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Sample records for magnesium oxide surface

  1. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... repeatedly. Magnesium oxide also is used as a dietary supplement when the amount of magnesium in the diet ... any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each ...

  2. Influence of corrosive solutions on microhardness and chemistry of magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted on cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved to specimen size along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in corrosive solutions containing HCl, NaOH, or HNO3 and in water without exposing the specimen to any other environment. The results indicated that chloride (such as MgCl2) and sodium films are formed on the magnesium oxide surface as a result of interactions between an HCl-containing solution and a cleaved magnesium oxide surface. The chloride films soften the magnesium oxide surface. In this case microhardness is strongly influenced by the pH value of the solution. The lower the pH, the lower the microhardness. Sodium films, which are formed on the magnesium oxide surface exposed to an NaOH containing solution, do not soften the magnesium oxide surface.

  3. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  4. Methanol adsorption on magnesium oxide surface with defects: a DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branda, M. M.; Ferullo, R. M.; Belelli, P. G.; Castellani, N. J.

    2003-03-01

    The methanol adsorption on several defects of the magnesium oxide surface were studied. Structural and electronic study with geometrical optimization and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis were performed using a density functional theory (DFT) method. Oxygen and magnesium with different coordination numbers have very different reactivity in this surface producing dissociated and non-dissociated species. These results are in agreement with infrared spectroscopy observations where CH 3OH, OCH 3 and OH species were found in defective MgO surfaces.

  5. Physicochemistry of the surface of and exoemission from magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, I. V.

    2010-02-01

    To optimize the processes of obtaining MgO with the highest possible exoemission intensity and time of decay, the influence of dehydration conditions and the subsequent adsorption of active gases (H2, O2, and H2O vapor) on its parameters was investigated. The nature of adsorption centers and exoemission is discussed, based on the results obtained using the latest literature data on dehydration processes, as are the formation of defects on the MgO surface (coloring centers) and their interaction with hydrogen and oxygen. Due to the introduction of exoemissionally active MgO in the manufacturing of plasma displays, the literature data dealing with the exposure of extremely active grains of oxide monocrystals containing exoemission centers (OH-groups) are examined.

  6. How surface reparation prevents catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on atomic gold at defective magnesium oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Töpfer, Kai; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-07-21

    In this contribution, we study using first principles the co-adsorption and catalytic behaviors of CO and O2 on a single gold atom deposited at defective magnesium oxide surfaces. Using cluster models and point charge embedding within a density functional theory framework, we simulate the CO oxidation reaction for Au1 on differently charged oxygen vacancies of MgO(001) to rationalize its experimentally observed lack of catalytic activity. Our results show that: (1) co-adsorption is weakly supported at F(0) and F(2+) defects but not at F(1+) sites, (2) electron redistribution from the F(0) vacancy via the Au1 cluster to the adsorbed molecular oxygen weakens the O2 bond, as required for a sustainable catalytic cycle, (3) a metastable carbonate intermediate can form on defects of the F(0) type, (4) only a small activation barrier exists for the highly favorable dissociation of CO2 from F(0), and (5) the moderate adsorption energy of the gold atom on the F(0) defect cannot prevent insertion of molecular oxygen inside the defect. Due to the lack of protection of the color centers, the surface becomes invariably repaired by the surrounding oxygen and the catalytic cycle is irreversibly broken in the first oxidation step. PMID:27345190

  7. Plastic deformation of a magnesium oxide 001-plane surface produced by cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattori, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Okada, T.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine plastic deformation of a cleaved single-crystal magnesium oxide 001-plane surface exposed to cavitation. Cavitation damage experiments were carried out in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (2 mm) to the surface of the cleaved specimen. The dislocation-etch-pit patterns induced by cavitation were examined and compared with that of microhardness indentations. The results revealed that dislocation-etch-pit patterns around hardness indentations contain both screw and edge dislocations, while the etch-pit patterns on the surface exposed to cavitation contain only screw dislocations. During cavitation, deformation occurred in a thin surface layer, accompanied by work-hardening of the ceramic. The row of screw dislocations underwent a stable growth, which was analyzed crystallographically.

  8. Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ► The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ∼250 °C. ► MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ∼90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ∼250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

  9. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... light magnesium oxide. Heating the salts under more rigorous conditions (1200 °C for 12 hours)...

  11. Magnesium: Engineering the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. B.; Yang, H. Y.; Abbott, T. B.; Easton, M. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys provide numerous benefits as lightweight materials; however, industrial deployment of Mg in most instances requires anticorrosion coatings. Engineering the Mg surface is an area that has been undergoing intense research recently. Surface engineering commences with the "pretreatment" step, which can be used to modify the surface composition and morphology, resulting in surface enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Following this, electrochemical plating (including electro- and electroless plating) and conversion coatings have emerged as common means of coating Mg. In this study, we present the key aspects relating to the science and technology associated with pretreatment, electrochemical plating, and conversion coatings. This is followed by experimental examples of engineered surfaces of industrial relevance.

  12. In vitro biocompatibility of magnesium-incorporated submicro-porous titanium oxide surface produced by hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; An, Chang-Hyeon

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) oxide surface incorporating magnesium ions (Mg), produced by hydrothermal treatment using an alkaline Mg-containing solution, for future biomedical applications. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and optical profilometry. Mouse calvaria-derived osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoblastic gene expression on Mg-containing surfaces were compared with untreated Ti surfaces. Hydrothermal treatment resulted in Mg-incorporated Ti oxide layer with submicro-porous surface structures approximately 2 μm in thickness. ICP-AES analysis revealed Mg ions release from treated surfaces into the solution. The Mg-incorporated surface displayed significantly increased cellular attachment and ALP activity compared with untreated surface ( p < 0.05), and supported better cell spreading. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed notably higher mRNA expression of the osteoblast transcription factor genes (Dlx5, Runx2) and the osteoblast phenotype genes (ALP, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin) in cells grown on the Mg-incorporated surfaces than untreated surfaces. These results demonstrate that the Mg-incorporated submicro-porous Ti oxide surface produced by hydrothermal treatment may improve implant osseointegration by enhancing the attachment, spreading and differentiation of osteoblastic cells.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. Adsorption of titanium, chromium, and copper atoms on thin aluminum and magnesium oxide film surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Gazzaeva, M. E.; Vladimirov, G. G.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2012-04-01

    Methods of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), spectroscopy of characteristic electron energy losses (SCEEL), slow electron diffraction (SED), and contact potential difference (CPD) in ultrahigh vacuum are used to investigate the adsorption-emission properties and stability of two-component film systems formed by putting of Ti, Cr, and Cu atoms on MgO-Mo(011) and Al2O3-Mo(011) surfaces. All atoms have the properties of electronegative adsorbates. Continuous adatom monolayers are formed on the Al2O3-Mo(011) system surface, and three-dimensional islands are formed on the MgO-Mo(011) surface. The properties of monoatomic films on the oxide layer surface are close to those observed for bulk materials. No radical changes of the system properties are detected with increasing dielectric layer thickness. The thermal stability of the newly formed structures decreases in the order Ti, Cr, Cu, Al2O3(MgO), and Mo(011).

  3. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium...

  4. Uniform magnesium oxide adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, J. G.; Ecke, R.; Stoltenberg, J.; Vilches, O. E.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Kr adsorption on MgO is used to characterize the surface uniformity of MgO smoke and thermally decomposed Mg(OH)2. It is found that initially heterogeneous samples develop progressively sharper stepwise isotherms with increasingly-high-temperature heat treatment, apparently due to the removal of imperfections and high-energy facets, leaving surfaces of highly uniform (100) planes.

  5. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  6. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings. PMID:25942897

  7. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a)...

  9. Exoelectron emission from magnesium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klar, F.; Bansmann, J.; Glaefeke, H.; Fitting, H.-J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    1999-12-01

    Clean magnesium surfaces were created by evaporating Mg onto silicon wafers. When exposing the Mg surface to a low oxygen partial pressure, an exoelectron emission (EEE) is observed after a time delay of the order of several hours after evaporation. On a much shorter time scale, similar effects in exoemission from Mg and alkali metals have been observed previously. The results are discussed within a 'potential emission' model of exoelectrons during oxygen capture at the pure Mg surface, but extending the model by including an escape mechanism. A macroscopic quantitative description of the model is given, which is in good agreement with our measurements.

  10. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

  11. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ma, W H; Liu, Y J; Wang, W; Zhang, Y Z

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

  12. In situ loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide for real-time monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaige; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-10-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn2+ linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real-time monitoring of the catalytic reaction process of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol in an aqueous medium by observing the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. The intrinsic reaction kinetics and reaction mechanism of this reaction were also investigated. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitative in situ monitoring of catalytic chemical reaction processes.The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn2+ linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real

  13. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  14. Direct atomic-scale observation of layer-by-layer oxide growth during magnesium oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, He; Wu, Shujing; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhao, Dongshan E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-04-07

    The atomic-scale oxide growth dynamics are directly revealed by in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy during the oxidation of Mg surface. The oxidation process is characterized by the layer-by-layer growth of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystal via the adatom process. Consistently, the nucleated MgO crystals exhibit faceted surface morphology as enclosed by (200) lattice planes. It is believed that the relatively lower surface energies of (200) lattice planes should play important roles, governing the growth mechanism. These results facilitate the understanding of the nanoscale oxide growth mechanism that will have an important impact on the development of magnesium or magnesium alloys with improved resistance to oxidation.

  15. Adsorption of nitrogen oxide molecules to the surface of nanosized nickel clusters formed on the (111) surface of a magnesium oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remar, D. F.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2010-10-01

    The properties of the systems formed on deposition of Ni atoms on the (111) surface of a MgO film of thickness equal to six monomolecular layers grown on a Mo(110) crystal face and the adsorption of NO nitrogen oxide molecules to the system surface have been studied by methods of electron spectroscopy (AES, XPES, LEED, LEIBSS) and reflective infrared absorption spectroscopy. On deposition of Ni atoms on the surface of MgO at a substrate temperature of 600 K, three-dimensional islands of Ni are formed. The subsequent adsorption of NO results in molecule dissociation even at 110 K. The efficiency of this process depends on the morphology of the Ni layer.

  16. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  17. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  20. A surface site as polydentate ligand of a metal complex: Density functional studies of rhenium subcarbonyls supported on magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, A.; Neyman, K.M.; Staufer, M.; Belling, T.; Gates, B.C.; Roesch, N.

    1999-05-12

    Notwithstanding the importance of supported organometallic species as industrial catalysts, most are nonuniform mixtures, with only a few being well-characterized at the atomic level. Rhenium subcarbonyls on MgO, in contrast, consist of nearly uniform surface species and are among the best-studied organometallic complexes on oxides. EXAFS and infrared spectra showed that decomposition of the precursors [HRe(CO){sub 5}], [H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}], and [Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}] on MgO powder results in fragments, assigned as Re(CO){sub 3}{sup n+}, coordinated to surface ligands. The concept of a surface site as a polydentate ligand evokes the remarkable circumstance in which the adsorbate-substrate bonds are as strong as metal-ligand bonds in common transition metal complexes, as shown by the present investigation.

  1. Characterization of AZ31 magnesium alloy by duplex process combining laser surface melting and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cancan; Liang, Jun; Zhou, Jiansong; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Lingqian

    2016-09-01

    Top ceramic coatings were fabricated on the laser surface melting (LSM) modified AZ31 alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in a phosphate electrolyte. The effect of LSM treatment on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the bare and PEO treated AZ31 alloy was evaluated. Results showed that LSM treatment produced a homogeneous modified layer with redistributed intermetallic compounds, resulting in enhanced corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy. The LSM treatment had no obvious influence on the surface and cross-sectional microstructures of the PEO coatings on AZ31 alloy. Besides, MgO was the main constituent for PEO coatings, regardless of LSM pretreatment. However, the long-term corrosion properties of the PEO coated AZ31 alloy with LSM pretreatment revealed large enhancement. Based on the analysis of microstructure and corrosion property, the corrosion mechanisms of the PEO and LSM-PEO coated AZ31 alloy were proposed.

  2. Rapid formation of a superhydrophobic surface on a magnesium alloy coated with a cerium oxide film by a simple immersion process at room temperature and its chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Saito, Naobumi

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a facile, simple, time-saving method of creating a superhydrophobic surface on a magnesium alloy by a simple immersion process at room temperature. First, a crystalline CeO(2) film was vertically formed on the magnesium alloy by immersion in a cerium nitrate aqueous solution for 20 min. The density of the crystals vertically with respect to the magnesium alloy increased with increasing immersion time. Next, the film were covered with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS: CF(3)(CF(2))(7)CH(2)CH(2)Si(OCH(3))(3)) molecules within 30 min by immersion in a toluene solution containing FAS and tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)titanium (TTST: (CH(3))(3)SiO)(4)Ti). TTST was used as a catalyst to promote the hydrolysis and/or polymerization of FAS molecules. The FAS-coated CeO(2) film had a static contact angle of more than 150 degrees, that is, a superhydrophobic property. The shortest processing time for the fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface was 40 min. The contact angle hysteresis decreased with an increase in the immersion time in the cerium nitrate aqueous solution. The chemical stability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy AZ31 was investigated. The average static water contact angles of the superhydrophobic surfaces after immersion in the solutions at pH 4, 7, and 10 for 24 h were found to be 139.7 +/- 2, 140.0 +/- 2, and 145.7 +/- 2 degrees, respectively. In addition, the chemical stability of the superhydrophobic surface in the solutions at pH ranging from 1 to 14 was also examined. The superhydrophobic surfaces had static contact angles of more than 142 degrees in the solutions at pH ranging from 1 to 14, showing that our superhydrophobic surface had a high chemical stability. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic surface on the magnesium alloy was investigated using electrochemical measurements. PMID:20377219

  3. Isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24 is prepared from magnesium-24 oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellew, N. R.; Schilb, J. D.; Steunenberg, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus is used to prepare isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24, suitable for use in neutron scattering and polarization experiments. The apparatus permits thermal reduction of magnesium-24 oxide with aluminum and calcium oxide, and subsequent vaporization of the product metal in vacuum. It uses a resistance-heated furnace tube and cap assembly.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. Effects of environment on microhardness of magnesium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Micro-Vickers hardness measurements of magnesium oxide single crystals were conducted in various environments. These environments included air, nitrogen gas, water, mineral oil with or without various additives, and aqueous solutions with various pH values. Indentations were made on the (100) plane with the diagonals of the indentation in the (100) direction. The results indicate that a sulfur containing additve in mineral oil increased hardness, a chlorine containing additive in mineral oil decreased hardness, and aqueous solutions of hydrogen chloride decreased hardness. Other environments were found to have little effect on hardness. Mechanically polished surfaces showed larger indentation creep than did as-cleaved surfaces.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  12. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid combination powder is used to empty the colon (large intestine, ... oxide and anhydrous citric acid combine when the powder is mixed with water to form a medication ...

  13. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid combination powder is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a colonoscopy (examination of the inside of the colon to check ...

  14. Carbon dioxide adsorbents containing magnesium oxide suitable for use at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Weigel, Scott Jeffrey; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams at temperatures in the range of 300 to 500.degree. C. is carried out with a solid adsorbent containing magnesium oxide, preferably promoted with an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate so that the atomic ratio of alkali metal to magnesium is in the range of 0.006 to 2.60. Preferred adsorbents are made from the precipitate formed on addition of alkali metal and carbonate ions to an aqueous solution of a magnesium salt. Atomic ratios of alkali metal to magnesium can be adjusted by washing the precipitate with water. Low surface area adsorbents can be made by dehydration and CO.sub.2 removal of magnesium hydroxycarbonate, with or without alkali metal promotion. The process is especially valuable in pressure swing adsorption operations.

  15. Corrosion prevention of magnesium surfaces via surface conversion treatments using ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin

    2016-09-06

    A method for conversion coating a magnesium-containing surface, the method comprising contacting the magnesium-containing surface with an ionic liquid compound under conditions that result in decomposition of the ionic liquid compound to produce a conversion coated magnesium-containing surface having a substantially improved corrosion resistance relative to the magnesium-containing surface before said conversion coating. Also described are the resulting conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface, as well as mechanical components and devices containing the conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface.

  16. Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Victoria; Schilling, Achim; Mainka, Astrid; Hennig, Diana; Gerum, Richard; Kelch, Marie-Luise; Keim, Simon; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2016-05-18

    The biocompatibility of commercially pure magnesium-based (cp Mg) biodegradable implants is compromised of strong hydrogen evolution and surface alkalization due to high initial corrosion rates of cp Mg in the physiological environment. To mitigate this problem, the addition of corrosion-retarding alloying elements or coating of implant surfaces has been suggested. In the following work, we explored the effect of organic coatings on long-term cell growth. cp Mg was coated with aminopropyltriehtoxysilane + vitamin C (AV), carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), or stearic acid (SA). All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was measured after 1, 3, and 5 days of cell culture. We also investigated the speed of initial cell spreading after seeding using fluorescently labeled fibroblasts (NIH/3T3). Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together, these data demonstrate that surface coating with AV is a viable strategy for improving long-term biocompatibility of cp Mg-based implants. EIS measurements confirmed that the presence of a confluent cell layer increased the corrosion resistance. PMID:27089250

  17. Nanostructured magnesium oxide biosensing platform for cholera detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manoj K.; Azahar Ali, Md.; Agrawal, Ved V.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-04-01

    We report fabrication of highly crystalline nanostructured magnesium oxide (NanoMgO, size >30 nm) film electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate for Vibrio cholerae detection. The single stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) probe, consisting of 23 bases (O1 gene sequence) immobilized onto NanoMgO/ITO electrode surface, has been characterized using electrochemical, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, and UltraViolet-visible spectroscopic techniques. The hybridization studies of ssDNA/NanoMgO/ITO bioelectrode with fragmented target DNA conducted using differential pulse voltammetry reveal sensitivity as 16.80 nA/ng/cm2, response time of 3 s, linearity as 100-500 ng/μL, and stability of about 120 days.

  18. Oxide Film and Porosity Defects in Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Rhee, Hongjoo; Felicelli, Sergio D.; Sabau, Adrian S; Berry, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation in magnesium alloy AZ91. Microstructure analysis was performed on several samples obtained from gravity-poured ingots in graphite plate molds. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. Tensile tests and conventional four point bend tests were also conducted on specimens cut from the cast plates. Scanning electron microscopy was then used to observe the microstructure on the fracture surface of the specimens. The results of this study revealed the existence of abundant oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. Remnants of oxide films were detected on some pore surfaces, and folded oxides were observed in fracture surfaces indicating the presence of double oxides entrained during pouring.

  19. Surface Analytical Methods Applied to Magnesium Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Dauphin-Ducharme, Philippe; Mauzeroll, Janine

    2015-08-01

    Understanding magnesium alloy corrosion is of primary concern, and scanning probe techniques are becoming key analytical characterization methods for that purpose. This Feature presents recent trends in this field as the progressive substitution of steel and aluminum car components by magnesium alloys to reduce the overall weight of vehicles is an irreversible trend. PMID:25826577

  20. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  1. Laser-induced magnesium production from magnesium oxide using reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. S.; Yabe, T.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Mori, Y.; Shi-Hua, Liao; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2008-12-01

    Experiments for laser induced production of magnesium (Mg) from magnesium oxide (MgO) using reducing agents (R) were conducted. In these experiments, continuous wave CO{sub 2} focused laser is focused on a mixture of magnesium oxide and reducing agent. High power density of focused laser leads to high temperature and the reduction reaction resulting in Mg production. The resultant vapor is collected on a copper plate and analyzed in terms of magnesium deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies with various reducing agents such as Zr, C, and Si have been measured to be 60, 9.2, and 12.1 mg/kJ respectively. An excess addition of reducing agent over their corresponding reaction stoichiometric amounts is found to be optimum condition for the most of performed laser induced reactions. In addition, utilizing solar-pumped laser in Mg production with reducing agent will reduce CO{sub 2} emission and produce magnesium with high-energy efficiency and large throughput.

  2. Magnesium

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements are available? Magnesium is available in multivitamin-mineral supplements and other dietary supplements . Forms of magnesium ... higher intakes of magnesium have a higher bone mineral density , which is important in reducing the risk ...

  3. Electrical properties of magnesium oxide layers with different surface pretreatment on high mobility Ge1-xSnx and Ge MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chen-Yi; Lieten, Ruben; Bakalov, Petar; Tseng, Wei-Jhih; Dillemans, Leander; Menghini, Mariela; Smets, Tomas; Seo, Jin Won; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Germanium based channels are interesting for high performance CMOS devices because of their high carrier mobility. In this study, the electrical properties of MgO on both GeSn and Ge MOS capacitors have been investigated. The low equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 2.1 nm for MgO on GeSn with a Ge cap layer indicates the high potential for MOSFET applications. A surface treatment prior to oxide deposition is found essential to reduce the gate leakage. It is shown that HCl and H2O2 dipping followed by ozone treatment improves the leakage and leads to good capacitance-voltage (C-V) behavior.

  4. Improved transmittance measurement with a magnesium oxide coated integrating sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. L.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Simple and convenient technique has been found for extending transmittance measurement capability of conventional magnesium oxide coated integrating sphere system at low (near ultraviolet) wavelengths. Technique can be used to determine effect of contaminants on window materials and can also be used for measurements on thermal control coatings and telescope mirrors.

  5. A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quanxiao; Gao, Chong; Ding, Yanfen; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu

    2014-01-01

    A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period. PMID:24696526

  6. A study of the chemisorption of a series of aminophenols on plasma-grown aluminium and magnesium oxides by IETS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N. M. D.; Taggart, G. M.

    Inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy (IETS) has been applied to study the adsorption of a series of aminophenols on plasma-grown aluminium and magnesium oxides. Vapour-phase doping of these surfaces was used and spectra recorded for 1,2-aminophenol, 1,3-aminophenol and 1,4-aminophenol. The tunnel spectra of the 1,2- and 1,3-aminophenols show that their chemisorption at both oxide surfaces is via reaction between phenolic and surface hydroxyl groups. For the 1,4-aminophenol example, adsorbate chemisorption involves transfer of surface-bound protons from the oxide in amino-group protonation. Some of these protons are replaced by deprotonation of the phenol at surface oxide ions. Observed band intensities for all three systems on aluminium oxide are held to be indicative of an adsorbate orientation on the surface which is close to the vertical. In contrast, those for magnesium oxide are more consistent with a non-vertical configuration.

  7. Synthesis of micromesoporous magnesium oxide cubes with nanograin structures in a supercritical carbon dioxide/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Deok; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Sang Woo

    2011-07-01

    Micromesoporous magnesium oxide architectures with cubic morphologies were prepared via the chemical reaction of magnesium hydroxide in a supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2)-ethanol system, and via the sequential thermal combustion of the reaction products. The morphological change to the cube shape from an irregular form was induced by the dehydoxylation-carbonation reaction of magnesium hydroxide with supercritical CO2 at a reaction temperature of 150 degrees C, which leads to the greatly improved carbonation efficiency of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium carbonate. The precursor cubes with 3-5 microm sizes were decarbonized and transformed into the nanocrystalline MgO phase with pore sizes of 1.3-6 nm after calcining at 600 degrees C. The micromesoporous cube with high surface area of 117.5 m2/g was obtained by the thermal decarbonation with phase transition from rhombohedral to cubic phase. As a result, nanograined magnesium oxide cubes with micromesoporous structures and high specific surface areas were formed by the carbonation reaction of the magnesium hydroxide with the supercritical CO2, and the subsequent thermal decomposition of the magnesium carbonate cubes. PMID:22121614

  8. Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter A.; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-04-01

    Pure magnesium was recycled from partially oxidized 50.5 wt pct Mg-Al scrap alloy and AZ91 Mg alloy (9 wt pct Al, 1 wt pct Zn). Refining experiments were performed using a eutectic mixture of MgF2-CaF2 molten salt (flux). During the experiments, potentiodynamic scans were performed to determine the electrorefining potentials for magnesium dissolution and magnesium bubble nucleation in the flux. The measured electrorefining potential for magnesium bubble nucleation increased over time as the magnesium content inside the magnesium alloy decreased. Potentiostatic holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to measure the electronic and ionic resistances of the flux. The electronic resistivity of the flux varied inversely with the magnesium solubility. Up to 100 pct of the magnesium was refined from the Mg-Al scrap alloy by dissolving magnesium and its oxide into the flux followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. Solid oxide membrane electrolysis was also employed in the system to enable additional magnesium recovery from magnesium oxide in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. In an experiment employing AZ91 Mg alloy, only the refining step was carried out. The calculated refining yield of magnesium from the AZ91 alloy was near 100 pct.

  9. New insights into the fundamental chemical nature of ionic liquid film formation on magnesium alloy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Maria; Neil, Wayne C; Howlett, Patrick C; Macfarlane, Douglas R; Hinton, Bruce R W; Rocher, Nathalie; Kemp, Thomas F; Smith, Mark E

    2009-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) based on trihexyltetradecylphosphonium coupled with either diphenylphosphate or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide have been shown to react with magnesium alloy surfaces, leading to the formation a surface film that can improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The morphology and microstructure of the magnesium surface seems critical in determining the nature of the interphase, with grain boundary phases and intermetallics within the grain, rich in zirconium and zinc, showing almost no interaction with the IL and thereby resulting in a heterogeneous surface film. This has been explained, on the basis of solid-state NMR evidence, as being due to the extremely low reactivity of the native oxide films on the intermetallics (ZrO2 and ZnO) with the IL as compared with the magnesium-rich matrix where a magnesium hydroxide and/or carbonate inorganic surface is likely. Solid-state NMR characterization of the ZE41 alloy surface treated with the IL based on (Tf)2N(-) indicates that this anion reacts to form a metal fluoride rich surface in addition to an organic component. The diphenylphosphate anion also seems to undergo an additional chemical process on the metal surface, indicating that film formation on the metal is not a simple chemical interaction between the components of the IL and the substrate but may involve electrochemical processes. PMID:20355890

  10. The influence of surface microchemistry in protective film formation on multi-phase magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray-Munro, J. E.; Luan, B.; Huntington, L.

    2008-02-01

    The high strength:weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited their use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate by a process such as electroless plating, which is a low-cost, non line of sight process. Magnesium is classified as a difficult to plate metal due to its high reactivity. This means that in the presence of air magnesium very quickly forms a passive oxide layer that must be removed prior to plating. Furthermore, high aluminium content alloys are especially difficult to plate due to the formation of intermetallic species at the grain boundaries, resulting in a non-uniform surface potential across the substrate and thereby further complicating the plating process. The objective of this study is to understand how the magnesium alloy microstructure influences the surface chemistry of the alloy during both pretreatment and immersion copper coating of the substrate. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning Auger microscopy has been used to study the surface chemistry at the various stages of the coating process. Our results indicate that the surface chemistry of the alloy is different on the aluminum rich β phase of the material compared to the magnesium matrix which leads to preferential deposition of the metal on the aluminum rich phase of the alloy.

  11. Pulsed laser cleaning of aluminium-magnesium alloys: effect of surface modifications on adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autric, Michel; Oltra, Roland

    2008-05-01

    Surface cleaning is a key step in many industrial processes and especially in laser surface treatments. During laser cleaning of metallic alloys using pulsed lasers, surface modification can be induced due to transient thermal effect. In ambient atmospheric conditions, an oxidation of the cleaned surface can be detected. The aim of this work was to characterize this transient oxidation that can occur below the laser energy domain leading to any phase change (melting, ablation) of the cleaned substrate. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) with 10 ns pulse duration was used for this study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used for surface analysis of irradiated samples. Thermal oxidation took place on the aluminium-magnesium alloy (5000 series) during the irradiation in air (fluence range 0.6-1.4 Jcm-2). It has been demonstrated that this 10 ns laser thermal oxidation and the steady state thermal oxidation have the same mechanism. When the laser fluence reached 1 J cm -2 , the oxide formed by the thermal oxidation became in a large extent crystalline and its outer part was entirely covered by a continuous magnesium oxide layer.

  12. Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Metal oxide nanoparticles have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents in food safety applications due to their structure, surface properties, and stability. In this study, the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles (MgO NPs, with an average size o...

  13. Lignopolymers as viscosity-reducing additives in magnesium oxide suspensions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lisa R; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R; Erk, Kendra A

    2015-12-01

    Lignopolymers are a new class of polymer additives with the capability to be used as dispersants in cementitious pastes. Made with kraft lignin cores and grafted polymer side-chains, the custom-synthesized lignopolymers were examined in terms of the molecular architecture for viscosity reducing potential in inert model suspensions. Lignin-poly(acrylic acid) (LPAA) and lignin-polyacrylamide (LPAm) have been found to vary the rheology of magnesium oxide (MgO) suspensions based on differences in chain architecture and particle-polymer interactions. A commercial comb-polymer polycarboxylate ester was compared to LPAA and LPAm at 2.7 mg/mL, a typical dosage for cement admixtures, as well as 0.25mg/mL. It was found that LPAm was a more effective viscosity reducer than both LPAA and the commercial additive at low concentrations, which was attributed to greater adsorption on the MgO particle surface and increased steric dispersion from PAm side-chain extension. The influence of chain adsorption and grafted side-chain molecular weight on rheology was also tested. PMID:26275503

  14. Status of Research on Magnesium Oxide Backfill

    SciTech Connect

    PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BYNUM,R. VANN; WANG,YIFENG; KELLY,JOHN W.; ANDERSON,HOWARD; NOWAK,E. JAMES

    2000-07-31

    For the WIPP, chemical and physical characteristics of MgO suggest it to be the most beneficial backfill choice, particularly because it has the ability to buffer the aqueous chemical conditions to control actinide volubility. In the current experimental program, the authors are developing a technical basis for taking credit for the complete set of attributes of MgO in geochemical, hydrogeological, and geomechanical technical areas, resulting in an improved conceptual model for the WIPP such as the following. Water uptake by MgO will delay the development of mobile actinides and gas generation by microbes and corrosion. Reduced gas generation will reduce or even eliminate spallings releases. As MgO hydrates, it swells, reducing porosity and permeability, which will inhibit gas flow in the repository, in turn reducing spallings releases. Hydration will also result in a self-sealing mechanism by which water uptake and swelling of MgO adjacent to a groundwater seep cuts off further seepage. Reaction with some groundwaters will produce cementitious materials, which will help to cement waste particles or produce a cohesive solid mass. Larger particles are less likely to be entrained in a spallings release. If sufficient water eventually accumulates in a repository to support microbial gas generation, magnesium carbonate cements will form; also producing good cohesion and strength.

  15. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  16. [Photometric method of the detection of magnesium oxide in the working zone air after using magnesium caustic dust].

    PubMed

    Putilina, O N; Makarevskaia, V V

    1991-01-01

    The contributors proposed a new highly sensitive selective technique of magnesium oxide detection, based on the Congo red and salicylic acid reaction. The minimal detection level is 0.25 mg of magnesium oxide in the analyzed sample volume. The range of measured concentrations varies from 0.01 to 0.4 mcg/ml. The express technique is simple and selective with Ca (II), Fe (III), AI (III). PMID:2060814

  17. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Ulrich; Nienhaus, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  18. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemann, Ulrich; Nienhaus, Hermann

    2015-12-28

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  19. Highly mobile oxygen holes in magnesium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Minoru M.; Freund, Friedemann; Batllo, Francois

    1989-01-01

    High-purity MgO exhibits an unexpected giant anomaly of the apparent static dielectric constant and a positive surface charge of the order of 5 x 10 to the 21st/cu cm in the top 15 nm. It is postulated that the MgO matrix contains traces of peroxy defects, O2(2-), associated with Mg(2+) vacancies. Above approximately 400 C the O2(2-) dissociates to vacancy bound O(-) and highly mobile O(-) states, which diffuse to the surface, giving rise to a high surface conductivity.

  20. The effect of the existing state of Y on high temperature oxidation properties of magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaowen; Shen, Shijun; Jiang, Bin; Jiang, Zhongtao; Yang, Hong; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the effect of the existing state of Y element on the high temperature oxidation resistance of magnesium alloys. Different levels of Al element were added into Mg-2.5Y alloy to obtain different existing state of Y. The oxidation rate of Mg-2.5Y-2.5Al alloy is the highest among Mg-2.5Y, Mg-2.5Y-2.5Al and Mg-2.5Y-4.2Al alloys at 500 °C. An effective and protective Y2O3/MgO composite oxide film was formed on the surface of Mg-2.5Y alloy after oxidized at 500 °C for 360 min. The results show that the dissolved Y element in the matrix was beneficial to improve the oxidation resistance of magnesium alloys. Once Y element transformed to the high temperature stable Al2Y compound, its ability in preventing oxidation would disappear. The formation of Al2Y compound severely deteriorated the oxidation resistance of Mg-2.5Y alloy. In addition, the dissolved Al can also cause the rise of oxidation resistance at a certain extent.

  1. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  2. Novel process for recycling magnesium alloy employing refining and solid oxide membrane electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei

    Magnesium is the least dense engineering metal, with an excellent stiffness-to-weight ratio. Magnesium recycling is important for both economic and environmental reasons. This project demonstrates feasibility of a new environmentally friendly process for recycling partially oxidized magnesium scrap to produce very pure magnesium at low cost. It combines refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) based oxide electrolysis in the same reactor. Magnesium and its oxide are dissolved in a molten flux. This is followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium, which is subsequently condensed in a separate condenser. The molten flux acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium collected has high purity. Potentiodynamic scans are performed to monitor the magnesium content change in the scrap as well as in solution in the flux. The SOM electrolysis is employed in the refining system to enable electrolysis of the magnesium oxide dissolved in the flux from the partially oxidized scrap. During the SOM electrolysis, oxygen anions are transported out of the flux through a yttria stabilized zirconia membrane to a liquid silver anode where they are oxidized. Simultaneously, magnesium cations are transported through the flux to a steel cathode where they are reduced. The combination of refining and SOM electrolysis yields close to 100% removal of magnesium metal from partially oxidized magnesium scrap. The magnesium recovered has a purity of 99.6w%. To produce pure oxygen it is critical to develop an inert anode current collector for use with the non-consumable liquid silver anode. In this work, an innovative inert anode current collector is successfully developed and used in SOM electrolysis experiments. The current collector employs a sintered strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO 3-delta or LSM) bar, an Inconel alloy 601 rod, and a liquid silver contact in between. SOM electrolysis experiments

  3. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  5. Microstructural and physical properties of magnesium oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirota, V.; Lukianova, O.; Krasilnikov, V.; Selemenev, V.; Dokalov, V.

    Silicon nitride based ceramics with aluminum, yttrium and magnesium oxides were produced by cold isostatic pressing and free sintering. The phase composition of the starting MgO powder obtained by the novel technology has been studied. The effect of magnesium oxide content on the structure of the produced materials has been investigated. It was found, that obtained materials with 1 and 2 wt.% of magnesium oxide and without it have a typical β-silicon nitride structure with elongated grains. Ceramics with 5 wt.% magnesia has a duplex α/β-structure with elongated and equiaxed grains. Ceramics with 2 wt.% magnesium oxide has a maximum density of 2.91 g/cm3. The increases in magnesium oxide content upto 5% led to decrease in the shrinkage (from 16% to 12%) and density (from 2.88 to 2.37 g/cm3).

  6. Influence of Ar + ion bombardment on the initial interaction of water vapour with polycrystalline magnesium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splinter, S. J.; McIntyre, N. S.; Palumbo, G.

    1994-01-01

    The room temperature interaction of water vapour with magnesium surfaces irradiated with Ar + ions in the dose range θ = 10 to 2000 ions/surface atom and ion energy range 1 to 5 keV has been systematically studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The character of the kinetics of water interaction with irradiated surfaces has been found to be dependent upon the total ion bombardment dose and the ion energy and to change with the level of water exposure. The effect of ion bombardment was found to be most pronounced in the oxide nucleation and growth stage of the oxidation process. The dissociative chemisorption and final bulk thickening regimes were only weakly affected by prior irradiation. The results have been interpreted based on the assumption of competition between the effects of radiation defects (vacancies, vacancy clusters, dislocation loops) and implanted argon atoms on the oxidation process. The effect of vacancy-type defects was speculated to be the provision of adsorption sites of high sticking probability and nucleation sites of reduced activation energy for place exchange and subsequent island growth. The effect of implanted argon atoms was speculated to be the blocking of adsorption and nucleation sites and interference with oxide island ordering. At relatively high water exposures (20 L) there was enhanced penetration of oxygen into the magnesium lattice postulated to occur along dislocation emergence points. No such enhanced penetration was observed for shorter water exposures (0.3 L). The limiting thickness of the oxide layer formed on magnesium at room temperature was not found to be affected by the level of prior ion bombardment.

  7. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas-liquid-solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid-solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH)2 precipitation, Mg(OH)2 peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface.

  8. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and magnesium oxide in vitro dermal absorption in human skin.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Tawde, Snehal; Pickrell, John A; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-01-01

    The dermal absorption potential of a nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) mixture in dermatomed human skin was assessed in vitro using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. Nanocrystalline material was applied to the skin surface at a dose rate of 50 mg/cm(2) as a dry powder, as a water suspension, and as a water/surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) suspension, for 8 hours. Dermal absorption of nanocrystalline MgO and TiO(2) through human skin with intact, functional stratum corneum was not detectable under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:19514931

  9. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  10. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  11. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  12. Sorption characteristics of fluoride on to magnesium oxide-rich phases calcined at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keiko; Fukumoto, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Sayo; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi

    2011-07-15

    The effect of calcination temperature during production of magnesium oxide-rich phases from MgCO(3) on the sorption of F(-) ions in the aqueous phase has been investigated. Magnesium oxide-rich phases were formed by calcination at over 873 K for 1h. Higher calcination temperatures produced more crystalline MgO with smaller specific surface area and provided larger values of the total basicity per unit surface area. The higher calcination temperatures lead to slower F(-) removal rate, and lower equilibrium F(-) concentrations, when the equilibrium F(-) concentrations are less than 1 mmol dm(-3). Larger total basicity per unit surface area made the reactivity with F(-) ions in aqueous phase more feasible, resulting in a greater degree of F(-) sorption. For equilibrium F(-) concentrations more than 1 mmol dm(-3), lower calcination temperatures favored the co-precipitation of F(-) with Mg(OH)(2), probably leading to the formation of Mg(OH)(2-x)F(x), and the achievement of larger sorption density. This is the first paper which describes the relationship between the solid base characteristics obtained by CO(2)-TPD for MgO with different calcination temperatures as a function of the reactivity of F(-) sorption in the aqueous phase. PMID:21571430

  13. Effect of magnesium oxide content on oxidation behavior of some superalloy-base cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of increasing magnesium oxide (MgO) content on the cyclic oxidation resistance of hot-pressed cermets of MgO in NiCrAlY, MgO in Hoskins-875, MgO in Inconel-702, and MgO in Hastelloy-X was investigated. The cermets with magnesium oxide levels of 5, 10, 20, and 40 vol percent were examined. The cyclic oxidation behavior of these cermets at 1100 and 1200 C in still air was determined by a thermogravimetric method supplemented by X-ray diffraction analysis and light and electron microscopy. In all instances, MgO prevented grain growth in the metallic phase. No evidence of oxidation along interphase boundaries was detected. Cermets of MgO in NiCrAlY and MgO in Hoskins-875 were superior to cermets of MgO in Inconel-702 and MgO in Hastelloy-X. Their oxidation resistance was degraded only when the MgO content was 40 vol percent. The oxidation behavior of MgO-in-Inconel-702 powder cermets containing 5- and 10-vol percent MgO was approximately similar to that of pure Inconel-702 compacts. The 20- and 40-vol percent MgO content reduced the oxidation resistance of MgO-in-Inconel-702 powder cermets relative to that of pure Inconel-702.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO2 was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  15. Laser Surface Engineering of Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are well known for their high specific strength and low density. However, widespread applications of Mg alloys in structural components are impeded by their insufficient wear and corrosion resistance. Various surface engineering approaches, including electrochemical processes (plating, conversion coatings, hydriding, and anodizing), gas-phase deposition (thermal spray, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, diamond-like coatings, diffusion coatings, and ion implantation), and organic polymer coatings (painting and powder coating), have been used to improve the surface properties of Mg and its alloys. Recently, laser surface engineering approaches are attracting significant attention because of the wide range of possibilities in achieving the desired microstructural and compositional modifications through a range of laser-material interactions (surface melting, shock peening, and ablation). This article presents a review of various laser surface engineering approaches such as laser surface melting, laser surface alloying, laser surface cladding, laser composite surfacing, and laser shock peening used for surface modification of Mg alloys. The laser-material interactions, microstructural/compositional changes, and properties development (mostly corrosion and wear resistance) accompanied with each of these approaches are reviewed.

  16. Magnesium-based composites with improved in vitro surface biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Zhiguang; Duszczyk, Jurek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, bioactive glass (BG, 45S5) particles were added to a biodegradable magnesium alloy (ZK30) through a semi-solid high-pressure casting process in order to improve the surface biocompatibility of the biomaterial and potentially its bioactivity. The observation of the as-cast microstructures of ZK30-BG composites indicated homogeneous dispersion of BG particles in the matrix. SEM, EDX and EPMA showed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the as-cast composite materials. In vitro tests in a cell culture medium confirmed that the composites indeed possessed an enhanced ability to induce the deposition of a bone-like apatite layer on the surface, indicating an improved surface biocompatibility as compared with the matrix alloy. PMID:20922559

  17. Growth Kinetics of the S Sub H Center on Magnesium Oxide Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the growth of S sub H centers on magnesium oxide powder which had hydrogen adsorbed on its surface. The centers were produced by ultraviolet radiation. The effects of both radiation intensity and hydrogen pressure were also studied. At constant hydrogen pressure and radiation dose, the initial S sub H center growth rate was found to be zero order. Beyond the initial region the growth rate deviated from zero order and finally approached saturation. The results are interpreted in terms of a model which assumes that the S sub H center is a hydrogen atom associated with a surface vacancy. Saturation appears to result from a limited supply of surface vacancies.

  18. Potassium promotion of iron oxide dehydrogenation catalysts supported on magnesium oxide: 1. Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Stobbe, D.E.; Buren, F.R. van ); Dillen, A.J. van; Geus, J.W. )

    1992-06-01

    Catalysts of iron oxide supported on magnesium oxide and promoted with potassium were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of preshaped magnesium oxide support pellets with a solution of an iron complex, either ammonium iron (III) citrate or ammonium iron (III) EDTA and potassium carbonate. Iron and potassium were applied wither simultaneously or consecutively. As determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic measurements, calcination above 923 K results in the formation of a mixed oxide of iron and potassium, viz., KFeO[sub 2]. After calcination at 973 K the average crystallite size of the KFeO[sub 2] phase is about 300 [angstrom]. The formation of KFeO[sub 2] appeared to have a strong retarding effect on the reduction of the iron oxide phase to metallic iron. It was found that the KFeO[sub 2] phase is unstable in atomspheric air due to reaction with carbon dioxide and moisture to form potassium (hydrogen) carbonate and (hydrated) iron oxide.

  19. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide using vinyltriethoxysilane by dry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shengjie; Li, Lijuan; Xu, Defang; Zhu, Donghai; Liu, Zhiqi; Nie, Feng

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the compatibility between magnesium hydroxide (MH) and polymer matrix, the surface of MH was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process and the interfacial interaction between MH and VTES was also studied. Zeta potential measurements implied that the MH particles had better dispersion and less aggregation after modification. Sedimentation tests showed that the surface of MH was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MH particles significantly improved in the organic phase. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that a thin layer had formed on the surface of the modified MH, but did not alter the material's crystalline phase. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the VTES molecules bound strongly to the surface of MH after modification. Chemical bonds (Sisbnd Osbnd Mg) formed by the reaction between Si-OC2H5 and hydroxyl group of MH, also there have physical adsorption effect in the interface simultaneously. A modification mechanism of VTES on the MH surface by dry process was proposed, which different from the modification mechanism by wet process.

  20. Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, H.; Bulian, W.; Bungardt, K.; Gürs, K.; Gürs, U.; Helling, W.; Kyri, H.; Laue, H. J.; Mahler, W.; Matting, A.; Meyer, F. R.; Mialki, W.; Ritter, F.; Ruge, J.; Saur, G.; Simon, W.; Strnat, K.; Weber, R.; Weigand, H. H.; Weik, H.; Ziesler, H.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    Magnesium wird überwiegend durch Schmelzflußelektrolyse hergestellt. Das dabei anfallende Reinmagnesium hat einen Mg-Gehalt von etwa 99,9%. Hauptbeimengung ist das Eisen; Silizium und Aluminium sind nur in Spuren vorhanden. Der Anwendungsumfang des Reinmagnesiums ist gering; dagegen werden Magnesiumlegierungen zunehmend, insbesondere für den Druckguß verwendet. Neben den bis etwa zum Jahre 1950 allein gebräuchlichen Mg-Mn-, Mg-Al- und Mg-Al-Zn-Legierungen werden heute mehr und mehr die besonders warmfesten Legierungen mit Zusätzen von Zirkon, Thorium und Seltenen Erden hergestellt (siehe dazu auch Abschnitt Seltene Erden). Als Umhüllungsmaterial für Uranstäbe dient die Legierung Magnox A 12, die nach [H 3] neben 1 % Al noch geringe Mengen an Ca und Ba enthält. In den in Deutschland üblichen Kurzzeichen (DIN 1729) werden die chemischen Symbole und der ungefähre Gehalt der wichtigsten Legierungselemente angegeben. Gußlegierungen werden zusätzlich durch ein G (Sandguß oder Kokillenguß) oder ein D (Druckguß) gekennzeichnet (siehe Tab. 5).

  1. Vapor-phase reaction of acetophenone with methanol or dimethyl carbonate on magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Aramendia, M.A.; Borau, V.; Jimenez, C.; Marinas, J.M.; Romero, F.J.

    1999-04-01

    The vapor-phase reaction of acetophenone with methanol on magnesium oxide, various magnesium phosphates, and combinations of the two types of catalysts was studied. The process was found to involve the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction, aldol condensations, dehydrations, and hydrogenations. The presence of basic sites is indispensable for the reaction to develop; however, acid sites also play an active role. The selectivity for each reaction product depends on the particular catalyst used. The total conversion is maximal with the catalysts containing the largest populations of acid and basic sites. Also, catalysts with large numbers of acid sites exhibit an increased selectivity towards the corresponding alkenes. The use of dimethyl carbonate instead of methanol alters the reaction selectivity to an extent dependent on the particular catalyst and operating conditions. However, this also results in markedly decreased total conversion in some instances.

  2. Low temperature growth of crystalline magnesium oxide on hexagonal silicon carbide (0001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, T. L.; Parisi, J.; Cai, Z.; Ziemer, K. S.

    2007-01-22

    Magnesium oxide (111) was grown epitaxially on hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) (0001) substrates at low temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy and a remote oxygen plasma source. The films were characterized by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Crystal structure, morphology, and growth rate of the magnesium oxide (MgO) films were found to be dependent on the magnesium flux, indicating a magnesium adsorption controlled growth mechanism. The single crystalline MgO thin films had an epitaxial relationship where MgO (111) parallel 6H-SiC (0001) and were stable in both air and 10{sup -9} Torr up to 1023 K.

  3. Sputtered magnesium diboride thin films: Growth conditions and surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, April; Villegas, Brendon; Gu, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2) thin films were deposited on C-plane sapphire substrates by sputtering pure B and Mg targets at different substrate temperatures, and were followed by in situ annealing. A systematic study about the effects of the various growth and annealing parameters on the physical properties of MgB 2 thin films showed that the substrate temperature is the most critical factor that determines the superconducting transition temperature ( Tc), while annealing plays a minor role. There was no superconducting transition in the thin films grown at room temperature without post-annealing. The highest Tc of the samples grown at room temperature after the optimized annealing was 22 K. As the temperature of the substrate ( Ts) increased, Tc rose. However, the maximum Ts was limited due to the low magnesium sticking coefficient and thus the Tc value was limited as well. The highest Tc, 29 K, was obtained for the sample deposited at 180 °C, annealed at 620 °C, and was subsequently annealed a second time at 800 °C. Three-dimensional (3D) AFM images clearly demonstrated that the thin films with no transition, or very low Tc, did not have the well-developed MgB 2 grains while the films with higher Tc displayed the well-developed grains and smooth surface. Although the Tc of sputtered MgB 2 films in the current work is lower than that for the bulk and ex situ annealed thin films, this work presents an important step towards the fabrication of MgB 2 heterostructures using rather simple physical vapor deposition method such as sputtering.

  4. First-principles insights into the structure of the incipient magnesium oxide and its instability to decomposition: Oxygen chemisorption to Mg(0001) and thermodynamic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, M. F.; Taylor, C. D.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a detailed density functional theory analysis of oxygen binding to Mg(0001) and subsequent clustering is presented. Oxygen monomer adsorption to Mg(0001) is demonstrated to be subsurface. It is shown that magnesium mediates an attractive oxygen-oxygen interaction which ultimately leads to the formation of hexagonal clusters of O* in the tetrahedral-1 site. The structure, work function, and binding properties of oxygen chemisorbed structures are compared with experiment, which allows the unique identification of the tetrahedral-1 site as the low coverage oxygen binding site and the construction of a picture of the early stages of oxide nuclei formation over magnesium. A model of oxide growth at O*/Mg(0001) is proposed. First-principles thermodynamics analysis is used to describe the surface oxide structures and reveals that surface oxides of intermediate oxygen coverage undergo spinodal decomposition. The thermodynamics of an underlying spinodal create an energetic driving force for decomposition of an oxide surface and renewal of a reactive metal interface that may be important in understanding magnesium corrosion. The implications of the findings are that magnesium unalloyed for oxide behavior will always be highly vulnerable to corrosion.

  5. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Magnesium Oxide Nanorods for Oxidation of Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Emayavaramban, P; Babu, S Ganesh; Karvembu, R; Kadirvelu, K; Dharmaraj, N

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide nanorods (Au-MgO) have been synthesised by a solution based chemical reduction method. Au-MgO nanorods were found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of alcohols with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium at room temperature. To find out the best reaction conditions for oxidation, optimization of catalyst quantity, solvent, mole equivalence of hydrogen peroxide were carried out. The scope of the reaction was extended to several aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, product yields were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectroscopy. Heterogeneity and reusability tests were performed. The use of water as a solvent and hydrogen peroxide as co-catalyst at room temperature makes the reaction interesting from sustainable development point of view. PMID:27455664

  6. Synthesis of ethylene and ethane by partial oxidation of methane over lithium-doped magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tomoyasu; Lunsford, Jack H.

    1985-04-01

    The partial oxidation of methane into more useful chemicals such as methanol, ethylene and benzene has been investigated extensively, although yields for these products have been poor1-4. Moreover, in several of these processes the required oxidant is N2O rather than O2. Recent work5 in our laboratory has demonstrated that lithium-doped magnesium oxide (Li/MgO) in the presence of O2 has high activity for abstracting H from CH4 to form .CH3 radicals. This suggests that C2H6 and C2H4 (C2 compounds) are produced by a coupling between two gaseous .CH3 radicals formed on this catalyst. We report here our success in converting CH4 to C2 compounds in high yields in conventional catalytic conditions.

  7. Iron oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  8. Influence of natural adsorbates of magnesium oxide on its reactivity in basic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Damien; Petitjean, Hugo; Costentin, Guylène; Guesmi, Hazar; Krafft, Jean-Marc; Lauron-Pernot, Hélène

    2013-12-01

    Solid materials possessing basic properties are naturally covered by carbonates and hydroxyl groups. Those natural adsorbates modify their chemical reactivity. This article aims to specifically evidence the role of surface carbonates and hydroxyls in basic heterogeneous catalysis on MgO. It compares the catalytic behaviors of hydroxylated or carbonated MgO surfaces for two types of reactions: one alkene isomerization and one alcohol conversion (hept-1-ene isomerization and 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol conversion). Catalysis experiments showed that carbon dioxide adsorption poisons the catalyst surface and the DRIFT-DFT combination showed that the nature of active sites in the two reactions differs. On the reverse, partial hydroxylation of the surface enhances activity for both reactions. Interestingly hept-1-ene isomerization gives a volcano curve for the conversion as a function of hydroxyl coverage. Calculations of the electronic structure of magnesium oxide surfaces show that neither Lewis basicity nor Brønsted basicity of the surface defects (steps for example) are enhanced by hydroxylation. Meanwhile CO2 adsorption followed by IR spectroscopy shows that (110) and (111) unstable planes are strongly basic and are stabilized by partial surface hydroxylation. These results could explain the volcano curve obtained for the evolution of alkene isomerisation as a function of hydroxyl coverage. PMID:24145744

  9. Optimized deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline magnesium indium oxide thin films for opto-electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, A. Moses Ezhil; Ravidhas, C.; Ravishankar, R.; Kumar, A. Rathish; Selvan, G.; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2009-05-06

    Transparent conducting magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were deposited on to quartz substrates without a buffer layer at an optimized deposition temperature of 450 deg. C to achieve high transmittance in the visible spectral range and electrical conductivity in the low temperature region. Magnesium ions are distributed over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverted spinel structure with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) Miller plane. The possible mechanism that promotes conductivity in this system is the charge transfer between the resident divalent (Mg{sup 2+}) and trivalent (In{sup 3+}) cations in addition to the available oxygen vacancies in the lattice. A room temperature electrical conductivity of 1.5 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and an average transmittance >75% have been achieved. Hall measurements showed n-type conductivity with electron mobility value 0.95 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and carrier concentration 2.7 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Smoothness of the film surface observed through atomic force microscope measurements favors this material for gas sensing and opto-electronic device development.

  10. Preparation of Composite Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by Silica Sol-Micro Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhongcai; Zhang, Feifei; Zhao, Ruiqiang; Shen, Xiaoyi

    2016-03-01

    Composite coating was prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy with a new method which combined silica sol with micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The MAO coating was prepared on the basis of MAO solution, and then coated by sol-gel process. The composite coating was obtained after second MAO treatment. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy spectrum analysis and electrochemical testing was applied to characterize the properties of MAO coating and composite coating. The experimental test results indicated that the Si element derived from SiO2 gel particle embedded into the MAO coating by second MAO treatment. The surface of composite coating became dense and the holes were smaller with silica sol sealing process. The corrosion resistance of composite coating was improved than the MAO coating.

  11. Surface modification of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are being paid much attention recently as temporary implants, such as orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. However, the rapid degradation of them in physiological environment is a major obstacle preventing their wide applications to date, which will result in rapid mechanical integrity loss or even collapse of magnesium-based implants before injured tissues heal. Moreover, rapid degradation of the magnesium-based implants will also cause some adverse effects to their surrounding environment, such as local gas cavity around the implant, local alkalization and magnesium ion enrichment, which will reduce the integration between implant and tissue. So, in order to obtain better performance of magnesium-based implants in clinical trials, special alloy designs and surface modifications are prerequisite. Actually, when a magnesium-based implant is inserted in vivo, corrosion firstly happens at the implant-tissue interface and the biological response to implant is also determined by the interaction at this interface. So the surface properties, such as corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the implant, are critical for their in vivo performance. Compared with alloy designs, surface modification is less costly, flexible to construct multi-functional surface and can prevent addition of toxic alloying elements. In this review, we would like to summarize the current investigations of surface modifications of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical application. The advantages/disadvantages of different surface modification methods are also discussed as a suggestion for their utilization. PMID:26816637

  12. Surface modification of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are being paid much attention recently as temporary implants, such as orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. However, the rapid degradation of them in physiological environment is a major obstacle preventing their wide applications to date, which will result in rapid mechanical integrity loss or even collapse of magnesium-based implants before injured tissues heal. Moreover, rapid degradation of the magnesium-based implants will also cause some adverse effects to their surrounding environment, such as local gas cavity around the implant, local alkalization and magnesium ion enrichment, which will reduce the integration between implant and tissue. So, in order to obtain better performance of magnesium-based implants in clinical trials, special alloy designs and surface modifications are prerequisite. Actually, when a magnesium-based implant is inserted in vivo, corrosion firstly happens at the implant-tissue interface and the biological response to implant is also determined by the interaction at this interface. So the surface properties, such as corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the implant, are critical for their in vivo performance. Compared with alloy designs, surface modification is less costly, flexible to construct multi-functional surface and can prevent addition of toxic alloying elements. In this review, we would like to summarize the current investigations of surface modifications of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical application. The advantages/disadvantages of different surface modification methods are also discussed as a suggestion for their utilization. PMID:26816637

  13. Iron oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the surface film on magnesium powders.

    PubMed

    Burke, Paul J; Bayindir, Zeynel; Kipouros, Georges J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are attractive for use in automotive and aerospace applications because of their low density and good mechanical properties. However, difficulty in forming magnesium and the limited number of available commercial alloys limit their use. Powder metallurgy may be a suitable solution for forming near-net-shape parts. However, sintering pure magnesium presents difficulties due to surface film that forms on the magnesium powder particles. The present work investigates the composition of the surface film that forms on the surface of pure magnesium powders exposed to atmospheric conditions and on pure magnesium powders after compaction under uniaxial pressing at a pressure of 500 MPa and sintering under argon at 600 °C for 40 minutes. Initially, focused ion beam microscopy was utilized to determine the thickness of the surface layer of the magnesium powder and found it to be ~10 nm. The X-ray photoelectron analysis of the green magnesium sample prior to sintering confirmed the presence of MgO, MgCO(3)·3H(2)O, and Mg(OH)(2) in the surface layer of the powder with a core of pure magnesium. The outer portion of the surface layer was found to contain MgCO(3)·3H(2)O and Mg(OH)(2), while the inner portion of the layer is primarily MgO. After sintering, the MgCO(3)·3H(2)O was found to be almost completely absent, and the amount of Mg(OH)(2) was also decreased significantly. This is postulated to occur by decomposition of the compounds to MgO and gases during the high temperature of sintering. An increase in the MgO content after sintering supports this theory. PMID:22524956

  15. The initial stage of surface modification of magnesium alloys by high intensity pulse ions beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.

    2016-06-01

    The initial stage of high intensity pulsed ion beam irradiated magnesium alloys was studied by MD simulation. Specimens containing Mg17Al12 precipitation were modeled to investigate the evolution of magnesium alloys during several picoseconds after a high-energy ion impacting. It was found that the Mg17Al12 precipitation has little effects on the kinetic energy evolution in the heat zone, but considerable effects on strength of kinetic energy peak moving to the deep matrix and on the surface morphology of the magnesium alloy at thermal equilibrium state. The thickness of the heat zone is independent on the temperature of surface region.

  16. Strength by atomic force microscopy (AFM): Molecular dynamics of water layer squeezing on magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, K.; Dhir, Aman; Yong, Chin W.

    2010-11-01

    Localised strength testing of materials is often carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM), as foreseen by Kelly in his book Strong Solids (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1966). During AFM indentation experiments, contamination can strongly influence the observed strength and theoretical interpretation of the results is a major problem. Here, we use molecular dynamics computer modelling to describe the contact of NaCl and MgO crystal probes onto surfaces, comparable to an AFM experiment. Clean NaCl gave elastic, brittle behaviour in contact simulations at 300 K, whereas MgO was more plastic, leading to increased toughness. This paper also considers the strength of an oxide substrate contaminated by water molecules and tested by indentation with a pyramidal probe of oxide crystal. Recent theory on the effect of liquid contaminant layers on surface strength has been mainly focussed on Lennard Jones (LJ) molecules with some studies on alcohols and water, described by molecular dynamics, which allows the molecules to be squeezed out as the crystal lattice is deformed. In this work, we have focused on water by studying the forces between a magnesium oxide (MgO) atomic force microscope (AFM) probe and an MgO slab. Force versus separation has been plotted as the AFM probe was moved towards and away from the substrate. Simulation results showed that the water layers could be removed in steps, giving up to four force peaks. The last monolayer of water could not be squeezed out, even at pressures where MgO deformed plastically. Interestingly, with water present, strength was reduced, but more in tensile than compressive measurements. In conclusion, water contaminating the oxide surface in AFM strength testing is structured. Water layer squeezing removal can be predicted by molecular modelling, which may be verified by AFM experiments to show that water can influence the strength of perfect crystals at the nanometre scale.

  17. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles on green activated carbon as efficient CO2 adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam; Ramli, Zatil Amali Che; Mohamed Hisham, Mohamed Wahab; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2013-11-01

    This study was focused on carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption ability using Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported activated carbon based bamboo (BAC). The suitability of MgO as a good CO2 adsorbent was clarified using Thermodynamic considerations (Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship). The ΔH and ΔG of this reaction were - 117.5 kJṡmol-1 and - 65.4 kJṡmol-1, respectively, at standard condition (298 K and 1 atm). The complete characterization of these adsorbent were conducted by using BET, XRD, FTIR, TEM and TPD-CO2. The surface areas for MgO nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported BAC were 297.1 m2/g and 702.5 m2/g, respectively. The MgO nanoparticles supported BAC shown better physical and chemical adsorption ability with 39.8 cm3/g and 6.5 mmol/g, respectively. The combination of MgO nanoparticle and BAC which previously prepared by chemical method can reduce CO2 emissions as well as better CO2 adsorption behavior. Overall, our results indicate that nanoparticles of MgO on BAC posses unique surface chemistry and their high surface reactivity coupled with high surface area allowed them to approach the goal as an efficient CO2 adsorbent.

  18. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles on green activated carbon as efficient CO{sub 2} adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam; Ramli, Zatil Amali Che; Mohamed Hisham, Mohamed Wahab; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2013-11-27

    This study was focused on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption ability using Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported activated carbon based bamboo (BAC). The suitability of MgO as a good CO{sub 2} adsorbent was clarified using Thermodynamic considerations (Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship). The ΔH and ΔG of this reaction were − 117.5 kJ⋅mol{sup −1} and − 65.4 kJ⋅mol{sup −1}, respectively, at standard condition (298 K and 1 atm). The complete characterization of these adsorbent were conducted by using BET, XRD, FTIR, TEM and TPD−CO{sub 2}. The surface areas for MgO nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported BAC were 297.1 m{sup 2}/g and 702.5 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The MgO nanoparticles supported BAC shown better physical and chemical adsorption ability with 39.8 cm{sup 3}/g and 6.5 mmol/g, respectively. The combination of MgO nanoparticle and BAC which previously prepared by chemical method can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions as well as better CO{sub 2} adsorption behavior. Overall, our results indicate that nanoparticles of MgO on BAC posses unique surface chemistry and their high surface reactivity coupled with high surface area allowed them to approach the goal as an efficient CO{sub 2} adsorbent.

  19. An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refining and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium is recovered from partially oxidized scrap alloy by combining refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis. In this combined process, a molten salt eutectic flux (45 wt.% MgF2-55 wt.% CaF2) containing 10 wt.% MgO and 2 wt.% YF3 was used as the medium for magnesium recovery. During refining, magnesium and its oxide are dissolved from the scrap into the molten flux. Forming gas is bubbled through the flux and the dissolved magnesium is removed via the gas phase and condensed in a separate condenser at a lower temperature. The molten flux has a finite solubility for magnesium and acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium recovered has high purity. After refining, SOM electrolysis is performed in the same reactor to enable electrolysis of the dissolved magnesium oxide in the molten flux producing magnesium at the cathode and oxygen at the SOM anode. During SOM electrolysis, it is necessary to decrease the concentration of the dissolved magnesium in the flux to improve the faradaic current efficiency and prevent degradation of the SOM. Thus, for both refining and SOM electrolysis, it is very important to measure and control the magnesium solubility in the molten flux. High magnesium solubility facilitates refining whereas lower solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis process. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was employed to simulate the flow behavior of the flux stirred by the forming gas. Based on the modeling results, an optimized design of the stirring tubes and its placement in the flux are determined for efficiently removing the dissolved magnesium and also increasing the efficiency of the SOM electrolysis process.

  20. Formation of Ha-Containing Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Micro-Arc Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Li, Deyu; Chen, Xiuping; Wu, Chao; Wang, Fuping

    2013-08-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this study, a HA-containing coating was fabricated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The active plasma species of micro-discharge was studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The microstructure and composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion behavior and apatite-forming ability were studied by electrochemical tests and immersed samples in simulated body fluids (SBF). The results show that the microdischarge channel model is gas discharges and oxide layer discharges. The elements from the substrate and electrolyte take part in the formation of the coating. The MAO coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy and enhances the apatite formation ability.

  1. Improved Interfacial Bonding in Magnesium/Aluminum Overcasting Systems by Aluminum Surface Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqing; Luo, Alan A.

    2014-12-01

    "Overcasting" technique is used to produce bimetallic magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al) structures where lightweight Mg can be cast onto solid Al substrates. An inherent difficulty in creating strong Mg/Al interfacial bonding is the natural oxide film on the solid Al surfaces, which reduces the wettability between molten Mg and Al substrates during the casting process. In the paper, an "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment has been developed to disrupt the oxide film on a dilute Al-0.08 wt pct Ga alloy, improving the metallurgical bonding between molten Mg and Al substrates in the bimetallic experiments carried out in a high-vacuum test apparatus. The test results provided valuable information of the interfacial phenomena of the Mg/Al bimetallic samples. The results show significantly improved metallurgical bonding in the bimetallic samples with "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment and Ga alloying. It is recommended to adjust the pre-heating temperature and time of the Al substrates and the Mg melt temperature to control the interfacial reactions for optimum interfacial properties in the actual overcasting processes.

  2. Precipitation and growth of magnesium hydroxide nanopetals on zeolite 4A surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Pei-Yoong; Yan, Jing; Teja, Amyn

    2011-09-01

    We have studied the precipitation and growth of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 nanopetals on zeolite 4A particles dispersed in aqueous magnesium chloride solutions at 298 K. We show that the precipitation of these petal-like nanostructures can be achieved by the addition of ammonium hydroxide to aqueous magnesium chloride, and their growth can be controlled by concentration and pH. We propose a mechanism for nanocomposite formation driven by acid-base interactions between the bridging hydroxyl groups on the zeolite surface and weakly basic Mg(OH) 2.

  3. Fast neutron activation analysis of oxide inclusions in magnesium alloy ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, C. D.; James, W. D.

    1999-06-01

    Magnesium will have an increasingly important role to play in the automotive industry's materials strategy. In addition to its obvious use as a lightweight alternative, magnesium offers advantages in areas such as component integration and NVH (noise, vibration and harshness). Although the metallic composition of magnesium alloys has been carefully defined, there is no uniform industry standard for non-metallic inclusions, such as oxides, which are believed to adversely impact the material's strength. A definitive test has been needed, preferably one that provides a highly sensitive, calibrated, nondestructive evaluation of the metal's bulk oxide content. In response to this need, fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) has emerged as an important tool for providing highly accurate quantitative information on the oxygen content in magnesium alloys. Oxygen levels from less than 50 to several thousand ppm have been observed in these alloys, with the highest levels concentrated at the top center of the ingot. Several operational procedures have been developed to optimize the analysis, including: a new automated, blank-free procedure which pneumatically transports machined magnesium cylinders between the irradiation and counting facilities; the use of an oxygen standard prepared from polyethylene and titanium dioxide, machined to match the sample dimensions; and implementation of new background subtraction software.

  4. Oxidation at Surfaces of Uranium Oxide Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueneman, Richard; Burgraff, Larry

    2001-04-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2 (S)) is unstable in an oxidizing environment and oxidizes until covered with a layer of uranium trioxide (UO3 (C)). During the oxidation process, uranium cations change from U+4 to U+6 and the oxide crystal structure changes from face centered cubic to orthorhombic. Seven UO2(S) samples were prepared by pressing UO2 (S) powder into a tungsten screen and then subjected to five different temperatures and three partial pressures of oxygen. UO2 (S) oxidation was monitored with in situ photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Quantitative oxidation data was obtained with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in situ PL spectra did not identify UO3 (C) forming on the sample surfaces however, a new PL signature not associated with uranyl was observed. SIMS and XPS data from oxidized UO2 (S) samples indicated that at low temperatures, surface oxidation is kinetically limited and at high temperatures, surface oxidation is limited by diffusion. A model for the oxidation rate to UO3 (C) was not developed due to the temperature dependant oxidation process and high vacuum reduction of amorphous UO3 (A) present on the UO2 (S) sample surfaces prior to oxidation. A PL emission spectra intensity reduction was noticed on a UO3 (C) sample at room temperature under high vacuum. A reduction and re-oxidation of three additional UO3 (C) samples identified a kinetically irreversible reduction process for UO3(C) under high vacuum. A SIMS surface scan was performed on a fourth UO3(C) sample before and after exposure to ultra-high vacuum (10-8 torr) and the results suggest the reduction of UO3(C) to lower oxides (U3O8, U3O7 and UO2) at room temperature.

  5. Study on the mechanism of antibacterial action of magnesium oxide nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO nanoparticles, with average size of 20 nm) have strong antibacterial activities against several important foodborne pathogens. Resazurin (a redox sensitive dye) microplate assay was used for measuring growth inhibition of bacteria treated with MgO nanoparticles. Th...

  6. Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials (nisin and ZnO NP) against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley were investigated. The results show that MgO NP have strong bactericidal activity against the pathogens, achievin...

  7. Magnesium oxide doping reduces acoustic wave attenuation in lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

    1970-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

  8. Study of Coating Growth Behavior During the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Magnesium Alloy ZK60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhaozhong; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yushen; Qu, Yunfei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2015-04-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation technique was used to coat ZK60 magnesium alloy in a silicate-based electrolyte. Effects of oxidation time on the morphology, phase structure, and corrosion resistance of the resulting coatings were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The main components of the inner and the outer coating layers were MgO and Mg2SiO4, respectively. It was also found that the oxidation time has a significant impact on the corrosion resistance properties of the coatings. The coating obtained within the oxidation time of 360 s exhibited a corrosion current of 7.6 × 10-8 A/cm2 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, which decreased significantly when comparing with the pristine magnesium alloy.

  9. Effect of plasma etching on destructive adsorption properties of polypropylene fibers containing magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lange, Laura E; Obendorf, S Kay

    2012-02-01

    Dermal absorption of pesticides poses a danger for agricultural workers. Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is required to provide protection; some of the current PPE involves impermeable barriers. In these barrier materials, the same mechanism that prevents the penetration of toxic chemicals also blocks the passage of water vapor and air from flowing through the material, making the garments uncomfortable. Fibers that degrade organophosphate pesticides, such as methyl parathion, were developed by incorporating metal oxides. These modified fibers can be incorporated into conventional fabric structures that allow water vapor to pass through, thereby maintaining comfort. Fibers with self-decontamination functionality were developed by incorporating magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles into a polypropylene (PP) melt-extruded fiber. These fibers were then treated with plasma etching to expose increased surface area of the MgO nanoparticles. Three steps were involved in this research project: (1) determining the reactivity of MgO and methyl parathion, (2) making melt-spun MgO/PP fibers, and (3) testing the reactivity of MgO/PP composite fibers and methyl parathion. It was confirmed that MgO stoichiometrically degrades methyl parathion by way of destructive adsorption. The etching of the PP fibers containing MgO nanoparticles increased the chemical accessibility of MgO reactive sites, therefore making them more effective in degrading methyl parathion. These fibers can enhance the protection provided by PPE to agricultural and horticultural workers and military personnel. PMID:21850511

  10. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-15

    Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants. PMID:26150282

  11. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod-nanotube semiconductor/p-silicon heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Yasemin; Görgün, Kamuran; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Mujdat; Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide material is usable in electronic device applications such as light-emitting diodes, heterojunction diode, sensors, solar cell due to its interesting electrical conductivity and optical properties. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod (NR)-nanotube (NT) films were grown by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition to fabricate ZnO-based heterojunction diode. It is found that ZnO hexagonal nanorods turn into hexagonal nanotubes when the Mg doping ratio is increased from 1 to 10 %. The values of the optical band gap for 1 % Mg-doped ZnO NR and 10 % Mg-doped ZnO NT films are found to be 3.14 and 3.22 eV, respectively. The n-ZnO:Mg/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated. The diodes exhibited a rectification behavior with ideality factor higher than unity due to the presence of surface states in the junction and series resistance. The obtained results indicate that Mg doping improves the electrical and optical properties of ZnO.

  12. Comparison of methods to determine relative bioavailability of magnesium in magnesium oxides for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Van Ravenswaay, R O; Henry, P R; Ammerman, C B; Littell, R C

    1989-11-01

    Two Mg balance trials were conducted with wethers to compare relative bioavailability of Mg in several Mg oxides with that of reagent grade sulfate as determined by different methods. In Experiment 1,600 ppm Mg as sulfate or four feed grade oxides varying in origin and particle size were added to a semi-purified basal diet (200 ppm Mg). Diets were fed at 800 g/d to 30 crossbred wethers during the 14-d trial and fecal and urinary collections were made during the last 7 d. In Experiment 2, the basal corn-soybean meal-cottonseed hull diet (1387 ppm Mg) was supplemented with 0, 700, 1400, or 2100 ppm added Mg as reagent grade sulfate or 1400 ppm Mg as three of the oxides from Experiment 1 and fed at 1000 g/d to 35 wethers. Urine was collected daily for 10 d and feces were collected on d 7 through 10. In Experiments 1 and 2, absorption of Mg from the oxide of brine origin and larger particle size distribution was lower than that from sulfate, but there was no difference in absorption for sheep fed oxides derived from sea water or calcined magnesite. In Experiment 2, urinary Mg excretion on d 4 and 5 of the collection was lower for sheep fed the brine oxide than for those fed sulfate or oxide from calcined magnesite. Urinary Mg excretion on d 4 and 5 following addition of 1400 ppm Mg to practical diets could be used to predict bioavailability of Mg. PMID:2625487

  13. In vivo stimulation of bone formation by aluminum and oxygen plasma surface-modified magnesium implants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Tam, Vivian; Wu, Shuilin; Chu, Paul K; Zheng, Yufeng; To, Michael Kai Tsun; Leung, Frankie K L; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2013-12-01

    A newly developed magnesium implant is used to stimulate bone formation in vivo. The magnesium implant after undergoing dual aluminum and oxygen plasma implantation is able to suppress rapid corrosion, leaching of magnesium ions, as well as hydrogen gas release from the biodegradable alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF). No released aluminum is detected from the SBF extract and enhanced corrosion resistance properties are confirmed by electrochemical tests. In vitro studies reveal enhanced growth of GFP mouse osteoblasts on the aluminum oxide coated sample, but not on the untreated sample. In addition to that a small amount (50 ppm) of magnesium ions can enhance osteogenic differentiation as reported previously, our present data show a low concentration of hydrogen can give rise to the same effect. To compare the bone volume change between the plasma-treated magnesium implant and untreated control, micro-computed tomography is performed and the plasma-treated implant is found to induce significant new bone formation adjacent to the implant from day 1 until the end of the animal study. On the contrary, bone loss is observed during the first week post-operation from the untreated magnesium sample. Owing to the protection offered by the Al2O3 layer, the plasma-treated implant degrades more slowly and the small amount of released magnesium ions stimulate new bone formation locally as revealed by histological analyses. Scanning electron microscopy discloses that the Al2O3 layer at the bone-implant interface is still present two months after implantation. In addition, no inflammation or tissue necrosis is observed from both treated and untreated implants. These promising results suggest that the plasma-treated magnesium implant can stimulate bone formation in vivo in a minimal invasive way and without causing post-operative complications. PMID:24060425

  14. Synthesis of Binary Magnesium-Transition Metal Oxides via Inverse Coprecipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Yuya; Yamada, Ikuya; Doi, Takayuki; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Synthesis of binary magnesium-transition metal oxides, MgM2O4 (M: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) and MgNiO2, was performed by calcination at relatively low temperatures of 500 and 750 °C for 24 h through inverse coprecipitation of carbonate hydroxide precursors. The important roles of the precipitation agent, sodium carbonate, were clarified by considering equilibria in an aqueous solution. The structure parameters of the obtained binary magnesium-transition metal oxide powders, specifically the occupancy of atomic sites, were evaluated from synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles by Rietveld refinement in addition to the magnetic properties at room temperature. The present work provides general guidelines for low-cost and high-volume synthesis of complex oxides, which are easily decomposed at high temperatures.

  15. In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure in Several Mammalian Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abudayyak; Ezgi, Öztaş; Merve, Arici; Özhan, Gül

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide researchers have rising concerns about magnesium-based materials, especially magnesium oxide (MgO) nanaoparticles, due to increasing usage as promising structural materials in various fields including cancer treatment. However, there is a serious lack of information about their toxicity at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, the toxic potentials of MgO nanoparticles were investigated on liver (HepG2), kidney (NRK-52E), intestine (Caco-2), and lung (A549) cell lines. For the toxicological assessment, the following assays were used: the particle characterization by transmission electron microscopy, the determination of cellular uptake by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, MTT and neutral red uptake assays for cytotoxicity, comet assay for genotoxicity, and the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, protein carbonyl, and glutathione levels by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assays for the potential of oxidative damage and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection assay with propidium iodide (PI) for apoptosis. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were taken up by the cells depending on their concentration and agglomeration/aggregation potentials. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles induced DNA (≤14.27 fold) and oxidative damage. At a concentration of ≥323.39 µg/mL, MgO nanoparticles caused 50% inhibition in cell viability by 2 different cytotoxicity assays. The cell sensitivity to cytotoxic and genotoxic damage induced by MgO nanoparticles was ranked as HepG2 < A549 < Caco-2 < NRK-52E. Although it was observed that MgO nanoparticles induced apoptotic effects on the cells, apoptosis was not the main cell death. DNA damage, cell death, and oxidative damage effects of MgO nanoparticles should raise concern about the safety associated with their applications in consumer products. PMID:27177543

  16. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  17. Degradation behaviors of surface modified magnesium alloy wires in different simulated physiological environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Shi, Chao; Bai, Jing; Guo, Chao; Xue, Feng; Lin, Ping-Hua; Chu, Cheng-Lin

    2014-09-01

    The degradation behaviors of the novel high-strength AZ31B magnesium alloy wires after surface modification using micro-arc-oxidization (MAO) and subsequently sealing with poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) in different simulated physiological environments were investigated. The results show the surface MAO micropores could be physically sealed by PLLA, thus forming an effective protection to corrosion resistance for the wires. In simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at a low pH value (1.5 or 2.5), the treated wires have a high degradation rate with a rapid decrease of mass, diameter, mechanical properties and a significant increase of pH value of the immersion fluid. However, surface modification could effectively reduce the degradation rate of the treated wires in SGF with a pH value above 4.0. For the treated wires in simulated intestinal fluid at pH = 8.5, their strength retention ability is higher than that in strong acidic SGF. And the loss rate of mass is faster than that of diameter, while the pH value of the immersion fluid decreases. It should be noted that the modified wires in simulated body environment have the best strength retention ability. The wires show the different degradation behaviors indicating their different degradation mechanisms, which are also proposed in this work.

  18. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, Jelena; Stanić, Dušanka; Dmitrašinović, Gordana; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Batinić, Bojan; Popović, Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572. PMID:27042258

  19. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  20. Dual Ion Assist Beam Deposition of Magnesium Oxide for Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, J. R.; Arendt3, P. N.; Holesinger, T. G.; Hammond, R. H.; Foltyn, S. R.; DePaula, R. F.; Stan, L.; Usov, I. O.

    2006-03-01

    Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) has been proven to be a viable route for producing template films used to deposit high quality YBCO coated conductors on flexible polycrystalline metal substrates. Here we will discuss improvements in this process using a dual ion assist beam configuration. Dual ion assist beam deposition of MgO reduces the requirements for substrate surface finishing while maintaining comparable film quality (phi scan full-width at half-maximum values between 7 and 8 degrees). Furthermore, this adaptation of the IBAD process eliminates the degradation of MgO texture observed in thick IBAD MgO films deposited on silicon nitride. We have deposited films up to 50 nanometers thick without degradation of in-plane texture. Increasing the MgO thickness increases the chemical stability of the template layer and can eliminate the necessity for subsequent buffer layers or the application of the homoepitaxial MgO layer needed to stabilize the thin, conventional IBAD MgO layer. Initial results of subsequently deposited YBCO on these dual assist ion beam MgO templates are quite promising.

  1. Optimization of ion assist beam deposition of magnesium oxide template films during initial nucleation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, James R; Matias, Vladimir; Stan, Liliana; De Paula, Raymond F; Hammond, Robert H; Clemens, Bruce M

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts in investigating the mechanism of ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of biaxially textured thin films of magnesium oxide (MgO) template layers have shown that the texture develops suddenly during the initial 2 nm of deposition. To help understand and tune the behavior during this initial stage, we pre-deposited thin layers of MgO with no ion assist prior to IBAD growth of MgO. We found that biaxial texture develops for pre-deposited thicknesses < 2 nm, and that the thinnest layer tested, at 1 nm, resulted in the best qualitative RHEED image, indicative of good biaxial texture development. The texture developed during IBAD growth on the 1.5 nm pre-deposited layer is slightly worse and IBAD growth on the 2 nm pre-deposited layer produces a fiber texture. Application of these layers on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} starting surface, which has been shown to impede texture development, improves the overall quality of the IBAD MgO and has some of the characteristics of a biaxially texture RHEED pattern. It is suggested that the use of thin (<2 nm) pre-deposited layers may eliminate the need for bed layers like Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} that are currently thought to be required for proper biaxial texture development in IBAD MgO.

  2. Aqueous Corrosion Behavior of Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)-Coated Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama Krishna, L.; Sundararajan, G.

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, in the current era of persistently growing engineering demands, have become the most promising materials finding widespread industrial applications. Numerous processes are available for surface protection of Mg and its alloys to potentially minimize corrosion damage. The micro arc oxidation (MAO), a fairly recent and eco-friendly coating process, emerged as a novel means to provide an adherent, hard, scratch-resistant, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant coatings on Mg alloys. However, the successful utilization of such coatings demands a thorough understanding of the influence of a relatively large number of process parameters such as electrolytic composition, presence of insoluble additives in the electrolyte, electrical parameters employed, and the composition of the Mg alloy substrate on the corrosion resistance. The detailed influence of all the above parameters on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloys is critically reviewed and presented in this article. In addition, this article also reviews the recent trends in terms of duplexing the MAO process using different techniques/processes such that the composite coatings are produced with enhanced corrosion resistance.

  3. Microstructure and biological properties of micro-arc oxidation coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Yu, X

    2012-08-01

    Ceramic coatings were prepared on ZK60 magnesium alloy in electrolyte with different concentration ratio of calcium and phosphorus (Ca/P) by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique at constant voltage. The microstructure, phase composition, elemental distribution, corrosion resistance, and adhesion of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), electrochemical workstation, and scratch spectrometer, respectively. The coating biocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests and systemic toxicity tests, and the bioactivity and degradability were evaluated by simulation body fluid (SBF) immersion tests. SEM shows that pores with different shapes distribute all over the coating surface. The adhesion and thickness of the coatings increases with increasing Ca/P ratio of electrolyte. The in vitro cytotoxicity tests and systemic toxicity texts demonstrate that the coatings have no toxicity to cell and living animal, which show that the coatings have excellent biocompatibility. XRD analysis shows that bioactive calciumphosphate (CaP) phases such as hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP, Ca(2)P(2)O(7)) are induced in the immersed coatings, indicating that the MAO coatings have excellent bioactivity. PMID:22692915

  4. Detection of the adsorption of water monolayers through the ion oscillation frequency in the magnesium oxide lattice by means of low energy electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Bertsch, M.; Ramírez-Hidalgo, G.; Chavarría-Sibaja, A.; Avendaño, E.; Araya-Pochet, J. A.; Herrera-Sancho, O. A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the variation of the oscillation frequency of the Mg2+ and O2- ions in the magnesium oxide lattice due to the interactions of the surface with water monolayers by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction. Our key result is a new technique to determine the adsorbate vibrations produced by the water monolayers on the surface lattice as a consequence of their change in the surface Debye temperature and its chemical shift. The latter was systematically investigated for different annealing times and for a constant external thermal perturbation in the range of 110-300 K in order to accomplish adsorption or desorption of water monolayers in the surface lattice.

  5. Phisicochemistry of alkaline-earth metals oxides surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimova, Irina; Minakova, Tamara; Ogneva, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The surface state of alkaline-earth metals and magnesium oxides obtained by means of commercial and laboratory ways has been studied in this paper. A complex of methods has been used for identification, determination of a phase composition and morphology of the samples. The high basic character of surface centres has been shown with the help of pH-metry and adsorption of indicators methods. Acid-basic parameters (pHt, pHiis, etc.) can be used for the estimation of a general acid-basic state of metal oxides samples surface and for the supposition about different nature and strength of acid-basic centres as well as for the initial control in the process of acid basic properties of solid oxides surface properties evaluation.

  6. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono-and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  7. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  8. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  9. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  10. Microcalorimetric Studies of Surface Acid/Base Properties of Magnesium Iron Catalysts Prepared from Hydrotalcite-Type Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Mai; Shen, Jianyi; Chen, Yi

    1997-01-01

    Magnesium-iron mixed oxides with Mg/Fe molar ratios 1,3, and 6 were prepared from hydrotalcite-type precursors. Microcalorimetric adsorption of NH 3and CO 2showed that the surface acidity and basicity of the mixed oxides after calcination at 673 K are similar despite the different Mg/Fe ratios. Increasing calcination temperature from 673 to 773 K significantly decreased the surface area of the 3 Mg/Fe oxide, but the densities of both the acid and base sites were not changed. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that the reduction of the 3 Mg/Fe oxide (Fe 2O 3/MgO) in H 2at 673 K converted all Fe 3+to Fe 2+. The resulted FeO/MgO exhibited the same acidity as that of the Fe 2O 3/MgO, but the basicity of the FeO/MgO was greatly enhanced. Reduction at 773 K resulted in the formation of 76% Fe 2+and 24% Fe 0as detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Fe/FeO/MgO sample formed exhibited very low heat for the adsorption of NH 3(40 kJ/mol) indicating that all iron atoms on the surface are Fe 0. However, a substantial basicity remained on the surface of this sample that may account for its high olefin selectivity compared with pure iron catalyst in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  11. Aging of magnesium stearate under high doses gamma irradiation and oxidative conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, D.; Beuvier, L.; Cornaton, M.; Miserque, F.; Tabarant, M.; Esnouf, S.; Ferry, M.

    2015-05-01

    In nuclear waste packages conditioning processes, magnesium stearate is widely used because of its high lubricating properties. For safety purposes, the radiolytic degradation of these organic materials has to be better understood to be able to predict their aging in repository conditions. This study reports the radiolytic degradation of magnesium stearate, using gamma-rays at room temperature and under air. Modifications were followed using different analytical tools (XPS, ATR-FTIR, ICP-AES, ATG and mass spectrometry). It has been observed that molecules mainly formed up to 1000 kGy of gamma irradiation dose under radio-oxidation are alkanes, hydroperoxides, double bonds in the aliphatic chain, carboxylates with aliphatic chain shorter than the one of stearate and ketones. At a dose of 4000 kGy, dicarboxylic acids are observed: the formation of these molecules needs a dose of at least 1000 kGy to be created under radio-oxidation. These observations allow us to propose a non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate under gamma-irradiation at room temperature and under air.

  12. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys. PMID:25559356

  13. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia; Wang, Yaming; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro-nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  14. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  15. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  16. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  17. Thermal Property Evaluation of Cerium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Magnesium Oxide Powders for Testing Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    HOYT, R C

    2002-06-01

    Ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and mixtures of CeO{sub 2} -magnesium oxide (MgO) have been utilized at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) as surrogate materials to represent plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and impure PuO{sub 2} containing impurities such as MgO during verification tests on PFP's stabilization furnaces. Magnesium oxide was selected during furnace testing as the impurity of interest since much of the impure PuO{sub 2} to be stabilized and packaged at the PFP contains significant amounts of MgO from solution stabilization work. The issue being addressed in this study is whether or not heating the surrogate materials to 950 C adequately simulates heating PuO{sub 2} powders to 950 C. This paper evaluates some of the thermal properties of these oxides, as related to the heating of powders of these materials where heat transfer within the powders is governed primarily by conduction. Detailed heat transfer modeling was outside the scope of this paper.

  18. Crystal structure of complex natural aluminum magnesium calcium iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2010-07-15

    The structure of a new natural oxide found near the Tashelga River (Eastern Siberia) was studied by X-ray diffraction. The pseudo-orthorhombic unit cell parameters are a = 5.6973(1) A, b = 17.1823(4) A, c = 23.5718(5) A, {beta} = 90{sup o}, sp. gr. Pc. The structure was refined to R = 0.0516 based on 4773 reflections with vertical bar F vertical bar > 7{sigma}(F) taking into account the twin plane perpendicular to the z axis (the twin components are 0.47 and 0.53). The crystal-chemical formula (Z = 4) is Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}{sup IV}Fe{sub 2}{sup (2+)IV}[Al{sub 14}{sup VI}O{sub 31}(OH)][Al{sub 2}{sup IV}O][Al{sup IV}]AL{sup IV}(OH)], where the Roman numerals designate the coordination of the atoms. The structure of the mineral is based on wide ribbons of edge-sharing Al octahedra (an integral part of the spinel layer). The ribbons run along the shortest x axis and are inclined to the y and z axes. The adjacent ribbons are shifted with respect to each other along the y axis, resulting in the formation of step-like layers in which the two-ribbon thickness alternates with the three-ribbon thickness. Additional Al octahedra and Mg and Fe{sup 2+} tetrahedra are located between the ribbons. The layers are linked together to form a three-dimensional framework by Al tetrahedra, Ca polyhedra, and hydrogen bonds with the participation of OH groups.

  19. Effect of current density on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of microarc oxidized ZK60 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    You, Qiongya; Yu, Huijun; Wang, Hui; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2014-09-01

    The application of magnesium alloys as biomaterials is limited by their poor corrosion behavior. Microarc oxidation (MAO) treatment was used to prepare ceramic coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloys in order to overcome the poor corrosion resistance. The process was conducted at different current densities (3.5 and 9.0 A/dm(2)), and the effect of current density on the process was studied. The microstructure, elemental distribution, and phase composition of the MAO coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The increment of current density contributes to the increase of thickness. A new phase Mg2SiO4 was detected as the current density increased to 9.0 A/dm(2). A homogeneous distribution of micropores could be observed in the coating produced at 3.5 A/dm(2), while the surface morphology of the coating formed at 9.0 A/dm(2) was more rough and apparent microcracks could be observed. The coating obtained at 3.5 A/dm(2) possessed a better anticorrosion behavior. PMID:25280850

  20. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  1. Phase transformations and metallization of magnesium oxide at high pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, R Stewart; Spaulding, Dylan K; Eggert, Jon H; Celliers, Peter M; Hicks, Damien G; Smith, Raymond F; Collins, Gilbert W; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is representative of the rocky materials comprising the mantles of terrestrial planets, such that its properties at high temperatures and pressures reflect the nature of planetary interiors. Shock-compression experiments on MgO to pressures of 1.4 terapascals (TPa) reveal a sequence of two phase transformations: from B1 (sodium chloride) to B2 (cesium chloride) crystal structures above 0.36 TPa, and from electrically insulating solid to metallic liquid above 0.60 TPa. The transitions exhibit large latent heats that are likely to affect the structure and evolution of super-Earths. Together with data on other oxide liquids, we conclude that magmas deep inside terrestrial planets can be electrically conductive, enabling magnetic field-producing dynamo action within oxide-rich regions and blurring the distinction between planetary mantles and cores. PMID:23180773

  2. Quasi-isentropic Compression of Iron and Magnesium Oxide to 3 Mbar at the Omega Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Smith, R. F.; Coppari, F.; Eggert, J. H.; Boehly, T.; Collins, G.; Duffy, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    Developing a high-pressure, modest temperature ramp compression drive permits exploration of new regions of thermodynamic space, inaccessible through traditional methods of shock or static compression, and of particular relevance to material conditions found in planetary interiors both within and outside our solar system. Ramp compression is a developing technique that allows materials to be compressed along a quasi-isentropic path and provides the ability to study materials in the solid state to higher pressures than can be achieved with diamond anvil cell or shock wave methods. Iron and magnesium oxide are geologically important materials each representative of one of the two major interior regions (core and mantle) of terrestrial planets. An experimental platform for ramp loading of iron (Fe) and magnesium oxide (MgO), has been established and tested in experiments at the Omega Laser Facility, University of Rochester. Omega is a 60-beam ultraviolet (352 nm) neodymium glass laser which is capable of delivery kilojoules of energy in ~10 ns pulses onto targets of a few mm in dimension. In the current experiments, we used a composite ramped laser pulse involving typically 15 beams with total energy of 2.6-3.3 kJ. The laser beams were used to launch spatially planar ramp compression waves into Fe and MgO targets. Each target had four steps that were approximately 5-7 μm thick. Detection of the ramp wave arrival and its velocity at the free surface of each step was made using a VISAR velocity interferometer. Through the use of Lagrangian analysis on the measured wave profiles, stress-density states in iron and magnesium oxide have been determined to pressures of 291 GPa and 260 GPa respectively. For Fe, the α-ɛ transition of iron is overdriven by an initial shock pulse of ~90.1 GPa followed by ramp compression to the peak pressure. The results will be compared with shock compression and diamond anvil cell data for both materials.

  3. Preparation and characterization of HA microflowers coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Dezhen; Luo, Yan; Wang, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this work, hydroxyapatite microflowers coating is fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and the apatite-forming ability is studied also. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy has been enhanced by MAO coating. And the solution treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the MAO sample, by forming a barrier layer on the surface of the MAO coating, and by penetrating into the outer layer of the MAO film, sealing the micropores and micro-cracks existed in the MAO coating. In addition, the MAO-ST coating also exhibits a high ability to form apatite.

  4. Fogging technique used to coat magnesium with plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroz, T. S.

    1967-01-01

    Cleaning process and a fogging technique facilitate the application of a plastic coating to magnesium plates. The cleaning process removes general organic and inorganic surface impurities, oils and greases, and oxides and carbonates from the magnesium surfaces. The fogging technique produces a thin-filmlike coating in a clean room atmosphere.

  5. Surface modification of magnesium alloys developed for bioabsorbable orthopedic implants: a general review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiali; Tang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yangde; Wang, Jue; Lai, Yuxiao; Qin, Ling

    2012-08-01

    As a bioabsorbable metal with mechanical properties close to bone, pure magnesium or its alloys have great potential to be developed as medical implants for clinical applications. However, great efforts should be made to avoid its fast degradation in vivo for orthopedic applications when used for fracture fixation. Therefore, how to decease degradation rate of pure magnesium or its alloys is one of the focuses in Research and Development (R&D) of medical implants. It has been recognized that surface modification is an effective method to prevent its initial degradation in vivo to maintain its desired mechanical strength. This article reviews the recent progress in surface modifications for prevention of fast degradation of magnesium or its alloys using in vitro testing model, a fast yet relevant model before moving towards time-consuming and expensive in vivo testing. Pros and cons of various surface modifications are also discussed for the goal to design available products to be applied in clinical trials. PMID:22566412

  6. Insulating oxide surfaces and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goniakowski, Jacek; Noguera, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    This contribution describes some peculiarities of the science of oxide surfaces and nanostructures and proposes a simple conceptual scheme to understand their electronic structure, in the spirit of Jacques Friedel's work. Major results on the effects of non-stoichiometry and polarity are presented, for both semi-infinite surfaces and ultra-thin films, and promising lines of research for the near future are sketched. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Magnesium oxide-supported ziegler catalyst modified with acid and higher alkanol, and process for preparing narrow MWD HDPE

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, J.T.T.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a coordination-catalyst suitable for the polymerization of olefins. It comprises a titanium component and an organoaluminum compound reducing agent on a magnesium oxide support which has been pre-treated with a molar deficiency of a carboxylic acid with respect to the magnesium oxide support. The titanium component is the reaction product of an alkanol having 5 to 12 carbon atoms and TiCl/sub 4/ with the molar ratio of the alkanol to the TiCl/sub 4/ being about 0.5 to about 1.5.

  8. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  9. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliu, S., Jr.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M. C.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.; Arrabal, R.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 °C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH) 2 and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of MgO and Mg(OH) 2. A linear relation between the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface and the subsequent corrosion behaviour in the humid environment was found. The AZ80 alloy revealed the highest amount of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film and the highest atmospheric corrosion resistance, even higher than the AZ91D alloy, indicating that aluminium distribution in the alloy microstructure influenced the amount of magnesium carbonate formed.

  10. THE HYDROLYSIS AND OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE DETERMINED BY CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K; Donald Anton, D; Joshua Gray, J; Bruce Hardy, B

    2008-03-13

    Lithium borohydride, magnesium hydride and the 2:1 'destabilized' ball milled mixtures (2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2}) underwent liquid phase hydrolysis, gas phase hydrolysis and air oxidation reactions monitored by isothermal calorimetry. The experimentally determined heats of reaction and resulting products were compared with those theoretically predicted using thermodynamic databases. Results showed a discrepancy between the predicted and observed hydrolysis and oxidation products due to both kinetic limitations and to the significant amorphous character of observed reaction products. Gas phase and liquid phase hydrolysis were the dominant reactions in 2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2} with approximately the same total energy release and reaction products; liquid phase hydrolysis displayed the maximum heat flow for likely environmental exposure with a peak energy release of 6 (mW/mg).

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the surface bioactivity of a calcium phosphate coated magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liping; Pan, Feng; Yu, Guoning; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Erlin; Yang, Ke

    2009-03-01

    Magnesium has shown potential application as a bio-absorbable biomaterial, such as for bone screws and plates. In order to improve the surface bioactivity, a calcium phosphate was coated on a magnesium alloy by a phosphating process (Ca-P coating). The surface characterization showed that a porous and netlike CaHPO(4).2H(2)O layer with small amounts of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) was formed on the surface of the Mg alloy. Cells L929 showed significantly good adherence and significantly high growth rate and proliferation characteristics on the Ca-P coated magnesium alloy (p<0.05) in in-vitro cell experiments, demonstrating that the surface cytocompatibility of magnesium was significantly improved by the Ca-P coating. In vivo implantations of the Ca-P coated and the naked alloy rods were carried out to investigate the bone response at the early stage. Both routine pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the Ca-P coating provided magnesium with a significantly good surface bioactivity (p<0.05) and promoted early bone growth at the implant/bone interface. It was suggested that the Ca-P coating might be an effective method to improve the surface bioactivity of magnesium alloy. PMID:19111896

  12. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Song, Yang; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Jianan; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2011-04-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 µm were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E(corr)) and smaller corrosion currents (I(corr)) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 °C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents. PMID:21358027

  13. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium oxide nanocrystallites and probing the vacancy-type defects through positron annihilation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anjan; Mandal, Atis Chandra; Roy, Soma; Prashanth, Pendem; Ahamed, Sk Izaz; Kar, Subhrasmita; Prasad, Mithun S.; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium oxide nanocrystallites exhibit certain abnormal characteristics when compared to those of other wide band gap oxide semiconductors in the sense they are most prone to water absorption and formation of a hydroxide layer on the surface. The problem can be rectified by heating and pure nanocrystallites can be synthesized with controllable sizes. Inevitably the defect properties are distinctly divided between two stages, the one with the hydroxide layer (region I) and the other after the removal of the layer by annealing (region II). The lattice parameters, the optical band gap and even the positron annihilation characteristics are conspicuous by their distinct behavior in the two stages of the surface configurations of nanoparticles. While region I was specific with the formation of positronium-hydrogen complexes that drastically altered the defect-specific positron lifetimes, pick-off annihilation of orthopositronium atoms marked region II. The vacancy clusters within the nanocrystallites also trapped positrons. They agglomerated due to the effect of the higher temperatures and resulted in the growth of the nanocrystallites. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopic measurements supported these findings and all the more indicated the trapping of positrons additionally into the neutral divacancies and negatively charged trivacancies. This is apart from the Mg2+ monovacancies which acted as the dominant trapping centers for positrons.

  14. The surface modified composite layer formation with boron carbide particles on magnesium alloy surfaces through pulse gas tungsten arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. B.; Jiang, H. Y.; Zeng, X. Q.; Li, D. H.; Yao, S. S.

    2007-02-01

    A novel fabrication process of surface modified composite layer by pulse current gas tungsten arc (GTA) surface modification process was used to deposit B 4C particles on the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31. This method is an effective technique in producing a high performance surface modified composite layer. During the pulse current GTA surface modification process, considerable convection can exist in the molten pool due to various driving forces and the pulse current could cause violent stirring in the molten pool, and the large temperature gradient across the boundary between the GTA modified surface and matrix metal resulted in rapid resolidification with high cooling rates in the molten pool, so that the process result notable grain refinement in the GTA surface modified composite layer. The hardness and wear resistance of the GTA surface modified composite layer are superior to that of as-received magnesium alloy AZ31. The hardness values and wear resistance of GTA surface modified composite layer depend on the GTA process parameters and the B 4C particles powder concentration and distribution. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of a homogeneous crack/defect-free and grain refinement microstructure were established.

  15. Microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bontrager, J; Mahapatro, A; Gomes, A S

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradable materials including biodegradable metals are continuously being investigated for the development of next generation cardiovascular stents. Predictive in vitro tests are needed that could evaluate potential materials while simulating in vivo conditions. In this manuscript we report the microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions. A corrosion test bench was designed and fabricated and static and dynamic corrosion tests were carried out with samples of magnesium alloy. The fluid wall shear stress equation and the Churchill's friction factor equation were used to calculate the fluid velocity required to generate the desired shear stress on samples in the test bench. Static and dynamic corrosion tests at 24 and 72 h were carried out at 0.88 Pa shear stress mimicking the in vivo shear stress. Microscopic evaluations of the corroded surfaces were carried out by optical, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to evaluate the corrosion behaviour and surface properties of the test samples. The surface and interface analysis of magnesium samples post test indicated that dynamic conditions prevented the build-up of corrosion by-products on the sample surface and the corrosion mechanism was uniform as compared to static conditions. The use of a masking element to restrict the exposed area of the sample didn't result in increased corrosion at the boundary. Thus, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the designed test bench as a viable method for bio-corrosion surface analysis under dynamic corrosion conditions for potential biodegradable cardiovascular stent materials. PMID:24910359

  16. Study on the mechanism of surface modification of magnesium oxysulfate whisker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Li; Nai, Xueying; Zhu, Donghai; Jing, Yanwei; Liu, Xin; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic-lipophilic magnesium oxysulfate whisker (MOSw) was prepared by surface modification with lauric acid and the surface morphology of MOSw was examined with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the crystalline degree of MOSw and modified MOSw (MOSw-LA). Both FESEM and XRD suggested that modification occurred on the surface of MOSw exclusively. The inexistence of physisorbed lauric acid was proved by Fouier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analyses ruled out the possibility that magnesium laurate (LA-Mg) physisorbed on the surface of MOSw-LA. Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) further verified the formation of COO-Mg< bonds based on the significant changes of chemical shift and decrease in intensity. Hence, we confirmed that the type of surface modification of MOSw with lauric acid was chemical adsorption taken place between lauric acid and Mg<. In order to study the dynamic state approach of this reaction, a pH meter was employed to monitor the reaction process synchronously, and then we proposed a reaction mechanism which was similar to the "acid-base neutralization". This research provides a detailed explanation for a kind of surface modification, which may be further used in the performance of whisker/polymer matrix composites.

  17. Development of Laser Surface Technologies for Anti-Corrosion on Magnesium Alloys: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rujian; Guan, Yingchun; Zhu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been increasingly used in industries and biomaterial fields due to low density, high specific strength and biodegradability. However, poor surface-related properties are major factors that limit their practical applications. This paper mainly focuses on laser-based anti-corrosion technologies for Mg alloys, beginning with a brief review of conventional methods, and then demonstrates the feasibility of laser surface technologies including laser surface melting (LSM), laser surface alloying (LSA), laser surface cladding (LSC) and laser shock peening (LSP) in achieving enhancement of corrosion resistance. The mechanism and capability of each technique in corrosion resistance is carefully discussed. Finally, an outlook of the development of laser surface technology for Mg alloy is further concluded, aiming to serve as a guide for further research both in industry applications and biomedical devices.

  18. Thermoluminescence properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses system doped with dysprosium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mhareb, M H A; Hashim, S; Ghoshal, S K; Alajerami, Y S M; Saleh, M A; Razak, N A B; Azizan, S A B

    2015-12-01

    We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters. PMID:25828828

  19. Laser surface modification of Ti and TiC coatings on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. M.; Lee, S. G.; Park, J. S.; Kim, H. G.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the surface properties of magnesium alloy, a highly intense laser surface melting process following plasma spraying of Ti or TiC on AZ31 alloy were employed. When laser surface melting was applied to Ti coated magnesium alloy, the formation of fine Ti particle dispersed surface layer on the substrate occurred. The corrosion potential of the AZ31 alloy with Ti dispersed surface was significantly increased in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Additionally, an improved hardness was observed for the laser treated specimens as compared to the untreated AZ31 alloy. Laser melting process following plasma thermal deposition was also applied for obtaining in situ TiC coating layer on AZ31 alloy. The TiC coating layer could be successfully formed via in situ reaction between pure titanium and carbon powders. Incomplete TiC formation was observed in the plasma sprayed specimen, while completely transformed TiC layer was found after post laser melting process. It was also confirmed that the laser post treatment induced enhanced adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate.

  20. CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 3. PILOT SCALE TEST RESULTS FOR MAGNESIUM OXIDE SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was conducted to determine the feasibility of applying the magnesium oxide (MgO) scrubbing system to smelter off-gas streams containing approximately one percent SO2. Pilot scale (4000 cu Nm/hr) tests of the MgO system using a packed tower absorber with no rege...

  1. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  2. Modifying AM60B Magnesium Alloy Die Cast Surfaces by Friction Stir Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L; Feng, Zhili; Degen, Cassandra; Pan, Dr. Tsung-Yu

    2006-01-01

    These experiments were done to evaluate the feasibility of locally modifying the surface properties of magnesium alloys with friction-stir processing. The magnesium alloy used for the study was high-pressure die-cast AM60B, nominally Mg-6Al-0.13 Mn (wt. %). Friction-stir passes were made with a translation speed of 1.7 mm/s using tool-rotation speeds of 1,250 rpm or 2,500 rpm. Stir passes with good appearance were obtained under both conditions. In some cases up to five passes were overlapped on a single bar to produce stir zones with cross-sectional dimensions of about 1.5 mm x 10 mm. Metallographic examinations indicated that the stir zones were largely comprised of a magnesium solid solution with equiaxed grains on the order of 5-10 {micro}m in size. Hardness mapping showed that the stir zones experienced increases of 16-25% compared to the as-cast metal. Room-temperature testing showed that, compared to the cast metal, the stir zones had flow stresses nearly 20% higher with about twice the tensile elongation.

  3. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  4. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  5. Magnesium Lewis Acid Assisted Oxidative Bromoetherification Involving Bromine Transfer from Alkyl Bromides with Aldehydes by Umpolung of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Nishinohara, Chihiro; Togo, Hideo

    2016-08-16

    An oxidative bromoetherification involving a bromine transfer from alkyl bromides upon reacting them with aldehydes in a Grignard reaction with a concurrent oxidation of bromide was developed to provide substituted tetrahydrofurans in high yields. This reaction, which proceeds through two types of bromine transfer, was promoted by the addition of a Brønsted acid. Mechanistic studies suggested that a magnesium Lewis acid activates hypobromate, which is generated in situ from the reaction of bromide and Oxone to improve the electrophilicity of the bromonium ion (Br(+) ) for the oxidative bromoetherification of alkenyl alcohols. Furthermore, the magnesium Lewis acid catalyzed oxidative bromoetherification of an alkenyl alcohol proceeded to provide a cyclization product in 92 % yield. PMID:27304660

  6. Surface-Step-Induced Oscillatory Oxide Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Luo, Langli; Ciston, Jim; Saidi, Wissam A.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2014-09-01

    We report in situ atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations of the oxidation of stepped Cu surfaces. We find that the presence of surface steps both inhibits oxide film growth and leads to the oxide decomposition, thereby resulting in oscillatory oxide film growth. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the oscillatory oxide film growth is induced by oxygen adsorption on the lower terrace along the step edge, which destabilizes the oxide film formed on the upper terrace.

  7. Application Of Phenol/Amine Copolymerized Film Modified Magnesium Alloys: Anticorrosion And Surface Biofunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Yingqi; Zhao, Sheng; Chen, Meiyun; Li, Xin; Maitz, Manfred F; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2015-11-11

    Magnesium metal as degradable metallic material is one of the most researched areas, but its rapid degradation rate restricts its development. The current anticorrosion surface modification methods require expensive equipment and complicated operation processes and cannot continue to introduce biofunction on modified surface. In this study, the GAHD conversion coatings were fabricated on the surface of magnesium alloys (MZM) by incubating in the mixture solution of gallic acid (GA) and hexamethylenediamine (HD) to decrease the corrosion rate and provide primary amines (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH), and quinone groups, which is supposed to introduce biomolecules on MZM. Chemical structures of the MZM-GAHD and MZM-HEP-GAHD were explored by analyzing the results of FTIR and XPS comprehensively. Furthermore, it was proved that the heparin (HEP) molecules were successfully immobilized on MZM-GAHD surface through carbodiimide method. The evaluation of platelet adhesion and clotting time test showed that MZM-HEP-GAHD had higher anticoagulation than MZM-GAHD. Through electrochemical detection (polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Nyquist spectrum) and immersion test (Mg(2+) concentration and weight loss), it was proved that compared to MZM, both the MZM-GAHD and MZM-HEP-GAHD significantly improved the corrosion resistance. Finally, in vivo experimentation indicated that mass loss had no significant difference between MZM-1:1, MZM-HEP-1:1, and MZM. However, the trend still suggested that MZM-1:1 and MZM-HEP-1:1 possessed corrosion resistance property. PMID:26479205

  8. Determination of tetracyclines in surface water and milk by the magnesium hydroxide coprecipitation method.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Huang, Joh-Jong; Hsue, Min-Hsien; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wu, Yuh-Wern

    2010-01-15

    A simple coprecipitation method was developed for the determination of tetracyclines (TCs) in surface water and milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Magnesium ion was added into the surface water or the acetonitrile (MeCN) extract of milk. After alkalinization, magnesium hydroxide precipitates which had been formed can be separated from the matrix solution easily by centrifuging and then a dissolution step was performed by adding a small amount of acid. The final solution could be introduced directly into HPLC system for the determination of the analytes. Under optimal conditions, recoveries for the analysis of spiked surface water samples ranged from 83.6% to 95.1% with relative standard deviation of 2.0-5.5%. For milk samples, relative recoveries were 95.9-104.6% with relative standard deviation of 3.4-6.7%. The enrichment factors ranged from 41.5 to 48.1 for 10 mL water samples, and from 3.6 to 4.4 for 1 mL MeCN extracts of milk. Limits of detection ranged from 0.13 to 0.51 ng/mL, and from 3.0 to 8.5 ng/g for four TCs in surface water and milk samples, respectively. PMID:20015512

  9. RF-sputter-deposited magnesium oxide films as high-quality adjustable tunnel barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Villegier, J.C.; Radparvar, M.; Yu, L.S.; Faris, S.M.

    1989-03-01

    High quality RF-sputtered MgO films are used as tunnel barriers to fabricate small area, niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions. A magnesium oxide barrier deposited as a single layer, or as a multilayer film, results in devices with similar characteristics. Annealing trilayers at temperatures in excess of 250/sup 0/C for several hours decrease junction current density and improve device quality presumably by increasing barrier heights through reducing resonant tunneling states. A self-aligned process utilizing only two mask levels is used to produce junctions as small as 0.5 ..mu..m/sup 2/ with excellent critical current uniformity. These junctions exhibit energy gaps of 5.1 mV and low subgap currents at current densities in excess of 1000 A/cm/sup 2/ which make them suitable for a variety of applications such as SIS mixers and logic circuits.

  10. Toxic effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on early developmental and larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ghobadian, Mehdi; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Parivar, Kazem; Fathi, Mojtaba; Pazooki, Jamileh

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) are used in medicine, manufacturing and food industries. Because of their extensive application in our daily lives, environmental exposure to these nanoparticles is inevitable. The present study examined the effects of MgONPs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stages. The results showed that, at different concentrations, MgONPs induced cellular apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The hatching rate and survival of embryos decreased in a dose dependent manner. The 96-h LC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish survival was 428 mg/l and the 48-h EC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish embryo hatching rate was 175 mg/l. Moreover different types of malformation were observed in exposed embryos. The results demonstrate the toxic effects of MgONPs on zebrafish embryos and emphasize the need for further studies. PMID:26283286

  11. Ab initio calculations on magnetism induced by composite defects in magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yao-Fang; Feng, Min; Shao, Bin; Lu, Yuan; Zuo, Xu; Liu, Hong

    2014-05-07

    The local magnetic state induced by the composite defects, composed of an oxygen vacancy and a nitrogen substituting oxygen, in magnesium oxide has been studied by using ab initio calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated results show that local magnetic moment can be induced by the composite defects around the oxygen vacancy, when the exchange split of the oxygen vacancy is enhanced either by the hybridization between the N-p and nearest neighbor O-p orbitals or by applying on-site Coulomb repulsion (U) and exchange interaction (J). We show that the magnetic state induced by the composite defect is energetically more stable than the non-magnetic state. In addition, we show that the U and J applied on the p-orbitals of N and O atoms may significantly impact the calculated magnetic state of the composite defect, resulting in magnetic state for a configuration that is non-magnetic by generalized gradient approximation.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of hot-pressed and PECS-sintered magnesium-doped copper aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Morelli, Donald T

    2011-02-03

    Copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO{sub 2}) is considered as a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications. Partially magnesium-doped CuAlO{sub 2} bulk pellets were fabricated using solid-state reactions, hot-pressing, and pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were adopted for structural analysis. High-temperature transport property measurements were performed on hot-pressed samples. Electrical conductivity increased with Mg doping before secondary phases became significant, while the Seebeck coefficient displayed the opposite trend. Thermal conductivity was consistently reduced as the Mg concentration increased. Effects of Mg doping, preparation conditions, and future modification on this material’s properties are discussed.

  13. Corrosion behavior of silicon nitride, magnesium oxide, and several metals in molten calcium chloride with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D. . Research and Development Center); Sesions, C.E.; Marra, J.E. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper corrosion studies are described in a molten calcium chloride environment sparged with chlorine gas at 850{degrees}C, both in the melt and in the gas phase above the salt, in support of efforts at Westinghouse Savannah River Company to develop more resistant materials of construction for molten salt processing of plutonium. Corrosion rates and electron microscope analyses are reported for Inconel alloys 601 and 617, tantalum, tungsten, magnesium oxide, and silicon nitride. Silicon nitride exhibited the greatest resistance, showing {lt}0.1 mg/cm{sup 2} {center dot} h loss in both melt and vapor None of the metallic coupons withstood the chlorine vapor environment, although Inconel indicated resistance immersed in the melt if protected from chlorine gas.

  14. On the surface properties of biodegrading magnesium and its alloys: a survey and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Kirkland, N. T.; Chen, X. B.; Lyndon, J. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys present exceptional promise as functional implants, as evidenced by the significant research effort associated with the topic in recent years. However, a salient point regarding the degradation of Mg and Mg-alloys—in any aqueous environment, including biological media—is the certain presence and accumulation of surface films, representing dissolution products. The corrosion of Mg does not require that bare metal surfaces be presented to the surrounding environment, it follows that any tissue or cells in the immediate vicinity of a Mg-based implant will therefore be in intimate contact with the dissolution products of Mg. To this end, the present work describes the typical Mg/Mg-alloy surface evolution during dissolution in biological media, and the associated factors which govern the morphology and control of surface films. This combines original research with review, finishing with prospects for further illumination.

  15. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  16. Influence of albumin and inorganic ions on electrochemical corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated magnesium for surgical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Lin, Xiao; Tan, LiLi; Li, Lugee; Li, WeiRong; Yang, Ke

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are of great interest for biodegradable metallic devices. However, the degradation behavior and mechanisms of magnesium treated with coating in physiological environment in the presence of organic compound such as albumin have not been elucidated. In this study, the plasma electrolytic oxidation coated magnesium immersed in four different simulated body fluids: NaCl, PBS and with the addition of albumin to investigate the influence of protein and inorganic ions on degradation behavior by electrochemical methods. The results of electrochemical tests showed that aggressive corrosion took place in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution; whereas albumin can act as an inhibitor, its adsorption impeded further dissolution of the coating. The mechanism was attributed to the synergistic effect of protein adsorption and precipitation of insoluble salts.

  17. Potentiostatic control of ionic liquid surface film formation on ZE41 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Efthimiadis, Jim; Neil, Wayne C; Bunter, Andrew; Howlett, Patrick C; Hinton, Bruce R W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The generation of potentially corrosion-resistant films on light metal alloys of magnesium have been investigated. Magnesium alloy, ZE41 [Mg-Zn-Rare Earth (RE)-Zr, nominal composition approximately 4 wt % Zn, approximately 1.7 wt % RE (Ce), approximately 0.6 wt % Zr, remaining balance, Mg], was exposed under potentiostatic control to the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium diphenylphosphate, denoted [P(6,6,6,14)][DPP]. During exposure to this IL, a bias potential, shifted from open circuit, was applied to the ZE41 surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to monitor the evolution of film formation on the metal surface during exposure. The EIS data indicate that, of the four bias potentials examined, applying a potential of -200 mV versus OCP during the exposure period resulted in surface films of greatest resistance. Both EIS measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging indicate that these surfaces are substantially different to those formed without potential bias. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) elemental mapping of the films was utilized to ascertain the distribution of the ionic liquid cationic and anionic species relative to the microstructural surface features of ZE41 and indicated a more uniform distribution compared with the surface following exposure in the absence of a bias potential. Immersion of the treated ZE41 specimens in a chloride contaminated salt solution clearly indicated that the ionic liquid generated surface films offered significant protection against pitting corrosion, although the intermetallics were still insufficiently protected by the IL and hence favored intergranular corrosion processes. PMID:20433137

  18. Adsorption of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxide molecules on the surface of the Ni/MgO(111) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, T. T.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Pantileev, D. G.

    2009-10-01

    The coadsorption of carbon oxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) molecules on the surface of nickel nanoclusters formed on a thin magnesium oxide MgO(111) film grown on the Mo(110) face in an ultrahigh vacuum is studied by reflective infrared spectroscopy and thermodesorption spectroscopy (TDS). The adsorption of NO molecules is found to substantially change the state of the initially adsorbed CO molecules. The TDS and IR spectra suggest that the adsorption of NO molecules stimulates the surface migration of CO molecules from the surface of metallic clusters to the cluster-oxide interface, which is accompanied by a decrease in the angle of inclination of the molecular axis to the surface.

  19. Surface properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy after PEO treatment using molybdate salts and low current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzato, Luca; Brunelli, Katya; Napolitani, Enrico; Magrini, Maurizio; Dabalà, Manuele

    2015-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process is a recently developed electrochemical method used to produce on the surface of various metals oxide ceramic coatings that improve corrosion and wear properties of the substrate. In this work, PEO process was applied on AZ91 magnesium alloy using low current densities (0.05 A/cm2) and an alkaline solution of silicates with different concentrations of sodium molybdate (0.3-3 g/l). The effect of the low current densities of process and of molybdate salts on the corrosion resistance of the coatings was studied with potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride and sulfate environment. The morphology, the phases and the chemical composition of the coatings were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion properties of the PEO coated samples were remarkably improved if compared with the uncoated samples. The addition of sodium molybdate, in determinate conditions, had a positive effect on the characteristics of the coatings in terms of corrosion resistance.

  20. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  1. Adsorption and decomposition of organophosphorus compounds on nanoscale metal oxide particle. In situ GC-MS studies of pulsed microreactions over magnesium oxide. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Progress report, 31 December 1991-30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.X.; Koper, O.; Atteya, M.; Klabunde, K.J.

    1992-12-31

    Using an in situ reactor GC-MS system, the thermal decomposition of organophosphorus compound (as models of nerve agents) has been compared with their destructive adsorption on high surface area magnesium oxide. Dramatically lower temperatures are required when MgO is present. Volatile products evolved were formic acid, water, alcohols, and alkenes. At higher temperatures CO, CH4, and water predominated. Phosphorus residues remained completed immobilized. Addition of water enhanced the facility of MgO to destroy these compounds, and in fact, water pulses were found to partially regenerate a spent MgO bed. Using 18O labeling some aspects of the reaction mechanisms were clarified and in particular showed that oxygen scrambling occurred. Surface OH and MgO groups transferred oxygen in the formation of formic acid, and surface mobility and reactivity of adsorbed groups was very high. The substantial capacity of high surface area MgO for destruction and immobilization of such toxic substance makes it attractive for air purification schemes as well as solid reagents for destruction and immobilization of bulk quantities of hazardous phosphorus compounds or organohalides. Organophosphorus, ultrafine powder, destructive adsorption, magnesium oxide, immobilization, nanoscale powder.

  2. Intestinal inflammation caused by magnesium deficiency alters basal and oxidative stress-induced intestinal function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium-deficiency (MgD)induces a systemic pro-inflammatory state. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of MgD on the functional and molecular response to mesenteric ischemia reperfusion. Rats were assigned to 4 groups and placed on magnesium sufficient or deficient diet for 1 or 3 we...

  3. Indium Tin Oxide-Magnesium Fluoride Co-Deposited Films for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joycer A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hambourger, Paul D.; Bruckner, Eric; Ferrante, Rhea; Pal, Anna Marie; Mayer, Karen; Pietromica, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Highly transparent coatings with a maximum sheet resistivity between 10(exp 8) and 10(exp 9) ohms/square are desired to prevent charging of solar arrays for low Earth polar orbit and geosynchronous orbit missions. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) were ion beam sputter co-deposited onto fused silica substrates and were evaluated for transmittance, sheet resistivity and the effects of simulated space environments including atomic oxygen (AO) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Optical properties and sheet resistivity as a function of MgF2 content in the films will be presented. Films containing 8.4 wt.% MgF2 were found to be highly transparent and provided sheet resistivity in the required range. These films maintained a high transmittance upon exposure to AO and to VUV radiation, although exposure to AO in the presence of charged species and intense electromagnetic radiation caused significant degradation in film transmittance. Sheet resistivity of the as-fabricated films increased with time in ambient conditions. Vacuum beat treatment following film deposition caused a reduction in sheet resistivity. However, following vacuum heat treatment, sheet resistivity values remained stable during storage in ambient conditions.

  4. Mechanism by Which Magnesium Oxide Suppresses Tablet Hardness Reduction during Storage.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Kachi, Shigeto; Nakamura, Shohei; Miki, Shinsuke; Kitajima, Hideaki; Yuasa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the inclusion of magnesium oxide (MgO) maintained tablet hardness during storage in an unpackaged state. Tablets were prepared with a range of MgO levels and stored at 40°C with 75% relative humidity for up to 14 d. The hardness of tablets prepared without MgO decreased over time. The amount of added MgO was positively associated with tablet hardness and mass from an early stage during storage. Investigation of the water sorption properties of the tablet components showed that carmellose water sorption correlated positively with the relative humidity, while MgO absorbed and retained moisture, even when the relative humidity was reduced. In tablets prepared using only MgO, a petal- or plate-like material was observed during storage. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry showed that this material was hydromagnesite, produced when MgO reacts with water and CO2. The estimated level of hydromagnesite at each time-point showed a significant negative correlation with tablet porosity. These results suggested that MgO suppressed storage-associated softening by absorbing moisture from the environment. The conversion of MgO to hydromagnesite results in solid bridge formation between the powder particles comprising the tablets, suppressing the storage-related increase in volume and increasing tablet hardness. PMID:27581629

  5. Effect of Food Thickener on Dissolution and Laxative Activity of Magnesium Oxide Tablets in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Kato, Kazushige; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the dissolution of magnesium oxide (MgO) from MgO tablets placed in a food thickening agent (food thickener) and its effects on laxative activity. We prepared mixtures of MgO tablets suspended in an aqueous suspension and food thickeners in order to evaluate the dissolution of MgO. The results of the dissolution tests revealed that agar-based food thickeners did not affect the MgO dissolution. In contrast, some xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates with certain mixtures containing disintegrated MgO tablets suspended in a food thickener that decrease over time. However, other xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates that decrease immediately after mixing, regardless of the time they were allowed to stand. In order to investigate the laxative activity of MgO, we orally administered a mixture of MgO suspension and food thickener to mice and observed their bowel movements. The animal experiments showed that when agar-based food thickeners were used, the laxative activity of MgO was not affected, but it decreased when xanthan gum-based food thickeners were used. PMID:27040638

  6. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md. Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, AbdulAziz A.; Fouad, H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera. PMID:26611737

  7. Biocorrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation in electrolyte containing zirconium and calcium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; Guo, Jun-Wei; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan; Cao, Jian-Yun; Zhou, Yu; Jia, De-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The key to use magnesium alloys as suitable biodegradable implants is how to adjust their degradation rates. We report a strategy to prepare biocompatible ceramic coating with improved biocorrosion resistance property on AZ91D alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) in a silicate-K2ZrF6 solution with and without Ca(H2PO4)2 additives. The microstructure and biocorrosion of coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM, as well as electrochemical and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, m-ZrO2 phases, further Ca containing compounds involve the coating by Ca(H2PO4)2 addition in the silicate-K2ZrF6 solution. The corrosion resistance of coated AZ91D alloy is significantly improved compared with the bare one. After immersing in SBF for 28 d, the Si-Zr5-Ca0 coating indicates a best corrosion resistance performance.

  8. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md. Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Fouad, H.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera.

  9. Collagen Self-Assembly on Orthopedic Magnesium Biomaterials Surface and Subsequent Bone Cell Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) biomaterials are a new generation of biodegradable materials and have promising potential for orthopedic applications. After implantation in bone tissues, these materials will directly interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules and bone cells. Type I collagen, the major component of bone ECM, forms the architecture scaffold that provides physical support for bone cell attachment. However, it is still unknown how Mg substrate affects collagen assembly on top of it as well as subsequent cell attachment and growth. Here, we studied the effects of collagen monomer concentration, pH, assembly time, and surface roughness of two Mg materials (pure Mg and AZ31) on collagen fibril formation. Results showed that formation of fibrils would not initiate until the monomer concentration reached a certain level depending on the type of Mg material. The thickness of collagen fibril increased with the increase of assembly time. The structures of collagen fibrils formed on semi-rough surfaces of Mg materials have a high similarity to that of native bone collagen. Next, cell attachment and growth after collagen assembly were examined. Materials with rough surface showed higher collagen adsorption but compromised bone cell attachment. Interestingly, surface roughness and collagen structure did not affect cell growth on AZ31 for up to a week. Findings from this work provide some insightful information on Mg-tissue interaction at the interface and guidance for future surface modifications of Mg biomaterials. PMID:25303459

  10. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  11. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Meininger, M; Wolf-Brandstetter, C; Zerweck, J; Wenninger, F; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr(2+) ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr(2+) into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr(2+) ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant-bone interface. PMID:27287100

  12. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  13. Preformed magnesium hydroxide precipitate for second-step concentration of enteroviruses from drinking and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Vilagines, P; Sarrette, B; Vilagines, R

    1982-07-01

    A method is described for the second-step concentration of viruses from large volumes of drinking and surface waters. Seeded viruses present in the first eluate, performed with 50 mM glycine buffer, pH 11.5, were adsorbed on a preformed magnesium hydroxide precipitate. After low-speed centrifugation they were desorbed and adjusted to pH 7 with McIlvaine citrate-phosphate buffer. In these experimental conditions 90% of the viruses present in the 300-mL first eluate were reconcentrated in a final volume of 40 mL. The recovery efficiency was independent of either virus concentration or water quality. PMID:6293693

  14. The protective effect of magnesium lithospermate B against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jian; Ren, Xian; Hou, Rui-ying; Dai, Xing-ping; Zhao, Ying-chun; Xu, Xiao-jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Gan; Zhou, Hong-hao; Liu, Zhao-qian

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. {yields} LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. {yields} LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. {yields} The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway. -- Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by high dose of glucose or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we explored the influences of LAB on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HEK293T cells after treatment with high dose of glucose. Materials and methods: The total nuclear proteins in HEK293T cells were extracted with Cytoplasmic Protein Extraction Kit. The ROS level was determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 and Nrf2 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Results: LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. The amount of Nrf2 translocation was enhanced after cells were pretreated with 50 {mu}mol/L or 100 {mu}mol/L LAB. Silencing of Nrf2 gene eliminated the enhanced expression of HO-1 protein induced by high dose of glucose plus LAB. Conclusions: LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway.

  15. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. C.; Hao, S. Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R. F.

    2014-06-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm2 and pulse duration 2.5 μs. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic α phase and Mg17Al12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ˜15 μm. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg3.1Al0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg17Al12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  16. Surface integrity of biodegradable Magnesium-Calcium orthopedic implant by burnishing.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, M; Guo, Y B

    2011-11-01

    Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa) alloy as an emerging biodegradable implant material has received considerable attention in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable MgCa alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable MgCa implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust the degradation rate of MgCa alloys is critical in the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic materials. Burnishing as a low plastic deformation process is a promising technique to tune surface integrity of MgCa implant surface for biodegradation control. However, the poor ductility of MgCa alloys imposes a great challenge for burnishing. This study focuses on the basic understanding of surface mechanical behavior of burnished biodegradable MgCa0.8 (wt%) alloy. The effects of burnishing parameters, i.e., pressure, feed, speed, number of path, and burnishing pattern on surface integrity factors such as surface topography, roughness, microhardness, microstructure, and residual stresses are investigated. The burnished surfaces are shinier and smoother than the as-machined ones. The MgCa alloy can be safely burnished at suitable burnishing conditions since no cracks are produced at the surface and in the subsurface. The microstructure including grain size does not show a noticeable change after burnishing. The machined surfaces are harder than the burnished ones down to the deep subsurface (∼200 μm) as opposed to the shallow hardened depth (∼50 μm) in cutting. Residual stresses are highly compressive especially at low burnishing pressure. PMID:22098888

  17. Magnesium Gluconate

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  18. Nanoscale analysis of surface oxides on ZnMgAl hot-dip-coated steel sheets.

    PubMed

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Itani, H; Hesser, G; Riener, C K; Angeli, G; Preis, K; Stifter, D; Hingerl, K

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the first few nanometres of the surface of ZnMgAl hot-dip-galvanised steel sheets were analysed by scanning Auger electron spectroscopy, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Although the ZnMgAl coating itself is exhibiting a complex micro-structure composed of several different phases, it is shown that the topmost surface is covered by a smooth, homogeneous oxide layer consisting of a mixture of magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide, exhibiting a higher amount of magnesium than aluminium and a total film thickness of 4.5 to 5 nm. Especially by the combined analytical approach of surface-sensitive methods, it is directly demonstrated for the first time that within surface imprints--created by industrial skin rolling of the steel sheet which ensures a smooth surface appearance as well as reduced yield-point phenomenon--the original, smooth oxide layer is partly removed and that a layer of native oxides, exactly corresponding to the chemical structure of the underlying metal phases, is formed. PMID:22086398

  19. Multi-Physics Modeling of Molten Salt Transport in Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis and Recycling of Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Adam; Pati, Soobhankar

    2012-03-11

    Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis is a new energy-efficient zero-emissions process for producing high-purity magnesium and high-purity oxygen directly from industrial-grade MgO. SOM Recycling combines SOM electrolysis with electrorefining, continuously and efficiently producing high-purity magnesium from low-purity partially oxidized scrap. In both processes, electrolysis and/or electrorefining take place in the crucible, where raw material is continuously fed into the molten salt electrolyte, producing magnesium vapor at the cathode and oxygen at the inert anode inside the SOM. This paper describes a three-dimensional multi-physics finite-element model of ionic current, fluid flow driven by argon bubbling and thermal buoyancy, and heat and mass transport in the crucible. The model predicts the effects of stirring on the anode boundary layer and its time scale of formation, and the effect of natural convection at the outer wall. MOxST has developed this model as a tool for scale-up design of these closely-related processes.

  20. Reagent use efficiency with removal of nitrogen from pig slurry via struvite: A study on magnesium oxide and related by-products.

    PubMed

    Romero-Güiza, M S; Tait, S; Astals, S; Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Martínez, M; Mata-Alvarez, J; Chimenos, J M

    2015-11-01

    Controlled struvite formation has been attracting increasing attention as a near mature technology to recover nutrients from wastewater. However, struvite feasibility is generally limited by the high cost of chemical reagents. With the aim to understand and control reagent use efficiency, experiments and equilibrium model simulations examined inorganic nitrogen (TAN) removal from pig manure via struvite with added magnesium and phosphate reagents. Four industrial magnesium oxide (MgO), a commercial product and three by-products from magnesite calcination, were tested with phosphate added as a highly soluble potassium salt. TAN removal extents with the MgOs ranged from 47 to 72%, with the highest grade MgO providing the greatest extent of TAN removal. However, model analysis showed that all the MgO reagents were poorly soluble (only about 40% of added magnesium actually dissolved). The model results suggested that this poor dissolution was due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. A further set of additional reagents (termed stabilization agents) were prepared by pre-treating the MgO reagents with phosphoric acid, and were tested separately as a source of both magnesium and phosphate. Results showed that acid pre-treatment of moderate to highly reactive MgOs (soft to medium-burnt) primarily formed bobierrite as the stabilizing agent, whereas the pre-treatment of very low reactivity MgOs (dead-burnt) mostly formed newberyite. The newberyite stabilizing agents achieved very high TAN removal extents of about 80%, which is significant, considering that these were formed from dead-burnt/low-grade MgOs. However, the bobierrite stabilizing agents achieved a substantially lower TAN removal extent than their medium-to-high reactivity precursor MgOs. Again, model analysis showed that the bobierrite stabilizing agents were poorly soluble, due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. In contrast, the model suggested that the newberyite stabilizing

  1. Atomistic details of oxide surfaces and surface oxidation: the example of copper and its oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattinoni, Chiara; Michaelides, Angelos

    2015-11-01

    The oxidation and corrosion of metals are fundamental problems in materials science and technology that have been studied using a large variety of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review some of the recent studies that have led to significant advances in our atomic-level understanding of copper oxide, one of the most studied and best understood metal oxides. We show that a good atomistic understanding of the physical characteristics of cuprous (Cu2O) and cupric (CuO) oxide and of some key processes of their formation has been obtained. Indeed, the growth of the oxide has been shown to be epitaxial with the surface and to proceed, in most cases, through the formation of oxide nano-islands which, with continuous oxygen exposure, grow and eventually coalesce. We also show how electronic structure calculations have become increasingly useful in helping to characterise the structures and energetics of various Cu oxide surfaces. However a number of challenges remain. For example, it is not clear under which conditions the oxidation of copper in air at room temperature (known as native oxidation) leads to the formation of a cuprous oxide film only, or also of a cupric overlayer. Moreover, the atomistic details of the nucleation of the oxide islands are still unknown. We close our review with a brief perspective on future work and discuss how recent advances in experimental techniques, bringing greater temporal and spatial resolution, along with improvements in the accuracy, realism and timescales achievable with computational approaches make it possible for these questions to be answered in the near future.

  2. The surface reactivity of a magnesium-aluminium alloy in acidic fluoride solutions studied by electrochemical techniques and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier, S.; van der Laak, N.; Delalande, S.; Metson, J.; Dalard, F.

    2004-08-01

    The behaviour of the 6% Al magnesium alloy AM60 in aqueous acid fluoride solutions was studied in situ by electrochemical techniques and the surface chemistry of the resulting film was examined by monochromatized XPS. The evolution of the corrosion potential and cyclic voltammograms showed that the aggressiveness of the solutions is mainly driven by their fluoride concentration, the pH having almost no detectable influence. The more concentrated and acidic fluoride solutions led to a higher degree of fluoride coverage of the surface. The surface film is composed of magnesium hydroxide and hydroxyfluoride Mg(OH) 2- xF x which approaches MgF 2 with increasing fluoride concentration in the film. The parameters governing the film evolution and their relation to surface reactions are discussed.

  3. Improved corrosion resistance on biodegradable magnesium by zinc and aluminum ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ruizhen; Yang, Xiongbo; Suen, Kai Wong; Wu, Guosong; Li, Penghui; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have promising applications as biodegradable materials, and plasma ion implantation can enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition. In this study, suitable amounts of zinc and aluminum are plasma-implanted into pure magnesium. The surface composition, phases, and chemical states are determined, and electrochemical tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to investigate the surface corrosion behavior and elucidate the mechanism. The corrosion resistance enhancement after ion implantation is believed to stem from the more compact oxide film composed of magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide as well as the appearance of the β-Mg17Al12 phase.

  4. Defects in oxide surfaces studied by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    PubMed Central

    König, Thomas; Simon, Georg H; Heinke, Lars; Lichtenstein, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    Summary Surfaces of thin oxide films were investigated by means of a dual mode NC-AFM/STM. Apart from imaging the surface termination by NC-AFM with atomic resolution, point defects in magnesium oxide on Ag(001) and line defects in aluminum oxide on NiAl(110), respectively, were thoroughly studied. The contact potential was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and the electronic structure by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). On magnesium oxide, different color centers, i.e., F0, F+, F2+ and divacancies, have different effects on the contact potential. These differences enabled classification and unambiguous differentiation by KPFM. True atomic resolution shows the topography at line defects in aluminum oxide. At these domain boundaries, STS and KPFM verify F2+-like centers, which have been predicted by density functional theory calculations. Thus, by determining the contact potential and the electronic structure with a spatial resolution in the nanometer range, NC-AFM and STM can be successfully applied on thin oxide films beyond imaging the topography of the surface atoms. PMID:21977410

  5. Magnesium oxide-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic: a novel cadmium(II) adsorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Md; Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Maneesh, Namburath; Munekage, Yukihiro; Motomura, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of cadmium (Cd) in the aquatic environment is one of the serious environmental and human health's risks. The present study attempted to develop the potential magnesium oxide (MgO)-impregnated tuff soil-derived ceramic (MITDC)-based novel adsorbent media for adsorbing higher rate of cadmium [Cd(II)] from water phase. A potential MITDC adsorbent media was developed using volcanic raw tuff soil and its Cd(II) adsorption capacity from water phase was evaluated comparing with the raw tuff soil. A series of studies were carried out in an agitated batch method at 20 ± 2 °C to characterize the adsorption capacity of MITDC under different conditions of factors, such as contact time (0-360 min), initial pH (3-11) of solution, dose of MITDC (2, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/L), and initial concentration of Cd(II) (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L), influencing the adsorption mechanism. MITDC exhibited the equilibrium state of maximum Cd(II) adsorption at the contact time 120 min and pH 4.7 (removed 98.2 % Cd) when initial Cd(II) concentration was 10 mg/L in the present study. The dose of 7.5 g MITDC/L showed maximum removal of Cd(II) from water. Experimental data were described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherms and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model (R 2 = 0.996). The Cd(II) adsorption capacity of MITDC was 31.25 mg/g. The high Cd(II) adsorption capacity indicated that novel MITDC could be used as a potential ceramic adsorbent media to remove high rate of Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  6. Temperature dependence of the heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide on magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Ma, Qingxin

    2008-04-01

    The experimental determination of rate constants for atmospheric reactions and how these rate constants vary with temperature remain a crucially important part of atmosphere science. In this study, the temperature dependence of the heterogeneous reaction of carbonyl sulfide (COS) on magnesium oxide (MgO) has been investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor and a temperature-programmed reaction apparatus. We found that the adsorption and the heterogeneous reaction are sensitive to temperature. The initial uptake coefficients (gammat(Ini)) of COS on MgO decrease from 1.07 +/- 0.71 x 10-6 to 4.84 +/- 0.60 x 10-7 with the increasing of temperature from 228 to 300 K, and the steady state uptake coefficients (gammat(SS)) increase from 5.31 +/- 0.06 x 10-8 to 1.68 +/- 0.41 x 10-7 with the increasing of temperature from 240 to 300 K. The desorption rate constants (kdes) were also found to increase slightly with the enhancement of temperature. The empirical formula between the uptake coefficients, desorption rate constants and temperature described in the form of Arrhenius expression were obtained. The activation energies for the heterogeneous reaction and desorption of COS on MgO were measured to be 11.02 +/- 0.34 kJ.mol-1 and 6.30 +/- 0.81 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The results demonstrate that the initial uptake of COS on MgO is mainly contributed by an adsorption process and the steady state uptake is due to a catalytic reaction. The environmental implication was also discussed. PMID:18302353

  7. Mechanical Strength and Surface Roughness of Magnesium-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson; de Souza Resende, Celso Renato; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluated the mechanical strength and surface roughness of MgZn30Ca5 ribbon manufactured via a melt spinning technique for applications in the biomedical field. Annealing was performed at 280°C. The inner side (in contact with the wheel) and the outer side (not in contact with the wheel) of the ribbons were mechanically evaluated using nanoindentation, and its surfaces were analyzed by an optical profilometer. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were also performed to identify the structure and devitrification of the magnesium metallic glass (MgMG). The nanohardness and elastic modulus increased after annealing (p < 0.0001). No differences were seen in the strength between the two sides of the ribbons (p > 0.05). Although both sides of the ribbons showed different surface profiles (p < 0.0001), no statistical difference was detected in roughness parameters on either ribbon side before (p = 0.3094) and after (p = 0.8742) annealing. DSC curves showed disturbances in enthalpy attributed to a relaxation in the MgMG structure and free volume annihilation. The DRX diffractogram showed sharp peaks after annealing, with MgZn and Ca2Mg5Zn13 phases being identified. Although the use of MgMG in biomedical applications is promising, the ribbons displayed limited ductility, toughness, and a relevant embrittlement after the annealing procedure. There were significant changes in the surface profile of both sides of the ribbons. Nevertheless, neither annealing nor the ribbon side had influenced surface roughness parameters.

  8. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.

    2015-11-21

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  9. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    2015-11-01

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  10. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. PMID:27524097

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization under dynamic conditions of cobalt oxide nanoparticles supported over magnesium oxide nano-plates.

    PubMed

    Alayoglu, Selim; Rosenberg, Daniel J; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-06-14

    A nano-catalyst comprised of oxidized Co NPs supported on MgO nano-plates was synthesized via a hydrothermal co-precipitation strategy and calcination in O2 and subsequently in H2 at 250 °C. Spectro-microscopy characterization was performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and scanning X-ray transmission microscopy. Surface measurements under H2 and H2 + CO atmospheres were obtained by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the 225-480 °C range. These measurements at the atomic and microscopic levels demonstrated that the oxidized Co nanoparticles uniformly decorated the MgO nano-plates. The surfaces are enriched with Co, and with a mixture of Co(OH)2 and CoO under H2 and H2 + CO atmospheres. Under a H2 atmosphere, the outermost surfaces were composed of (lattice) O(2-), CO3(2-) and OH(-). No inorganic carbonates were observed in the bulk. Chemisorbed CO, likely on the oxidized Co surfaces, was observed at the expense of O(2-) under 300 mTorr H2 + CO (2 : 1) at 225 °C. Gas phase CO2 was detected under 32 Torr H2 + CO (2 : 1) at 225 °C upon prolonged reaction time, and was attributed to a surface chemical reaction between O(2-) and chemisorbed CO. Furthermore, sp(3) like carbon species were detected on the otherwise carbon free surface in H2 + CO, which remained on the surface under the subsequent reaction conditions. The formation of sp(3) like hydrocarbons was ascribed to a surface catalytic reaction between the chemisorbed CO and OH(-) as the apparent hydrogen source. PMID:26979489

  12. Surface-oxidized carbon black as a catalyst for the water oxidation and alcohol oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Suryanto, Bryan H R; Zhao, Chuan

    2016-05-11

    Carbon black (CB) is popularly used as a catalyst support for metal/metal oxide nanoparticles due to its large surface area, excellent conductivity and stability. Herein, we show that surface oxidized CB itself, after acidic treatment and electrochemical oxidation, exhibits significant catalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidation of water and alcohols. PMID:27097802

  13. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Leerdam, Monique E. van; Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  14. In vitro degradation and biocompatibility of a strontium-containing micro-arc oxidation coating on the biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao; Yang, Xiaoming; Tan, Lili; Li, Mei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke; Hu, Zhuangqi; Qiu, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising biodegradable implant candidates for orthopedic application. In the present study, a phosphate-based micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was applied on the ZK60 alloy to decrease its initial degradation rate. Strontium (Sr) was incorporated into the coating in order to improve the bioactivity of the coating. The in vitro degradation studies showed that the MAO coating containing Sr owned a better initial corrosion resistance, which was mainly attributed to the superior inner barrier layer, and a better long-term protective ability, probably owning to its larger thickness, superior inner barrier layer and the superior apatite formation ability. The degradation of MAO coating was accompanied by the formation of degradation layer and Ca-P deposition layer. The in vitro cell tests demonstrated that the incorporation of Sr into the MAO coating enhanced both the proliferation of preosteoblast cells and the alkaline phosphatase activity of the murine bone marrow stromal cells. In conclusion, the MAO coating with Sr is a promising surface treatment for the biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  15. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  16. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  17. Degradation and biological properties of Ca-P contained micro-arc oxidation self-sealing coating on pure magnesium for bone fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidan; Wan, Peng; Liu, Chen; Tan, Lili; Li, Weirong; Li, Lugee; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Poor corrosion resistance is one of the main disadvantages for biodegradable magnesium-based metals, especially applied for bone fixation, where there is a high demand of bio-mechanical strength and stability. Surface coating has been proved as an effective method to control the in vivo degradation. In this study a Ca-P self-sealing micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was studied to verify its efficacy and biological properties by in vitro and in vivo tests. It was found that the MAO coating could effectively retard the degradation according to immersion and electrochemical tests as well as 3D reconstruction by X-ray tomography after implantation. The MAO coating exhibited no toxicity and could stimulate the new bone formation. Therefore, the Ca-P self-sealing MAO coating could be a potential candidate for application of biodegradable Mg-based implant in bone fixations. PMID:26816635

  18. In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

  19. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    electron microscope. The corrosion rate of the nonequilibrium sputtered alloys, as determined by polarization resistance, is significantly reduced compared to the most corrosion resistant commercial magnesium alloys. The open circuit potentials of the sputter deposited alloys are significantly more noble compared to commercial, equilibrium phase magnesium alloys. Galvanic corrosion susceptibility has also been considerably reduced. Nonequilibrium magnesium-yttrium-titanium alloys have been shown to achieve passivity autonomously by alteration of the composition chemistry of the surface oxide/hydroxide layer. Self-healing properties are also evident, as corrosion propagation can be arrested after initial pitting of the material. A clear relationship exists between the corrosion resistance of sputter vapor deposited magnesium alloys and the amount of ion bombardment incurred by the alloy during deposition. Argon pressure, the distance between the source and the substrate, and alloy morphology play important roles in determining the ability of the alloy to develop a passive film. Thermal effects, both during and after alloy deposition, alter the stress state of the alloys, precipitation of second phases, and the mechanical stability of the passive film. An optimal thermal treatment has been developed in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the magnesium-yttrium-titanium alloys. The significance of the results includes the acquisition of electrochemical data for these novel materials, as well as expanding the utilization of magnesium alloys by the improvement in their corrosion resistance. The magnesium alloys developed in this work are more corrosion resistant than any commercial magnesium alloy. Structural components comprised of these alloys would therefore exhibit unprecedented corrosion performance. Coatings of these alloys on magnesium components would provide a corrosion resistant yet galvanically-compatible coating. The broad impact of these contributions is

  20. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    electron microscope. The corrosion rate of the nonequilibrium sputtered alloys, as determined by polarization resistance, is significantly reduced compared to the most corrosion resistant commercial magnesium alloys. The open circuit potentials of the sputter deposited alloys are significantly more noble compared to commercial, equilibrium phase magnesium alloys. Galvanic corrosion susceptibility has also been considerably reduced. Nonequilibrium magnesium-yttrium-titanium alloys have been shown to achieve passivity autonomously by alteration of the composition chemistry of the surface oxide/hydroxide layer. Self-healing properties are also evident, as corrosion propagation can be arrested after initial pitting of the material. A clear relationship exists between the corrosion resistance of sputter vapor deposited magnesium alloys and the amount of ion bombardment incurred by the alloy during deposition. Argon pressure, the distance between the source and the substrate, and alloy morphology play important roles in determining the ability of the alloy to develop a passive film. Thermal effects, both during and after alloy deposition, alter the stress state of the alloys, precipitation of second phases, and the mechanical stability of the passive film. An optimal thermal treatment has been developed in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the magnesium-yttrium-titanium alloys. The significance of the results includes the acquisition of electrochemical data for these novel materials, as well as expanding the utilization of magnesium alloys by the improvement in their corrosion resistance. The magnesium alloys developed in this work are more corrosion resistant than any commercial magnesium alloy. Structural components comprised of these alloys would therefore exhibit unprecedented corrosion performance. Coatings of these alloys on magnesium components would provide a corrosion resistant yet galvanically-compatible coating. The broad impact of these contributions is

  1. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  2. Electron stimulated oxidation of silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, M.C.; Sacedon, J.L.

    1981-04-15

    Experimental evidence of electron stimulated oxidation (ESO) has been given for Si(111) 7 x 7 surface. In a first stage, the oxide thickness as a function of time shows a linear relationship; in a second stage, the growth rate quickly decreases and a pressure dependent saturation oxide thickness is reached. During the oxidation process an electrical potential does exist across the oxide, as is required in the Cabrera--Mott theory. The linear kinetics and the electrical potential are shown to be explicable in terms of a modified coupled-current approach based on the Cabrera--Mott theory, provided a semiphenomenological pressure dependent parameter is included. This represents a contribution of the surface reaction to the transport equation. The saturation has been explained as due to the decrease of the negative surface charge (donor levels) which produces a decrease of the electron current.

  3. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  4. Surface composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy irradiated by high-intensity pulsed ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P.; Lei, M.K.; Zhu, X.P.

    2011-06-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation of AZ31 magnesium alloy is performed and electrochemical corrosion experiment of irradiated samples is carried out by using potentiodynamic polarization technology in order to explore the effect of HIPIB irradiation on corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. The surface composition, cross-sectional morphology and microstructure are characterized by using electron probe microanalyzer, optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results indicated that HIPIB irradiation leads to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, in terms of the considerable increase in both corrosion potential and pitting breakdown potential. The microstructural refinement and surface purification induced by HIPIB irradiation are responsible for the improved corrosion resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} A modified layer about 30 {mu}m thick is obtained by HIPIB irradiation. {yields} Selective ablation of element/impurity phase having lower melting point is observed. {yields} More importantly, microstructural refinement occurred on the irradiated surface. {yields} The modified layer exhibited a significantly improved corrosion resistance. {yields} Improved corrosion resistance is ascribed to the combined effect induced by HIPIB.

  5. Surface Wrinkling on Polydimethylsiloxane Microspheres via Wet Surface Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties. PMID:25028198

  6. Nano-Structured Magnesium Oxide Coated Iron Ore: Its Application to the Remediation of Wastewater Containing Lead.

    PubMed

    Nagarajah, Ranjini; Jang, Min; Pichiah, Saravanan; Cho, Jongman; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically separable nano-structured magnesium oxide coated iron ore (IO(MgO)) was prepared using environmentally benign chemicals, such as iron ore (IO), magnesium(II) nitrate hexahydrate [Mg(NO3)2 x 6H2O] and urea; via an easy and fast preparation method. The lO(MgO) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) analyses. The isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that lO(MgO) has a comparably higher Langmuir constant (K(L), 1.69 L mg(-1)) and maximum sorption capacity (33.9 mg g(-1)) for lead (Pb) than other inorganic media. Based on MgO amount, the removal capacity of Pb by IO(MgO) was 2,724 mg Pb (g MgO)(-1), which was higher than that (1,980 mg g(-1)) for flowerlike magnesium oxide nanostructures reported by Cao et al. The kinetics, FE-SEM, elemental mapping and XRD results revealed that the substitution followed by precipitation was identified as the mechanism of Pb removal and plumbophyllite (Pb2Si4O10 x H2O) was the precipitated phase of Pb. A leaching test revealed that IOMgO) had negligible concentrations of leached Fe at pH 4-9. Since the base material, IO, is cheap and easily available, lO(MgO) could be produced in massive amounts and used for remediation of wastewater containing heavy metals, applying simple and fast magnetic separation. PMID:26682385

  7. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  8. A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J.

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter. The calorimeter was made using a covered Styrofoam cup as the reaction chamber. A thermistor was used as a temperature-sensing element and was incorporated in a temperature-to-voltage converter circuit based on a bridge amplifier. The instrument was interfaced to a personal computer via an I/O board, and data acquisition software was used to monitor the output voltage of the bridge amplifier. The design and construction of this instrument offer many possible applications of operational amplifiers and related basic electronics theory in chemistry and in interfacing experiments to computers. One application, the determination of the enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide by applying Hess's law of heat of summation, is demonstrated in this paper. Experimental results for the heat of formation for magnesium oxide were within 1% of the literature value. This experiment also demonstrates the utility and ease of automating temperature measurements for other applications.

  9. Surface nitriding and oxidation of nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazochaharbakhsh, Edin

    Nitinol has been widely employed in biomedical devices due to its unique mechanical properties such as superelasticity, shape memory, and good biocompatibility. However, nickel ion release from the surface of the Nitinol is an issue. Surface nitriding and oxidation was performed on the Nitinol specimens to develop a nickel-free oxide layer on the surface. Nitinol specimens were nitrided in nitrogen + 4% hydrogen at 800--1000°C for 10--30 min and further nitrided in nitrogen + 5% ammonia at 500--675°C for 0--30 min. The thickness and chemical composition, specifically the nickel content of the surface layer, were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The effect of the nitriding time and temperature on the thickness and chemical composition of the nitride layer was evaluated. Nitriding temperature was found to be more effective than nitriding time on the thickness of TiN layer. Titanium nitride, the dominant phase on the surface of the nitrided specimens, was nickel free. The nitrided Nitinol specimens were then oxidized at 675°C and 700°C for 30 and 60 min, respectively. The chemical composition and elemental depth profile showed that oxidizing Nitinol specimens with a 0.4 microm thick nitride layer on the surface did not provide a nickel-free oxide layer on the surface of the Nitinol. However, oxidizing the Nitinol specimens with a surface nitride layer that was thicker than 6 microm resulted in a nickel-free oxide layer.

  10. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.