Historically, the risk of departure from controlled flight for military aircraft has been mitigated by piloted simulation training and engineering analysis of typical aircraft response. High-agility military aircraft simulation databases are typically developed to include high angles of attack (AoA) and sideslip due to the dynamic nature of their missions and have been developed for many tactical configurations over the previous decades. These aircraft simulations allow for a more thorough understanding of the vehicle flight dynamics characteristics at high AoA and sideslip. In recent years, government sponsored research on transport airplane aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack has produced a growing understanding of stall/post-stall behavior. This research along with recent commercial airline training initiatives has resulted in improved understanding of simulator-based training requirements and simulator model fidelity.2-5 In addition, inflight training research over the past decade has produced a database of pilot performance and recurrency metrics6. Innovative solutions to aerodynamically model large commercial aircraft for upset conditions such as high AoA, high sideslip, and ballistic damage, as well as capability to accurately

  8. Psychosocial dysfunction associated with skin picking disorder and trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-05-30

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common and oftentimes disabling disorders. 125 Participants with SPD and 152 with TTM undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluation, and were grouped according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of psychosocial dysfunction. Relationships between functional impairment and other variables were explored using linear regression and categorical analyses. Greater functional impairment was associated with worse disease severity in both groups, and by later symptom onset and lower quality of life in TTM subjects. These results indicate that levels of self-reported psychosocial dysfunction have a strong association with specific clinical aspects of SPD and TTM. PMID:27137963

  9. Collision free pick up and movement of large objects

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.D.; McKee, G.R.

    1998-08-01

    An automated system is described for the sensor-based precision docking and manipulation of large objects. Past work in the remote handling of large nuclear waste containers is extensible to the problems associated with the handling of large objects such as coils of flat steel in industry. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing as described here are used to control the precision docking of large objects, and swing damped motion control of overhead cranes is used to control the position of the pick up device and suspended payload during movement. Real-time sensor processing and model-based control are used to accurately position payloads.

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students regarding 'mad cow disease'.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve; Soweid, Rema Adel Afifi; Nassar, Nabil T; Zananiri, Nathalie S; Tfaily, Rania; Rola, Ali Hassan; Allam, Shirine; Bassim, Mark; Aram, Bouraa Bou; Harkous, Bissan; Nashawi, Tarek

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of students enrolled at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in Lebanon, towards mad cow disease (MCD). Three hundred and fifty-six students (199 males and 157 females), ranging in age between 17 and 25 years were randomly selected from various majors and were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. It was found that 99.7% of students had heard about MCD and 85.8% knew that the cow is the host for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Seventy five percent reported that animals contract the disease through the consumption of meat and bone meal. Thirty-seven percent wrongly believed that MCD cases were reported in Lebanon and 89% were not satisfied with the measures undertaken by the Lebanese government to curb the disease. Eighty four percent were concerned about the disease and 72% stated having modified their eating habits accordingly. Moreover, students majoring in biology and other health-related majors knew significantly more about MCD compared with students majoring in non-health related majors. A surprising finding was that females were more likely to modify their eating habits than males. Hence, this study provides an insight into the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of AUB students towards MCD. A limitation of this study is that our sample is not representative of all university students in Lebanon. Future surveys should also target students enrolled in other universities in the country. PMID:12873414

  11. CF Tucanae: Another Case of Coronal MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Stern, R. A.; Drake, J. J.; Kuerster, M.

    1996-06-01

    We present and discuss an extreme-ultraviolet spectrum of the RS CVn binary CF Tuc obtained with the short-wavelength (5W) spectrometer on board the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite. In addition to a continuum, only two spectral lines attributed to Fe XXII and Fe XXIII are detected. We show that the EUVE data can be reconciled with a solar abundance plasma only if most of CF Tuc's emission measure is located at temperatures of ≍108 K; alternatively, the plasma must be iron depleted with most of the emission measure located at the peak temperature of the observed line contribution functions. A comparison with previously obtained ROSAT PSPC spectra argues strongly in favor of the latter situation. As a consequence, we are forced to the conclusion that the iron abundance in the corona of CF Tuc is reduced with respect to solar values by factors between 5 and 10. The reasons for the occurrence of this metal abundance deficiency syndrome (MADS) are unclear at present; however, for the specific case of CF Tuc, the extremely low coronal iron abundance might possibly result from an anomalously low photo spheric iron abundance.

  12. Model Checking Coalition Nash Equilibria in MAD Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Federico; Melatti, Igor; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico; Alvisi, Lorenzo; Clement, Allen; Li, Harry

    We present two OBDD based model checking algorithms for the verification of Nash equilibria in finite state mechanisms modeling Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD) distributed systems with possibly colluding agents (coalitions) and with possibly faulty or malicious nodes (Byzantine agents). Given a finite state mechanism, a proposed protocol for each agent and the maximum sizes f for Byzantine agents and q for agents collusions, our model checkers return PASS if the proposed protocol is an ɛ-f-q-Nash equilibrium, i.e. no coalition of size up to q may have an interest greater than ɛ in deviating from the proposed protocol when up to f Byzantine agents are present, FAIL otherwise. We implemented our model checking algorithms within the NuSMV model checker: the first one explicitly checks equilibria for each coalition, while the second represents symbolically all coalitions. We present experimental results showing their effectiveness for moderate size mechanisms. For example, we can verify coalition Nash equilibria for mechanisms which corresponding normal form games would have more than 5 ×1021 entries. Moreover, we compare the two approaches, and the explicit algorithm turns out to outperform the symbolic one. To the best of our knowledge, no model checking algorithm for verification of Nash equilibria of mechanisms with coalitions has been previously published.

  13. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analysed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the EUV. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in met- als in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere. While some progress has been made in this direction, not as much work has been accomplished as expected due to the increasing commitments of the PI to the CXO project as it nears launch. A no-cost extension has been granted in order to further the analysis and carry out the next stages of the investigation: to construct an emission measure distribution with which to compute a synthetic continuum to compare with the observed continuum.

  14. Jung, spirits and madness: lessons for cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Koss-Chioino, Joan D

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the nature and meaning of 'dissociative,' 'altered' or unusual states ultimately turns on the meaning and definition of consciousness. The view of consciousness from the discipline of psychiatry is largely based on a biomedically endorsed, culturally specific perspective of 'normal' consciousness as an integrated pattern of quotidian relationships with the 'observable' physical world. This perspective underlies the nosology for mental disorders, particularly psychoses, suggesting irreconcilable difference in cognition and affect of persons with these diagnostic labels. This article reviews some theories of Carl Gustav Jung regarding the structure and content of human consciousness and their relationship to aspects of 'dementia praecox' or 'schizophrenia.' It traces the origin and development of these ideas in part to Jung's early contact with, and intense interest in spiritualists and spirits, to later influences comprised of his own altered states (dreams and fantasies) and his involvement with patients diagnosed as schizophrenic. Data on current Spiritist beliefs and healing practices focused on 'madness' (i.e. most often diagnosed as schizophrenia in mental health settings), are described to explore parallels with Jung's ideas on the structure and dynamics of the psyche. These parallels are of special interest because the experience of spirits is ubiquitous, not well explained and often rejected as meaningful by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. Jung, however, offers a cogent explanation of spirit phenomena as manifestations of the unconscious. A concluding section suggests contributions to cultural psychiatry by Jung. PMID:12940643

  15. MAD2L2 controls DNA repair at telomeres and DNA breaks by inhibiting 5′ end-resection

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Bayona, Sandra; Peuscher, Marieke H.; van der Torre, Jaco; Wevers, Brigitte A.; Orthwein, Alexandre; Durocher, Daniel; Jacobs, Jacqueline J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate repair of DNA lesions and the inhibition of DNA repair activities at telomeres are critical to prevent genomic instability. By fuelling the generation of genetic alterations and by compromising cell viability, genomic instability is a driving force in cancer and aging1, 2. Here we identify MAD2L2 (also known as MAD2B or REV7) through functional genetic screening as a novel factor controlling DNA repair activities at mammalian telomeres. We show that MAD2L2 accumulates at uncapped telomeres and promotes non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated fusion of deprotected chromosome ends and genomic instability. MAD2L2 depletion causes elongated 3′ telomeric overhangs, implying that MAD2L2 inhibits 5′ end-resection. End-resection blocks NHEJ while committing to homology-directed repair (HDR) and is under control of 53BP1, RIF1 and PTIP3. Consistent with MAD2L2 promoting NHEJ-mediated telomere fusion by inhibiting 5′ end-resection, knockdown of the nucleases CTIP or EXO1 partially restores telomere-driven genomic instability in MAD2L2-depleted cells. Control of DNA repair by MAD2L2 is not limited to telomeres. MAD2L2 also accumulates and inhibits end-resection at irradiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and promotes end-joining of DSBs in multiple settings, including during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). These activities of MAD2L2 depend on ATM kinase activity, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1 and RIF1, but not on PTIP, REV1 and REV3, the latter two acting with MAD2L2 in translesion synthesis (TLS)4. Together our data establish MAD2L2 as a critical contributor to the control of DNA repair activity by 53BP1 that promotes NHEJ by inhibiting 5′ end-resection downstream of RIF1. PMID:25799990

  16. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Natsui, M.; Ohno, H.; Sugibayashi, T.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm2/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10-12 per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (IC0) became less than 30 μA.

  17. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  18. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Sugibayashi, T.; Natsui, M.; Hanyu, T.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm{sup 2}/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10{sup −12} per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (I{sub C0}) became less than 30 μA.

  19. Types A and B Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Schuchman, Edward H; Wasserstein, Melissa P

    2016-06-01

    Two distinct metabolic abnormalities are included under the eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Patients with ASM deficiency are classified as having types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Type A NPD patients exhibit hepatosplenomegaly, frequent pulmonary infections, and profound central nervous system involvement in infancy. They rarely survive beyond two years of age. Type B patients also have hepatosplenomegaly and progressive alterations of their lungs, but there are usually no central nervous system signs. The age of onset and rate of disease progression varies greatly among type B patients, and they frequently live into adulthood. Recently, patients with phenotypes intermediate between types A and B NPD also have been identified. These individuals represent the expected continuum caused by inheriting different mutations in the ASM gene (SMPD1). Patients in the second category are designated as having type C NPD. Impaired intracellular trafficking of cholesterol causes type C NPD, and two distinct gene defects have been found. In this chapter only types A and B NPD will be discussed. PMID:27491215

  20. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    PubMed

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders. PMID:18487502

  1. Lymph node pick up by separate stations: Option or necessity

    PubMed Central

    Morgagni, Paolo; Nanni, Oriana; Carretta, Elisa; Altini, Mattia; Saragoni, Luca; Falcini, Fabio; Garcea, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether lymph node pick up by separate stations could be an indicator of patients submitted to appropriate surgical treatment. METHODS: One thousand two hundred and three consecutive gastric cancer patients submitted to radical resection in 7 general hospitals and for whom no information was available on the extension of lymphatic dissection were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, where the stomach specimen was directly formalin-fixed and sent to the pathologist, and group B, where lymph nodes were picked up after surgery and fixed for separate stations. Sixty-two point three percent of group A patients showed < 16 retrieved lymph nodes compared to 19.4% of group B (P < 0.0001). Group B (separate stations) patients had significantly higher survival rates than those in group A [46.1 mo (95%CI: 36.5-56.0) vs 27.7 mo (95%CI: 21.3-31.9); P = 0.0001], independently of T or N stage. In multivariate analysis, group A also showed a higher risk of death than group B (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.05-1.46). CONCLUSION: Separate lymphatic station dissection increases the number of retrieved nodes, leads to better tumor staging, and permits verification of the surgical dissection. The number of dissected stations could potentially be used as an index to evaluate the quality of treatment received. PMID:26015852

  2. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  3. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  4. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes. PMID:26070103

  5. Axial Vibration Characteristics Considering a Moving Pick-Up Unit for the Flexible Optical Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jun Hyeon; Rhim, Yoon Chul

    2011-09-01

    The axial vibration characteristics of the flexible optical disk are investigated experimentally considering the pick-up window and the geometry of a moving pick-up. The axial runout of the disk is measured by using a laser displacement sensor along the four perpendicular radial directions. Measurements are conducted with respect to the shapes of pick-up faces, which have different radius of curvatures, as well as to the positions of the moving pick-up. A flat stabilizer with damping orifices is used in the experiment and the disk is rotated at 8,000, 10,000, and 12,000 rpm. The axial runouts and the displacements of the disk are measured for 6 different shaped pick-ups. The smallest axial runout of 10 µm, which is well manageable for the current optical disk drive technology, is obtained when we use the curved pick-up with curvatures of 400 mm in the direction of disk rotation.

  6. Functional Regulation of Dopamine D3 Receptor through Interaction with PICK1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaohan; Min, Chengchun; Choi, Bo-Gil; Oh, In-Joon; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-01-01

    PICK1, a PDZ domain-containing protein, is known to increase the reuptake activities of dopamine transporters by increasing their expressions on the cell surface. Here, we report a direct and functional interaction between PICK1 and dopamine D3 receptors (D3R), which act as autoreceptors to negatively regulate dopaminergic neurons. PICK1 colocalized with both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and D3R in clusters but exerted different functional influences on them. The cell surface expression, agonist affinity, endocytosis, and signaling of D2R were unaffected by the coexpression of PICK1. On the other hand, the surface expression and tolerance of D3R were inhibited by the coexpression of PICK1. These findings show that PICK1 exerts multiple effects on D3R functions. PMID:27169823

  7. Fault Tolerance Implementation within SRAM Based FPGA Designs based upon Single Event Upset Occurrence Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Emerging technology is enabling the design community to consistently expand the amount of functionality that can be implemented within Integrated Circuits (ICs). As the number of gates placed within an FPGA increases, the complexity of the design can grow exponentially. Consequently, the ability to create reliable circuits has become an incredibly difficult task. In order to ease the complexity of design completion, the commercial design community has developed a very rigid (but effective) design methodology based on synchronous circuit techniques. In order to create faster, smaller and lower power circuits, transistor geometries and core voltages have decreased. In environments that contain ionizing energy, such a combination will increase the probability of Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and will consequently affect the state space of a circuit. In order to combat the effects of radiation, the aerospace community has developed several "Hardened by Design" (fault tolerant) design schemes. This paper will address design mitigation schemes targeted for SRAM Based FPGA CMOS devices. Because some mitigation schemes may be over zealous (too much power, area, complexity, etc.. . .), the designer should be conscious that system requirements can ease the amount of mitigation necessary for acceptable operation. Therefore, various degrees of Fault Tolerance will be demonstrated along with an analysis of its effectiveness.

  8. Accelerators for critical experiments involving single-particle upset in solid-state microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle interactions in microelectronic circuit chips (integrated circuits) present a particularly insidious problem for solid-state electronic systems due to the generation of soft errors or single-particle event upset (SEU) by either cosmic rays or other radiation sources. Particle accelerators are used to provide both light and heavy ions in order to assess the propensity of integrated circuit chips for SEU. Critical aspects of this assessment involve the ability to analytically model SEU for the prediction of error rates in known radiation environments. In order to accurately model SEU, the measurement and prediction of energy deposition in the form of an electron-hole plasma generated along an ion track is of paramount importance. This requires the use of accelerators which allow for ease in both energy control (change of energy) and change of ion species. This and other aspects of ion-beam control and diagnostics (e.g., uniformity and flux) are of critical concern for the experimental verification of theoretical SEU models.

  9. Texture evolution in upset-forged P/M and wrought tantalum: Experimentation and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bingert, J.F.; Desch, P.B.; Bingert, S.R.; Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.

    1997-11-01

    Preferred orientations in polycrystalline materials can significantly affect their physical and mechanical response through the retention of anisotropic properties inherent to the single crystal. In this study the texture evolution in upset-forged PIM and wrought tantalum was measured as a function of initial texture, compressive strain, and relative position in the pressing. A <001>/<111> duplex fiber texture parallel to the compression axis was generally observed, with varying degrees of a radial component evident in the wrought material. The development of deformation textures derives from restricted crystallographic slip conditions that generate lattice rotations, and these grain reorientations can be modeled as a function of the prescribed deformation gradient. Texture development was simulated for equivalent deformations using both a modified Taylor approach and a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. A comparison between the predicted evolution and experimental results shows a good correlation with the texture components, but an overly sharp prediction at large strains from both the Taylor and VPSC models.

  10. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianqi, Liu; Chao, Geng; Zhangang, Zhang; Fazhan, Zhao; Song, Gu; Teng, Tong; Kai, Xi; Gang, Liu; Zhengsheng, Han; Mingdong, Hou; Jie, Liu

    2014-08-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209Bi and 12C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12C ions but keep constant for 209Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed.

  11. Noise impact of single-event upsets on an FPGA-based digital filter

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Keith S; Caffrey, Michael P; Graham, Paul S; Pratt, Brian H; Wirthlin, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays are well-suited to DSP and digital communications applications. SRAM-based FPGAs, however, are susceptible to radiation-induced single-event upsets (SEUs) when deployed in space environments. These effects are often handled with the area and power-intensive TMR mitigation technique. This paper evaluates the effects of SEUs in the FPGA configuration memory as noise in a digital filter, showing that many SEUs in a digital communications system cause effects that could be considered noise rather than circuit failure. Since DSP and digital communications applications are designed to withstand certain types of noise, SEU mitigation techniques that are less costly than TMR may be applicable. This could result in large savings in area and power when implementing a reliable system. Our experiments show that, of the SEUs that affected the digital filter with a 20 dB SNR input signal, less than 14% caused an SNR loss of more than 1 dB at the output.

  12. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  13. Apparatus for and method of eliminating single event upsets in combinational logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Hass, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Cameron, Kelly B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for and method of eliminating single event upsets (or SEU) in combinational logic are used to prevent error propagation as a result of cosmic particle strikes to the combinational logic. The apparatus preferably includes a combinational logic block electrically coupled to a delay element, a latch and an output buffer. In operation, a signal from the combinational logic is electrically coupled to a first input of the latch. In addition, the signal is routed through the delay element to produce a delayed signal. The delayed signal is routed to a second input of the latch. The latch used in the apparatus for preventing SEU preferably includes latch outputs and a feature that the latch outputs will not change state unless both latch inputs are correct. For example, the latch outputs may not change state unless both latch inputs have the same logical state. When a cosmic particle strikes the combinational logic, a transient disturbance with a predetermined length may appear in the signal. However, a function of the delay element is to preferably provide a time delay greater than the length of the transient disturbance. Therefore, the transient disturbance will not reach both latch inputs simultaneously. As a result, the latch outputs will not permanently change state in error due to the transient disturbance. In addition, the output buffer preferably combines the latch outputs in such a way that the correct state is preserved at all times. Thus, combinational logic with protection from SEU is provided.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Reducing the Vulnerability of Latches to Single Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delay circuit includes a first network having an input and an output node, a second network having an input and an output, the input of the second network being coupled to the output node of the first network. The first network and the second network are configured such that: a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of approximately one-half of a standard glitch time or less does not cause the voltage at the output of the second network to cross a threshold, a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of between approximately one-half and two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for less than the length of the glitch, and a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of greater than approximately two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for approximately the time of the glitch. The method reduces the vulnerability of a latch to single event upsets. The latch includes a gate having an input and an output and a feedback path from the output to the input of the gate. The method includes inserting a delay into the feedback path and providing a delay in the gate.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Reducing the Vulnerability of Latches to Single Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delay circuit includes a first network having an input and an output node, a second network having an input and an output, the input of the second network being coupled to the output node of the first network. The first network and the second network are configured such that: a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of approximately one-half of a standard glitch time or less does not cause tile voltage at the output of the second network to cross a threshold, a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of between approximately one-half and two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for less than the length of the glitch, and a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of greater than approximately two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for approximately the time of the glitch. A method reduces the vulnerability of a latch to single event upsets. The latch includes a gate having an input and an output and a feedback path from the output to the input of the gate. The method includes inserting a delay into the feedback path and providing a delay in the gate.

  16. Empirical modeling of Single-Event Upset (SEU) in NMOS depletion-mode-load static RAM (SRAM) chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Smith, S. L.; Atwood, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of single-event upset (SEU) in static RAM (SRAM) chips fabricated using a family of high-performance NMOS (HMOS) depletion-mode-load process technologies, has been done. Empirical SEU models have been developed with the aid of heavy-ion data obtained with a three-stage tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The results of this work demonstrate a method by which SEU may be empirically modeled in NMOS integrated circuits.

  17. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Guo, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Feng-Qi; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Ding, Li-Li; Fan, Xue; Luo, Yin-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed.

  18. Real-time closed-loop simulation and upset evaluation of control systems in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1989-01-01

    Digital control systems for applications such as aircraft avionics and multibody systems must maintain adequate control integrity in adverse as well as nominal operating conditions. For example, control systems for advanced aircraft, and especially those with relaxed static stability, will be critical to flight and will, therefore, have very high reliability specifications which must be met regardless of operating conditions. In addition, multibody systems such as robotic manipulators performing critical functions must have control systems capable of robust performance in any operating environment in order to complete the assigned task reliably. Severe operating conditions for electronic control systems can result from electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, high energy radio frequency (HERF) transmitters, and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). For this reason, techniques must be developed to evaluate the integrity of the control system in adverse operating environments. The most difficult and illusive perturbations to computer-based control systems that can be caused by an electromagnetic environment (EME) are functional error modes that involve no component damage. These error modes are collectively known as upset, can occur simultaneously in all of the channels of a redundant control system, and are software dependent. Upset studies performed to date have not addressed the assessment of fault tolerant systems and do not involve the evaluation of a control system operating in a closed-loop with the plant. A methodology for performing a real-time simulation of the closed-loop dynamics of a fault tolerant control system with a simulated plant operating in an electromagnetically harsh environment is presented. In particular, considerations for performing upset tests on the controller are discussed. Some of these considerations are the generation and coupling of analog signals representative of electromagnetic disturbances to a control system under test

  19. Analog-digital simulation of transient-induced logic errors and upset susceptibility of an advanced control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Choi, G.; Iyer, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation study is described which predicts the susceptibility of an advanced control system to electrical transients resulting in logic errors, latched errors, error propagation, and digital upset. The system is based on a custom-designed microprocessor and it incorporates fault-tolerant techniques. The system under test and the method to perform the transient injection experiment are described. Results for 2100 transient injections are analyzed and classified according to charge level, type of error, and location of injection.

  20. Mad4 is regulated by a transcriptional repressor complex that contains Miz-1 and c-Myc.

    PubMed Central

    Kime, Louise; Wright, Stephanie C

    2003-01-01

    Myc and Mad family proteins are central regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We show that various Mad family genes have distinct patterns of expression during the chemically induced differentiation of mouse erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells, suggesting that they each serve a different function. Mad4 RNA is highly induced and persists in terminally differentiated cells, in agreement with observations in other systems. Using reporter gene assays in stably transfected MEL cells, we show that induction of Mad4 is mediated by a 49 nt core promoter region. We demonstrate that the initiator element is required for Mad4 activation, and show that induction is associated with the loss from the initiator of a complex that contains Miz-1 and c-Myc. Miz-1 activates the Mad4 promoter in transient transfection assays, and this effect is antagonized by c-Myc. We therefore identify Mad4 as a novel target of transcriptional repression by c-Myc. These data suggest that the expression of Mad4 in proliferating undifferentiated cells is suppressed by the binding of a c-Myc-Miz-1 repressor complex at the initiator, and that the activation of Mad4 during differentiation results, at least in part, from a decrease in c-Myc-mediated repression. PMID:12418961

  1. Calcium Binding to PICK1 is Essential for the Intracellular Retention of AMPA Receptors Underlying LTD

    PubMed Central

    Citri, Ami; Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Ma, Cong; Morishita, Wade; Fang, Scarlett; Rizo, Josep; Malenka, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD in the hippocampus is mediated primarily by the calcium-dependent removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) from the postsynaptic density. The AMPAR-binding, PDZ and BAR domain containing protein PICK1 has been implicated in the regulation of AMPAR trafficking underlying several forms of synaptic plasticity. Using a strategy involving shRNA-mediated knockdown of PICK1 and its replacement with recombinant PICK1, we performed a detailed structure-function analysis of the role of PICK1 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the underlying NMDAR-induced AMPAR trafficking. We found that PICK1 is not necessary for maintenance of the basal synaptic complement of AMPARs or expression of either mGluR-LTD or NMDAR-dependent LTP. Rather, PICK1 function is specific to NMDAR-dependent LTD and the underlying AMPAR trafficking. Furthermore, while PICK1 does not regulate the initial phase of NMDAR-induced AMPAR endocytosis, it is required for intracellular retention of internalized AMPARs. Detailed biophysical analysis of an N-terminal acidic motif indicated that it is involved in intramolecular electrostatic interactions that are disrupted by calcium. Mutations that interfered with the calcium-induced structural changes in PICK1 precluded LTD and the underlying NMDAR-induced intracellular retention of AMPARs. These findings support a model whereby calcium-induced modification of PICK1 structure is critical for its function in the retention of internalized AMPARs that underlies the expression of hippocampal NMDAR-dependent LTD. PMID:21147983

  2. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  3. Electric field by pick-up ions and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Holmstrom, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Observations by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) showed increasing distortion of the solar wind flow as Rosetta approached the Sun, i.e., as the density of the newly born ions increased. This indicates azimuthal momentum transfer from the solar wind to the newly born ions because they are displaced by the solar wind electric field up to the ion gyroradius this the solar wind velocity, and conservation of the momentum (center of the mass) makes the solar wind to azimuthally shift by "counter action" of these pick-up ion motions. To understand this azimuthal momentum transfer, it is inevitable to model the electric field by the displacement of these pick-up ions and electrons. Although the E×B drift does not make charge separation when the scale size is larger than the ion gyroradius, ions and electrons move in the opposite direction to each other within the short distance up to a gyroradius, and therefore, the charge separation occurs. Thus, the newly-ionized neutrals (ion-electron pairs) create the electric field in the opposite (shielding) direction to the solar wind electric field (like the ionopause of Venus and Mars). However, such a newly induced "shielding" electric field will simultaneously be weakened by the solar wind electrons because the solar wind is also moved by this shielding electric field to reduce it, in the same way as the plasma oscillation (time scale of about 10‑4 s). In other words, the solar wind tries to maintain the solar wind electric field as far as the momentum allows. These two opposite effects must be combined when modelling the azimuthal electric field, and resultant ion/electron motions within a gyroradius, like the case for ROSETTA. Furthermore, the effect of the induced electric field by the pick-up ions and electrons will be different when the newly born ions are created as the result of photo-ionization and of the charge exchange because the electron effect is different between them. In the presentation, we model the

  4. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution of the dormancy associated MADS-box genes from peach

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Sergio; Lawton-Rauh, Amy L; Reighard, Gregory L; Abbott, Albert G; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Background Dormancy associated MADS-box (DAM) genes are candidates for the regulation of growth cessation and terminal bud formation in peach. These genes are not expressed in the peach mutant evergrowing, which fails to cease growth and enter dormancy under dormancy-inducing conditions. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among and the rates and patterns of molecular evolution within DAM genes in the phylogenetic context of the MADS-box gene family. Results The peach DAM genes grouped with the SVP/StMADS11 lineage of type II MIKCC MADS-box genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the peach SVP/StMADS11-like gene family, which contains significantly more members than annual model plants, expanded through serial tandem gene duplication. We found evidence of strong purifying selection acting to constrain functional divergence among the peach DAM genes and only a single codon, located in the C-terminal region, under significant positive selection. Conclusion Because all DAM genes are expressed in peach and are subjected to strong purifying selection we suggest that the duplicated genes have been maintained by subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization. In addition, this pattern of selection suggests that the DAM genes are important for peach growth and development. PMID:19558704

  5. Science with ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator - MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Marchetti, Enrico; Amico, Paola

    2012-07-01

    ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator (MAD) was a prototype designed and built to demonstrate wide-field adaptive optics science on large telescopes. The outstanding results obtained during commissioning and guaranteed time observations (GTO) prompted ESO to issue and open call to the community for 23 science demonstration (SD) observing nights distributed in three runs (in order to provide access to the summer an winter skies). Thus, in total MAD was used for science for 33 nights including the 10 nights of GTO time. date, 19 articles in refereed journals (including one in Nature) have been published based fully or partially o MAD data. To the best of our knowledge, these are not only the first, but also the only scientific publication from MCAO instruments world-wide to date (at least in Astronomy). The scientific impact of these publication, as measured by the h-index, is comparable to that of other AO instruments on the VLT, although over the years these instruments have been allocated many more nights than MAD. In this contribution we present an overview of the scientific results from MAD and a more detailed discussion of the most cited papers.

  6. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Soybean MADS Genes Showing Potential Function in the Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKCC subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKCC subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKCC genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKCC genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS. PMID:23638026

  7. Structure-biological function relationship extended to mitotic arrest-deficient 2-like protein Mad2 native and mutants-new opportunity for genetic disorder control.

    PubMed

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53-0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82-0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  8. [Niemann-Pick type C disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Kousaku

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which is caused in 95% by a mutation in the NPC1 gene on chromosome 18 or by NPC2 mutation, encoding for 2 different lysosomal lipid transport proteins. The impaired protein function leads to systemic intralysosomal accumulation of free cholesterol and shingolipids particularly in the CNS. In Japan, currently 34 living NPC patients are known as of December 2015. Considering the prevalence of the disease in the Western countries, the real number of NPC patients is most likely to be five-folds higher. For NPC, treatment methods are established and an approved disease-specific medications are available. It is important that patients early in their disease are referred to expert centers, in order to ensure timely initiation of treatment and to delay the progression of neurological symptoms as a goal. PMID:27149732

  9. Anticipatory Adjustments to Being Picked Up in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Markova, Gabriela; Wallot, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Anticipation of the actions of others is often used as a measure of action understanding in infancy. In contrast to studies of action understanding which set infants up as observers of actions directed elsewhere, in the present study we explored anticipatory postural adjustments made by infants to one of the most common adult actions directed to them – picking them up. We observed infant behavioural changes and recorded their postural shifts on a pressure mat in three phases: (i) a prior Chat phase, (ii) from the onset of Approach of the mother’s arms, and (iii) from the onset of Contact. In Study 1, eighteen 3-month-old infants showed systematic global postural changes during Approach and Contact, but not during Chat. There was an increase in specific adjustments of the arms (widening or raising) and legs (stiffening and extending or tucking up) during Approach and a decrease in thrashing/general movements during Contact. Shifts in postural stability were evident immediately after onset of Approach and more slowly after Contact, with no regular shifts during Chat. In Study 2 we followed ten infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Anticipatory behavioural adjustments during Approach were present at all ages, but with greater differentiation from a prior Chat phase only at 3 and 4 months. Global postural shifts were also more phase differentiated in older infants. Moreover, there was significantly greater gaze to the mother’s hands during Approach at 4 months. Early anticipatory adjustments to being picked up suggest that infants’ awareness of actions directed to the self may occur earlier than of those directed elsewhere, and thus enable infants’ active participation in joint actions from early in life. PMID:23840324

  10. Effects of total dose irradiation on single-event upset hardness.

    SciTech Connect

    Paillet, Philippe; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Flores, Richard S.; Schwank, James Ralph; Felix, James Andrew; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Hash, Gerald Leon; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.; Blackmore, E. W.; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Baggio, J.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of total dose on SEU hardness is investigated as a function of temperature and power supply voltage to determine worst case hardness assurance test conditions for space environments. SRAMs from six different vendors were characterized for single-event upset (SEU) hardness at proton energies from 20 to 500 MeV and at temperatures of 25 and 80 C after total dose irradiating the SRAMs with either protons, Co-60 gamma rays, or low-energy x-rays. It is shown that total dose irradiation and the bias configuration during total dose irradiation and SEU characterization can substantially affect SEU hardness for some SRAMs. For one SRAM, the bias configuration made more than two orders of magnitude difference in SEU cross section at the highest total dose level examined. In addition, it is shown that increasing the temperature during SEU characterization can also increase the effect of total dose on SEU hardness. As a result, worst-case SEU hardness assurance test conditions are the maximum total dose and temperature of the system environment, and the minimum operating voltage of the SRAM. In contrast to previous works, our results using selective area x-ray irradiations show that the source of the effect of total dose on SEU hardness is radiation-induced leakage currents in the memory cells. The increase in SEU cross section with total dose appears to be consistent with radiation-induced currents originating in the memory cells affecting the output bias levels of bias level shift circuitry used to control the voltage levels to the memory cells and/or due to the lowering of the noise margin of individual memory cells caused by radiation-induced leakage currents.

  11. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Fiskum, Sandra K.

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  12. Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) of ferromagnetic pipelines using principal component analysis (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinker, Arie; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) method is used for detection of visually obscured ferromagnetic objects. The method exploits the magnetic field originating from the ferromagnetic object, which constitutes an anomaly in the ambient earth’s magnetic field. Traditionally, MAD is used to detect objects with a magnetic field of a dipole structure, where far from the object it can be considered as a point source. In the present work, we expand MAD to the case of a non-dipole source, i.e. a ferromagnetic pipeline. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate the principal components, which are then employed to construct an effective detector. Experiments conducted in our lab with real-world data validate the above analysis. The simplicity, low computational complexity, and the high detection rate make the proposed detector attractive for real-time, low power applications.

  13. Escherichia coli MltA: MAD phasing and refinement of a tetartohedrally twinned protein crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Barends, Thomas R M; de Jong, René M; van Straaten, Karin E; Thunnissen, Andy Mark W H; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2005-05-01

    Crystals were grown of a mutant form of the bacterial cell-wall maintenance protein MltA that diffracted to 2.15 A resolution. When phasing with molecular replacement using the native structure failed, selenium MAD was used to obtain initial phases. However, after MAD phasing the crystals were found to be tetartohedrally twinned, hampering correct space-group determination and refinement. A refinement protocol was designed to take tetartohedral twinning into account and was successfully applied to refine the structure. The refinement protocol is described and the reasons for the failure of molecular replacement and the success of MAD are discussed in terms of the effects of the tetartohedral twinning. PMID:15858272

  14. Isolation and characterisation of the carnation floral-specific MADS box gene, CMB2.

    PubMed

    Baudinette; Stevenson; Savin

    2000-06-29

    The cDNA clone KD81, was isolated from a carnation petal cDNA library based on its strong differential expression in petals compared with leaves. The deduced amino acid sequence of KD81 indicated high homology with members of the MADS box family of transcription factors. Identified within the deduced amino acid sequence are two conserved domains; an N-terminal, MADS box and a central, K box. The gene encoding KD81 was termed Carnation MADS Box gene 2 (CMB2). Expression of CMB2 is floral-specific and in petal, transcripts were persistent from the initial stages of development through flower opening. Transcripts were not detected in vegetative tissues. The CMB2 protein is most homologous to TDR6 from tomato, the product of the petal and stamen identity gene DEFICIENS (DEFA), and several DEFA homologues including SLM3, STDEF, PMADS1 and APETALA3. Southern blot analysis indicated that CMB2 is present as a single copy within the carnation genome. Characterisation of a genomic clone encoding CMB2, revealed the molecular structure of CMB2 to be consistent with that reported for other plant MADS box genes. Analysis of the CMB2 promoter sequence revealed the presence of two putative cis-acting elements known as serum response elements (SREs). These elements are proposed as the target for MADS box domain binding and may be involved in the regulation/autoregulation of gene expression. CMB2 represents the first reported isolation of a MADS box gene from carnation. PMID:10814815

  15. Selaginella Genome Analysis – Entering the “Homoplasy Heaven” of the MADS World

    PubMed Central

    Gramzow, Lydia; Barker, Elizabeth; Schulz, Christian; Ambrose, Barbara; Ashton, Neil; Theißen, Günter; Litt, Amy

    2012-01-01

    In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKCC and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I); vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKCC); and male gametophytes (MIKC*), but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKCC, and 3 MIKC*). Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKCC genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKCC genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKCC genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular plants. PMID

  16. Organization of the MADS box from human SRF revealed by tyrosine perturbation.

    PubMed

    Profantová, Barbora; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Profant, Václav; Štěpánek, Josef; Kopecký, Vladimír; Turpin, Pierre-Yves; Alpert, Bernard; Zentz, Christian

    2015-02-01

    MADS box family transcription factors are involved in signal transduction and development control through DNA specific sequence recognition. The DNA binding domain of these proteins contains a conservative 55-60 amino acid sequence which defines the membership of this large family. Here we present a thorough study of the MADS segment of serum response factor (MADS(SRF)). Fluorescence, UV-absorption, and Raman spectroscopy studies were performed in order to disclose its behavior and basic functional properties in an aqueous environment. The secondary structure of MADS(SRF) estimated by analysis of Raman spectra and supported by CD has revealed only the C-terminal part as homologous with those of free core-SRF, while the N-terminal part has lost the stable α-helical structure found in both the free core-SRF and its specific complex with DNA. The three tyrosine residues of the MADS(SRF) were used as spectroscopic inner probes. The effect of environmental conditions, especially pH variations and addition of variously charged quenchers, on their spectra was examined. Two-component fluorescence quenching was revealed using factor analysis and corresponding Stern-Volmer constants determined. Factor analysis of absorbance and fluorescence pH titration led to determination of three dissociation constants pKa1 = 6.4 ± 0.2, pKa2 = 7.3 ± 0.2, and pKa3 = 9.6 ± 0.6. Critical comparison of all experiments identified the deprotonation of His193 hydrogen bonded to Tyr195 as a candidate for pKa1 (and that of Tyr158 as a candidate for pKa2). Within MADS(SRF), His193 is a key intermediary between the N-terminal primary DNA binding element and the hydrophobic C-terminal protein dimerization element. PMID:25558766

  17. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  18. Prevalence and heritability of skin picking in an adult community sample: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Cherkas, Lynn; Harris, Juliette; Keuthen, Nancy; Mataix-Cols, David

    2012-07-01

    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition that can lead to skin damage and other medical complications. Epidemiological data is scarce and its causes are unknown. The present study examined the prevalence and heritability of skin-picking symptoms in a large sample of twins. A total of 2,518 twins completed a valid and reliable self-report measure of skin-picking behavior. The prevalence of clinically significant skin picking was established using empirically derived cut-offs. Twin modeling methods were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to skin picking into additive genetic and shared and non-shared environmental factors. A total of 1.2% of twins scored above the cut-off, indicative of clinically significant skin picking. All these participants were women. Univariate model-fitting analyses (female twins only, N = 2,191) showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 40% (95% CI 19-58%) of the variance in skin picking, with non-shared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the remaining variance (60% [95% CI 42-81%]). Shared environmental factors were negligible. It is concluded that pathological skin picking is relatively prevalent problem, particularly among women, and that it tends to run in families primarily due to genetic factors. Non-shared environmental factors are also likely to play an important role in its etiology. PMID:22619132

  19. A Middle School Extension of Pick's Theorem to Areas of Nonsimple Closed Polygonal Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wilfred E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an extension of Pick's theorem for simple closed polygonal regions to unions of simple closed polygonal regions. Students are guided to discover Pick's theorem from sets of data including numbers of boundary points and numbers of interior points. (Author/MKR)

  20. Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge…

  1. Phenotypic alterations of petal and sepal by ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Noh, Y S; Chung, Y Y; Costa, M A; An, K; An, G

    1995-10-01

    Floral organ development is controlled by a group of regulatory factors containing the MADS domain. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone from rice, OsMADS3, which encodes a MADS-domain containing protein. The OsMADS3 amino acid sequence shows over 60% identity to AG of Arabidopsis, PLE of Antirrhinum majus, and AG/PLE homologues of petunia, tobacco, tomato, Brassica napus, and maize. Homology in the MADS box region is most conserved. RNA blot analysis indicated that the rice MADS gene was preferentially expressed in reproductive organs, especially in stamen and carpel. In situ localization studies showed that the transcript was present primarily in stamen and carpel. The function of the rice OsMADS3 was elucidated by ectopic expression of the gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in a heterologous tobacco plant system. Transgenic plants exhibited an altered morphology and coloration of the perianth organs. Sepals were pale green and elongated. Limbs of the corolla were split into sections which in some plants became antheroid structures attached to tubes that resembled filaments. The phenotypes mimic the results of ectopic expression of dicot AG gene or AG homologues. These results indicate that the OsMADS3 gene is possibly an AG homologue and that the AG genes appear to be structurally and functionally conserved between dicot and monocot. PMID:7579155

  2. Histone H3K4 methylation regulates deactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through direct binding of Mad2.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Andria; Koutelou, Evangelia; Tomida, Junya; Wilson-Pham, Marenda; Wang, Li; Lu, Yue; Cabrera, Alexa Parra; Chosed, Renee J; Li, Wenqian; Li, Bing; Shi, Xiaobing; Wood, Richard D; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2016-05-15

    Histone H3 methylation on Lys4 (H3K4me) is associated with active gene transcription in all eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Set1 is the sole lysine methyltransferase required for mono-, di-, and trimethylation of this site. Although H3K4me3 is linked to gene expression, whether H3K4 methylation regulates other cellular processes, such as mitosis, is less clear. Here we show that both Set1 and H3K4 mutants display a benomyl resistance phenotype that requires components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), including Bub3 and Mad2. These proteins inhibit Cdc20, an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Mutations in Cdc20 that block Mad2 interactions suppress the benomyl resistance of both set1 and H3K4 mutant cells. Furthermore, the HORMA domain in Mad2 directly binds H3, identifying a new histone H3 "reader" motif. Mad2 undergoes a conformational change important for execution of the SAC. We found that the closed (active) conformation of both yeast and human Mad2 is capable of binding methylated H3K4, but, in contrast, the open (inactive) Mad2 conformation limits interaction with methylated H3. Collectively, our data indicate that interactions between Mad2 and H3K4 regulate resolution of the SAC by limiting closed Mad2 availability for Cdc20 inhibition. PMID:27198228

  3. MAD2B-mediated SnoN downregulation is implicated in fibroblast activation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui; Su, Hua; Fan, Di; Ye, Chen; Lei, Chun-Tao; Jiang, Hua-Jun; Gao, Pan; He, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    MAD2B, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitor and a small subunit of DNA polymerase ζ, is indispensible for mitotic checkpoint control and DNA repair. Previously, we established that MAD2B is expressed in glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments and participates in high glucose-induced podocyte injury. However, its role in other renal diseases remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to illustrate the potential role of MAD2B in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. By immunofluorescence and Western blotting, we found MAD2B expression is obviously increased in tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) patients and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice. It is widely accepted that resident fibroblasts are the major source of collagen-producing myofibroblasts during TIF. Therefore, we evaluated the level of MAD2B in fibroblasts (NRK-49F) exposed to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 by immunoblotting and revealed that MAD2B is upregulated in a time-dependent manner. Intriguingly, SnoN, a transcriptional repressor of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, is decreased in TGF-β1-treated fibroblasts as well as the kidney cortex from TIF patients and UUO mice. Either in vitro or in vivo, local genetic depletion of MAD2B by lentiviral transfection could preserve SnoN abundance and suppress Smad3 phosphorylation, which finally dampens fibroblast activation, ECM accumulation, and alleviates the severity of TIF. However, the ubiquitin ligase APC/C is not involved in the MAD2B-mediated SnoN decline, although this process is ubiquitination dependent. In conclusion, our observation proposes that besides cell cycle management, MAD2B has a profibrotic role during fibroblast activation and TIF by suppressing SnoN expression. Targeting the MAD2B-SnoN pathway is a promising intervention for TIF. PMID:27122545

  4. Single-Event Upset (SEU) model verification and threshold determination using heavy ions in a bipolar static RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) response of a bipolar low-power Schottky-diode-clamped TTL static RAM has been observed using Br ions in the 100-240 MeV energy range and O ions in the 20-100 MeV range. These data complete the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling for this device. The threshold for onset of SEU has been observed by the variation of energy, ion species and angle of incidence. The results obtained from the computer circuit-simulation modeling and experimental model verification demonstrate a viable methodology for modeling SEU in bipolar integrated circuits.

  5. Experimental determination of single-event upset (SEU) as a function of collected charge in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Malone, C. J.; Smith, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) in bipolar integrated circuits (ICs) is caused by charge collection from ion tracks in various regions of a bipolar transistor. This paper presents experimental data which have been obtained wherein the range-energy characteristics of heavy ions (Br) have been utilized to determine the cross section for soft-error generation as a function of charge collected from single-particle tracks which penetrate a bipolar static RAM. The results of this work provide a basis for the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling in bipolar ICs.

  6. Use of new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron cross sections for single event upset calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-12-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data for incident protons and neutrons with energies up to 150 MeV. This paper focuses on the nuclear reaction physics that is important for calculating recoil spectra, and burst generation rate spectra. Comparisons are made with previous results, obtained from intranuclear cascade calculations as well as from previous ENDF data below 20 MeV, to demonstrate new features in the present calculations. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  7. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  8. Convertor of MAD Programs to a Set of ASCII files to load into SYBASE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    Used in Lattice support and maintenance; current buffer in Emacs editor is converted into a bunch of ASCII files (each for specific MAD token type). These files are in some fixed format and are ready to be loaded into the database (sysbase).

  9. Bearded-Ear Encodes a MADS-box Transcription Factor Critical for Maize Floral Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We cloned bde by positional cloning and found that it encodes zag3, a MADS-box transcription factor in the conserved AGL6 clade. Mutants in the maize homolog of AGAMOUS, zag1, have a subset of bde floral defects. bde; zag1 double mutants have a severe ear phenotype, not observed in either single m...

  10. Cytosolic carboxypeptidase CCP6 is required for megakaryopoiesis by modulating Mad2 polyglutamylation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Buqing; Li, Chong; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Yanying; Hao, Junfeng; Wang, Li; Li, Yi; Du, Ying; Hao, Lu; Liu, Benyu; Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Huang, Guanling; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow progenitor cells develop into mature megakaryocytes (MKs) to produce platelets for hemostasis and other physiological functions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying megakaryopoiesis are not completely defined. We show that cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) 6 deficiency in mice causes enlarged spleens and increased platelet counts with underdeveloped MKs and dysfunctional platelets. The prominent phenotypes of CCP6 deficiency are different from those of CCP1-deficient mice. We found that CCP6 and tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family (TTLL) members TTLL4 and TTLL6 are highly expressed in MKs. We identify Mad2 (mitotic arrest deficient 2) as a novel substrate for CCP6 and not CCP1. Mad2 can be polyglutamylated by TTLL4 and TTLL6 to modulate the maturation of MKs. CCP6 deficiency causes hyperglutamylation of Mad2 to promote activation of Aurora B, leading to suppression of MK maturation. We reveal that Mad2 polyglutamylation plays a critical role in the regulation of megakaryopoiesis. PMID:25332286

  11. Cloning, characterization, regulation, and function of dormancy-associated MADS-BOX genes from leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are transcription factors that have been linked to endodormancy induction. The evergrowing mutation in peach, which renders it incapable of entering endodormancy, resulted from a deletion in a series of DAM genes (Bielenberg et al. 2008). Likewise, DAM genes ...

  12. Visual Search in a Multi-Element Asynchronous Dynamic (MAD) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2011-01-01

    In visual search tasks participants search for a target among distractors in strictly controlled displays. We show that visual search principles observed in these tasks do not necessarily apply in more ecologically valid search conditions, using dynamic and complex displays. A multi-element asynchronous dynamic (MAD) visual search was developed in…

  13. An Act of Methodology: A Document in Madness--Writing Ophelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to stage some questions concerning methodology and education, inspired by Ophelia in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" and by Jacques Derrida's poetic philosophical oeuvres. What are at stake are the long traditions of preferences of sanity over madness, friend over enemy, male over female and of clean, unambiguous univocal language…

  14. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning subproject characterization report for the E-MAD Decontamination Project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-31

    This document describes and reports the results of the work undertaken to determine the nature and extent of contamination of portions of the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility located in Area 25 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  16. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are transcription factors that have been linked to endodormancy induction. The evergrowing mutation in peach, which renders it incapable of entering endodormancy, resulted from a deletion in a series of DAM genes (Bielenberg et al. 2008). Likewise, DAM genes ...

  17. Pick-Up Oxygen Ion Loss at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, S.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fang, X.; Ma, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Mars pick-up ion transport model has been developed to study the relative role of kinetic processes on ion transport through near-Mars space. Mars does not have a strong, intrinsic dipole magnetic field and consequently the solar wind directly interacts with the dayside upper atmosphere causing particles to be stripped away from the atmosphere. The Mars Pickup Ion Model model calculates the detailed ion velocity space distribution (VSD) through a background magnetic and electric field model at specific locations. The main objective of this work is to robustly probe the sources of planetary ion escape from Mars' upper atmosphere. We explore three sources of ions: photoionization, charge exchange collisions, and impact ionization. Our results illustrate distinct differences in the velocity space distributions from the different source mechanisms, which can be used to decipher Mars ion observations according to their source population. Because the VSDs are non-Maxwellian and reveal asymmetirc, non-gyrotropic features, our simulation can uniquely investigate these distributions without using the Maxwellian assumptions of current MHD models. Our results help to further examine quantify the physical processes and source locations for specific VSD fine-structure features, and to put this into the context of real and virtual observations of escaping planetary ions.

  18. High throughput cherry-picking of solvated samples.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Robert; Traphagen, Linda; Hajduk, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    Advances in the design of automated compound storage systems have made it possible to store large collections of research compounds in individual single-use aliquots dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and rapidly retrieve a specific group off them. This 'cherry-picking' approach offers researchers the opportunity to request large numbers of compounds desired for testing without having to also retrieve all the other compounds stored on the same rack or plate. This makes it possible to meet the increasing demand for samples from High Throughput Screening and Therapeutic Area teams without adding staff to dispense from powder each time, without the constraints imposed by storing in solvated compounds in fixed-well 96- or 384-way plates, and without sacrificing sample quality or shelf life by storing at room temperature. We describe how this approach has been implemented at Abbott Laboratories' central compound repository to provide smaller amounts of more compounds faster and with high quality. In doing so, we have been able to better support the innovation of our Drug Discovery colleagues. PMID:20426754

  19. Oxidative Stress in Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rao; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Bianconi, Simona; Pavan, William J.; Porter, Forbes D.

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder due to impaired intracellular cholesterol and lipid transport. Increased oxidative stress has been reported in human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts and in tissues from Npc1 mutant mice. However, oxidative stress in NPC patients has not been established. In this study, we demonstrated increased oxidative stress in NPC patients. Evaluation of serum from 37 NPC patients, compared to control values, showed significant decreases (p<0.01) in both the fraction of reduced coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Both findings are consistent with increased oxidative stress in NPC. Supplementation with CoQ10 was not effective in correcting the decreased fraction of reduced CoQ10. Increased oxidative stress may be a contributing factor to the pathology of NPC, and demonstration of increased oxidative stress in NPC patients provides both a rationale and the biomarkers necessary to test the efficacy of antioxidant therapy in NPC. PMID:20667755

  20. Multiple faces of protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1): Structure, function, and diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Ya-Nan; Shen, Ying; Wang, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) has received considerable attention because it is the only protein that contains both PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Through PDZ and BAR domains, PICK1 binds to a large number of membrane proteins and lipid molecules, and is thereby of multiple functions. PICK1 is widely expressed in various tissues, particularly abundant in the brain and testis. In the central nervous system (CNS), PICK1 interacts with numerous neurotransmitters receptors, transporters, ion channels, and enzymes, and controls their trafficking. The best characterized function of PICK1 is that it regulates trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA2 during long-term depression and long-term potentiation. Recent evidence shows that PICK1 participates in various diseases including neurobiological disorders, such as chronic pain, epilepsy, oxidative stress, stroke, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, and non-neurological disorders, such as globozoospermia, breast cancer, and heart failure. In this review, we will summarize recent advances focusing on the structure and regulation of PICK1 and its functions in protein trafficking, neurological and non-neurological diseases. PMID:26970394

  1. SEPALLATA3: the 'glue' for MADS box transcription factor complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Immink, Richard GH; Tonaco, Isabella AN; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Borst, Jan W; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant MADS box proteins play important roles in a plethora of developmental processes. In order to regulate specific sets of target genes, MADS box proteins dimerize and are thought to assemble into multimeric complexes. In this study a large-scale yeast three-hybrid screen is utilized to provide insight into the higher-order complex formation capacity of the Arabidopsis MADS box family. SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) has been shown to mediate complex formation and, therefore, special attention is paid to this factor in this study. Results In total, 106 multimeric complexes were identified; in more than half of these at least one SEP protein was present. Besides the known complexes involved in determining floral organ identity, various complexes consisting of combinations of proteins known to play a role in floral organ identity specification, and flowering time determination were discovered. The capacity to form this latter type of complex suggests that homeotic factors play essential roles in down-regulation of the MADS box genes involved in floral timing in the flower via negative auto-regulatory loops. Furthermore, various novel complexes were identified that may be important for the direct regulation of the floral transition process. A subsequent detailed analysis of the APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and SEP3 proteins in living plant cells suggests the formation of a multimeric complex in vivo. Conclusions Overall, these results provide strong indications that higher-order complex formation is a general and essential molecular mechanism for plant MADS box protein functioning and attribute a pivotal role to the SEP3 'glue' protein in mediating multimerization. PMID:19243611

  2. In planta localisation patterns of MADS domain proteins during floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Urbanus, Susan L; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna V; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Immink, Richard GH; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    Background MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral organs. The protein localisation patterns revealed a few deviations from known mRNA expression patterns, suggesting a non-cell autonomous action of these factors or alternative control mechanisms. In addition, we observed a change in the subcellular localisation of SEPALLATA3 from a predominantly nuclear localisation to a more cytoplasmic localisation, occurring specifically during petal and stamen development. Furthermore, we show that the down-regulation of the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL in ovular tissues is preceded by the occurrence of both AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3 proteins, supporting the hypothesis that both proteins together suppress WUSCHEL expression in the ovule. Conclusion This approach provides a highly detailed in situ map of MADS domain protein presence during early and later stages of floral development. The subcellular localisation of the transcription factors in the cytoplasm, as observed at certain stages during

  3. Sequence Motifs in MADS Transcription Factors Responsible for Specificity and Diversification of Protein-Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aalt D. J.; Morabito, Giuseppa; Fiers, Martijn; van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G. H.

    2010-01-01

    Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein families with high sequence similarity, such as the plant MADS domain transcription factor family. In comparison to the situation in mammalian species, this important family of transcription regulators has expanded enormously in plant species and contains over 100 members in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that determine protein-protein interaction specificity for the Arabidopsis MADS domain transcription factor family, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Plant MADS proteins have highly similar amino acid sequences, but their dimerization patterns vary substantially. Our computational analysis uncovered small sequence regions that explain observed differences in dimerization patterns with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, we show the usefulness of the method for prediction of MADS domain transcription factor interaction networks in other plant species. Introduction of mutations in the predicted interaction motifs demonstrated that single amino acid mutations can have a large effect and lead to loss or gain of specific interactions. In addition, various performed bioinformatics analyses shed light on the way evolution has shaped MADS domain transcription factor interaction specificity. Identified protein-protein interaction motifs appeared to be strongly conserved among orthologs, indicating their evolutionary importance. We also provide evidence that mutations in these motifs can be a source for sub- or neo-functionalization. The analyses presented here take us a step forward in understanding protein-protein interactions and the interplay between protein sequences and network evolution. PMID

  4. MAD (Multi-Agent-Delivery) Nanolayer: Delivering Multiple Therapeutics from Hierarchical Assembled Surface Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong-Su; Smith, Renée C.; Poon, Zhiyong; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the hydrolytically degradable polymeric multilayer films that can co-deliver multiple therapeutics of differing chemical characteristics (charged biomacromolecules and neutral hydrophobic small molecules) from a surface. This multi-agent-delivery (MAD) nanolayer system integrates the hydrolytically degradable poly(β-amino ester) as a structural component to control the degradation of the multilayers to release active therapeutic macromolecules, as well as hydrophobic drugs imbedded within amphiphilic block copolymer micellar carriers within layer-by-layer (LbL) films, which would otherwise be difficult to include within the multilayers. By varying the anionic therapeutic agents (heparin and dextran sulfate) within the multilayer, we examine how different structural components can be used to control the release kinetics of multiple therapeutics from MAD nanolayers. Controlled release profiles and the in vitro efficacy of the MAD nanolayers in suppressing the growth of human smooth muscle cell lines were evaluated. The dual delivery of a charged macromolecular heparin and a small hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, is found to be synergistic and beneficial toward effective therapeutic activity. Furthermore, we compared the classical dipping method we employed here with an automated spray-LbL technique. Spray-LbL significantly facilitates film processing time while preserving the characteristic release profiles of the MAD nanolayers. With the highly versatile and tunable nature of LbL assembly, we anticipate that MAD nanolayers can provide a unique platform for delivering multiple therapeutics from macromolecular to small molecules with distinct release profiles for applications in biological and biomedical surface coatings. PMID:19630389

  5. Heat stress yields a unique MADS box transcription factor in determining seed size and thermal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Begcy, Kevin; Liu, Kan; Folsom, Jing J; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    Early seed development events are highly sensitive to increased temperature. This high sensitivity to a short-duration temperature spike reduces seed viability and seed size at maturity. The molecular basis of heat stress sensitivity during early seed development is not known. We selected rice (Oryza sativa), a highly heat-sensitive species, to explore this phenomenon. Here, we elucidate the molecular pathways that contribute to the heat sensitivity of a critical developmental window during which the endosperm transitions from syncytium to the cellularization stage in young seeds. A transcriptomic comparison of seeds exposed to moderate (35°C) and severe (39°C) heat stress with control (28°C) seeds identified a set of putative imprinted genes, which were down-regulated under severe heat stress. Several type I MADS box genes specifically expressed during the syncytial stage were differentially regulated under moderate and severe heat stress. The suppression and overaccumulation of these genes are associated with precocious and delayed cellularization under moderate and severe stress, respectively. We show that modulating the expression of OsMADS87, one of the heat-sensitive, imprinted genes associated with syncytial stage endosperm, regulates rice seed size. Transgenic seeds deficient in OsMADS87 exhibit accelerated endosperm cellularization. These seeds also have lower sensitivity to a moderate heat stress in terms of seed size reduction compared with seeds from wild-type plants and plants overexpressing OsMADS87 Our findings suggest that OsMADS87 and several other genes identified in this study could be potential targets for improving the thermal resilience of rice during reproductive development. PMID:26936896

  6. Ternary complex formation between MADS-box transcription factors and the histone fold protein NF-YB.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Simona; Imbriano, Carol; Ravasio, Federica; Favaro, Rebecca; Pelucchi, Nilla; Gorla, Mirella Sari; Mantovani, Roberto; Colombo, Lucia; Kater, Martin M

    2002-07-19

    MADS-box proteins are transcription factors present in different eukaryotic kingdoms. In contrast to plants, for mammalian and yeast MADS-box proteins ternary complex formation with unrelated transcription factors was reported. We show here the first identification of such ternary interaction in plants. A rice seed-specific NF-YB was identified as partner of OsMADS18 by two-hybrid screening. NF-YB contains a histone fold motif, HFM,(1) and is part of the trimeric CCAAT-binding NF-Y complex. OsMADS18, alone or in combination with a natural partner, interacts with OsNF-YB1 through the MADS and I regions. The mouse NF-YB also associates with OsMADS18 in vivo and in vitro as a NF-YB-NF-YC dimer. Other rice MADS-box proteins do not interact in these assays, indicating specificity for the interaction. OsNF-YB1 is capable of heterodimerizing with NF-YC, but not trimerizing with NF-YA, thus precluding CCAAT binding. Mutation of the variant Asp at position 99 of the HFM alpha2-helix into a conserved serine recovers the capacity to interact with NF-YA, but not with DNA. This is the first indication that members of the NF-YB family work through mechanisms independent of the CCAAT box. PMID:11971906

  7. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs. PMID:25429734

  8. Down-select ion specific media (ISM) utilization in upset and outage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    capacities on the candidate media; however, equilibrium testing does not provide information on the exchange kinetics and the shape of the packed column breakthrough isotherm. The performance of the most promising of the pre-screened media was then further tested and validated at the NPP site, using small packed bed columns containing the media to be evaluated, with use of actual NPP waste water under dynamic flow conditions. In the cited example, dynamic flow testing validated the performance characteristics for the most promising media, as previously-selected by the laboratory batch testing. In particular, it revealed that two novel media were particularly useful under process upset conditions, viz., AGC-5860 (a chemically modified activated carbon) for chelated transition metals (especially Co{sup 58} and 60), and ASM{sup 125} (a highly selective and tenacious resin product) especially for Sb{sup 125}. Subsequently, two of the most effective novel media identified in the screening effort have now been deployed at full-scale at an NPP site for the duration of approximately one year (to-date). The antimony-selective resin has performed especially well, greatly outperforming and outlasting previously utilized media, under many variations in the NPP influent waste water composition (including outage conditions and high boron concentrations, etc.). It was further found that the ASM 125 ISM had an excellent affinity for tellurium (Te{sup 125m}), a daughter of antimony (Sb). (See data from Exelon's Byron Station. Also, on-going at Calvert Cliffs). At the request of two other NPPs (STP and Calvert Cliffs), the AGC ISM was found to solve their Fe 55 and Ni 63 problem, likely resulting from steam generator change outs at the plants. Lastly, work is on-going remove radioactive iodine (I{sup 129}) with the granulated AGC. (authors)

  9. An Experimental Study of Cutting Performances of Worn Picks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogruoz, Cihan; Bolukbasi, Naci; Rostami, Jamal; Acar, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    The best means to assess rock cuttability and efficiency of cutting process for using mechanical excavation is specific energy (SE), measured in full-scale rock cutting test. This is especially true for the application of roadheaders, often fitted with drag-type cutting tools. Radial picks or drag bits are changed during the operation as they reach a certain amount of wear and become blunt. In this study, full-scale cutting tests in different sedimentary rock types with bits having various degree of wear were used to evaluate the influence of bit wear on cutting forces and specific energy. The relationship between the amount of wear as represented by the size of the wear flats at the tip of the bit, and cutting forces as well as specific energy was examined. The influence of various rock properties such as mineral content, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, indentation index, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with required SE of cutting using different levels of tool wear was also studied. The preliminary analysis of the data shows that the mean cutting forces increase 2-3 times and SE by 4-5 times when cutting with 4 mm wear flat as compared to cutting with new or sharp wedge shape bits. The grain size distribution of the muck for cutting different rock types and different level of bit wear was analyzed and discussed. The best fit prediction models for SE based on statistical analysis of laboratory test results are introduced. The model can be used for estimating the performance of mechanical excavators using radial tools, especially roadheaders, continuous miners and longwall drum shearers.

  10. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  11. Pulmonary Involvement in Niemann-Pick Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    PubMed

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Pereira Freitas, Heloisa Maria; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Hochhegger, Bruno; Escuissato, Dante; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; da Silva, Thiago Krieger Bento; Marchiori, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease with three subtypes. Types A and B result from a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase activity, associated with the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages (so-called Niemann-Pick cells) in various tissues, especially the liver and spleen. Type A is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infancy. Type B Niemann-Pick disease is a less severe form with milder neurological involvement, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, hyperlipidemia, and pulmonary involvement; most patients live into adulthood. Type C Niemann-Pick disease is a complex lipid storage disorder caused by defects in cholesterol trafficking, resulting in a clinical presentation dominated by neurological involvement. Pulmonary involvement occurs in all three types of Niemann-Pick disease, but most frequently in type B. Respiratory manifestations range from a lack of symptoms to respiratory failure. Progression of respiratory disease is slow, but inexorable, due to the accumulation of Niemann-Pick cells in the alveolar septa, bronchial walls, and pleura, potentially leading to a progressively worsening restrictive pattern on pulmonary function testing. Bronchoalveolar lavage has important diagnostic value because it shows the presence of characteristic Niemann-Pick cells. Radiographic findings consist of a reticular or reticulonodular pattern and, eventually, honeycombing, involving mainly the lower lung zones. The most common changes identified by high-resolution computed tomography are ground-glass opacities, mild smooth interlobular septal thickening, and intralobular lines. The aim of this review is to describe the main clinical, imaging, and pathological aspects of Niemann-Pick disease, with a focus on pulmonary involvement. PMID:27164983

  12. Niemann-Pick Disease Type B in a 21 Year Old Male.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Miah, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorder of lipid storage with progressive accumulation of sphingomyelin and other lipids in the lysosomes of various tissues. We are reporting a 21 year old male who had hepatosplenomegaly, cherry red macula and normal cognitive function. Bone marrow biopsy showed plenty of foam cells and sphingomyelinase level was low, thus conforming our diagnosis. Survival into adulthood and absence of gross neurological involvement suggests Niemann-Pick disease type B. PMID:27277377

  13. Not Just Being Lifted: Infants are Sensitive to Delay During a Pick-Up Routine.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Valentina; Markova, Gabriela; Fasulo, Alessandra; Costall, Alan; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we observed whether infants show online adjustments to the mother's incipient action by looking at their sensitivity to changes as the pick-up unfolded. Twenty-three 3-month-old infants and their mothers were observed in the lab, where mothers were instructed (1) to pick-up their infants as they usually did (normal pick-up), and then (2) to delay the pick-up for 6 s after placing their hands on the infants' waist (delayed pick-up). In both Normal and Delayed conditions infant's body tension, affective displays and gaze shifts were coded during three phases: Approach, Contact, and Lift. Additionally, a measure of infants' head support in terms of head lag at the beginning and end of Lift was computed. Results showed that during normal pick-up infants tensed up their body during the Approach phase and increased their tension during contact, maintaining it through Lift; their head was also supported and in line with their body during Lift. When the pick-up was delayed, infants also tensed their body during Approach, yet this tension did not increase during the Contact phase and was significantly lower at Lift. Their head support was also lower in the Delayed condition and they shifted their gazes away from their mothers' face more often than in the Normal condition. These results suggest that infants are sensitive to changes of the timing of the pick-up sequence, which in turn may have affected their contribution to the interaction. PMID:26834674

  14. Habit Reversal as a Treatment for Chronic Skin Picking: A Pilot Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Ellen J.; Woods, Douglas W.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of habit reversal (HR) to a wait-list control as a treatment for chronic skin picking in adults. Twenty-five adults with a chronic skin-picking problem were randomly assigned to a wait-list control or HR group. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up, self-reported skin…

  15. Comparison of manual and automatic onset Time picking for local earthquake in North Eastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallarossa, D.; Tiberi, L.; Costa, G.

    2012-04-01

    Automatic estimates of earthquake parameters continues to be of considerable interest to the seismological community. The automatic processing of seismic data, whether for real-time seismic warning system or to reprocessing large amount of seismic recordings, is increasingly being demanded by seismologists. In this study is presented a new method used for automatic phase picking (P and S) which include envelope function calculation, STA/LTA detectors and AR picking algorithms based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) The main characteristics of the proposed picking algorithm are: a) Pre-filtering and envelope calculation to prearrange the onset; b) Preliminary detection of P onset using both the AIC based picker and the STA/LTA picker; c) S/N analysis, P validation, filtering and re-picking; d) Preliminary earthquake location; e) Detection of S onset adopting the AIC based picker; f) S/N analysis, S validation; g) Earthquake location. The algorithm is applied to a reference data composed by 200 events set with very heterogeneous qualities of P and S onsets acquired by South Eastern Alps Transfontier network from 01/01/2008 to 03/31/2008 in North Eastern Italy and surrounding regions. These data are collected through the use of the software Antelope, an integrated collection of programs for data management and seismic data analysis. The reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm is tested by comparing manually derived P and S readings (determined by an experienced seismic analyst), serving as reference picks, with the corresponding automatically estimated P and S arrival times. An additional analysis is comparing these automatic picks with the ones produced by Antelope, which used only STA/LTA detectors and finally studying the effect of these different set of arrival times in the resultant localizations for each database event. Preliminary results indicate that seismic detectors which integrate different techniques could improve the stability of the

  16. Not Just Being Lifted: Infants are Sensitive to Delay During a Pick-Up Routine

    PubMed Central

    Fantasia, Valentina; Markova, Gabriela; Fasulo, Alessandra; Costall, Alan; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we observed whether infants show online adjustments to the mother’s incipient action by looking at their sensitivity to changes as the pick-up unfolded. Twenty-three 3-month-old infants and their mothers were observed in the lab, where mothers were instructed (1) to pick-up their infants as they usually did (normal pick-up), and then (2) to delay the pick-up for 6 s after placing their hands on the infants’ waist (delayed pick-up). In both Normal and Delayed conditions infant’s body tension, affective displays and gaze shifts were coded during three phases: Approach, Contact, and Lift. Additionally, a measure of infants’ head support in terms of head lag at the beginning and end of Lift was computed. Results showed that during normal pick-up infants tensed up their body during the Approach phase and increased their tension during contact, maintaining it through Lift; their head was also supported and in line with their body during Lift. When the pick-up was delayed, infants also tensed their body during Approach, yet this tension did not increase during the Contact phase and was significantly lower at Lift. Their head support was also lower in the Delayed condition and they shifted their gazes away from their mothers’ face more often than in the Normal condition. These results suggest that infants are sensitive to changes of the timing of the pick-up sequence, which in turn may have affected their contribution to the interaction. PMID:26834674

  17. First-break refraction event picking and seismic data trace editing using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, M.D.; Zaucha, D.E.; Dushek, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Interactive seismic processing systems for editing noisy seismic traces and picking the first-break refraction events have been developed using a neural network learning algorithm. The authors employ a back propagation neural network (BNN) paradigm modified to improve the convergence rate of the BNN. The BNN is interactively trained'' to edit seismic data or pick first breaks by a human processor who judiciously selects and presents to the network examples of trace edits or refraction picks. The network then iteratively adjusts a set of internal weights until it can accurately duplicate the examples provided by the user. After the training session is completed, the BNN system an then process new data sets in a manner that mimics the human processor. Synthetic modeling studies indicated that the BNN uses many of the same subjective criteria that humans employ in editing and picking seismic data sets. Automated trace editing and first-break picking based on the modified BNN paradigm achieve 90 to 98 percent agreement with manual methods for seismic data of moderate to good quality. Productivity increases over manual editing, and picking techniques range from 60 percent for two-dimensional (2-D) data sets and up to 800 percent for three-dimensional (3-D) data sets. Neural network-based seismic processing can provide consistent and high quality results with substantial improvements in processing efficiency.

  18. First record of single event upset on the ground, Cray-1 computer memory at Los Alamos in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, Sarah E; Quinn, Heather M; Grider, Gary A; Iwanchuk, Paul N; Morrison, John F; Wender, Stephen A; Normand, Eugene; Wert, Jerry L; Johnson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Records of bit flips in the Cray-1 computer installed at Los Alamos in 1976 lead to an upset rate in the Cray-1 's bipolar SRAMs that correlates with the SEUs being induced by the atmospheric neutrons. In 1976 the Cray Research Company delivered its first supercomputer, the Cray-1, installing it at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos had competed with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Cray-1 and won, reaching an agreement with Seymour Cray to install the machine for a period of six months for free, after which they could decide whether to buy, lease or return it. As a result, Los Alamos personnel kept track of the computer reliability and performance and so we know that during those six months of operation, 152 memory parity errors were recorded. The computer memory consisted of approximately 70,000 1Kx1 bipolar ECL static RAMs, the Fairchild 10415. What the Los Alamos engineers didn't know is that those bit flips were the result of single event upsets (SEUs) caused by the atmospheric neutrons. Thus, these 152 bit flips were the first recorded SEUs on the earth, and were observed 2 years before the SEUs in the Intel DRAMs that had been found by May and Woods in 1978. The upsets in the DRAMs were shown to have been caused by alpha particles from the chip packaging material. In this paper we will demonstrate that the Cray-1 bit flips, which were found through the use of parity bits in the Cray-1, were likely due to atmospheric neutrons. This paper will follow the same approach as that of the very first paper to demonstrate single event effects, which occurred in satellite flip-flop circuits in 1975. The main difference is that in the four events that occurred over the course of 17 satellite years of operation were shown to be due to single event effects just a few years after those satellite anomalies were recorded. In the case of the Cray-1 bit flips, there has been a delay of more than 30 years between the occurrence of the bit flips and the

  19. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-10-23

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2{sup +}. The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  20. Functional delineation of rice MADS29 reveals its role in embryo and endosperm development by affecting hormone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Rice MADS29 has recently been reported to cause programmed cell death of maternal tissues, the nucellus, and the nucellar projection during early stages of seed development. However, analyses involving OsMADS29 protein expression domains and characterization of OsMADS29 gain-of-function and knockdown phenotypes revealed novel aspects of its function in maintaining hormone homeostasis, which may have a role in the development of embryo and plastid differentiation and starch filling in endosperm cells. The MADS29 transcripts accumulated to high levels soon after fertilization; however, protein accumulation was found to be delayed by at least 4 days. Immunolocalization studies revealed that the protein accumulated initially in the dorsal-vascular trace and the outer layers of endosperm, and subsequently in the embryo and aleurone and subaleurone layers of the endosperm. Ectopic expression of MADS29 resulted in a severely dwarfed phenotype, exhibiting elevated levels of cytokinin, thereby suggesting that cytokinin biosynthesis pathway could be one of the major targets of OsMADS29. Overexpression of OsMADS29 in heterologous BY2 cells was found to mimic the effects of exogenous application of cytokinins that causes differentiation of proplastids to starch-containing amyloplasts and activation of genes involved in the starch biosynthesis pathway. Suppression of MADS29 expression by RNAi severely affected seed set. The surviving seeds were smaller in size, with developmental abnormalities in the embryo and reduced size of endosperm cells, which also contained loosely packed starch granules. Microarray analysis of overexpression and knockdown lines exhibited altered expression of genes involved in plastid biogenesis, starch biosynthesis, cytokinin signalling and biosynthesis. PMID:23929654

  1. Genome-Wide Targets Regulated by the OsMADS1 Transcription Factor Reveals Its DNA Recognition Properties.

    PubMed

    Khanday, Imtiyaz; Das, Sanjukta; Chongloi, Grace L; Bansal, Manju; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2016-09-01

    OsMADS1 controls rice (Oryza sativa) floral fate and organ development. Yet, its genome-wide targets and the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcription regulator controlling developmental gene expression are unknown. We identify 3112 gene-associated OsMADS1-bound sites in the floret genome. These occur in the vicinity of transcription start sites, within gene bodies, and in intergenic regions. Majority of the bound DNA contained CArG motif variants or, in several cases, only A-tracts. Sequences flanking the binding peak had a higher AT nucleotide content, implying that broader DNA structural features may define in planta binding. Sequences for binding by other transcription factor families like MYC, AP2/ERF, bZIP, etc. are enriched in OsMADS1-bound DNAs. Target genes implicated in transcription, chromatin remodeling, cellular processes, and hormone metabolism were enriched. Combining expression data from OsMADS1 knockdown florets with these DNA binding data, a snapshot of a gene regulatory network was deduced where targets, such as AP2/ERF and bHLH transcription factors and chromatin remodelers form nodes. We show that the expression status of these nodal factors can be altered by inducing the OsMADS1-GR fusion protein and present a model for a regulatory cascade where the direct targets of OsMADS1, OsbHLH108/SPT, OsERF034, and OsHSF24, in turn control genes such as OsMADS32 and OsYABBY5 This cascade, with other similar relationships, cumulatively contributes to floral organ development. Overall, OsMADS1 binds to several regulatory genes and, probably in combination with other factors, controls a gene regulatory network that ensures rice floret development. PMID:27457124

  2. Structure determination by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) at the Pr L III edge

    PubMed Central

    Puehringer, Sandra; Hellmig, Michael; Liu, Sunbin; Weiss, Manfred S.; Wahl, Markus C.; Mueller, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The use of longer X-ray wavelengths in macromolecular crystallography has grown significantly over the past few years. The main reason for this increased use of longer wavelengths has been to utilize the anomalous signal from sulfur, providing a means for the experimental phasing of native proteins. Here, another possible application of longer X-ray wavelengths is presented: MAD at the L III edges of various lanthanide compounds. A first experiment at the L III edge of Pr was conducted on HZB MX beamline BL14.2 and resulted in the successful structure determination of the C-terminal domain of a spliceosomal protein. This experiment demonstrates that L III edges of lanthanides constitute potentially attractive targets for long-wavelength MAD experiments. PMID:22869138

  3. Antirationalist critique or fifth column of scientism? Challenges from Doctor Who to the mad scientist trope.

    PubMed

    Orthia, Lindy A

    2011-07-01

    Much of the public understanding of science literature dealing with fictional scientists claims that scientist villains by their nature embody an antiscience critique. I characterize this claim and its founding assumptions as the "mad scientist" trope. I show how scientist villain characters from the science fiction television series Doctor Who undermine the trope via the programme's use of rhetorical strategies similar to Gilbert and Mulkay's empiricist and contingent repertoires, which define and patrol the boundaries between "science" and "non-science." I discuss three such strategies, including the literal framing of scientist villains as "mad." All three strategies exclude the characters from science, relieve science of responsibility for their villainy, and overtly or covertly contribute to the delivery of pro-science messages consistent with rationalist scientism. I focus on scientist villains from the most popular era of Doctor Who, the mid 1970s, when the show embraced the gothic horror genre. PMID:21936266

  4. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic. PMID:27070895

  5. David Hartley's views on Madness: With an introduction by GE Berrios.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    2015-03-01

    The psychiatric aspects of David Hartley's writings have received less attention than the rest of his work. This Classic Text deals with Section VI of his Observations on Man …, namely, the 'Imperfections of the rational Faculty'. Hartley defines madness as an imperfection of reason that can be temporary or enduring. He makes use of his model of mental functioning to differentiate between eight clinical categories of madness, each representing a different pattern of vibrations of the nerves. Hartley developed this model based on Newton's theory of vibrations and, to explain the complexity of mental acts and entities, he combined it with his own version of the mechanism of Association of Ideas borrowed from John Locke. Much work needs to be done to identify the provenance of Hartley's nosology and nosography. PMID:25698690

  6. Study on the metal flow of large marine full-fiber crankshaft processed by TR bending-upsetting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhen; Xu, Bin; Sun, Ming-yue; Li, Dian-zhong; Deng, Jun-jiang; He, Ming-jiu

    2013-05-01

    Large marine crankshaft is the heart of medium-speed diesel engine. The TR forming method used to obtain full-fiber workpiece is considerably complex. However, the metal flow behavior during bending-upsetting process, which determines the forming quality, was seldom studied in previous works. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was established using constitutive model of 42CrMo4 steel and specified boundary conditions. The simulated results has demonstrated that the early filled metal resists the following metal entering the upper cavity, thereby causing the flash on the upper edge and the unfilled defect on the lower edge of the crank-arm. Further analysis has indicated that larger initial angel of the elbow rod θ0 and a good lubrication condition between dies and workpiece can effectively decrease the volume of flash and eliminate the unfilled defect on the final product.

  7. The Dangers of Failure Masking in Fault-Tolerant Software: Aspects of a Recent In-Flight Upset Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    On 1 August 2005, a Boeing Company 777-200 aircraft, operating on an international passenger flight from Australia to Malaysia, was involved in a significant upset event while flying on autopilot. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau's investigation into the event discovered that an anomaly existed in the component software hierarchy that allowed inputs from a known faulty accelerometer to be processed by the air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU) and used by the primary flight computer, autopilot and other aircraft systems. This anomaly had existed in original ADIRU software, and had not been detected in the testing and certification process for the unit. This paper describes the software aspects of the incident in detail, and suggests possible implications concerning complex, safety-critical, fault-tolerant software.

  8. Impacts of test factors on heavy ion single event multiple-cell upsets in nanometer-scale SRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinhong, Luo; Fengqi, Zhang; Hongxia, Guo; Yao, Xiao; Wen, Zhao; Lili, Ding; Yuanming, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Single event multiple-cell upsets (MCU) increase sharply with the semiconductor devices scaling. The impacts of several test factors on heavy ion single event MCU in 65 nm SRAM are studied based on the buildup of MCU test data acquiring and processing technique, including the heavy ion LET, the tilt angle, the device orientation, the test pattern and the supply voltage; the MCU physical bitmaps are extracted correspondingly. The dependencies of parameters such as the MCU percentage, MCU mean and topological pattern on these factors are summarized and analyzed. This work is meaningful for developing a more reasonable single event test method and assessing the effectiveness of anti-MCU strategies on nanometer-scale devices.

  9. Single event upset characterization of the Pentium{reg{underscore}sign} MMX and Pentium {reg{underscore}sign} II microprocessors using proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, D.M.; Baril, A.

    1999-12-01

    Experimental single event upset characterization of the Pentium{reg{underscore}sign} MMX and Pentium{reg{underscore}sign}II microprocessors using proton irradiation are presented. Results show the Pentium II processor core cross-section is ten times that of the MMX.

  10. Some reflections on madness and culture in the post-war world.

    PubMed

    Scull, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    This article examines the treatment of madness as a theme in drama, opera and films, concentrating its attention for the most part on the period between World War II and the 1980s. These were the years in which psychoanalysis dominated psychiatry in the USA, and so Freud's influence in the broader culture forms the central though not the sole focus of the analysis. PMID:25395437

  11. Study on the results from SYNCH and MAD programs in calculating lattice with coordinate rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianming.

    1992-12-01

    In some lattices, it is necessary to introduce coordinate rotation around the beam axis, for example, in such a lattice, where the horizontal deflection and the change in level are mixed. the results from SYNCH and MAD programs in calculating such a lattice have been studied and some discrepancies have been found. The arrangement of this simple lattice is shown in these outputs. The dispersion functions are discussed first and then the Twiss Parameters ([beta]'s and [alpha]'s).

  12. Study on the results from SYNCH and MAD programs in calculating lattice with coordinate rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianming

    1992-12-01

    In some lattices, it is necessary to introduce coordinate rotation around the beam axis, for example, in such a lattice, where the horizontal deflection and the change in level are mixed. the results from SYNCH and MAD programs in calculating such a lattice have been studied and some discrepancies have been found. The arrangement of this simple lattice is shown in these outputs. The dispersion functions are discussed first and then the Twiss Parameters ({beta}`s and {alpha}`s).

  13. Flowering Time-Regulated Genes in Maize Include the Transcription Factor ZmMADS1.

    PubMed

    Alter, Philipp; Bircheneder, Susanne; Zhou, Liang-Zi; Schlüter, Urte; Gahrtz, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Flowering time (FTi) control is well examined in the long-day plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and increasing knowledge is available for the short-day plant rice (Oryza sativa). In contrast, little is known in the day-neutral and agronomically important crop plant maize (Zea mays). To learn more about FTi and to identify novel regulators in this species, we first compared the time points of floral transition of almost 30 maize inbred lines and show that tropical lines exhibit a delay in flowering transition of more than 3 weeks under long-day conditions compared with European flint lines adapted to temperate climate zones. We further analyzed the leaf transcriptomes of four lines that exhibit strong differences in flowering transition to identify new key players of the flowering control network in maize. We found strong differences among regulated genes between these lines and thus assume that the regulation of FTi is very complex in maize. Especially genes encoding MADS box transcriptional regulators are up-regulated in leaves during the meristem transition. ZmMADS1 was selected for functional studies. We demonstrate that it represents a functional ortholog of the central FTi integrator SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) of Arabidopsis. RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of ZmMADS1 resulted in a delay of FTi in maize, while strong overexpression caused an early-flowering phenotype, indicating its role as a flowering activator. Taken together, we report that ZmMADS1 represents a positive FTi regulator that shares an evolutionarily conserved function with SOC1 and may now serve as an ideal stating point to study the integration and variation of FTi pathways also in maize. PMID:27457125

  14. Solar particle induced upsets in the TDRS-1 attitude control system RAM during the October 1989 solar particle events

    SciTech Connect

    Croley, D.R.; Garrett, H.B.; Murphy, G.B.; Garrard, T.L.

    1995-10-01

    The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU`s calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU`s by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU`s. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU`s was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU`s, very close to the 243 observed SEU`s.

  15. Solar Particle Induced Upsets in the TDRS-1 Attitude Control System RAM During the October 1989 Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croley, D. R.; Garrett, H. B.; Murphy, G. B.; Garrard,T. L.

    1995-01-01

    The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU'S. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU'S, very dose to the 243 observed SEU'S. These calculations uniquely demonstrate the roles that solar heavy ions and protons played in the production of SEU

  16. PICK1 confers anti-inflammatory effects in acute liver injury via suppressing M1 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Qun; Yang, Yang; Tian, Yuanyao; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Li, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a scaffolding protein mainly implicated in neurological diseases, however, the function of PICK1 in acute liver injury (ALI) remains unknown. Our study found a dramatical decrease in mRNA and protein levels of PICK1 in liver tissues and isolated Kupffer cells (KCs) from the liver in mice with ALI. Furthermore, pretreatment the mice with ALI with FSC-231, a pharmacological inhibitor of PICK1, could significantly augment inflammatory response. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) significantly reduced the expression of PICK1, while IL-4 elevated its expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, over-expression of PICK1 inhibited the expression of M1 biomarkers by suppressing NF-κB activity, and enhanced the expression of M2 biomarkers by promoting STAT6 activity. In contrast, knockdown of PICK1 or FSC-231 pretreatment promoted M1 polarization and suppressed M2 polarization. Besides, caveolin-1 was identified as a potential target gene controlled by PICK1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed a dual role of PICK1 in regulating macrophage polarization and implied PICK1 as a potential therapeutic target in ALI. PMID:27157267

  17. Going MAD: development of a "matrix academic division" to facilitate translating research to personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2011-11-01

    Personalized medicine integrates an individual's genetic and other information for the prevention or treatment of complex disorders, and translational research seeks to identify those data most important to disease processes based on observations at the bench and the bedside. To understand complex disorders such as chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, and other idiopathic chronic inflammatory diseases, physician-scientists must systematically collect data on relevant risks, clinical status, biomarkers, and outcomes. The author describes a "matrix academic division" (MAD), a highly effective academic program created at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center using translational research to rapidly develop personalized medicine for digestive diseases. MAD is designed to capture patient-specific data and biologic samples for analysis of steps in a complex process (reverse engineering), reconstructing the system conceptually and mathematically (disease modeling), and deciphering disease mechanism in individual patients to predict the effects of interventions (personalized medicine). MAD draws on the expertise of the medical school's and medical center's physician-scientists to translate essential disease information between the bed and the bench and to communicate with researchers from multiple domains, including epidemiology, genetics, cell biology, immunology, regenerative medicine, neuroscience, and oncology. The author illustrates this approach by describing its successful application to the reverse engineering of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:21952059

  18. Members of the tomato FRUITFULL MADS-box family regulate style abscission and fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shufen; Lu, Gang; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Zhidan; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein MADS-RIN plays important roles in fruit ripening. In this study, the functions of two homologous tomato proteins, FUL1 and FUL2, which contain conserved MIKC domains that typify plant MADS-box proteins, and which interact with MADS-RIN, were analysed. Transgenic functional analysis showed that FUL1 and FUL2 function redundantly in fruit ripening regulation, but exhibit distinct roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and expansion. Over-expression of FUL2 in tomato resulted in a pointed tip at the blossom end of the fruit, together with a thinner pericarp, reduced stem diameter, and smaller leaves, but no obvious phenotypes resulted from FUL1 over-expression. Dual suppression of FUL1 and FUL2 substantially inhibited fruit ripening by blocking ethylene biosynthesis and decreasing carotenoid accumulation. In addition, the levels of transcript corresponding to ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2), which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis, were significantly decreased in the FUL1/FUL2 knock-down tomato fruits. Overall, our results suggest that FUL proteins can regulate tomato fruit ripening through fine-tuning ethylene biosynthesis and the expression of ripening-related genes. PMID:24723399

  19. Characterization and expression analysis of six MADS-box genes in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Li, Huiyong; Zhang, Dengfeng; Liu, Yinghui; Fu, Jing; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2012-05-15

    MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors, which control diverse developmental processes in flowering plants, with organs ranging from roots, flowers and fruits. In this study, six maize cDNAs encoding MADS-box proteins were isolated. BLASTX searches and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the six MADS-box genes belonging to the AGL2-like clade. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that these genes had differential expression patterns in different organs in maize. The results of yeast one-hybrid system indicated that the protein ZMM3-1, ZMM3-2, ZMM6, ZMM7-L, ZMM8-L and ZMM14-L had transcriptional activation activity. Subcellular localization of ZMM7-L demonstrated that the fluorescence of ZMM7-L-GFP was mainly detected in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. qRT-PCR analysis for expression pattern of ZMM7-L showed that the gene was up-regulated by abiotic stresses and down-regulated by exogenous ABA. The germination rates of over-expression transgenic lines were lower than that of the wild type on medium with 150 mM NaCl, 350 mM mannitol. These results indicated that ZMM7-L might be a negative transcription factor responsive to abiotic stresses. PMID:22440334

  20. 'Is getting well ever an art?': Psychopharmacology and madness in Robert Lowell's Day by Day.

    PubMed

    Travis, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    On the publication of Robert Lowell's Life Studies in 1959, some critics were shocked by the poet's use of seemingly frank autobiographical material, in particular the portrayal of his hospitalizations for bipolar disorder. During the late fifties and throughout the sixties, a rich vein, influenced by Lowell, developed in American poetry. Also during this time, the nascent science of psychopharmacology competed with and complemented the more established somatic treatments, such as psychosurgery, shock treatments, and psychoanalytical therapies. The development of Thorazine was a remarkable breakthrough allowing patients previously thought incurable to leave hospital. In 1955, the release of Miltown, the first 'minor' tranquilizer, was heralded with a media fanfare promising a new dawn of psychological cure-all. These two events blurred the boundary between 'normality' and madness by making treatment in the community more widely possible and by medicalizing more commonplace distress. Lowell's early depictions of madness situate it as emblematic of the cultural malaise of 'the tranquilized fifties.' By his final collection, Day by Day (1977), mental illness had lost its symbolic power. These late poems explore the power of art as a way of representing and remedying suffering in a culture where psychopharmacology has normalized madness. PMID:21853380

  1. Consistent phase picking for regional tomography models: application to the greater Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, T.; Kissling, E.; Husen, S.; Aldersons, F.

    2009-02-01

    The resolution and reliability of tomographic velocity models strongly depends on quality and consistency of available traveltime data. Arrival times routinely picked by network analysts on a day-to-day basis often yield a high level of noise due to mispicks and other inconsistencies, particularly in error assessment. Furthermore, tomographic studies at regional scales require merging of phase picks from several networks. Since a common quality assessment is not usually available for phase data provided by different networks, additional inconsistencies are introduced by the merging process. Considerable improvement in the quality of phase data can only be achieved through complete repicking of seismograms. Considering the amount of data necessary for regional high-resolution tomography, algorithms combining accurate picking with an automated error assessment represent the best tool to derive large suitable data sets. In this work, we present procedures for consistent automated and routine picking of P-wave arrival times at local to regional scales including consistent picking error assessment. Quality-attributed automatic picks are derived from the MPX picking system. The application to earthquakes in the greater Alpine region demonstrates the potential of such a repicking approach. The final data set consists of more than 13000 high-quality first-arrivals and it is used to derive regional 1-D and preliminary 3-D P-wave models of the greater Alpine region. The comparison with a tomographic model based on routine phase data extracted from the ISC Bulletin illustrates effects on tomographic results due to consistency and reliability of our high-quality data set.

  2. Toward the Analysis of the Petunia MADS Box Gene Family by Reverse and Forward Transposon Insertion Mutagenesis Approaches: B, C, and D Floral Organ Identity Functions Require SEPALLATA-Like MADS Box Genes in Petunia

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Michiel; Zethof, Jan; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald; Tornielli, Giovanni B.; Pezzotti, Mario; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C.; Gerats, Tom

    2003-01-01

    We have initiated a systematic functional analysis of the MADS box, intervening region, K domain, C domain-type MADS box gene family in petunia. The starting point for this has been a reverse-genetics approach, aiming to select for transposon insertions into any MADS box gene. We have developed and applied a family signature insertion screening protocol that is highly suited for this purpose, resulting in the isolation of 32 insertion mutants in 20 different MADS box genes. In addition, we identified three more MADS box gene insertion mutants using a candidate-gene approach. The defined insertion lines provide a sound foundation for a systematic functional analysis of the MADS box gene family in petunia. Here, we focus on the analysis of Floral Binding Protein2 (FBP2) and FBP5 genes that encode the E-function, which in Arabidopsis has been shown to be required for B and C floral organ identity functions. fbp2 mutants display sepaloid petals and ectopic inflorescences originating from the third floral whorl, whereas fbp5 mutants appear as wild type. In fbp2 fbp5 double mutants, reversion of floral organs to leaf-like organs is increased further. Strikingly, ovules are replaced by leaf-like structures in the carpel, indicating that in addition to the B- and C-functions, the D-function, which specifies ovule development, requires E-function activity. Finally, we compare our data with results obtained using cosuppression approaches and conclude that the latter might be less suited for assigning functions to individual members of the MADS box gene family. PMID:14576291

  3. UNCERTAINTY IN PHASE ARRIVAL TIME PICKS FOR REGIONAL SEISMIC EVENTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    A. VELASCO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The detection and timing of seismic arrivals play a critical role in the ability to locate seismic events, especially at low magnitude. Errors can occur with the determination of the timing of the arrivals, whether these errors are made by automated processing or by an analyst. One of the major obstacles encountered in properly estimating travel-time picking error is the lack of a clear and comprehensive discussion of all of the factors that influence phase picks. This report discusses possible factors that need to be modeled to properly study phase arrival time picking errors. We have developed a multivariate statistical model, experimental design, and analysis strategy that can be used in this study. We have embedded a general form of the International Data Center(IDC)/U.S. National Data Center (USNDC) phase pick measurement error model into our statistical model. We can use this statistical model to optimally calibrate a picking error model to regional data. A follow-on report will present the results of this analysis plan applied to an implementation of an experiment/data-gathering task.

  4. Automated Interval velocity picking for Atlantic Multi-Channel Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwajit

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the challenge in developing and testing a fully automated routine for measuring interval velocities from multi-channel seismic data. Various approaches are employed for generating an interactive algorithm picking interval velocity for continuous 1000-5000 normal moveout (NMO) corrected gather and replacing the interpreter's effort for manual picking the coherent reflections. The detailed steps and pitfalls for picking the interval velocities from seismic reflection time measurements are describe in these approaches. Key ingredients these approaches utilized for velocity analysis stage are semblance grid and starting model of interval velocity. Basin-Hopping optimization is employed for convergence of the misfit function toward local minima. SLiding-Overlapping Window (SLOW) algorithm are designed to mitigate the non-linearity and ill- possessedness of root-mean-square velocity. Synthetic data case studies addresses the performance of the velocity picker generating models perfectly fitting the semblance peaks. A similar linear relationship between average depth and reflection time for synthetic model and estimated models proposed picked interval velocities as the starting model for the full waveform inversion to project more accurate velocity structure of the subsurface. The challenges can be categorized as (1) building accurate starting model for projecting more accurate velocity structure of the subsurface, (2) improving the computational cost of algorithm by pre-calculating semblance grid to make auto picking more feasible.

  5. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Theyer, Angelika; Horwath-Winter, Jutta; Rabensteiner, Dieter Franz; Schwantzer, Gerold; Wultsch, Georg; Aminfar, Haleh; Heidinger, Andrea; Boldin, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution. Design Prospective, observational, cohort study. Method Setting: Institutional. Study Population: A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded. Results The visual analogue scale (VAS) values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT) values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec) in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes) or even increased (left eyes) over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition. Conclusion In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability. PMID:27314855

  6. PICK1/calcineurin suppress ASIC1-mediated Ca2+ entry in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Lindsay M; Nitta, Carlos H; Yellowhair, Tracylyn R; Browning, Carly; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V; Resta, Thomas C; Jernigan, Nikki L

    2016-03-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) contributes to Ca(2+) influx and contraction in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). ASIC1 binds the PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain of the protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1), and this interaction is important for the subcellular localization and/or activity of ASIC1. Therefore, we first hypothesized that PICK1 facilitates ASIC1-dependent Ca(2+) influx in PASMC by promoting plasma membrane localization. Using Duolink to determine protein-protein interactions and a biotinylation assay to assess membrane localization, we demonstrated that the PICK1 PDZ domain inhibitor FSC231 diminished the colocalization of PICK1 and ASIC1 but did not limit ASIC1 plasma membrane localization. Although stimulation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) greatly enhanced colocalization between ASIC1 and PICK1, both FSC231 and shRNA knockdown of PICK1 largely augmented SOCE. These data suggest PICK1 imparts a basal inhibitory effect on ASIC1 Ca(2+) entry in PASMC and led to an alternative hypothesis that PICK1 facilitates the interaction between ASIC1 and negative intracellular modulators, namely PKC and/or the calcium-calmodulin-activated phosphatase calcineurin. FSC231 limited PKC-mediated inhibition of SOCE, supporting a potential role for PICK1 in this response. Additionally, we found PICK1 inhibits ASIC1-mediated SOCE through an effect of calcineurin to dephosphorylate the channel. Furthermore, it appears PICK1/calcineurin-mediated regulation of SOCE opposes PKA phosphorylation and activation of ASIC1. Together our data suggest PKA and PICK1/calcineurin differentially regulate ASIC1-mediated SOCE and these modulatory complexes are important in determining downstream Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:26702130

  7. MAD ointment ameliorates Imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis by inhibiting the IL-23/IL-17 axis in mice.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Qiong; Pan, YaQian; Luo, HanQiong; Xuan, ChunXiao; Liu, JinE; Liu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic auto-immune inflammation disease with skin lesions and abnormal keratinocyte proliferation. The IL-23/IL-17 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Madecassoside (MAD) was the most important constituents isolated from Centella asiatica, which has long been used in dermatology, and it is supposed that MAD may have effects on psoriasis. In the present study, the BALB/c mice ear and back skin received IMQ for 6 consecutive days to induce psoriasis-like dermatitis. MAD ointment was applied 6h later after IMQ treatment, and the IL-23/IL-17 pathway was investigated. The HE staining, BrdU and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) were used to score the severity of keratinocyte proliferation and inflammation of the skin. Real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to detect the IL-23/IL-17 related cytokines. Flow Cytometry were applied to observe the numbers of Th17 cells. Daily application of IMQ for 6days on mouse ear skin and back skin induced psoriasis-like dermatitis. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA level of IL-23, IL-22, IL-17A were significantly decreased by MAD ointment treatment in ear skin. HE staining and BrdU incorporation implied that MAD ointment reduced keratinocyte proliferation. Flow Cytometry results showed MAD ointment decreased the numbers of Th17 cells. Thus, MAD ointment ameliorates Imiquimod-induced skin inflammation and abnormal keratinocyte through regulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. PMID:27540765

  8. Comparative phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling of MADS-box gene family identified DAM and FLC-like genes in apple (Malusx domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gulshan; Arya, Preeti; Gupta, Khushboo; Randhawa, Vinay; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box transcription factors play essential roles in various processes of plant growth and development. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis of 142 apple MADS-box proteins with that of other dicotyledonous species identified six putative Dormancy-Associated MADS-box (DAM) and four putative Flowering Locus C-like (FLC-like) proteins. In order to study the expression of apple MADS-box genes, RNA-seq analysis of 3 apical and 5 spur bud stages during dormancy, 6 flower stages and 7 fruit development stages was performed. The dramatic reduction in expression of two MdDAMs, MdMADS063 and MdMADS125 and two MdFLC-like genes, MdMADS135 and MdMADS136 during dormancy release suggests their role as flowering-repressors in apple. Apple orthologs of Arabidopsis genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRIGIDA, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 and LEAFY exhibit similar expression patterns as reported in Arabidopsis, suggesting functional conservation in floral signal integration and meristem determination pathways. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of predicted targets of DAM revealed their involvement in regulation of reproductive processes and meristematic activities, indicating functional conservation of SVP orthologs (DAM) in apple. This study provides valuable insights into the functions of MADS-box proteins during apple phenology, which may help in devising strategies to improve important traits in apple. PMID:26856238

  9. Hepatic Primary and Secondary Cholesterol Deposition and Damage in Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Marta; Fajardo, Alba; Alcalá-Vida, Rafael; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Cardellach, Francesc; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Pol, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC gene that result in systemic accumulation of intracellular cholesterol. Although neurodegeneration defines the disease's severity, in most patients it is preceded by hepatic complications such as cholestatic jaundice or hepatomegaly. To analyze the contribution of the hepatic disease in Niemann-Pick C disease progression and to evaluate the degree of primary and secondary hepatic damage, we generated a transgenic mouse with liver-selective expression of NPC1 from embryonic stages. Hepatic NPC1 re-expression did not ameliorate the onset and progression of neurodegeneration of the NPC1-null animal. However, the mice showed reduced hepatomegalia and dramatic, although not complete, reduction of hepatic cholesterol and serum bile salts, bilirubin, and transaminase levels. Therefore, hepatic primary and secondary cholesterol deposition and damage occur simultaneously during Niemann-Pick C disease progression. PMID:26784526

  10. Niemann-Pick type C disease: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Anton I.; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is an important lipid of mammalian cells. Its unique physicochemical properties modulate membrane behavior and it serves as the precursor for steroid hormones, oxysterols and vitamin D. Cholesterol is effluxed from the late endosomes/lysosomes via the concerted action of at least two distinct proteins: Niemann-Pick C1 and Niemann-Pick C2. Mutations in these two proteins manifest as Niemann-Pick type C disease – a very rare, usually fatal, autosomal, recessive, neurovisceral, lysosomal storage disorder. In this review we discuss the possible mechanisms of action for NPC1 and NPC2 in mediating cholesterol efflux, as well as the different therapeutic approaches being pursued for the treatment of this lipid storage disorder. PMID:20807315

  11. Skills and offensive tactics used in pick-up basketball games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe skills and offensive tactics frequently used in pick-up basketball games. 65 participants were recruited from public basketball courts. An observational instrument was developed to analyze the performances of pick-up games. Participants' performances were videotaped and coded. Results indicated that the passing skills most frequently observed in the games were chest pass, overhead pass, and bounce pass. For dribbling, crossover dribble and change-of-pace dribble were frequently observed. Jump shot, set shot, and layup were also frequently used. The offensive tactics frequently used included drive, cut, and set screen. The study may be beneficial for helping young people prepare to play pick-up basketball games. PMID:20038001

  12. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary. PMID:19162371

  13. Detection of singly ionized energetic lunar pick-up ions upstream of earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchenbach, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Moebius, E.

    1992-01-01

    Singly ionized suprathermal ions upstream of the earth's bow shock have been detected by using the time-of-flight spectrometer SULEICA on the AMPTE/IRM satellite. The data were collected between August and December 1985. The flux of the ions in the mass range between 23 and 37 amu is highly anisotropic towards the earth. The ions are observed with a period of about 29 days around new moon (+/- 3 days). The correlation of the energy of the ions with the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field orientation indicates the relation to the pick-up process. We conclude that the source of these pick-up ions is the moon. We argue that due to the impinging solar wind, atoms are sputtered off the lunar surface, ionized in the sputtering process or by ensuing photoionization and picked up by the solar wind.

  14. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 AUs from the sun. This 'pick-up' hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cu cm, respectively.

  15. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks: Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator was constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  16. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks - Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator has been constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments thus conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  17. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells' sensitivity to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Tambe, Mahesh; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J

    2016-03-15

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3' UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy. PMID:26943585

  18. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells’ sensitivity to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3′ UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy. PMID:26943585

  19. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulation on the Conformational Transition of the Mad2 Protein from the Open to the Closed State

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaoqun; Zhu, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Chen, Guangju

    2014-01-01

    The Mad2 protein, with two distinct conformations of open- and closed-states, is a key player in the spindle checkpoint. The closed Mad2 state is more active than the open one. We carried out conventional and targeted molecular dynamics simulations for the two stable Mad2 states and their conformational transition to address the dynamical transition mechanism from the open to the closed state. The intermediate structure in the transition process shows exposure of the β6 strand and an increase of space around the binding sites of β6 strand due to the unfolding of the β7/8 sheet and movement of the β6/4/5 sheet close to the αC helix. Therefore, Mad2 binding to the Cdc20 protein in the spindle checkpoint is made possible. The interconversion between these two states might facilitate the functional activity of the Mad2 protein. Motion correlation analysis revealed the allosteric network between the β1 strand and β7/8 sheet via communication of the β5-αC loop and the β6/4/5 sheet in this transition process. PMID:24690997

  1. Mad linker phosphorylations control the intensity and range of the BMP-activity gradient in developing Drosophila tissues

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Abigail; Rios, Marlyn; Juarez, Matthew; Lee, Daniel; Chen, Annan; Eivers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The BMP ligand Dpp, operates as a long range morphogen to control many important functions during Drosophila development from tissue patterning to growth. The BMP signal is transduced intracellularly via C-terminal phosphorylation of the BMP transcription factor Mad, which forms an activity gradient in developing embryonic tissues. Here we show that Cyclin dependent kinase 8 and Shaggy phosphorylate three Mad linker serines. We demonstrate that linker phosphorylations control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal across rapidly developing embryonic tissues. Shaggy knockdown broadened the range of the BMP-activity gradient and increased high threshold target gene expression in the early embryo, while expression of a Mad linker mutant in the wing disc resulted in enhanced levels of C-terminally phosphorylated Mad, a 30% increase in wing tissue, and elevated BMP target genes. In conclusion, our results describe how Mad linker phosphorylations work to control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal in rapidly developing Drosophila tissues. PMID:25377173

  2. Terminator field-aligned current system: A new finding from model-assimilated data set (MADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Gardner, L. C.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2013-12-01

    Physics-based data assimilation models have been recognized by the space science community as the most accurate approach to specify and forecast the space weather of the solar-terrestrial environment. The model-assimilated data sets (MADS) produced by these models constitute an internally consistent time series of global three-dimensional fields whose accuracy can be estimated. Because of its internal consistency of physics and completeness of descriptions on the status of global systems, the MADS has also been a powerful tool to identify the systematic errors in measurements, reveal the missing physics in physical models, and discover the important dynamical physical processes that are inadequately observed or missed by measurements due to observational limitations. In the past years, we developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics. With a set of physical models, an ensemble Kalman filter, and the ingestion of data from multiple observations, the data assimilation model can produce a self-consistent time-series of the complete descriptions of the global high-latitude ionosphere, which includes the convection electric field, horizontal and field-aligned currents, conductivity, as well as 3-D plasma densities and temperatures, In this presentation, we will show a new field-aligned current system discovered from the analysis of the MADS produced by our data assimilation model. This new current system appears and develops near the ionospheric terminator. The dynamical features of this current system will be described and its connection to the active role of the ionosphere in the M-I coupling will be discussed.

  3. Divergence of recently duplicated M{gamma}-type MADS-box genes in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Gordon, Jonathan; Weterings, Koen; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-02-01

    The MADS-box transcription factor family has expanded considerably in plants via gene and genome duplications and can be subdivided into type I and MIKC-type genes. The two gene classes show a different evolutionary history. Whereas the MIKC-type genes originated during ancient genome duplications, as well as during more recent events, the type I loci appear to experience high turnover with many recent duplications. This different mode of origin also suggests a different fate for the type I duplicates, which are thought to have a higher chance to become silenced or lost from the genome. To get more insight into the evolution of the type I MADS-box genes, we isolated nine type I genes from Petunia, which belong to the Mgamma subclass, and investigated the divergence of their coding and regulatory regions. The isolated genes could be subdivided into two categories: two genes were highly similar to Arabidopsis Mgamma-type genes, whereas the other seven genes showed less similarity to Arabidopsis genes and originated more recently. Two of the recently duplicated genes were found to contain deleterious mutations in their coding regions, and expression analysis revealed that a third paralog was silenced by mutations in its regulatory region. However, in addition to the three genes that were subjected to nonfunctionalization, we also found evidence for neofunctionalization of one of the Petunia Mgamma-type genes. Our study shows a rapid divergence of recently duplicated Mgamma-type MADS-box genes and suggests that redundancy among type I paralogs may be less common than expected. PMID:19933156

  4. Dynamics of chromatin accessibility and gene regulation by MADS-domain transcription factors in flower development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of eukaryotic organisms is controlled by transcription factors that trigger specific and global changes in gene expression programs. In plants, MADS-domain transcription factors act as master regulators of developmental switches and organ specification. However, the mechanisms by which these factors dynamically regulate the expression of their target genes at different developmental stages are still poorly understood. Results We characterized the relationship of chromatin accessibility, gene expression, and DNA binding of two MADS-domain proteins at different stages of Arabidopsis flower development. Dynamic changes in APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 DNA binding correlated with changes in gene expression, and many of the target genes could be associated with the developmental stage in which they are transcriptionally controlled. We also observe dynamic changes in chromatin accessibility during flower development. Remarkably, DNA binding of APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 is largely independent of the accessibility status of their binding regions and it can precede increases in DNA accessibility. These results suggest that APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 may modulate chromatin accessibility, thereby facilitating access of other transcriptional regulators to their target genes. Conclusions Our findings indicate that different homeotic factors regulate partly overlapping, yet also distinctive sets of target genes in a partly stage-specific fashion. By combining the information from DNA-binding and gene expression data, we are able to propose models of stage-specific regulatory interactions, thereby addressing dynamics of regulatory networks throughout flower development. Furthermore, MADS-domain TFs may regulate gene expression by alternative strategies, one of which is modulation of chromatin accessibility. PMID:24581456

  5. The Caenorhabditis elegans Myc-Mondo/Mad Complexes Integrate Diverse Longevity Signals

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David W.; Llop, Jesse R.; Farrell, Sara F.; Yuan, Jie; Stolzenburg, Lindsay R.; Samuelson, Andrew V.

    2014-01-01

    The Myc family of transcription factors regulates a variety of biological processes, including the cell cycle, growth, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the “Myc interaction network” consists of two opposing heterodimeric complexes with antagonistic functions in transcriptional control: the Myc-Mondo:Mlx transcriptional activation complex and the Mad:Max transcriptional repression complex. In C. elegans, Mondo, Mlx, Mad, and Max are encoded by mml-1, mxl-2, mdl-1, and mxl-1, respectively. Here we show a similar antagonistic role for the C. elegans Myc-Mondo and Mad complexes in longevity control. Loss of mml-1 or mxl-2 shortens C. elegans lifespan. In contrast, loss of mdl-1 or mxl-1 increases longevity, dependent upon MML-1:MXL-2. The MML-1:MXL-2 and MDL-1:MXL-1 complexes function in both the insulin signaling and dietary restriction pathways. Furthermore, decreased insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (ILS) or conditions of dietary restriction increase the accumulation of MML-1, consistent with the notion that the Myc family members function as sensors of metabolic status. Additionally, we find that Myc family members are regulated by distinct mechanisms, which would allow for integrated control of gene expression from diverse signals of metabolic status. We compared putative target genes based on ChIP-sequencing data in the modENCODE project and found significant overlap in genomic DNA binding between the major effectors of ILS (DAF-16/FoxO), DR (PHA-4/FoxA), and Myc family (MDL-1/Mad/Mxd) at common target genes, which suggests that diverse signals of metabolic status converge on overlapping transcriptional programs that influence aging. Consistent with this, there is over-enrichment at these common targets for genes that function in lifespan, stress response, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additionally, we find that Myc family members are also involved in stress response and the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Collectively

  6. 'Myxoedema madness' with Capgras syndrome and catatonic features responsive to combination olanzapine and levothyroxine.

    PubMed

    Shlykov, Maksim A; Rath, Swapnil; Badger, Alison; Winder, Gerald Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of an elderly woman with hypothyroidism and no psychiatric history who presented with new onset of psychosis, paranoia, catatonic features and Capgras syndrome (CS). This case illustrates the spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms that may accompany hypothyroidism and the importance of considering thyroid dysfunction as a primary contributor to severe psychiatric symptoms, especially in previously stable patients. We demonstrate the effectiveness of combination levothyroxine and olanzapine, with its favourable cardiac profile, in the treatment of myxoedema madness. Antipsychotics can be weaned once psychiatric symptoms resolve and hormone levels are stabilised. PMID:27613262

  7. The Killer Will Remain Free: On Pat Parker and the Poetics of Madness.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kazim

    2015-01-01

    Poet and scholar Kazim Ali reads Pat Parker's Movement in Black intimately, one poet to another, uncovering the shadow-fact of the lives of most people of color: not only the anger that is somehow sublimated into every part of our lives but also the issue that carrying this feeling around has on our mental health itself-that "anger" and "madness" might have sources in one another. Ali concludes that Parker offers a brutal and clear-eyed and ultimately hopeful assessment of the conditions that were faced at the time, and even now, by communities of color. PMID:26075690

  8. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  9. Solenoid Fringe Field Effects for the Neutrino Factory Linac - MAD-X Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslaninejad,C. Bontoiu,J. Pasternak,J. Pozimski,Alex Bogacz

    2010-05-01

    International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) assumes the first stage of muon acceleration (up to 900 MeV) to be implemented with a solenoid based Linac. The Linac consists of three styles of cryo-modules, containing focusing solenoids and varying number of SRF cavities for acceleration. Fringe fields of the solenoids and the focusing effects in the SRF cavities have significant impact on the transverse beam dynamics. Using an analytical formula, the effects of fringe fields are studied in MAD-X. The resulting betatron functions are compared with the results of beam dynamics simulations using OptiM code.

  10. Alternate reality conceptualization: venturing along the fine line between genius and madness.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Mary Bess

    2011-01-01

    Using A Beautiful Mind, a film about the troubled life of Nobel laureate John Forbes Nash as its focal source, this paper considers the difficulties people with mental illness struggle with in perceiving and experiencing reality. Relationships among the concepts of genius, madness, and alternate reality conceptualization are explored to establish perspective for a model illustrating the progression of paranoid schizophrenia. The importance of empathy in treating mental illness and the role that psychiatric mental health advanced practice nurses play in managing the care of people with paranoid schizophrenia are underscored. Topics for additional research are suggested. PMID:21932924

  11. Single-event upset tests on the readout electronics for the pixel detectors of the PANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Balossino, I.; Calvo, D.; De Mori, F.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Marcello, S.; Mignone, M.; Wheadon, R.; Zotti, L.; Candelori, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Silvestrin, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) of the future PANDA experiment is the closest one to the interaction point and therefore the sensor and its electronics are the most exposed to radiation. The Total Ionizing Dose (TID) issue has been addressed by the use of a deep-submicron technology (CMOS 0.13 μm) for the readout ASICs. While this technology is very effective in reducing radiation induced oxide damage, it is also more sensitive to Single Event Upset (SEU) effects due to their extremely reduced dimensions. This problem has to be addressed at the circuit level and generally leads to an area penalty. Several techniques have been proposed in literature with different trade-off between level of protection and cell size. A subset of these techniques has been implemented in the PANDA SPD ToPiX readout ASIC prototypes, ranging from DICE cells to triple redundancy. Two prototypes have been tested with different ion beams at the INFN-LNL facility in order to measure the SEU cross section. Comparative results of the SEU test will be shown, together with an analysis of the SEU tolerance of the various protection schemes and future plans for the SEU protection strategy which will be implemented in the next ToPiX prototype.

  12. From MAD to SAD: The Italian experience for the low-frequency aperture array of SKA1-LOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, P.; Pupillo, G.; Virone, G.; Farooqui, M. Z.; Lingua, A.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Murgia, M.; Naldi, G.; Paonessa, F.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Schillirò, F.; Tartarini, G.; Tibaldi, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes two small aperture array demonstrators called Medicina and Sardinia Array Demonstrators (MAD and SAD, respectively). The objectives of these instruments are to acquire experience and test new technologies for a possible application to the low-frequency aperture array of the low-frequency telescope of the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 (SKA1-LOW). The MAD experience was concluded in 2014, and it turned out to be an important test bench for implementing calibration techniques based on an artificial source mounted in an aerial vehicle. SAD is based on 128 dual-polarized Vivaldi antennas and is 1 order of magnitude larger than MAD. The architecture and the station size of SAD, which is along the construction phase, are more similar to those under evaluation for SKA1-LOW, and therefore, SAD is expected to provide useful hints for SKA1-LOW.

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  14. Continuous Access to Competing Stimulation as Intervention for Self-Injurious Skin Picking in a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Mara V.; Luiselli, James K.; Baker, Lorianne

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism frequently display self-injurious behavior (SIB), but skin picking--a less severe topography of SIB--has not been the focus of much clinical research. The present study evaluated a home-based intervention that was implemented with a 9-year-old girl who had autism and picked her fingers with resulting tissue damage. The…

  15. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.

    2014-01-01

    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  16. The class characteristic mark of the H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool in toolmarks examination.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2014-07-01

    Mul-T-Lock is a high security lock cylinder distinguished by the use of a telescoping "pin-in-pin"-tumbler design. Picking the Mul-T-Lock cylinder with a traditional picking tool is highly complicated because it can get stuck between the inner and outer pins. The H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool was designed to overcome this problem and facilitate the picking of the "pin-in-pin" cylinder. The purpose of this research is to determine whether H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool leaves class characteristic mark and whether it can be distinguished from traditional picking tools marks and from regular key marks. It also describes and determines the class characteristic mark left on telescopic pins, its origin, recurrence, and its benefit to the toolmarks examiner. When receiving a Mul-T-Lock from a crime scene, a toolmarks examiner can quickly determine whether or not it was picked by an H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool by noticing the class characteristic mark which this typical tool leaves. PMID:24840506

  17. Baseline studies on the feasibility of detecting a coal/shale interface with a self-powered sensitized pick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. R., II

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a sensitized pick to discriminate between cutting coal and roof material during the longwall mining process was investigated. A conventional longwall mining pick was instrumented and cutting force magnitudes were determined for a variety of materials, including Illinois #6 coal, shale type materials, and synthetic coal/shale materials.

  18. APASVO: A free software tool for automatic P-phase picking and event detection in seismic traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, José Emilio; Titos, Manuel; Bueno, Ángel; Álvarez, Isaac; García, Luz; Torre, Ángel de la; Benítez, M.a. Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The accurate estimation of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is a problem of major interest in seismic research given its relevance in many seismological applications, such as earthquake source location and active seismic tomography. In the last decades, several automatic picking methods have been proposed with the ultimate goal of implementing picking algorithms whose results are comparable to those obtained by manual picking. In order to facilitate the use of these automated methods in the analysis of seismic traces, this paper presents a new free, open source, software graphical tool, named APASVO, which allows picking tasks in an easy and user-friendly way. The tool also provides event detection functionality, where a relatively imprecise estimation of the onset time is sufficient. The application implements the STA-LTA detection algorithm and the AMPA picking algorithm. An autoregressive AIC-based picking method can also be applied. Besides, this graphical tool is complemented with two additional command line tools, an event picking tool and a synthetic earthquake generator. APASVO is a multiplatform tool that works on Windows, Linux and OS X. The application can process data in a large variety of file formats. It is implemented in Python and relies on well-known scientific computing packages such as ObsPy, NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib.

  19. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  20. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  1. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  2. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  3. PICK1 and ICA69 control insulin granule trafficking and their deficiencies lead to impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mian; Mao, Zhuo; Kam, Chuen; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Xiaoxing; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Kenneth K Y; Xu, Aimin; Lee, Kwong-Man; Jiang, Liwen; Xia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules. PMID:23630453

  4. Picking Teams: Motivational Effects of Team Selection Strategies in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.; Beddoes, Zack; Eggett, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The tacitly sanctioned practice of publicly picking teams in physical education has been categorized as instructionally inappropriate, yet its practice persists. Therefore, the purpose of this two-study article was to examine its effects on achievement goals orientations and motivational profiles of male junior high school physical education…

  5. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  6. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  7. Pathological and biochemical studies on a case of Pick disease with severe white matter atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kazuo; Takanashi, Masashi; Watanabe, Masao; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Hasegawa, Masato; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Tanaka, Shigeki; Mori, Hideo

    2006-12-01

    We report on a male patient with Pick disease who had shown severe white matter atrophy and dilatation of the lateral ventricle in the frontal lobe from an early stage. Upon admission to our hospital 2 years after disease onset, the patient showed apathy, and MRI revealed severe atrophy of the cortex and white matter of the frontal lobe. He died at age 74, 11 years after disease onset. Autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, severe loss of white matter in the frontal lobe, dilatation of the lateral ventricles, and cortical thinning. Histopathological examination showed severe loss of myelinated fibers in the frontal white matter and severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the frontal and temporal cortices. Many Pick bodies were seen. Our patient had a rare case of Pick disease predominantly affecting the frontal lobe with severe involvement of the white matter from an early stage. This case suggests that myelinated fibers in the white matter as well as cerebral neurons are primarily affected in Pick disease. PMID:17203597

  8. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. PMID:27424268

  9. White Speck, A Dye Defect in Mechanically and Hand Picked Cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The textile industry is often caught off guard by white specks showing up in dyed fabrics. The current grading system does not always pick up the level of maturity that causes white specks. Research using international cottons is aimed at finding high-speed measurement systems that can be used to ...

  10. What Skills and Tactics Are Needed to Play Adult Pick-Up Basketball Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…

  11. Automatic post-picking using MAPPOS improves particle image detection from cryo-EM micrographs.

    PubMed

    Norousi, Ramin; Wickles, Stephan; Leidig, Christoph; Becker, Thomas; Schmid, Volker J; Beckmann, Roland; Tresch, Achim

    2013-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies using single particle reconstruction are extensively used to reveal structural information on macromolecular complexes. Aiming at the highest achievable resolution, state of the art electron microscopes automatically acquire thousands of high-quality micrographs. Particles are detected on and boxed out from each micrograph using fully- or semi-automated approaches. However, the obtained particles still require laborious manual post-picking classification, which is one major bottleneck for single particle analysis of large datasets. We introduce MAPPOS, a supervised post-picking strategy for the classification of boxed particle images, as additional strategy adding to the already efficient automated particle picking routines. MAPPOS employs machine learning techniques to train a robust classifier from a small number of characteristic image features. In order to accurately quantify the performance of MAPPOS we used simulated particle and non-particle images. In addition, we verified our method by applying it to an experimental cryo-EM dataset and comparing the results to the manual classification of the same dataset. Comparisons between MAPPOS and manual post-picking classification by several human experts demonstrated that merely a few hundred sample images are sufficient for MAPPOS to classify an entire dataset with a human-like performance. MAPPOS was shown to greatly accelerate the throughput of large datasets by reducing the manual workload by orders of magnitude while maintaining a reliable identification of non-particle images. PMID:23454482

  12. An Investigation of the Look-Ask-Pick Mnemonic to Improve Fraction Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Gregory E.; Harsy, Jennifer D.; Hupp, Stephen D. A.; Jewell, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the Look-Ask-Pick (LAP) mnemonic on the addition and subtraction of fraction skills of 3 general education sixth graders. Following identification of fraction skill deficits, participants were taught to add and subtract fractions with like denominators, unlike denominators where one divides evenly into…

  13. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  14. Organization, regulatory sequences, and alternatively spliced transcripts of the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, S.O.; Mei, C.; Butcher, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is expressed selectively at venular sites of lymphocyte extravasation into mucosal lymphoid tissues and lamina propria, where it directs local lymphocyte trafficking. MAdCAM-1 is a multifunctional type I transmembrane adhesion molecule comprising two distal Ig domains involved in {alpha}4{beta}7 integrin binding, a mucin-like region able to display L-selectin-binding carbohydrates, and a membrane-proximal Ig domain homologous to IgA. We show in this work that the MAdCAM-1 gene is located on chromosome 10 and contains five exons. The signal peptide and each one of the three Ig domains are encoded by a distinct exon, whereas the transmembrane, cytoplasmic tail, and 3{prime}-untranslated region of MAdCAM-1 are combined on a single exon. The mucin-like region and the third Ig domain are encoded together on exon 4. An alternatively spliced MAdCAM-1 mRNA is identified that lacks the mucin/IgA-homologous exon 4-encoded sequences. This short variant of MAdCAM-1 may be specialized to support {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesion strengthening, independent of carbohydrate-presenting function. Sequences 5{prime} of the transcription start site include tandem nuclear factor-KB sites; AP-1, AP-2, and signal peptide-1 binding sites; and an estrogen response element. Our findings reinforce the correspondence between the multidomain structure and versatile functions of this vascular addressin, and suggest an additional level of regulation of carbohydrate-presenting capability, and thus of its importance in lectin-mediated vs. {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesive events in lymphocyte trafficking. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. PICK1 and ICA69 Control Insulin Granule Trafficking and Their Deficiencies Lead to Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Chuen; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Xiaoxing; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Xu, Aimin; Lee, Kwong-Man; Jiang, Liwen; Xia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules. Author Summary Insulin is a key regulator of blood glucose and insufficient insulin leads to diabetes. Insulin is synthesized as proinsulin, processed in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and eventually packaged into insulin granules, a type of dense core vesicles. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms governing the biogenesis and maturation of insulin granules are not fully understood. In this study, we identified two cytosolic proteins, PICK1 and ICA69, as important regulators of insulin granule

  16. Identification and Characterization of RcMADS1, an AGL24 Ortholog from the Holoparasitic Plant Rafflesia cantleyi Solms-Laubach (Rafflesiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Saw-Hoon; Tan, Hugh Tiang-Wah; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Rafflesia, a holoparasitic genus that produces the largest flower in the world is characterized by the absence of leaves, stem and other macroscopic organs. To better understand the molecular regulation of flower development in this genus we isolated and characterized a floral MADS-box gene, namely, RcMADS1 from Rafflesia cantleyi. Heterologous expression analysis in Arabidopsis was chosen because Rafflesia is not amenable to genetic manipulations. RcMADS1 shares sequence similarity with AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) of Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of RcMADS1 in Arabidopsis caused early flowering and conversion of sepals and petals into leaf-like structures, and carpels into inflorescences. In 35S::RcMADS1 plants SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), a downstream target gene of AGL24, was upregulated. 35S::RcMADS1 plants exhibit early flowering and conversion of the floral meristem into inflorescence meristem, as in 35S::AGL24 plants. Similar to AGL24, RcMADS1 could rescue the late flowering phenotypes of agl24-1 and FRIGIDA, but not the early flowering of svp-41. Based on these results, we propose that RcMADS1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis AGL24. PMID:23840638

  17. Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

    2014-07-01

    The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

  18. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder

    PubMed Central

    George, Nneka M.; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine’s mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly

  19. Low MAD2 expression levels associate with reduced progression-free survival in patients with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Fiona; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; O'Toole, Sharon; Phelan, Sine; McGrogan, Barbara; Maguire, Aoife; O'Grady, Anthony; Gallagher, Michael; Prencipe, Maria; McGoldrick, Aloysius; McGettigan, Paul; Brennan, Donal; Sheils, Orla; Martin, Cara; W Kay, Elaine; O'Leary, John; McCann, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has an innate susceptibility to become chemoresistant. Up to 30% of patients do not respond to conventional chemotherapy [paclitaxel (Taxol®) in combination with carboplatin] and, of those who have an initial response, many patients relapse. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular chemotherapeutic responses in EOC cells has the potential to impact significantly on patient outcome. The mitotic arrest deficiency protein 2 (MAD2), is a centrally important mediator of the cellular response to paclitaxel. MAD2 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 82 high-grade serous EOC samples. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of nuclear MAD2 IHC intensity adjusting for stage, tumour grade and optimum surgical debulking revealed that low MAD2 IHC staining intensity was significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0003), with a hazard ratio of 4.689. The in vitro analyses of five ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated that cells with low MAD2 expression were less sensitive to paclitaxel. Furthermore, paclitaxel-induced activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and apoptotic cell death was abrogated in cells transfected with MAD2 siRNA. In silico analysis identified a miR-433 binding domain in the MAD2 3′ UTR, which was verified in a series of experiments. Firstly, MAD2 protein expression levels were down-regulated in pre-miR-433 transfected A2780 cells. Secondly, pre-miR-433 suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3′-UTR of MAD2. Thirdly, blocking miR-433 binding to the MAD2 3′ UTR protected MAD2 from miR-433 induced protein down-regulation. Importantly, reduced MAD2 protein expression in pre-miR-433-transfected A2780 cells rendered these cells less sensitive to paclitaxel. In conclusion, loss of MAD2 protein expression results in increased resistance to paclitaxel in EOC cells. Measuring MAD2 IHC staining intensity may predict

  20. Parthenocarpic apple fruit production conferred by transposon insertion mutations in a MADS-box transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia-Long; Dong, Yi-Hu; Morris, Bret A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Fruit development in higher plants normally requires pollination and fertilization to stimulate cell division of specific floral tissues. In some cases, parthenocarpic fruit development proceeds without either pollination or fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit without seed has higher commercial value than seeded fruit. Several apple (Malus domestica) mutants (Rae Ime, Spencer Seedless and Wellington Bloomless) are known to produce only apetalous flowers that readily go on to develop into parthenocarpic fruit. Through genetics, a single recessive gene has been identified to control this trait in apple. Flower phenotypes of these apple mutants are strikingly similar to those of the Arabidopsis mutant pistillata (pi), which produces flowers where petals are transformed to sepals and stamens to carpels. In this study, we have cloned the apple PI homolog (MdPI) that shows 64% amino acid sequence identity and closely conserved intron positions and mRNA expression patterns to the Arabidopsis PI. We have identified that in the apetalous mutants MdPI has been mutated by a retrotransposon insertion in intron 4 in the case of Rae Ime and in intron 6 in the case of Spencer Seedless and Wellington Bloomless. The insertion apparently abolishes the normal expression of the MdPI gene. We conclude that the loss of function mutation in the MdPI MADS-box transcription factor confers parthenocarpic fruit development in these apple varieties and demonstrates another function for the MADS- box gene family. The knowledge generated here could be used to produce parthenocarpic fruit cultivars through genetic engineering. PMID:11158635

  1. Richard Dadd: the patient, the artist, and the "face of madness".

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Samuel; Russell, G A

    2015-01-01

    Richard Dadd (1817-1886) was a well-known Victorian artist who murdered his father, compelled by the delusion that a demonic force possessed his father's body. He was one of the first to bypass execution by reason of insanity and spent the remainder of his life in the Bethlem and Broadmoor asylums. Dadd is rare both as a patient and an artist because he left behind nearly a 40-year record of artwork and journals, which constitute a unique medical and psychiatric resource at a time when the ideas on the relationship of facial expression and madness were changing. Sir Charles Bell's (1774-1842) widely accepted views that the "face of madness" is bestial and anatomically distinctive were being challenged by such physicians as Sir Alexander Morison (1779-1866), who was also Dadd's own "alienist" (i.e., psychiatrist). The purpose of this article is to explore the nature and extent of the influence of Bell and Morison on Dadd, which has not been brought out in the existing studies. By a comparative analysis, it will be shown that Dadd may have conveyed a different view in his works that foreshadows subsequent developments that are closer to a modern understanding. PMID:25942651

  2. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Rosenberg, Scott C; Moeller, Arne; Speir, Jeffrey A; Su, Tiffany Y; Corbett, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active ‘closed’ conformer to an inactive ‘open’ conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07367.001 PMID:25918846

  3. The magic triangle goes MAD: experimental phasing with a bromine derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Tobias Gruene, Tim; Sheldrick, George M.

    2010-04-01

    5-Amino-2, 4, 6-tribromoisophthalic acid is used as a phasing tool for protein structure determination by MAD phasing. It is the second representative of a novel class of compounds for heavy-atom derivatization that combine heavy atoms with amino and carboxyl groups for binding to proteins. Experimental phasing is an essential technique for the solution of macromolecular structures. Since many heavy-atom ion soaks suffer from nonspecific binding, a novel class of compounds has been developed that combines heavy atoms with functional groups for binding to proteins. The phasing tool 5-amino-2, 4, 6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) contains three functional groups (two carboxylate groups and one amino group) that interact with proteins via hydrogen bonds. Three Br atoms suitable for anomalous dispersion phasing are arranged in an equilateral triangle and are thus readily identified in the heavy-atom substructure. B3C was incorporated into proteinase K and a multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiment at the Br K edge was successfully carried out. Radiation damage to the bromine–carbon bond was investigated. A comparison with the phasing tool I3C that contains three I atoms for single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing was also carried out.

  4. Flower development: the evolutionary history and functions of the AGL6 subfamily MADS-box genes.

    PubMed

    Dreni, Ludovico; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-04-01

    AGL6 is an ancient subfamily of MADS-box genes found in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. Its functions remained elusive despite the fact that the MADS-box genes and the ABC model have been studied for >20 years. Nevertheless, recent discoveries in petunia, rice, and maize support its involvement in the 'E' function of floral development, very similar to the closely related AGL2 (SEPALLATA) subfamily which has been well characterized. The known functions of AGL6 span from ancient conserved roles to new functions acquired in specific plant families. The AGL6 genes are involved in floral meristem regulation, in floral organs, and ovule (integument) and seed development, and have possible roles in both male and female germline and gametophyte development. In grasses, they are also important for the development of the first whorl of the flower, whereas in Arabidopsis they may play additional roles before floral meristem formation. This review covers these recent insights and some other aspects that are not yet fully elucidated, which deserve more studies in the future. PMID:26956504

  5. Test Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  6. Mascot Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    For institutions around the world, mascots serve many purposes, such as raising school spirit and energizing sports teams. But mascots also can breed discord. In recent decades, some schools have been challenged to replace controversial Native American mascots while others have encountered resistance when introducing different mascot designs.…

  7. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

  8. 41 CFR 102-36.135 - How much time do we have to pick up excess personal property that has been approved for transfer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to pick up excess personal property that has been approved for transfer? 102-36.135 Section 102-36... pick up excess personal property that has been approved for transfer? Normally, you have 15 calendar days from the date of GSA allocation to pick up the excess personal property for transfer, and you...

  9. Coordinating expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T by DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX-like genes in leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that produces underground adventitious buds, which are crucial for generating new vegetative shoots following periods of freezing temperatures or exposure to various control measures. DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes have been proposed to play a direc...

  10. Inhibition of Drosophila Wg signaling involves competition between Mad and Armadillo/beta-catenin for dTcf binding.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi Arial; Rahnama, Maryam; Wang, Simon; Lee, Wendy; Verheyen, Esther M

    2008-01-01

    Precisely regulated signal transduction pathways are crucial for the regulation of developmental events and prevention of tumorigenesis. Both the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta)/Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt/Wingless (Wg) pathways play essential roles in organismal patterning and growth, and their deregulation can lead to cancers. We describe a mechanism of interaction between Drosophila Wg and BMP signaling in which Wg target gene expression is antagonized by BMP signaling. In vivo, high levels of both an activated BMP receptor and the BMP effector Mad can inhibit the expression of Wg target genes. Conversely, loss of mad can induce Wg target gene expression. In addition, we find that ectopic expression in vivo of the Wg transcription factor dTcf is able to suppress the inhibitory effect caused by ectopic Mad. In vitro binding studies revealed competition for dTcf binding between Mad and the Wnt effector beta-catenin/Armadillo (Arm). Our in vivo genetic analyses and target gene studies support a mechanism consistent with the in vitro binding and competition studies, namely that BMP pathway components can repress Wg target gene expression by influencing the binding of Arm and dTcf. PMID:19065265

  11. "Why Will You Say That I Am Mad?" Using Poe's "Tell-Tale Heart" as a Composition Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Laura Raidonis

    1998-01-01

    Describes an exercise for basic writers which encompasses reading, listening, and writing. Finds that Edgar Allan Poe's "Tell-Tale Heart" has an effective vocabulary, a first-person conversational tone for the "mad" voice, and a second-person direct address that makes it easy to follow. Notes that inexperienced readers can follow the plot. (PA)

  12. Phase space diffusion and anisotropic pick-up ion distributions in the solar wind: an injection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, S. V.; Fahr, H. J.

    1998-07-01

    Pick-up ions are produced all over the interplanetary space by ionization of neutral interstellar atoms. Over the last decade it was generally expected that after pick-up these ions quickly are isotropized in the velocity space comoving with the solar wind by strong pitch-angle scattering, though not assimilating to the thermodynamic state of solar wind ions. Recent studies of pick-up ion data obtained with plasma analyzers on AMPTE and ULYSSES have, however, revealed that during extended time periods substantially anisotropic distributions prevail. In this paper we want to improve the understanding of the evolutionary behaviour of pick-up ions in interplanetary phase space by an pick-up ion injection study taking into account all relevant diffusion terms describing pitch angle scattering, adiabatic cooling, drifts and energy diffusion. For particles injected at 1 AU the resulting distribution function stays substantially anisotropic up to distances of the order of 6 AU, unless increased isotropic turbulence levels and non-dissipative wave spectra are considered. The average bulk velocity of pick-up ions within this distance range is smaller than the solar wind velocity by factors of between 0.6 and 1.0. Pick-ups are shown to substantially become spread out from that solar wind parcel into which they were originally injected. Derivations of interstellar gas parameters using pick-up ion flux data can only be dared with additional care in the interpretation. As a consequence the location of the LISM helium cone axis and the LISM helium temperature are faked in the associated He(+) pick-up ion flux pattern.

  13. Mad2 and BubR1 modulates tumourigenesis and paclitaxel response in MKN45 gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bargiela-Iparraguirre, J; Prado-Marchal, L; Pajuelo-Lozano, N; Jiménez, B; Perona, R; Sánchez-Pérez, I

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common features of gastric cancer (GC), but their contribution to carcinogenesis and antitumour therapy response is still poorly understood. Failures in the mitotic checkpoint induced by changes in expression levels of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins cause the missegregation of chromosomes in mitosis as well as aneuploidy. To evaluate the possible contribution of SAC to GC, we analyzed the expression levels of proteins of the mitotic checkpoint complex in a cohort of GC cell lines. We found that the central SAC proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, were the more prominently expressed members in disseminated GC cell lines. Silencing of Mad2 and BubR1 in MKN45 and ST2957 cells decreased their cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, indicating that Mad2 and BubR1 could contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression in GC. We next evaluated whether silencing of SAC proteins could affect the response to microtubule poisons. We discovered that paclitaxel treatment increased cell survival in MKN45 cells interfered for Mad2 or BubR1 expression. However, apoptosis (assessed by caspase-3 activation, PARP proteolysis and levels of antiapoptotic Bcl 2-family members), the DNA damage response (assessed by H2Ax phosphorylation) and exit from mitosis (assessed by Cyclin B degradation and Cdk1 regulation) were activated equally between cells, independently of Mad2 or BubR1-protein levels. In contrast, we observed that the silencing of Mad2 or BubR1 in MKN45 cells showed the induction of a senescence-like phenotype accompanied by cell enlargement, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and increased IL-6 and IL-8 expression. In addition, the senescent phenotype is highly increased after treatment with PTX, indicating that senescence could prevent tumorigenesis in GC. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that Mad2 and BubR1 could be used as prognostic markers of tumor

  14. Origin of the O(+) pick-up ions in the hehiosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Mall, U.

    1994-01-01

    The main sources for the ions in the interplanetary medium are the solar wind and the interstellar gas intruding into the heliosphere. Other sources, i.e. comets and planets can, however, contribute significantly locally. We present approximate expressions for deriving fluxes of pick-up ions originating from local neutral gas sources. Since the Io-torus is thought to be a relatively strong emitter of fast atoms, particular O and S, we used the O(+) data obtained by SWICS-Ulysses as a function of distance from Jupiter, both in and out-off the ecliptic plane in order to recognize a possible contribution of the Ionian source to the measured O(+). We find that - except for a very limited zone near the Jovian magnetosphere - the contribution of the Io-torus to the O(+) fluxes is minor, thus confirming our previous results on the pick-up H(+), He(+), N(+), O(+), and Ne(+) fluxes of interstellar origin.

  15. System for conveyor belt part picking using structured light and 3D pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, J.; Skotheim, Ø.; Nygaard, J. O.; Vollset, T.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic picking of parts is an important challenge to solve within factory automation, because it can remove tedious manual work and save labor costs. One such application involves parts that arrive with random position and orientation on a conveyor belt. The parts should be picked off the conveyor belt and placed systematically into bins. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and robust methods for aligning an input 3D template with a 3D image of the scene. The method uses general and robust pre-processing steps based on geometric primitives that allow the well-known Iterative Closest Point algorithm to converge quickly and robustly to the correct solution. The method has been demonstrated for localization of car parts with random position and orientation. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  16. Design of a slim-type optical pick-up actuator using PMN-PT bimorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Byeongsik; Jung, Jung-Sub; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, a new optical pick-up actuator is proposed using PMN-PT (lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) bimorphs for slim and small form factor optical disk drives. We suggest a novel structure enabling both tracking and focusing motions by changing the moving directions of the two parallel bimorphs. A cymbal-type flextensional structure is used as a displacement amplifier in order to meet the stroke requirement for optical pick-up actuators. We have performed the theoretical analyses for the bimorph actuator and displacement amplifier to predict the resultant force and displacement. The proposed actuator based on PMN-PT bimorphs and displacement amplifier has been manufactured, and the experimental results are compared to the analytical predictions. Experimental results agree well with the analytical predictions, showing that the cymbal structure amplifies the displacement twice and the focusing stroke is 52 µm at 10 V.

  17. Heat stress yields a unique MADS box transcription factor in determining seed size and thermal sensitivity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Begcy, Kevin; Liu, Kan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Early seed development events are highly sensitive to increased temperature. This high sensitivity to a short-duration temperature spike reduces seed viability and seed size at maturity. The molecular basis of heat stress sensitivity during early seed development is not known. We selected rice (Oryza sativa), a highly heat-sensitive species, to explore this phenomenon. Here, we elucidate the molecular pathways that contribute to the heat sensitivity of a critical developmental window during which the endosperm transitions from syncytium to the cellularization stage in young seeds. A transcriptomic comparison of seeds exposed to moderate (35°C) and severe (39°C) heat stress with control (28°C) seeds identified a set of putative imprinted genes, which were down-regulated under severe heat stress. Several type I MADS box genes specifically expressed during the syncytial stage were differentially regulated under moderate and severe heat stress. The suppression and overaccumulation of these genes are associated with precocious and delayed cellularization under moderate and severe stress, respectively. We show that modulating the expression of OsMADS87, one of the heat-sensitive, imprinted genes associated with syncytial stage endosperm, regulates rice seed size. Transgenic seeds deficient in OsMADS87 exhibit accelerated endosperm cellularization. These seeds also have lower sensitivity to a moderate heat stress in terms of seed size reduction compared with seeds from wild-type plants and plants overexpressing OsMADS87. Our findings suggest that OsMADS87 and several other genes identified in this study could be potential targets for improving the thermal resilience of rice during reproductive development. PMID:26936896

  18. Target Genes of the MADS Transcription Factor SEPALLATA3: Integration of Developmental and Hormonal Pathways in the Arabidopsis Flower

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Muiño, Jose M; Jauregui, Ruy; Airoldi, Chiara A; Smaczniak, Cezary; Krajewski, Pawel; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which floral homeotic genes act as major developmental switches to specify the identity of floral organs are still largely unknown. Floral homeotic genes encode transcription factors of the MADS-box family, which are supposed to assemble in a combinatorial fashion into organ-specific multimeric protein complexes. Major mediators of protein interactions are MADS-domain proteins of the SEPALLATA subfamily, which play a crucial role in the development of all types of floral organs. In order to characterize the roles of the SEPALLATA3 transcription factor complexes at the molecular level, we analyzed genome-wide the direct targets of SEPALLATA3. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by ultrahigh-throughput sequencing or hybridization to whole-genome tiling arrays to obtain genome-wide DNA-binding patterns of SEPALLATA3. The results demonstrate that SEPALLATA3 binds to thousands of sites in the genome. Most potential target sites that were strongly bound in wild-type inflorescences are also bound in the floral homeotic agamous mutant, which displays only the perianth organs, sepals, and petals. Characterization of the target genes shows that SEPALLATA3 integrates and modulates different growth-related and hormonal pathways in a combinatorial fashion with other MADS-box proteins and possibly with non-MADS transcription factors. In particular, the results suggest multiple links between SEPALLATA3 and auxin signaling pathways. Our gene expression analyses link the genomic binding site data with the phenotype of plants expressing a dominant repressor version of SEPALLATA3, suggesting that it modulates auxin response to facilitate floral organ outgrowth and morphogenesis. Furthermore, the binding of the SEPALLATA3 protein to cis-regulatory elements of other MADS-box genes and expression analyses reveal that this protein is a key component in the regulatory transcriptional network underlying the formation of floral organs. PMID:19385720

  19. Type a niemann-pick disease. Description of three cases with delayed myelination.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, A; Sibilio, M; Caranci, F; Bartiromo, F; Taurisano, R; Balivo, F; Melis, D; Parenti, G; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Brunetti, A

    2008-06-01

    We describe three patients with type A Niemann-Pick disease (NPD-A). NPD-A is an autosomal recessive neuronal storage disease classified among the sphingolipidoses, characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues and in the brain. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) of our three patients showed a marked delay of myelination with frontal atrophy. Few descriptions of this MRI pattern of delayed myelination have been published to date. PMID:24256898

  20. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.