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1

Genetic characterization of maedi-visna virus (MVV) detected in Finland.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to characterize the small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) detected in Finland by defining their phylogenetic relationships and by studying the evolution of the virus based on a well-known epidemiology. The study material comprised lung tissue samples of 20 sheep from 5 different farms, a cell-cultured virus from one of the original sheep lung samples, and a blood sample of a goat. The sheep were identified as positive during seroepidemiologic screenings in 1994-1996 and the goat in 2001. Initial classification of a 251 nucleotide sequence within gag gene amplified from the uncultured samples as well as from the cell-cultured virus showed that the SRLVs were genetically close and that they were more closely related to the prototype ovine maedi-visna viruses (MVVs) than to the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). The lentivirus detected from the goat aligned within the cluster of the Finnish ovine viruses, demonstrating a natural sheep-to-goat transmission. Further phylogenetic analysis of the proviral gag, pol and env sequences confirmed the initial classification and showed that they constituted a new subtype within the diverse MVV group. The sequence analyses also showed that the virus had remained genetically relatively stable, in spite of the time given for virus evolution, an estimated 20 years, and in spite of the virus crossing the host species barrier. PMID:17349752

Laamanen, Ilona; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Sihvonen, Liisa

2007-06-21

2

The origin of lentivirus research: Maedi-visna virus.  

PubMed

Maedi and visna are contagious sheep diseases which were introduced into Iceland in 1933 by imported sheep of Karakul breed. Maedi, a slowly progressing pneumonia, and the central nervous system disease visna were shown to be transmissible in sheep and most likely caused by a virus. In 1957, visna virus was isolated in tissue culture from sheep brain and maedi virus was isolated the following year from sheep lungs. Both viruses showed similar cytopathic effect in tissue culture. Electron microscope studies of ultrathin sections from visna virus infected cells demonstrated spherical particles, 70-100 nm in diameter, which were formed by budding from the cell membrane. Later studies showed identical particles in maedi virus infected cultures. These, and several other comparative studies, strongly indicated that maedi and visna were caused by strains of the same virus, later named maedi-visna virus (MVV). Comparative studies in tissue culture suggested that MVV was related to RNA tumor viruses of animals, the oncornaviruses. This was later supported by the finding that MVV is an RNA virus. A few months after reverse transcriptase was demonstrated in oncornaviruses, the enzyme was also found in MVV virions. Thus, MVV was classified as a retrovirus together with the oncornaviruses. However, MVV is not oncogenic in vivo or in vitro and was in 1975 placed in a subgroup of retroviruses named lentiviruses, which cause cytopathic effect in vitro and slowly progressing inflammatory disease in animals, but are nononcogenic. In the early 1980s, the causative agent of AIDS was found to be a non-oncogenic retrovirus and was classified as a lentivirus. Thus, HIV became the first human lentivirus. PMID:23278353

Thormar, Halldor

2013-01-01

3

Isolation of Maedi/Visna Virus from a Sheep in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan. PMID:24141278

OGUMA, Keisuke; TANAKA, Chiaki; HARASAWA, Ryo; KIMURA, Atsushi; SASAKI, Jun; GORYO, Masanobu; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

4

Isolation of maedi/visna virus from a sheep in Japan.  

PubMed

Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan. PMID:24141278

Oguma, Keisuke; Tanaka, Chiaki; Harasawa, Ryo; Kimura, Atsushi; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Sentsui, Hiroshi

2014-03-01

5

Propagating and Detecting an Infectious Molecular Clone of Maedi-visna Virus that Expresses Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is a lentivirus of sheep, causing slowly progressive interstitial pneumonia and encephalitis1. The primary target cells of MVV in vivo are considered to be of the monocyte lineage2. Certain strains of MVV can replicate in other cell types, however3,4. The green fluorescent protein is a commonly used marker for studying lentiviruses in living cells. We have inserted the egfp gene into the gene for dUTPase of MVV. The dUTPase gene is well conserved in most lentivirus strains of sheep and goats and has been shown to be important in replication of CAEV5. However, dUTPase has been shown to be dispensable for replication of the molecular clone of MVV used in this study both in vitro and in vivo6. MVV replication is strictly confined to cells of sheep or goat origin. We use a primary cell line from the choroid plexus of sheep (SCP cells) for transfection and propagation of the virus7. The fluorescent MVV is fully infectious and EGFP expression is stable over at least 6 passages8. There is good correlation between measurements of TCID50 and EGFP. This virus should therefore be useful for rapid detection of infected cells in studies of cell tropism and pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo8. PMID:22005550

Jonsson, Stefan R.; Andresdottir, Valgerdur

2011-01-01

6

Infection of Dendritic Cells by the Maedi-Visna Lentivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early stages of lentivirus infection of dendritic cells have been studied in an in vivo model. Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is a natural pathogen of sheep with a tropism for macrophages, but the infection of dendritic cells has not been proven, largely because of the difficulties of definitively distinguishing the two cell types. Afferent lymphatic dendritic cells from sheep have

SUSANNA RYAN; LAURENCE TILEY; IAN MCCONNELL; BARBARA BLACKLAWS

2000-01-01

7

Seroepidemiological survey of maedi-visna virus infection in sheep and goat flocks in Quebec.  

PubMed Central

Maedi-visna, a chronic viral disease of adult sheep characterized by progressive dyspnoea or neurological manifestations, was first recognized and described clinically in Canada in 1970. Seroepidemiological study was conducted in sheep and goats in various areas of Quebec. Sera of 10% of the animals of selected flocks were collected and specific antibodies against maedi-visna virus were tested by a modified direct complement fixation test. Results show seropositive rate of 67.6% for Sherbrooke sheep; of 40.5, 41.1 and 47.1% for Quebec, Saint-Hyacinthe and Nicolet sheep respectively and only 29.2 and 20.0% positive sera in l'Assomption and Rimouski animals. Prevalence rate of positive goats varied according to geographic areas (0 to 36.8%). Statistical analysis of various factors, e.g. age, breed, mode of raising, origin and size of flock showed no relation between these factors and the geographic areas. But, some clinical problems in the sheep flocks such as cough, rapid breathing, mortality and abortion were associated with high infection rate (greater than or equal to 50%) to maedi-visna virus. In goats, no correlation was demonstrated between these clinical signs and serological results. Our results suggest that it is important to consider this disease in an adequate program of preventive medicine in Quebec. PMID:6315198

Lamontagne, L; Roy, R; Girard, A; Samagh, B S

1983-01-01

8

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus in sheep. I. A simple technique for production of antigen using sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment.  

PubMed

We report the efficacy of an anionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for preparing maedi-visna antigens for an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) pelleted by differential centrifugation followed by liquid chromatography was treated with SDS or one of three lipid solvents: ethyl ether, chloroform or fluorocarbon. The SDS-treated antigen resulted in higher optical density values with positive serum and better discrimination between positive and negative serum samples from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) sheep experimentally inoculated with the virus. Optimal results were obtained when MVV was treated with concentrations of 0.25% and 0.125% of SDS. A viral antigen prepared by centrifugation and treatment of a viral pellet with SDS was also suitable for the i-ELISA. This latter technique may facilitate the production of MVV antigens for use in the i-ELISA. PMID:2174295

Simard, C L; Briscoe, M R

1990-10-01

9

Evaluation of a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus/maedi-visna virus indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serological diagnosis of ovine progressive pneumonia virus in U.S. sheep.  

PubMed

A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was validated with samples from U.S. sheep and by the use of radioimmunoprecipitation as the standard for comparison. The sensitivity and the specificity were 86.0% (+ or - 5.8%) and 95.9% (+ or - 2.9%), respectively. The iELISA format and phylogenetic differences based on the MVV gag sequence contribute to the reduced sensitivity. PMID:20016044

Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Broughton-Neiswanger, Liam E; Gouine, Kimberly C; White, Stephen N; Mousel, Michele R; Lewis, Gregory S; Marshall, Katherine L; Knowles, Donald P

2010-02-01

10

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus in sheep. II. Comparison to conventional agar gel immunodiffusion test.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to compare the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay (i-ELISA) test using antigen prepared by a simple technique using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment to the conventional agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Ten specific-pathogen-free (SPF) sheep were inoculated with maedi-visna virus (MVV) and serum antibody titers compared over a period of 14 weeks. All the sheep seroconverted by the i-ELISA compared to 90% by the AGID. The i-ELISA detected antibody at a mean of 2.6 weeks prior to the AGID. In both tests, fluctuations were observed in the serum antibody response of two sheep. The i-ELISA had a specificity of at least 98.8% and an increased relative sensitivity of 15.5% compared to the AGID, based on the analysis of sera from experimental sheep with MVV free status and sera from sheep from various sources. Of the sera from a seronegative flock which had been monitored with the AGID after a "test and remove" eradication program, 10.2% were positive by the i-ELISA. It was concluded that the AGID test may not be adequate to monitor samples for an eradication scheme. PMID:2174296

Simard, C L; Briscoe, M R

1990-10-01

11

Demonstration of coinfection with and recombination by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and maedi-visna virus in naturally infected goats.  

PubMed

Recombination of different strains and subtypes is a hallmark of lentivirus infections, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus, and contributes significantly to viral diversity and evolution both within individual hosts and within populations. Recombinant viruses are generated in individuals coinfected or superinfected with more than one lentiviral strain or subtype. This, however, has never been described in vivo for the prototype lentivirus maedi-visna virus of sheep and its closely related caprine counterpart, the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Cross-species infections occur in animals living under natural conditions, which suggests that dual infections with small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are possible. In this paper we describe the first documented case of coinfection and viral recombination in two naturally infected goats. DNA fragments encompassing a variable region of the envelope glycoprotein were obtained from these two animals by end-limiting dilution PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or infected cocultures. Genetic analyses, including nucleotide sequencing and heteroduplex mobility assays, showed that these goats harbored two distinct populations of SRLVs. Phylogenetic analysis permitted us to assign these sequences to the maedi-visna virus group (SRLV group A) or the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus group (SRLV group B). SimPlot analysis showed clear evidence of A/B recombination within the env gene segment of a virus detected in one of the two goats. This case provides conclusive evidence that coinfection by different strains of SRLVs of groups A and B can indeed occur and that these viruses actually recombine in vivo. PMID:17344293

Pisoni, Giuliano; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Puricelli, Maria; Maccalli, Marina; Moroni, Paolo

2007-05-01

12

Early events in immune evasion by the lentivirus maedi-visna occurring within infected lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, are characterized by slowly progressive disease in the presence of a virus-specific immune response. The earliest events in the virus-host interaction are likely to be important in determining disease establishment and progression, and the kinetics of these early events following lentiviral infection are described here. Lymphatic cannulation in the sheep has been used to monitor both the virus and the immune response in efferent lymph after infection of the node with maedi-visna virus (MVV). Viral replication and dissemination could be detected and consisted of a wave of MVV-infected cells leaving the node around 9 to 18 days postinfection. No cell-free virus was recovered despite the fact that soluble MVV p25 was detected in lymph plasma. The maximum frequency of MVV-infected cells was only 11 in 10(6) but over the first 20 days of infection amounted to greater than 10(4) virus-infected cells leaving the node. There was a profound increase in the output of activated lymphoblast from the lymph nodes of infected sheep, characterized by an increased percentage of CD8+ lymphoblasts. All of the CD8+ lymphoblasts at the peak of the response expressed both major histocompatibility complex class II DR and DQ molecules but not interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). The in vitro proliferative response of efferent lymph cells existing the node after challenge with MVV to both recombinant human interleukin-2 and the mitogen concanavalin A was decreased between days 8 and 16 postinfection, and a specific proliferative response to MVV was not detected until after day 15. Despite the high level of CD8+ lymphoblasts in efferent lymph, direct MVV-specific cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in only one of the five MVV-challenged sheep. MVV-specific antibody responses, including neutralization and MVV p25 immune complexes in efferent lymph, were detectable during the major period of virus dissemination. The relationship of these findings to the evasion of the host's acute immune response by MVV is discussed. Images PMID:8394444

Bird, P; Blacklaws, B; Reyburn, H T; Allen, D; Hopkins, J; Sargan, D; McConnell, I

1993-01-01

13

The seroprevalence of maedi-visna in Ontario sheep flocks and its relationship to flock demographics and management practices.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to describe the serological prevalence of maedi-visna in a sample of Ontario sheep flocks, and to identify management and demographic variables that were associated with seroprevalence for maedi-visna. A sample of 103 sheep flocks in Ontario was randomly selected from those flocks participating in the Red Meat Plan. The owners of these flocks were surveyed regarding management procedures on their farms, and blood samples were taken from a random sample of ewes in each flock. At least one ewe tested serologically positive, based on the agar gel immuno-diffusion test, in 69.9% of the farms. Positive serological reactions occurred in 20.9% of the 3880 sheep tested. Flock demographics and farm management variables were considered in a multiple regression model, and several factors were positively associated with higher maedi-visna seroprevalence rates. These included the average age of the flock, the number of years the owner had been sheep farming, the practice of using foster ewes, the practice of allowing lambs to have contact with other ewes that are lambing, and the average pasture acreage per ewe. PMID:8044757

Campbell, J R; Menzies, P I; Waltner-Toews, D; Walton, J S; Buckrell, B C; Thorsen, J

1994-01-01

14

Characterization of ovine Toll-like receptor 9 protein coding region, comparative analysis, detection of mutations and maedi visna infection.  

PubMed

One of the major roles of innate immunity system is the recognition and the determination of the nature of the antigen. This ability is encompassed by specific receptors as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR9 recognizes bacterial and viral CpG motifs, while their potent immunostimulation effect seems to be promising for lentiviral therapies. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a big polymorphism within the TLR genes and the linkage between substitutions and susceptibility to various infections. Moreover, different recognition ability seems to be utilized by different species and possibly breeds. In this study, we characterized the protein coding region of ovine TLR9 gene. By using comparative analysis of two closely related species and humans, we suggest, which characteristics of protein could be responsible for altered recognition. Furthermore, analyzing the presence of the substitutions, we show the intraspecies polymorphism and its possible implications, while attempting to define the association of discovered substitutions with the maedi visna infection. PMID:20875448

Mikula, Ivan; Mikula, Ivan

2011-02-01

15

Phylogenetic analysis of SRLV sequences from an arthritic sheep outbreak demonstrates the introduction of CAEV-like viruses among Spanish sheep.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause different clinical forms of disease in sheep and goats. So far in Spain, Maedi visna virus-like (MVV-like) sequences have been found in both species, and the arthritic SRLV disease has never been found in sheep until a recent outbreak. Knowing that arthritis is common in goats, it was of interest to determine if the genetic type of the virus involved in the sheep arthritis outbreak was caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like (CAEV-like) rather than MVV-like. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences from SRLV of this outbreak, allowed a B2 genetic subgroup assignment of these SRLV, compatible with a correspondence between the virus genetic type and the disease form. Furthermore, an isolate was obtained from the arthritic outbreak, its full genome was CAEV-like but the pol integrase region was MVV-like. Although its LTR lacked a U3 repeat sequence and had a deletion in the R region, which has been proposed to reduce viral replication rate, its phenotype in sheep skin fibroblast cultures was rapid/high, thus it appeared to have adapted to sheep cells. This outbreak study represents the first report on CAEV-like genetic findings and complete genome analysis among Spanish small ruminants. PMID:19339126

Glaria, I; Reina, R; Crespo, H; de Andrés, X; Ramírez, H; Biescas, E; Pérez, M M; Badiola, J; Luján, L; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D

2009-07-01

16

A New Sensitive Serological Assay for Detection of Lentivirus Infections in Small Ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European coun- tries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus (MVV) in

ERIC SAMAN; GEERTRUI VAN EYNDE; LUIS LUJAN; BELEN EXTRAMIANA; GORDON HARKISS; FRANCESCO TOLARI; LORENZO GONZALEZ; BEATRIZ AMORENA; NEIL WATT; JUAN BADIOLA

1999-01-01

17

Prevention strategies against small ruminant lentiviruses: an update.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including maedi-visna virus (MVV) of sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), are widespread, cause fatal diseases and are responsible for major production losses in sheep and goats. Seventy years after the legendary maedi-visna sheep epidemic in Iceland, which led to the first isolation of a SRLV and subsequent eradication of the infection, no vaccine or treatment against infection has been fully successful. Research during the last two decades has produced sensitive diagnostic tools, leading to a variety of approaches to control infection. The underlying difficulty is to select the strategies applicable to different epidemiological conditions. This review updates the knowledge on diagnosis, risk of infection, immunisation approaches and criteria for selecting the different strategies to control the spread of SRLVs. PMID:18755622

Reina, Ramsés; Berriatua, Eduardo; Luján, Lluís; Juste, Ramón; Sánchez, Antonio; de Andrés, Damián; Amorena, Beatriz

2009-10-01

18

Serological characterization of the new genotype E of small ruminant lentivirus in Roccaverano goat flocks.  

PubMed

Maedi visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are a heterogeneous group of infectious agents affecting sheep and goats. Due to their natural cross-species infection they are referred to as small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Recently a new genetic cluster, highly divergent from MVV and CAEV was identified in the north-west part of Italy. A panel of genotype E specific antigens was developed and evaluated in flocks infected with B1 and E strains. The results clearly indicate that a strain specific antigen is required to correctly identify animals infected with different genotypes. PMID:19629741

Grego, E; Lacerenza, D; Arias, R Reina; Profiti, M; Rosati, S

2009-09-01

19

Immunogenetics of small ruminant lentiviral infections.  

PubMed

The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) include the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV). Both of these viruses limit production and can be a major source of economic loss to producers. Little is known about how the immune system recognizes and responds to SRLVs, but due to similarities with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV research can shed light on the possible immune mechanisms that control or lead to disease progression. This review will focus on the host immune response to HIV-1 and SRLV, and will discuss the possibility of breeding for enhanced SRLV disease resistance. PMID:25153344

Stonos, Nancy; Wootton, Sarah K; Karrow, Niel

2014-08-01

20

Simple technique for detecting RNA viruses by PCR in single sections of wax embedded tissue.  

PubMed

The detection of specific RNA species in wax-embedded tissue sections using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) means that gene expression can be studied and RNA viruses detected in stored histological tissue samples. This technique potentially allows the distribution of gene expression and viral replication to be studied in finely subdivided tissues. A technique is presented that has been used successfully to detect short RNA target sequences (130-420 bases) from proto-oncogene Abelson, human enteroviruses, and the sheep retrovirus Maedi-Visna virus using RNA PCR in single wax sections (20-30 microns). Various tissues were used which had not been deliberately prepared for this purpose. In a simple procedure hot xylene dewaxing is followed by acid phenol extraction of RNA and RNA PCR. PMID:8385159

Woodall, C J; Watt, N J; Clements, G B

1993-03-01

21

Host Restriction of Lentiviruses and Viral Countermeasures: APOBEC3 and Vif  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to fight against viral infection. The viruses have developed means of counteracting these defences in various ways. The APOBEC3 proteins are a mammalian-specific family of nucleic acid cytidine deaminases that block retroviral infection. These inhibitors are counteracted by the Vif proteins encoded by most lentiviruses. In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. PMID:23903287

Jonsson, Stefan R.; Andresdottir, Valgerdur

2013-01-01

22

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low. PMID:21639904

2011-01-01

23

Molecular characterization of lentiviruses from goats from Poland based on gag gene sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection in goats is worldwide but with higher prevalence in industrialized countries. While positive serology of CAEV in Polish goats was reported there was no genetic study of this virus. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of lentiviruses isolated from seropositive goats from Poland. We cloned and sequenced a fragment from the gag gene covering part of the coding sequences for the matrix (MA) p17 and for the capsid (CA) p25 proteins. Resulting nucleotide sequences were aligned with those from other ovine/caprine lentivirus isolates. We present data showing that the sequences of most goat lentivirus isolates are closer to the prototypic CAEV-Co isolate, nevertheless from one goat we isolated a virus that is closer to the sheep Maedi Visna virus (MVV) isolate. This might indicate a recent cross-species infection from sheep to goat. PMID:17337054

Kuzmak, Jacek; Rola, Marzena; Gallay, Kathy; Chebloune, Yahia

2007-07-01

24

Small ruminant lentivirus Tat protein induces apoptosis in caprine cells in vitro by the intrinsic pathway.  

PubMed

The small ruminant lentiviruses, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi visna virus (MVV) naturally cause inflammatory disease in goats and sheep, provoking chronic lesions in several different organs. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro infection of caprine cells by CAEV induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway (Rea-Boutrois, A., Pontini, G., Greenland, T., Mehlen, P., Chebloune, Y., Verdier, G. and Legras-Lachuer, C. 2008). In the present study, we used Tat deleted viruses and SLRV Tat-expression vectors to show that the SRLV Tat proteins are responsible for this apoptosis. We have also studied the activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 by fluorescent assays in caprine cells expressing SRLV Tat proteins, and the effects of transfected dominant negative variants of these caspases, to show that Tat-associated apoptosis depends on activation of caspases-3 and -9, but not -8. A simultaneous disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicates an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:19007964

Rea-Boutrois, Angela; Villet, Stéphanie; Greenland, Tim; Mehlen, Patrick; Chebloune, Yahia; Verdier, Gérard; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine

2009-01-01

25

Aspects of the epidemiology, research, and control of lentiviral infections of small ruminants and their relevance to Dutch sheep and goat farming.  

PubMed

In 1862, the veterinarian Loman reported the first sheep in The Netherlands with symptoms associated with lentiviral infection, although at the time the symptoms were ascribed to ovine progressive pneumonia. In the following century, similar cases were reported by South African, French, American, and Icelandic researchers. Extensive research into the pathology, aetiology, and epidemiology of this slowly progressive and ultimately fatal disease was initiated in several countries, including the Netherlands. Studies of the causative agents--maedi visna virus (MVV) in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, comprising the heterogeneous group of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV)--prompted the development of diagnostic methods and the initiation of disease control programmes in many European countries including the Netherlands, as a pioneer in 1982, and in the U.S.A. and Canada. PMID:20822040

van Maanen, C; Brinkhof, J M A; Moll, L; Colenbrander, B; Houwers, D J

2010-08-15

26

Tissue tropism and promoter sequence variation in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infected goats.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus is a lentivirus that infects goats and is closely related to maedi-visna virus of sheep. Infection with CAEV results in multiple discrete disease manifestations in goats which can include chronic arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. Presently, no satisfactory mechanistic rationale for viral tropism has been put forward. We propose that specific sequences in the lentiviral promoter (U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat) are associated with viral tissue tropism and subsequent disease expression. A total of 41 distinct CAE viral promoter regions were amplified, sequenced and phylogenetically compared from the tissues of 24 CAEV-infected goats demonstrating a variety of disease manifestations. Phylogenetically, we identified no tendency for clustering of these promoter sequences into tissue-specific groups. These results therefore do not provide evidence for the study hypothesis. However, multiple motifs within the U3 promoter region were highly conserved both within the entire collection of sequences and within tissue-specific groups. PMID:20466024

Murphy, B; McElliott, V; Vapniarsky, N; Oliver, A; Rowe, J

2010-08-01

27

A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-08-01

28

A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-01-01

29

Small ruminant lentiviruses in Jordan: evaluation of sheep and goat serological response using recombinant and peptide antigens.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses infect sheep and goats worldwide, causing chronic progressive diseases and relevant economic losses. Disease eradication and prevention is mostly based on serological testing. The goal of this research was to investigate the presence of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Jordan and to characterize the serological response in sheep and goat populations. A panel of sera were collected from flocks located in Northern Jordan and Jordan Valley. The samples were tested using three ELISA assays: a commercially available ELISA based on p25 recombinant protein and transmembrane peptide derived from British maedi-visna virus (MVV) EV1 strain, an ELISA based on P16-P25 recombinant protein derived from two Italian strains representative of MVV- and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like SRLVs, and an ELISA based on SU5 peptide from the same two Italian isolates. The results indicate that both MVV- and CAEV-like strains are present in Jordan and that the majority of the viruses circulating among sheep and goat populations belong to the MVV-like genotype. PMID:23392953

Tolari, Francesco; Al-Ramadneh, Wafa'a; Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Forzan, Mario; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Grego, Elena; Rosati, Sergio

2013-08-01

30

Evaluation of five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and an agar gel immunodiffusion test for detection of antibodies to small ruminant lentiviruses.  

PubMed

In the framework of the Dutch control program for small ruminant lentiviral (SRLV) infections, too many drawbacks were encountered with respect to serological testing. To improve the quality of testing, five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) were evaluated. The focus was on the sensitivity, specificity, and variances of the commercially available tests. Clear differences were found among the tests in analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and overall diagnostic performance, whereas no significant differences in specificity were found. For serodiagnosis of sheep with clinical symptoms of maedi-visna virus (MVV) (histopathologically confirmed), one ELISA was significantly more sensitive than the other ELISAs and than the AGIDT, while for asymptomatic sheep originating from infected flocks, three ELISAs and the AGIDT demonstrated similar performance. The diagnostic performance appeared to be related to animal species and virus infection (MVV or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]) as well as the phase of infection/progression of disease. Receiver operating characteristic analysis, demonstrating the diagnostic potential of tests irrespective of defined cutoffs, again revealed clear differences between tests with respect to diagnostic performance for detection of antibodies against CAEV or MVV. An indirect ELISA, of which the solid phase is sensitized with a combination of the core protein p27 of MVV produced in Escherichia coli and a peptide derived from the transmembrane protein gp46, appeared to be the test of choice for serodiagnosis of SRLV infections in sheep and goats. PMID:17609394

Brinkhof, J; van Maanen, C

2007-09-01

31

Impact of natural sheep-goat transmission on detection and control of small ruminant lentivirus group C infections.  

PubMed

Dissemination of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections in Norway is affected by the different control strategies used for maedi-visna virus (MVV) infections in sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infections in goats. Here we investigated SRLV phylogenetic group variants in sheep. CAEV-like isolates, belonging to phylogenetic group C, were found among both seropositive sheep and goats in mixed flocks, in which sheep and goats are kept together. Intra-herd clustering confirmed that mixed flock animals were infected by the same virus variant, suggesting ongoing interspecies transmission. Few sheep flocks were found to be infected with the MVV-like phylogenetic group A. The apparent absence of SRLV group A type in goats is probably due to the MVV control programme and animal management practices. SRLV group C targets lungs and mammary glands in sheep, and induces typical SRLV pathological lesions. SRLV group C isolated from the sheep mammary glands suggested a productive infection and potential for transmission to offspring. SRLV group C was most prevalent among goats. A lower PCR sensitivity in seropositive sheep suggested a lower load of SRLV group C provirus in sheep than in goats. Higher genetic divergence of group C than in other SRLV groups and extensive heterogeneity among group C isolates in the matrix C-terminal region demonstrate the need for identifying conserved target regions when developing PCR protocols for SRLV detection. As sheep and goats may serve as reservoirs for all SRLV genogroup types, successful control programmes require inclusion of both species. PMID:18986775

Gjerset, Britt; Rimstad, Espen; Teige, Jon; Soetaert, Kristin; Jonassen, Christine Monceyron

2009-03-30

32

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) break the species barrier to acquire new host range.  

PubMed

Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

2013-07-01

33

Infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the Manchega sheep breed: Health constraints for conservation purposes.  

PubMed

Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603

Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío

2014-10-01

34

Lentiviral Vif Degrades the APOBEC3Z3/APOBEC3H Protein of Its Mammalian Host and Is Capable of Cross-Species Activity?  

PubMed Central

All lentiviruses except equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) use the small accessory protein Vif to counteract the restriction activity of the relevant APOBEC3 (A3) proteins of their host species. Prior studies have suggested that the Vif-A3 interaction is species specific. Here, using the APOBEC3H (Z3)-type proteins from five distinct mammals, we report that this is generally not the case: some lentiviral Vif proteins are capable of triggering the degradation of both the A3Z3-type protein of their normal host species and those of several other mammals. For instance, SIVmac Vif can mediate the degradation of the human, macaque, and cow A3Z3-type proteins but not of the sheep or cat A3Z3-type proteins. Maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif is similarly promiscuous, degrading not only sheep A3Z3 but also the A3Z3-type proteins of humans, macaques, cows, and cats. In contrast to the neutralization capacity of these Vif proteins, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif appear specific to the A3Z3-type protein of their hosts. We conclude, first, that the Vif-A3Z3 interaction can be promiscuous and, second, despite this tendency, that each lentiviral Vif protein is optimized to degrade the A3Z3 protein of its mammalian host. Our results thereby suggest that the Vif-A3Z3 interaction is relevant to lentivirus biology. PMID:20519393

LaRue, Rebecca S.; Lengyel, Joy; Jonsson, Stefan R.; Andresdottir, Valgerdur; Harris, Reuben S.

2010-01-01

35

Core-binding factor subunit beta is not required for non-primate lentiviral Vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation.  

PubMed

Viral infectivity factor (Vif) is required for lentivirus fitness and pathogenicity, except in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Vif enhances viral infectivity by a Cullin5-Elongin B/C E3 complex to inactivate the host restriction factor APOBEC3. Core-binding factor subunit beta (CBF-?) is a cell factor that was recently shown to be important for the primate lentiviral Vif function. Non-primate lentiviral Vif also degrades APOBEC3 through the proteasome pathway. However, it is unclear whether CBF-? is required for the non-primate lentiviral Vif function. In this study, we demonstrated that the Vifs of non-primate lentiviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), and maedi-visna virus (MVV), do not interact with CBF-?. In addition, CBF-? did not promote the stability of FIV, BIV, CAEV, and MVV Vifs. Furthermore, CBF-? silencing or overexpression did not affect non-primate lentiviral Vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation. Our results suggest that non-primate lentiviral Vif induces APOBEC3 degradation through a different mechanism than primate lentiviral Vif. Importance: The APOBEC3 protein family members are host restriction factors that block retrovirus replication. Vif, an accessory protein of lentivirus, degrades APOBEC3 to rescue viral infectivity by forming Cullin5-Elongin B/C-based E3 complex. CBF-? was proved to be a novel regulator of primate lentiviral Vif function. In this study, we found that CBF-? knockdown or overexpression did not affect FIV Vif's function, which induced polyubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3 by recruiting the E3 complex in a manner similar to that of HIV-1 Vif. We also showed that other non-primate lentiviral Vifs did not require CBF-? to degrade APOBEC3. CBF-? did not interact with non-primate lentiviral Vifs or promote their stability. These results suggest that a different mechanism exists for the Vif-APOBEC interaction and that non-primates are not suitable animal models for exploring pharmacological interventions that disrupt Vif-CBF-? interaction. PMID:25122780

Ai, Youwei; Zhu, Dantong; Wang, Cuihui; Su, Chao; Ma, Jian; Ma, Jianzhang; Wang, Xiaojun

2014-10-01

36

Genetic characterization of small ruminant lentiviruses circulating in naturally infected sheep and goats in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are related members of a group of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that infect sheep and goats. SRLVs are endemic in many countries, including Canada. However, very little is known about the genetic characteristics of Canadian SRLVs, particularly in the province of Ontario. Given the importance of surveillance and eradication programs for the control of SRLVs, it is imperative that the diagnostic tests used to identify infected animals are sensitive to local strains of SRLVs. The aim of this work was to characterize SRLV strains circulating in Ontario and to evaluate the variability of the immunodominant regions of the Gag protein. In this study, the nearly complete gag sequence of 164 SRLVs, from 130 naturally infected sheep and 32 naturally infected goats from Ontario, was sequenced. Animals belonged to distantly located single and mixed species (sheep and goats) farms. Ovine lentiviruses from the same farm tended to cluster more closely together than did caprine lentiviruses from the same farm. Sequence analysis revealed a higher degree of heterogeneity among the caprine lentivirus sequences with an average inter-farm pairwise DNA distance of 10% and only 5% in the ovine lentivirus group. Interestingly, amplification of SRLVs from ELISA positive sheep was successful in 81% of cases, whereas amplification of SRLV proviral DNA was only possible in 55% of the ELISA positive goat samples; suggesting that a significant portion of caprine lentiviruses circulating in Ontario possess heterogeneity at the primer binding sites used in this study. Sequences of sheep and goat SRLVs from Ontario were assembled into phylogenetic trees with other known SRLVs and were found to belong to sequence groups A2 and B1, respectively, as defined by Shah et al. (2004a). A novel caprine lentivirus with a pairwise genetic difference of 15.6-25.4% relative to other group B subtypes was identified. Thus we suggest the designation of a novel subtype, B4, within the caprine lentivirus-like cluster. Lastly, we demonstrate evidence of recombination between ovine lentiviruses. These results emphasize the broad genetic diversity of SRLV strains circulating in the province of Ontario and show that the gag region is suitable for phylogenetic studies and may be applied to monitor SRLV eradication programs. PMID:23583225

Santry, Lisa A; de Jong, Jondavid; Gold, Alexander C; Walsh, Scott R; Menzies, Paula I; Wootton, Sarah K

2013-07-01

37

[Comparative characteristics of the biological properties of small ruminant lentiviruses].  

PubMed

The infections caused by small ruminant lentiviruses include diseases, such as Maedi-Visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE). According to phylogenetic findings and their common origination, small ruminant lentiviruses were divided into Groups A, B, C, D, and E. Cultivation of the lentiviruses displayed the cytopathic effect of the CAE virus strain 75 G-63 in the primary culture of goatling synovial membrane cells, which was shown by monolayer destruction and polynuclear cell formation; this was uncharacteristic for M-88, K-796, and Tverskoy strains. A high homology was found for the Tverskoy strain with Group B small ruminant lentiviruses and the M-88 and K-796 strains with their Group A. PMID:21899070

Baryshnikova, E I; Malogolovkin, A S; Kolbasova, O L; Tsybanov, S Zh

2011-01-01

38

virus  

E-print Network

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5 ? trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5 ? terminus of the L mRNA (5 ? GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3 ? end of the L mRNA terminated with 5 ? AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5 ? trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a selfcomplementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44 % to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.

Viktor E. Volchkov; Valentina A. Volchkova; R A. Chepurnov; Vladimir M. Blinov; Olga Dolnik; Sergej V. Netesov; Heinz Feldmann

39

Measles Virus V Protein Is a Decoy Substrate for I?B Kinase ? and Prevents Toll-Like Receptor 7/9-Mediated Interferon Induction?  

PubMed Central

The central role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in activating host immune responses stems from their high capacity to express alpha interferon (IFN-?) after stimulation of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 (TLR7 and -9). This involves the adapter MyD88 and the kinases interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), IRAK4, and I?B kinase ? (IKK?), which activates IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and is independent of the canonical kinases TBK1 and IKK?. We have recently shown that the immunosuppressive measles virus (MV) abolishes TLR7/9/MyD88-dependent IFN induction in human pDC (Schlender et al., J. Virol. 79:5507-5515, 2005), but the molecular mechanisms remained elusive. Here, we have reconstituted the pathway in cell lines and identified IKK? and IRF7 as specific targets of the MV V protein (MV-V). Binding of MV-V to IKK? resulted in phosphorylation of V on the expense of IRF7 phosphorylation by IKK? in vitro and in living cells. This corroborates the role of IKK? as the kinase phosphorylating IRF7. MV-V in addition bound to IRF7 and to phosphomimetic IRF7 and inhibited IRF7 transcriptional activity. Binding to both IKK? and IRF7 required the 68-amino-acid unique C-terminal domain of V. Inhibition of TLR/MyD88-dependent IFN induction by MV-V is unique among paramyxovirus V proteins and should contribute to the unique immunosuppressive phenotype of measles. The mechanisms employed by MV-V inspire strategies to interfere with immunopathological TLR/MyD88 signaling. PMID:18922877

Pfaller, Christian K.; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

2008-01-01

40

Compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus between blood and colostrum in infected goats.  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) subtype A (Maedi-Visna virus) and B (caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) variants was analyzed in colostrum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four naturally infected goats. Sequence analysis of DNA and RNA encompassing the V4-V5 env regions showed a differential distribution of SRLV variants between the two compartments. Tissue-specific compartmentalization was demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis in three of the four cases. In these animals colostrum proviral sequences were clustered relative to the blood viral sequences. In one goat, the blood and colostrum-derived provirus sequences were intermingled, suggesting trafficking of virus between the two tissues or mirroring a recent infection. Surprisingly, the pattern of free virus variants in the colostrum of all animals corresponded only partially to that of the proviral form, suggesting that free viruses might not derive from infected colostral cells. The compartmentalization of SRLV between peripheral blood and colostrum indicates that lactogenic transmission may involve specific viruses not present in the proviral populations circulating in the blood. PMID:17719071

Pisoni, Giuliano; Moroni, Paolo; Turin, Lauretta; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2007-12-01

41

Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N; Knowles, Donald P

2013-06-01

42

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

43

Direct Evidence for Natural Transmission of Small-Ruminant Lentiviruses of Subtype A4 from Goats to Sheep and Vice Versa  

PubMed Central

Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV subtypes are found in both goats and sheep suggests that interspecies transmission has occurred on several occasions in the past. We investigated seropositive goats and sheep that were kept together in small mixed herds. Phylogenetic analysis of long proviral sequences in gag and pol, combined with epidemiologic information, demonstrated natural sheep-to-goat transmission of the recently identified SRLV subtype A4 in two instances and goat-to-sheep transmission of the same subtype in one instance. In a further mixed cluster, the direction of the interspecies transmission could not be determined. These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species. PMID:15220425

Shah, Cyril; Huder, Jon B.; Boni, Jurg; Schonmann, Marietta; Muhlherr, Janine; Lutz, Hans; Schupbach, Jorg

2004-01-01

44

Diagnostic performance of PCR and ELISA on blood and milk samples and serological survey for small ruminant lentiviruses in central Spain.  

PubMed

The diagnostic performance of an ELISA for the detection of antibodies to the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in milk and corresponding blood samples was evaluated in 50 sheep. The agreement between ELISA results in blood and milk was 90 per cent, and the ? value was 0.79. In addition, a serological survey in the central zone of Spain was performed using milk samples from 413 animals (250 sheep and 163 goats) from 12 flocks/herds. All flocks/herds had some animals that were positive for SRLV. Among the animals, 60.0 per cent of the sheep and 8.0 per cent of the goats tested were seropositive. Each sample was also tested using a PCR technique, which increased the percentage of positive animals detected. Using a combination of ELISA and PCR gave a total of 72.2 per cent of sheep and 28.8 per cent of goats positive for SRLV. PMID:21257533

Barquero, N; Arjona, A; Domenech, A; Toural, C; de las Heras, A; Fernández-Garayzabal, J F; Ruiz-Santa Quiteria, J A; Gomez-Lucia, E

2011-01-01

45

Development and Field Testing of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis-Virus (CAEV)  

PubMed Central

Caprine arthritis/encephalitis (CAE) of goats and occasionally sheep are persistent virus infections caused by a lentivirus (CAEV). This viral infection results in arthritis in adult animals and encephalitis in kids. Prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, with substantial economic loss for the farm. In this context an early/fast laboratory diagnosis for CAEV infection could be useful for effective prophylactic action. In this work we performed a quantitative real time PCR designed on the CAEV env gene to detect/quantify in goat/sheep samples, viral RNA or proviral DNA forms of CAEV. This procedure was validated in 15 sheep, experimentally infected with CAEV or with a highly correlated lentivirus (visna maedi, MVV); in addition, a total of 37 clinical goat specimens recruited in CAEV positive herds were analyzed and compared using serological analysis (Elisa and AGID). All samples infected with MVV resulted negative. In sheep experimentally infected with CAEV, proviral DNA was detectable 15 days post infection, whereas the serological methods revealed an indicative positivity after 40-60 days.This method showed a sensitivity of 102 env fragments/PCR) with a linear dynamic range of quantitation from 103 to 107 env fragments/PCR; the R2 correlation coefficient was 0.98. All subjects with a clinical diagnosis for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) resulted CAEV DNA positive. PMID:22888382

Brajon, Giovanni; Mandas, Daniela; Liciardi, Manuele; Taccori, Flavia; Meloni, Mauro; Corrias, Franco; Montaldo, Caterina; Coghe, Ferdinando; Casciari, Cristina; Giammarioli, Monica; Orru, Germano

2011-01-01

46

Development and Field Testing of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis-Virus (CAEV).  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis/encephalitis (CAE) of goats and occasionally sheep are persistent virus infections caused by a lentivirus (CAEV). This viral infection results in arthritis in adult animals and encephalitis in kids. Prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, with substantial economic loss for the farm. In this context an early/fast laboratory diagnosis for CAEV infection could be useful for effective prophylactic action. In this work we performed a quantitative real time PCR designed on the CAEV env gene to detect/quantify in goat/sheep samples, viral RNA or proviral DNA forms of CAEV. This procedure was validated in 15 sheep, experimentally infected with CAEV or with a highly correlated lentivirus (visna maedi, MVV); in addition, a total of 37 clinical goat specimens recruited in CAEV positive herds were analyzed and compared using serological analysis (Elisa and AGID). All samples infected with MVV resulted negative. In sheep experimentally infected with CAEV, proviral DNA was detectable 15 days post infection, whereas the serological methods revealed an indicative positivity after 40-60 days.This method showed a sensitivity of 10(2) env fragments/PCR) with a linear dynamic range of quantitation from 10(3) to 10(7)env fragments/PCR; the R2 correlation coefficient was 0.98. All subjects with a clinical diagnosis for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) resulted CAEV DNA positive. PMID:22888382

Brajon, Giovanni; Mandas, Daniela; Liciardi, Manuele; Taccori, Flavia; Meloni, Mauro; Corrias, Franco; Montaldo, Caterina; Coghe, Ferdinando; Casciari, Cristina; Giammarioli, Monica; Orrů, Germano

2012-01-01

47

Evolution of specific antibodies and proviral DNA in milk of small ruminants infected by small ruminant lentivirus.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seroprevalence in sheep was 28% at the beginning of the study and by the end it had increased up to 52.4%. In goats, initial seroprevalence of 5.6% increased to 16%. The percentage of PCR positive ewes was stable throughout the study period. Of the positive sheep, 21.4% were PCR-positive before antibodies could be detected and most of them became PCR-negative shortly after the first detection of antibodies. This might suggest that antibodies have a neutralizing effect. In addition, an equal percentage of sheep were always PCR-negative but either became ELISA-positive or was always ELISA-positive, which might support this hypothesis. On the other hand, the PCR results in goats did not follow any pattern and oscillated between 35.3% and 55.6% depending on the month. Most goats positive by PCR failed to develop antibodies in the 6 months tested. We may conclude that the infection and the antibody response to it follow a different trend in sheep and goats. PMID:24153063

Barquero, Nuria; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Arjona, Alvaro; Toural, Cristina; Heras, Alfonso las; Fernández-Garayzabal, José F; Domenech, Ana

2013-10-01

48

Evolution of Specific Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Milk of Small Ruminants Infected by Small Ruminant Lentivirus  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seroprevalence in sheep was 28% at the beginning of the study and by the end it had increased up to 52.4%. In goats, initial seroprevalence of 5.6% increased to 16%. The percentage of PCR positive ewes was stable throughout the study period. Of the positive sheep, 21.4% were PCR-positive before antibodies could be detected and most of them became PCR-negative shortly after the first detection of antibodies. This might suggest that antibodies have a neutralizing effect. In addition, an equal percentage of sheep were always PCR-negative but either became ELISA-positive or was always ELISA-positive, which might support this hypothesis. On the other hand, the PCR results in goats did not follow any pattern and oscillated between 35.3% and 55.6% depending on the month. Most goats positive by PCR failed to develop antibodies in the 6 months tested. We may conclude that the infection and the antibody response to it follow a different trend in sheep and goats. PMID:24153063

Barquero, Nuria; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Arjona, Alvaro; Toural, Cristina; las Heras, Alfonso; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F.; Domenech, Ana

2013-01-01

49

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

50

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

51

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

52

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

53

Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Ebola virus was first identified as a filovirus in 1976, following epidemics of severe haemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Further outbreaks have occurred since, but, despite extensive and continued investigations, the natural reservoir for the virus remains unknown. The mortality rate is high and there is no cure for Ebola virus infection. Molecular technology is proving useful in extending our knowledge of the virus. Identification of the host reservoir, control and prevention of further outbreaks, rapid diagnosis of infection, and vaccine development remain areas of continued interest in the fight against this biosafety level-four pathogen. PMID:10795373

Streether, L A

1999-01-01

54

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

55

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

56

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health;)

2005-12-09

57

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

58

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

59

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is most ... Nile virus has been found in humans, birds, horses or mosquitoes are at risk for infection. You ...

60

Attenuated Influenza A Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...

P. Palese, T. Muster, B. R. Murphy, M. Enami, M. Bergmann

1992-01-01

61

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet available and over 50% of cases end ...

62

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory ... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ...

63

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;

2007-01-09

64

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

65

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... been added to your dashboard . RSV Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Almost ... antiviral is medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. How can you help protect your baby from ...

66

Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated September 2014 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... 7 weeks after recovery from illness. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

67

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

68

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

69

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

70

West Nile virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus was discovered in 1937 in the West Nile region of Uganda. The virus was found only in the Eastern Hemisphere until 1999. In 1999, West Nile virus was first identified in the Western Hemisphere in New York City. Since 1999, viremic birds have continued to spread the disease across the United States. West Nile virus is an

Patricia A Devine

2003-01-01

71

Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses  

E-print Network

viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus, Ebola virus, rabies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Lassa virus. Many other human pathogenic viruses...

Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

72

Virus-vectored influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, S Mark

2014-08-01

73

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

74

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

75

Advances in virus research  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

76

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

77

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

78

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Ĺ in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Ĺ in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

79

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

80

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0002-11-30

81

Hepatitis virus panel  

MedlinePLUS

The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis ... samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. Antibody and antigen tests ...

82

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

83

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Most mosquitoes are simply annoying. But a small percentage can carry diseases like West Nile virus. Over the past few years, West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the United States. ...

84

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

85

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

86

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College;); Tom Evans (University of Delaware;)

2003-05-28

87

Viruses of asparagus.  

PubMed

The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

2012-01-01

88

Viruses and marine pollution.  

PubMed

This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems. PMID:12604062

Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

2003-03-01

89

Elastic Properties of Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected. PMID:17526576

Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.

2007-01-01

90

Elastic properties of viruses.  

PubMed

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected. PMID:17526576

Stephanidis, B; Adichtchev, S; Gouet, P; McPherson, A; Mermet, A

2007-08-15

91

The Acute bee paralysis virus–Kashmir bee virus–Israeli acute paralysis virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced

Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge

2010-01-01

92

Viruses in the stools.  

PubMed Central

It has long been possible to isolate viruses from the stools by culture, though the viruses found are rarely implicated in disease of the gut. In contrast, only recently has it been possible to identify viruses in the stools of patients with diarrhoea. Initially, such identifications were made by electron microscopy but the unsuitability of the microscope for large-scale screening has led to the development of other methods. The new methods have concentrated on rotaviruses but other viruses are also implicated and an overall view of the significance of finding a virus in any stool specimen has to take into account the evidence about all viruses, old and new. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:219041

Madeley, C R

1979-01-01

93

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

94

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

95

Virus trafficking – learning from single-virus tracking  

PubMed Central

What could be a better way to study virus trafficking than ‘miniaturizing oneself’ and ‘taking a ride with the virus particle’ on its journey into the cell? Single-virus tracking in living cells potentially provides us with the means to visualize the virus journey. This approach allows us to follow the fate of individual virus particles and monitor dynamic interactions between viruses and cellular structures, revealing previously unobservable infection steps. The entry, trafficking and egress mechanisms of various animal viruses have been elucidated using this method. The combination of single-virus trafficking with systems approaches and state-of-the-art imaging technologies should prove exciting in the future. PMID:17304249

Brandenburg, Boerries; Zhuang, Xiaowei

2009-01-01

96

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

97

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

98

Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are two of the eight known viruses that make up\\u000a the human herpesvirus family. As with all herpesviruses, they are large, enveloped virions with an icosahedral nucleocapsid\\u000a consisting of 162 capsomeres arranged around a linear, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) core. The DNAs of HSV-1\\u000a and HSV-2 are

David W. Kimberlin

99

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2007-12-12

100

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

101

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

102

Deformed wing virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully

Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch

2010-01-01

103

Making Better Influenza Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of prepar- ing vaccine seed viruses. By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant

Peter Palese

2006-01-01

104

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

105

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

106

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

107

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, ... eruption of skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may ...

108

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

109

Virus persistence in groundwater.  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States are due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. An estimated 65% of the cases in these outbreaks are caused by enteric viruses. Little, however, is known about the persistence of viruses in groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several physical and chemical characteristics, including pH, nitrates, turbidity, and hardness, were determined for each sample. Separate water samples were inoculated with each of three viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage) and incubated at the in situ groundwater temperature; selected samples were also incubated at other temperatures. Assays were performed at predetermined intervals over a 30-day period to determine the number of infective viruses remaining. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature was the only variable significantly correlated with the decay rates of all three viruses. No significant differences were found among the decay rates of the three viruses, an indication that MS-2 coliphage might be used as a model of animal virus survival in groundwater. PMID:4004211

Yates, M V; Gerba, C P; Kelley, L M

1985-01-01

110

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus. PMID:23017842

Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

111

Eragrostis minor streak virus: an Asian streak virus in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mastrevirus of the single-stranded DNA virus family Geminiviridae consists of four distinct virus lineages that have been sampled in different parts of the Old World. These include the Panicoideae-infecting African streak viruses (ten described species including the geographical outlier, Digitaria streak virus [DSV] from Vanuatu) and Australian striate mosaic viruses (three described species), the dicotyledonous-plant-infecting mastreviruses (seven described

Darren P. Martin; Daphne Linderme; Pierre Lefeuvre; Dionne N. Shepherd; Arvind Varsani

2011-01-01

112

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virus developed infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. PRRSV / genome organisation / structural protein / infectious cDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, Joăo Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

114

Influenza virus isolation.  

PubMed

The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type. PMID:22528151

Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

2012-01-01

115

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

116

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

117

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

E-print Network

HIV-1, Feline, Animal model, Antilatency therapy, Reservoirto test this therapy in an animal model of lentiviraltherapy (reactivating latent virus to purge the reservoir) is to progress, use of an animal

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-01-01

118

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

119

Ebola virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Ebola is a virus-caused disease limited to parts of Africa. Within a week, a raised rash, often hemorrhagic (bleeding), spreads over the body. Bleeding from the mucous membranes is typical causing apparent bleeding from the mouth, ...

120

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

121

Dengue Virus Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging arborviral disease caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV) which has emerged as the\\u000a most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas and it continues to expand geographically. The four serotypes\\u000a of DENV that cause human disease are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Expansion in geographic distribution of both viruses\\u000a and mosquito vectors, has led

Evgeni Eltzov; Danit Atias; Levi Gheber; Robert S. Marks

122

MEDLINEPlus: Monkeypox Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers can keep up with the latest developments in the Monkeypox outbreak with this straightforward Web site from MEDLINEplus. The site features the latest Monkeypox news as well as links to authoritative sites for background information about the virus. Readers will also find information on prevention and screening, updated statistics on the outbreak from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and more. The site also includes a downloadable electron micrograph of the Monkeypox virus.

123

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

124

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.

125

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

126

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Share ... Human Infection with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

127

Ebola virus-like particles prevent lethal Ebola virus infection  

E-print Network

... successfully immunized mice against Ebola virus using virus-like particles ... exposed to lethal doses of Ebola . The work could serve as ... basis for developing countermeasures to Ebola , which causes hemorrhagic fever with ...

128

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

129

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

130

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

131

Studies Relating to Virus Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fifty years' effort to control virus infections in the USSR; Thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; Relationship between the effect of ionizing radiation on the course of virus infections and th...

O. V. Baroyan, E. N. Levkovich, A. G. Moroz

1968-01-01

132

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

133

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

134

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

135

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

136

Jaloro': A New Multiple Virus Resistant Hot Yellow Jalapeno Pepper.  

E-print Network

per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local... per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local...

Villalon, Benigno

1992-01-01

137

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

138

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) antigens. See also: Monospot test ... specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little ...

139

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

140

Neuroinvasion by Chandipura virus.  

PubMed

Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an arthropod borne rhabdovirus associated with acute encephalitis in children below the age of 15 years in the tropical states of India. Although the entry of the virus into the nervous system is among the crucial events in the pathogenesis of CHPV, the exact mechanism allowing CHPV to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is currently poorly understood. In the present review, based on the knowledge of host interactors previously predicted for CHPV, along with the support from experimental data available for other encephalitic viruses, the authors have speculated the various plausible modes by which CHPV could surpass the blood-brain barrier and invade the CNS to cause encephalitis whilst evading the host immune surveillance. Collectively, this review provides a conservative set of potential interactions that can be employed for future experimental validation with a view to better understand the neuropathogenesis of CHPV. PMID:24713200

Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Rana, Jyoti; Gulati, Sahil; Gupta, Vandana; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-07-01

141

Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing. PMID:19956558

de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

2009-01-01

142

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-04-17

143

Jun?n Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

2012-01-01

144

Infectious virus-antibody complexes of sindbis virus.  

PubMed Central

Infectious virus-antibody complexes were formed when Sindbis virus was reacted with antibodies raised against purified viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 as well as against preparations of intact virus. Results from rate zonal centrifugation in sucrose gradients of the complex formed with anti-E1 sera showed this complex to be about the same size as virions. A test of virus neutralization, based on direct plaque assay, by antibodies raised in rabbits and mice given virus in complete Freund adjuvant indicated the presence of antibodies able to complex but not neutralize virus. Conditions were found in which most of the virus was complexed and protected fron neutralization, suggesting that these sera may contain a mixed population of antiviral antibodies with different specificities and different avidities. PMID:870428

Symington, J; McCann, A K; Schlesinger, M J

1977-01-01

145

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

146

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

147

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

148

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2010-01-08

149

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

150

Virus-associated arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of arthritis in patients who were infected by a virus has been widely observed. In some cases, the clinical appearance seems to resemble that of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism by which the viral infection proceeds to the arthritic manifestation is, however, still to be investigated. Several biological and immunological pathways are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis.

Kusuki Nishioka

2003-01-01

151

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

152

West Nile virus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To provide primary care physicians with an understanding of West Nile virus in North America. This article focuses on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and prevention of infection. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE and EMBASE searches revealed epidemiologic, surveillance, cohort, and outcome studies providing level II evidence. There were no randomized controlled trials of treatment. Recommended prevention and treatment strategies are based on level II and III evidence. MAIN MESSAGE The mosquito-borne virus that first appeared on this continent in 1999 is now prevalent throughout North America. Most infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of those infected develop severe illness; 3% to 15% of those with severe illness die. While methods for controlling the mosquito population are available, we lack evidence that they reduce infection in the general human population. Family physicians have an important role in advising their patients on ways to prevent infection and in identifying patients who might be infected with West Nile virus. CONCLUSION The general population is at low risk of West Nile virus infection. Prevention of infection rests on controlling the mosquito population and educating people on how to protect themselves against mosquito bites. PMID:15986939

MacDonald, Russell D.; Krym, Valerie F.

2005-01-01

153

Toscana Virus in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunya- viridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture

Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz; Ximena Collao; María Paz Sánchez-Seco; Francisco Morillas-Márquez; Manuel de la Rosa-Fraile; José María Navarro-Marí; Antonio Tenorio

2005-01-01

154

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

155

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sanchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Panana, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

156

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

157

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

158

Interaction of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus with Neutralizing Antibody: II. The Persistent Virus Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistent virus fraction that results from the interaction of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus with antiviral serum is an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus) that can be neutralized by anti-IgG serum. The quantities of...

N. Hahon

1969-01-01

159

Antibodies against vaccinia virus do not neutralize extracellular enveloped virus but prevent virus release from infected cells and comet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinia virus (VV) produces two antigenically and structurally distinct infectious virions, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). EEV is important for the efficient dissemi- nation of virus both in vivo and in vitro where it causes formation of comet-shaped virus plaques. Here, we show that EEV, in contrast to IMV, is resistant to neutralization by antibodies bound

Alain Vanderplasschen; Michael Hollinshead; Geoffrey L. Smith

1997-01-01

160

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

161

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses  

E-print Network

virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (EbolaA Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

162

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

163

Phage Displayed Peptides to Avian H5N1 Virus Distinguished the Virus from Other Viruses  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:21887228

Qin, Chengfeng; Ren, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

164

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

165

Viruses and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A viral hypothesis for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been under serious consideration for more than 70 years. To date, attempts have failed to identify a specific virus which contributes to the aetiology of the disorder. There has, however, been a recent resurgence of interest in a possible relationship between viral illness and schizophrenia. This renewed attention is the result of epidemiological evidence suggesting an excess of winter births in patients with schizophrenia, indications of foetal insults in persons who develop schizophrenia and an association between foetal exposure to the influenza virus and the subsequent development of schizophrenia. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of viral diseases and the development of sophisticated techniques to study them have resulted in more complex viral hypotheses of schizophrenic aetiology, such as viral disruption of normal neurodevelopment, viral induced autoimmunity and retroviral integration. These hypotheses are now beginning to be tested experimentally. PMID:7527632

O'Reilly, R L

1994-06-01

166

Origin of hepatitis ? virus  

PubMed Central

This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis ? virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids – a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants. PMID:20210550

Taylor, John; Pelchat, Martin

2010-01-01

167

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

168

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

169

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

170

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

2007-01-01

171

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

172

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

173

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

174

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthcare Providers Media Policy Makers  Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share Compartir LCMV (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) is a virus that can cause infection in ...

175

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

176

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

177

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

178

Rubella virus perturbs autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process implicated in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, including infections. Viruses have evolved different strategies to modulate the autophagic process. Since the effects of rubella virus (RV) on autophagy have not yet been reported, we evaluated the autophagic activity in the Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell line infected with the To336 strain of RV. Our results showed that RV lowered the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B-II (LC3B-II) and the autophagy-related gene 12-autophagy-related gene 5 conjugate, inhibited the autophagic flux, suppressed the intracellular redistribution of LC3B, decreased both the average number and the size of autophagosomes per cell and impeded the formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Induction of autophagy by using rapamycin decreased both the viral yields and the apoptotic rates of infected cultures. Besides its cytoprotective effects, autophagy furnishes an important antiviral mechanism, inhibition of which may reorchestrate intracellular environment so as to better serve the unique requirements of RV replication. Together, our observations suggest that RV utilizes a totally different strategy to cope with autophagy than that evolved by other positive-stranded RNA viruses, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the members of the Togaviridae family in terms of their effects on the cellular autophagic cascade. PMID:24824868

Pásztor, Kata; Orosz, László; Seprényi, György; Megyeri, Klára

2014-10-01

179

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

180

Emergence of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza in humans is a zoonotic disease caused by the transfer of influenza A viruses or virus gene segments from animal reservoirs. Influenza A viruses have been isolated from avian and mammalian hosts, although the primary reservoirs are the aquatic bird populations of the world. In the aquatic birds, influenza is asymptomatic, and the viruses are in evolutionary stasis. The aquatic bird viruses do not replicate well in humans, and these viruses need to reassort or adapt in an intermediate host before they emerge in human populations. Pigs can serve as a host for avian and human viruses and are logical candidates for the role of intermediate host. The transmission of avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses directly to humans during the late 1990s showed that land-based poultry also can serve between aquatic birds and humans as intermediate hosts of influenza viruses. That these transmission events took place in Hong Kong and China adds further support to the hypothesis that Asia is an epicentre for influenza and stresses the importance of surveillance of pigs and live-bird markets in this area. PMID:11779380

Webby, R J; Webster, R G

2001-01-01

181

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Women’s Health Care Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency ...

182

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

183

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

184

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

185

Virus dynamics and drug therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of potent antiviral drugs not only has raised hopes for effective treatment of infections with HIV or the hepatitis B virus, but also has led to important quantitative insights into viral dynamics in vivo. Interpretation of the experimental data depends upon mathe- matical models that describe the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations. Here we

SEBASTIAN BONHOEFFER; R OBERT M. MAY; G EORGE M. SHAW; MARTIN A. NOWAK

1997-01-01

186

Measles Virus in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus can give three different forms of infections in the central nervous system. These are acute postinfectious encephalitis, acute progressive infectious encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The postinfectious acute disease is interpreted to reflect an autoimmune reaction. The acute progressive form of brain disease, also referred to as inclusion body encephalitis, reflects a direct attack by the virus

Erling Norrby; Krister Kristensson

1997-01-01

187

INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

188

Mutants of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can...

J. Roosien

1983-01-01

189

Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-10-01

190

Antivirals for High Hazard Viruses,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In large areas of the world there exist extremely high hazard viruses for which there are no vaccines for prophylaxis and no effective drugs for therapy. Examples of such viruses are Ebola, Argentine, Bolivian, Crimean-Congo, and Korean hemorrhagic fevers...

P. G. Canonico

1988-01-01

191

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

192

Écosystčmes forestiers et virus Ebola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Ebola virus and forest ecosystem. Despite data collected since the emergence of the Ebola virus in 1976, its natural transmission cycle and especially the nature of its reservoirs and means of transmission are still an enigma. This means that effective epidemiological surveillance and prevention are difficult to implement. The location of outbreak areas has suggested that the reservoir and

J. M. Morvan; E. Nakouné; V. Deubel; M. Colyn

193

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

194

Epidemic of cell phone virus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

2008-03-01

195

The ecology of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Since Ebola virus was first identified more than 30 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of this virus. However, the means by which Ebola virus is maintained and transmitted in nature remains unclear despite dedicated efforts to answer these questions. Recent work has provided new evidence that fruit bats might have a role as a reservoir species, but it is not clear whether other species are also involved or how transmission to humans or apes takes place. Two opposing hypotheses for Ebola emergence have surfaced; one of long-term local persistence in a cryptic and infrequently contacted reservoir, versus another of a more recent introduction of the virus and directional spread through susceptible populations. Nevertheless, with the increasing frequency of human filovirus outbreaks and the tremendous impact of infection on the already threatened great ape populations, there is an urgent need to better understand the ecology of Ebola virus in nature. PMID:17698361

Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz; Strong, James E

2007-09-01

196

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available. PMID:23597412

2013-01-01

197

Fujinami Sarcoma Virus: An Avian RNA Tumor Virus with a Unique Transforming Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oncogenic properties and RNA of the Fujinami avian sarcoma virus (FSV) and the protein it encodes were investigated and compared to those of other avian tumor viruses with sarcomagenic properties such as Rous sarcoma virus and the acute leukemia viruses MC29 and erythroblastosis virus. Cloned stocks of FSV caused sarcomas in all chickens inoculated and were found to contain

Wen-Hwa Lee; Klaus Bister; Anthony Pawson; Terry Robins; Carlo Moscovici; Peter H. Duesberg

1980-01-01

198

A Seven-Segmented Influenza A Virus Expressing the Influenza C Virus Glycoprotein HEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF

Qinshan Gao; Edward W. A. Brydon; Peter Palese

2008-01-01

199

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

200

Co-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation-Based  

E-print Network

Co-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation-Based Seroprevalence Study. PLo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

202

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

203

Physical Interaction of a Murine Leukemia Virus with Influenza Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubated mixtures of PR8 influenza virus and Rauscher leukemia virus retained the egg infectivity and hemagglutinin of the influenza virus and the ability of the Rauscher virus to induce splenomegaly in mice. Density-gradient centrifugation on potassium citrate gradients revealed a new interviral product with an intermediate density as the principal constituent of such mixtures. Chicken erythrocytes adsorbed the Rauscher virus

T. E. O'Connor; F. J. Rauscher

1964-01-01

204

Aphid Transmission of Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids (Myzus persicae Sulz.) can acquire tobacco mosaic virus from tobacco leaves coated with a virus suspension and inoculate it into healthy leaves. Transmission depends on virus concentration, period of acquisition, previous feeding history of the aphids, and time between acquisition and transmission feedings. Aphids whose stylets are cut do not transmit the virus.

John S. Lojek; Gert B. Orlob

1969-01-01

205

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

206

The Epstein-Barr virus: Recent advances  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: Failure in Immunological Control of the Virus Infection: Post-Transplant Lymphomas; Cellular Immunological Responses to the Virus Infection; Characterization of the Virus-Determined Antigens; and the Virus Genome and its Expression in Latent Infection.

Epstein, M.A.; Achong, B.G.

1986-01-01

207

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

208

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

209

Newcastle disease virus f glycoprotein expressed from a recombinant vaccinia virus vector protects chickens against live?virus challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens were immunised using a vaccinia recombinant virus (vaccinia?Italien?F), expressing the F protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Immunisation was successful using either TK” cells infected with the vaccinia?Italien?F virus, the recombinant virus grown in TK7 cells and inoculated intra?cerebrally in one?day?old chickens or the recombinant virus given by wing?web to adult chickens after adaptation by alternate passage in chick

G. Meulemans; C. Letellier; M. Gonze; M. C. Carlier; A. Burny

1988-01-01

210

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

211

Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease.  

PubMed Central

Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different virus family, and each has a unique epidemiology. The medical impact of these viruses on society has been strongly influenced by changes in human ecology. This has resulted in some cases in diminished disease and in others in increases in the incidence of disease. PMID:8146130

Purcell, R H

1994-01-01

212

Transmitting plant viruses using whiteflies.  

PubMed

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species(5), are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by(9,10,16)). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by(2,6,7,9,10,11,17)). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)(3,13), ecology(2,12), require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals(14) or compounds(15), new cultural approaches(1,4,19), or the selection and development of resistant cultivars(7,8,18), requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging(7). Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E; Capobianco, H

2013-01-01

213

Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus  

E-print Network

CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

Burke, David

2008-06-27

214

Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenza A viruses are true zoonotic agents with many animal reservoirs, whereas genus Influenza B viruses are generally\\u000a considered to be a virus of humans. The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight unique segments of single-stranded\\u000a RNA of negative polarity; they are typed according to their surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)

R. J. Webby; R. G. Webster; Jürgen A. Richt

215

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

216

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

217

THE VACUOLATING VIRUS OF MONKEYS  

PubMed Central

Cells infected with the vacuolating virus, SV40, respond by swelling to several times their normal volume. Within enlarged nuclei, virus-containing inclusions appear which are acidophilic and Feulgen-positive. The formation of nuclear inclusions is followed by the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and then shrinkage of the cell. Inclusions were found to exhibit unique double staining when a light-green counterstain was used in the Feulgen reaction. The virus is of low electron density, round, and 300 A in diameter. It occurs in large numbers, singly and in short chains, and it appears to multiply at the expense of chromatin. PMID:13897378

Gaylord, W. H.; Hsiung, G.-D.

1961-01-01

218

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

219

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2013-01-01

220

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2010-01-01

221

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2011-01-01

222

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2012-01-01

223

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2014-01-01

224

Jatobal virus is a reassortant containing the small RNA of Oropouche virus.  

PubMed

Jatobal (JAT) virus was isolated in 1985 from a carnivore (Nasua nasua) in Tucuruí, Pará state, Brazil and was classified as a distinct member of the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae on the basis of neutralization tests. On the basis of nucleotide sequencing, we have found that the small (S) RNA of JAT virus is very similar (>95% identity) to that of Oropouche (ORO) virus, in particular, the Peruvian genotype of ORO virus. In comparison, limited nucleotide sequencing of the G2 protein gene, encoded by the middle (M) RNA, of JAT and ORO viruses, revealed relatively little identity (<66%) between these two viruses. Neutralization tests confirmed the lack of cross-reactivity between the viruses. These results suggest that JAT virus is a reassortant containing the S RNA of ORO virus. JAT virus was attenuated in hamsters compared to ORO virus suggesting that the S RNA of ORO virus is not directly involved in hamster virulence. PMID:11451484

Saeed, M F; Wang, H; Suderman, M; Beasley, D W; Travassos da Rosa, A; Li, L; Shope, R E; Tesh, R B; Barrett, A D

2001-09-01

225

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

Razonable, Raymund R.

2011-01-01

226

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and RNA Viruses as Gene Therapy Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of RNA viruses to efficiently reproduce in transformed cells was first recognized nearly 100 yr ago. However,\\u000a it wasn’t until the late 1990s that a resurrection of the interest in the ability of certain viruses to preferentially replicate\\u000a in malignant cells and less so in normal cells occurred, the curiosity being to evaluate whether these agents could be

Glen N. Barber

227

Rubella Virus Replication Complexes Are Virus-Modified Lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication complexes are membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles involved in rubella virus (RV) replication. These structures can be identified by their characteristic morphology at the electron microscopy (EM) level and by their association with double-stranded (ds) RNA in immunogold labeling EM studies. Although these virus-induced structures bear some resemblance to lysosomes, their exact nature and origin are unknown. In this study, the

Dianna Magliano; John A. Marshall; D. Scott Bowden; Nicholas Vardaxis; Jayesh Meanger; Jia-Yee Lee

1998-01-01

228

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

229

Etablierung eines infektiösen Minigenomsystems für Marburg Virus basierend auf Virus-ähnlichen Partikeln.  

E-print Network

??Marburg Virus gehört taxonomisch mit dem Ebola Virus zur Familie der Filoviridae. Diese Erreger verursachen eine fieberhafte hämorrhagische Erkrankung bei Menschen und nichtmenschlichen Primaten, die… (more)

Wenigenrath, Jörg

2009-01-01

230

Reverse genetics of influenza virus.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics is the creation of a virus from a full-length cDNA copy of the viral genome, referred to as an "infectious clone," and is one of the most powerful genetic tools in modern virology. Since its development in 1999, plasmid-based reverse genetics has been effectively applied to numerous aspects of influenza studies which include revolutionizing the production of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine seed strains. Although continual improvement in reverse genetics system is being made in different laboratories for the efficient rescue of the influenza virus, the basic concept of synthesizing viral RNA using RNA polymerase I remains the same. Coupled with in vitro mutagenesis, reverse genetics can be applied widely to accelerate progress in understanding the influenza virus life cycle, the generation of customized vaccine seed strains, development of live-attenuated vaccines, and the use of influenza virus as vaccine and gene delivery vectors. PMID:24899418

Lee, Chang-Won

2014-01-01

231

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

232

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

233

Elimination of small ruminant lentivirus infection from sheep flocks and goat herds aided by health schemes in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Over a period of 11 years, 33 sheep or goat holdings lost their maedi-visna or caprine arthritis-encephalitis accredited status (mean 2.8 per year [0.09 per cent] of the accredited holdings in Great Britain). Of these, 22 sheep flocks and two goat herds eradicated the infection and regained their accredited status. In addition, 10 sheep flocks and two goat herds managed to eradicate infection, having joined the scheme with infected animals. In flocks and herds with a high initial prevalence of infection, the adoption of an indirect ELISA, with greater sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion test, improved success rates. A strategy was devised to interpret the ELISA results depending upon the prevalence of infection at the time. Eighteen of the 33 flocks/herds (54.5 per cent) that had introductions of infection also owned non-accredited stock. PMID:21257509

Synge, B A; Ritchie, C M

2010-11-01

234

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

235

Hepatitis viruses: a pandora's box?  

PubMed

The term hepatitis virus is reserved for those viruses that are predominantly hepatotropic, although several new agents have been assigned to this category in the absence of hepatotropism and clinical disease. The hepatitis viruses can be broadly divided into those transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and those by blood, blood products and body fluids. Hepatitis A (picornaviridae), hepatitis B (hepadnaviridae) and hepatitis C (flaviviridae) represent the major public health problems. The epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is changing in response to vaccination. In the case of HAV, older age groups are now deemed at risk, particularly of fulminant hepatitis if exposed over the age of 50. Chronic hepatitis B in some regions is now predominantly of the so-called precore mutant type where high levels of HBV replication persist in the presence of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBe) antibodies. The HBV vaccination is among the most cost-effective health care measures. The epidemiological significance of mutations found increasingly in the HBV S gene isolated from vaccinated children is unclear. Evidence that hepatitis G and TT virus are significant causes of hepatitis is lacking. Of interest, however, is the finding that the related GBV-B agent of monkeys may be a model for developing new antiviral agents against HCV. Animal models of hepatitis infections are providing new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatitis in humans. Indeed it is possible that hepatitis E is primarily an agent of pigs and other domesticated livestock. Intriguingly, the new TT virus shares many properties with the circoviruses, significant pathogens of chickens and pigs. The challenge in the next decade will be to assess the significance of these new agents in terms of public health and resources. Value judgements will have to be made in assessing the risks associated with blood containing trace amounts of these adventitious agents. PMID:12534779

Howard, Colin R

2002-12-01

236

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

237

Human Infection with Foamy Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Virtually all nonhuman primate species investigated thus far including prosimians, New World and Old World monkeys and apes\\u000a all harbor distinct and species-specific clades of simian foamy virus (SFV). However, evidence supporting the existence of\\u000a a human-specific foamy virus (FV) is not yet available. Early reports describing widespread infection of healthy and sick\\u000a humans with FV could not be confirmed.

W. Heneine; M. Schweizer; P. Sandstrom; T. Folks

238

New hosts of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand on Cirsium arvense, Medicago lupulina, Mentha sp., Petunia × hybrida, Rumex obtusifolius, Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus asper, and Trifolium ambiguum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on Arthropodium cirratum, Capsella bursa?pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Conium maculatum, Coronopus didymus, Galium aparine, Hirschfeldia incana, Marrubium vulgare, Malva parviflora, Malva sylvestris, Ranunculus sardous, and

J. D. Fletcher

2001-01-01

239

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

240

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

241

NOVA: Reviving the 1918 Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video with accompanying interactive activity puts learners in the role of active decision-makers regarding the ethics of a recent experiment to revive the deadly 1918 influenza virus. In 2005, researchers sequenced the germ's genome and published the data on a public database. Other researchers used the genome to bring the long-vanished killer virus back to life. Was the experiment justified, or should dead viruses be left alone? After watching the 10-minute video, an interactive activity allows learners to explore arguments from both sides, then vote online. They will consider the following: 1) Does the knowledge gained outweigh the risks? 2) What if terrorists recreated the virus? 3) What if the virus accidentally leaked into the environment, like the SARS virus in 2004? 4) Should scientists publish genome sequences of potentially deadly organisms? Editor's Note: This resource will help students see that scientists must consider the implications of their work, and whether it is responsible to freely publish all findings. Allow 50 minutes.

2010-10-21

242

Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.  

PubMed

Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-06-11

243

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

244

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SUCKLING MICE TO VARIOLA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

Marshall, Ronald G. (Army Chemical Corps, Fredrick, Md.), and Peter J. Gerone. Susceptibility of suckling mice to variola virus. J. Bacteriol. 82:15–19. 1961.—The susceptibility of suckling mice inoculated intraperitoneally or intracerebrally with variola virus was investigated. Data are presented that define the death patterns, the relationship of incubation period to dose of virus inoculated, the multiplication of virus in suckling mice, and the influence of the age of suckling mice on their susceptibility to this virus. Additionally the results indicate that a variola virus neutralization test is feasible using the young suckling mouse as an indicator host. PMID:13767234

Marshall, Ronald G.; Gerone, Peter J.

1961-01-01

245

Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis B virus infections in 260 chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

To evaluate the factors determining the severity of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and the interactions of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis delta virus infections, we retrospectively analyzed 260 patients, 146 of whom were followed for a mean of 31.4 +/- 1.8 mo. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis delta virus status and aminotransferase activities, histological activity index, alcohol consumption and the prevalence of cirrhosis were investigated. The patients included 54 homosexuals, 19 parenteral drug abusers and 187 subjects with other or unidentified risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus. Thirty-five patients (13%) were positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus; 27 were homosexual and 8 were drug abusers. The mean aminotransferase activities, histological activity index and the prevalence of cirrhosis were similar in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-negative subgroups. Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the human immunodeficiency virus-negative subgroups. Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive group than in the human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects (p = 0.004); the cause of death was clearly related to liver failure in four of the five human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and two of the six human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects who died. To evaluate the factors determining the severity of liver disease, we compared homogeneous subgroups of subjects. Among the homosexual patients, the prevalence of HBeAg and hepatitis B virus DNA, aminotransferase activities and the histological activity index did not differ according to human immunodeficiency virus antibody status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1551633

Housset, C; Pol, S; Carnot, F; Dubois, F; Nalpas, B; Housset, B; Berthelot, P; Brechot, C

1992-04-01

246

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

247

Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

1979-01-01

248

[The Chikungunya virus].  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, represents a real public health problem in tropical regions of the Southeast Asia and Africa. It is transmitted to the man by Aedes mosquitoes and the illness, known as Chikungunya, is characterized by fever, eruptions and invalidating arthralgia. An increased surveillance in tropical and subtropical areas is necessary, as far as we have noticed recently the emergence of this new disease in regions where it had never existed before. The epidemic context is of a high importance for diagnosis. It is very important to know the clinical characteristics of the infection, to detect forms rarely or never described previously. Permanence of a highly technical core in specialized laboratories will allow, fast, specific and differential diagnosis. The knowledge of the epidemiological chain of transmission from reservoir, still unknown, to the host aims to protect populations by limiting the risks of exposure when it is possible. The only prevention measures available are individual protection against mosquitoes and antivectorial fight, in the absence of specific antiviral treatment and vaccine. PMID:17627914

Nakouné, E; Finance, C; Le Faou, A; Rihn, B

2007-01-01

249

HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNITY BETWEEN VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Summary Immune memory responses to previously encountered pathogens can sometimes alter the immune response to and the course of infection of an unrelated pathogen by a process known as heterologous immunity. This response can lead to enhanced or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. Here we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses. We examine the parameters of heterologous immunity mediated by these cross-reactive T cells during viral infections in mice and humans. We show that heterologous immunity can disrupt T-cell memory pools, alter the complexity of the T-cell repertoire, change patterns of T-cell immunodominance, lead to the selection of viral epitope-escape variants, alter the pathogenesis of viral infections, and, by virtue of the private specificity of T-cell repertoires within individuals, contribute to dramatic variations in viral disease. We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. PMID:20536568

Welsh, Raymond M.; Che, Jenny; Brehm, Michael A.; Selin, Liisa K.

2010-01-01

250

Dengue viruses - an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence. PMID:24003364

Back, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Ake

2013-01-01

251

Usutu virus in Africa.  

PubMed

Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2011-11-01

252

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

253

Isolation of 16L Virus: A Rapidly Transforming Sarcoma Virus from an Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a replication-defective rapidly transforming sarcoma virus (designated 16L virus) from a fibro-sarcoma in a chicken infected with td107A, a transformation-defective deletion mutant of subgroup A Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus. 16L virus transforms fibroblasts and causes sarcomas in infected chickens within 2 wk. Its genomic RNA is 6.0 kilobases and contains sequences homologous to the transforming gene (fps)

Benjamin G. Neel; Lu-Hai Wang; Bernard Mathey-Prevot; Teruko Hanafusa; Hidesaburo Hanafusa; William S. Hayward

1982-01-01

254

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

255

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus)  

E-print Network

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus) en observé à de nombreuses reprises le virus du rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus on tomato, pepper and eggplant in Tunisia. Some characteristics of the Tunisian

Boyer, Edmond

256

Caveolin-1 interacts with the Gag precursor of murine leukaemia virus and modulates virus production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Retroviral Gag determines virus assembly at the plasma membrane and the formation of virus-like particles in intracellular multivesicular bodies. Thereby, retroviruses exploit by interaction with cellular partners the cellular machineries for vesicular transport in various ways. RESULTS: The retroviral Gag precursor protein drives assembly of murine leukaemia viruses (MLV) at the plasma membrane (PM) and the formation of virus

Zheng Yu; Christiane Beer; Mario Koester; Manfred Wirth

2006-01-01

257

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1), the prototype of the Phycodnaviridae, was isolated more than 20 bursaria chlorella viruses: NY-2A (infecting PBCV-1 host Chlorella species NC64A) and Chlorella Pbi virus MT325. NY-2A genome contains 368,683 bp, making it the largest chlorella virus sequenced to date

Boyer, Edmond

258

Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA: Localization of Replication Recognition Signals within Defective Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain Justin was previously shown to contain defective virus genomes consisting of head-to-tail reiterations of sequences derived from the end of the S component of the standard virus DNA. Cotransfection of purified monomeric defective genome repeat units with foster helper virus DNAs onto rabbit skin cells resulted in regeneration and replication of

Donald A. Vlazny; Niza Frenkel

1981-01-01

259

Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

2009-01-01

260

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

2014-09-01

261

Release of virus from lymphoid tissue affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus kinetics in the blood.  

PubMed

Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus localized in the lymphoid tissue (LT) compartment. The results indicate that the fastest time scale of HIV-1 plasma load decay during therapy probably reflects the clearance rate of LT virus and not, as previously supposed, the clearance rate of virus in plasma. This resolves the discrepancy between the clearance rate estimates during therapy and those based on plasma apheresis experiments. In the extended models plasma apheresis measurements are indeed expected to reflect the plasma decay rate. We can reconcile all current HIV-1 estimates with this model when, on average, the clearance rate of virus in plasma is approximately 20 day(-1), that of LT virus is approximately 3 day(-1), and the death rate of virus-producing cells is approximately 0.5 day(-1). The fast clearance in the LT compartment increases current estimates for total daily virus production. Because HCV is produced in the liver, we let virus be produced into the blood compartment of our model. The results suggest that extending current HCV models with an LT compartment is not likely to affect current estimates for kinetic parameters and virus production. Estimates for treatment efficacy might be affected, however. PMID:11222682

Müller, V; Marée, A F; De Boer, R J

2001-03-01

262

4:41 Prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among musculoskeletal tissue donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among potential musculoskeletal tissue donors tested during the period July 1996 through June 2001. Limitations of the methods of acquiring, screening and testing tissue donors that contribute to higher risk for viral

Robert Kennedy; Jeffrey Wang; Randal Mills; Michael Roberts

2002-01-01

263

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

264

Antigens Associated with Viruses and Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers antigens identified with all viruses associated with cancer: both DNA and RNA, in humans, other primates, and in subprimate species. The antigens may be expressed within infected cells, on cell surfaces, on free virus particules or i...

1978-01-01

265

Antigens Associated with Viruses and Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers antigens identified with all viruses associated with cancer: both DNA and RNA, in humans, other primates and in subprimate species. The antigens may be expressed within infected cells, on cell surfaces, on free virus particules or in...

1977-01-01

266

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

267

Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... influenza. This involves receiving and testing thousands of influenza virus samples from patients with suspected flu illness. The ...

268

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... each case of human infection with a swine influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that ...

269

Kids' Severe Respiratory Virus Confirmed in Northeast  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Kids' Severe Respiratory Virus Confirmed in Northeast Health officials urge good hygiene ... Sept. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The severe respiratory virus believed to have sickened hundreds of U.S. children ...

270

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

271

West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... a regular basis. Help Your Community West Nile Virus Surveillance and Control Programs Support your local community ... Software Health Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el ...

272

[Sensitivity of normal and Rous virus-transformed lines of Armenian hamster cells to infectious viruses].  

PubMed

The capacity of normal (NHET) and Rous virus-transformed cell line of armenian hamster both producing (SHET Sh-R) and not producing (SHET K-3) virus to support reproduction of vaccinia and Newcastle disease viruses was demonstrated. The former of these viruses replicated in the cell cultures with cytopathic effect, the latter did so without causing cell degeneration. The degree of Newcastle disease virus reproduction in all 3 cultures was the same whereas vaccinia virus synthesis in SHET Sh-R was inhibited as compared with NHET and SHET K-3 cultures. Interference between Rous virus and vaccinia virus in SHET Sh-R culture was not due to interferon. The infectious viruses under study caused no activation of Rous virus genome in the virogenic SHET K-3 cell line. PMID:176825

Nadzharian, N U; Kamalian, L A

1975-01-01

273

Viruses: Making Friends with Old Foes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of viruses has traditionally focused on their roles as infectious agents and as tools for understanding cell biology. Viruses are now finding a new expanded role as nanoplatforms with applications in materials science and medicine. Viruses form highly symmetrical monodisperse architectures and are ideal templates for engineering multifunctionality, including multivalent display of surface ligands and encapsulation of inorganic and organic materials. These developments assure that viruses will find applications as versatile nanoscale materials.

Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2006-05-01

274

Recent advances in oncolytic virus design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

2011-01-01

275

Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages. PMID:21470462

Mak, Polly W.Y.; Wong, Chloe K.S.; Li, Olive T.W.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S.; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik

2011-01-01

276

Structure of Immature West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of immature West Nile virus particles, propagated in the presence of ammonium chloride to block virus maturation in the low-pH environment of the trans-Golgi network, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of these particles was similar to that of immature West Nile virus particles found as a minor component of mature virus samples (naturally occurring immature

Ying Zhang; Barbel Kaufmann; Paul R. Chipman; Richard J. Kuhn; Michael G. Rossmann

2007-01-01

277

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

278

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses.  

PubMed

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery. PMID:10024977

Beer, B; Kurth, R; Bukreyev, A

1999-01-01

279

Searching for virus phylotypes  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Large phylogenies are being built today to study virus evolution, trace the origin of epidemics, establish the mode of transmission and survey the appearance of drug resistance. However, no tool is available to quickly inspect these phylogenies and combine them with extrinsic traits (e.g. geographic location, risk group, presence of a given resistance mutation), seeking to extract strain groups of specific interest or requiring surveillance. Results: We propose a new method for obtaining such groups, which we call phylotypes, from a phylogeny having taxa (strains) annotated with extrinsic traits. Phylotypes are subsets of taxa with close phylogenetic relationships and common trait values. The method combines ancestral trait reconstruction using parsimony, with combinatorial and numerical criteria measuring tree shape characteristics and the diversity and separation of the potential phylotypes. A shuffling procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of phylotypes. All algorithms have linear time complexity. This results in low computing times, typically a few minutes for the larger data sets with a number of shuffling steps. Two HIV-1 data sets are analyzed, one of which is large, containing >3000 strains of HIV-1 subtype C collected worldwide, where the method shows its ability to recover known clusters and transmission routes, and to detect new ones. Availability: This method and companion tools are implemented in an interactive Web interface (www.phylotype.org), which provides a wide choice of graphical views and output formats, and allows for exploratory analyses of large data sets. Contact: francois.chevenet@ird.fr, gascuel@lirmm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23329414

Chevenet, Francois; Jung, Matthieu; Peeters, Martine; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gascuel, Olivier

2013-01-01

280

[Dependence of oligomerization of influenza virus nucleoprotein on the species affiliation of the virus].  

PubMed

Comparison of human and avian influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) oligomerization showed that the efficiency of NP oligomerization is different in influenza viruses of different origin. NP oligomerization is virtually complete in avian influenza viruses, while in human influenza viruses only part of monomeric NP is oligomerized. The authors discuss the utilization of NP oligomerization efficiency as a sign for identification of the origin of influenza virus. PMID:11200638

Semenova, N P; Prokudina, E N; Chumakov, V M; Rudneva, I A; Fediakina, I G; Iamnikova, S S

2000-01-01

281

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

PubMed Central

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-01-01

282

Advances in virus research. Volume 31  

SciTech Connect

This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.

Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.

1986-01-01

283

Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and\\/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly

Ziying Han; Ronald N Harty

2005-01-01

284

Beet mosaic virus: epidemiology and damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview:<\\/strong>The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to obtain a thorough understanding of the main factors determining the spread of a potyvirus in a high plant density crop. The factors studied included the relationships between virus, host and vector, the spread of the virus around an initial virus source consisting of one or more infected plants, the

A. N. Dusi

1999-01-01

285

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters.  

PubMed

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M; Rizvi, Tahir A

2014-01-01

286

Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life — Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with

Dimiter S. Dimitrov

2004-01-01

287

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

288

Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dengue-l candidate vaccine (TP 56, nonmutagenized) and it parent virus were compared for their ability to infect orally Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The vaccine virus was as infective orally as the parent virus for both mosquito spec...

B. J. Beaty

1983-01-01

289

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-10-01

290

Mutation pattern of human immunodeficiency virus genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) show extensive genetic variation. This feature is the fundamental cause of pathogenicity of HIVs and thwarts efforts to develop effective vaccines. To understand the mutation mechanism of these viruses, we analyzed nucleotide sequences ofenv andgag genes of the viruses by use of molecular evolutionary methods and estimated the direction and frequency of nucleotide substitutions. Results

Etsuko N. Moriyama; Yasuo Ina; Kazuho Ikeo; Nobuaki Shimizu; Takashi Gojobori

1991-01-01

291

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Nile virus is found in all 48 contiguous states (not in Alaska and Hawaii) and the virus circulates in mosquitoes and birds every year. Because West Nile virus is well established, some states and local jurisdictions are no longer collecting dead ...

292

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

293

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF VIRUSES OF CYANOBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Study Group finds it appropriate that viruses which have as their host cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) should be grouped within the well-categorized families of the bacterial viruses. Thus, the term cyanophage is adopted as a synonym for the vernacular name BGA virus (BGAV) ...

294

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A interactions between the eukaryotic RNA turnover machinery and a wide variety of viruses. Interestingly, in many cases viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade eradication by these pathways, but also

295

VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Michael Hollinshead (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Lonneke Van der Linden (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Geoffrey L. Smith (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

2010-02-12

296

Open Problems in Computer Virus Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

Steve R. White

1998-01-01

297

Mechanism of Virulence Transfer by Bacterial Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Further experimental evidence is described to support the concept that bacterial viruses exert a controlling effect on bacterial variation and evolution. A number of strains of diphtheria bacilli, both mitis and gravis, have been found to be carrying viruses capable of converting a susceptible avirulent diphtheria strain to full virulence and toxigenicity. The virus-resistant strains thus converted to viru-

L. F. Hewitt

1954-01-01

298

Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease Updated 8 August 2014 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Download the FAQ on Ebola in pdf format ... in detail. Should patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus be separated from other patients? Isolating patients ...

299

Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virucidal action of several commercially available disinfectant preparations was assayed against hepatitis A virus and human rotavirus dried on polystyrene. Overall, the level of virus disinfection achieved was very poor, usually inducing less than 3 log titre reduction. Suspension tests performed with the same disinfectants showed different virus inactivation rates, thus failing to provide a reliable indication of the

F. Xavier Abad; Rosa M Pintó; Albert Bosch

1997-01-01

300

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. Moreover, current AI vaccines must be administered individually, requiring the handling of excessively large numbers of animals, which makes it difficult to obtain high vaccine coverage. Consequently, AI vaccines conferring solid immunity that could be used for mass application would be advantageous. Several approaches are being pursued to improve existing vaccines and develop novel vaccines, all of which will be covered in this overview. PMID:19618635

Fuchs, W; Römer-Oberdörfer, A; Veits, J; Mettenleiter, T C

2009-04-01

301

HIV-1 Pathogenesis: The Virus  

PubMed Central

Transmission of HIV-1 results in the establishment of a new infection, typically starting from a single virus particle. That virion replicates to generate viremia and persistent infection in all of the lymphoid tissue in the body. HIV-1 preferentially infects T cells with high levels of CD4 and those subsets of T cells that express CCR5, particularly memory T cells. Most of the replicating virus is in the lymphoid tissue, yet most of samples studied are from blood. For the most part the tissue and blood viruses represent a well-mixed population. With the onset of immunodeficiency, the virus evolves to infect new cell types. The tropism switch involves switching from using CCR5 to CXCR4 and corresponds to an expansion of infected cells to include naďve CD4+ T cells. Similarly, the virus evolves the ability to enter cells with low levels of CD4 on the surface and this potentiates the ability to infect macrophages, although the scope of sites where infection of macrophages occurs and the link to pathogenesis is only partly known and is clear only for infection of the central nervous system. A model linking viral evolution to these two pathways has been proposed. Finally, other disease states related to immunodeficiency may be the result of viral infection of additional tissues, although the evidence for a direct role for the virus is less strong. Advancing immunodeficiency creates an environment in which viral evolution results in viral variants that can target new cell types to generate yet another class of opportunistic infections (i.e., HIV-1 with altered tropism). PMID:23143844

Swanstrom, Ronald; Coffin, John

2012-01-01

302

Lagos bat virus in Kenya.  

PubMed

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-04-01

303

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-04-01

304

THE SIZE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

The sedimentation behavior of influenza virus in dilute solutions of electrolyte was found to be quite variable. At times the virus activity appeared to sediment at a rate comparable with that of particles about 80 to 120 mµ in diameter, at other times at a rate comparable with that of particles about 10 mµ in diameter, and at still other times the bulk of the activity appeared to sediment at a rate comparable with that of the larger particles and the residual activity at a rate comparable with that of the smaller particles. However, in the presence of a sucrose density gradient, the virus activity was always found to sediment with a rate comparable to that of particles about 80 to 120 mµ in diameter; hence it appeared that the variable sedimentation behavior in dilute electrolyte solution was due to convection or mechanical disturbances during centrifugation. About 30 per cent of the high molecular weight protein present in the allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with the F 12 strain of influenza virus was found to consist of a component having a sedimentation constant of about 30 S, and hence a probable particle diameter of about 10 mµ. The residual protein of high molecular weight was present in the form of a component having a sedimentation constant of about 600 S, and hence a probable particle diameter of about 70 mµ. The proportion of the 30 S component in allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with the PR8 strain of influenza virus was found to be considerably less. The 600 S and 30 S components of F 12 allantoic fluid were purified and separated by differential centrifugation. The purified preparations of the 600 S component were found to possess a specific virus activity from 100 to over 10,000 times that of the purified preparations of the 30 S component, the difference in activity apparently depending only on the degree of fractionation of the two components. The purified 30 S component was found to sediment normally in the presence of 12 per cent sucrose, whereas the small residual virus activity of such preparations was found to sediment in the presence of a sucrose density gradient with a rate comparable to that of much heavier particles. It is concluded that influenza virus activity is not associated with material having a particle diameter of about 10 mµ, but is associated solely with material having a sedimentation constant of about 600 S and hence a probable particle diameter of about 70 mµ. PMID:19871369

Stanley, W. M.

1944-01-01

305

Replication-defective viruses as vaccines and vaccine vectors Tim Dudek a,b  

E-print Network

, such as human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus. Therefore, new types of vaccines are needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Herpes simplex virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Herpes simplex virus

Knipe, David M.

306

Macro Viruses 1. CyberCIEGE Macro Viruses  

E-print Network

the "Campaign Player" seen in figure 1. December 6, 2005 Lab 1-1 #12;Macro Viruses Figure 1: Select "Life In your first time through, don't make any configuration changes. Just press the "esc" key to move past each balloon text. Don't even bother to click the "Objectives" button. See what happens if you just let

307

The tale of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.  

PubMed

In 2006, a new retrovirus was isolated from prostate cancer patient tissue. Named xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), this was potentially the third class of retrovirus to be pathogenic in humans. XMRV made a more dramatic impact on the wider scientific community, and indeed the media, in 2009 when it was reported to be present in a remarkably high proportion of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome as well as a significant, albeit smaller, proportion of healthy controls. The apparent strong link to disease and the fear of a previously unknown retrovirus circulating in the general population lead to a surge in XMRV research. Subsequent studies failed to find an association of XMRV with disease and, in most cases, failed to find the virus in human samples. In 2011, the case against XMRV and human disease strengthened, ending with several decisive publications revealing the origin of the virus and demonstrating contamination of samples. In this review, we outline the passage of research on XMRV and its potential association with disease from its isolation to the present day, where we find ourselves at the end of a turbulent story. PMID:22357751

Groom, Harriet C T; Bishop, Kate N

2012-05-01

308

Viruses and host evolution: virus-mediated self identity.  

PubMed

Virus evolution has become a topic that involves population based selection. Both quasispecies based populations and reticulated mosaic exchange of populations of genetic elements are now well established. This has led us to the understanding that a cooperative consortia can be a crucial aspect of virus driven evolution. Thus viruses exist in groups that can cooperate. However, consortial based evolution (group selection) has long been dismissed by evolutionary biologist. Recently, biocommunication theory has concluded that the evolution and editing of any code or language requires a consortial based process in order to adhere to pragmatic (context) requirements for meaning (in conflict with survival of the fittest concepts). This has led to the idea that viruses are the natural editors of biological codes or language. In this chapter, I present the view that the persistence of virus information in their host provides a natural process of host code editing that is inherently consortial. Since persistence requires mechanisms to attain stability and preclude competition, it also provided mechanisms that promote group identity. Accordingly, I review the viral origins of addiction modules and how these affect both persistence and group identity. The concepts emerging from addiction module based group identity are then generalized and applied to social identity systems as well. I then examine the prokaryotes and the involvement of viral elements in the emergence of their group identity systems (biofilms). Here, integrating dsDNA agents prevailed. In the eukaryotes, however, a large shift in virus-host evolution occurred in which the role of dsDNA agents was diminished but the role of retroviruses and retroposons was greatly enhanced. These agents provided greatly expanded and network based regulatory complexity that was controlled by sensory inputs. From this perspective, the role of virus in the origin of the adaptive immune system is then outlined. I then consider human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity. PMID:22399381

Villarreal, Luis

2012-01-01

309

Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements. PMID:3015442

Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

1986-01-01

310

Newcastle disease virus: propagation, quantification, and storage.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a prototype paramyxovirus used to define basic steps in the life cycle of this family of viruses. NDV is also an ideal virus system for elucidating determinants of viral pathogenicity. Some strains of this virus are important agricultural pathogens that cause disease in poultry with a high mortality while other strains are avirulent and used for vaccines. Methods for preparation and titration of virus stocks are essential for all of these purposes. Procedures for growth and purification of NDV stocks in embryonated chicken eggs as well as in tissue culture cells are described. Use of embryonated chicken eggs to grow the virus is the superior method since infectious stocks of all strains of NDV result. Stocks of avirulent NDV prepared in tissue culture are noninfectious. Virus stocks are routinely titered using plaque assays or hemagglutination assays, both of which are described. PMID:18770579

McGinnes, Lori W; Pantua, Homer; Reitter, Julie; Morrison, Trudy G

2006-06-01

311

Expanding networks of RNA virus evolution  

PubMed Central

In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of dsRNA viruses. The results support the old scenario of polyphyletic origin of dsRNA viruses from different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses and additionally reveal extensive horizontal gene transfer between diverse viruses consistent with the network-like rather than tree-like mode of viral evolution. Together with the unexpected discoveries of the first putative archaeal RNA virus and a RNA-DNA virus hybrid, this work shows that RNA viral genomics has major surprises to deliver. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/91 PMID:22715894

2012-01-01

312

Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461

Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

2012-01-01

313

Vulnerability of unconfined aquifers to virus contamination.  

PubMed

An empirical formula was developed for determining the vulnerability of unconfined sandy aquifers to virus contamination, expressed as a dimensionless setback distance r(s)(*). The formula can be used to calculate the setback distance required for the protection of drinking water production wells against virus contamination. This empirical formula takes into account the intrinsic properties of the virus and the unconfined sandy aquifer. Virus removal is described by a rate coefficient that accounts for virus inactivation and attachment to sand grains. The formula also includes pumping rate, saturated thickness of the aquifer, depth of the screen of the pumping well, and anisotropy of the aquifer. This means that it accounts also for dilution effects as well as horizontal and vertical virus transport. Because the empirical model includes virus source concentration it can be used as an integral part of a quantitative viral risk assessment. PMID:20110099

Schijven, J F; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2010-02-01

314

[Ebola virus reproduction in cell cultures].  

PubMed

Ebola-Zaire virus production in Vero and BGM cells was studied. The CPE developed in both cell cultures. The cell monolayer destruction by 80-90% was seen at a low multiplicity of infection in 7-8 days after virus inoculation. An overlay composition was developed for virus titration using plaque assay. The plaque production was shown to be directly proportional to the virus dose. The curve of Ebola virus production in Vero cell culture fluid was determined. At a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 PFU/cell, the maximum virus titer of 10(6.4) PFU/ml was reached in 7 days postinfection. Specific antisera were generated by inoculation of guinea pigs. Indirect immunofluorescent assay was used for testing of virus-specific antigen and antibody. PMID:1279896

Titenko, A M; Novozhilov, S S; Andaev, E I; Borisova, T I; Kulikova, E V

1992-01-01

315

Repository of Eurasian influenza A virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1-H16 and N1-N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings. PMID:20600474

Keawcharoen, J; Spronken, M I J; Vuong, O; Bestebroer, T M; Munster, V J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Fouchier, R A M

2010-08-16

316

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

317

New vaccines against influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

318

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (;)

2004-05-01

319

Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

Woller, Norman; Gurlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kuhnel, Florian

2014-01-01

320

Herpes Simplex Virus: Dry Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dry mass of herpes simplex virus particles was measured by quantitative electron microscopy after isolation by surface spreading and critical-point drying of infected cells. The core weighed about 2 x 10 to the minus 16th power gram, the empty naked capsi...

F. Lampert, G. F. Bahr, A. S. Rabson

1969-01-01

321

Viruses Associated with Human Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 15–20% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance. PMID:18201576

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

322

A virus-based biocatalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

2007-04-01

323

Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

2000-01-01

324

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

325

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

326

Computer analysis identifies sequence homologies between potential gene products of Maize Streak Virus and those of Cassava Latent Virus and Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequences of the putative polypeptides of maize streak virus (MSV) have been systematically compared with those of cassava latent virus (CLV) and tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) using the programme DIAGON (8).

P. M. Mullineaux; J. Donson; M. I. Boulton; B. A. M. Morris-Krsinich; P. G. Markham; J. W. Davies

1985-01-01

327

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

328

Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names  

PubMed Central

A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

Jahrling, Peter B.

2010-01-01

329

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

330

Susceptibility of Echium plantagineum L. to tobacco mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, tobacco ringspot, and tobacco necrosis viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echiurn plantagineurn was infected locally by inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus strain U1 (TMV-U1) and systemically by TMV-U2, several isolates of alfalfa mosaic virus, tobacco ringspot virus and tobacco necrosis virus. However, bean yellow mosaic\\u000a virus, cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus Y, red clover necrotic mosaic virus, subterranean clover mottle virus, tomato spotted\\u000a wilt virus and velvet tobacco mottle virus,

J. W. Randles; Gien Osmond

1986-01-01

331

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Par? State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, Jose D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natalia S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

332

Pseudorabies Virus Infection Alters Neuronal Activity and Connectivity In Vitro  

E-print Network

-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV on motor and sensory neuron activity. For example, herpes simplex virus type 1 causes herpes labialis with the sensations of numbness and tingling [1]; herpes simplex virus type 2 causes genital herpes

Tank, David

333

Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus.  

PubMed Central

Thogoto and Dhori viruses are tick-borne orthomyxoviruses infecting humans and livestock in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Here, we show that human MxA protein is an efficient inhibitor of Thogoto virus but is inactive against Dhori virus. When expressed in the cytoplasm of stably transfected cell lines, MxA protein interfered with the accumulation of Thogoto viral RNA and proteins. Likewise, MxA(R645), a mutant MxA protein known to be active against influenza virus but inactive against vesicular stomatitis virus, was equally efficient in blocking Thogoto virus growth. Hence, a common antiviral mechanism that is distinct from the antiviral action against vesicular stomatitis virus may operate against both influenza virus and Thogoto virus. When moved to the nucleus with the help of a foreign nuclear transport signal, MxA(R645) remained active against Thogoto virus, indicating that a nuclear step of virus replication was inhibited. In contrast, Dhori virus was not affected by wild-type or mutant MxA protein, indicating substantial differences between these two tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. Human MxB protein had no antiviral activity against either virus. PMID:7745744

Frese, M; Kochs, G; Meier-Dieter, U; Siebler, J; Haller, O

1995-01-01

334

Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

1967-01-01

335

Powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.  

PubMed

Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) TCD(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

McLean, D M; Cobb, C; Gooderham, S E; Smart, C A; Wilson, A G; Wilson, W E

1967-03-18

336

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein C Protects Mice against Herpes Simplex Virus Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) was isolated and cloned into a vaccinia virus insertion vector, and the resulting vaccinia-gC vector was used to construct a recombinant vaccinia virus that expressed gC (VVgC5). Infection of cells with VVgC5 resulted in cell surface expression of authentic HSV-1 gC. HSV-1 gC-specific neutralizing antibodies were

JERRY P. WEIR; MALCOLM BENNETT; ELIZABETH M. ALLEN; KAREN L. ELKINS; STEPHEN MARTIN; BARRY T. ROUSE

1989-01-01

337

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

338

Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii) There is evidence that most new human pandemic strains and variants have originated in southern China. (viii) There is speculation that pigs may serve as the intermediate host in genetic exchange between influenza viruses in avian and humans, but experimental evidence is lacking. (ix) Once the ecological properties of influenza viruses are understood, it may be possible to interdict the introduction of new influenza viruses into humans. Images PMID:1579108

Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y

1992-01-01

339

Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSV?G) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. PMID:24814925

Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

2014-08-01

340

Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

2014-11-01

341

Full Genome Sequencing of Corriparta Virus, Identifies California Mosquito Pool Virus as a Member of the Corriparta virus Species  

PubMed Central

The species Corriparta virus (CORV), within the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, currently contains six virus strains: corriparta virus MRM1 (CORV-MRM1); CS0109; V654; V370; Acado virus and Jacareacanga virus. However, lack of neutralization assays, or reference genome sequence data has prevented further analysis of their intra-serogroup/species relationships and identification of individual serotypes. We report whole-genome sequence data for CORV-MRM1, which was isolated in 1960 in Australia. Comparisons of the conserved, polymerase (VP1), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins encoded by genome segments 1, 2 and 8 (Seg-1, Seg-2 and Seg-8) respectively, show that this virus groups with the other mosquito borne orbiviruses. However, highest levels of nt/aa sequence identity (75.9%/91.6% in Seg-2/T2: 77.6%/91.7% in Seg-8/T13, respectively) were detected between CORV-MRM1 and California mosquito pool virus (CMPV), an orbivirus isolated in the USA in 1974, showing that they belong to the same virus species. The data presented here identify CMPV as a member of the Corriparta virus species and will facilitate identification of additional CORV isolates, diagnostic assay design and epidemiological studies. PMID:24015178

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Guimera, Marc; Brownlie, Joe; Tesh, Robert; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2013-01-01

342

Ebola virus infection: an overview.  

PubMed

The current outbreak of the Ebola virus infection in Africa has yet again proven that highly dangerous diseases that are transmitted via the blood-borne route may be endemic in some parts of the world and may emerge as sporadic outbreaks causing worldwide concern. Health care professionals are at the forefront of combatting these diseases and treating infected individuals. Though dental professionals are unlikely to be directly involved in the management of such acute infections, with very high mortality rates, they may encounter patients seeking dental treatment who are either from, or who have recently toured the endemic disease areas. This overview, therefore, is a thumb nail sketch of the Ebola virus infection and its implications for dentistry. PMID:8935292

Samaranayake, L P; Peiris, J S; Scully, C

1996-04-01

343

Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

Hurwitz, Julia L

2011-01-01

344

West Nile Virus Maps - 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

345

West Nile Virus in California  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

2004-01-01

346

Genomic organization of Borna disease virus.  

PubMed Central

Borna disease virus is a neurotropic negative-strand RNA virus that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing disturbances in movement and behavior. We have cloned and sequenced the 8910-nucleotide viral genome by using RNA from Borna disease virus particles. The viral genome has complementary 3' and 5' termini and contains antisense information for five open reading frames. Homology to Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae is found in both cistronic and extracistronic regions. Northern analysis indicates that the virus transcribes mono- and polycistronic RNAs and uses termination/polyadenylylation signals reminiscent of those observed in other negative-strand RNA viruses. Borna disease virus is likely to represent a previously unrecognized genus, bornaviruses, or family, Bornaviridae, within the order Mononegavirales. Images PMID:8183914

Briese, T; Schneemann, A; Lewis, A J; Park, Y S; Kim, S; Ludwig, H; Lipkin, W I

1994-01-01

347

Chloroviruses: not your everyday plant virus.  

PubMed

Viruses infecting higher plants are among the smallest viruses known and typically have four to ten protein-encoding genes. By contrast, many viruses that infect algae (classified in the virus family Phycodnaviridae) are among the largest viruses found to date and have up to 600 protein-encoding genes. This brief review focuses on one group of plaque-forming phycodnaviruses that infect unicellular chlorella-like green algae. The prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 has more than 400 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. About 40% of the PBCV-1 encoded proteins resemble proteins of known function including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In many respects, chlorovirus infection resembles bacterial infection by tailed bacteriophages. PMID:22100667

Van Etten, James L; Dunigan, David D

2012-01-01

348

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever virus infections.  

PubMed

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever viruses are exotic to the American continent. Both viruses are spread by insect vectors, and each causes disease of varying severity in food-producing animals. However, there are few other similarities between the agents and the diseases that they cause. They do not share the same insect vectors, the mammalian host range is different, and the clinical manifestations of virus infection vary markedly. Akabane virus is a cause of severe congenital defects, but adult animals show no signs of infection. In contrast, bovine ephemeral fever virus causes a febrile illness affecting mainly mature animals. If introduced to North America, it is probable that there would be significant economic losses, at least until endemic virus transmission patterns were established. Subsequently, it is likely that there would be patterns of alternate disease outbreaks followed by interepidemic periods in which there is a minor clinical effect. PMID:12442580

Kirkland, Peter D

2002-11-01

349

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

350

Extracellular truncated influenza virus nucleoprotein.  

PubMed

In the culture medium of MDCK cells infected with influenza A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63(H3N8) virus two kinds of virus nucleoprotein (NP) are detected: full-length 56 kDa NP and truncated 53 kDa NP. However, in infected cells 53 kDa NP may be detected only at short pulse and after 10 min chase it becomes nondetectable. The extracellular truncated 53 kDa NP is detected in free RNP, and not in the virions. Both extracellular free 53 and 56 kDa NP in the virions are completely oligomerized. Several data argue against the possibility of extracellular 53 kDa NP formation being a result of extracellular 56 kDa NP proteolytic degradation. Thus, the accumulation of extracellular 53 kDa NP takes place only in the course of infection, and the amount of 53 kDa NP is not increased during prolonged storage of cell-free culture medium at +37 degrees C. Moreover, all extracellular 56 kDa NP of A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 influenza virus is present in the oligomeric form, and the latter, in contrast to the mononeric form, is highly resistant to proteases. The possibility is discussed that in the course of A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8) influenza virus infection a fraction of the synthesized 56 kDa monomeric NP undergoes the proteolytic cleavage in the infected cells before oligomerization and forms the 53 kDa NP. This 53 kDa NP is then oligomerized, enters the RNP and is quickly secreted from the cells. PMID:11451486

Prokudina, E N; Semenova, N P; Chumakov, V M; Rudneva, I A; Yamnikova, S S

2001-09-01

351

The virus-immunity ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of pathogenic viruses can be considered both in the context of survival in the macro-environments of nature, the\\u000a theme pursued generally by epidemiologists, and in the micro-environments of the infected host. The long-lived, complex, higher\\u000a vertebrates have evolved specialized, adaptive immune systems designed to minimise the consequences of such parasitism. Through\\u000a evolutionary time, the differential selective pressures exerted

P. C. Doherty; S. J. Turner

352

Replication of hepatitis C virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exciting progress has recently been made in understanding the replication of hepatitis C virus, a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. The development of complete cell-culture systems should now enable the systematic dissection of the entire viral lifecycle, providing insights into the hitherto difficult-to-study early and late steps. These efforts have already translated into the

François Penin; Charles M. Rice; Darius Moradpour

2007-01-01

353

Hepatitis C virus and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations. About 60% of patients infected with HCV\\u000a develop at least one extrahepatic manifestation. The majority of these diseases seem to be triggered through autoimmune mechanisms,\\u000a such as autoantibody production, autoreactive T cells and complex autoimmune mechanisms leading to systemic autoimmune disorders.\\u000a In this review we categorize these diseases into three

Barbara C. Böckle; Norbert T. Sepp

2010-01-01

354

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

2013-01-01

355

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2010-01-01

356

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2013-01-01

357

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2012-01-01

358

21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940 ...Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

359

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

... 2014-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

360

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2014-01-01

361

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2011-01-01

362

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2012-01-01

363

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occurrence of adenovirus and other enteric viruses in  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occurrence of adenovirus and other enteric viruses in limited-contact freshwater Introduction Recreational outbreaks caused by adenoviruses, coxsackie- viruses, echoviruses and noroviruses (CSOs) and stormwater are sources of viruses which could significantly impact recreational water quality

Illinois at Chicago, University of

364

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2014-01-01

365

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2014-01-01

366

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

2012-01-01

367

21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.  

...2014-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520... § 866.3520 Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

368

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2012-01-01

369

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2011-01-01

370

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2014-01-01

371

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2014-01-01

372

21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520... § 866.3520 Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

373

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2010-01-01

374

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2012-01-01

375

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2011-01-01

376

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

2011-01-01

377

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2013-10-01

378

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2013-01-01

379

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

2014-01-01

380

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2013-01-01

381

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2011-01-01

382

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2011-01-01

383

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2014-01-01

384

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2011-01-01

385

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2010-01-01

386

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2012-10-01

387

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2011-10-01

388

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2013-01-01

389

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2012-01-01

390

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2012-01-01

391

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2010-01-01

392

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

393

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2013-01-01

394

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian...

2010-01-01

395

21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940 ...Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

396

21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520... § 866.3520 Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

397

21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 ...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

2014-04-01

398

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2011-01-01

399

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2013-01-01

400

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2012-01-01

401

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2013-01-01

402

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

2010-01-01

403

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2014-01-01

404

Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following has been achieved. A virus containment facility was established in the Virus Research Centre (VRC) permitting the safe handling of specimens suspected to contain haemorrhagic fever viruses. Incidence and prevalence rates of disease and antib...

P. M. Tukei

1988-01-01

405

Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following has been achieved. A virus containment facility was established in the Virus Research Center (VRC) permitting the safe handling of specimens suspected to contain hemorrhagic fever viruses. Incidence and prevalence rates of disease and antibo...

P. M. Tukei

1988-01-01

406

Virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus.  

PubMed Central

The virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus consists of a single-stranded RNA with a molecular weight of approximately 4.0 x 10(6). The virion RNA did not bind to oligodeoxythymidylic acid-cellulose under conditions known to bind RNAs rich in polyadenylic acid and was not infectious under conditions which yielded infectious RNA from Sindbis virus, suggesting that Ebola virus virion nucleic acid is a negative-stranded RNA. PMID:7431486

Regnery, R L; Johnson, K M; Kiley, M P

1980-01-01

407

Persistent Seoul virus infection in Lewis rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Mechanistic studies of hantavirus persistence in rodent reservoirs have been limited by the lack of a versatile animal model. This report describes findings from experimental infection of inbred Lewis rats with Seoul virus strain 80–39. Rats inoculated with virus intraperitoneally at 6 days of age became persistently infected without clinical signs. Tissues from Seoul virus-inoculated 6-day-old rats were assessed

S. R. Compton; R. O. Jacoby; F. X. Paturzo; A. L. Smith

2004-01-01

408

Oligosaccharides as Receptors for JC Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

JC virus (JCV) belongs to the polyomavirus family of double-stranded DNA viruses and in humans causes a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Its hem- agglutination activity and entry into host cells have been reported to depend on an N-linked glycoprotein containing sialic acid. In order to identify the receptors of JCV, we generated virus-like particles

Rika Komagome; Hirofumi Sawa; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Shinya Tanaka; Walter J. Atwood; Kazuo Nagashima

2002-01-01

409

Modeling Transport of Viruses in Fractured Rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractured rock aquifers are frequently used for water supply for human consumption. In many instances the fractured rock aquifers are vulnerable to contamination by pathogens, including viruses, due to co-location of on-site septic systems, wastewater discharges, biosolids and agricultural activities. Approximately half of the illnesses associated with groundwater consumption in the Unites States have been attributed to viral contamination. A number of these cases have been related to transport of viruses from septic systems to drinking water wells. Despite the potential for rapid transport of viruses through rock fractures to drinking water wells, the understanding of virus transport in fractured rock is limited. In particular, the impacts of virus size, fracture aperture variability and roughness, matrix porosity, groundwater velocity, and geochemical conditions have not been well studied. In this study, a multidimensional model for virus transport in variable aperture fractures is presented. The model is applied to laboratory experiments on transport of virus-sized latex microspheres (0.02 and 0.2 microns) and bacteriophages (MS2 and PR772) in artificially fractured dolomite rocks. In these experiments significant impacts of particle size, fracture characteristics, groundwater velocity, and geochemistry were observed. Given the variability in aperture distribution and associated spatial variation in groundwater flow field, one-dimensional models were not suitable for a comprehensive evaluation of the mechanisms governing the microsphere and bacteriophage transport. Various relationships for virus retention (attachment and detachment) are evaluated to provide insight into the governing processes in virus transport in fractured rock. In addition, the role of virus size, fracture aperture variability, fracture roughness, fracture surface charge, matrix porosity, groundwater velocity, and ionic strength in virus transport are evaluated. Scale-up to the field is addressed to evaluate the potential travel distances of viruses in various fractured rock settings.

Sleep, B. E.; Mondal, P. K.

2011-12-01

410

Influenza A virus infections in Chinese landbirds  

E-print Network

Infl uenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People’s Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah E. Bush, Erica Spackman, David E. Swayne, and Hon S. Ip Water birds are considered the reservoir for avian in- fl uenza viruses. We examined... this assumption by sampling and real-time reverse transcription–PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Infl uenza A infection was found, particularly among migratory species. Surveillance programs for monitoring spread of these viruses need...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Bush, Sarah E.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Ip, Hon S.

2009-10-01

411

Nipah Virus Transmission in a Hamster Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions.

Emmie de Wit; Trenton Bushmaker; Dana Scott; Heinz Feldmann; Vincent J. Munster

2011-01-01

412

Therapy of Herpes Virus Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances have been achieved in the therapy of herpes virus infections of children over the past 25 years. Following\\u000a the demonstration that vidarabine was an efficacious treatment for neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, herpes\\u000a simplex encephalitis, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections of children, significant advances were achieved with the\\u000a development of second generation anti-viral drugs. The second

Richard J. Whitley

413

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

414

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-10-12

415

Virus Removal by Biogenic Cerium  

SciTech Connect

The rare earth element cerium has been known to exert antifungal and antibacterial properties in the oxidation states +III and +IV. This study reports on an innovative strategy for virus removal in drinking water by the combination of Ce(III) on a bacterial carrier matrix. The biogenic cerium (bio-Ce) was produced by addition of aqueous Ce(III) to actively growing cultures of either freshwater manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) Leptothrix discophora or Pseudomonas putida MnB29. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicated that Ce remained in its trivalent state on the bacterial surface. The spectra were consistent with Ce(III) ions associated with the phosphoryl groups of the bacterial cell wall. In disinfection assays using a bacteriophage as model, it was demonstrated that bio-Ce exhibited antiviral properties. A 4.4 log decrease of the phage was observed after 2 h of contact with 50 mg L{sup -1} bio-Ce. Given the fact that virus removal with 50 mg L{sup -1} Ce(III) as CeNO{sub 3} was lower, the presence of the bacterial carrier matrix in bio-Ce significantly enhanced virus removal.

De Gusseme, B.; Du Laing, G; Hennebel, T; Renard, P; Chidambaram, D; Fitts, J; Bruneel, E; Van Driessche, I; Verbeken, K; et. al.

2010-01-01

416

West Nile Virus Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. PMID:24300672

Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong

2013-01-01

417

West Nile Virus and wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

Marra, P. P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A. M.; Mclean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A. P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

2004-01-01

418

Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Viurus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully reduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystals grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were visually perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This stylized ribbon model shows the protein coat in white and the nucleic acid in yellow. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California at Irvin.

2000-01-01

419

Subterranean clover red leaf virus and bean yellow mosaic virus in alsike clover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were isolated from alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) grown in experimental plots on the Canterbury Plains. SCRLV caused reddening of older leaves, and BYMV caused yellowing and streaking of the leaves of infected plants. Some plants were infected by both viruses. A survey in the mid-altitude zone (50D-1000

J. W. Ashby

1976-01-01

420

Directed evolution of adeno-associated virus to an infectious respiratory virus  

E-print Network

in an organotypic human airway model to generate a highly infectious adeno-associated virus. This virus mediated epithelial Cl transport defect. Thus, under appropriate selective pressures, viruses can evolve to be more for gene therapy and for understanding emerging pathogens. The complexity of evolutionary forces that drive

Schaffer, David V.

421

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1  

E-print Network

- pretation of the data. A chronic in£ammatory disease of the central nervous system, namely HTLV-1-associatedCytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1 and human T during the chronic phase in human immunode¢ciency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been found

Nowak, Martin A.

422

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic habitats  

E-print Network

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic of Freshwater Biology dealing with viruses in freshwater ecosystems. It represents the first attempt to summarize progress in freshwater viral ecology made by diverse research groups and to direct attention

Jacquet, Stéphan

423

Prediction of HIV1 virus-host protein interactions using virus and host sequence motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Host protein-protein interaction networks are altered by invading virus proteins, which create new interactions, and modify or destroy others. The resulting network topology favors excessive amounts of virus production in a stressed host cell network. Short linear peptide motifs common to both virus and host provide the basis for host network modification. METHODS: We focused our host-pathogen study on

Perry Evans; William Dampier; Lyle Ungar; Aydin Tozeren

2009-01-01

424

Prevalence of a virus similar to human hepatitis B virus in swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to established evidence of the existence of a novel member of the hepadnavirus family endemic in swine. Temporarily this virus was designated as swine hepatitis B virus (SHBV). This SHBV can be detected by using human hepatitis B virus diagnostic kits including ELISA, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also seroprevalence of

Wengui Li; Ruiping She; Liqiang Liu; Hua You; Jun Yin

2010-01-01

425

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

426

Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Frederic Tangy*  

E-print Network

diseases in human, animals and plants. They represent a major public health problem since RNA viruses like of thousands of human death every year. However, pathologies induced by this class of viruses are highly comprehensive virus-host protein interaction maps, high- throughput technologies must be applied like yeast two-hybrid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of

Kenneth J. Cremer; Michael Mackett; Charles Wohlenberg; Abner Louis Notkins; Bernard Moss

1985-01-01

428

RNA complementary to the genome of RNA tumor viruses in virions and virus-producing cells.  

PubMed

Cells producing type C (avain sarcoma virus) or type B (mouse mammary tumor virus) RNA tumor viruses contain small amounts of RNA complementary to the viral genomes. The negative strands are complementary to at least 30 to 45% of the viral genomes and are found as RNA-RNA duplexes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells and in mature virions. PMID:185416

Stavnezer, E; Ringold, G; Varmus, H E; Bishop, J M

1976-10-01

429

Investigation of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in human and other cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was discovered in human prostate tumors and later in some chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. However, subsequent studies have identified various sources of potential contamination with XMRV and other murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related sequences in test samples. Biological and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that XMRV is distinct from known xenotropic MLVs and has a

Dhanya K. Williams; Teresa A. Galvin; Hailun Ma; Arifa S. Khan

2011-01-01

430

Antibody Responses against Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Envelope in a Murine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundXenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC). Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original

Natalia Makarova; Chunxia Zhao; Yuanyuan Zhang; Sushma Bhosle; Suganthi Suppiah; Jeanne M. Rhea; Natalia Kozyr; Rebecca S. Arnold; Hinh Ly; Ross J. Molinaro; Tristram G. Parslow; Eric Hunter; Dennis Liotta; John Petros; Jerry L. Blackwell; Shabaana Khader

2011-01-01

431

Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing outbreaks of filoviruses in Africa and concerns about their use in bioterrorism attacks have led to intense efforts to find safe and effective vaccines to prevent the high mortality associated with these viruses. We previously reported the generation of virus-like particles (VLPs) for the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) virus, and that vaccinating mice with Ebola VLPs (eVLPs)

Kelly L Warfield; Dana L Swenson; Diane L Negley; Alan L Schmaljohn; M. Javad Aman; Sina Bavari

2004-01-01

432

Vaccination of Macaques against Pathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccine vectors derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) that expressed simian immuno- deficiency virus (SIV) immunogens were tested in rhesus macaques as part of the effort to design a safe and effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus. Immunization with VEE replicon particles induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. Four of four vaccinated animals were protected against disease for

NANCY L. DAVIS; IAN J. CALEY; KEVIN W. BROWN; MICHAEL R. BETTS; DAVID M. IRLBECK; KATHRYN M. MCGRATH; MARY J. CONNELL; DAVID C. MONTEFIORI; JEFFREY A. FRELINGER; RONALD SWANSTROM; PHILIP R. JOHNSON; ROBERT E. JOHNSTON

2000-01-01

433

Processing and transport of environmental virus samples.  

PubMed Central

Poliovirus-seeded tap water, conditioned with MgCl2 and passed through virus-adsorbing filters, gave better poliovirus recovery than water identically treated but conditioned with AlCl3. Elution of several filter types with beef extract yielded higher recoveries than did elution with glycine. Seeded samples filtered through various filters and stored showed considerable virus loss in 2 days when stored at 4 degrees C, whereas those stored at -70 degrees C gave stable virus recovery up to 4 days. Additionally, the use of antifoam during the elution process reduced foaming and increased virus recovery by 28%. PMID:6331312

Dahling, D R; Wright, B A

1984-01-01

434

Flexible filamentous virus structure from fiber diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Fiber diffraction data have been obtained from Narcissus mosaic virus, a potexvirus from the family Flexiviridae, and soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a potyvirus from the family Potyviridae. Analysis of the data in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy data allowed us to determine the symmetry of the viruses and to make reconstructions of SMV at 19 {angstrom} resolution and of another potexvirus, papaya mosaic virus, at 18 {angstrom} resolution. These data include the first well-ordered data ever obtained for the potyviruses and the best-ordered data from the potexviruses, and offer the promise of eventual high resolution structure determinations.

Stubbs, Gerald; Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah; McCullough, Ian; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Ghabrial, Said (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky)

2008-10-24

435

Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.  

PubMed

Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

Chen, Tzu-Yen; Chen, Da-Yuan; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

2013-01-01

436

Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin  

PubMed Central

Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

2013-01-01

437

Structure of Semliki Forest virus core protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Alphaviruses are enveloped, insect-borne viruses, which contain a positive- sense RNA genome.,The protein,capsid,is sur- rounded by a lipid membrane, which is pen- etrated by glycoprotein,spikes. The structure of the,Sindbis virus,(SINV) (the type,virus) core protein (SCP) was,previously,determined and,found,to have,a chymotrypsin-like struc- ture. SCP is a serine proteinase,which,cleaves itself from,a polyprotein. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is among,the most,distantly related al- phaviruses

Hok-Kin Choi; Guoguang Lu; Sukyeong Lee; Gerd Wengler; Michael G. Rossmann

1997-01-01

438

Virus-PEDOT Nanowires for Biosensing  

PubMed Central

The separate fields of conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors and virus-based molecular recognition offer numerous advantages for biosensing. Grafting M13 bacteriophage into an array of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires generated hybrids of conducting polymers and viruses. The virus incorporation into the polymeric backbone of PEDOT occurs during electropolymerization via lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE). The resultant arrays of virus-PEDOT nanowires enable real-time, reagent-free electrochemical biosensing of analytes in physiologically relevant buffers. PMID:21038915

Arter, Jessica A.; Taggart, David K.; McIntire, Theresa M.; Penner, Reginald M.; Weiss, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

439

Viruses as Modulators of Mitochondrial Functions  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles with diverse roles including energy production and distribution, apoptosis, eliciting host immune response, and causing diseases and aging. Mitochondria-mediated immune responses might be an evolutionary adaptation by which mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. This makes them a target for all the invading pathogens including viruses. Viruses either induce or inhibit various mitochondrial processes in a highly specific manner so that they can replicate and produce progeny. Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This review will summarize the strategies employed by viruses to utilize cellular mitochondria for successful multiplication and production of progeny virus. PMID:24260034

Anand, Sanjeev K.; Tikoo, Suresh K.

2013-01-01

440

Nonsegmented Negative-Strand Viruses as Vaccine Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The live-virus vector era began in 1983, when Smith, Mack- ett, and Moss constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus ex- pressing hepatitis B surface antigen and demonstrated the in- duction of hepatitis B-specific antibodies in rabbits immunized with the recombinant virus (113). Subsequently, live-virus vec- tors were developed with other DNA viruses, such as adeno- viruses and herpesviruses, and with positive-strand

Alexander Bukreyev; Mario H. Skiadopoulos; Brian R. Murphy; Peter L. Collins

2010-01-01

441

Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.  

PubMed

Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses. PMID:25275541

Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

2014-10-01

442

Characterization of Uncultivable Bat Influenza Virus Using a Replicative Synthetic Virus  

PubMed Central

Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses. PMID:25275541

Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S.; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Richt, Juergen A.; Wentworth, David E.; Ma, Wenjun

2014-01-01

443

Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2014-01-01

444

Herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus infections in pregnancy: consequences of neonatal or intrauterine infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1\\/2 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belong to the human herpes viruses and are among the most ubiquitous viruses in the adult population. In spite of the fact that a large proportion of women at childbearing age are seropositive to these viruses, especially to HSV, primary or secondary infections with these viruses may occur during pregnancy.Genital

Meytal Avgil; Asher Ornoy

2006-01-01

445

A comparison of the antigens present on the surface of virus released artificially from chick cells infected with vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus and its white pock mutant  

PubMed Central

Antisera prepared against vaccinia and cowpox viruses were absorbed with purified suspensions of vaccinia virus, red cowpox and white cowpox viruses. They were then tested for their ability to neutralize the viruses, and to precipitate the virus soluble antigens. The results showed that some virus specific antigens were not virus surface components and that some components were present on the surface of all three viruses. However, certain components were detected on the surface of vaccinia virus but not on the surface of cowpox virus, and vice versa. Some evidence for the existence of a vaccinia-specific surface component was also obtained. Comparisons between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization. ImagesFig. AFig. BFig. CFig. DFig. EFig. FFig. G PMID:4624399

Baxby, Derrick

1972-01-01

446

Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia  

SciTech Connect

Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA)); Murray, R.S. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO (USA))

1988-04-01

447

Teaching themes Entry of viruses into cells: receptor binding, structural basis of the entry process and uncoating.  

E-print Network

important human and animal diseases are caused by RNA viruses - Influenza, Measles, SARS, Ebola, Polio Nadurelia capensis virus MS25CCMV Influenza virus Ebola virusMeasles virus SARS virus calicviruses dengue

Brierley, Andrew

448

The Cellular Protein La Functions in Enhancement of Virus Release through Lipid Rafts Facilitated by Murine Leukemia Virus Glycosylated Gag  

E-print Network

viruses that exit cells through lipid rafts employ a similarcells: interferon (IFN)-sensitive release through lipid raftslipid rafts, where efficient virus release occurs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cells.

Nitta, Takayuki; Tam, Raymond; Kim, Jung Woo; Fan, Hung

2011-01-01

449

Construction of Live Vaccines Using Genetically Engineered Poxviruses: Biological Activity of Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Expressing the Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen and the Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential live vaccines using recombinant vaccinia viruses have been constructed for both hepatitis B and herpes simplex. These recombinant vaccinia viruses express cloned genes of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) or the glycoprotein D from herpes simplex virus (HSV-gD). The HBsAg synthesized in vitro under the regulation of vaccinia virus is secreted from infected cells as a particle

Enzo Paoletti; Bernard R. Lipinskas; Carol Samsonoff; Susan Mercer; Dennis Panicali

1984-01-01

450

Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus infections.  

PubMed

The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most-promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses a single filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). Importantly, a single injection of blended rVSV-based filovirus vaccines was shown to completely protect nonhuman primates against Marburg virus and 3 different species of Ebola virus. These rVSV-based vaccines have also shown utility when administered as a postexposure treatment against filovirus infections, and a rVSV-based Ebola virus vaccine was recently used to treat a potential laboratory exposure. Here, we review the history of rVSV-based vaccines and pivotal animal studies showing their utility in combating Ebola and Marburg virus infections. PMID:21987744

Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz

2011-11-01

451

Roles of Target Cells and Virus-Specific Cellular Immunity in Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

There is an ongoing debate on whether acute human immunodeficiency virus infection is controlled by target cell limitation or by virus-specific cellular immunity. To resolve this question, we developed a novel mathematical modeling scheme which allows us to incorporate measurements of virus load, target cells, and virus-specific immunity and applied it to a comprehensive data set generated in an experiment involving rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. Half of the macaques studied were treated during the primary infection period with reagents which block T-cell costimulation and as a result displayed severely impaired virus-specific immune responses. Our results show that early viral replication in normal infection is controlled to a large extent by virus-specific CD8+ T cells and not by target cell limitation. PMID:15078967

Regoes, Roland R.; Antia, Rustom; Garber, David A.; Silvestri, Guido; Feinberg, Mark B.; Staprans, Silvija I.

2004-01-01

452

Transplacental Chikungunya Virus Antibody Kinetics, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to chikungunya virus were detected by hemagglutination-inhibition assay in 33.6% of 2,000 infants' cord sera at delivery. Follow-up of 24 seropositive infants showed that the half-life of antibody persistence was 35.5 days. Chikungunya virus infection is common in Thailand, and routine use of diagnostic assays is needed. PMID:17283634

Endy, Timothy P.; Simasathien, Sriluck; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Polprasert, Napuschon; Aree, Chanchai; Vaughn, David W.; Nisalak, Ananda

2006-01-01

453

A case of Ebola virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1976 an investigator at the Microbiological Research Establishment accidentally inoculated himself while processing material from patients in Africa who had been suffering from a haemorrhagic fever of unknown cause. He developed an illness closely resembling Marburg disease, and a virus was isolated from his blood that resembled Marburg virus but was distinct serologically. The course of the illness

R T Emond; B Evans; Etw Bowen; G Lloyd

1977-01-01

454

Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded human outbreak of Ebola virus was in 1976, but the wild reservoir of this virus is still unknown. Here we test for Ebola in more than a thousand small vertebrates that were collected during Ebola outbreaks in humans and great apes between 2001 and 2003 in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. We find evidence of

Eric M. Leroy; Brice Kumulungui; Xavier Pourrut; Pierre Rouquet; Alexandre Hassanin; Philippe Yaba; André Délicat; Janusz T. Paweska; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Robert Swanepoel

2005-01-01

455

Care of patients with ebola virus disease.  

PubMed

Caring for patients with Ebola virus disease requires strict biosafety protocols to eliminate exposure and ensure containment. Training and competency verification were critical to creation of a safe environment for nursing staff involved in the direct care of two patients with Ebola virus disease at Emory University Hospital. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2014;45(11):479-481. PMID:25365183

Smith, Elaine L; Rice, Karen L; Feistritzer, Nancye R; Hill, Carolyn; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Gentry, Janice

2014-11-01

456

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land  

E-print Network

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah�PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

Clayton, Dale H.

457

Immune Control of Hepatitis B Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects the liver of humans or humanoid primates. In humans, HBV infection often causes an inflammatory liver disease – hepatitis B. The virus is transmitted by perinatal, percutaneous and sexual exposure, as well as by close person-to-person contact. The latter occurs especially among young children, presumably by open cuts or sores. Vertical transmission from mothers

Tanja Bauer; Martin Sprinzl; Ulrike Protzer

2011-01-01

458

Marek's disease virus: from miasma to model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that causes various clinical syndromes in its natural host, the chicken. MDV has long been of interest as a model organism, particularly with respect to the pathogenesis and immune control of virus-induced lymphoma in an easily accessible small-animal system. Recent advances in MDV genetics and the determination of the chicken genome sequence,

Jeremy P. Kamil; Daniel Schumacher; B. Karsten Tischer; Sascha Trapp; Nikolaus Osterrieder

2006-01-01

459

Viruses in Water: The Problem, Some Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing population and industrialization places heavy demands on water resources making recycling of wastewaters for domestic consumption inevitable. Eliminating human pathogenic viruses is a major problem of reclaiming wastewater. Present water treatment methods may not be sufficient to remove viruses. (MR)

Gerba, Charles P.; And Others

1975-01-01

460

Computer Virus Bibliography, 1988-1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists 14 books, 154 journal articles, 34 newspaper articles, and 3 research papers published during 1988-1989 on the subject of computer viruses, software protection and 'cures', virus hackers, and other related issues. Some of the sources listed include Computers and Security, Computer Security Digest, PC Week, Time, the New…

Bologna, Jack, Comp.

461

Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand. PMID:23171736

Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud

2012-01-01

462

Lettuce necrotic yellows virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce necrotic yellows virus, found in lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) near Blenheim in 1965 caused severe losses in an Auckland lettuce crop in 1969. The virus was transmitted between S. oleraceus plants by the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae L., which occurs throughout the year but is least plentiful during winter. Most infectivity in sap extracts was

P. R. Fry; R. C. Close; C. H. Procter; R. Sunde

1973-01-01

463

Virology: Independent virus development outside a host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are thought to be functionally inactive once they are outside and independent of their host cell. Here we describe an exceptional property of a newly discovered virus that infects a hyperthermophilic archaeon growing in acidic hot springs: the lemon-shaped viral particle develops a very long tail at each of its pointed ends after being released from its host cell.

Monika Häring; Gisle Vestergaard; Reinhard Rachel; Lanming Chen; Roger A. Garrett; David Prangishvili

2005-01-01

464

Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus.  

PubMed

A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology. PMID:1066697

Yalow, R S; Gross, L

1976-08-01

465

An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of dengue virus  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a major public health threat. The virus poses risk to 2.5 billion people worldwide and causes 50 to 100 million human infections each year. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral therapy is currently available for prevention and treatment of DENV infection. Here, we report a previously undescribed adenosine analog, NITD008, that potently inhibits DENV both in vitro and in vivo. In addition to the 4 serotypes of DENV, NITD008 inhibits other flaviviruses, including West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and Powassan virus. The compound also suppresses hepatitis C virus, but it does not inhibit nonflaviviruses, such as Western equine encephalitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. A triphosphate form of NITD008 directly inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of DENV, indicating that the compound functions as a chain terminator during viral RNA synthesis. NITD008 has good in vivo pharmacokinetic properties and is biologically available through oral administration. Treatment of DENV-infected mice with NITD008 suppressed peak viremia, reduced cytokine elevation, and completely prevented the infected mice from death. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was achieved when rats were orally dosed with NITD008 at 50 mg/kg daily for 1 week. However, NOAEL could not be accomplished when rats and dogs were dosed daily for 2 weeks. Nevertheless, our results have proved the concept that a nucleoside inhibitor could be developed for potential treatment of flavivirus infections. PMID:19918064

Yin, Zheng; Chen, Yen-Liang; Schul, Wouter; Wang, Qing-Yin; Gu, Feng; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Kondreddi, Ravinder Reddy; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Goh, Anne; Xu, Hao Ying; Liu, Wei; Liu, Boping; Lim, Joanne Y. H.; Ng, Chuan Young; Qing, Min; Lim, Chin Chin; Yip, Andy; Wang, Gang; Chan, Wai Ling; Tan, Hui Pen; Lin, Kai; Zhang, Bo; Zou, Gang; Bernard, Kristen A.; Garrett, Christine; Beltz, Karen; Dong, Min; Weaver, Margaret; He, Handan; Pichota, Arkadius; Dartois, Veronique; Keller, Thomas H.; Shi, Pei-Yong

2009-01-01

466

Molecular mechanisms of measles virus persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As measles virus causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and measles inclusion body encephalitis due to its ability to establish human persistent infection, without symptoms for the time between the acute infection and the onset of clinical symptoms, it has been the paradigm for a long term persistent as opposed to chronic infection by an RNA virus. We have reviewed the mechanisms

Bertus K. Rima; W. Paul Duprex

2005-01-01

467

Cytomorphological changes during Nariva virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fatal encephalitis developed in newborn Swiss mice following intracerebral inoculation with Nariva virus. By light microscopic examination Nariva virus encephalitis is characterized by a discreete astrogliosis, lymphocytic perivascular infiltrations and diffused microglial proliferation which occurred in form of nodules. Electron microscopic examination of infected mouse brain tissues revealed marked morphological damage to the neurons and the astroglial cells and

R. Walder; A. C. Dominguez; J. G. Tamayo

1971-01-01

468

Genetic resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Virus infection  

E-print Network

was the most resistant, followed by B2/B12, B2/B2, B19/B19, and B12/B12. Low levels of virus were recovered in the lungs of only the infected B2/B2 and B12/B12 haplotypes. Virus was easily detected in infected kidneys of all groups examined and levels...

Dzielawa, Jennifer Ann

2012-06-07

469

Targeting Surveillance for Zoonotic Virus Discovery  

PubMed Central

We analyzed a database of mammal–virus associations to ask whether surveillance targeting diseased animals is the best strategy to identify potentially zoonotic pathogens. Although a mixed healthy and diseased animal surveillance strategy is generally best, surveillance of apparently healthy animals would likely maximize zoonotic virus discovery potential for bats and rodents. PMID:23647732

Levinson, Jordan; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Olival, Kevin J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Johnson, Christine K.; Karesh, William

2013-01-01

470

Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We report dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) in Amazonas, Brazil. This virus was isolated from serum samples of 3 patients treated at a tropical medicine reference center in Manaus. All 3 cases were confirmed by serologic and molecular tests; 1 patient was co-infected with DENV-3 and DENV-4. PMID:18394292

Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza Bastos, Michele; do Nascimento Melo, Miriam; de Souza Viana, Suziane; Mourao, Maria Paula Gomes; Costa, Cristovao Alves; Farias, Izeni Pires

2008-01-01

471

Recombination and Transmission Studies with Influenza Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past year studies of recombinant influenza virus vaccines have continued with a view to improvement of standard vaccines and the introduction of a new principle of mono-antigenic immunization. X-32, a recombinant virus containing the Hong Kong ...

E. D. Kilbourne

1972-01-01

472

Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... For example, an â??H7N2 virusâ?ť designates an influenza A virus subtype that has an HA 7 protein and ...

473

VIRUS-MEMBRANE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

SOLID-STATE 3'P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3 AND TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS Pieter Magusin #12;#12;SOLID-STATE 31P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3 AND TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS #12;Promotor: dr. T vakgroep Moleculaire Fysica #12;Pieter Magusin SOLID-STATE 31P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3

Hemminga, Marcus A.

474

Japanese encephalitis virus in meningitis patients, Japan.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569

Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

2005-03-01

475

Apoptosis induced by bovine ephemeral fever virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential significance of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)-induced apoptosis and involved viral molecules was fully unknown. In the present study, evidence is provided demonstrating that bovine ephemeral fever virus induces apoptosis in several cell lines. Five types of assays for apoptosis were used in examining BEFV-infected cells. (1) Assay for DNA fragmentation, (2) nuclear staining with acridine orange, (3)

Chia J. Chang; Wen L. Shih; Feng L. Yu; Ming H. Liao; Hung J. Liu

2004-01-01

476

Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Rhesus monkeys are protected from disease when a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus–based vaccine is administered 20–30 min after infection with Marburg virus. We protected 5/6 monkeys when this vaccine was given 24 h after challenge; 2/6 animals were protected when the vaccine was administered 48 h postinfection. PMID:20587184

Hensley, Lisa E.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Leung, Anders; Johnson, Joshua C.; Grolla, Allen; Feldmann, Heinz

2010-01-01

477

Advances in Oncolytic Virus Therapy for Glioma  

PubMed Central

The World Health Organization grossly classifies the various types of astrocytomas using a grade system with grade IV gliomas having the worst prognosis. Oncolytic virus therapy is a novel treatment option for GBM patients. Several patents describe various oncolytic viruses used in preclinical and clinical trials to evaluate safety and efficacy. These viruses are natural or genetically engineered from different viruses such as HSV-1, Adenovirus, Reovirus, and New Castle Disease Virus. While several anecdotal studies have indicated therapeutic advantage, recent clinical trials have revealed the safety of their usage, but demonstration of significant efficacy remains to be established. Oncolytic viruses are being redesigned with an interest in combating the tumor microenvironment in addition to defeating the cancerous cells. Several patents describe the inclusion of tumor microenvironment modulating genes within the viral backbone and in particular those which attack the tumor angiotome. The very innovative approaches being used to improve therapeutic efficacy include: design of viruses which can express cytokines to activate a systemic antitumor immune response, inclusion of angiostatic genes to combat tumor vasculature, and also enzymes capable of digesting tumor extra cellular matrix (ECM) to enhance viral spread through solid tumors. As increasingly more novel viruses are being tested and patented, the future battle against glioma looks promising. PMID:19149710

Haseley, Amy; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Kaur, Balveen

2009-01-01

478

Environmental persistence of vaccinia virus on materials.  

PubMed

Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, and ranks as one of the most serious diseases that could originate from a biological weapon. However, limited data exist on the persistence of variola and related viruses on materials (that may act as fomites), under controlled environmental conditions. To fill these data gaps, we determined the persistence of the vaccinia virus (an established surrogate for the variola virus) as a function of temperature, relative humidity and material. Experiments were conducted with vaccinia virus in a freeze-dried form, using four materials under four sets of environmental conditions. After elapsed times ranging from 1 to 56 days, the virus was extracted from small coupons and quantified via plaque-forming units (PFU). The vaccinia virus was most persistent at low temperature and low relative humidity, with greater than 10(4) PFU recovered from glass, galvanized steel and painted cinder block at 56 days (equivalent to only a c. 2 log reduction). Thus, vaccinia virus may persist from weeks to months, depending on the material and environmental conditions. This study may aid those responsible for infection control to make informed decisions regarding the need for environmental decontamination following the release of an agent such as variola. PMID:23815079

Wood, J P; Choi, Y W; Wendling, M Q; Rogers, J V; Chappie, D J

2013-11-01

479

Rabies virus infection of cultured rat sensory neurons.  

PubMed Central

The axonal transport of rabies virus (challenge virus strain of fixed virus) was studied in differentiated rat embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, we observed the attachment of rabies virus to neuronal extensions and virus production by infected neurons. A compartmentalized cell culture system was used, allowing infection and manipulation of neuronal extensions without exposing the neural soma to the virus. The cultures consisted of 60% large neuronal cells whose extensions exhibited neurofilament structures. Rabies virus demonstrated high binding affinity to unmyelinated neurites, as suggested by assays of virus adsorption and immunofluorescence studies. The rate of axoplasmic transport of virus was 12 to 24 mm/day, including the time required for internalization of the virus into neurites. The virus transport could be blocked by cytochalasin B, vinblastine, and colchicine, none of which negatively affected the production of virus in cells once the infection was established. It was concluded that, for the retrograde transfer of rabies virus by neurites from the periphery to the neuronal soma, the integrity of tubulin- and actin-containing structures is essential. The rat sensory neurons were characterized as permissive, moderately susceptible, but low producers of rabies virus. These neurons were capable of harboring rabies virus for long periods of time and able to release virus into the culture medium without showing any morphological alterations. The involvement of sensory neurons in rabies virus pathogenesis, both in viral transport and as a site for persistent viral infection, is discussed. Images PMID:2441076

Lycke, E; Tsiang, H

1987-01-01

480

Varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: Pathologic changes in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)–infected arteries include inflammation, thickened intima, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. Since no criteria have been established for early vs late VZV vasculopathy, we examined inflammatory cells and their distribution in 6 normal arteries, and 2 VZV-infected arteries 3 days after onset of disease (early) and 10 months after protracted neurologic disease (late). Methods: VZV-infected temporal artery obtained 3 days after onset of ischemic optic neuropathy from an 80-year-old man, VZV-infected middle cerebral artery (MCA) obtained 10 months after protracted disease from a 73-year-old man, and 5 MCAs and 1 temporal artery from normal subjects, age 22–60 years, were examined histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies against VZV and inflammatory cell subsets. Results: In both early and late VZV vasculopathy, T cells, activated macrophages, and rare B cells were found in adventitia and intima. In adventitia of early VZV vasculopathy, neutrophils and VZV antigen were abundant and a thickened intima was associated with inflammatory cells in vaso vasorum vessels. In media of late VZV vasculopathy, viral antigen, but not leukocytes, was found. VZV was not seen in inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells were absent in control arteries. Conclusions: Both VZV and neutrophils exclusively in adventitia in early VZV vasculopathy indicate that disease begins there. Late VZV vasculopathy is distinguished by viral antigen without inflammation in media, revealing a human virus in an immunoprivileged arterial media. Association of thickened intima and inflammation in vaso vasorum vessels in early VZV vasculopathy support the role of virus-induced inflammation in vessel wall remodeling. PMID:23243076

Traktinskiy, Igor; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Frid, Maria G.; Choe, Alexander; Gilden, Don

2013-01-01

481

[Forest ecosystems and Ebola virus].  

PubMed

Despite data collected since the emergence of the Ebola virus in 1976, its natural transmission cycle and especially the nature of its reservoirs and means of transmission are still an enigma. This means that effective epidemiological surveillance and prevention are difficult to implement. The location of outbreak areas has suggested that the reservoir and the transmission cycle of the Ebola virus are closely linked to the rainforest ecosystem. The fact that outbreaks seldom occur suggests the presence of a rare animal reservoir having few contacts with man. Paradoxically, various serological investigations have shown a high prevalence in human beings, especially in forest areas of the Central African Republic (CAR), with no pathology associated. This would appear to suggest a circulation of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains as well as frequent contacts with man. The ecological changes resulting from human activity (agriculture and logging) account for the modification of the fauna (movement of rainforest fauna, introduction of savannah species) and could explain a multiplication of contacts. Likewise, it is interesting to note that the centre of outbreaks has always been in areas bordering on forests (ecotone foreset-savannah in the Democratic Republic of Congo, savannah in Sudan). All these considerations have led us to establish a permanent "watch" in areas bordering on forests in the CAR, involving a multidisciplinary approach to the virological study (strain isolation, molecular biology) of the biodiversity of small terrestrial mammals. The results of a study conducted on 947 small mammals has shown for the first time the presence of the Ebola virus genome in two species of rodents and one species of shrew living in forest border areas. These animals must be considered as intermediary hosts and research should now focus on reservoirs in the ecosystem of forest border areas where contacts with man are likely to be more frequent. PMID:11030051

Morvan, J M; Nakouné, E; Deubel, V; Colyn, M

2000-07-01

482

Influenza A virus recycling revisited.  

PubMed Central

Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030

Dowdle, W. R.

1999-01-01

483

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common mode of transmission and both are able to induce a chronic infection. Dual HBV/HCV chronic coinfection is a fairly frequent occurrence, especially in high endemic areas and among individuals at high risk of parenterally transmitted infections. The intracellular interplay between HBV and HCV has not yet been sufficiently clarified, also due to the lack of a proper in vitro cellular model. Longitudinal evaluation of serum HBV DNA and HCV RNA amounts has revealed that complex virological profiles may be present in coinfected patients. Dual HBV/HCV infection has been associated to a severe course of the liver disease and to a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the clinical importance, solid evidence and clear guidelines for treatment of this special population are still lacking. This review summarizes the available data on the virological and clinical features as well as the therapeutic options of the dual HBV/HCV infection, and highlights the aspects that need to be better clarified. PMID:25356020

Caccamo, Gaia; Saffioti, Francesca; Raimondo, Giovanni

2014-01-01