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Sample records for magnetic anisotropy field

  1. Anisotropy in MHD turbulence due to a mean magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of anisotropy in an initially isotropic spectrum is studied numerically for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anisotropy develops due to the combined effects of an externally imposed dc magnetic field and viscous and resistive dissipation at high wave numbers. The effect is most pronounced at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The anisotropy is greater at the higher wave numbers.

  2. Studying the Interstellar Magnetic Field from Anisotropies in Velocity Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2015-11-01

    Turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic due to the ubiquitous magnetic fields. This anisotropy depends on the strength of the magnetic field and leaves an imprint on observations of spectral line maps. We use a grid of ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of driven turbulence and produce synthetic position-position-velocity maps to study the turbulence anisotropy in velocity channels of various resolutions. We found that the average structure function of velocity channels is aligned with the projection of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky. We also found that the degree of such anisotropy increases with the magnitude of the magnetic field. For thick velocity channels (low velocity resolution), the anisotropy is dominated by density, and the degree of anisotropy in these maps allows one to distinguish sub-Alfvnic and super-Alfvnic turbulence regimes, but it also depends strongly on the sonic Mach number. For thin channels (high velocity resolution), we find that the anisotropy depends less on the sonic Mach number. An important limitation of this technique is that it only gives a lower limit on the magnetic field strength because the anisotropy is related only to the magnetic field component on the plane of the sky. It can, and should, be used in combination with other techniques to estimate the magnetic field, such as the Fermi-Chandrasekhar method, anisotropies in centroids, Faraday rotation measurements, or direct line-of-sight determinations of the field from Zeeman effect observations.

  3. Anisotropy in MHD turbulence due to a mean magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of anisotropy in an initially isotropic spectrum is studied numerically for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anisotropy develops due to the combined effects of an externally imposed dc magnetic field and viscous and resistive dissipation at high wave numbers. The effect is most pronounced at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The anisotropy is greater at the higher wave numbers. Previously announced in STAR as N83-12998

  4. Magnetic stress anisotropy field in plated cylindrical Permalloy films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, O. S.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis is made of the magnetic stress anisotropy field (Hks) arising from internal and external stress sources in plated-wire memory elements. The analysis takes into consideration circumferential composition variation and cylindrical geometry of the Permalloy film. Expressions are derived relating Hks to uniaxial film stress, average composition, and amplitude of composition variation. A result of particular importance is that even for average zeromagnetostrictive composition (ZMC) films, Hks may still make an appreciable contribution to the total anisotropy field if the composition is not uniform. Calculated Hks characteristics are shown to correlate with anisotropy field changes observed in annealing experiments. Examples are given to show the importance of composition uniformity in determining the stability of the anisotropy field. The utility of the analysis is extended by the inclusion of data expressing the inverse relation between anisotropy field and easy-axis dispersion in the film.

  5. Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.

    2000-01-13

    The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates.

  6. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-15

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations ({epsilon}{identical_to}{delta}B/2B<<1). Solutions are obtained by integrating the drift-kinetic equation along field lines in steady state. A closure for the local value of the parallel viscous force B{center_dot}{nabla}{center_dot}{pi}{sub parallel} is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force by a factor of O(1/{epsilon}). A high-frequency limit ({omega}>>{nu}) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions.

  7. Current helicity and magnetic field anisotropy in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Stepanov, R.; Kuzanyan, K.; Sokoloff, D.; Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The electric current helicity density ? =< ? _{ijk}b_i{partial b_k/partial x_j}rangle contains six terms, where bi are components of the magnetic field. Due to the observational limitations, only four of the above six terms can be inferred from solar photospheric vector magnetograms. By comparing the results for simulation we distinguished the statistical difference of above six terms for isotropic and anisotropic cases. We estimated the relative degree of anisotropy for three typical active regions and found that it is of order 0.8 which means the assumption of local isotropy for the observable current helicity density terms is generally not satisfied for solar active regions. Upon studies of the statistical properties of the anisotropy of magnetic field of solar active regions with latitudes and with evolution in the solar cycle, we conclude that the consistency of that assumption of local homogeneity and isotropy requires further analysis in the light of our findings.

  8. Solar Surface Anisotropy effect on the Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommier, Vronique

    2015-10-01

    Within the literature there are at least 15 references indicating that the horizontal magnetic flux does not exactly balance vertical flux in sunspots, leading to the surprising result that div B would depart from zero. Intuitively, this has to be related to the stratification at the surface of the star, due to which horizontal and vertical typical lengths are different. This surface anisotropy results from gravity, but how does gravity influence the magnetic field? To answer this question, a scenario has been proposed in two recent publications, based on anisotropic Debye shielding. The presentation reported in this paper was devoted to investigate the possibility and causes of a non-zero div B. A scaling law associated with the anisotropy is able to reestablish the nullity of div B, which would lead to a renewed MHD in the solar photosphere layer. An eventual observation in the laboratory is also reported.

  9. Anomalous anisotropies of cosmic rays from turbulent magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Markus

    2014-01-17

    The propagation of cosmic rays (CRs) in turbulent interstellar magnetic fields is typically described as a spatial diffusion process. This formalism predicts only a small deviation from an isotropic CR distribution in the form of a dipole in the direction of the CR density gradient or relative background flow. We show that the existence of a global CR dipole moment necessarily generates a spectrum of higher multipole moments in the local CR distribution. These anomalous anisotropies are a direct consequence of Liouville's theorem in the presence of a local turbulent magnetic field. We show that the predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with the observed power spectrum of multi-TeV CRs. PMID:24484000

  10. Two-dimensional field-sensing map and magnetic anisotropy dispersion in magnetic tunnel junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang; Carter, Matthew J.

    2011-04-01

    Due to the inherent disorder in local structures, anisotropy dispersion exists in almost all systems that consist of multiple magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Aided by micromagnetic simulations based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth (S-W) model, we used a two-dimensional field-sensing map to study the effect of anisotropy dispersion in MTJ arrays. First, we recorded the field sensitivity value of an MTJ array as a function of the easy- and hard-axis bias fields, and then extracted the anisotropy dispersion in the array by comparing the experimental sensitivity map to the simulated map. Through a mean-square-error-based image processing technique, we found the best match for our experimental data, and assigned a pair of dispersion numbers (anisotropy angle and anisotropy constant) to the array. By varying each of the parameters one at a time, we were able to discover the dependence of field sensitivity on magnetoresistance ratio, coercivity, and magnetic anisotropy dispersion. The effects from possible edge domains are also discussed to account for a correction term in our analysis of anisotropy angle distribution using the S-W model. We believe this model is a useful tool for monitoring the formation and evolution of anisotropy dispersion in MTJ systems, and can facilitate better design of MTJ-based devices.

  11. Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias and Magnetization Reversal Controlled by Electric-Field-Induced Competing Anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aitian; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Xu; Peng, Renci; Huang, Haoliang; Zou, Lvkuan; Zheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sen; Miao, Peixian; Lu, Yalin; Cai, Jianwang; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The combination of exchange-biased systems and ferroelectric materials offers a simple and effective way to investigate the angular dependence of exchange bias using one sample with electric-field-induced competing anisotropies. A reversible electric-field-controlled magnetization reversal at zero magnetic field is also realized through optimizing the anisotropy configuration, holding promising applications for ultralow power magnetoelectric devices. PMID:26540229

  12. Manipulation of magnetic state in nanostructures by perpendicular anisotropy and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J. P.; Xie, Y. L.; Chu, P.; Wang, Y. L.; Wang, Z. Q.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-06-28

    We investigate the transitions of spin configurations in ultrathin nanostructures by tuning the perpendicular anisotropy (K{sub z}) and out-of-plane magnetic field (H), using the Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that enhancing the anisotropy K{sub z} can drive the evolution of in-plane vortex state into intriguing saturated magnetization states under various H, such as the bubble domain state and quadruple-block-domain state etc. The spin configurations of these states exhibit remarkable H-dependence. In addition, the strong effects of geometry and size on the spin configurations of nanostructures are observed. In particular, a series of edged states occur in the circular disk-shaped lattices, and rich intricate saturated magnetization patterns appear in big lattices. It is suggested that the magnetic states can be manipulated by varying the perpendicular anisotropy, magnetic field, and geometry/size of the nanostructures. Furthermore, the stability (retention capacity) of the saturated magnetization states upon varying magnetic field is predicted, suggesting the potential applications of these saturated magnetization states in magnetic field-controlled data storages.

  13. Field-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, I.; Fu, Yu; Gonçalves, A. M.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.; Sampaio, L. C.; Arias, R. E.; Krivorotov, I. N.

    2014-10-01

    We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO as a function of the Co20Fe60B20 layer thickness. The first and second order anisotropy terms show unexpectedly strong dependence on the external magnetic field applied to the system during the measurements. We propose strong interfacial spin pinning as a possible origin of the field-dependent anisotropy. Our results imply that high-field anisotropy measurements cannot be directly used for quantitative evaluation of zero-field performance parameters of CoFeB-based devices such as spin torque memory.

  14. Correlation between proton anisotropy and magnetic field direction in the distant geotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1984-01-01

    A statistical analysis has been conducted of the anisotropy of suprathermal protons and the polarity of the magnetic field during April 10-16, 1983. At this time, ISEE-3 was at lunar distances in the geomagnetic tail of the earth, and well within the nominal magnetopause. The first-order anisotropy is presently correlated with the latitude angle and the z-component of the magnetic field. The anisotropy direction's frequency distribution is strongly peaked in the earthward and tailward direction, indicating fast earthward and tailward flows. For large anisotropies, and within 5 earth radii of the nominal neutral sheet position, a strong correlation is found between the earthward-streaming suprathermal protons and the northward polarity of the magnetic field; large tailward anisotropies are generally correlated with southward magnetic field polarity. This correlation is most simply interpreted in terms of a neutral line or reconnection model.

  15. Alignment of Iron Nanoparticles in a Magnetic Field Due to Shape Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Nicholson, Don M; Eisenbach, Markus; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Rios, Orlando; Parish, Chad M

    2015-07-09

    During high magnetic field processing there is evidence for alignment of non-spherical metallic particles above the Curie temperature in alloys with negligible magneto-crystalline anisotropy. The main driving force for alignment is the magnetic shape anisotropy. Current understanding of the phenomenon is not adequate to quantify the effect of particle size, aspect ratio, temperature and the magnetic field on particle alignment. We demonstrate a Monte Carlo approach coupled with size scaling to show the conditions under which alignment is possible.

  16. Magnetic field-dependent shape anisotropy in small patterned films studied using rotating magnetoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Fengzhen; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electric rotating magnetoresistance method, the shape anisotropy of a Co microstrip has been systematically investigated. We find that the shape anisotropy is dependent not only on the shape itself, but also on the magnetization distribution controlled by an applied magnetic field. Together with micro-magnetic simulations, we present a visualized picture of how non-uniform magnetization affects the values and polarities of the anisotropy constants and . From the perspective of potential appliantions, our results are useful in designing and understanding the performance of micro- and nano-scale patterned ferromagnetic units and the related device properties. PMID:26563520

  17. Magnetic field-dependent shape anisotropy in small patterned films studied using rotating magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Fengzhen; Xue, Desheng

    2015-11-01

    Based on the electric rotating magnetoresistance method, the shape anisotropy of a Co microstrip has been systematically investigated. We find that the shape anisotropy is dependent not only on the shape itself, but also on the magnetization distribution controlled by an applied magnetic field. Together with micro-magnetic simulations, we present a visualized picture of how non-uniform magnetization affects the values and polarities of the anisotropy constants and . From the perspective of potential appliantions, our results are useful in designing and understanding the performance of micro- and nano-scale patterned ferromagnetic units and the related device properties.

  18. Magnetic field-dependent shape anisotropy in small patterned films studied using rotating magnetoresistance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Fengzhen; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electric rotating magnetoresistance method, the shape anisotropy of a Co microstrip has been systematically investigated. We find that the shape anisotropy is dependent not only on the shape itself, but also on the magnetization distribution controlled by an applied magnetic field. Together with micro-magnetic simulations, we present a visualized picture of how non-uniform magnetization affects the values and polarities of the anisotropy constants K1 and K2. From the perspective of potential appliantions, our results are useful in designing and understanding the performance of micro- and nano-scale patterned ferromagnetic units and the related device properties. PMID:26563520

  19. Current induced perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy racetrack memory with magnetic field assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Klein, J.-O.; Chappert, C.; Ravelosona, D.; Zhao, W. S.

    2014-01-20

    High current density is indispensable to shift domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires, which limits the using of racetrack memory (RM) for low power and high density purposes. In this paper, we present perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy (PMA) Co/Ni RM with global magnetic field assistance, which lowers the current density for DW motion. By using a compact model of PMA RM and 40 nm design kit, we perform mixed simulation to validate the functionality of this structure and analyze its density potential. Stochastic DW motion behavior has been taken into account and statistical Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to evaluate its reliability performance.

  20. Rashba Spin-Orbit Anisotropy and the Electric Field Control of Magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Stewart E.; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2014-01-01

    The control of the magnetism of ultra-thin ferromagnetic layers using an electric field, rather than a current, has many potential technologically important applications. It is usually insisted that such control occurs via an electric field induced surface charge doping that modifies the magnetic anisotropy. However, it remains the case that a number of key experiments cannot be understood within such a scenario. Much studied is the spin-splitting of the conduction electrons of non-magnetic metals or semi-conductors due to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This reflects a large surface electric field. For a magnet, this same splitting is modified by the exchange field resulting in a large magnetic anisotropy energy via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya mechanism. This different, yet traditional, path to an electrically induced anisotropy energy can explain the electric field, thickness, and material dependence reported in many experiments. PMID:24531151

  1. Spin-orbit field switching of magnetization in ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.

    2012-05-01

    As an alternative to conventional magnetic field, the effective spin-orbit field in transition metals, derived from the Rashba field experienced by itinerant electrons confined in a spatial inversion asymmetric plane through the s-d exchange interaction, is proposed for the manipulation of magnetization. Magnetization switching in ferromagnetic thin films with perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be achieved by current induced spin-orbit field, with small in-plane applied magnetic field. Spin-orbit field induced by current pulses as short as 10 ps can initiate ultrafast magnetization switching effectively, with experimentally achievable current densities. The whole switching process completes in about 100 ps.

  2. Field-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Barsukov, I. Krivorotov, I. N.; Fu, Yu; Gonçalves, A. M.; Sampaio, L. C.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.; Arias, R. E.

    2014-10-13

    We report ferromagnetic resonance measurements of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films of Ta/Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO as a function of the Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} layer thickness. The first and second order anisotropy terms show unexpectedly strong dependence on the external magnetic field applied to the system during the measurements. We propose strong interfacial spin pinning as a possible origin of the field-dependent anisotropy. Our results imply that high-field anisotropy measurements cannot be directly used for quantitative evaluation of zero-field performance parameters of CoFeB-based devices such as spin torque memory.

  3. Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave background As a Probe for early Universe magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duorah, H. L.

    2015-08-01

    The cosmic background radiation is the remnant of the Big Bang stretched into the microwave region characterized by a temperature of 2.725K. The fluctuation in the background produces anisotropies and it is detected with amplitude of ?T/T?10-5 . Various effects like the Sachs-Wolfe effect, Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect are imprinted in this background. The effect of a primordial magnetic field in the plasma at the last scattering surface is examined here. The high magnetic field generated during the phase transition in the early universe is found to be too small to produce the observed anisotropy. However it can be surmised that the magnetic field being ubiquitous can be found in the plasma at the last scattering surface to contribute to the anisotropy. A magnetic field of about 10-2G may produce the desired effect.

  4. Effects of Anisotropies in Turbulent Magnetic Diffusion in Mean-field Solar Dynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-04-01

    We study how anisotropies of turbulent diffusion affect the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magnetohydrodynamics framework assuming that triple correlations provide relaxation to the turbulent electromotive force (so-called the "minimal ?-approximation"). We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model and a distributed-dynamo model with a subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models, we investigate effects of the double- and triple-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology and numerical simulations. To characterize the anisotropy effects, we introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensities of turbulent mixing. It is found that the anisotropy affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the dynamo period approach to constant values for large values of the anisotropy parameter. The anisotropy reduces the overlap of toroidal magnetic fields generated in subsequent dynamo cycles, in the time-latitude "butterfly" diagram. If we assume that sunspots are formed in the vicinity of the subsurface shear layer, then the distributed dynamo model with the anisotropic diffusivity satisfies the observational constraints from helioseismology and is consistent with the value of effective turbulent diffusion estimated from the dynamics of surface magnetic fields.

  5. Effects of anisotropies in turbulent magnetic diffusion in mean-field solar dynamo models

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-04-10

    We study how anisotropies of turbulent diffusion affect the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magnetohydrodynamics framework assuming that triple correlations provide relaxation to the turbulent electromotive force (so-called the 'minimal τ-approximation'). We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model and a distributed-dynamo model with a subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models, we investigate effects of the double- and triple-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology and numerical simulations. To characterize the anisotropy effects, we introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensities of turbulent mixing. It is found that the anisotropy affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the dynamo period approach to constant values for large values of the anisotropy parameter. The anisotropy reduces the overlap of toroidal magnetic fields generated in subsequent dynamo cycles, in the time-latitude 'butterfly' diagram. If we assume that sunspots are formed in the vicinity of the subsurface shear layer, then the distributed dynamo model with the anisotropic diffusivity satisfies the observational constraints from helioseismology and is consistent with the value of effective turbulent diffusion estimated from the dynamics of surface magnetic fields.

  6. Magnetoelectric effect in garnet films with the induced magnetic anisotropy in a nonuniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabychenkov, A. F.; Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanism underlying the strong magnetoelectric effect in epitaxial films of magnetic garnet is proposed. This mechanism is not related to the existence of the electrically charged domain walls. It results from the effect of a nonuniform electric field on the induced magnetic anisotropy and depends on the crystallographic orientation of the films.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-07-01

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Investigations of cosmic ray anisotropies and their relationship to concurrent magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allum, F. R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations of cosmic ray anisotropies and their relationship to concurrent magnetic field data are reported. These investigations range in scope from the examination of data very late in the decay phase of a solar particle event where long term (approximately 6 hour) averages are used and definite interplanetary effects sought after to an examination of the change in low energy particle anisotropy as the satellite approaches the bow shock and the magnetopause.

  9. Nonlinear evolution of cosmic magnetic fields and cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banerjee, Robi

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effects of primordial magnetic fields on cosmic microwave background anisotropies (CMB). Based on cosmological magneto-hydro dynamic (MHD) simulations [R. Banerjee and K. Jedamzik, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 70, 123003 (2004).10.1103/PhysRevD.70.123003] we calculate the CMB anisotropy spectra and polarization induced by fluid fluctuations (Alfvn modes) generated by primordial magnetic fields. The strongest effect on the CMB spectra comes from the transition epoch from a turbulent regime to a viscous regime. The balance between magnetic and kinetic energy until the onset of the viscous regime provides a one to one relation between the comoving coherence length L and the comoving magnetic field strength B, such as L30(B/10-9Gauss)3pc. The resulting CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies for the initial power law index of the magnetic fields n>3/2 are somewhat different from the ones previously obtained by using linear perturbation theory. In particular, differences can appear on intermediate scales l<2000 and small scales l>20000. On scales l<2000 the CMB anisotropy and polarization spectra are flat in the case of our nonlinear calculations whereas the spectra have a blue index calculated with linear perturbation theory if we assume the velocity fields of baryons induced by the magnetic fields achieved Alfvn velocity due to the turbulent motions on large scales in the early universe. Our calculation gives a constraint on the magnetic field strength in the intermediate scale of CMB observations. Upper limits are set by WMAP and BOOMERANG results for comoving magnetic field strength of B<28nGauss with a comoving coherence length of L>0.7Mpc for the most extreme case, or B<30nGauss and L>0.8Mpc for the most conservative case. We may also expect higher signals on large scales of the polarization spectra compared to linear calculations. The signal may even exceed the B-mode polarization from gravitational lensing depending on the strength of the primordial magnetic fields. On very small scales, the diffusion damping scale of nonlinear calculations turns out to be much smaller than the one of linear calculations if the comoving magnetic field strength B>16nGauss. If the magnetic field strength is smaller, the diffusion scales become smaller too. Therefore we expect to have both, temperature and polarization anisotropies, even beyond l>10000 regardless of the strength of the magnetic fields. The peak values of the temperature anisotropy and the B-mode polarization spectra are approximately 40?K and a few ?K, respectively.

  10. Development of magnetic system with high-anisotropy localized magnetic field for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbite, Solveyga E.; Denisultanov, Alaudi K.; Khodzitsky, Mikhail K.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper magnetic system with a localized high-intensity magnetic field due to giant magnetic anisotropy magnets was proposed for THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic system consists of two hemispheres which are made from two types of magnets. The both hemispheres will be used for an improvement of THz generation and one hemisphere will be used for investigation of spectral and optical properties of an object at strong magnetic field. The proposed magnetic system was numerically calculated in COMSOL MultiPhysics using AC/DC Module. These results may be used for development of real magnetic THz time-domain spectroscopy system.

  11. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2014-03-10

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  12. ANISOTROPY AS A PROBE OF THE GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY PROPAGATION AND HALO MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Hong-bo; Xue, Liang

    2012-05-01

    The anisotropy of cosmic rays (CRs) in the solar vicinity is generally attributed to CR streaming due to the discrete distribution of CR sources or local magnetic field modulation. Recently, the two-dimensional large-scale CR anisotropy has been measured by many experiments in the TeV-PeV energy range in both hemispheres. The tail-in excess along the tangential direction of the local spiral arm and the loss cone deficit pointing to the north Galactic pole direction agree with what have been obtained in tens to hundreds of GeV. The persistence of the two large-scale anisotropy structures in such a wide energy range suggests that the anisotropy might be due to global streaming of the Galactic CRs (GCRs). This work tries to extend the observed CR anisotropy picture from the solar system to the whole galaxy. In such a case, we can find a new interesting signature, a loop of GCR streaming, of the GCR propagation. We further calculate the overall GCR streaming induced magnetic field, and find a qualitative consistency with the observed structure of the halo magnetic field.

  13. Effects of the magnetic field direction and anisotropy on the interband light absorption of an asymmetric quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the direct interband transition and the threshold frequency of absorption in a two-dimensional anisotropic quantum dot are studied under the influence of a tilted external magnetic field. We first calculate the analytical wave functions and energy levels using a transformation to simplify the Hamiltonian of the system. Then, we obtain the analytical expressions for the light interband absorption coefficient and the threshold frequency of absorption as a function of the magnetic field, magnetic field direction, and anisotropy of the system. According to the results obtained from the present work, we find that (i) the absorption threshold frequency (ATF) increases when the magnetic field increases for all directions. (ii) When anisotropy is increased, ATF increases. (iii) At small anisotropy, the magnetic field direction has no important effect on the ATF. In brief, the magnetic field, magnetic field direction, and anisotropy play important roles in the ATF and absorption coefficient.

  14. On the alignment of plasma anisotropies and the magnetic field direction in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Ness, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    One year's Imp 6 solar wind plasma and magnetic field data are examined to determine whether anisotropies in particle velocity distributions are aligned with the measured interplanetary magnetic field vector. Alignment of components in the analysis plane was generally found to be excellent whenever plasma parameter magnitudes were larger than determination uncertainties, although some spread exists (typical rms approximately equal to 10 deg). By assuming cylindrical symmetry about the simultaneously measured magnetic field vector during the 1-year interval under study, three-dimensional values of selected solar wind plasma thermal parameters were constructed from the two-dimensional plasma measurements, and the statistical properties of their distributions have been tabulated.

  15. MAGNETIC FIELDS AND COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPIES AT TeV ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Battaner, Eduardo; Castellano, Joaqun; Masip, Manuel E-mail: jcastellano@correo.ugr.es

    2015-02-01

    Several cosmic-ray (CR) observatories have provided high-accuracy maps of the sky at TeV-PeV energies. The data reveal an O(0.1%) deficit from north galactic directions that peaks at 10 TeV and then evolves with the energy, together with other anisotropies at smaller angular scales. Using the Boltzmann equation, we derive expressions for the CR flux that fit these features. The anisotropies depend on the local interstellar magnetic field B{sub IS}, on the average galactic field B{sub R} in our vicinity, and on correlations between fluctuating quantities. We show that the initial dipole anisotropy along B{sub IS} can be modulated by changes in the global CR flow, and that a variation in the dipole direction would imply a given radius of coherence for the local B{sub IS}. We also show that small- and medium-scale anisotropies may appear when the full-sky anisotropy finds a field configuration acting as a magnetic lens.

  16. Engineering the magnetic anisotropy of atomic-scale nanostructure under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wanjiao; Ding, Hang-Chen; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2015-02-01

    Atomic-scale magnetic nanostructures are promising candidates for future information processing devices. Utilizing external electric field to manipulate their magnetic properties is an especially thrilling project. Here, by carefully identifying the different contributions of each atomic orbital to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of the ferromagnetic metal films, we argue that it is possible to engineer both the MAE and the magnetic response to the electric field of atomic-scale magnetic nanostructures. Taking the iron monolayer as a matrix, we propose several interesting iron nanostructures with dramatically different magnetic properties. Such nanostructures could exhibit a strong magnetoelectric effect. Our work may open new avenues to the artificial design of electrically controlled magnetic devices.

  17. Effects of the galactic magnetic field upon large scale anisotropies of extragalactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, D.; Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E. E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2010-11-01

    The large scale pattern in the arrival directions of extragalactic cosmic rays that reach the Earth is different from that of the flux arriving to the halo of the Galaxy as a result of the propagation through the galactic magnetic field. Two different effects are relevant in this process: deflections of trajectories and (de)acceleration by the electric field component due to the galactic rotation. The deflection of the cosmic ray trajectories makes the flux intensity arriving to the halo from some direction to appear reaching the Earth from another direction. This applies to any intrinsic anisotropy in the extragalactic distribution or, even in the absence of intrinsic anisotropies, to the dipolar Compton-Getting anisotropy induced when the observer is moving with respect to the cosmic rays rest frame. For an observer moving with the solar system, cosmic rays traveling through far away regions of the Galaxy also experience an electric force coming from the relative motion (due to the rotation of the Galaxy) of the local system in which the field can be considered as being purely magnetic. This produces small changes in the particles momentum that can originate large scale anisotropies even for an isotropic extragalactic flux.

  18. Modification of the classical Heisenberg helimagnet by weak uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zaliznyak, I.A.; Zhitomirsky, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    A classical ground state of the isotropic Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian on a primitive Bravais lattice is known to be a single-Q plane helix. Additional uniaxial anisotropy and external magnetic field can greatly distort this structure by generating higher-order (at the wave vectors nQ) Fourier harmonics in the spatial spin configuration. These features are not captured within the usual formalism based on the Luttinger-Tisza theorem, when the classical ground state energy is minimized under the {open_quotes}weak{close_quotes} condition on the lengths of the spins. We discuss why the correct solution is lost in that approach and present another microscopic treatment of the problem. For easy-axis and easy-plane quadratic uniaxial anisotropy it allows one to find the classical ground state for general Q and for any orientation of the magnetic field considering the effect of anisotropy (but not the field) as a perturbation of the exchange structure. As a result, the classical ground state energy, the uniform magnetization, and the magnetic Bragg peak intensities that are measured in the experiments are calculated. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  20. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the anisotropy properties of the extragalactic gamma-ray background, through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thus inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that the two extreme cases (zero IGMF and IGMF strong enough to completely isotropize cascade photons) would be separable by ten years of Fermi observations and reasonable model parameters for the gamma-ray background. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  1. Enhancement of electric-field-induced change of magnetic anisotropy by interface engineering of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaedy, Taufik; Choi, Jun Woo; Jang, Chaun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Chang, Joonyeon

    2015-06-01

    Electric-field-induced modification of magnetic anisotropy is studied using tunnel magnetoresistance of the Co40Fe40B20/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20 and Co40Fe40B20/ Hf (0.08 nm)/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20 magnetic tunnel junctions. In both systems, the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is increased with increasing electron density at the MgO interface. A quantitative comparison between the two systems reveals that the change of magnetic anisotropy energy with electric field is significantly enhanced in Co40Fe40B20/ Hf/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20 compared to Co40Fe40B20/ MgO/ Co40Fe40B20. The sub-monolayer Hf insertion at the Co40Fe40B20/MgO interface turns out to be critical to the enhanced electric field control of the magnetic anisotropy, indicating the interface sensitive nature of the effect.

  2. Hale cycle effects in cosmic ray east-west anisotropy and interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have reanalyzed diurnal anisotropy data obtained with the shielded ion chamber (IC) at Cheltenham/Fredericksburg and the neutron monitor (NM) at Swarthmore/Newark. IC data are for the 1936-1977 period and NM data are for the 1965-1988 period. We have corrected IC data for the diurnal temperature effect. Application of this correction results in a better agreement between IC and other data sets, thereby making it possible to study the long-term changes in the diurnal anisotropy using IC data. The behavior of the annual mean east-west anisotropy is studied for 53 years of observations. The period encompasses more than two solar magnetic (Hale) cycles. Its amplitude undergoes the expected 11 and 22 year variations, with the largest changes occurring near solar activity minima. Moreover, the data indicate the presence of the subsidiary maxima for the entire 53-year period, following the solar polar field reversals, during the declining phases of activity cycles when high-speed solar wind streams are present in the heliosphere. The data suggest that the amplitude of the subsidiary maximum is large when the solar polar magnetic field points toward the sun in the Northern Hemisphere, and radial anisotropy is absent.

  3. Coronal holes, solar diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays and off-ecliptic interplanetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    The information regarding the electromagnetic states of the interplanetary medium, derived from the analyses of the cosmic ray intensity variations observed with a global network of cosmic ray detectors such as neutron monitors and muon telescopes, is reviewed. The relation of the temporal characteristics of the cosmic ray solar diurnal anisotropy to the large scale characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field, far away from the ecliptic plane, is addressed. A model for the phenomenon is described.

  4. Effects of the applied magnetic field and anisotropy on the spin wave gap in ultrathin magnetic films at zero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, R.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the calculated spin wave gap of two-dimensional magnetic films under the combined influence of the in-plane direction of the applied magnetic field and different kinds of magnetic anisotropies. We also compute the spin wave gap as a function of the applied magnetic field at zero temperature. We discuss the results in connection with experimental data reported for epitaxial Fe-deficient yttrium garnet (YIG) films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique onto the different faces of the Gd3Ga5O12 single crystal.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy of asbestos fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Kaye, P. H.

    1999-04-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of single asbestos fibers is measured. The alignment of both chrysotile and crocidolite fibers in magnetic fields is found to be due to the anisotropy. The average measured anisotropy of volume susceptibility is 0.4010-6 for chrysotile and 8310-6 for crocidolite. Fiber shape effects are estimated to contribute, on average, about 10% and 6%, respectively, to the total anisotropy of the two types of fiber. There is no evidence of significant permanent magnetic moments. The magnitude of the observed alignment makes the effect potentially useful in real-time detection of airborne asbestos fibers. The experimental technique developed in the study can be used for measuring the anisotropy of small particles of well-defined shape. High sensitivity of the technique permits the measurement of torques lower than 10-21 Nm on particles down to picogram mass.

  6. Origin of anomalously high exchange field in antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic structures: Spin reorientation versus interface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, M.; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Wong, S. K.; Sbiaa, R.; Song, W.; Tan, H. K.; Gonzaga, L.; Chong, T. C.

    2011-11-01

    Magnetization reorientation from in-plane to perpendicular direction, observed in Co thin film coupled antiferromagnetically to high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (Co/Pd) multilayers, is studied systematically for Co thickness ranging from 0 to 2.4 nm. The sample with 0.75 nm thick Co showed an exchange coupling field (Hex) exceeding 15 kOe at room temperature and 17.2 kOe at 5 K. With an increase of Co thickness, Hex decreased as expected and beyond certain thickness, magnetization reorientation was not observed. Indeed, three regions were observed in the thickness dependence of magnetization of the thin layer; one in which the thin layer (in the thickness range up to 0.8 nm) had a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to interface effects and antiferromagnetic coupling, another in which the thin layer (0.9-1.2 nm) magnetization had no interface or crystallographic anisotropy but was reoriented in the perpendicular direction due to antiferromagnetic coupling, and the third (above 1.2 nm) in which the magnetization was in-plane. In addition, Hall effect measurements were carried out to observe the anomalous and planar Hall voltages and to quantify the perpendicular and in-plane components of magnetization. The sample with thicker Co layer (2.4 nm) showed an in-plane component of magnetization, whereas the sample with 0.75 nm Co showed no in-plane component. The high value of Hex observed in 0.75 nm Co samples can have important implications in spintronics and bit patterned media.

  7. Enhancing weak magnetic fabrics using field-impressed anisotropy: application to the Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingsong; Yu, Yongjae; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2005-08-01

    The anisotropy of the low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS), alternating-field-treated AMS (AF-AMS), and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) have been systematically examined for a sandwich sequence of loess/palaeosols crossing the upper loess unit L2 (Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6, MIS6) to the last interglacial maximum (palaeosol unit S1S3, MIS5e) from the Yuanbao section, northwestern China. Results show that a weak, but detectable, magnetic lineation is controlled by coarse-grained aeolian Fe3O4 (magnetite). Because the long axes of the coarse-grained magnetites are statistically parallel to the palaeowind directions, the declination of the maximum susceptibility principal axis of AMS can be used as an indicator of palaeowind direction. In contrast, fine-grained pedogenic magnetic particles are responsible for the magnetic foliation. We found that AF-AMS can indicate the domain state of the magnetic particles, which is consistent with Potter & Stephenson's earlier model. We also found that AF demagnetization can significantly alter the AMS. In conclusion, the angular dependence of AF-AMS can enhance the weak AMS fabrics.

  8. Spintronic magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Hell, Michael; Wegewijs, Maarten R.

    2013-12-01

    Superparamagnetism of magnetic adatoms and molecules--preferential alignment of their spins along an easy axis--is a useful effect for nanoscale applications as it prevents undesired spin reversal. The underlying magnetic anisotropy barrier--a quadrupolar energy splitting--originates from spin-orbit interaction and can nowadays be probed by electronic transport measurements. Here we predict that in a much broader class of systems, quantum dots with spins larger than 1/2, superparamagnetism can arise without spin-orbit interaction: by attaching them to ferromagnets, a quadrupolar spintronic exchange field is generated locally. It is observable by means of conductance measurements and leads to enhanced spin filtering even in a state with zero average spin. Analogously to the spintronic dipolar exchange field, giving rise to a local spin torque, the effect is susceptible to electric control and increases with tunnel coupling as well as with spin polarization.

  9. Analysis of magnetic systems with high-anisotropy localized magnetic field for terahertz-radiation generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisultanov, S. E. Azbite A. Kh; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    For enhancement of terahertz radiation generation in terahertz devices four permanent magnetic systems by strong localized magnetic field were considered. Their different configurations were used for simulation and comparative analysis and choice compact system with maximum value of localized magnetic field at the room temperature.

  10. CMB anisotropies generated by a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-zero helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballardini, Mario; Finelli, Fabio; Paoletti, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    We consider the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-vanishing helicity on CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization. We compute the exact expressions for the scalar, vector and tensor part of the energy-momentum tensor including the helical contribution, by assuming a power-law dependence for the spectra and a comoving cutoff which mimics the damping due to viscosity. We also compute the parity-odd correlator between the helical and non-helical contribution which generate the TB and EB cross-correlation in the CMB pattern. We finally show the impact of including the helical term on the power spectra of CMB anisotropies up to multipoles with l ~ Script O(103).

  11. Anatomy of electric field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at Fe/MgO interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, F.; Yang, H. X.; Hallal, A.; Dieny, B.; Chshiev, M.

    2016-01-01

    The charge-mediated effect of electric field on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Fe/MgO interfaces is investigated using first-principles calculations. We present an approach by discussing this effect in relation to the intrinsic dipole field existing at the Fe/MgO interface. A firm correlation between the PMA and the interfacial dipole is established and further verified in the absence of an applied electric field. The on-site projected PMA analysis not only elucidates that the effect of electric field on the PMA extends beyond the interfacial Fe layer, but also shows that the second Fe layer carries the largest contribution to the effect. This observation is interpreted in relation to the orbital hybridization changes induced by applying an electric field.

  12. Combined effect of demagnetizing field and induced magnetic anisotropy on the magnetic properties of manganese-zinc ferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Mou?ka, R.; Sapurina, I.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of factors responsible for the high-frequency shift of the complex permeability (?*) dispersion region in polymer composites of manganese-zinc (MnZn) ferrite, as well as to the increase in their thermomagnetic stability. The magnetic spectra of the ferrite and its composites with polyurethane (MnZn-PU) and polyaniline (MnZn-PANI) are measured in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 3 GHz in a longitudinal magnetization field of up to 700 ?? and in the temperature interval from -20 ? to +150 ?. The approximation of the magnetic spectra by a model, which takes into account the role of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation, allows one to determine the specific contribution of resonance processes associated with domain wall motion and the natural ferromagnetic resonance to the ?*. It is established that, at high frequencies, the ?* of the MnZn ferrite is determined solely by magnetization rotation, which occurs in the region of natural ferromagnetic resonance when the ferrite is in the single domain state. In the polymer composites of the MnZn ferrite, the high-frequency permeability is also determined mainly by the magnetization rotation; however, up to high values of magnetizing fields, there is a contribution of domain wall motion, thus the single domain state in ferrite is not reached. The frequency and temperature dependence of ?* in polymer composites are governed by demagnetizing field and the induced magnetic anisotropy. The contribution of the induced magnetic anisotropy is crucial for MnZn-PANI. It is attributed to the elastic stresses that arise due to the domain wall pinning by a polyaniline film adsorbed on the surface of the ferrite during in-situ polymerization.

  13. Attempts to Simulate Anisotropies of Solar Wind Fluctuations Using MHD with a Turning Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2010-01-01

    We examine a "two-component" model of the solar wind to see if any of the observed anisotropies of the fields can be explained in light of the need for various quantities, such as the magnetic minimum variance direction, to turn along with the Parker spiral. Previous results used a 3-D MHD spectral code to show that neither Q2D nor slab-wave components will turn their wave vectors in a turning Parker-like field, and that nonlinear interactions between the components are required to reproduce observations. In these new simulations we use higher resolution in both decaying and driven cases, and with and without a turning background field, to see what, if any, conditions lead to variance anisotropies similar to observations. We focus especially on the middle spectral range, and not the energy-containing scales, of the simulation for comparison with the solar wind. Preliminary results have shown that it is very difficult to produce the required variances with a turbulent cascade.

  14. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    Low field magnetic susceptibility represents a fast, systematic and non-destructive technique of meteorite classification [1-4]. We previously reported measurements of bulk susceptibility, and its frequency dependence, along with a `proxy' measure of anisotropy, on 204 specimens from 108 different meteorites in the National Meteorite Collection of Canada [5,6]. Measurements were performed on a Sapphire Instruments Model 2B. Bulk susceptibility values followed expected trends, governed by metal content, with values increasing from LL, to L, to H, to E chondrites. Frequency dependence (19000 vs 825 Hz) was greatest in H and C chondrites. Aubrites (AUB) and Howardites (HOW) had the lowest. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured using a `proxy' approach: the mean value determined from a series of random sample orientations was compared with repeated measurements in one orientation. AUB, E chondrites and Martian SNCs had the largest inferred anisotropies, while LL and C chondrites had the lowest. Here we report initial results from a follow-up study. Quantitative measurements of the AMS were made on 67 stony meteorite specimens. AMS measurements [3,5,6,7,8,9] can provide information on the physical fabric of the meteorite, and may relate to its deformational history. Samples measured show significant degrees of anisotropy ranging from 1-50 % for an individual specimen (in parentheses is the number of specimens used in the class mean): AUB (5), Acapulcoites (1) and E chondrites (10) display the largest degrees of anisotropy, 40±11 (1 standard deviation), 34, and 24±10, respectively. These classes are followed by Diogenite (1) 20, H (13) 14±7 and L (10) 13±6 chondrites, Brachinite (1) 11, Ureilite (2) 8, Eucrite (4) 7±4, C chondrites (14) 6±3, and Rumurutiite (1) 4. These results match a similar trend based on the `proxy' method [5,6]: AUB and E chondrites were found to have the highest inferred anisotropies followed by tightly grouped H and L chondrites, with C and LL chondrites having the lowest inferred anisotropies. The magnitudes of the ellipsoid shape varied significantly within meteorite class, and there is variability between classes. The mean ellipsoid shape and standard deviation for each class follows. Prolate ellipsoids: AUB (+17±15), Diogenite (+8), E chondrites (+4±13), and Ureilite (+4). Oblate ellipsoids dominate the remaining classes: Acapulcoite (-31), Brachinite (-15), L chondrites (-7±10), H (-5±12), Eucrite (-6±4), C (4±3) and Rumurutiite (-3). There is consistency of AMS among multiple specimens of the same meteorite. Future work on samples from the National Meteorite Collection of Canada will also include measurements of the intensity of natural remanent magnetization, and of bulk density. These techniques, measuring several physical properties non-destructively, show great promise for characterizing meteorites. References: [1] Kukkonen I.T. & Pesonen L.J. (1983) Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 55: 157-177. [2] Terho M. et al. (1993) Studia geoph. et geod. 37: 65-82. [3] Rochette P. et al. (2001) Quaderni di Geofisica, 18, 30 p. [4] Rochette P. et al. (2003) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 2002, 38(2). [5] Smith D.L. et al. (2003) Abstract 1939, Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXIV. [6] Smith D.L. (2003). B.Sc. Thesis, Carleton U., Ottawa. [7] Sneed et al. (1988) Meteoritics. 23, 139-149. [8] Morden S.J & Collinson D.W. (1992) Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 109, 185-204. [9] Smith D.L. et al. (2003) Abstract 5275, Met. Soc. 66.

  15. Strain-induced Electric Field Switching of Magnetic Anisotropy in Ferromagnetic/Ferroelectric Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odkhuu, Dorj; Ong, P. V.; Tsevelmaa, T.; Kioussis, N.

    2015-03-01

    Multifunctionality of the magnetoelectric materials, simultaneous electric and magnetic orders, would offer a great opportunity in memory applications, in which switching the magnetization direction with an electric field is the main prerequisite. Ab initio calculations were carried out to reveal the importance of an epitaxial strain on magnetoelectric effects, possibly the spin reorientation of magnetization by ferroelectric polarization, in the interface between ferroelectric and ferromagnetic films. As a generic example, we show that the compressive strains larger than 1% that imposed to the in-plane lattice of SrTiO3 (001) underneath the Fe (001) overlayers result in a phase transition in magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) from an in-plane to perpendicular magnetization with polarization reversal. A considerably large sensitivity of MCA with ferroelectric polarization is also found in the strained Fe/SrTiO3 (001), a factor of greater than those of well-studied multiferroic heterostructures. This switching of magnetization pertains to a competition of spin-orbit coupling states between t2 g bands, driven by the mutual mechanisms of the electrostatic screening with the spin-polarized carriers and the orbital hybridization at the interface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. ERCTANMS- 1160504.

  16. Size dependence and field-induced magnetic anisotropy of granular nanophases. Application to microwave isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallgol, Stphane; Brosseau, Christian; Qufflec, Patrick; Konn, Anne-Marie

    2004-05-01

    The induced anisotropy of magnetized nanocomposite samples is investigated through the experimental determination of a non-zero off-diagonal effective permeability tensor term ?. The samples are constituted of ferrimagnetic (?-Fe 2O 3) or ferromagnetic (Ni) grains uniformly dispersed in a matrix composed of ZnO particles. We characterize the volume fraction and grain size dependences of ?. Then, we show that the induced anisotropy of the nanophases can be exploited to realize a microwave resonance isolator.

  17. Energetic ion anisotropies in the geomagnetic tail. I - A statistical survey. II - Magnetic field and substorm characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettmann, Georg; Fritz, Theodore A.; Hones, Edward W., Jr.; Daly, Patrick W.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive data set from the ISEE 2 spacecraft is used here to perform a statistical study of events in the earth's central magnetotail that are characterized by high anisotropies of energetic ions. In about 75 percent of the cases the anisotropy vector deviates no more than 45 deg from the tidal axis. High-anisotropy samples within 45 deg of the tidal axis are dominated by the earthward fraction. High ion anisotropies are observed continuously for longer than 1 min only in a few cases. The probability of observing high ion anisotropies is significantly enhanced beyond about 16 R(E) downtail distance within a few earth radii of the neutral sheet and on the duskside of the magnetotail. The analysis is extended with respect to the local magnetic field and to the relationship between energetic ion anisotropies and substorm phases. It is found that the events can be well organized in terms of substorm expansion phase and substorm recovery. These relations and the magnetic field characteristics during the events support the notion that the near-earth source of tailward streaming ions is identical with a substorm neutral line.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy in single clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, Matthieu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Thirion, Christophe; Dupuis, Vronique; Mlinon, Patrice; Prez, Alain; Mailly, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic measurements on single cobalt and iron nanoclusters containing almost 1000 atoms are presented. Particles are directly buried within the superconducting film of a micro-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) which leads to the required sensitivity. The angular dependence of the switching field in three dimensions turns out to be in good agreement with a uniform rotation of cluster magnetization. The Stoner and Wohlfarth model yields therefore an estimation of magnetic anisotropy in a single cluster. In particular, uniaxial, biaxial, and cubic contributions can be separated. Results are interpreted on the basis of a simple atomic model in which clusters are assimilated to giant spins. We present an extension of the Nel model to clusters in order to estimate surface anisotropy. In the case of cobalt, this last contribution dominates and numerical simulations allow us to get the morphology of the investigated clusters.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy and crystalline electric field effects in RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Lambert, S. E.; Maple, M. B.; Dunlap, B. D.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego

    2009-08-01

    Research on polycrystalline RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} samples has shown that crystalline electric field (CEF) effects play an important role in these compounds. The successful synthesis of single crystal samples of RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} with R = Y, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu has provided an opportunity to further investigate CEF effects in these materials. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements on the RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals revealed strong magnetic anisotropy, and the experimental results could be described well by CEF calculations based on the parameters derived from an analysis of experimental data for ErRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals. The easy directions of magnetization of these compounds are consistent with the signs of the Stevens factor {alpha}J of the CEF Hamiltonian. A strong influence of magnetic anisotropy on superconductivity was also observed.

  20. Intrinsic surface magnetic anisotropy in Y3Fe5O12 as the origin of low-magnetic-field behavior of the spin Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Ken-ichi; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Kikkawa, Takashi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Hou, Dazhi; Qiu, Zhiyong; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic-field dependence of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in a Pt /Y3Fe5O12 (YIG)-slab junction system was found to deviate from a bulk magnetization curve of the YIG slab in a low field range. In this paper, we show that the deviation originates from the difference between surface and bulk magnetization processes in the YIG slab and that it appears even when removing possible extrinsic magnetic anisotropy due to surface roughness and replacing the Pt layer with different materials. This result indicates that the anomalous field dependence of the LSSE is due to an intrinsic magnetic property of the YIG surface. Our numerical calculation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation shows that the deviation between the LSSE and bulk magnetization curves is qualitatively explained by introducing easy-axis perpendicular magnetic anisotropy near the surface of YIG.

  1. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in diamagnetic limestones reveals deflection of the strain field near the Dead Sea Fault, northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, we measured the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in northern Israel. Through integrated magnetic and geochemical methods we found that the rocks are almost pure calcite rocks and therefore the magnetic fabric is primarily controlled by preferred crystallographic orientation (PCO) with the minimum principal AMS axes (k3) parallel to calcite c-axes. We applied a separation procedure in several samples with high Fe content in order to calculate the AMS anisotropy parameters and compare them to pure diamagnetic rocks. AARM, thermo-susceptibility curves and IRM were used to characterize the magnetic phases. We found that for Fe content below 500 ppm the AMS is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase and showed that differences in the degree of anisotropy P' up to 3% (P' = 1.005 to 1.023) and in anisotropy difference ?k (up to ~ 0.25 10- 6 SI) in diamagnetic rocks are related to differences of strain magnitudes. The spatial distribution of the magnetic fabrics indicates ~ N-S maximum shortening parallel to the strike of the Hula Western Border fault (HWBF), one of the main strands of the DSF in northern Israel. The anisotropy parameters suggest that the strain magnitudes increase eastward with the proximity to the HWBF. These results suggest that the strain field near the HWBF is locally deflected as a consequence of the DSF activity. In light of the "fault weakness" model and geological setting of the study area, we suggest that the area accommodates dominant transtension during the Pleistocene. The present study demonstrates the useful application of AMS measurements in "iron-free" limestones as recorders of the strain field near plate boundaries.

  2. Influence of deposition field on the magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co70Fe30 films on GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarch, A.T.; Arena, D.; Dempsey, K.J.; Henini, M.; Marrows, C.H.

    2010-03-10

    The effect of the application of a magnetic field during deposition of epitaxial Co{sub 70}Fe{sub 30} onto GaAs(001) is shown; we find an initially counterintuitive result. For field applied along the interfacial uniaxial hard axis the relative effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is increased by a factor of two in comparison to both field along the uniaxial easy axis, or no field; usually, application of a deposition field results in a uniaxial easy axis parallel to this field direction. We show that the deposition field changes the maximal projection of the atomic orbital magnetic moments onto the easy axis, which corresponds to a deposition field induced shift in the Helmholtz free-energy landscape of the system.

  3. Tailoring magnetic anisotropy gradients by ion bombardment for domain wall positioning in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matczak, Micha?; Szyma?ski, Bogdan; Ku?wik, Piotr; Urbaniak, Maciej; Stobiecki, Feliks; Kurant, Zbigniew; Maziewski, Andrzej; Lengemann, Daniel; Ehresmann, Arno

    2014-08-01

    Graded anisotropy magnetic materials possess a coercive field changing laterally with position. A simple fabrication procedure to produce such an anisotropy gradient in a polycrystalline Au/Co layer system without lateral thickness variation and with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, prototypical for a large variety of thin film systems, is shown. The procedure uses light-ion bombardment without the use of a mask. Magnetization reversal in this polycrystalline layer system takes place by unidirectional movement of a single domain wall only in regions with larger anisotropies and anisotropy gradients. In this anisotropy/anisotropy gradient regime, the domain wall is oriented perpendicular to the coercive field gradient, and it can be positioned along the gradient by an appropriate magnetic field pulse. For smaller anisotropies/anisotropy gradients, the natural anisotropy fluctuations of the polycrystalline layer system induce magnetization reversal dominated by domain nucleation.

  4. Tailoring magnetic anisotropy gradients by ion bombardment for domain wall positioning in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graded anisotropy magnetic materials possess a coercive field changing laterally with position. A simple fabrication procedure to produce such an anisotropy gradient in a polycrystalline Au/Co layer system without lateral thickness variation and with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, prototypical for a large variety of thin film systems, is shown. The procedure uses light-ion bombardment without the use of a mask. Magnetization reversal in this polycrystalline layer system takes place by unidirectional movement of a single domain wall only in regions with larger anisotropies and anisotropy gradients. In this anisotropy/anisotropy gradient regime, the domain wall is oriented perpendicular to the coercive field gradient, and it can be positioned along the gradient by an appropriate magnetic field pulse. For smaller anisotropies/anisotropy gradients, the natural anisotropy fluctuations of the polycrystalline layer system induce magnetization reversal dominated by domain nucleation. PACS 75.30.Gw; 75.70.Cn; 75.60.Ch PMID:25232291

  5. Direct measurement of the magnetic anisotropy field in Mn-Ga and Mn-Co-Ga Heusler films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowley, Ciarn; Ouardi, Siham; Kubota, Takahide; Yildirim, Oguz; Neudert, Andreas; Lenz, Kilian; Sluka, Volker; Lindner, Jrgen; Law, Joseph M.; Mizukami, Shigemi; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia; Deac, Alina M.

    2015-04-01

    The static and dynamic magnetic properties of tetragonally distorted Mn-Ga based alloys were investigated. Static properties are determined in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T using SQUID magnetometry. For the pure Mn1.6Ga film, the saturation magnetisation is 0.36 MA m-1 and the coercivity is 0.29 T. Partial substitution of Mn by Co results in Mn2.6Co0.3Ga1.1. The saturation magnetisation of those films drops to 0.2 MA m-1 and the coercivity is increased to 1 T. The time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) is used to probe the high-frequency dynamics of Mn-Ga. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency extrapolated to zero-field is found to be 125 GHz with a Gilbert damping, ?, of 0.019. The anisotropy field is determined from both SQUID and TR-MOKE to be 4.5 T, corresponding to an effective anisotropy density of 0.81 MJ m-3. Given the large anisotropy field of the Mn2.6Co0.3Ga1.1 film, pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T are used to determine the field strength required to saturate the film in the plane. For this, the extraordinary Hall effect was employed as a probe of the local magnetisation. By integrating the reconstructed in-plane magnetisation curve, the effective anisotropy energy density for Mn2.6Co0.3Ga1.1 is determined to be 1.23 MJ m-3.

  6. Limits on plasma anisotropy in a tail-like magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.; Voigt, G.-H.

    1992-01-01

    The condition of magnetohydrostatic equilibrium implies tight constraints on the degree of anisotropy that is supportable in a magnetotail field geometry. If the plasma pressure tensor is assumed to be gyrotropic at the tail midplane (z = 0), then equilibrium requires that it also be nearly isotropic there, with P-perpendicular sub 0/P-parallel sub 0 in the range 1 +/- delta square, where delta of about 0.1 is the ratio of the normal field component at the symmetry plane to the field strength in the tail lobe. The upper and the lower limits are essentially equivalent, respectively, to the marginal mirror and firehose stability conditions evaluated at z = 0, which have been invoked previously to limit the degree of anisotropy in the plasma sheet.

  7. Field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization in a tetrahedral Co(II) complex with easy plane anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Tao; Wu, Dayu; Cheng, Jiajun; Ouyang, Z W; Duan, Chunying

    2013-11-21

    The mononuclear Co(II) complex CoBr (dmph = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) was obtained and X-ray structurally characterized as a distorted tetrahedron environment that is responsible for the moderately strong positive anisotropy of high spin Co(II). In combination with variable-field magnetic susceptibility data at low temperature, high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-EPR) spectroscopy reveals the presence of easy-plane anisotropy (D > 0) in complex CoBr. Slow magnetic relaxation effects were observed for CoBr in the presence of a dc magnetic field. At very low temperatures, ac magnetic susceptibility data show the magnetic relaxation time, ?, to be temperature-independent, while above 2.4 K thermally activated Arrhenius behavior is dominated with Ueff = 22.8(8) cm(-1) and ?0 = 3.7(5) 10(-10) s. Upon dilution of the complex within a matrix of the isomorphous compound ZnBr, ac susceptibility data reveal the individual molecular nature of the slow magnetic relaxation and indicate that the quantum tunneling pathway observed at low temperatures is likely mediated by intermolecular dipolar interactions. PMID:24002675

  8. Ferroelectric Materials: Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias and Magnetization Reversal Controlled by Electric-Field-Induced Competing Anisotropies (Adv. Mater. 2/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Aitian; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Xu; Peng, Renci; Huang, Haoliang; Zou, Lvkuan; Zheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sen; Miao, Peixian; Lu, Yalin; Cai, Jianwang; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Y. Zhao and co-workers demonstrate a simple and effective method to investigate the angular dependence of exchange bias using one sample with different ratios and relative orientations of the anisotropies via the combination of exchange-biased systems and ferroelectric materials. As they describe on page 363, electric-field-controlled magnetization reversal without a bias magnetic field is also realized at room temperature in this system through electric-field-induced competing anisotropies. PMID:26749471

  9. Field-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and interfacial metal-insulator transition in CoFeB/MgO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, Igor; Fu, Yu; Safranski, C.; Chen, Yu-Jin; Youngblood, B.; Goncalves, A.; Sampaio, L.; Arias, R.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.; Krivorotov, I.

    2015-03-01

    The CoFeB/MgO systems play a central role in magnetic tunnel junction devices due to the high tunneling magnetoresistance ratio. A strong perpendicular anisotropy (PMA) and voltage-controlled anisotropy are beneficial for spintronics application. We study PMA in thin films of Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO in the thickness range of 0.9-2.5 nm and find that it can be best described by the first two order terms. Surprisingly, we find PMA to be strongly field-dependent. Our results show that the field dependence has significant implications for determining and customizing magnetic anisotropy in spintronic applications. Our data suggest that it can be caused by an inhomogeneous interfacial spin pinning with a possibly ferrimagnetic phase at the CoFeB/MgO interface. We perform magnetometry and transport measurements and find a magnetization peak and resistance transitions at 160K, which are consistent with the presence of an interfacial oxide phase undergoing a Morin-like transition.

  10. Electric-field-induced magnetization reorientation in a (Ga,Mn)As/(Ga,Mn)(As,P) bilayer with out-of-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, M.; Jeudy, V.; Niazi, T.; Lucot, D.; Granada, M.; Cibert, J.; Lematre, A.

    2014-11-01

    Combined electric- and magnetic-field control of magnetization orientation and reversal is studied using anomalous Hall effect in an ultrathin ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As/(Ga,Mn)(As,P) bilayer. Its anisotropy results from the electrically tunable competition between the in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropies of both layers. The magnetic hysteresis loop shape is sensitive to the bias electric field. In the loop reversible part, an electric-field variation is found to reorient reversibly the magnetization. In this case, the magnetization direction follows the easy anisotropy direction controlled by electric field. In contrast, in the hysteretic part, an almost complete nonreversible magnetization reversal is achieved. This is interpreted as resulting from the electric-field-induced enhancement of domain nucleation and domain-wall propagation.

  11. Magnetic anisotropies of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyborny, Karel; Han, J. E.; Oszwaldowski, Rafal; Zutic, Igor; Petukhov, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic anisotropies in quantum dots (QDs) doped by magnetic ions are discussed in terms of two frameworks: anisotropic g-factors and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy [1]. Two examples, related to zinc-blende p-doped materials, are given of how these frameworks are utilized: four-level Hamiltonian of a flat QD and a cuboid infinite-well QD containing a single hole. The latter model, despite being an idealization of a real QD, displays a rich phenomenology of anisotropies. We quantify the anisotropy constants for ZnSe and CdTe QDs, confirming that the Ising-like effective Hamiltonians apply to magnetic QDs [2]. Compared to bulk systems, confinement tuning offers a new way to control easy axes in magnetic QDs. [1] K. Vyborny et al., preprint (2011). [2] C. Le Gall et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 057401 (2011).

  12. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Abel, Tom E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  13. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B simeq 10-11 Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  14. CMB temperature anisotropy at large scales induced by a causal primordial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bonvin, Camille; Caprini, Chiara E-mail: camille.bonvin@cea.fr

    2010-05-01

    We present an analytical derivation of the Sachs Wolfe effect sourced by a primordial magnetic field. In order to consistently specify the initial conditions, we assume that the magnetic field is generated by a causal process, namely a first order phase transition in the early universe. As for the topological defects case, we apply the general relativistic junction conditions to match the perturbation variables before and after the phase transition which generates the magnetic field, in such a way that the total energy momentum tensor is conserved across the transition and Einstein's equations are satisfied. We further solve the evolution equations for the metric and fluid perturbations at large scales analytically including neutrinos, and derive the magnetic Sachs Wolfe effect. We find that the relevant contribution to the magnetic Sachs Wolfe effect comes from the metric perturbations at next-to-leading order in the large scale limit. The leading order term is in fact strongly suppressed due to the presence of free-streaming neutrinos. We derive the neutrino compensation effect dynamically and confirm that the magnetic Sachs Wolfe spectrum from a causal magnetic field behaves as l(l+1) C{sup B}{sub l}?l{sup 2} as found in the latest numerical analyses.

  15. A correlation of energetic particle flux anisotropies with magnetic field variations in- and outside the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, E.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Ip, W.-H.; Daly, P. W.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.; Neubauer, F. M.

    Anisotropies and energy spectra of cometary ions derived from the EPA/EPONA measurements on board of Giotto during the encounter with Comet Halley are used to study the acceleration processes taking place in the vicinity of the comet. Further evidence was found for the second order Fermi process. The intensity spikes observed outside the bowshock (outbound) can most likely be explained by the field line merging process at the frontside of the magnetic pileup region. The shock drift acceleration mechanism combined with the first order Fermi process seems to be responsible for the spike observed at 06:45 - 08:00 UT on March 14, 1986. The observed flux anisotropies are caused by the velocity transformation effect. Furthermore it can be concluded that the magnetic field lines were 'open' on the inbound side (19:00 - 23:00 UT on March 13), whereas a field line connection between cometary and interplanetary field lines must have existed on the outbound side until about 07:00 UT on March 14, 1986.

  16. SWAP operation in the two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model: Effects of anisotropy and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yue; Yang Fuhua; Feng Songlin; Zhang Guofeng

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we study the SWAP operation in a two-qubit anisotropic XXZ model in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We establish the range of anisotropic parameter {lambda} within which the SWAP operation is feasible. The SWAP errors caused by the inhomogeneous field are evaluated.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy in pyroxene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea Regina; Hirt, Ann Marie; Pettke, Thomas; Bender Koch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is often used as a proxy for the mineral fabric in a rock. This requires understanding the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of the minerals that define the rock fabric. With their prismatic habit, pyroxenes describe the texture in mafic and ultramafic rocks. Magnetic anisotropy in pyroxene crystals often arises from both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components that can be separated from high-field magnetic data. The paramagnetic component is related to the silicate lattice, whereas the ferromagnetic part arises from the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic inclusions that were further characterized by isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. These inclusions often have needle-like habit and are located on the well-defined cleavage planes within the pyroxenes. We characterize low-field and high-field AMS in pyroxene single crystals of diverse orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene minerals. In addition to the magnetic measurements, we analyzed their chemical composition and Fe2+/Fe3+ distribution. The anisotropy arising from inclusions in some augite crystals displays consistent principal susceptibility directions, whereas no preferred orientation is found in other crystals. The principal susceptibilities of the paramagnetic component can be related to the crystal lattice, with the intermediate susceptibility parallel to the b-axis, and minimum and maximum in the a-c-plane for diopside, augite and spodumene. The degree of anisotropy increases with iron concentration. Aegirine shows a different behavior; not only is its maximum susceptibility parallel to the c-axis, but the anisotropy degree is also lower in relation to its iron concentration. This possibly relates to a predominance of Fe3+ in aegirine, whereas Fe2+ is dominant in the other minerals. In orthopyroxene, the maximum susceptibility is parallel to the c-axis and the minimum is parallel to b. The degree of anisotropy increases linearly with iron concentration. The difference in principal directions between clino- and orthopyroxene reflects their different crystal structure; in clinopyroxene, iron mainly occupies M1 sites, whereas it prefers the distorted M2 sites in orthopyroxene. The difference in anisotropy degree between aegirine and the other clinopyroxenes suggests that Fe2+ causes a stronger anisotropy than Fe3+. Thus, the magnetic anisotropy in pyroxenes is mainly dominated by the concentration, oxidation state and site occupancy of iron. The results from this study are important when interpreting magnetic fabrics in ultramafic rocks that contain both olivine and pyroxenes.

  18. Pentlandite and Magnetic Anisotropy in Allende CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaki, M.; Wasilewski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The representative Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) carrier of Allende is nonstoichiometric pentlandite forming in a magnetic field.The magnetic anisotropy results suggest that the constituent particles were compressed before solidification and then compressed or extended in a different direction.

  19. The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muiz, Jaime; Stanev, Todor

    2006-10-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 1018 to 1019eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.

  20. Interplay between symmetric exchange anisotropy, uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and magnetic fields in the phase diagram of quantum magnets and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, Ion; Affleck, Ian

    2010-04-01

    We theoretically study the joint influence of uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions, symmetric exchange anisotropy (with its axis parallel to the DM vector), and arbitrarily oriented magnetic fields on one-dimensional spin 1/2 antiferromagnets. We show that the zero-temperature phase diagram contains three competing phases: (i) an antiferromagnet with Neel vector in the plane spanned by the DM vector and the magnetic field, (ii) a dimerized antiferromagnet with Neel vector perpendicular to both the DM vector and the magnetic field, and (iii) a gapless Luttinger liquid. Phase (i) is destroyed by a small magnetic field component along the DM vector and is furthermore unstable beyond a critical value of easy-plane anisotropy, which we estimate using Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization along with perturbative renormalization group. We propose a mathematical equivalent of the spin model in a one-dimensional Josephson junction array located in proximity to a bulk superconductor. We discuss the analogues of the magnetic phases in the superconducting context and comment on their experimental viability.

  1. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its electric-field-assisted switching of Heusler-compound-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhaoqiang; Shen, Lei; Cai, Yongqing; Wu, Qingyun; Zeng, Minggang; Han, Guchang; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2014-10-01

    Employing density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we systematically investigate the structural, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Co2FeAl(CFA)/MgO interface, as well as the spin-dependent transport characteristics of the CFA/MgO/CFA perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). We find that the structure of the CFA/MgO interface with the oxygen-top FeAl termination has high thermal stability, which is protected by the thermodynamic equilibrium limit. Furthermore, this structure is found to have perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). Giant electric-field-assisted modifications of this interfacial MCA through magnetoelectric coupling are demonstrated with an MCA coefficient of up to 10-7 erg V-1 cm. In addition, our non-collinear spin transport calculations of the CFA/MgO/CFA p-MTJ predict a good magnetoresistance performance of the device.

  2. Competing magnetic anisotropies in obliquely deposited thin permalloy film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Izotov, A. V.; Solovev, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of the magnetic anisotropy in thin film prepared by thermal vacuum oblique deposition of permalloy with small off-normal angle of incident in the presence of an external magnetic field has been studied by ferromagnetic resonance technique. On local area of the sample, a mutual compensation of near orthogonal in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropies induced by oblique deposition and by applied magnetic field has been found. Moreover, in addition to the uniaxial (twofold) magnetic anisotropy, fourfold and sixfold magnetic anisotropies have been observed in the sample. To explain the obtained high-order anisotropies, we assumed that the sample has exchange coupled adjacent regions or phases with different parameters of magnetic anisotropy. The results of the micromagnetic analysis of a two-layer model of the sample confirm the hypothesis.

  3. The effect of magnetization anisotropy and paramagnetic susceptibility on the magnetization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolyachkin, A. S.; Neznakhin, D. S.; Bartashevich, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Sucksmith-Thompson method is a widespread technique for the accurate evaluation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants K1 and K2 of a single crystal with easy magnetization axis or basal plane type magnetic anisotropy. In this work, a generalized form of the method is represented. It takes into account several magnetization process features: spontaneous magnetization anisotropy, high-field differential susceptibility (paramagnetic process), and stray fields in terms of the demagnetizing factor. Corrected anisotropy field expressions for both magnetic anisotropy types are also established herein. The modified approach was verified by magnetization measurements of single crystalline LaCo5 and YFe3.

  4. Slow magnetic relaxation in octahedral cobalt(II) field-induced single-ion magnet with positive axial and large rhombic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Herchel, Radovan; Vhovsk, Lucia; Poto??k, Ivan; Trvn?ek, Zden?k

    2014-06-16

    Pseudooctahedral mononuclear cobat(II) complex [Co(abpt)2(tcm)2] (1), where abpt = 4-amino-3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole and tcm = tricyanomethanide anion, shows field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization with U = 86.2 K and large axial and rhombic single-ion zero-field-splitting parameters, D = +48(2) cm(-1) and E/D = 0.27(2) (D = +53.7 cm(-1) and E/D = 0.29 from ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations), thus presenting a new example of a field-induced single-ion magnet with transversal magnetic anisotropy. PMID:24853769

  5. Propagation of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray nuclei in cosmic magnetic fields and implications for anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime; Inoue, Susumu; Yamamoto, Tokonatsu

    2012-07-01

    Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) indicate that the composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies above 1019 eV may be dominated by heavy nuclei. An important question is whether the distribution of arrival directions for such UHECR nuclei can exhibit observable anisotropy or positional correlations with their astrophysical source objects despite the expected strong deflections by intervening magnetic fields. For this purpose, we have simulated the propagation of UHECR nuclei including models for both the extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF) and the Galactic magnetic field (GMF). We find that the GMF is particularly crucial for suppressing the anisotropy as well as source correlations. Assuming that only iron nuclei are injected steadily from sources with equal luminosity and spatially distributed according to the observed large scale structure in the local Universe, at the number of events published by the PAO so far (69 events above 5.5 1019 eV), the arrival distribution of UHECRs would be consistent with no auto-correlation at 95% confidence if the mean number density of UHECR sources ns ? 10-6 Mpc-3, and consistent with no cross-correlation with sources within 95% errors for ns ? 10-5 Mpc-3. On the other hand, with 1000 events above 5.5 1019 eV in the whole sky, next generation experiments can reveal auto-correlation with more than 99% probability even for ns ? 10-3 Mpc-3, and cross-correlation with sources with more than 99% probability for ns ? 10-4 Mpc-3. In addition, we find that the contribution of Centaurus A is required to reproduce the currently observed UHECR excess in the Centaurus region. Secondary protons generated by photodisintegration of primary heavy nuclei during propagation play a crucial role in all cases, and the resulting anisotropy at small angular scales should provide a strong hint of the source location if the maximum energies of the heavy nuclei are sufficiently high.

  6. Critical Current Anisotropy of Zr Doped MOCVD Coated Conductor in Magnetic Fields up to 8T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, N. A.; Baskakov, A. O.; Rudnev, I. A.

    The critical current angular distributions in the magnetic field range from 0 up to 8 T have been measured for Zr doped MOCVD (metalorganic chemical vapor deposition) tape produced by Super Power Inc. The vortex path model was used to fit these distributions to specify a tilted peak near c-axis that corresponds to the presence of BaZrO3 columnar defects in the tape. The orientation of such defects was found to be 10.3o with respect to the c-axis direction. Peak in the ab direction was observed in the whole field range and it could be interpreted as pinning on spacer layers between CuO planes. The appearance of gauss distribution was found in high fields that confirms chosen model.

  7. Tailoring the exciton fine structure of cadmium selenide nanocrystals with shape anisotropy and magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Sinito, Chiara; Ferne, Mark J; Goupalov, Serguei V; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim

    2014-11-25

    We use nominally spheroidal CdSe nanocrystals with a zinc blende crystal structure to study how shape perturbations lift the energy degeneracies of the band-edge exciton. Nanocrystals with a low degree of symmetry exhibit splitting of both upper and lower bright state degeneracies due to valence band mixing combined with the isotropic exchange interaction, allowing active control of the level splitting with a magnetic field. Asymmetry-induced splitting of the bright states is used to reveal the entire 8-state band-edge fine structure, enabling complete comparison with band-edge exciton models. PMID:25329623

  8. Three-dimensional dynamics of a particle with a finite energy of magnetic anisotropy in a rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Cīmurs, J; Cēbers, A

    2013-12-01

    A model of a single ferromagnetic particle with a finite coupling energy of the magnetic moment with the body of the particle is formulated, and regimes of its motion in a rotating magnetic field are investigated. Regimes are possible that are synchronous and asynchronous with the field. In a synchronous regime the easy axis of the particle is in the plane of the rotating magnetic field at low frequencies (a planar regime) and on the cone at high frequencies (a precession regime). The stability of these regimes is investigated, and it is shown that the precession regime is stable for field strengths below the critical value. In a particular range of field strength value, irreversible jumps of the magnetic moment take place in the asynchronous planar regime. The stability of this regime is investigated, and it is shown that it is stable for field strengths above the critical value, which depends on the frequency. The implications of these results for the energy dissipation in a rotating field are analyzed, and it is shown that the maximum of the heat production near the transition to the synchronous regime is flattened out by the transition to the precession regime. PMID:24483452

  9. Tailored magnetic anisotropy in an amorphous trilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Yu; Barsukov, I.; Spasova, M.; Lindner, J.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.; Raanaei, H.; Hjoervarsson, B.

    2011-06-01

    An amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8}(3 nm)/Al{sub 70}Zr{sub 30}(3 nm)/Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8}(3 nm) trilayer system has been investigated using in-plane and out-of-plane angular dependent ferromagnetic resonance at different frequencies. The in-plane magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial, retaining its value of (2.9 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3} for each magnetic layer, whereas its direction was tailored independently in an arbitrary manner by applying an external magnetic field during the film deposition. The perpendicular anisotropy constant, supposed to reflect the interface quality, is nearly identical for both layers. Furthermore, the magnetic layers act independently upon each other due to the absence of interlayer coupling.

  10. Tailored magnetic anisotropy in an amorphous trilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu; Barsukov, I.; Raanaei, H.; Spasova, M.; Lindner, J.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.; Hjörvarsson, B.

    2011-06-01

    An amorphous Co68Fe24Zr8(3 nm)/Al70Zr30(3 nm)/Co68Fe24Zr8(3 nm) trilayer system has been investigated using in-plane and out-of-plane angular dependent ferromagnetic resonance at different frequencies. The in-plane magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial, retaining its value of (2.9 ± 0.1) × 103 J/m3 for each magnetic layer, whereas its direction was tailored independently in an arbitrary manner by applying an external magnetic field during the film deposition. The perpendicular anisotropy constant, supposed to reflect the interface quality, is nearly identical for both layers. Furthermore, the magnetic layers act independently upon each other due to the absence of interlayer coupling.

  11. Electric field switching of the magnetic anisotropy of a ferromagnetic layer exchange coupled to the multiferroic compound BiFeO3.

    PubMed

    Lebeugle, D; Mougin, A; Viret, M; Colson, D; Ranno, L

    2009-12-18

    We report here that a Permalloy layer deposited on top of a multiferroic BiFeO3 single crystal acquires an easy magnetic direction along the propagation vector of the cycloidal arrangement of antiferromagnetic moments in BiFeO3. This anisotropy originates from a direct magnetic coupling with the canted spins forming the cycloid. Moreover, we show that an electric field-induced change of electric polarization is able to toggle the direction of anisotropy in the ferromagnet through the magnetoelectric effect, which links the antiferromagnetic spins to the local polarization in BiFeO3. PMID:20366284

  12. Scaling and anisotropy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Grappin, Roland; Mueller, Wolf-Christian

    2010-08-15

    We present an analysis of the anisotropic spectral energy distribution in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence permeated by a strong mean magnetic field. The turbulent flow is generated by high-resolution pseudospectral direct numerical simulations with large-scale isotropic forcing. Examining the radial energy distribution for various angles {theta} with respect to B{sub 0} reveals a specific structure which remains hidden when not taking axial symmetry with respect to B{sub 0} into account. For each direction, starting at the forced large scales, the spectrum first exhibits an amplitude drop around a wave number k{sub 0} which marks the start of a scaling range and goes on up to a dissipative wave number k{sub d}({theta}). The three-dimensional spectrum for k{>=}k{sub 0} is described by a single {theta}-independent functional form F(k/k{sub d}), with the scaling law being the same in every direction. The previous properties still hold when increasing the mean field from B{sub 0}=5 up to B{sub 0}=10b{sub rms}, as well as when passing from resistive to ideal flows. We conjecture that at fixed B{sub 0} the direction-independent scaling regime is reached when increasing the Reynolds number above a threshold which raises with increasing B{sub 0}. Below that threshold critically balanced turbulence is expected.

  13. Effects of external magnetic field and magnetic anisotropy on chiral spin structures of square nanodisks investigated with a quantum simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaosen; Ian, Hou

    2016-04-01

    We employed a quantum simulation approach to investigate the magnetic properties of monolayer square nanodisks with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction. The computational program converged very quickly, and generated chiral spin structures on the disk planes with good symmetry. When the DM interaction is sufficiently strong, multi-domain structures appears, their sizes or average distance between each pair of domains can be approximately described by a modified grid theory. We further found that the external magnetic field and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy both normal to the disk plane lead to reductions of the total free energy and total energy of the nanosystems, thus are able to stabilize and/or induce the vortical structures, however, the chirality of the vortex is still determined by the sign of the DM interaction parameter. Moreover, the geometric shape of the nanodisk affects the spin configuration on the disk plane as well.

  14. Microstructural, Magnetic Anisotropy, and Magnetic Domain Structure Correlations in Epitaxial FePd Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, J. R.; Clavero, C.; Yang, K.; Wincheski, B.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    L1(sub 0)-ordered FePd epitaxial thin films were prepared using dc magnetron sputter deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The films were grown with varying thickness and degree of chemical order to investigate the interplay between the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy, and magnetic domain structure. The experimentally measured domain size/period and magnetic anisotropy in this high perpendicular anisotropy system were found to be correlated following the analytical energy model proposed by Kooy and Enz that considers a delicate balance between the domain wall energy and the demagnetizing stray field energy.

  15. How to build molecules with large magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Jordi; Ruiz, Eliseo; Alvarez, Santiago; Neese, Frank; Kortus, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Predicting single-molecule magnets? Magnetic anisotropy, a property that plays a key role in single-molecule magnets (SMMs), has been analyzed by using theoretical methods. Mononuclear complexes and the dependence of the magnetic anisotropy on their geometrical and electronic structure, as well as how such mononuclear complexes must be combined as building blocks to obtain polynuclear complexes with large anisotropy (see figure) are considered.The magnetic anisotropy of mononuclear transition-metal complexes has been studied by means of electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. The variation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters has been analyzed for the following characteristic distortions: a tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortion, the Bailar twist, the Berry pseudorotation, and the planarization of tetrahedral complexes. Finally, the coupling of mononuclear building blocks in polynuclear complexes to obtain a large negative magnetic anisotropy necessary to improve their single-molecule-magnet (SMM) behavior has been studied. PMID:19248077

  16. Electric field control of anisotropy and magnetization switching in CoFe and CoNi thin films for magnetoelectric memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tianli; Hao, Liang; Cao, Jiangwei; Liu, Mingfeng; Dang, Honggang; Wang, Ying; Wu, Dongping; Bai, Jianmin; Wei, Fulin

    2014-04-01

    We report on the marked change in magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal in Co50Fe50/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3)]1-x-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT) and Co43Ni57/PMN-PT heterostructures under an electric field. For the Co50Fe50/PMN-PT structure, the electric-field-induced magnetic anisotropy field can be as large as 1.2 kOe at 12 kV/cm, corresponding to a magnetoelectric coefficient of 100 Oe cm/kV. In the Co43Ni57/PMN-PT heterostructure, the electric-field-induced anisotropy has a sign opposite to that in Co50Fe50/PMN-PT. As a result, in the [CoNi/Cu/CoFe/Cu]n/PMN-PT heterostructure, the parallel magnetic moment between two magnetic layers in the initial state may become perpendicular under an electric field. On the basis of these discussions, a voltage-write magnetoelectric memory device model is proposed.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy data of CH2NCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Diamagnetic Susceptibility and Magnetic Anisotropy of Organic Compounds' of Volume 27 `Diamagnetic Susceptibility and Anisotropy' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group II Molecules and Radicals.

  18. Size and anisotropy effects on magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Heisenberg model taking into account single-ion anisotropy and using a Green's function technique we have studied the influence of size and anisotropy effects on magnetization M, Neel temperature TN, coercive field Hc and spin excitation energy of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles. The properties are compared with those of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. We have shown that the enhanced magnetization M and coercive field Hc of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles is a surface effect, which is due to uncompensated surface spins. Moreover, the shape of the coercive field curve can be significantly influenced by surface magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Advanced magnetic anisotropy determination through isothermal remanent magnetization of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillion, A.; Tamion, A.; Tournus, F.; Gaier, O.; Bonet, E.; Albin, C.; Dupuis, V.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a theoretical framework enabling the simulation of isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) curves, based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth model combined with the Nel macrospin relaxation time description. We show how low temperature IRM curves, which have many advantages compared to hysteresis loops, can be efficiently computed for realistic assemblies of magnetic particles with both a size and anisotropy constant distribution, and a biaxial anisotropy. The IRM curves, which probe the irreversible switching provoked by an applied field, are shown to be complementary to other usual measurements (in particular low-field susceptibility curves where a thermal switching is involved). As an application, the experimental IRM curve of Co clusters embedded in a carbon matrix is analyzed. We demonstrate how powerful such an analysis can be, which in the present case allows us to put into evidence an anisotropy constant dispersion among the Co nanoparticles.

  20. Magnetic Anisotropy in the Radula of Chiton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Gao; Qian, Xia; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Zhan, Wen-Shan

    2000-07-01

    Radular teeth of chitons were studied by using magnetic torque-meter and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic torque curves give clear evidence of presence of strong uni-axial magnetic anisotropy. The easy axis is along the length direction of tongue-like radula. The TEM pattern shows that long chip-like magnetite nano-scaled particles packed in the radular teeth with both uni-axial shape anisotropy and magneto-crystalline anisotropy.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF PLASMA BETA AND ANISOTROPY INSTABILITIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF RECONNECTING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2011-12-10

    The plasma {beta} (the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) of a system can have a large effect on its dynamics as high {beta} enhances the effects of pressure anisotropies. We investigate the effects of {beta} in a system of stacked current sheets that break up into magnetic islands due to magnetic reconnection, which is analogous to the compressed heliospheric current sheet in the heliosheath. We find significant differences between systems with low and high initial values of {beta}. At low {beta}, growing magnetic islands are modestly elongated and become round as contraction releases magnetic stress and reduces magnetic energy. At high {beta}, the increase of the parallel pressure in contracting islands causes saturation of modestly elongated islands as island cores approach the marginal firehose condition. Only highly elongated islands reach finite size. The anisotropy within these islands prevents full contraction, leading to a final state of highly elongated islands in which further reconnection is suppressed. The elongation of islands at finite {beta} is further enhanced by reducing the electron-to-ion mass ratio to more realistic values. The results are directly relevant to reconnection in the sectored region of the heliosheath where there is evidence that elongated islands are present, and possibly to other high-{beta} systems such as astrophysical accretion flows and the magnetosphere of Saturn.

  2. Vortex polarity switching in magnets with surface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri

    2015-05-01

    Vortex core reversal in magnetic particle is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. Under the action of a perpendicular static magnetic field the vortex core undergoes a shape deformation of pillow- or barrel-shaped type, depending on the type of the surface anisotropy. This deformation plays a key point in the switching mechanism: We predict that the vortex polarity switching is accompanied (i) by a linear singularity in case of Heisenberg magnet with bulk anisotropy only and (ii) by a point singularities in case of surface anisotropy or exchange anisotropy. We study in details the switching process using spin-lattice simulations and propose a simple analytical description using a wired core model, which provides an adequate description of the Bloch point statics, its dynamics and the Bloch point mediated switching process. Our analytical predictions are confirmed by spin-lattice simulations for Heisenberg magnet and micromagnetic simulations for nanomagnet with account of a dipolar interaction.

  3. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Liao, X. L.; Jing, H. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.

  4. The influence of magnetic aftereffects on the magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashukov, A.; Mashukova, A.

    2012-04-01

    There were investigated the time dependences of the magnetic anisotropy characteristics of artificial depositions received in the geomagnetic field. The content of magnetite in the nonmagnetic matrix of kaolin did not exceed 1%. The Co content in the grains of magnetite Fe3 O4 was 0.0018%. The viscous magnetization was created in the depositions with grain sizes of Fe3O4 in micrometers (0 ÷ 8), (9 ÷ 16), (17 ÷ 32), (33 ÷ 64), (65 ÷ 100), (101 ÷ 150). The X-ray method of direct pole figures indicates that the intensity of the ordering of the ferromagnetic grains in the depositions depends strongly on the grain size in the above-mentioned ranges, getting reduced from 1.9 to 1.1. Compared with the characteristics received immediately after drying the samples and after holding them for two years in the earth's magnetic field in the direction of In, one could observe increase in all the characteristics of the magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude Hd of the magnetic field having the periodicity change of Hd 2π to π increases. This indicates the stabilization of the new domain structure. The increase in the uniaxial anisotropy constant (K) is associated with the emergence of the large induced anisotropy due to the diffusion of Co ions. It was found out that the constant K decreases markedly with increasing particle size in the range from 8 mm to 40 microns. Based on the results of the X-ray analysis by using the method direct pole figures, it may be explained by the creation of the axial texture in the depositions with grains having the size less than 40 microns. The intensity of more than 40 microns decreases insignificantly - from 1.3 to 1.1. After creating the viscous magnetization in two years, the constant K has increased by 1.5 - 2 times. The influence of the magnetic after-effects on K in strong magnetic fields denotes the diffusion nature of the viscous magnetization. The losses of the rotational magnetic hysteresis (W) also rise in the presence of the structural defects and internal stresses. The value of the maximum loss (Wm) increases the more the smaller the grain size Fe3O4.The greatest influence of magnetic viscosity is exercised on the depositions having d < 40 microns. It is shown that there is a correlation between the dependence of the temporal variation of Wm and the dependence of the coefficients of the magnetic viscosity on the ferromagnetic grain size. The magnitude of the magnetic field (HW), corresponding to the maximum losses and characterizing the beginning of the transition of the spins from the connection with the crystal lattice to the connection with the external magnetic field, does not change. So, the magnetic field HW can be considered as an indicator of the composition of the ferromagnetic fraction. Depending on the composition of the ferromagnetic, value HW has a wide range of values. For the depositions, containing magnetite grains, the value of HW makes up 1.8 kOe, and for the grains of hematite it is 9 kOe. Thus, the contribution to the effective anisotropy of rocks containing large particles of the ferromagnetic fraction, can not be explained by the energy of crystallographic anisotropy. Diffusion magnetic anisotropy is a widely spread phenomenon in the rocks.

  5. Anisotropy of MHD Turbulence at Low Magnetic Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zikanov, O.; Vorobev, A.; Thess, A.; Davidson, P. A.; Knaepen, B.

    2004-01-01

    Turbulent fluctuations in MHD flows are known to become dimensionally anisotropic under the action of a sufficiently strong magnetic field. We consider the technologically relevant case of low magnetic Reynolds number and apply the method of DNS of forced flow in a periodic box to generate velocity fields. The analysis based on different anisotropy characteristics shows that the dimensional anisotropy is virtually scale-independent. We also find that, except for the case of very strong magnetic field, the flow is componentally isotropic. Its kinetic energy is practically uniformly distributed among the velocity components.

  6. ANISOTROPY DETERMINATIONS IN EXCHANGE SPRING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIS,L.H.; HARLAND,C.L.

    2002-08-18

    Ferromagnetic nanocomposites, or ''exchange spring'' magnets, possess a nanoscaled microstructure that allows intergrain magnetic exchange forces to couple the constituent grains and alter the system's effective magnetic anisotropies. While the effects of the anisotropy alterations are clearly seen in macroscopic magnetic measurement, it is extremely difficult to determine the detailed effects of the system's exchange coupling, such as the interphase exchange length, the inherent domain wall widths or the effective anisotropies of the system. Clarification of these materials parameters may be obtained from the ''micromagnetic'' phenomenological model, where the assumption of magnetic reversal initiating in the magnetically-soft regions of the exchange-spring maqet is explicitly included. This approach differs from that typically applied by other researchers and allows a quantitative estimate of the effective anisotropies of an exchange spring system. Hysteresis loops measured on well-characterized nanocomposite alloys based on the composition Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B + {alpha}-Fe at temperatures above the spin reorientation temperature were analyzed within the framework of the micromagnetic phenomenological model. Preliminary results indicate that the effective anisotropy constant in the material is intermediate to that of bulk {alpha}-Fe and bulk Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and increases with decreasing temperature. These results strongly support the idea that magnetic reversal in nanocomposite systems initiates in the lower-anisotropy regions of the system, and that the soft-phase regions become exchange-hardened by virtue of their proximity to the magnetically-hard regions.

  7. Magnetic patterning using ion irradiation for highly ordered CoPt alloys with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Abes, M.; Venuat, J.; Muller, D.; Carvalho, A.; Schmerber, G.; Beaurepaire, E.; Dinia, A.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.

    2004-12-15

    We used a combination of ion irradiation and e-beam lithography to magnetically pattern an ordered CoPt alloy with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Ion irradiation disorders the alloy and strongly reduces the magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic force microscopy showed a regular array of 1 {mu}m{sup 2} square dots with perpendicular anisotropy separated by 1 {mu}m large ranges with in-plane anisotropy. This is further confirmed by magnetic measurements, which showed that arrays protected by a 200 nm Pt layer present the same coercive field and the same perpendicular anisotropy as before irradiation. This is promising for applications in magnetic recording technologies.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy due to the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect

    Metalidis, G.; Bruno, P.

    2010-02-15

    We consider the Casimir interaction between a ferromagnetic and a nonmagnetic mirror and show how the Casimir effect gives rise to a magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic layer. The anisotropy is out of plane if the nonmagnetic plate is optically isotropic. If the nonmagnetic plate shows a uniaxial optical anisotropy (with optical axis in the plate plane), we find an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. In both cases, the energetically most favorable magnetization orientation is given by the competition between polar, longitudinal, and transverse contributions to the magneto-optical Kerr effect and will therefore depend on the interplate distance. Numerical results will be presented for a magnetic plate made out of Fe and nonmagnetic plates of Au (optically isotropic), quartz, calcite, and barium titanate (all uniaxially birefringent).

  9. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of cobalt doped titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bin; Feng, Min; Zuo, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict that the magnetic anisotropy energy of Co-doped TiO2 sensitively depends on carrier accumulation. This magnetoelectric phenomenon provides a potential route to a direct manipulation of the magnetization direction in diluted magnetic semiconductor by external electric-fields. We calculate the band structures and reveal the origin of the carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy energy in k-space. It is shown that the carrier accumulation shifts the Fermi energy, and consequently, regulates the competing contributions to the magnetic anisotropy energy. The calculations provide an insight to understanding this magnetoelectric phenomenon, and a straightforward way to search prospective materials for electrically controllable spin direction of carriers. PMID:25510846

  10. Single-ion anisotropy and magnetic field response in the spin-ice materials Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasello, Bruno; Castelnovo, Claudio; Moessner, Roderich; Quintanilla, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by its role as a central pillar of current theories of the dynamics of spin ice in and out of equilibrium, we study the single-ion dynamics of the magnetic rare-earth ions in their local environments, subject to the effective fields set up by the magnetic moments with which they interact. This effective field has a transverse component with respect to the local easy axis of the crystal electric field, which can induce quantum tunneling. We go beyond the projective spin-1/2 picture and use instead the full crystal-field Hamiltonian. We find that the Kramers versus non-Kramers nature, as well as the symmetries of the crystal-field Hamiltonian, result in different perturbative behavior at small fields (≲1 T ), with transverse field effects being more pronounced in Ho2Ti2O7 than in Dy2Ti2O7 . Remarkably, the energy splitting range we find is consistent with time scales extracted from experiments. We also present a study of the static magnetic response, which highlights the anisotropy of the system in the form of an off-diagonal g tensor, and we investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations in the temperature regime of relevance to experiments. We show that there is a narrow but accessible window of experimental parameters where the anisotropic response can be observed.

  11. Atomic scale evolution of magnetic anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, J. A. C.; Hope, S.; Tselepi, M.; Choi, B.

    1998-03-01

    The results of in situ studies of the evolution of the magnetic anisotropy of Co(100) and Co(110) epitaxial films are discussed. It is shown that uniaxial magnetic anisotropies are the generic signature of symmetry breaking atomic and nm scale structures, e.g. steps, clusters, islands revealed by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies, and are strongly affected by nonmagnetic overlayers. However, the thickness dependent behaviour is surprisingly complex, with strong changes in anisotropy behaviour occurring with submonolayer depositions of nonmagnetic overlayers. These effects cannot be understood within the usual framework of the Nel model but are discussed in terms of several contributing mechanisms, e.g. strain, dipolar interactions and edge and surface anisotropies.

  12. Efficient enhancement of magnetic anisotropy by optimizing the ligand-field in a typically tetranuclear dysprosium cluster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Yan-Cong; Jiang, Zhong-Xia; Liu, Jun-Liang; Jia, Jian-Hua; Wang, Long-Fei; Li, Quan-Wen; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-05-01

    The perturbation to the ligand field around the lanthanide ion may significantly contribute to the magnetic dynamics of single molecule magnets. This can be demonstrated by two typical Dy4 cluster-based single molecular magnets (SMMs), [Dy4X2(?3-OH)2(?-OH)2(2,2-bpt)4(H2O)4]X22H2O4EtOH (X = Cl and Br for and , respectively), which were constructed by using 3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (2,2-bptH) as the polynuclear-chelating ligand. Alternating-current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the energy barriers in complexes and were immensely enhanced by comparing with our previous work due to the optimization of the ligand field around Dy(III) ions. Remarkably, their high thermal active barriers at 190 K () and 197 K () under a zero applied external dc magnetic field are also among the highest within the reported tetranuclear lanthanide-based SMMs. PMID:25837027

  13. The ligand field of the azido ligand: insights into bonding parameters and magnetic anisotropy in a Co(II)-azido complex.

    PubMed

    Schweinfurth, David; Sommer, Michael G; Atanasov, Mihail; Demeshko, Serhiy; Hohloch, Stephan; Meyer, Franc; Neese, Frank; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2015-02-11

    The azido ligand is one of the most investigated ligands in magnetochemistry. Despite its importance, not much is known about the ligand field of the azido ligand and its influence on magnetic anisotropy. Here we present the electronic structure of a novel five-coordinate Co(II)-azido complex (1), which has been characterized experimentally (magnetically and by electronic d-d absorption spectroscopy) and theoretically (by means of multireference electronic structure methods). Static and dynamic magnetic data on 1 have been collected, and the latter demonstrate slow relaxation of the magnetization in an applied external magnetic field of H = 3000 Oe. The zero-field splitting parameters deduced from static susceptibility and magnetizations (D = -10.7 cm(-1), E/D = 0.22) are in excellent agreement with the value of D inferred from an Arrhenius plot of the magnetic relaxation time versus the temperature. Application of the so-called N-electron valence second-order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) resulted in excellent agreement between experimental and computed energies of low-lying d-d transitions. Calculations were performed on 1 and a related four-coordinate Co(II)-azido complex lacking a fifth axial ligand (2). On the basis of these results and contrary to previous suggestions, the N3(-) ligand is shown to behave as a strong ? and ? donor. Magnetostructural correlations show a strong increase in the negative D with increasing Lewis basicity (shortening of the Co-N bond distances) of the axial ligand on the N3(-) site. The effect on the change in sign of D in going from four-coordinate Co(II) (positive D) to five-coordinate Co(II) (negative D) is discussed in the light of the bonding scheme derived from ligand field analysis of the ab initio results. PMID:25588991

  14. Direct expressions for magnetic anisotropy constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Daisuke; Sasaki, Ryo; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2015-11-01

    Direct expressions for the magnetic anisotropy constants are given at a finite temperature from a microscopic viewpoint. The present derivation assumes that the Hamiltonian is a linear function with respect to the magnetization direction. We discuss in detail the first-order anisotropy constant K1 and show that our present results reproduce previous results. We applied our method to Nd2Fe14B compounds and confirmed that the present method can reproduce the temperature dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotoropy constants K1, K2, and K3 well.

  15. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53*10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals such as augite, hornblende or biotite often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that paleointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  16. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-04-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals, such as augite, hornblende or biotite, often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that palaeointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  17. Investigation of the anisotropy in frozen nickel ferrite ionic magnetic fluid using magnetic resonance

    PubMed

    Saenger; Skeff Neto K; Morais; Sousa; Tourinho

    1998-09-01

    Magnetic resonance is used to obtain the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of noninteracting NiFe2O4 nanoparticles from 100 to 250 K. The 10.3 nm particles are dispersed as a stable ionic magnetic fluid which is frozen under the action of an external field to perform angular variation measurements. The thermal fluctuation of the easy axis and magnetic moment about the direction of the external field is included in order to obtain the anisotropy from the angular dependence of the resonance field. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9740748

  18. Magnetic anisotropy of Plio Pleistocene sediments from the Adriatic margin of the northern Apennines (Italy): implications for the time space evolution of the stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo; Montone, Paola; Di Bella, Letizia; Florindo, Fabio; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Marra, Fabrizio; Alfonsi, Laura; Frepoli, Alberto

    1999-09-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the marine fine-grained Plio-Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the eastern (Adriatic) front of the central-northern Apennines (Italy) indicates a prevalent sedimentary-compactional magnetic fabric with variable overprint of the tectonic strain. The degree of anisotropy and the geometry of the AMS ellipsoids suggest a subdivision of the studied sediments in two distinct ages: Early-middle Pliocene and Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The Early-middle Pliocene sediments show a weak but well defined magnetic lineation parallel to the main fold and thrust axes throughout the region, analogously to the Messinian sediments located in a more internal (western) position of the Apenninic chain. Since the Late Pliocene, the AMS data are not regionally coherent and indicate a reduced and locally variable tectonic influence on the magnetic fabrics. The AMS data have been integrated with the available geophysical information of the present-day stress in the region, with the aim to reconstruct the time-spatial evolution of the stress field in the Adriatic margin of the central-northern Apennines, during the past 5 Ma. The present-day stress field was evaluated using borehole breakout in deep wells (about 50 wells), focal mechanisms of crustal earthquakes (2.5< Md<5) that occurred in the last 10 years and a review of the historical seismicity. The synthesis of these data suggests significant changes in the time-space evolution of the stress field through the area in the last 5 Ma. In the northern sector the tectonic regime shows a maximum compressional axis trending NE-SW, that is constant at least since the Early Pliocene. In the southern sector the stress field has drastically changed: a compressional stress with a maximum compressional axis trending E-W was active during the Pliocene and was likely preserved until Early Pleistocene; then the stress field changed, presently showing a NE-SW minimum horizontal stress that mirrors the trend of the active extension observed in the southern Apennines. Between these two sectors a transitional area is identified at about 43N, that we associate with a main NNE-SSW lithospheric discontinuity pointed out by the available geological and geophysical data.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy and domain patterning of amorphous films by He-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, Jeffrey; Gemming, Thomas; Schultz, Ludwig; Fassbender, Juergen; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Frommberger, Michael; Quandt, Eckhard

    2005-04-18

    The magnetic anisotropy in amorphous soft magnetic FeCoSiB films was modified by He-ion irradiation. A rotation of uniaxial anisotropy depending on the applied field direction in the irradiated areas is observed by magnetometry and complementary domain observation by Kerr microscopy. No significant degradation in magnetic properties relative to the as-deposited state is found from the magnetization loops on nonpatterned films. Using irradiation together with photolithography, the films were treated locally, resulting in 'anisotropy patterned' structures. Complicated periodic domain patterns form due to the locally varying anisotropy distribution. Overall magnetic properties and domain patterns are adjusted.

  20. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δ χ , that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δ χ ≈2 ×1 0-8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2 μ m are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  1. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers. PMID:26722950

  2. Understanding the source of magnetic and seismic anisotropy in peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Ann; Biedermann, Andrea; Wang, Qin; Zappone, Alba

    2013-04-01

    Peridotite, a rock consisting of more than 90% olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, is the dominant component in the Earth's upper mantle. Olivine, which is more abundant than pyroxene in general, and rheologically weaker, controls the deformation behavior and seismic anisotropy of the Earth's upper mantle. The majority of naturally deformed peridotites develop a [100](010) olivine fabric, and this fabric is the major contributor to physical anisotropies in these rocks. Seismic anisotropy is often determined from the crystallographic-preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine and its intrinsic anisotropy in elastic properties. The relationship of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), determined in low field (LF), to deformation fabrics in peridotites is more coplicated. This is due to the presence of ferromagnetic minerals that may form late in the deformation history. The isolated paramagnetic fabric, however, is controlled by the texture of the paramagnetic minerals, olivine and pyroxene. We have studied the texture, as determined by EBSD or X-ray texture goniometry, and relate this to magnetic and seismic anisotropy in a series of peridotites from Norway and northern Italy. Our peridotite samples show different olivine fabrics, e.g., weakly deformed and strongly sheared peridotites develop [100](010) and [001](010) fabrics, respectively. The LF-AMS, which is controlled by ferromagnetic minerals, is often not significant. The paramagnetic anisotropy, which is isolated using high-field torque magnetometry, shows a well-defined magnetic fabric. Often the paramagnetic anisotropy agrees with the olivine texture. When more than one mineral phase contributes to the AMS, interpretation becomes more complicated, because of the different orientation of the AMS principal axes of the intrinsic minerals with respect to their crystallographic axes. The AMS of olivine has the maximum susceptibility (k1) parallel to the c-crystallographic axis, whereas the orientation of the intermediate (k2) and minimum (k3) axes is dependent on the mineral composition; i.e., k3 is along the a-axis and k2 along the b-axis for 3 to 5 wt% FeO, but with higher iron oxide content, 7 to 9 wt%, k3 is along the b-axis. For clinopyroxene, k2 lies close to the b-crystallographic axis, independent of composition, and the k1 and k3 axes lie slightly off the a-c-plane. The orientation of the principal axes of the AMS in orthopyroxene is strongly dependent on composition; e.g., enstatite has a triaxial anisotropy with k1 along the crystallographic c-axis, k2 along the a-axis and k3 along the b-axis. Therefore contributions from different phases may weaken the net magnetic fabric. We compare magnetic anisotropy that is calculated from the CPO of the major mineral constituents in the peridotites with the measured anisotropy to gain a better understanding of the factors that control magnetic anisotropy. Further, we use the CPO of the samples together with the elastic properties of constituent minerals in a rock to calculate the seismic anisotropy. It is also possible to show under what conditions the magnetic anisotropy can be related to seismic anisotropy. Results from this work will help improve our understanding about in situ deformation mechanisms and physical fabrics of the upper mantle.

  3. Manipulating the magnetic anisotropy of 3d transition-metal films on Cu(001) and their alloys on Rh(001) by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Cao, Juexian

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism of electric field (EF) effects on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) in metallic films is investigated by first-principles calculations. Start with a simple system of Fe, Co and Ni monolayer on Cu(001) substrate, we show that the key factor for a large EF-induced MCA modification is that the energy bands cross of d and d (or d and d) is close to the Fermi level. In order to enhance the MCA modification by EF, 4d metal substrates (Rh, Pd) are also discussed. In particular, we find that the magnetization direction can be switched from out-of-plane to in-plane by a small EF for Fe1-xCox alloy films on Rh(001) substrate with x=0.5.

  4. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of Carbonate Rocks as a Proxy for the Strain Field near the Dead Sea Transform in Northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, Ran; Levi, Tsafrir; Weinberger, Ram; Marco, Shmuel

    2014-05-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes (k1, k2, k3) and magnitudes as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Transform (DST) were measured. The low-field bulk-susceptibility of Bar-Kokhba limestone formation is -10.67±1.69 [µSI], very close to the value of a single calcite crystal. Thermomagnetic curves show temperature independent and reversible behavior. Chemical composition analysis indicates minor amounts of Fe contents <300 ppm. Results of XRD diffraction and petrofabric study of thin-sections and SEM images indicate that the Bar-Kokhba rocks are calcite mono-mineralic rocks. The magnetic fabrics are solely controlled by the alignment of c-axes of almost pure calcite crystals and help to assess the direction of the maximum shortening prevailing post-deposition and during the tectonic evolution of the DST. In one studied site, high Fe contents <6000 ppm were found, which are associated with young morphological processes of chemical alteration. In this site, thermomagnetic curves indicate temperature dependency and irreversibility. IRM curves show saturation around 200 mT, evidence of ferro/ferimagnetic minerals. AARM measurements reveal isotropic fabric which suggesting that the ferro/ferimagnetic minerals are contributing no anisotropy to the AMS. The AMS of the diamagnetic fabric is masked by a paramagnetic fabric of Fe-bearing minerals. Using liner correlation between Fe content and bulk susceptibility we applied a novel tensor subtraction method and successfully isolated the diamagnetic fabric from the total AMS. The paramagnetic fabric has characteristics of sedimentary fabrics, while that of the diamagnetic fabric has tectonic characteristics. The isolation process indicates that the AMS of carbonate rocks is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase, where the Fe content is below 500 ppm. Differences in the degree of anisotropy parameters of the Bar-Kohkba rocks are probably related to differences in strain magnitudes accumulated in the rocks. Based on the AMS measurements one major group of AMS k3 axes are defined, showing maximum horizontal shortening parallel to the N-S striking DST. The present study demonstrates the useful application of AMS measurements in "Fe-free" limestones, which serve as recorders of the strain field next to plate-bounding faults. This opens a new frontier in using AMS as a proxy for strain.

  5. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy of Single Molecules.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Benjamin W; Braun, Lukas; Pascual, Jose I; Franke, Katharina J

    2015-06-10

    The magnetism of single atoms and molecules is governed by the atomic scale environment. In general, the reduced symmetry of the surrounding splits the d states and aligns the magnetic moment along certain favorable directions. Here, we show that we can reversibly modify the magnetocrystalline anisotropy by manipulating the environment of single iron(II) porphyrin molecules adsorbed on Pb(111) with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. When we decrease the tip-molecule distance, we first observe a small increase followed by an exponential decrease of the axial anisotropy on the molecules. This is in contrast to the monotonous increase observed earlier for the same molecule with an additional axial Cl ligand ( Nat. Phys. 2013 , 9 , 765 ). We ascribe the changes in the anisotropy of both species to a deformation of the molecules in the presence of the attractive force of the tip, which leads to a change in the d level alignment. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of a precise tuning of the magnetic anisotropy of an individual molecule by mechanical control. PMID:25942560

  6. Magnetic Anisotropy in UMn2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Morgann; de Lozanne, Alex; Baumbach, Ryan; Kim, Jeehoon; Bauer, Eric; Thompson, Joe; Ronning, Filip

    2015-03-01

    UMn2Ge2, a permanent magnet, is a ternary intermetallic compound with a tetragonal crystal structure of type ThCr2Si2 and with space group I4/mmm. Local U and Mn moments in UMn2Ge2 order on their respective sublattices at temperatures near 100 and 380 K, respectively. Previous x-ray diffraction, Kerr rotation angle, and SQUID magnetometry data support the commonly accepted notion that U moments order at low temperature and align Mn moments along the c-axis, introducing anisotropy. Previous results obtained using a multi-mode atomic force microscope in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) mode indeed confirmed that UMn2Ge2 displays uniaxial anisotropy with an easy axis coinciding with the c-axis of the material. However, the branching domains in UMn2Ge2 consistent with uniaxial anisotropy were observed all the way up to room temperature by MFM. This indicates that the effect of uranium moments on the magnetic microstructure of UMn2Ge2 is not limited to low temperatures near the ordering temperature of the uranium sublattice. We further investigate closure domains in the surface of UMn2Ge2 and report on characteristics and signatures of anisotropy revealed by the orientation and periodic structures of closure domains. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0810119.

  7. Scale-dependent Normalized Amplitude and Weak Spectral Anisotropy of Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence in the solar wind was recently reported to be anisotropic, with the average power spectral index close to -2 when sampling parallel to the local mean magnetic field B0 and close to -5/3 when sampling perpendicular to the local B0. This result was widely considered to be observational evidence for the critical balance theory (CBT), which is derived by making the assumption that the turbulence strength is close to one. However, this basic assumption has not yet been checked carefully with observational data. Here we present for the first time the scale-dependent magnetic-field fluctuation amplitude, which is normalized by the local B0 and evaluated for both parallel and perpendicular sampling directions, using two 30-day intervals of Ulysses data. From our results, the turbulence strength is evaluated as much less than one at small scales in the parallel direction. An even stricter criterion is imposed when selecting the wavelet coefficients for a given sampling direction, so that the time stationarity of the local B0 is better ensured during the local sampling interval. The spectral index for the parallel direction is then found to be -1.75, whereas the spectral index in the perpendicular direction remains close to -1.65. These two new results, namely that the value of the turbulence strength is much less than one in the parallel direction and that the angle dependence of the spectral index is weak, cannot be explained by existing turbulence theories, like CBT, and thus will require new theoretical considerations and promote further observations of solar-wind turbulence.

  8. Magnetic Anisotropy of Single Crystals: Amphiboles, Pyroxenes and Feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, A. R.; Hirt, A. M.; Pettke, T.; Bender Koch, C.

    2013-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is often used qualitatively as a proxy for the mineral fabric in a rock. It is only possible to make a quantitative correlation when the mineral(s), which are responsible for the AMS, are known. At present too little is known about the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of rock forming minerals. All minerals in a rock, be they diamagnetic, paramagnetic or ferromagnetic, contribute to its susceptibility and anisotropy. The paramagnetic component of the AMS can be attributed to the distribution of paramagnetic atoms, especially Fe, in the lattice structure and thus reflects crystal orientation, which in turn can be related to rock fabric. We investigate and characterize the AMS in minerals from the amphibole, pyroxene and feldspar groups. This leads to a better understanding of the carriers of magnetic fabrics in rocks. Crystal chemistry was determined using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and Mssbauer spectroscopy was used to obtain Fe(II):Fe(III). Measurements of magnetic anisotropy were performed in high magnetic fields and at 293 K and 77 K in order to allow for separation of the magnetic contributions. AMS properties can thus be linked to the orientation of the crystal lattice as well as the chemical composition. In amphibole the minimum susceptibility is always normal to the b-c plane and the degree of anisotropy increases linearly with bulk iron content for each mineral. Actinolite and ferroactinolite show a higher anisotropy degree for a given Fe content than hornblende. In clinopyroxene, the intermediate susceptibility aligns with the b-axis, whereas the minimum and maximum susceptibilities are in the a-c plane. The maximum susceptibility in orthopyroxene is parallel to the c-axis. The anisotropy becomes stronger with increasing iron content for both mineral groups. An exception to this general trend is aegirine, whose anisotropy is weak given its high iron content, which may be related to Fe(II):Fe(III). Feldspars show very weak susceptibility and anisotropy and the signal-to-noise ratio is larger at low temperature. This is opposite to what is expected for a purely paramagnetic mineral and indicates that the AMS of feldspars is characterized by a superposition of competing diamagnetic and paramagnetic fabrics. These new results enable us to obtain a deeper understanding about AMS and how it arises in rocks. Further, they offer the possibility to model bulk rock AMS once the composition and orientation distribution of the constituent minerals are known.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy in Fe nanocrystals fabricated by GDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, E.; Sato, H.; Tsukahara, N.; Lee, S. J.; Yanagihara, H.; Tanimoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ferromagnetic nanocrystals composed of nano-sized grains show excellent soft magnetic characteristics and their mechanism is explained by a random anisotropy model(RAM). We have been studied nanocrystal systems with ferromagnetic 3d elements to understand the RAM. Fe nanocryatals were fabricated with a gas condensation and deposition method(GDM). The oxygen content in an as-deposited Fe nanocryatal was about 20 %. Hysteresis loop shifts observed in magnetic field cool measurements suggest the presence of antiferromagentic oxides. Dependence of room temperature coercive forces on the grain size(D) is not D6 but D3.4. Magnetization curves often seen in thin films with stripe domain structures were observed at room temperature irrespective to the sort of substrates. The presence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was suggested.

  10. Anisotropy-Tuned Magnetic Order in Pyrochlore Iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranois, E.; Simonet, V.; Ballou, R.; Lhotel, E.; Hadj-Azzem, A.; Kodjikian, S.; Lejay, P.; Manuel, P.; Khalyavin, D.; Chapon, L. C.

    2015-06-01

    The magnetic behavior of polycrystalline samples of Er2Ir2O7 and Tb2Ir2O7 pyrochlores is studied by magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction. Both compounds undergo a magnetic transition at 140 and 130 K, respectively, associated with an ordering of the Ir sublattice, signaled by thermomagnetic hysteresis. In Tb2Ir2O7 , we show that the Ir molecular field leads the Tb magnetic moments to order below 40 K in the all-in-all-out magnetic arrangement. No sign of magnetic long-range order on the Er sublattice is evidenced in Er2Ir2O7 down to 0.6 K where a spin freezing is detected. These contrasting behaviors result from the competition between the Ir molecular field and the different single-ion anisotropy of the rare-earth elements on which it is acting. Additionally, this strongly supports the all-in-all-out iridium magnetic order.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy of transition-metal thin films: Convergence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, t.?pn; Dorantes-Dvila, J.; Pastor, G. M.; Dreyss, Hugues

    1994-07-01

    On the basis of extended recursion-scheme calculations and general analysis we show that the instabilities and oscillations of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) curve result from numerical inaccuracies. We explain how to obtain quickly convergent results within the tight-binding recursion method. For an Fe(001) monolayer we find a negligible MAE, for a Co(111) monolayer the in-plane anisotropy is preferred whereas for a Co(111) bilayer the result is sensitive to the choice of parameters. Crystal-field effects are also discussed.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy in prismatic nickel nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Searson, P. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2001-12-01

    Nickel nanowire arrays with a diamond-shaped cross section and the same orientation have been fabricated in nanoporous single mica crystal membranes by electrodeposition. All wires are 5 ?m long with an effective diameter of 120 nm. The sample can be considered as a collection of laterally and vertically aligned identical micromagnetic prisms. We report on the magnetic anisotropy due to the quasi-one-dimensional wire shape and diamond cross section.

  13. On Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields are present in all astrophysical media. However, many models and interpretations of observations often ignore them, because magnetic fields are difficult to handle and because they produce complicated morphological features. Here we will comment on the basic intuitive properties, which even if not completely true, provide a first guiding insight on the physics of a particular astrophysical problem. These magnetic properties are not mathematically demonstrated here. How magnetic fields evolve and how they introduce dynamical effects are considered, also including a short comment on General Relativity Magnetohydrodynamics. In a second part we consider some audacious and speculative matters. They are answers to three questions: a) How draw a cube without lifting the pencil from the paper so that when the pen passes through the same side do in the same direction? B) Are MILAGRO anisotropies miraculous? C) Do cosmic magnetic lenses exist?. The last two questions deal with issues related with the interplay between magnetic fields and cosmic ray propagation.

  14. Programming magnetic anisotropy in polymeric microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyun; Chung, Su Eun; Choi, Sung-Eun; Lee, Howon; Kim, Junhoi; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2011-10-01

    Polymeric microcomponents are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and lab-on-a-chip devices, but they suffer from the lack of complex motion, effective addressability and precise shape control. To address these needs, we fabricated polymeric nanocomposite microactuators driven by programmable heterogeneous magnetic anisotropy. Spatially modulated photopatterning was applied in a shape-independent manner to microactuator components by successive confinement of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles in a fixed polymer matrix. By freely programming the rotational axis of each component, we demonstrate that the polymeric microactuators can undergo predesigned, complex two- and three-dimensional motion.

  15. Programming magnetic anisotropy in polymeric microactuators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyun; Chung, Su Eun; Choi, Sung-Eun; Lee, Howon; Kim, Junhoi; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2011-10-01

    Polymeric microcomponents are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and lab-on-a-chip devices, but they suffer from the lack of complex motion, effective addressability and precise shape control. To address these needs, we fabricated polymeric nanocomposite microactuators driven by programmable heterogeneous magnetic anisotropy. Spatially modulated photopatterning was applied in a shape-independent manner to microactuator components by successive confinement of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles in a fixed polymer matrix. By freely programming the rotational axis of each component, we demonstrate that the polymeric microactuators can undergo predesigned, complex two- and three-dimensional motion. PMID:21822261

  16. Magnetic Edge Anisotropy in Graphenelike Honeycomb Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, J. L.; Fernndez-Rossier, J.

    2014-07-01

    The independent predictions of edge ferromagnetism and the quantum spin Hall phase in graphene have inspired the quest of other two-dimensional honeycomb systems, such as silicene, germanene, stanene, iridates, and organometallic lattices, as well as artificial superlattices, all of them with electronic properties analogous to those of graphene, but a larger spin-orbit coupling. Here, we study the interplay of ferromagnetic order and spin-orbit interactions at the zigzag edges of these graphenelike systems. We find an in-plane magnetic anisotropy that opens a gap in the otherwise conducting edge channels that should result in large changes of electronic properties upon rotation of the magnetization.

  17. Magnetic edge anisotropy in graphenelike honeycomb crystals.

    PubMed

    Lado, J L; Fernndez-Rossier, J

    2014-07-11

    The independent predictions of edge ferromagnetism and the quantum spin Hall phase in graphene have inspired the quest of other two-dimensional honeycomb systems, such as silicene, germanene, stanene, iridates, and organometallic lattices, as well as artificial superlattices, all of them with electronic properties analogous to those of graphene, but a larger spin-orbit coupling. Here, we study the interplay of ferromagnetic order and spin-orbit interactions at the zigzag edges of these graphenelike systems. We find an in-plane magnetic anisotropy that opens a gap in the otherwise conducting edge channels that should result in large changes of electronic properties upon rotation of the magnetization. PMID:25062225

  18. Mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co68Fe24Zr8 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu; Barsukov, I.; Meckenstock, R.; Lindner, J.; Raanaei, H.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Farle, M.

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co68Fe24Zr8 thin films was investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) on samples deposited without an applied magnetic field, with an out-of-plane field and an in-plane field. Analysis of FMR spectra profiles, high frequency susceptibility calculations, and statistical simulations using a distribution of local uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reveal the presence of atomic configurations with local uniaxial anisotropy, of which the direction can be tailored while the magnitude remains at an intrinsically constant value of 3.0(2) kJ/m3. The in-plane growth field remarkably sharpens the anisotropy distribution and increases the sample homogeneity. The results benefit designing multilayer spintronic devices based on highly homogeneous amorphous layers with tailored magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Bender Koch, Christian; Hirt, Ann M.

    2015-03-01

    Pyroxenes constitute an important component in mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. They often possess a prismatic habit, and their long axis, the crystallographic c axis, helps define a lineation in a textured rock. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) serves as a fabric indicator in igneous and metamorphic rocks. If a rock's AMS is carried by pyroxenes, it can be related to their crystallographic preferred orientation and degree of alignment. This requires knowing the intrinsic AMS of pyroxene single crystals. This study provides a comprehensive low-field and high-field AMS investigation of chemically diverse orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene crystals in relation to crystal structure, chemical composition, oxidation state of Fe, and the possible presence of ferromagnetic inclusions. The paramagnetic anisotropy, extracted from high-field data, shows clear relationships to crystallographic directions and Fe concentration both in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. In the diopside-augite series, the intermediate susceptibility is parallel to b, and the maximum is at 45 to the c axis. In aegirine, the intermediate axis remains parallel to b, while the maximum susceptibility is parallel to c. The AMS of spodumene depends on Fe concentration. In enstatite, the maximum susceptibility aligns with c and the minimum with b, and in the case of hypersthene, the maximum susceptibility is normal to the exsolution lamellae. Magnetite inclusions within augite possess a ferromagnetic anisotropy with consistent orientation of the principal susceptibilities, which dominates the low-field anisotropy. These results provide better understanding of magnetic anisotropy in pyroxenes and form a solid basis for interpretation of magnetic fabrics in pyroxene-bearing rocks.

  20. Magnetic measurements of the upper critical field, irreversibility line, anisotropy, and magnetic penetration depth of grain-aligned YBa sub 2 Cu sub 4 O sub 8

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.C.; Ginsberg, D.M. )

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the upper critical field and the irreversibility line of grain-aligned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}, with the magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the CuO{sub 2} planes. The upper critical field's slope, {ital dH}{sub {ital c}2}/{ital dT}, is {minus}1.57 T/K, corresponding to a zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau (GL) coherence length of 19.5 A. The irreversibility line obeys a power-law behavior similar to that of 90-K YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}. Using the lower-critical-field data, we obtain the zero-temperature magnetic penetration depth {lambda}{sub {ital a}{ital b}}(0)=1960 A and GL parameter {kappa}{sub {ital c}}=100.

  1. Magnetic anisotropy data of C3H2NCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Diamagnetic Susceptibility and Magnetic Anisotropy of Organic Compounds' of Volume 27 `Diamagnetic Susceptibility and Anisotropy' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group II Molecules and Radicals.

  2. Ligands effects on the magnetic anisotropy of tetrahedral cobalt complexes.

    PubMed

    Saber, Mohamed R; Dunbar, Kim R

    2014-10-21

    The effect of ligands with heavy donor atoms on the magnetic anisotropy of the pseudo-tetrahedral cobalt complexes, Co(quinoline)2I2 (1) and Co(EPh3)2I2 (2-3) (E = P, As) has been investigated. The axial zero-field splitting parameter D was found to vary from +9.2 cm(-1) in 1 to -36.9 cm(-1) in 2 and -74.7 cm(-1) in 3. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization up to 4 K under an applied dc field, indicating SMM behavior. PMID:25183324

  3. Emplacement of Zebn Hill, Ji?n Volcanic Field, Bohemian Paradise, Czech Republic: Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Ground Magnetometry, Electric Resistivity Tomography, and Paleomagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, M. S.; Rapprich, , V.; Valenta, J.; Leman, J.; Brister, A. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2014-12-01

    A well-preserved set of mid-Miocene tuff-cones and their feeders outcrop in the Ji?n Volcanic Field, Czech Republic. Zebn Hill is a tuff cone that has been quarried to reveal the volcanoes feeder system. This edifice offers the opportunity to understand how magma is transported through a monogenetic pyroclastic cone. Rock types include a coarse-grained basal phreatomagmatic layer and a stratified upper wall facies both of which are penetrated by feeder dikes. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic data were collected at twenty-one sites from feeder dikes and the main conduit of the volcano. A high-resolution ground magnetometry survey, electric resistivity tomography and seismic tomography were also conducted. Magnetic susceptibility intensity indicates that the dominant magnetic mineral is a ferromagnetic phase with little contribution from paramagnetic minerals. AMS ellipsoids shapes are both oblate and prolate and inferred magma flow directions indicate magma flow away from the central vent area and subhorizontal flow towards and away from the axial conduit; both upward and downward magma flow is evident at some sites. Curie point estimates yield a spectrum of results indicating a mixture of high-Ti titanomagnetite, iron sulfide, and low-Ti titanomagnetite. Ground magnetometry data indicate that both normal and reverse polarity rocks are present at Zebn Hill. Paleomagnetic data confirm the ground magnetic data in that both normal and reverse polarity rocks are present. Most sites yield a single component magnetization that is well grouped at the site level and carried by pseudosingle domain titanomagnetite. The presence of both normal and reverse polarity magnetizations from the volcano indicate that significant time passed during the growth of this monogenic system. Complex system of branching dikes has been also observed from electric resistivity tomography. The simple external structure of monogenetic volcanoes hides a rather complex magmatic plumbing system that dynamically evolves during the life of the volcano. As we show, the well-exposed roots of Zebn Hill reveals that the growth of a volcano occurs not due to simple central axis feeder systems but rather through interplay of local structures, magmatic effects, and construct evolution during the life of the volcano

  4. Magnetic domains in ferromagnetic particles with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komineas, Stavros; Moutafis, Christoforos; Bland, Tony

    2006-03-01

    We derive a Derrick-like virial theorem for static states in a disc-shaped ferromagnetic particle with an axially symmetric magnetic configuration. This is applied to elementary magnetic states such as a single domain and a vortex. We calculate the vortex state in a disc-shaped particle with no anisotropy and study the very thin and very thick limits. In the very thin limit the virial relation effectively gives the vortex core radius. We also consider a particle with significant perpendicular anisotropy and show that a vortex is a static state for sufficiently thin particles. For thicker particles the vortex core expands to become comparable to the particle lateral size while the magnetization at the periphery of the particle tilts out of plane opposite to the vortex core region. In sufficiently thick particles, the magnetic state takes the form of a magnetic ``bubble'' (well-known in films) viewed here as a bidomain state. The signature of a bubble is its magnetostatic field which consists of two concentric regions of opposite sign above the particle top surface. Higher order states of multiple concentric domains of opposite magnetization are found in larger particles. We finally study the effect of an external field on magnetic bubble states.

  5. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in the Scaglia Rossa pelagic limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrie, W.; Hirt, A. M.

    1987-04-01

    During folding of the Scaglia Rossa limestone in Umbria, Italy, deformation was mainly accommodated by pressure solution cleavage. Fossils between the cleavage planes appear visibly undeformed, yet the limestone possesses a weak magnetic fabric. The maximum and intermediate principal axes of the magnetic anisotropy ellipsoid define a distinct magnetic foliation plane within which a weak concentration of the maximum axes forms a magnetic lineation. Neither of these features is of sedimentary origin. Results from a slumped outcrop, where bedding and a cleavage induced by overburden compaction have different attitudes, show that the magnetic foliation is caused by the compaction. Comparisons with field-derived structural data suggest that the magnetic lineation was produced tectonically during deformation of the Apennine fold belt.

  6. Modification of crystal anisotropy and enhancement of magnetic moment of Co-doped SnO2 thin films annealed under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya-Mancilla, Sagrario M.; Poddar, Pankaj; Das, Raja; Ponce, Hilda E. Esparza; Templeton-Olivares, Ivan L.; Solis-Canto, Oscar O.; Ornelas-Gutierrez, Carlos E.; Espinosa-Magaa, Francisco; Olive-Mndez, Sion F.

    2014-11-01

    Co-doped SnO2 thin films were grown by sputtering technique on SiO2/Si(001) substrates at room temperature, and then, thermal treatments with and without an applied magnetic field (HTT) were performed in vacuum at 600C for 20 min. HTT was applied parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Magnetic M(H) measurements reveal the coexistence of a strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) signal and a ferromagnetic (FM) component. The AFM component has a Nel temperature higher than room temperature, the spin axis lies parallel to the substrate surface, and the highest magnetic moment m =7 ?B/Co at. is obtained when HTT is applied parallel to the substrate surface. Our results show an enhancement of FM moment per Co+2 from 0.06 to 0.42 ?B/Co at. for the sample on which HTT was applied perpendicular to the surface. The FM order is attributed to the coupling of Co+2 ions through electrons trapped at the site of oxygen vacancies, as described by the bound magnetic polaron model. Our results suggest that FM order is aligned along [101] direction of Co-doped SnO2 nanocrystals, which is proposed to be the easy magnetization axis.

  7. Modification of crystal anisotropy and enhancement of magnetic moment of Co-doped SnO2 thin films annealed under magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Co-doped SnO2 thin films were grown by sputtering technique on SiO2/Si(001) substrates at room temperature, and then, thermal treatments with and without an applied magnetic field (HTT) were performed in vacuum at 600°C for 20 min. HTT was applied parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Magnetic M(H) measurements reveal the coexistence of a strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) signal and a ferromagnetic (FM) component. The AFM component has a Néel temperature higher than room temperature, the spin axis lies parallel to the substrate surface, and the highest magnetic moment m =7 μB/Co at. is obtained when HTT is applied parallel to the substrate surface. Our results show an enhancement of FM moment per Co+2 from 0.06 to 0.42 μB/Co at. for the sample on which HTT was applied perpendicular to the surface. The FM order is attributed to the coupling of Co+2 ions through electrons trapped at the site of oxygen vacancies, as described by the bound magnetic polaron model. Our results suggest that FM order is aligned along [101] direction of Co-doped SnO2 nanocrystals, which is proposed to be the easy magnetization axis. PMID:25489286

  8. Magnetization reversal in ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilyuk, A.; Ferr, J.; Grolier, V.; Jamet, J. P.; Renard, D.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the magnetization reversal dynamics in ultrathin cobalt films ( t Co = 6-12 ) sandwiched by gold (1 1 1) layers, their magnetic anisotropy being perpendicular to the film surface. The domain wall (DW) velocity and nucleation rate are determined from direct time-resolved domain structure imaging. Measurements as a function of the applied magnetic field and temperature enable us to estimate the magnetic parameters, such as activation volumes, coercive fields, Gilbert damping parameters, etc., controlling the magnetization reversal. Depending upon the applied magnetic field value three different regimes are evidenced and studied. At low fields the DW pinning by structural inhomogeneities controls the thermally activated magnetization reversal dynamics. Above the propagation field value the dynamics is due to viscous DW motion. In higher fields a DW velocity breakdown is observed. The DW jaggedness and its change with the applied field and temperature is examined through the DW fractal dimension. A simple DW motion simulation taking into account an activation volume distribution explains qualitatively the data.

  9. Electroplated FeNi ring cores for fluxgates with field induced radial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butta, M.; Ripka, P.; Janosek, M.; Pribil, M.

    2015-05-01

    Being able to control the anisotropy of a magnetic core plays an important role in the development of a fluxgate sensor. Our aim is to induce anisotropy orthogonal to the direction of excitation because it generates a stable, low-noise fluxgate, as cited in the literature. In this paper, we present an original method for electroplating a ring core for a fluxgate with built-in radial anisotropy by performing the electroplating in a radial field produced by a novel yoke. The results show that the resulting anisotropy is homogeneously radial and makes the magnetization rotate, avoiding domain wall movement for low excitation fields.

  10. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in CoFe films on obliquely sputtered Ru underlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Y.; Lu, Z.; Fujiwara, H.; Mankey, G. J.; Butler, W. H.; Matsunuma, S.

    2009-10-01

    Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10} films with an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy have been grown on an obliquely sputtered thin Ru underlayer. The anisotropy field can be increased up to 200 Oe. The hysteresis curves show a very high squareness in the easy axis direction and almost no hysteresis in the hard axis direction, suggesting that the induced uniaxial anisotropy is uniform throughout the films. The switching characteristics of the nanoelements fabricated from the films by e-beam lithography are also investigated. There is no degradation of the magnetic anisotropy after the annealing and lithographical process.

  11. Measurement of the magnetic anisotropy energy constants for magneto-optical recording media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajjar, R. A.; Wu, T. H.; Mansuripur, M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the magneto-optical polar Kerr effect is performed on rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) amorphous films using in-plane fields. From this measurement and the measurement of the saturation magnetization using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the magnetic anisotropy constants are determined. The temperature dependence is presented of the magnetic anisotropy in the range of -175 to 175 C. The results show a dip in the anisotropy near magnetic compensation. This anomaly is explained based on the finite exchange coupling between the rare earth and transition metal subnetworks.

  12. The effect of electrical anisotropy during magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Kaytlin; Roth, Bradley J

    2008-05-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a technique for imaging electrical conductivity in tissue. A time-varying magnetic field induces currents that interact with a static magnetic field to produce a Lorentz force, initiating ultrasonic waves. The goal of this communication is to examine the effect of anisotropy during MAT-MI. PMID:18440910

  13. Contribution of Eu 4f states to the magnetic anisotropy of EuO

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, E.; Schmehl, A.; Schlom, D.G.; van der Laan, G.

    2008-09-11

    Anisotropic x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (AXMLD) provides a novel element-, site-, shell-, and symmetry-selective techniques to study the magnetic anisotropy induced by a crystalline electric field. The weak Eu2+ M4,5 AXMLD observed in EuO(001) indicates that the Eu 4f states are not rotationally invariant and hence contribute weakly to the magnetic anisotropy of EuO. The results are contrasted with those obtained for 3d transition metal oxides.

  14. Inkjet printed superparamagnetic polymer composite hemispheres with programmed magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergeneman, Olga; Peters, Christian; Gullo, Maurizio R.; Jacot-Descombes, Loc; Gervasoni, Simone; zkale, Berna; Fatio, Philipe; Cadarso, Victor J.; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Pan, Salvador; Brugger, Jrgen; Hierold, Christofer; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of large arrays of inkjet-printed superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC) hemispherical microstructures. SPMPCs are appealing for applications in microsystems and nanorobotics due to the added functionality of polymers and the significant magnetic attributes of embedded nanostructures. SPMPC-based microarchitectures can be used to perform different functions wirelessly in various media (e.g. water, solvents) using external magnetic fields: handling and assembling small objects, delivering drugs or biomass, or sensing specific physical or chemical changes. In this work superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in SU-8 to form magnetic hemispheres. Magnetically anisotropic hemispheres as well as standard SPMPC hemispheres are fabricated. Magnetic anisotropy is programmed by applying a magnetic field during curing. The distribution of nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and magnetic characteristics of the SPMPC are investigated. Magnetic manipulation of hemispheres is demonstrated at liquid-liquid interfaces. Different assembly strategies to form lines or geometric shapes from hemispheres as well as their independent dynamic control are demonstrated. Finally, a two-interface assembly strategy is demonstrated to assemble hemispheres into complete spheres for advanced self-assembly tasks.We present the fabrication and characterization of large arrays of inkjet-printed superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC) hemispherical microstructures. SPMPCs are appealing for applications in microsystems and nanorobotics due to the added functionality of polymers and the significant magnetic attributes of embedded nanostructures. SPMPC-based microarchitectures can be used to perform different functions wirelessly in various media (e.g. water, solvents) using external magnetic fields: handling and assembling small objects, delivering drugs or biomass, or sensing specific physical or chemical changes. In this work superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in SU-8 to form magnetic hemispheres. Magnetically anisotropic hemispheres as well as standard SPMPC hemispheres are fabricated. Magnetic anisotropy is programmed by applying a magnetic field during curing. The distribution of nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and magnetic characteristics of the SPMPC are investigated. Magnetic manipulation of hemispheres is demonstrated at liquid-liquid interfaces. Different assembly strategies to form lines or geometric shapes from hemispheres as well as their independent dynamic control are demonstrated. Finally, a two-interface assembly strategy is demonstrated to assemble hemispheres into complete spheres for advanced self-assembly tasks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06442e

  15. Single-crystal magnetic anisotropies of rock-forming minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea Regina; Hirt, Ann Marie; Pettke, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is often used as an indicator of mineral fabric in rocks. For a quantitative estimate of mineral fabric, it is necessary to know and understand the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of each mineral in the rock. Susceptibility, and thus AMS, is a superposition of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components. In general, the paramagnetic contribution can be related to silicates, whereas the ferromagnetic component arises from iron oxide inclusions. We determined single-crystal AMS in both low and high magnetic fields for a series of olivine, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene compositions. Analysis of high-field data allows for separation of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic contributions to the magnetic anisotropy. Acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) was measured in order to further characterize the ferromagnetic inclusions. Often, the iron oxides grow epitaxially on the silicate structure and have specific orientations with respect to the silicate. The ferromagnetic component of the AMS can provide information on the orientation or shape of the inclusions. The paramagnetic AMS in a single crystal is related to the distribution of cations with a strong magnetic moment, e.g. ferric and ferrous iron, in the lattice structure. Relationships between the anisotropy, e.g. the anisotropy degree (delta k) or principal susceptibility directions, and iron content were thus established for each mineral group. For example, the orientation of the intermediate and minimum susceptibility axes in olivine depends on the iron content - the minimum susceptibility is parallel to the crystallographic a-axis for 3-5 wt.% FeO and parallel to b for 7-9 wt.% FeO at room temperature; and for amphiboles, the degree of AMS increases linearly with increasing iron content. AMS in a rock depends on the single-crystal properties, which are influenced by lattice structure and composition, as well as the crystallographic preferred orientation of crystals. Information on single crystal AMS can thus be used to predict bulk AMS of ultrabasic rocks, when the orientation distribution function of the constituent minerals is known.

  16. Large magnetic anisotropy in pentacoordinate Ni(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Rebilly, Jean-Nol; Charron, Galle; Rivire, Eric; Guillot, Rgis; Barra, Anne-Laure; Serrano, Marc Durn; van Slageren, Joris; Mallah, Talal

    2008-01-01

    Pentacoordinate complexes in which Ni(II) is chelated by the tridentate macrocyclic ligand 1,4,7-triisopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (iPrtacn) of formula [Ni(iPrtacn)X(2)] (X=Cl, Br, NCS) have relatively large magnetic anisotropies, revealed by the large zero-field splitting (zfs) axial parameters |D| of around 15 cm(-1) measured by frequency-domain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (FDMRS) and high-field high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-HFEPR). The spin Hamiltonian parameters for the three complexes were determined by analyzing the FDMRS spectra at different temperatures in zero applied magnetic field in an energy window between 0 and 40 cm(-1). The same parameters were determined from analysis of HF-HFEPR data measured at different frequencies (285, 380, and 475 GHz) and at 7 and 17 K. The spin Hamiltonian parameters D (axial) and E (rhombic) were calculated for the three complexes in the framework of the angular overlap model (AOM). The nature and magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy of the three complexes and the origin of the influence of the X atoms were analyzed by performing systematic calculations on model complexes. PMID:18000920

  17. Study of YBCO tape anisotropy as a function of field, field orientation and operating temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, v.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-06-01

    Superconducting magnets with magnetic fields above 20 T will be needed for a Muon Collider and possible LHC energy upgrade. This field level exceeds the possibilities of traditional Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) such as Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al. Presently the use of high field high temperature superconductors (HTS) is the only option available for achieving such field levels. Commercially available YBCO comes in tapes and shows noticeable anisotropy with respect to field orientation, which needs to be accounted for during magnet design. In the present work, critical current test results are presented for YBCO tape manufactured by Bruker. Short sample measurements results are presented up to 14 T, assessing the level of anisotropy as a function of field, field orientation and operating temperature.

  18. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy and ultrafast spin dynamics of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhao-Hua; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Sun, Da-Li; Du, Hai-Feng; Wu, Qiong; Ye, Jun; Fang, Ya-Peng; Liu, Hao-Liang

    2015-07-01

    We present our extensive research into magnetic anisotropy. We tuned the terrace width of Si(111) substrate by a novel method: varying the direction of heating current and consequently manipulating the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic structures on the stepped substrate by decorating its atomic steps. Laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization of a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunneling junction was explored by the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) for both the parallel state (P state) and the antiparallel state (AP state) of the magnetizations between two magnetic layers. It was observed that the demagnetization time is shorter and the magnitude of demagnetization is larger in the AP state than those in the P state. These behaviors are attributed to the ultrafast spin transfer between two CoFeB layers via the tunneling of hot electrons through the MgO barrier. Our observation indicates that ultrafast demagnetization can be engineered by the hot electron tunneling current. This opens the door to manipulate the ultrafast spin current in magnetic tunneling junctions. Furthermore, an all-optical TR-MOKE technique provides the flexibility for exploring the nonlinear magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials, especially with metallic materials. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB921403, 2011CB921801, and 2012CB933101) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51427801, 11374350, 51201179, and 11274361).

  19. Experimental investigation of magnetic anisotropy in spin vortex discs

    SciTech Connect

    Garraud, N. Arnold, D. P.

    2014-05-07

    We present experimental 2D vector vibrating sample magnetometer measurements to demonstrate the shape anisotropy effects occurring in micrometer-diameter supermalloy spin vortex discs. Measurements made for different disc sizes and orientations confirm the out-of-plane susceptibility is several orders of magnitude smaller than the in-plane susceptibility. These results validate with a high certitude that spin vortices with high diameter to thickness ratio retain in-plane-only magnetization, even when subjected to fields in the out-of-plane direction. These results contribute to further computational simulations of the dynamics of spin vortex structures in colloidal suspensions where external fields may be applied in any arbitrary direction.

  20. The peculiarities of magnetization reversal process in magnetic nanotube with helical anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Serebryakova, O. N.

    2014-10-01

    The magnetization reversal process in a soft magnetic nanotube with a weak helical magnetic anisotropy is studied by means of numerical simulation. The origin of a helical anisotropy is a small off-diagonal correction to the magneto-elastic energy density. The change of the external magnetic field parallel to the nanotube axis is shown to initiate a magnetic hysteresis associated with the jumps of the circular magnetization component of the nanotube at a critical magnetic field Hs. For a uniform nanotube, the critical magnetic field Hs is investigated as a function of geometrical and magnetic parameters of the nanotube. Using 2D micromagnetic simulation, we study the behavior of a nanotube having magnetic defects in its middle part. In this case, the jump of the circular magnetization component starts at the defect. As a result, two bamboo domain walls appear near the defect and propagate to the nanotube ends. Similar effect may explain the appearance of the bamboo domain walls in a slightly non uniform amorphous ferromagnetic microwire with negative magnetostriction during magnetization reversal process.

  1. Manifestation of coherent magnetic anisotropy in a carbon nanotube matrix with low ferromagnetic nanoparticle content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyuk, A. L.; Komissarov, I. V.; Labunov, V. A.; Le Normand, F.; Derory, A.; Hernandez, J. M.; Tejada, J.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the magnetic medium can lead to peculiar interaction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Most research in this area involves analysis of the interplay between magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling. Increasing the average interparticle distance leads to the dominant role of the random magnetic anisotropy. Here we study the interparticle interaction in a carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix with low ferromagnetic NP content. Samples were synthesized by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. We found that below some critical NP concentration, when NPs are intercalated only inside CNTs, and at low temperatures, the extended magnetic order, of up to 150 nm, presents in our samples. It is shown by analyzing the correlation functions of the magnetic anisotropy axes that the extended order is not simply due to random anisotropy but is associated with the coherent magnetic anisotropy, which is strengthened by the CNT alignment. With increasing temperature the extended magnetic order is lost. Above the critical NP concentration, when NPs start to be intercalated not only into inner CNT channels, but also outside CNTs, the coherent anisotropy weakens and the exchange coupling dominates in the whole temperature range. We can make a connection with the various correlation functions using the generalized expression for the law of the approach to saturation and show that these different correlation functions reflect the peculiarities in the interparticle interaction inside CNTs. Moreover, we can extract such important micromagnetic parameters like the exchange field, local fields of random and coherent anisotropies, as well as their temperature and NP concentration dependencies.

  2. Collective Magnetic Behavior of Geometrically Frustrated Arrays with Perpendicular Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Kohli, K. K.; Fraleigh, R.; Balk, A. L.; Finkel, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Gilbert, I.; Lammert, P. E.; Misra, R.; Crespi, V. H.; Schiffer, P.; Samarth, N.; Erickson, M.; Leighton, C.

    2012-02-01

    We use the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) to study the global and local magnetic behavior of geometrically frustrated arrays of single domain ferromagnetic islands with perpendicular anisotropy. MOKE measurements over macroscopic length scales probe the global properties of arrays with different lattice geometries and island spacings. The variation of switching field as a function of island spacing gives us insight into the influence of local frustration on the collective magnetic response of the arrays. The experimental results are compared with mean field calculations. Finally, we use spatially resolved Kerr microscopy to probe nucleation and domain propagation in the magnetization reversal process. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Award DE-SC0005313. Lithography performed with the support of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network

  3. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs. PMID:19434654

  4. Inkjet printed superparamagnetic polymer composite hemispheres with programmed magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ergeneman, Olga; Peters, Christian; Gullo, Maurizio R; Jacot-Descombes, Loc; Gervasoni, Simone; zkale, Berna; Fatio, Philipe; Cadarso, Victor J; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Pan, Salvador; Brugger, Jrgen; Hierold, Christofer; Nelson, Bradley J

    2014-09-21

    We present the fabrication and characterization of large arrays of inkjet-printed superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC) hemispherical microstructures. SPMPCs are appealing for applications in microsystems and nanorobotics due to the added functionality of polymers and the significant magnetic attributes of embedded nanostructures. SPMPC-based microarchitectures can be used to perform different functions wirelessly in various media (e.g. water, solvents) using external magnetic fields: handling and assembling small objects, delivering drugs or biomass, or sensing specific physical or chemical changes. In this work superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in SU-8 to form magnetic hemispheres. Magnetically anisotropic hemispheres as well as standard SPMPC hemispheres are fabricated. Magnetic anisotropy is programmed by applying a magnetic field during curing. The distribution of nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and magnetic characteristics of the SPMPC are investigated. Magnetic manipulation of hemispheres is demonstrated at liquid-liquid interfaces. Different assembly strategies to form lines or geometric shapes from hemispheres as well as their independent dynamic control are demonstrated. Finally, a two-interface assembly strategy is demonstrated to assemble hemispheres into complete spheres for advanced self-assembly tasks. PMID:24842483

  5. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Tb magnetic moments in Tb/Fe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlík, M.; De Moor, P.; Mibu, K.; Severijns, N.; Shinjo, T.; Van Geert, A.; Vanneste, L.

    1997-01-01

    The direction of the magnetic moment of Tb in Fe(40 Å)/Tb( x Å) ( x = 10 and 20) multilayers has been studied using the low-temperature nuclear orientation technique in the temperature range 5-50 mK and in the external magnetic field range Bext = 0-8.5 T, with Bext applied along the sample plane. The anisotropy of the 299 keV 160Tb γ-line was monitored in three directions with respect to Bext and the sample plane. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the Tb magnetic moments has been found at zero Bext for both systems. The PMA effect is increased when the Tb layers are thinner. An application of Bext turned the Tb magnetic moments towards the sample plane, without reaching a full alignment even at Bext = 8.5 T.

  6. Paleomagnetic, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, and 40AR/39AR Data from the Cienega Volcano, Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, M. S.; Petronis, M. S.; Lindline, J.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2012-12-01

    Cinder cone eruptions are typically interpreted to have formed by the ascension of magma through a simple conduit. Recent field work and laboratory studies on different excavated volcanoes around the world suggest that magma transport within cinder cones can involve a complex system of feeder geometries. We studied the Cienega volcano, a cinder cone in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, northern New Mexico, in order to better understand the complexity and the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems in the development of cinder cone volcanoes. We hypothesized that cinder cone plumbing systems are inherently complex and involve numerous feeder geometries (e.g. dikes, sills) and flow patterns both towards and away from the central vent complex. The Cienega volcano comprises tephra fall deposits as well as several vents, multiple intrusions, and numerous lava flow sequences. We inspected the magmatic plumbing system using different laboratory methods including paleomagnetic, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), rock magnetic and thin section studies. We collected samples across each outcrop of the feeder system. The dikes are olivine porphyritic basalts with major clinopyroxene, calcic plagioclase feldspar, magnetite, and xenocrystic quartz. Most samples display a trachytic texture with plagioclase crystals showing a preferred orientation parallel to the dike margins. The magnetic information is held predominantly by a cubic phase magnetite with a low- to moderate-Ti composition of Single or Pseudo-Single Domain grains. The AMS results show various flow directions. Three of six dikes yielded magma flow directions away from the vent. The other dikes showed both a subvertical flow, which corresponds to the typical movement of magma in a dike originating from a deeper crustal level, and a downward flow direction. We concluded that magma initially flowed upward from the magma chamber until it encountered flow resistance. At this structural level (the current exposure level), the magma flowed laterally away from the ascent location. Magma transport was, therefore, not solely directed into the central conduit but actually involved numerous conduits away from the vent area. The in situ results for eight paleomagnetic sites provide a group mean of D=354.2°, I=19.7°, α95= 4.8°, 5/8. The virtual geomagnetic pole dispersion of the group mean yields a value of 1.19, significantly lower than the predicted VGP dispersion estimate of 15° for the paleolatitude of the site (35.7°N). The results indicate that the different dikes were emplaced within a short period of time (<100 years) relative to a secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Four new whole rock 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from both vent and dike facies are indistinguishable at 2.75 Ma. These ages place the eruptive events in the latest Pliocene and indicate rapid magma injections and cone construction relative to secular variation.

  7. Modulation of unidirectional anisotropy for Co-based amorphous ribbons by longitudinal pulse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; An, J.; Xia, Z. J.; Yang, L.; Zhao, D. L.; You, C. Y.; Ren, W. J.

    2015-05-01

    Field-induced unidirectional anisotropy of Co-based amorphous ribbons was discussed by magnetization measurement. The shifted hysteresis loops of Co58Fe5Ni10Si11B16 amorphous ribbons were obtained by annealing the samples in longitudinal magnetic field. Here, the feasibility of employing the longitudinal pulse field to tailor the anisotropy characteristic is demonstrated. It is found that the shifted loops can be technically controlled by enhancing the pulse field to modulate the magnetic anisotropy from unidirectional to uniaxial, and even back to unidirectional. The surface domains scan gives strong evidence that the pulse field can be one of the skillful methods to navigate the unidirectional anisotropy in the amorphous ribbons for potential applications.

  8. Effective magnetic anisotropy enhancement of FePt nanocrystals through shape control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?im?ek, Telem; zcan, ?adan

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic properties of spherical, cubic, star and rod shaped FePt nanostructures have been investigated. Field dependence of magnetization measurements showed that approach to saturation magnetization behavior of the samples is shape dependent. When compared to spherical nanoparticles, eightfold magnetic field has to be applied to saturate nanorods. The effective magnetic anisotropies were determined by using temperature dependence of magnetization experiments and Stoner-Wohlfarth theory. The key result of the work is that engineering on the shape of the nanostructures leads to significant increase of their effective magnetic anisotropy. Cubic nanoparticles were found to have the lowest and nanorods the highest effective magnetic anisotropy constant of 1.3105 Jm-3 and 2.7105 Jm-3, respectively. The physical origin of this difference was ascribed to the high shape anisotropy of the rod shaped nanostructures combined with the low magnetocrysralline anisotropy of fcc FePt. By evaluating rod-shaped nanocrystals as prolate spheroids, their shape anisotropy was calculated as 1.0105 Jm-3, which is in very good agreement with the experimental result.

  9. Temperature dependent magnetization in Co-base nanowire arrays: Role of crystalline anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, L. G.; Vzquez, M.; Vega, V.; Garca, J.; Rosa, W. O.; del Real, R. P.; Prida, V. M.

    2012-04-01

    Co, Co(1-x)Pdx, and Co(1-y)Niy nanowire arrays have been prepared by electrochemical template-assisted growth. Hcp, fcc or both phases are detected in Co nanowires depending on their length (300 nm to 40 ?m) and on the content of Pd (0 ? x ? 0.4) and Ni (0 ? y ? 0.8). Their magnetic behavior has been studied under longitudinal and perpendicular applied fields. The effective magnetic anisotropy is mostly determined by the balance between the shape and the crystalline terms, the latter depending on the fractional volume of hcp phase with strong perpendicular anisotropy and fcc phase with weaker longitudinal anisotropy. The temperature dependence of remanence and coercivity and the eventual observation of compensation temperature is interpreted as due to the different temperature dependence of shape and hcp crystalline anisotropy. Optimum longitudinal magnetic anisotropy is achieved in low Pd-content CoPd nanowires and in short Co nanowires.

  10. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy at a Molecule-Metal Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Repain, V.; Chacon, C.; Girard, Y.; Garreau, Y.; Lagoute, J.; Rousset, S.; Breitwieser, R.; Hu, Yu-Cheng; Chao, Yen Cheng; Pai, Woei Wu; Li, D.; Smogunov, A.; Barreteau, C.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that a C60 overlayer enhances the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a Co thin film, inducing an inverse spin reorientation transition from in plane to out of plane. The driving force is the C60/Co interfacial magnetic anisotropy that we have measured quantitatively in situ as a function of the C60 coverage. Comparison with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations show that this interfacial anisotropy mainly arises from the local hybridization between C60 pz and Co dz2 orbitals. By generalizing these arguments, we also demonstrate that the hybridization of C60 with a Fe(110) surface decreases the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results open the way to tailor the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in organic-material-ferromagnet systems.

  11. Effects of domain, grain, and magnetic anisotropy distributions on magnetic permeability: Monte-Carlo approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Jones, Anthony M.; McCloy, John S.

    2012-07-23

    Existing approaches for prediction of the tensor permeability of polycrystalline ferrites may not provide reasonable estimates of demagnetized permeability below the spin resonance (i.e., low-field loss region) or in cases of partial magnetization. We propose an approach which solves the coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the dynamic magnetic fields including the minimization of free energy to determine the equilibrium magnetization direction. Unlike previous models, we employ a Monte-Carlo approach to easily calculate the (ensemble) averages of permeability over various domain/grain structures and magnetic anisotropy conditions. Material differences, such as those resulting from different preparation methods, are expressed by using probability density functions (p.d.f.) for anisotropy angle (easy axis angle), grain demagnetization factor (ng), and domain demagnetization factor (nd). Effects on the permeability tensor of grain and domain demagnetization factors and anisotropy field relative to saturation magnetization are discussed for the partially magnetized states for polycrystalline ferrites. It is found that the grain structure (i.e., grain demagnetization distribution) has a smaller effect on the frequency dependent permeability than does the same distribution of domains (i.e., domain demagnetization distribution).

  12. Epitaxial nanomagnets with intrinsic uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlfl, M.; Kreuzer, S.; Weiss, D.; Bayreuther, G.

    2000-05-01

    High quality epitaxial Fe films were grown on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy and magnetron sputtering. Two-dimensional arrays of circular dots with 200 nm diameter and 500 nm period were made by interferometric lithography and ion beam etching. Large area patterning (about 1 cm2) allows integral magnetic measurements with an alternating gradient magnetometer. The magnetic behavior of thick patterned films is dominated by the demagnetizing field. Ultrathin continuous films and dot arrays of these show a strong uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis in [110] direction which is fully conserved during the patterning process. This means that two stable remanent single domain states exist in ultrathin Fe(001) sub-?m dots on GaAs(001) because (i) the magnetostatic energy is not important due to the small aspect ratio, and (ii) the Fe/GaAs(001) interface creates a strong uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Nanomagnets with these properties seem very attractive for high density memory elements.

  13. Anisotropy-Tuned Magnetic Order in Pyrochlore Iridates.

    PubMed

    Lefranois, E; Simonet, V; Ballou, R; Lhotel, E; Hadj-Azzem, A; Kodjikian, S; Lejay, P; Manuel, P; Khalyavin, D; Chapon, L C

    2015-06-19

    The magnetic behavior of polycrystalline samples of Er(2)Ir(2)O(7) and Tb(2)Ir(2)O(7) pyrochlores is studied by magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction. Both compounds undergo a magnetic transition at 140 and 130 K, respectively, associated with an ordering of the Ir sublattice, signaled by thermomagnetic hysteresis. In Tb(2)Ir(2)O(7), we show that the Ir molecular field leads the Tb magnetic moments to order below 40 K in the all-in-all-out magnetic arrangement. No sign of magnetic long-range order on the Er sublattice is evidenced in Er(2)Ir(2)O(7) down to 0.6 K where a spin freezing is detected. These contrasting behaviors result from the competition between the Ir molecular field and the different single-ion anisotropy of the rare-earth elements on which it is acting. Additionally, this strongly supports the all-in-all-out iridium magnetic order. PMID:26197002

  14. Local magnetic turbulence and TeV-PeV cosmic ray anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Giacinti, Gwenael; Sigl, Günter

    2012-08-17

    In the energy range from ∼10(12)  eV to ∼10(15)  eV, the Galactic cosmic ray flux has anisotropies both on large scales, with an amplitude of the order of 0.1%, and on scales between ≃10° and ≃30°, with amplitudes smaller by a factor of a few. With a diffusion coefficient inferred from Galactic cosmic ray chemical abundances, the diffusion approximation predicts a dipolar anisotropy of comparable size, but does not explain the smaller scale anisotropies. We demonstrate here that energy dependent smaller scale anisotropies naturally arise from the local concrete realization of the turbulent magnetic field within the cosmic ray scattering length. We show how such anisotropies could be calculated if the magnetic field structure within a few tens of parsecs from Earth were known. PMID:23006354

  15. Magnetoelectric Control of Magnetic Anisotropy in Ultrathin Fe Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Uwe; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jurgen; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetoelectric switching of the magnetization vector could enable new low-power logic devices and non-volatile memory cells. Magnetoelectric switching typically requires complex multiferroic oxides or strain coupled magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites. However, recently it has been demonstrated that surface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin ferromagnetic metal films can be directly controlled by application of a strong electric field [1]. In this work we apply an electric field across a high-k oxide stack of MgO and ZrO2 to induce charge at the surface of an ultrathin Fe film. By using high-k dielectric materials more charge can be induced at the surface of the ferromagnetic film and the efficiency of the magnetoelectric effect can be enhanced. Under application of just a few volts across the oxide stack we observe a strong magnetoelectric effect which results in a shift of the spin reorientation thickness by 0.5 atomic layers and a change in perpendicular surface anisotropy of 120?J/m^2. Moreover, by engineering the high-k oxide stack we realize a novel charge pumping mechanism that permits optical imprinting of the magnetic state in the continuous Fe film. [1] T. Maruyama et al. Nature Nanotechnology 4, 158 - 161 (2009)

  16. Grain size dependence of coercivity in magnetic metal-insulator nanogranular films with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dongsheng; Ge, Shihui; Zhou, Xueyun; Zuo, Huaping

    2010-04-01

    Excellent soft magnetic properties and appropriate uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field have been achieved in a wide metal volume fraction (x) range for as-deposited (Fe65Co35)x(SiO2)1-x granular films fabricated by magnetron sputtering. With decreasing x from 0.86 to 0.53, the coercive force of easy axis Hce decreases clearly and shows the minimum value (Hce=0.85 Oe) at x =0.53. More importantly, not only nanoscale grain-size D contributing to small coercivity is proved, but also a D3 dependence of Hce is observed in the range of 0.53anisotropy model of Suzuki and Herzer, the grain-size D dependence of coercivity Hce in our metal-insulator granular film system was analyzed. Analyze results indicate that strong coherent uniaxial anisotropy which dominates over the random anisotropy ?K1? of magnetic grains obtained by the random anisotropy model can be responsible for the D3 dependence of the coercivity Hce. In addition, in the range of 0.42

  17. Interplay between magnetic anisotropy and vibron-assisted tunneling in a single-molecule magnet transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyungwha; McCaskey, Alexander; Yamamoto, Yoh; Warnock, Michael; Burzuri, Enrique; van der Zant, Herre

    2015-03-01

    Molecules trapped in single-molecule devices vibrate with discrete frequencies characteristic to the molecules, and the molecular vibrations can couple to electronic charge and/or spin degrees of freedom. For a significant electron-vibron coupling, electrons may tunnel via the vibrational excitations unique to the molecules. Recently, electron transport via individual anisotropic magnetic molecules (referred to as single-molecule magnets) has been observed in single-molecule transistors. A single-molecule magnet has a large spin moment and a large magnetic anisotropy barrier. So far, studies of electron-vibron coupling effects in single-molecule devices, are mainly for isotropic molecules. Here we investigate how the electron-vibron coupling influences electron transport via a single-molecule magnet Fe4, by using a model Hamiltonian with parameter values obtained from density-functional theory (arXiv:1411.2677). We show that the magnetic anisotropy of the Fe4 induces new features in vibrational conductance peaks and creates vibrational satellite peaks. The main and satellite peak heights have a strong, unusual dependence on the direction and magnitude of applied magnetic field, because the magnetic anisotropy barrier is comparable to vibrational energies. Funding from NSF DMR-1206354, EU FP7 program project 618082 ACMOL, advanced ERC grant (Mols@Mols). Computer resources from SDSC Trestles under DMR060009N and VT ARC.

  18. Large magnetic anisotropy in canted antiferromagnetic Sr2IrO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yunjeong; Jo, Younjung; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Kang, Woun

    2016-03-01

    The magnetocrystalline contribution to magnetic anisotropy was studied in the canted antiferromagnetic state of layered Sr2IrO4 single crystals. We performed torque measurements in magnetic fields up to 9 T under various magnetic field orientations. The strong dependence of torque on the magnetic field revealed that the magnetic easy axis is along the in-plane direction and that the observed field-induced weak ferromagnetic order is attributed only to the in-plane component of the external magnetic field. The dependence of torque on the angle produces a twofold symmetric sawtoothlike shape. A simple model consisting of canted antiferromagnetic and magnetic induction terms showed good agreement with the measured torque. These results show that magnetic anisotropy is closely related to the anisotropy of the exchange between antiferromagnetic moments whose canting is mediated by the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. Our study demonstrates that torque magnetometry can be extended to the investigation of the magnetic anisotropy of complex magnetic phases.

  19. The Effect of Magnetic Anisotropy on Colossal Electroresistance in Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallastegui, Alessandra; Javed, Rafiya; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Biswas, Amlan

    2011-03-01

    The combined effect of long range strain interactions and disorder on a first order transition leads to micrometer scale phase separation in hole-doped manganese oxides (manganites). The coexisting phases are ferromagnetic metallic (FMM), charge ordered insulating (COI), and paramagnetic insulating (PMI) and at certain temperatures these phases behave like a fluid under the influence of magnetic and electric fields. We will present magnetotransport data on nano/micro-structures of the manganite (La 1-y Pr y)0.67 Ca 0.33 Mn O3 (LPCMO) which show that the FMM phase behaves like a fluid in an electric field. In fact, due to the magnetic anisotropy of our materials, the behavior of the coexisting phases is reminiscent of a ferrofluid. NSF DMR-0804452.

  20. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy in single-layer crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, E.; Sahin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an applied electric field and the effect of charging are investigated on the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of various stable two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as graphene, FeCl2, graphone, fluorographene, and MoTe2 using first-principles calculations. We found that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems change linearly with electric field, opening the possibility of electric field tuning MA of these compounds. In addition, charging can rotate the easy-axis direction of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems from the out-of-plane (in-plane) to in-plane (out-of-plane) direction. The tunable MA of the studied materials is crucial for nanoscale electronic technologies such as data storage and spintronics devices. Our results show that controlling the MA of the mentioned 2D crystal structures can be realized in various ways, and this can lead to the emergence of a wide range of potential applications where the tuning and switching of magnetic functionalities are important.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co-Pt granular multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolom, J.; Figueroa, A. I.; Garca, L. M.; Bartolom, F.; Ruiz, L.; Gonzlez-Calbet, J. M.; Petroff, F.; Deranlot, C.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Brookes, N.

    2012-09-01

    Magnetization hysteresis curves have been measured on Co granular multilayers, (Al2O3/Co/Pt)N (N = 1 and 25), with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane. In all samples perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was observed. For Co particles with average diameter 3 nm, the coercive field at low temperature is ?0HC = 0.5 T. HC decreases for increasing temperature and disappears at ?200 K. A soft magnetic component is also present in all samples up to the freezing temperature Tf = 365 K. Co and Pt XMCD measurements at the L2,3 edges were performed, yielding to the orbital mL and spin mS contributions to the total magnetic moment of the system. These results, in addition to XANES ones, indicate the presence of CoxPt1-x alloy. Particles conformed of CoPt alloy, embedded in Pt and coupled magnetically by dipolar or RKKY interaction, may explain the phenomenology observed in these systems.

  2. Transition Ion Strikes Back: Large Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy in Cobalt(II) Clathrochelates.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Valentin V; Pavlov, Alexander A; Belov, Alexander S; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Savitsky, Anton; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2014-11-01

    Transition-metal complexes are rarely considered as paramagnetic tags for NMR spectroscopy due to them generally having relatively low magnetic anisotropy. Here we report cobalt(II) cage complexes with the largest (among the transition-metal complexes) axial anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, reaching as high as 12.6 10(-32) m(3) at room temperature. This remarkable anisotropy, which results from an unusual trigonal prismatic geometry of the complexes and translates into large negative value of the zero-field splitting energy, is high enough to promote reliable paramagnetic pseudocontact shifts at the distance beyond 2 nm. Our finding paves the way toward the applications of cobalt(II) clathrochelates as future paramagnetic tags. Given the incredible stability and functionalization versatility of clathrochelates, the fine-tuning of the caging ligand may lead to new chemically stable mononuclear single-molecule magnets, for which magnetic anisotropy is of importance. PMID:26278750

  3. Phase diagram of a three-dimensional antiferromagnet with random magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Perez, Felio A; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A; Stanescu, Tudor D; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M R; Aczel, Adam A; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that have been experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of Fe_{x}Ni_{1-x}F_{2} epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean-field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique, and easy-plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs. PMID:25793845

  4. Magnetization of a trilayer structure with alternate in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorozu, Takehiko; Hu, Xiao

    1998-09-01

    Both analytical and numerical calculations are carried out in order to determine the equilibrium magnetization configuration in trilayer magnetic materials having an in-plane anisotropy defect sandwiched in between perpendicular anisotropy layers. By varying the applied fields, the configuration follows the state where the sum of anisotropy, exchange, and Zeeman energy becomes minimum. The magnetization reversal occurs abruptly at increased field which either corresponds to nucleation or pinning coercivity. It is also shown that these coercivity values depend on the thickness of the in-plane layer. An explicit analytical solution can be derived for the extreme case in the upper and lower bounds of in-plane defect layer thickness, i.e., in the case for null and infinitive in-plane layer thickness. The results are compared with the previous data reported for systems having a perpendicular anisotropy defect layer.

  5. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy of small clusters and very thin transition-metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreysse, H.; Dorantes-Davila, J.; Pick, S.; Pastor, G. M.

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d-transiton metal (TM) clusters is studied in the framework of a d-electron tight-binding Hamiltonian including hopping, Coulomb, and spin-orbit interactions on the same electronic level. Results for the magnetic anisotropy energy and spin-polarized density of states (DOS) are given as a function of the bond length for the Fe6 cluster. In particular it is shown that the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) may be qualitatively related to the projections of the orbital moment along the magnetization directions, and that the 'in-plane' anisotropy can be of the same order of magnitude as the 'perpendicular' anisotropy. Using the same Hamiltonian, the problem of the convergence of the magnetic anisotropy energy of very thin films is revisited. By the choice of a basis which mixed spherical harmonics, it is shown that the irregular oscillations of the MAE versus the band filling disappear. For Co(111) excellent stability of the in-plane anisotropy as observed experimentally was found. Finally, the crystal-field effects are also discussed.

  7. Three tetracoordinate Co(II) complexes [Co(biq)X2] (X = Cl, Br, I) with easy-plane magnetic anisotropy as field-induced single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Smolko, L; ?ernk, J; Duek, M; Miklovi?, J; Titi, J; Bo?a, R

    2015-10-28

    Three mononuclear complexes [Co(biq)X2] (biq = 2,2'-biquinoline; X = Cl, Br, I) were prepared by a solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In all three complexes the Co(ii) atom is tetrahedrally coordinated by one biq ligand bonded in a chelate manner and two halogenido ligands. Hydrogen bonding interactions (C-HX) along with the ?-? interactions contribute to the stability of the formed packing. Magnetic measurements as well as ab initio calculations revealed that the complexes possess a sizable easy-plane magnetic anisotropy (D > 0). They display a superparamagnetic behaviour in an applied external field that culminates between BDC = 0.2-0.3 T. Two relaxation processes are observed; the faster can be analysed in terms of the direct and Orbach processes yielding U/kB = 42.6 K and ?0 = 1.9 10(-10) s for X = Cl, U/kB = 39.6 K and ?0 = 1.2 10(-10) s for X = Br and U/kB = 57.0 K and ?0 = 3.2 10(-13) s for X = I at BDC = 0.2 T. PMID:26391615

  8. Colossal anisotropy of the magnetic properties of doped lithium nitrodometalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropov, V. P.; Antonov, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    We present a first-principles investigation of the electronic structure and physical properties of doped lithium nitridometalates Li2(Li1-xMx)N (LiMN) with M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The diverse properties include the equilibrium magnetic moments, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, magneto-optical Kerr spectra, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We explain the colossal magnetic anisotropy in LiFeN by its unique electronic structure which ultimately leads to a series of unusual physical properties. The most unique property is a complete suppression of relativistic effects and freezing of orbital moments for in-plane orientation of the magnetization. This leads to the colossal spatial anisotropy of many magnetic properties including energy, Kerr, and dichroism effects. LiFeN is identified as an ultimate single-ion anisotropy system where a nearly insulating state can be produced by a spin orbital coupling alone. A very nontrivial strongly fluctuating and sign changing character of the magnetic anisotropy with electronic 3d-atomic doping is predicted theoretically. A large and highly anisotropic Kerr effect due to the interband transitions between atomic-like Fe 3d bands is found for LiFeN. A giant anisotropy of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism for the Fe K spectrum and a very weak one for the Fe L2,3 spectra in LiFeN are also predicted.

  9. Colossal anisotropy of the magnetic properties of doped lithium nitrodometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Antropov, Vladimir P; Antonov, Victor N

    2014-09-01

    We present a first-principles investigation of the electronic structure and physical properties of doped lithium nitridometalates Li2(Li1−xMx)N (LiMN) with M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The diverse properties include the equilibrium magnetic moments, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, magneto-optical Kerr spectra, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We explain the colossal magnetic anisotropy in LiFeN by its unique electronic structure which ultimately leads to a series of unusual physical properties. The most unique property is a complete suppression of relativistic effects and freezing of orbital moments for in-plane orientation of the magnetization. This leads to the colossal spatial anisotropy of many magnetic properties including energy, Kerr, and dichroism effects. LiFeN is identified as an ultimate single-ion anisotropy system where a nearly insulating state can be produced by a spin orbital coupling alone. A very nontrivial strongly fluctuating and sign changing character of the magnetic anisotropy with electronic 3d-atomic doping is predicted theoretically. A large and highly anisotropic Kerr effect due to the interband transitions between atomic-like Fe 3d bands is found for LiFeN. A giant anisotropy of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism for the Fe K spectrum and a very weak one for the Fe L2,3 spectra in LiFeN are also predicted.

  10. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2009-02-01

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  11. Hole States and Magnetic Anisotropy of a Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rederth, Dan; Chapagain, Hari; Oszwaldowski, Rafal; Petukhov, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    In the era of spin-based advanced semiconductor materials, spin can be used for the control of quantum devices based on quantum dots (QDs). To facilitate the control of the electronic and magnetic properties, magnetic ions can be incorporated in the QDs. We study the properties of such a magnetic II-VI QD charged with one hole. To account for the complex structure of valence band, we propose a method based on the Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian. With a robust numerical algorithm suitable for any QD geometry, we study the interplay of quantum confinement and magnetic anisotropy of a flat QD. We go beyond the virtual crystal approximation; our model also allows for position-dependent direction of magnetization. We discuss the differences between our and previous results, as well as the effects of temperature (mean-field approximation), and of the spin-orbit split-off band. We also discuss possible fluctuations of magnetization in QDs. Supported by DOE DE-SC00004890. DoE

  12. Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

    1999-06-24

    Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

  13. Induced Anisotropy in FeCo-Based Nanocrystalline Ferromagnetic Alloys (HITPERM) by Very High Field Annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F.; Garmestani, H.; Chu, S.-Y.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Very high magnetic field annealing is shown to affect the magnetic anisotropy in FeCo-base nanocrystalline soft ferromagnetic alloys. Alloys of composition Fe(44.5)Co(44.5)Zr(7)B(4) were prepared by melt spinning into amorphous ribbons, then wound to form toroidal bobbin cores. One set of cores was crystallized in a zero field at 600 deg. C for 1 h, then, field annealed at 17 tesla (T) at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Another set was crystallized in a 17-T field at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Field orientation was transverse to the magnetic path of the toroidal cores. An induced anisotropy is indicated by a sheared hysteresis loop. Sensitive torque magnetometry measurements with a Si cantilever sensor indicated a strong, uniaxial, longitudinal easy axis in the zero-field-crystallized sample. The source is most likely magnetoelastic anisotropy, caused by the residual stress from nanocrystallization and the nonzero magnetostriction coefficient for this material. The magnetostrictive coefficient lambda(5) is measured to be 36 ppm by a strain gage technique. Field annealing reduces the magnitude of the induced anisotropy. Core loss measurements were made in the zero-field-crystallized, zero-field-crystallized- than-field-annealed, and field-crystallized states. Core loss is reduced 30%-50% (depending on frequency) by field annealing. X-ray diffraction reveals no evidence of crystalline texture or orientation that would cause the induced anisotropy. Diffusional pair ordering is thought to be the cause of the induced anisotropy. However, reannealing the samples in the absence of a magnetic field at 480 deg. C does not completely remove the induced anisotropy.

  14. Magnetic anisotropy and reduced neodymium magnetic moments in N d3R u4A l12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. I.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.; Eigner, V.; Gukasov, A.; Fabrges, X.; Skourski, Y.; Pet??ek, V.; Wosnitza, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the electronic properties of N d3R u4A l12 (hexagonal crystal structure) with focus on its magnetic anisotropy that allows a comparison between single-ion and two-ion mechanisms when comparing to U3R u4A l12 . We performed magnetization measurements on a single crystal in static and pulsed magnetic fields as well as neutron-diffraction experiments. N d3R u4A l12 is a strongly anisotropic uniaxial ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 39 K. The magnetic moments are aligned collinearly along the [001] axis. The magnetic structure of N d3R u4A l12 has orthorhombic symmetry for which the crystallographic Nd site is split into two magnetically inequivalent positions, Nd1 and Nd2. The Nd1 and Nd2 atoms exhibit reduced magnetic moments, 0.95 and 2.66 ?B , as compared to the free N d3 + -ion value (3.28 ?B ). We discuss this finding in terms of crystal-field effects and competing exchange and anisotropy interactions. Since the single-ion mechanism in N d3R u4A l12 leads to uniaxial anisotropy and the two-ion mechanism of the actinide analog U3R u4A l12 is known to lead to planar anisotropy, this paper demonstrates the decisive influence of these different mechanisms on the magnetic anisotropy.

  15. Magnetic anisotropy of mesoscale-twinned Ni-Mn-Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernenko, V. A.; Lvov, V. A.; Golub, V.; Aseguinolaza, I. R.; Barandiarn, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance data obtained for the twinned orthorhombic martensitic phase of Ni-Mn-Ga film epitaxially grown on MgO(100) substrate are presented. The reported data prove that the mesoscale twinning reduces the value of in-plane magnetic anisotropy field of the Ni-Mn-Ga film by an order of magnitude. The reduced magnetic anisotropy field corresponds to the tetragonal symmetry, while the unit cells of the film are orthorhombic. The experimentally observed change of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy is explained in the framework of the magnetoelastic model of martensite, and the second-order and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants are evaluated. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant proved to be negative and small in the absolute value. Therefore the estimated value of the magnetic domain wall width is comparable with the widths of mesoscale twins observed in the investigated film. This confirms an idea that the magnetic vectors of twin components are strongly coupled by the exchange interaction.

  16. Model of electron pressure anisotropy in the electron diffusion region of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Divin, A.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Biernat, H. K.

    2010-12-15

    A new model of the electron pressure anisotropy in the electron diffusion region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is presented for the case of antiparallel configuration of magnetic fields. The plasma anisotropy is investigated as source of collisionless dissipation. By separating electrons in the vicinity of the neutral line into two broad classes of inflowing and accelerating populations, it is possible to derive a simple closure for the off-diagonal electron pressure component. The appearance of these two electron populations near the neutral line is responsible for the anisotropy and collisionless dissipation in the magnetic reconnection. Particle-in-cell simulations verify the proposed model, confirming first the presence of two particle populations and second the analytical results for the off-diagonal electron pressure component. Furthermore, test-particle calculations are performed to compare our approach with the model of electron pressure anisotropy in the inner electron diffusion region by Fujimoto and Sydora [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112309 (2009)].

  17. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, A. M.; Keylin, V.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; McHenry, M. E.

    2015-05-01

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to 2 kJ/m3. Higher anisotropies up to 10 kJ/m3 result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co80-x-yFexMnyNb4B14Si2 soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to 50 kJ/m3 and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  18. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy in cobalt-carbide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gendy, AA; Qian, MC; Huba, ZJ; Khanna, SN; Carpenter, EE

    2014-01-13

    An outstanding problem in nano-magnetism is to stabilize the magnetic order in nanoparticles at room temperatures. For ordinary ferromagnetic materials, reduction in size leads to a decrease in the magnetic anisotropy resulting in superparamagnetic relaxations at nanoscopic sizes. In this work, we demonstrate that using wet chemical synthesis, it is possible to stabilize cobalt carbide nanoparticles which have blocking temperatures exceeding 570 K even for particles with magnetic domains of 8 nm. First principles theoretical investigations show that the observed behavior is rooted in the giant magnetocrystalline anisotropies due to controlled mixing between C p- and Co d-states. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Large E-field tunability of magnetic anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance frequency of co-sputtered Fe50Co50-B film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shandong; Xue, Qian; Du, Honglei; Xu, Jie; Li, Qiang; Shi, Zhipeng; Gao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Ming; Nan, Tianxiang; Hu, Zhongqiang; Sun, Nian X.; Shao, Weiquan

    2015-05-01

    Fe27.45Co30.19B42.36 (referred to as FeCoB) films with 100 nm in thickness were co-sputtered on (011)-cut lead zinc niobate-lead titanate (PZN-PT) single crystal substrate under RF powers of 80 W for Fe50Co50 target and 120 W for B target, respectively. The anisotropy field HK of the FeCoB/PZN-PT multiferroic composite is increased by more than 10 times, from 56 to 663 Oe under the E-field from 0 to 7 kV/cm due to the strong magnetoelectric coupling, corresponding to a large tunability of HK of 86.7 Oe cm/kV. At the same time, the self-bias ferromagnetic resonance frequency fFMR is dramatically shifted upwards by an electric field from 2.57 to 9.02 GHz with an increment of 6.45 GHz, corresponding to E-field tunablity of fFMR 921.4 MHz.cm/kV. These features demonstrate that FeCoB/PZN-PT multiferroic laminates prepared under an integrated circuits process are promising in fabrication of E-field tunable monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) devices and their components.

  20. Modification of magnetic anisotropy induced by swift heavy ion irradiation in cobalt ferrite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nongjai, Razia; Khan, Shakeel; Ahmed, Hilal; Khan, Imran; Annapoorni, S.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Hwa Chae, Keun; Asokan, K.

    2015-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the modification of magnetic anisotropy in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) thin films induced by swift heavy ion irradiations of 200 MeV Ag-ion beams. The study reveals that both magnetizations and coercive field are sensitive to Ag-ions irradiation and to the fluences. The magnetic anisotropy enhanced at low fluence of Ag-ions due to domain wall pinning at defect sites created by ion bombardment and at high fluence, this magnetic anisotropy ceases and changes to isotropic behavior which is explained based on the significant structural and morphological changes. An X-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies confirms the inverse spinel structure of these compounds.

  1. Magnetic Surface Anisotropy of Amorphous Iron - Ultrathin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu.

    Ferromagnetic resonance experiments were performed at room temperature on amorphous ultrathin films of Fe(,x)B(,100 -x) (x = 50, x = 70) at two frequencies (f = 9.515 GHz and f = 24.03 GHz). Two different configurations were employed, with the applied field being either parallel or perpendicular to the film surface. The amorphous Fe-B ultrathin film samples were successfully fabricated by d.c. sputtering deposition techniques. Their thicknesses range from about 18 (ANGSTROM) to 77 (ANGSTROM). General formulas for the free energy were derived from Hamilton's principle and were adapted to amorphous materials. The ultrathin nature of our samples allows us to employ a surface inhomogeneity model, which involves only surface anisotropy, and to ignore any volume inhomogeneities. No approximation beyond the usual linearization of the equation of motion and the assumption of the uniformity of the microwave field throughout the sample was involved. We found that in ultrathin films our observed FMR modes were surface induced modes in the parallel configuration and spin wave modes in the perpendicular configuration. Because our films are ultrathin, the spin wave resonances are not the usual dimensional ones which are determined by the film thickness: L = n(lamda)/2; n = 0, 1, 2,(' . . .) where L is the film thickness, (lamda) is the spin wave wavelength, but are determined by eq. (2-89) in this dissertation. We have fitted the experimental data to the theoretically derived formulas with the assumption of a uniaxial type surface anisotropy energy, E(,s) = -K(,s)cos('2)(THETA), where (THETA) is the angle between the spontaneous magnetization and the film normal. We find that for a given Fe concentration x, a unique K(,s) is obtained at two different frequencies and FMR configurations. Further, for two compositions, two K(,s)'s exist and both of them are positive, indicating an easy axis type of surface anisotropy. The author believes that the method described in the present thesis is most satisfactory for measuring the surface magnetic anisotropy energy in amorphous materials.

  2. Specific Heat in Zero and Applied Magnetic Field of Overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2: Analysis of The Multigap Behavior and Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, G. R.; Kim, J. S.; Liu, Yong; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2015-03-01

    Specific heat measurements down to 0.4 K and up to Hc2 on single crystals of two different compositions of overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 with Tc values of 5.9 K (x ~0.93) and 8.9 K (x ~0.85) are reported. The possibility of mixed/crossover behavior in the pairing symmetry in this composition range has been discussed in the literature. The zero field data analysis for both samples results in essentially the same two gap values: 2 ?/kTc = 0.9 and 3.5 while the field data indicate pronounced non-linearity in ? vs H both as the lower gap is suppressed by about 1 T but also in higher fields up to Hc2 ~ 5.5 T. Analysis of the field data to investigate the gap anisotropies will be presented. Work at Florida supported by US DOE, BES Contract No. DE-FG02-86ER45268 and at Ames by US DOE, BES Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  3. Stabilization of Magnetic Antivortices and the role of Shape Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat-Uceda, Martin; Li, Lin; Shaw, Brian; Haldar, Arabinda; Buchanan, Kristen

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic vortices have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years due to their potential for applications such as data storage, microwave resonators, magnonic crystals, etc. Magnetic antivortices (AV) are expected to possess similarly interesting physical attributes; however, they have not been explored with the same intensity. The AV spin configuration may present some advantages over vortices, especially for channeling spin waves emitted from the dynamic core reversal and for de-coupling spin-transfer torque effects from parasitic Oersted fields. Currently only a few geometries have been identified that reliably promote the formation of an AV, thus limiting the study of their properties. We recently demonstrated a method to form AV's in pound-key-like structures made of Permalloy (Haldar et al. APL 102, 112401, 2013). Here we investigate the dependence of the reliability of the AV formation on the details of the geometry of these structures. Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) hysteresis and magnetic force microscopy measurements show that the coercive field is also the nucleation field for the AV's. Micromagnetic simulations agree well with the experiments and highlight the role of shape anisotropy in the AV formation.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and thermodynamic anomaly in the superconducting mixed state of UBe13 probed by static dc magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yusei; Haga, Yoshinori; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Static dc magnetization M (H ) measurements were performed for a single crystal of UBe13 down to 0.1 K in magnetic fields up to 80 kOe for H ?<100 > and H ?<110 > . For both field directions, an unusual magnetic anomaly was observed at HMag*20 -30 kOe in the superconducting mixed state. This anomaly was seen in the thermal-equilibrium-magnetization curves as well as the increasing- and decreasing-field processes of the raw magnetization curves, implying a change of the thermodynamic property at HMag*. Furthermore, the magnetic anisotropy of the superconducting diamagnetic response is found to be significant above HMag*, possibly associated with the anisotropy of the upper critical field Hc 2. Considering the suppression of reduced upper critical field h* and the dramatic decrease of Maki parameter ?2 around 0.9 Tc , the paramagnetic effect is present in UBe13. The paramagnetic effect in UBe13 could become anisotropic at low temperature below Tc/2 . An alternative explanation of the magnetic anisotropy is however that the anisotropy of the nonlinear susceptibility for the heavy electrons in the vortex cores becomes significant below Tc/2 .

  5. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  6. Growth-induced magnetic anisotropy behavior in thin garnet films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of target rotation rate on the magneto-optical properties and induced magnetic anisotropy of pulse laser deposition grown Bi:YIG garnets has been investigated. The rotation rate dependence of magnetic properties of thin films has been studied using magneto-optical Faraday rotation combined with magneto-optical Kerr measurement setup. Our results show that decreasing the target rotation rate can also increase the polar coercive field and hence magnetic anisotropy. Also the spectral answer of samples show the capability of use of them in one off optical ranges such as visible, near infrared and far infrared regions.

  7. Origin and spectroscopic determination of trigonal anisotropy in a heteronuclear single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorace, L.; Boulon, M.-E.; Totaro, P.; Cornia, A.; Fernandes-Soares, J.; Sessoli, R.

    2013-09-01

    W-band (? ? 94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for a single-crystal study of a star-shaped Fe3Cr single-molecule magnet (SMM) with crystallographically imposed trigonal symmetry. The high resolution and sensitivity accessible with W-band EPR allowed us to determine accurately the axial zero-field splitting terms for the ground (S = 6) and first two excited states (S = 5 and S = 4). Furthermore, spectra recorded by applying the magnetic field perpendicular to the trigonal axis showed a ?/6 angular modulation. This behavior is a signature of the presence of trigonal transverse magnetic anisotropy terms whose values had not been spectroscopically determined in any SMM prior to this work. Such in-plane anisotropy could only be justified by dropping the so-called giant spin approach and by considering a complete multispin approach. From a detailed analysis of experimental data with the two models, it emerged that the observed trigonal anisotropy directly reflects the structural features of the cluster, i.e., the relative orientation of single-ion anisotropy tensors and the angular modulation of single-ion anisotropy components in the hard plane of the cluster. Finally, since high-order transverse anisotropy is pivotal in determining the spin dynamics in the quantum tunneling regime, we have compared the angular dependence of the tunnel splitting predicted by the two models upon application of a transverse field (Berry-phase interference).

  8. Giant magnetic anisotropy and quantum tunneling of the magnetization in Li2(Li1-xFex)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesche, Anton; McCallum, R. William; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Jacobs, Jenee L.; Taufour, Valentin; Kreyssig, Andreas; Houk, Robert S.; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2014-03-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3 d transition metals is usually considered to be weak, mainly due to the widely known paradigm of orbital quenching. However, a rare interplay of crystal electric field effects and spin-orbit coupling causes a large orbital contribution to the magnetic moment of iron in Li2(Li1-xFex)N. This leads, not only to large magnetic moments of ~ 5 ?B per iron atom but, also, to an enormous magnetic anisotropy field that extrapolates to more than 200 Tesla. Magnetic hysteresis emerges for T <= 50 K and the coercivity fields of more than 11 Tesla exceed even the hardest 4 f electron based ferromagnets. Li2(Li1-xFex)N not only has a clear and remarkable anisotropy, generally not associated with iron moments, but also shows time-dependence more consistent with molecular magnets. In particular for low iron concentrations x << 1 the spin-inversion is dominated by a macroscopic tunneling process rather than by thermal excitations. It is shown that the huge magnetic anisotropy makes Li2(Li1-xFex)N (i) an ideal model system to study macroscopic quantum effects at elevated temperatures and (ii) a basis for novel magnetic functional materials. This work is supported by the US DOE, Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  9. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bndicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, Franois; Ott, Frdric; Berini, Bruno; Keller, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi3Fe5O12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi3Fe5O12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy in "scorpionate" first-row transition-metal complexes: a theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Peri?, Marko; Garca-Fuente, Amador; Zlatar, Matija; Daul, Claude; Stepanovi?, Stepan; Garca-Fernndez, Pablo; Gruden-Pavlovi?, Maja

    2015-02-23

    In this work we have analyzed in detail the magnetic anisotropy in a series of hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate (Tp(-)) metal complexes, namely [VTpCl](+), [CrTpCl](+), [MnTpCl](+), [FeTpCl], [CoTpCl], and [NiTpCl], and their substituted methyl and tert-butyl analogues with the goal of observing the effect of the ligand field on the magnetic properties. In the [VTpCl](+), [CrTpCl](+), [CoTpCl], and [NiTpCl] complexes, the magnetic anisotropy arises as a consequence of out-of-state spin-orbit coupling, and covalent changes induced by the substitution of hydrogen atoms on the pyrazolyl rings does not lead to drastic changes in the magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand, much larger magnetic anisotropies were predicted in complexes displaying a degenerate ground state, namely [MnTpCl](+) and [FeTpCl], due to in-state spin-orbit coupling. The anisotropy in these systems was shown to be very sensitive to perturbations, for example, chemical substitution and distortions due to the Jahn-Teller effect. We found that by substituting the hydrogen atoms in [MnTpCl](+) and [FeTpCl] by methyl and tert-butyl groups, certain covalent contributions to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) could be controlled, thereby achieving higher values. Moreover, we showed that the selection of ion has important consequences for the symmetry of the ground spin-orbit term, opening the possibility of achieving zero magnetic tunneling even in non-Kramers ions. We have also shown that substitution may also contribute to a quenching of the Jahn-Teller effect, which could significantly reduce the magnetic anisotropy of the complexes studied. PMID:25591004

  11. Dielectric and magnetic anisotropy of a nematic ytterbium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrun, L. A.; Sakhatskii, A. S.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Kolomiets, I. P.; Knyazev, A. A.; Galyametdinov, Yu. G.

    2015-05-01

    The sign and the magnitude of the dielectric anisotropy of an ytterbium-based paramagnetic nematic liquid crystal complex, namely, tris[1-(4-(4-propylcyclohexyl)phenyl)octane-1,3-dione]-[5,5'-di(heptadecile)-2,2'-bipyridine]ytterbium, are determined. The temperature dependence of the permittivity components of the complex is obtained in the temperature range of a nematic phase. The sign of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of this compound is experimentally determined.

  12. Magnetic phases and anisotropy in Gd-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez, L.; Lau, G. S.; Dhar, S.; Brandt, O.; Ploog, K. H.

    2006-11-01

    In this work we present a detailed study of the magnetic properties of GaN:Gd layers with different Gd content ( 61015 to 11019cm-3 ) grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The temperature dependence of the magnetic properties suggests the existence of at least two ferromagnetic phases with different order temperatures. The coexistence of two ferromagnetic phases is explained within the framework of the phenomenological model, introduced previously by Dhar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037205 (2005)]. The layers are also found to exhibit a magnetic anisotropy, with the hard axis along the growth direction and an easy plane parallel to the surface. Moreover, the saturation magnetization shows a dependence on the orientation of the magnetic field, which may result from the anisotropy in the polarization induced in the GaN matrix by the internal and external magnetic fields.

  13. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C.; Miles, J. J.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K.; kerman, J.; Thomson, T.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  14. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, C. Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  15. Correlations, spin-charge separation, and magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, Ralph; Manchanda, Priyanka

    2015-03-01

    Much of the physics of condensed matter reflects electron-electron correlations. On an independent-electron level, correlations are described by a single Slater determinant with broken spin symmetry. This approach includes Hund's rule correlations as well the LSDA and LSDA+U approximations to density-functional theory (DFT). However, from Kondo and heavy-fermion systems it is known that the independent-electron approach fails to describe spin-charge separation in strongly correlated systems, necessitating the use of two or more Slater determinants. Using first-principle and model calculations, we show that spin-charge separation strongly affects the leading rare-earth anisotropy contribution in top-end permanent magnet materials such as Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5. Explicit correlation results are obtained for two limiting cases. First, we derive the density functional for tripositive rare-earth ions in a Bethe-type crystal field. The potential looks very different from the LSDA(+U) potentials, including gradient corrections. Second, we use a simple model to show that Kondo-type spin-charge separation yield a rare-earth anisotropy contribution absent in the independent-electron approach. This research is supported by DOE (DE-FG02-04ER46152).

  16. Orthorhombic magnetic anisotropy of /110/ GdBi garnet films

    SciTech Connect

    Hibiya, T.; Honda, H.; Makino, H.; Honda, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Four series of /110/ GdBi garnet film bubble memory media with orthorhombic anisotropy were grown on /110/ Nd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ garnet substrates. The orthorhombic anisotropy energy differences K..mu.. ((110) to (001)) and K/sub rho/ ((110) to (110)) were calculated from the anisotropic magnetic field and the 4..pi..Ms value. Values were thus obtained for parameters A and B in Gyorgy's two-parameter model. Calculations of the growth-induced component of the Gyorgy parameters A and B as functions of growth temperature showed that, in the fourth series of films, Bo/sup 110/ and Bo/sup 111/ were identical. Up to now, Bo/sup 110/ and Bo/sup 111/ have the same values only for (YBi)/sub 3/ (FeGa)/sub 5/O/sub 12/. 3 ..mu..m-diameter bubble material was obtained using the third series of films.

  17. Magnetic tunnel junction sensor with Co/Pt perpendicular anisotropy ferromagnetic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H. X.; Qin, Q. H.; Wen, Z. C.; Han, Prof. X. F.; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2009-01-01

    Linear magnetoresistance (MR) is an important attribute for magnetic sensor designs for space applications, three dimensional detection of the magnetic field, and high field measurements. Here we demonstrate that a large linear MR of up to 22% can be achieved in a magnetic tunnel junction that consists of two ferromagnetic layers, one with out of plane and one with in plane magnetic anisotropy. The tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) is measured with the electrical current perpendicular to the film plane. The magnetic configuration of the device is analyzed.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticle motion in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Liubimov, B. Ya

    2015-07-01

    A set of equations describing the motion of a free magnetic nanoparticle in an external magnetic field in a vacuum, or in a medium with negligibly small friction forces is postulated. The conservation of the total particle momentum, i.e. the sum of the mechanical and the total spin momentum of the nanoparticle is taken into account explicitly. It is shown that for the motion of a nanoparticle in uniform magnetic field there are three different modes of precession of the unit magnetization vector and the director that is parallel the particle easy anisotropy axis. These modes differ significantly in the precession frequency. For the high-frequency mode the director points approximately along the external magnetic field, whereas the frequency and the characteristic relaxation time of the precession of the unit magnetization vector are close to the corresponding values for conventional ferromagnetic resonance. On the other hand, for the low-frequency modes the unit magnetization vector and the director are nearly parallel and rotate in unison around the external magnetic field. The characteristic relaxation time for the low-frequency modes is remarkably long. This means that in a rare assembly of magnetic nanoparticles there is a possibility of additional resonant absorption of the energy of alternating magnetic field at a frequency that is much smaller compared to conventional ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The scattering of a beam of magnetic nanoparticles in a vacuum in a non-uniform external magnetic field is also considered taking into account the precession of the unit magnetization vector and director.

  19. Origin of slow magnetic relaxation in Kramers ions with non-uniaxial anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Coca, Silvia; Urtizberea, Ainhoa; Cremades, Eduard; Alonso, Pablo J; Camn, Agustn; Ruiz, Eliseo; Luis, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal ions with long-lived spin states represent minimum size magnetic bits. Magnetic memory has often been associated with the combination of high spin and strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Yet, slow magnetic relaxation has also been observed in some Kramers ions with dominant easy-plane magnetic anisotropy, albeit only under an external magnetic field. Here we study the spin dynamics of cobalt(II) ions in a model molecular complex. We show, by means of quantitative first-principles calculations, that the slow relaxation in this and other similar systems is a general consequence of time-reversal symmetry that hinders direct spin-phonon processes regardless of the sign of the magnetic anisotropy. Its magnetic field dependence is a subtle manifestation of electronuclear spin entanglement, which opens relaxation channels that would otherwise be forbidden but, at the same time, masks the relaxation phenomenon at zero field. These results provide a promising strategy to synthesize atom-size magnetic memories. PMID:24980875

  20. Inhomogeneous configurations of magnetization of ferromagnetic films with biaxial anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhezherya, Yu. I.; Sorockin, M. V. Bubuk, E. A.

    2007-10-15

    The system of the Landau-Lifshitz equations and magnetostatic equations for a ferromagnetic film with biaxial anisotropy and a Q-factor smaller than unity is reduced to a single scalar equation for the magnetostatic potential. Such a procedure is possible if the magnetization modulation scale in the sample considerably exceeds the characteristic magnetic length. The solutions to this equation describing inhomogeneous periodic magnetic configurations are obtained. The energy analysis of these configurations is carried out.

  1. Tailoring the magnetic anisotropy in CoRh nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoz-Navia, M.; Dorantes-Dvila, J.; Zitoun, D.; Amiens, C.; Jaouen, N.; Rogalev, A.; Respaud, M.; Pastor, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    CoRh alloy nanoparticles (NPs) show nontrivial correlations between chemical and magnetic order that lead to a remarkable nonmonotonous dependence of the magnetic anisotropy energy as a function of composition. Combining experiment and theory we demonstrate how the induced 4d moments and the 3d-4d interfaces control the magnetoanisotropic behavior. New possibilities of tailoring the magnetic characteristics of NPs are thus opened.

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Anisotropy of ion temperature in a reversed-field-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hrling, P.; Fall, T.; Brzozowski, J. H.; Brunsell, P.; Hokin, S.; Tennfors, E.; Sallander, J.; Drake, J. R.; Inoue, N.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    1997-03-01

    Anomalous heating of ions has been observed in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasma. Ions are heated primarily in the parallel direction (with respect to the magnetic field), resulting in an appreciable anisotropy of the ion temperature. This observation suggests that the magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations are dissipated primarily by the ion viscosity.

  3. Axial Magnetic Anisotropy from Two Systems Fe2B and Co2B with Planar Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufour, Valentin; Lamichhane, Tej; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Jesche, Anton; Goldman, Alan I.; Dennis, Kevin W.; McCallum, R. William; Antropov, Vladimir; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    Growth of single crystals of (Fe1-xCox)2B (0 <= x <= 1) and detailed characterization of their magnetic properties will be presented. Despite the fact that both Fe2B and Co2B show a planar anisotropy at room temperature, we observe a uniaxial anisotropy at intermediate doping which makes (Fe,Co)2B a promising system for permanent magnet applications in a system without rare-earth element. Comparison with recent band structure calculations will be presented. The temperature dependence of the anisotropy measured on single crystals from 2 K to 1000 K shows some unusual variations with an increase of the magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature at some specific substitution. This work is supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the US DOE and by the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials Science and Engineering. Ames Laboratory is operated for the US DOE by Iowa State University under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  4. High Steady Magnetic Field Processing of Functional Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoirard, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    The materials science community has been enriched for some decades now by the "magneto-science" approach, which consists of applying a magnetic field during material processing. The development of anisotropic properties by applying a steady magnetic field is now a well-established effect in the material processing of magnetic substances, which benefits from the unidirectional and static nature of the field delivered by superconducting magnets. Among other effects, magnetic anisotropy in functional magnetic materials, which arises from the alignment of magnetic moments under external field, can be developed at various structural scales. Magnetic ordering, magnetic patterning, and texturation are at the origin of this anisotropy development. Texture is developed in materials from magnetic orientation due to magnetic forces and torques or from stored energy. In metals and alloys, for instance, this effect can occur either in their liquid state or during solid-state thermomagnetic treatments and can thus impact significantly the material functional magnetic properties. Today's improved superconducting magnet technology allows higher field intensities to be delivered more easily (1 T up to several tens of Teslas) and enables researchers to gather evidence on magnetic field effects that were formerly thought to be negligible. The magneto-thermodynamic effect is one of them and involves the magnetization energy as an additional parameter to tailor microstructures. Control of functional properties can thus result from magnetic monitoring of the phase transformation, and kinetics can be impacted by the magnetic energy contribution.

  5. Magnetic Anisotropy of Hemo-ilmenite Single Crystals: Testing the Lamellar Magnetism Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.; Robinson, P.; Heidelbach, F.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of single crystals of hemo-ilmenite was investigated to examine the relationship between directions of the principal axes of the AMS ellipsoid in minerals considered to contain lamellar magnetism. The crystals, within slabs taken from the Pramsknuten massive hemo-ilmenite "dikes", South Rogaland, Norway, were oriented by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and the c- and a-axes of seventeen individual crystals were identified by comparing both the front and back sides of the slabs. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was measured in low fields with an AGICO KLY-2 susceptibility bridge and in high fields (maximum field: 1.8 T) with a torsion magnetometer. The principal axes of the AMS ellipsoids are k1 > k2 > k3. Low-field AMS shows a triaxial ellipsoid in which the k3 axis lies near to the crystallographic c-axes for 16 of the 17 crystals (13 crystals < 11 , 3 crystals < 17 ). Discordance may be due to misalignment during mounting or contamination by minute amounts of magnetite. Eight crystals show agreement between the alignment of the k2 of the AMS ellipsoid and an a-crystallographic axis (5 crystals < 11 , 3 crystals < 17 ). The significance of this relationship will be discussed. In these crystals the remanent magnetization is also oriented close to the same direction, consistent with the lamellar magnetism hypothesis. In 6 crystals the k1 of AMS ellipsoid is close (< 15 ) to an a-crystallographic axis but there is no correlation with the remanent magnetization. High-field AMS measurements confirm the orientation of the c-crystallographic axes and suggest that hematite is an important contributor to the observed AMS.

  6. Control of anisotropy and magnetism of MnBi nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David

    2015-03-01

    High-anisotropy MnBi nanostructures have been fabricated by in-situ annealing of Bi/Mn/Bi multilayers and magnetic-field annealing of melt-spun MnxBi100-x ribbons. The ratio of Mn to Bi affects the concentration of NiAs-type MnBi, the degree of c-axis orientation, and phase distribution. For x = 50, the MnxBi100-x film exhibits the optimum nanostructure in which MnBi grains are uniformly separated by a thin layer of Bi. This has produced a record value of (BH)max = 16.3 MGOe for this compound. A good c-axis texture has been developed for Mn50Bi50 ribbons with a remanence ratio of 0.94 after magnetic-field annealing and this result subsequently leads to (BH)max = 9.2 MGOe, the highest value for bulk MnBi materials. The reason for the much higher energy product for the Mn50Bi50 film compared to the Mn50Bi50 ribbon is that the ribbon has a comparatively lower coercivity induced by inhomogeneous distribution of intergranular Bi. The effect of element doping, optimization of preparation parameters, and temperature dependence of properties also will be discussed. This work was supported by US DOE/BES (DE-FG2-04ER46152) and NCMN.

  7. Properties of a large-scale interplanetary loop structure as deduced from low-energy proton anisotropy and magnetic field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranquille, C.; Sanderson, T. R.; Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Correlated particle and magnetic field measurements by the ISEE 3 spacecraft are presented for the loop structure behind the interplanetary traveling shock event of Nov. 12, 1978. Following the passage of the turbulent shock region, strong bidirectional streaming of low-energy protons is observed for approximately 6 hours, corresponding to a loop thickness of about 0.07 AU. This region is also characterized by a low relative variance of the magnetic field, a depressed proton intensity, and a reduction in the magnetic power spectral density. Using quasi-linear theory applied to a slab model, a value of 3 AU is derived for the mean free path during the passage of the closed loop. It is inferred from this observation that the proton regime associated with the loop structure is experiencing scatter-free transport and that either the length of the loop is approximately 3 AU between the sun and the earth or else the protons are being reflected at both ends of a smaller loop.

  8. Slow magnetic relaxation in mononuclear seven-coordinate cobalt(II) complexes with easy plane anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Sun, Yi-Chen; Guo, Yu-Mei; Yu, Lu; Chen, Xue-Tai; Wang, Zhenxing; Ouyang, Z W; Song, You; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2015-07-01

    Two mononuclear seven-coordinate cobalt(II) complexes [Co(L)3(NO3)2] (L = 4-tert-butylpyridine, 1; L = isoquinoline, 2) were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The coordination spheres of 1 and 2 exhibit distorted pentagonal bipyramid geometry. Analysis of their direct-current magnetic data reveals the existence of easy plane anisotropy (D > 0) with a small transverse anisotropy (E), which was further confirmed by high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxations were observed under the applied dc field in complexes 1 and 2 by alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements. Importantly, these complexes are new instances of mononuclear high-coordinate cobalt(II)-based single-molecule magnets. PMID:26027953

  9. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li?(Li(1-x)Fe(x))N.

    PubMed

    Jesche, A; McCallum, R W; Thimmaiah, S; Jacobs, J L; Taufour, V; Kreyssig, A; Houk, R S; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2014-01-01

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li?(Li(1-x)Fe(x))N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220?T and a coercivity field of over 11?T at 2?K outperform all known hard ferromagnets and single-molecular magnets. Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenomena in striking similarity to single-molecular magnets are particularly pronounced for x?1 and indicate the presence of nanoscale magnetic centres. Quantum tunnelling, in the form of temperature-independent relaxation and coercivity, deviation from Arrhenius behaviour and blocking of the relaxation, dominates the magnetic properties up to 10?K. The simple crystal structure, the availability of large single crystals and the ability to vary the Fe concentration make Li?(Li(1-x)Fe(x))N an ideal model system to study macroscopic quantum effects at elevated temperatures and also a basis for novel functional magnetic materials. PMID:24566374

  10. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li2(Li1?xFex)N

    SciTech Connect

    Jesche, Anton; McCallum, Ralph W.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Jacobs, Jenee L.; Taufour, V.; Kreyssig, Andreas; Houk, Robert S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2014-02-25

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li2(Li1?xFex)N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220?T and a coercivity field of over 11?T at 2?K outperform all known hard ferromagnets and single-molecular magnets. Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenomena in striking similarity to single-molecular magnets are particularly pronounced for x<<1 and indicate the presence of nanoscale magnetic centres. Quantum tunnelling, in the form of temperature-independent relaxation and coercivity, deviation from Arrhenius behaviour and blocking of the relaxation, dominates the magnetic properties up to 10?K. The simple crystal structure, the availability of large single crystals and the ability to vary the Fe concentration make Li2(Li1?xFex)N an ideal model system to study macroscopic quantum effects at elevated temperatures and also a basis for novel functional magnetic materials.

  11. Influence of magnetic surface anisotropy on spin wave reflection from the edge of ferromagnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszecki, P.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Guslienko, K. Y.; Krawczyk, M.

    2015-08-01

    We study propagation of the Gaussian beam of spin waves and its reflection from the edge of thin yttrium-iron-garnet film with in-plane magnetization perpendicular to this edge. We have performed micromagnetic simulations supported by analytical calculations to investigate the influence of the surface magnetic anisotropy present at the film edge on the reflection, especially in the context of the Goos-Hnchen effect. We have shown the appearance of a negative lateral shift between reflected and incident spin wave beams' spots. This shift is particularly sensitive to the surface magnetic anisotropy value and is a result of the Goos-Hnchen shift which is sensitive to the magnitude of the anisotropy and of the bending of the spin wave beam. We have demonstrated that the demagnetizing field provided a graded increase of the refractive index for spin waves, which is responsible for the bending.

  12. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3?nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0?kOe can be achieved at PO2?=?12% for the sample of tCFAO?=?2.1?nm or at PO2?=?7% for tCFAO?=?2.8?nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices. PMID:26190066

  13. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H B; Wang, J; Ma, B; Jin, Q Y

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices. PMID:26190066

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3?nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0?kOe can be achieved at PO2?=?12% for the sample of tCFAO?=?2.1?nm or at PO2?=?7% for tCFAO?=?2.8?nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  15. Resolving the controversy of a possible relationship between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetic damping parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, T. J.

    2014-08-11

    We use broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to systematically measure the Landau-Lifshitz damping parameter, perpendicular anisotropy, and the orbital moment asymmetry in Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Ni multilayers. No relationship is found between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the damping parameter in this material. However, inadequate accounting for inhomogeneous linewidth broadening, spin-pumping, and two-magnon scattering could give rise to an apparent relationship between anisotropy and damping. In contrast, the orbital-moment asymmetry and the perpendicular anisotropy are linearly proportional to each other. These results demonstrate a fundamental mechanism by which perpendicular anisotropy can be varied independently of the damping parameter.

  16. Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Prieto, José Emilio; Gargallo-Caballero, Raquel; Marco, José Francisco; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films were deposited on MgO (0 0 1), SrTiO3 (0 0 1), LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates as well on as silicon and amorphous glass in order to study the effect of the substrate on their magnetic properties, mainly the magnetic anisotropy. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode. The magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is especially influenced by the substrate-induced microstructure. In-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy behavior have been observed on silicon and glass substrates, respectively. The transition between both behaviors depends on grain size. For LaAlO3 substrates, in which the lattice mismatch between the Fe3O4 films and the substrate is significant, a weak in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. However when magnetite is deposited on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions. The magnetic properties on these two latter substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields.

  17. Edge-modulated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in [Co/Pd]n and L10-FePt thin film wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Ho, Pin; Currivan-Incorvia, Jean Anne; Siddiqui, Saima A.; Baldo, Marc A.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-11-01

    Thickness modulation at the edges of nanostructured magnetic thin films is shown to have important effects on their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Thin film wires with tapered edges were made from [Co/Pd]20 multilayers or L10-FePt films using liftoff with a double-layer resist. The effect of edge taper on the reversal process was studied using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic modeling. In [Co/Pd]20, the anisotropy was lower in the tapered edge regions which switched at a lower reverse field compared to the center of the wire. The L10-FePt wires showed opposite behavior with the tapered regions exhibiting higher anisotropy.

  18. Magnetic field induced anisotropy of 139La spin-lattice relaxation rates in stripe ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    S. -H. Baek; Gu, G. D.; Utz, Y.; Hucker, M.; Buchner, B.; Grafe, H. -J.

    2015-10-26

    We report 139La nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on a La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 single crystal. The data show that the structural phase transitions (high-temperature tetragonal → low-temperature orthorhombic → low-temperature tetragonal phase) are of the displacive type in this material. The 139La spin-lattice relaxation rate T–11 sharply upturns at the charge-ordering temperature TCO = 54 K, indicating that charge order triggers the slowing down of spin fluctuations. Detailed temperature and field dependencies of the T–11 below the spin-ordering temperature TSO=40 K reveal the development of enhanced spin fluctuations in the spin-ordered state for H ∥ [001], which are completely suppressed for largemore » fields along the CuO2 planes. Lastly, our results shed light on the unusual spin fluctuations in the charge and spin stripe ordered lanthanum cuprates.« less

  19. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-04-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  20. Magnetic field effect on hemin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Balanda, Maria; Skrzypek, Danuta; Drzazga, Zofia

    2001-12-01

    Magnetic behaviour of hemin has been investigated by means of magnetostatic methods, AC-susceptibility measurements and EPR spectroscopy. The measurements were made using polycrystalline and oriented samples of hemin in the temperature range 2.3-292 K and in magnetic fields up to 6 T. In the paramagnetic region, the susceptibility obeys the Curie-Weiss law with positive Curie-Weiss temperature. At low temperature, a rapid increase of the susceptibility is noticed but up to 2 K no long-range correlations are observed. The studies show that the iron ion in hemin exists in two spin states ( S= {5}/{2} and {1}/{2}). The applied magnetic field increases the occupation of the low-spin state. Hemin shows high-field-induced magnetic anisotropy which, similar to the susceptibility, increases with decreasing temperature.

  1. Origin of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Large Orbital Moment in Fe Atoms on MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, S.; Donati, F.; Stepanow, S.; Rusponi, S.; Paul, W.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Rau, I. G.; Pacchioni, G. E.; Gragnaniello, L.; Pivetta, M.; Dreiser, J.; Piamonteze, C.; Lutz, C. P.; Macfarlane, R. M.; Jones, B. A.; Gambardella, P.; Heinrich, A. J.; Brune, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of individual Fe atoms deposited on MgO(100) thin films probed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We show that the Fe atoms have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a zero-field splitting of 14.0 ±0.3 meV /atom . This is a factor of 10 larger than the interface anisotropy of epitaxial Fe layers on MgO and the largest value reported for Fe atoms adsorbed on surfaces. The interplay between the ligand field at the O adsorption sites and spin-orbit coupling is analyzed by density functional theory and multiplet calculations, providing a comprehensive model of the magnetic properties of Fe atoms in a low-symmetry bonding environment.

  2. Origin of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Large Orbital Moment in Fe Atoms on MgO.

    PubMed

    Baumann, S; Donati, F; Stepanow, S; Rusponi, S; Paul, W; Gangopadhyay, S; Rau, I G; Pacchioni, G E; Gragnaniello, L; Pivetta, M; Dreiser, J; Piamonteze, C; Lutz, C P; Macfarlane, R M; Jones, B A; Gambardella, P; Heinrich, A J; Brune, H

    2015-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of individual Fe atoms deposited on MgO(100) thin films probed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We show that the Fe atoms have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a zero-field splitting of 14.00.3??meV/atom. This is a factor of 10 larger than the interface anisotropy of epitaxial Fe layers on MgO and the largest value reported for Fe atoms adsorbed on surfaces. The interplay between the ligand field at the O adsorption sites and spin-orbit coupling is analyzed by density functional theory and multiplet calculations, providing a comprehensive model of the magnetic properties of Fe atoms in a low-symmetry bonding environment. PMID:26684139

  3. Magnetic critical properties and basal-plane anisotropy of Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, L.; Colson, D.; Brouet, V.

    2016-03-01

    The anisotropic magnetic properties of Sr2IrO4 are investigated, using longitudinal and torque magnetometry. The critical scaling across {{T}\\text{c}} of the longitudinal magnetization is that expected for the 2D XY universality class. Modeling the torque for a magnetic field in the basal plane, and taking into account all in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic couplings, we derive the effective fourfold anisotropy {{K}4}≈ 1× {{10}5} erg mol‑1. Although larger than for the cuprates, it is found to be too small to account for a significant departure from the isotropic 2D XY model. The in-plane torque also allows us to set an upper bound for the anisotropy of a field-induced shift of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature.

  4. Magnetic critical properties and basal-plane anisotropy of Sr2IrO4.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, L; Colson, D; Brouet, V

    2016-03-31

    The anisotropic magnetic properties of Sr2IrO4 are investigated, using longitudinal and torque magnetometry. The critical scaling across [Formula: see text] of the longitudinal magnetization is that expected for the 2D XY universality class. Modeling the torque for a magnetic field in the basal plane, and taking into account all in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic couplings, we derive the effective fourfold anisotropy [Formula: see text] erg mol(-1). Although larger than for the cuprates, it is found to be too small to account for a significant departure from the isotropic 2D XY model. The in-plane torque also allows us to set an upper bound for the anisotropy of a field-induced shift of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. PMID:26934633

  5. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  6. Pattern-induced magnetic anisotropy in FePt thin films by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaafar, M.; Sanz, R.; McCord, J.; Jensen, J.; Schaefer, R.; Vazquez, M.; Asenjo, A.

    2011-03-01

    The magnetic properties of FePt thin films have been modified by exposing the samples to irradiation of 4 MeV Cl{sup 2+} ions. Patterned magnetic films, without modified topographical profile, were fabricated by irradiating the films through a shadowing micrometric mask. The structural changes, ascribed to the ion-beam-induced amorphization of the thin films, promote the modification of the magnetic anisotropy. In particular, the out-of-plane component of the magnetization decreases simultaneously with an enhancement of in-plane anisotropy by increasing ion fluence. Moreover, the nonirradiated regions present unexpected anisotropic behavior owing to the stray field of the irradiated regions. The control of this effect, which can have unwished consequences for the patterning of magnetic properties by ion bombardment, needs to be suitably addressed.

  7. Primordial statistical anisotropies: the effective field theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Akhshik, Mohammad; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the effective field theory of primordial statistical anisotropies generated during anisotropic inflation involving a background U(1) gauge field. Besides the usual Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of time diffeomorphism we have two additional Goldstone bosons associated with the breaking of spatial diffeomorphisms. We further identify these two new Goldstone bosons with the expected two transverse degrees of the U(1) gauge field fluctuations. Upon defining the appropriate unitary gauge, we present the most general quadratic action which respects the remnant symmetry in the unitary gauge. The interactions between various Goldstone bosons leads to statistical anisotropy in curvature perturbation power spectrum. Calculating the general results for power spectrum anisotropy, we recover the previously known results in specific models of anisotropic inflation. In addition, we present novel results for statistical anisotropy in models with non-trivial sound speed for inflaton fluctuations. Also we identify the interaction which leads to birefringence-like effects in anisotropic power spectrum in which the speed of gauge field fluctuations depends on the direction of the mode propagation and the two polarization of gauge field fluctuations contribute differently in statistical anisotropy. As another interesting application, our EFT approach naturally captures interactions generating parity violating statistical anisotropies.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of granular Co-Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolom, J.; Garca, L. M.; Bartolom, F.; Bun?u, O.; Stankiewicz, J.; Ruiz, L.; Gonzlez-Calbet, J. M.; Petroff, F.; Deranlot, C.; Pascarelli, S.; Bencok, P.; Brookes, N. B.; Wilhelm, F.; Smekhova, A.; Rogalev, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of granular Co-Pt multilayers by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), SQUID-based magnetic measurements, anomalous Hall effect (AHE), and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We describe these granular films as composed of particles with a pure cobalt core surrounded by an alloyed Co-Pt interface, embedded in a Pt matrix. The alloy between the Co and Pt in these granular films, prepared by room temperature sputter deposition, results from interdiffusion of the atoms. The presence of this alloy gives rise to a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the granular films, as consequence of the anisotropy of the orbital moment in the Co atoms in the alloy, and comparable to that of highly-ordered CoPt L 10 alloy films. Their magnetic properties are those of ferromagnetically coupled particles, whose coupling is strongly temperature dependent: at low temperatures, the granular sample is ferromagnetic with a high coercive field; at intermediate temperatures the granular film behaves as an amorphous asperomagnet, with a coupling between the grains mediated by the polarized Pt, and at high temperatures, the sample has a superparamagnetic behavior. The coupling/decoupling between the grains in our Co-Pt granular films can be tailored by variation of the amount of Pt in the samples.

  9. Scaling laws for magnetic reconnection, set by regulation of the electron pressure anisotropy to the firehose threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohia, O.; Egedal, J.; Lukin, V. S.; Daughton, W.; Le, A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection in a weakly collisional plasma, such as in the Earth's magnetosphere, is known to be accompanied by electron pressure anisotropy. For reconnection scenarios including moderate guide magnetic field, electrons are magnetized throughout the reconnection region, and the anisotropy drives extended electron current layers. Along these layers, the anisotropy nears the firehose threshold. We describe how the anisotropy stagnates at this threshold by a mechanism that does not involve pitch-angle mixing. Using previously established anisotropic equations of state and by imposing the marginal firehose condition, scaling laws are obtained for quantities along the current layers as functions of plasma parameters upstream of the reconnection region. The predicted reconnection region quantities include the magnetic field strength, plasma density, and the parallel and perpendicular electron pressures, allowing for a characterization of electron energization solely as a function of the upstream plasma conditions. This characterization is in agreement with simulations and spacecraft observations.

  10. Control of magnetism by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  11. Statistical study of effective anisotropy field in ordered ferromagnetic nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Clime, L; Chan, K; Normandin, F; Roberge, H; Yelon, A; Cochrane, R W; Veres, T

    2007-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic nanowire arrays were obtained by electrodeposition of Co-Fe-P alloy into the pores of high quality home-made anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Bath acidity and current density were the two parameters used in order to tailor the orientation of local anisotropy axes in individual nanowires. In order to quantify the influence of the induced anisotropies on the magnetization processes in individual nanowires, the in-plane magnetization loops of the arrays are modeled as log-normal distributions of Stoner-Wohlfarth transverse magnetization processes. Using the lognormal mean parameter as an approximation for the saturation applied field of the array, we compute the effective anisotropy of the nanowires, which is found to increase with the pH of the electrodeposition bath. PMID:17455508

  12. Huge magnetic anisotropy in a trigonal-pyramidal nickel(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Coca, Silvia; Cremades, Eduard; Aliaga-Alcalde, Nria; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2014-01-21

    The work presented herein shows the experimental and theoretical studies of a mononuclear nickel(II) complex with the largest magnetic anisotropy ever reported. The zero-field-splitting D parameter, extracted from the fits of the magnetization and susceptibility measurements, shows a large value of -200 cm(-1), in agreement with the theoretical value of -244 cm(-1) obtained with the CASPT2-RASSI method. PMID:24359111

  13. Large four-fold magnetic anisotropy in two-dimensional modulated Ni80Fe20 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakazei, G. N.; Liu, X. M.; Ding, J.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Y.; Verba, R. V.; Bunyaev, S. A.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    2-D modulated structures consisting of square arrays of 60 nm thick Ni80Fe20 circular dots underneath a continuous Ni80Fe20 film were fabricated using deep ultraviolet lithography. The array pitch for all the samples was fixed at 620 nm, while the dot diameter varied from 300 nm to 550 nm. Four-fold in-plane magnetic anisotropy (FFA) was detected in the samples using ferromagnetic resonance technique. It was found that the deposition of continuous film on top of the array drastically increases the FFA of the system, with a maximum anisotropy field of 120 Oe being observed for the sample with intermediate diameter. This increase is due to the appearance of a field well in the film underneath the dots with a shape that is dependent on magnetic field orientation and to the coupling of magnetization oscillations in dots and film.

  14. Reconstructing the Depositional Environment at the Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic) Loess Site from Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Rousseau, D.; Antoine, P.; Fuchs, M.; Hatt, C.; Moine, O.; Gauthier, C.; Lisa, L.; Svoboda, J.

    2011-12-01

    Loess and paleosol deposits, worldwide, have provided an important medium from which paleoclimatic conditions and paleoenvironments could be reconstructed. Within the field of environmental magnetism, the most fruitful data have been time series of various common magnetic parameters, such as, but not exclusively, bulk magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence, magnetic hysteresis derived parameters, and remanent magnetizations. Magnetic anisotropy data, capable of determined the orientation distribution of mineral particles within oriented bulk specimens, have proven to be a powerful tool even in non-lithified and poorly consolidated aeolian sediment. A 15 meter long loess and paleosol section at the Dolni Vestonice site in the Czech Republic (4853'11.5''N 1639'15.8''E) was investigated within the framework of a multi-disciplinary funded research project (ANR-08-BLAN-0227-CSD6). Here we present the interpretation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data set. Oriented specimens were collected from the 1 meter depth mark to the base of the section at a 5 or 10 cm depth sampling interval. Overall, 2 to 4 specimens were obtained at each sampling depth for a total of 632 specimens. The mean bulk magnetic susceptibility along the deposit is everywhere below 56 x 10-8 m3/kg and the degree of magnetic anisotropy (Pj) does not exceed 1.05. Intra-sampling depth reproducibility between specimens is good except in sand rich loess of the upper rapidly accumulating intervals. The magnetic anisotropy data, combined with field observations, optically stimulated luminescence chronology and other analytical data, reveal a fairly complete history of loess accumulation since the last interglacial. Nonetheless, the depositional environment was likely marked by hiatus, by erosional surfaces, and by post-depositional deformations driven by the local geomorphology and the regional tectonic setting.

  15. Switching current density reduction in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junctions

    SciTech Connect

    You, Chun-Yeol

    2014-01-28

    We investigate the switching current density reduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junctions using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the switching current density can be reduced with elongated lateral shapes of the magnetic tunnel junctions, and additional reduction can be achieved by using a noncollinear polarizer layer. The reduction is closely related to the details of spin configurations during switching processes with the additional in-plane anisotropy.

  16. Magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

  17. Deciphering the origin of giant magnetic anisotropy and fast quantum tunnelling in Rhenium(IV) single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-02-01

    Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process.

  18. Deciphering the origin of giant magnetic anisotropy and fast quantum tunnelling in Rhenium(IV) single-molecule magnets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process. PMID:26883278

  19. Deciphering the origin of giant magnetic anisotropy and fast quantum tunnelling in Rhenium(IV) single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process. PMID:26883278

  20. Controlling magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial FePt(001) films

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhihong; Walock, M. J.; LeClair, P.; Butler, W. H.; Mankey, G. J.

    2009-07-15

    Epitaxial equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} thin films with a variable order parameter ranging from 0 to 0.9 and Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} thin films with x ranging from 33 to 50 were deposited on MgO (001) substrates by dc sputtering. A seed layer consisting of nonmagnetic Cr (4 nm)/Pt (12 nm) was used to promote the crystallinity of the magnetic films. The crystal structure and magnetic properties were gauged using x-ray diffraction and magnetometry. The magnetic anisotropy can be controlled by changing the order parameter. For Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} films, the increase in Fe composition leads to an increase in coercivity in the hard axis loop and causes a loss of perpendicular anisotropy.

  1. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the strain-induced anisotropy resulting from the anisotropic thermal expansion of the β-phase PVDF. The simulation based on modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirms our results. The positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy is estimated to be 1.1 × 102 J m−3 K−1. Preparing the composite at low temperature can enlarge the temperature range where it shows the positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy. The present results may help to design magnetic devices with improved thermal stability and enhanced performance. PMID:25311047

  2. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Yoann; Daff, Nili; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-Dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jrme

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest--and more attractive--systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination--without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation--of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude.

  3. Cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy for a solar magnetic cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Sabbah, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    Cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy at high primary rigidities is extended for the 1980-1987 period. The computed values of the limiting primary rigidity for the period vary over the range 30 GV to 200 GV. For the previously studied 1965-1980 period, the mean value of the amplitude of the anisotropy is 0.5 percent. The amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy for 1965 and 1986-1987 is about 20 percent smaller. Very large amplitudes of diurnal variation are observed during the 1982-1985 period, at all primary rigidities. The value of the coupled variable lambda(parallel) x G(r) found to remain constant at about 1 percent for qA less than zero solar magnetic polarity epochs, independent of the primary rigidity. Its value is significantly lower for qA greater than zero epochs.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and high-spin effects in single-molecule transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyazin, Alexander; van den Berg, Johan; Osorio, Edgar; Konstantinidis, Nikos; Leijnse, Martin; May, Falk; Hofstetter, Walter; Danieli, Chiara; Cornia, Andrea; Wegewijs, Maarten; van der Zant, Herre

    2011-03-01

    Fabrication of single-molecule transistors where electron transport occurs through an individual molecule has become possible due to the recent progress in molecular electronics. Three-terminal configuration allows charging molecules and performing transport spectroscopy in multiple redox states. Single-molecule magnets combining large spin with uniaxial anisotropy are of special interest as appealing candidates for high density memory applications and quantum information processing. We study single-molecule magnets Fe 4 . Three-terminal junctions are fabricated using electromigration of gold nanowires followed by a self-breaking. High-spin Kondo effect and inelastic cotunneling excitations show up in transport measurements. Several excitations feature the energy close to the energy of zero-field splitting (ZFS) of a ground spin multiplet in bulk. This splitting is caused by the anisotropy and is a hallmark of single-molecule magnets. We observe nonlinear Zeeman effect due to a misalignment of an anisotropy axis and a magnetic field direction. The ZFS energy is increased in oxidized and reduced states of the molecule indicating enhancement of the anisotropy in these states.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy in Fe films deposited on SiO2/Si(001) and Si(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Varnakov, S. N.; Satsuk, S. A.; Yakovlev, I. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2014-02-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of 10 nm iron films deposited in an ultra high vacuum on the Si(001) surface and on the Si(001) over caped by 1.5 nm layer of SiO2 was investigated. There is in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy caused by oblique sputtering in the Fe films on a SiO2 buffer layer. The easy magnetization axis is always normal to the atomic flux direction but the value of the anisotropy field is different depending on the axial angle among sputtering direction and the substrate crystallographic axes. It is argued that the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy results from elongated surface roughness formation during film deposition. Several easy magnetization axes are found in Fe/Si(001) film without the SiO2 buffer layer. The mutual orientation of the main easy axes and Si crystallographic axes indicates that there is epitaxial growth of Fe/Si(001) film with the following orientation relative to the substrate: Fe[100] ?Si[110]. The anisotropy energy of Fe/Si(001) film is estimated by simulation of angle dependence of remnant magnetization mr as the sum of the mr angle plot from uniaxial anisotropy (induced by oblique deposition) and the polar plot from biaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  6. Ion-beam induced magnetic anisotropies in iron films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, M.; Reinecke, N.; Uhrmacher, M.; Lieb, K. P.; Mnzenberg, M.; Felsch, W.

    1998-04-01

    100-300 nm thin Fe layers evaporated onto crystalline and amorphous Si or SiO 2 substrates were irradiated, at 77 K, with 10 14-10 16 Xe +-ions/cm 2 at 450 keV beam energy. The magnetizations in the films were measured by means of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy with implanted 111In tracer ions, or the Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE). Upon ion implantation, dramatic changes of the magnetic anisotropy were observed which are attributed to ion-beam enhanced lateral grain growth. Very little influence of the deposition parameters (type and cristallinity of substrate, evaporation rate) on the anisotropic magnetization was found.

  7. Electronic configurations and magnetic anisotropy in organometallic metallocenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kenji; Kitaoka, Yukie; Nakamura, Kohji; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori

    2015-05-01

    Electronic configurations and magnetic anisotropy of organometallic metallocenes (MCp2s) were investigated by means of first principles calculations based on the constraint density functional theory. The results predict that the ground states for M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni are the 3E2 g, 2E2 g, 1A1 g, 2E1 g, and 3A2 g states, respectively. The magnetizations of the CoCp2 and NiCp2 energetically favor highly orienting along the perpendicular and parallel directions to the cyclopentadienyl (Cp) plane, respectively, and the others show almost no preference for the magnetic easy axis.

  8. Induced magnetic anisotropy in stress-annealed Galfenol laminated rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.-H.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Flatau, A. B.

    2009-10-01

    Iron-gallium (Galfenol) is a promising transducer material that combines high magnetostriction, desirable mechanical properties and a high permeability. The high permeability of this material causes a relatively low cutoff frequency in dynamic applications, above which eddy currents form and introduce significant power losses. To reduce the eddy current losses, magnetostrictive drivers are commonly laminated. A second transducer design consideration is the introduction of an initial alignment of domains inside of the material to maximize the magnetostriction performance without a prestress mechanism. Built-in uniaxial magnetic anisotropy through stress annealing aligns magnetic moments perpendicular to the direction of actuation. Stress annealing is a high temperature process with simultaneous application of an external load and subsequent cooling under load in which the magnetic moment alignment developed at temperature is retained. The external load needed to build in a useful uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in Galfenol is greater than the buckling load for Galfenol laminae sized for use in high frequency dynamic applications. In this study, stress annealing of highly textured polycrystalline Galfenol is successfully extended to thin laminae by introducing fixtures to avoid buckling of the laminae under compression during the heat treatment process. The maximum built-in uniaxial anisotropy was 11.2 kJ m-3.

  9. Rotatable magnetic anisotropy in Si/SiO2/(Co2Fe)(x)Ge(1-x) Heusler alloy films.

    PubMed

    Ryabchenko, S M; Kalita, V M; Kulik, M M; Lozenko, A F; Nevdacha, V V; Pogorily, A N; Kravets, A F; Podyalovskiy, D Y; Vovk, A Ya; Borges, R P; Godinho, M; Korenivski, V

    2013-10-16

    Polycrystalline (Co2Fe)(x)Ge(1-x) Heusler alloy films are fabricated by sputtering on amorphous substrates and shown to possess three types of magnetic anisotropy. The nearly stoichiometric composition of x = 50 m.f.% shows a rectangular hysteresis loop and isotropic coercive and ferromagnetic resonance fields when the film is field-magnetized along any in-plane direction, thus predominantly possessing rotatable in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Higher-x compositions show evidence of two- and fourfold in-plane anisotropy superposed on the rotatable one. A qualitative model of the observed anisotropic magnetic properties is proposed. The model explains the rotatable anisotropy by taking into account dry friction for the in-plane rotation of the magnetization direction in a fine-grained polycrystalline film with the magnetic grain size smaller than the correlation length of the inter-grain exchange interaction. The observed two- and fourfold magnetic anisotropy contributions are attributed to partial texturing of the fine-grained films, even though the films are grown on amorphous SiO2 substrates. These results should be valuable for understanding and controlling the magnetic behaviour of highly spin-polarized Heusler alloy films used in various magnetic nanodevices. PMID:24025408

  10. Ferromagnetic coupling and magnetic anisotropy in molecular Ni(II) squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Waldmann, O.; Mller, P.; Reimann, U.; Saalfrank, R. W.

    2003-03-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties of two isostructural Ni(II) metal complexes [Ni4Lb8] and [Ni4Lc8]. In each molecule the four Ni(II) centers form almost perfect regular squares. Magnetic coupling and anisotropy of single crystals were examined by magnetization measurements and in particular by high-field torque magnetometry at low temperatures. The data were analyzed in terms of an effective spin Hamiltonian appropriate for Ni(II) centers. For both compounds, we found a weak intramolecular ferromagnetic coupling of the four Ni(II) spins and sizable single-ion anisotropies of the easy-axis type. The coupling strengths are roughly identical for both compounds, whereas the zero-field-splitting parameters are significantly different. Possible reasons for this observation are discussed.

  11. Probing the origin of magnetic anisotropy in a dinuclear {Mn(III)Cu(II)} single-molecule magnet: the role of exchange anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2014-04-25

    Using ab initio calculations all the components of the magnetic anisotropy in a dinuclear [Mn(III)Cu(II)Cl(5-Br-sap)2(MeOH)] single-molecule magnet (SMM) have been computed. These calculations reveal that apart from the single-ion anisotropy, the exchange anisotropy also plays a crucial role in determining the sign as well as the magnitude of the cluster anisotropy. Developed magneto-structural correlations suggest that a large ferromagnetic exchange can in fact reduce the ground-state anisotropy, which is an integral component in the design of SMMs. PMID:24700405

  12. Easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes skyrmions in 2D chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, James; Banerjee, Sumilan; Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) chiral magnetic materials, like thin films of non-centrosymmetric helimagnets and metallic magnetic layers, have revealed interesting spatially modulated spin textures such as spirals and skyrmions. Motivated by this we study the ground-state phase diagram for a 2D chiral magnet in a magnetic field using a Ginzburg-Landau model, with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term, anisotropic exchange and single-ion anisotropy. The easy-axis anisotropy region of the phase diagram has been well-studied, whereas the easy-plane region has not been discussed. In the easy-plane region, we find an unexpectedly large stable skyrmion crystal (SkX) phase in a perpendicular magnetic field. We find re-entrant transitions between ferromagnetic and SkX phases, and intriguing internal structure of the skyrmion core with two-length scales. We argue that such an easy-plane anisotropy arises naturally from the compass terms induced by spin-orbit coupling that is also responsible for the DM term, as proposed recently in the context of oxide interfaces. We also discuss the phase diagram in a tilted field configuration, relevant for torque magnetometry experiments. JR and MR supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414 and SB by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035.

  13. Anisotropy study of grain oriented steels with Magnetic Barkhausen Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, M. F.; Campos, M. A.; Landgraf, F. J. G.; Padovese, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    Grain oriented electrical steels present strong anisotropy, due to a {110} <001> texture (Goss), with [100] direction parallel to rolling direction (RD) and [110] direction parallel to transverse direction (TD). MBN (Magnetic Barkhausen Noise) were employed to measure magnetic properties in several angles towards RD using a 15° step. For 90° to the rolling direction (i.e., TD), the MBN signal changes, decreasing the MBNrms. It is found a connection between initial permeability and MBNrms. The lower initial permeability for the TD is related to a larger contribution of irreversible rotation in the hysteresis. The MBN procedure is non-destructive and provides rapid understanding of the anisotropy of the material, without the use of laborious methods like Epstein frame or toroidal coils.

  14. Magnetism of CoFe2O4 thin films annealed under the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y. Q.; Dai, J. M.; Tang, X. W.; Zi, Z. F.; Zhang, K. J.; Zhu, X. B.; Yang, J.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-11-01

    Polycrystalline CoFe2O4 thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by chemical solution deposition with and without magnetic annealing. Magnetic field directions were applied parallel and perpendicular to the film surface during the magnetic annealing process. The variations of strain, microstructure and magnetic anisotropy of the films caused by the magnetic annealing are investigated. The results show that the film densification is promoted and grain morphology is changed by the magnetic annealing, which can be attributed to the promoting effect of magnetization force on the grain growing and grain boundary diffusing. Magnetic measurements indicate the enhancement of anisotropy and saturation magnetizations of the polycrystalline CoFe2O4 after magnetic annealing. Furthermore, the rotation of easy axis along the field direction, the increased occupation of Co2+ ions at B sites and the additional strain induced by the magnetic field are considered as the main reasons of the increased magnetic anisotropy.

  15. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined.

  16. Nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a rotor-foundation system coupled through passive magnetic bearings with magnetic anisotropy - Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy) of the magnetic field and the weak nonlinearity of the magnetic forces. Through mathematical modelling the nonlinear equations of motion are established for describing the shaft and bearing housing lateral dynamics coupled via the nonlinear and non-uniform magnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved in the frequency domain by the methods of Finite Difference and pseudo-arclength continuation. The theoretical findings are validated against experiments carried out using a dedicated test-rig and a special device for characterisation of the magnetic anisotropy. The characterisation of the magnetic anisotropy shows that it can be quantified as magnetic eccentricities having an amplitude and a phase, which result in linear and parametric excitation. The magnetic eccentricities are also determined using the steady-state response of the rotor-bearing system due to forcing from the magnetic anisotropies and several levels of mass imbalance. Discrepancies in the results from the two methods in terms of magnetic eccentricity magnitude are due to additional geometric eccentricities in the shaft. The steady-state system response shows clear nonlinear phenomena, e.g. bent resonance peaks, jump phenomena and nonlinear cross-coupling between the two orthogonal directions, especially during counter-phase motion between shaft and bearings. The clear nonlinear behaviour is facilitated by the lack of damping resulting in relatively large vibrations. The overall nonlinear dynamic behaviour is well captured by the theoretical model, thereby validating the modelling approach.

  17. Magnetic irreversibility and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, P. V.; Madduri, Srinath, S.; Kaul, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni samples, with average grain sizes, d = 11(1) nm, 19(1) nm and 30(2) nm, synthesized by pulse electrodeposition, have been studied. We observed that (i) at low temperatures, the effective magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant, K1, increases with the crystallite size so as to reach the bulk value at d = 30 nm, and (ii) the rate of thermal decline of K1(T) slows down as the crystallite size reduces.

  18. Phase diagram of an ideal three-dimensional antiferromagnet with random magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Pavel; Perez, Felio A.; Johnson, Trent A.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; Aczel, Adam A.; Hong, Tao

    2014-03-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) is not well understood because systems studied experimentally to date have complicated magnetic structures with competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions. The properties of epitaxial thin films of the 3D RMA antiferromagnet FexNi1-xF2 thin films grown on (110) MgF2 substrates were investigated by magnetometry and neutron scattering. FexNi1-xF2 is an ideal 3D antiferromagnet with which to study this problem due to the single-ion anisotropy energies of the transition metal site which tend to order Ni2+ and Fe2+ spins perpendicular to each other. The magnetic phase diagram determined from these measurements was analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropy were identified. An anisotropy glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs. Supported by the NSF (grant 0903861), the WVHEPC (Research Challenge Grant HEPC.dsr.12.29), the WVU Shared Research Facilities, and the DOE BES.

  19. Artificially engineered Heusler ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q L; Zhang, X M; Miyazaki, T; Mizukami, S

    2015-01-01

    To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (K(u)(eff)) over 6 Merg/cm(3) is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and K(u)(eff) of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory. PMID:25597496

  20. Artificially engineered Heusler ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-01-01

    To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (Kueff) over 6 Merg/cm3 is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and Kueff of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory. PMID:25597496

  1. Spin-orbit effect and magnetic anisotropy in Pt clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, H. K.; Chen, H.; Kuang, A. L.; Wu, B.

    2013-04-01

    Based on the non-collinear (NCL) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) implementation of the density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, isomeric structures, spin and orbital moments, magnetic anisotropies, as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) are investigated for Ptn clusters (n=2-8, 13). Our studies show that the planar structures are superior to the three-dimensional structures in stabilizing Pt clusters up to n=7, favored by both scalar relativistic calculations and SOC calculations. For each cluster size, relative stabilities of different low-lying energy isomers are not alternated by the SOC effects. Strong magnetic anisotropies and remarkable orbital moments (0.1-0.4 ?B/atom) are found in Pt clusters. The easy axes usually prefer the orientations that are in the basal planes of the structures and parallel to the principal axes of symmetry. There is always collinearity between total spin moments and total orbital moments, favoring a strict ferromagnetic coupling. It is revealed that small Pt clusters mostly exhibit large MAEs.

  2. Role of magnetic anisotropy in spin-filter junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chopdekar, R.V.; Wong, F.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2011-01-10

    We have fabricated oxide-based spin-filter junctions in which we demonstrate that magnetic anisotropy can be used to tune the transport behavior of spin-filter junctions. We have demonstrated spin-filtering behavior in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} junctions where the interface anisotropy plays a significant role in determining transport behavior. Detailed studies of chemical and magnetic structure at the interfaces indicate that abrupt changes in magnetic anisotropy across the nonisostructural interface is the cause of the significant suppression of junction magnetoresistance in junctions with MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} barrier layers.

  3. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A. Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martn, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.; Teixeira, J. M.; Vlez, M.

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  4. Full 180 Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving 180 magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180 magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90 magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180 magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

  5. Origin of petrofabrics and magnetic anisotropy in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneyd, Deana S.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Sugiura, Naoji; Strangway, David W.; Nord, Gordon L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite strain and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy have been determined for 15 ordinary chondrites. The axes of strain and magnetic ellipsoids roughly correlate in both magnitude and orientation. The shapes of these ellipsoids are generally oblate spheroids that define a dominant foliation and a weak lineation. These characteristics suggest deformation involving uniaxial compaction. The degree of uniaxial deformation correlates with intensity of shock, as indicated by optical, TEM and chemical criteria. These data, plus the lack of a relationship between foliation and metamorphic history, indicate that dynamic processes, i.e., impacts, produced planar deformation fabrics in chondrites.

  6. Mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yu E-mail: cangcangzhulin@gmail.com; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.; Barsukov, I.; Lindner, J.; Raanaei, H.; Hjörvarsson, B.

    2014-02-17

    The mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films was investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) on samples deposited without an applied magnetic field, with an out-of-plane field and an in-plane field. Analysis of FMR spectra profiles, high frequency susceptibility calculations, and statistical simulations using a distribution of local uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reveal the presence of atomic configurations with local uniaxial anisotropy, of which the direction can be tailored while the magnitude remains at an intrinsically constant value of 3.0(2) kJ/m{sup 3}. The in-plane growth field remarkably sharpens the anisotropy distribution and increases the sample homogeneity. The results benefit designing multilayer spintronic devices based on highly homogeneous amorphous layers with tailored magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropies in epitaxial Fe/CoO/MgO(001) system studied by the planar Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W. N.; Li, J.; Chen, G.; Zhu, J.; Hu, C. R.; Wu, Y. Z.

    2011-06-01

    Exchange-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropies in a single-crystalline Fe/CoO/MgO(001) system were quantitatively investigated using the planar Hall effect as a function of temperature. Field cooling can induce a strong uniaxial anisotropy in Fe film with the easy axis along the CoO<110> directions close to the cooling field direction. The exchange coupling also induces a 4-fold anisotropy with the easy axis along the CoO<100> directions. Our results prove that the strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy of CoO antiferromagnetic spin plays a significant role in exchange-induced anisotropy.

  8. Pressure anisotropy effects on nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Williams, Gina; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2014-09-01

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in a magnetized anisotropic electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma with superthermal electrons and positrons. A two-dimensional plasma geometry is assumed. The ions are assumed to be warm and anisotropic due to an external magnetic field. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined using the double adiabatic Chew-Golberger-Low (CGL) theory. In the linear regime, two normal modes are predicted, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of superthermality of electrons and positrons, ion pressure anisotropy, positron concentration and magnetic field strength. A Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived for the electrostatic potential (disturbance) via a reductive perturbation method. The parametric role of superthermality, positron content, ion pressure anisotropy and magnetic field strength on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is investigated. Following Allen and Rowlands [J. Plasma Phys. 53, 63 (1995)], we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable to oblique perturbations, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on superthermality and ion pressure anisotropy.

  9. Switching characteristics of submicrometer magnetic tunnel junction devices with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Ilsang; Kim, Deok-kee; Kim, Young Keun

    2005-05-01

    As the pattern size of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) becomes smaller, the vortex of magnetization and fluctuations of switching fields caused by the shape MTJ cells will cause serious writing problems. However, a MTJ structure with perpendicular anisotropy (pMTJ) has shown low saturation magnetization and shape independence during the writing process. In this study, we considered Co /Pd multilayers that allow better tailor-design of magnetization and anisotropy. A series of calculations based on the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation were carried out on pMTJs to investigate the effect of size variations and material properties on their transfer behaviors. In a same submicrometer cell size, pMTJ shows better properties for high-density magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) against synthetic antiferromagnet MTJs. As the number of bilayer Co /Pd,n, becomes larger, the coercivity and squareness were enhanced because of shape anisotropy and large effective Ku. Even with a small field, 10 Oe, along the hard axis, the drastic decrease, nearly about 80% of switching field, occurs. As a micromagnetic result, a pMTJ with a cell size of 200 nm and n =3 shows an abrupt increase in coercivity and better squareness.

  10. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honjo, H.; Fukami, S.; Ishihara, K.; Nebashi, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Tokutome, K.; Murahata, M.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T.; Kasai, N.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8 mA, respectively.

  11. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Honjo, H. Nebashi, R.; Tokutome, K.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T.; Fukami, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Murahata, M.; Kasai, N.; Ishihara, K.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8?mA, respectively.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of Co2+ as signature of intrinsic ferromagnetism in ZnO:Co.

    PubMed

    Sati, P; Hayn, R; Kuzian, R; Régnier, S; Schäfer, S; Stepanov, A; Morhain, C; Deparis, C; Laügt, M; Goiran, M; Golacki, Z

    2006-01-13

    We report on the magnetic properties of thoroughly characterized Zn(1-x)Co(x)O epitaxial thin films, with low Co concentration, x = 0.003-0.005. Magnetic and EPR measurements, combined with crystal field theory, reveal that isolated Co2+ ions in ZnO possess a strong single ion anisotropy which leads to an "easy plane" ferromagnetic state when the ferromagnetic Co-Co interaction is considered. We suggest that the peculiarities of the magnetization process of this state can be viewed as a signature of intrinsic ferromagnetism in ZnO:Co materials. PMID:16486509

  13. Giant voltage modulation of magnetic anisotropy in strained heavy metal/magnet/insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, P. V.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Odkhuu, D.; Khalili Amiri, P.; Wang, K. L.; Carman, Gregory P.

    2015-07-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that epitaxial strain has a dramatic effect on the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in Ta/FeCo/MgO junctions. Strain can give rise to a wide range of novel VCMA behaviors where the MA can change from a ∨- to a ∧-shape electric-field dependence with giant VCMA coefficients which are asymmetric under voltage reversal. The underlying mechanism is the interplay of the strain- and electric-field-induced changes in the spin-orbit coupled d states at the interfaces and the strain-induced modification of the dielectric constant of MgO. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of highly sensitive VCMA through strain engineering, which may provide a viable avenue for tailoring magnetoelectric properties for spintronic applications.

  14. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, A. M. Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Ohodnicki, P. R.

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to ∼2 kJ/m{sup 3}. Higher anisotropies up to ∼10 kJ/m{sup 3} result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co{sub 80−x−y}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub y}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 14}Si{sub 2} soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to ∼50 kJ/m{sup 3} and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  15. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, AM; Keylin, V; Ohodnicki, PR; McHenry, ME

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to similar to 2 kJ/m(3). Higher anisotropies up to similar to 10 kJ/m(3) result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co80-x-yFexMnyNb4B14Si2 soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at. % with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to similar to 50 kJ/m(3) and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Magnetic field mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.; Stenger, F. J.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetic field mapper locates imperfections in cadmium sulphide solar cells by detecting and displaying the variations of the normal component of the magnetic field resulting from current density variations. It can also inspect for nonuniformities in other electrically conductive materials.

  17. Spatial modulation of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co(111) films grown on macrostep-bunched Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, A. V. Kozlov, A. G.; Chebotkevich, L. A.

    2014-10-14

    We compared magnetic properties of epitaxial Co(111) films grown on microstep- and macrostep-bunched vicinal Si(111) substrates. A surface of the microstep-bunched Si(111) substrate represents regular array of step-bunches with height of 1.7 nm divided from each other by flat microterraces with a width of 34 nm. A surface of the macrostep-bunched Si(111) substrate is constituted by macrostep bunches with a height of 75–85 nm divided by atomically flat macroterraces. The average sum width of a macrostep bunch and a macroterrace is 2.3 μm. While in-plane magnetic anisotropy was spatially uniform in Co(111) films grown on the microstep-bunched Si(111), periodic macromodulation of the topography of the Si(111) substrate induced spatial modulation of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in Co(111) film grown on the macrostep-bunched Si(111) surface. The energy of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the areas of the Co(111) film deposited on the Si(111) macrosteps was higher more than by the order of magnitude than the energy of the magnetic anisotropy in the areas grown on macroterraces. Magnetization reversal in the areas with different energy of the magnetic anisotropy occurred in different magnetic fields. We showed the possibility of obtaining high density of domain walls in Co(111) film grown on the macrostep-bunched Si(111) by tuning the spatial step density of the Si(111) substrate.

  18. Effective magnetic anisotropy of annealed FePt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Barandiarn, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    The hysteresis loops of randomly oriented assembly of FePt nanoparticles are calculated numerically as a function of particle diameter for the range of the effective anisotropy constants, Kef = 1-5 107 erg/cm3, taking into account the effect of thermal fluctuations. Very sharp dependence of the assembly coercive force on the particle diameter is found for Kef ? 3 107 erg/cm3. The effective anisotropy constant of annealed FePt nanoparticle is estimated assuming the existence of L10 inclusions distributed randomly in a magnetically soft surrounding matrix. The hysteresis loop evolution can be explained if the total volume of the L10 grains is supposed to increase during annealing.

  19. Spin-orbit coupling, compass anisotropy and skyrmions in 2D chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sumilan; Erten, Onur; Rowland, James; Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) gives rise to the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in systems that lack inversion symmetry like non-centrosymmetric helimagnets, and two-dimensional magnetism at surfaces and interfaces. We explore here the role of SOC in several microscopic exchange mechanisms - superexchange, double exchange and RKKY - in insulating and itinerant electron systems. We show that, in addition to giving rise to the DM interaction, SOC generically leads to compass anisotropy terms. Although seemingly negligible, the compass terms are energetically comparable to DM and play a crucial role in deciding the fate of the magnetic ground state. We demonstrate that the compass terms act as an effective easy-plane anisotropy in 2D chiral magnets and lead to extremely large region of stable skyrmion crystal (SkX) phase in a perpendicular magnetic field. We discuss the electronic properties of SkX in this hitherto unexplored region of the anisotropy-field plane for itinerant systems. We also comment on the possibility of realizing such SkX phase in the oxide interfaces. JR and MR supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414 and SB by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035.

  20. Magnetic Field Diagnostic for Sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Blackman, Eric G.

    1996-02-01

    This study is motivated by the extraordinary process of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), where an acoustically driven spherical shock is thought to power the emitted radiation. We propose new experiments using an external magnetic field which can induce anisotropies in both the shock propagation and radiation pattern. The effects will depend on the temperature, density, conductivity, and size of the radiating region. Our predictions suggest that such an experiment could serve as an important diagnostic in placing bounds on experimental parameters and understanding the physics of SBSL.

  1. Dynamical skyrmion state in a spin current nano-oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Lim, W L; Urazhdin, S

    2015-04-01

    We study the spectral characteristics of spin current nano-oscillators based on the Pt/[Co/Ni] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By varying the applied magnetic field and current, both localized and propagating spin wave modes of the oscillation are achieved. At small fields, we observe an abrupt onset of the modulation sidebands. We use micromagnetic simulations to identify this state as a dynamical magnetic skyrmion stabilized in the active device region by spin current injection, whose current-induced dynamics is accompanied by the gyrotropic motion of the core due to the skew deflection. Our results demonstrate a practical route for controllable skyrmion manipulation by spin current in magnetic thin films. PMID:25884135

  2. Dynamical Skyrmion State in a Spin Current Nano-Oscillator with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. H.; Lim, W. L.; Urazhdin, S.

    2015-04-01

    We study the spectral characteristics of spin current nano-oscillators based on the Pt /[Co /Ni ] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By varying the applied magnetic field and current, both localized and propagating spin wave modes of the oscillation are achieved. At small fields, we observe an abrupt onset of the modulation sidebands. We use micromagnetic simulations to identify this state as a dynamical magnetic skyrmion stabilized in the active device region by spin current injection, whose current-induced dynamics is accompanied by the gyrotropic motion of the core due to the skew deflection. Our results demonstrate a practical route for controllable skyrmion manipulation by spin current in magnetic thin films.

  3. Di- and trinuclear complexes with the mono- and dianion of 2,6-bis(phenylamino)pyridine: high-field displacement of chemical shifts due to the magnetic anisotropy of quadruple bonds.

    PubMed

    Cotton, F A; Daniels, L M; Lei, P; Murillo, C A; Wang, X

    2001-06-01

    The monoanion of 2,6-bis(phenylamino)pyridine (HBPAP(-)) has been found to support quadruply bonded Cr(2)(4+) and Mo(2)(4+) units in Cr(2)(HBPAP)(4) (1) and Mo(2)(HBPAP)(4) (2). The corresponding dianion BPAP(2)(-) was able to stabilize the trinuclear complexes, (TBA)(2)Cr(3)(BPAP)(4) (3) and (TBA)(2)Ni(3)(BPAP)(4) (4), where TBA is the tetrabutylammonium cation. The dinuclear complexes have the typical paddlewheel configuration with Cr-Cr distances of about 1.87 A and a Mo-Mo distance of 2.0813(5) A and exhibit a high-field displacement of the corresponding N-H signals caused by the magnetic anisotropy of the quadruple bonds. For the trinuclear complexes, 3 has a linear chain of three chromium atoms arranged in an unsymmetrical fashion with two chromium atoms paired to give a quadruply bonded unit (Cr-Cr distance: 1.904(3) A) and an isolated, square planar Cr(II) unit at 2.589(3) A from the dimetal unit. On the other hand, the three nickel atoms in 4 are evenly spaced, having Ni.Ni distances of 2.3682(8) A. The trinuclear compounds show a twisted conformation with an overall torsion angle of about 30 degrees. PMID:11375695

  4. Spin-orbit torque in a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd/MgO system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwang-Rae; Lee, Kyujoon; Cho, Jaehun; Choi, Young-Ha; You, Chun-Yeol; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Bonell, Frdric; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2014-01-01

    Spin-orbit torques, including the Rashba and spin Hall effects, have been widely observed and investigated in various systems. Since interesting spin-orbit torque (SOT) arises at the interface between heavy nonmagnetic metals and ferromagnetic metals, most studies have focused on the ultra-thin ferromagnetic layer with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Here, we measured the effective longitudinal and transverse fields of bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd (1.54 to 2.43?nm)/MgO systems using harmonic methods with careful correction procedures. We found that in our range of thicknesses, the effective longitudinal and transverse fields are five to ten times larger than those reported in interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy systems. The observed magnitude and thickness dependence of the effective fields suggest that the SOT do not have a purely interfacial origin in our samples. PMID:25293693

  5. Irreversibility and anisotropy of the low-temperature magnetization in manganites. Spin-glass polyamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirenko, V. A.; Eremenko, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    The temperature dependences of the magnetization in manganites of different composition and structural morphology were measured in two cooling regimes, field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC), for two different orientations of a magnetic field, parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. The following general tendencies were found: (1) The difference between the magnetizations MFC and MZFC at T = 5 K increases with increasing magnetic field, reaching the maximum value in a magnetic field of about 2 kOe, and then drops in the range 2-5 kOe; (2) The field dependence of the "splitting" temperature T* below which the difference between the magnetizations MFC and MZFC appears can be reasonably well described by a power law with the exponent 2/3 as predicted by the theory of spin glasses. Both results are characteristic for single crystals, as well as for ceramics and films. On the other hand, the field dependence of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility is different for samples with different degrees of magnetic ordering (?/TC). These results are consistent with the detected in the present study universality of the line separating the low-temperature region of irreversibility in the H-T phase diagram of manganites. Deviations from the T*-H-line with the exponent 2/3 in strong magnetic fields, which are commonly associated with the appearance of the magnetization component transverse to the magnetic field, are typical for samples containing the antiferromagnetic phase. The interpretation takes into account the multi-phase nature of the systems, i.e., coexistence of spin glass with ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism. The observed change in the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with increasing magnetic field and the behavior of magnetic and thermomagnetic irreversibility are regarded as a manifestation of the spin-reorientation phase transition in an antiferromagnetic environment. This in turn initiates the transformation of the spin-glassfrom the Ising- to the Heisenberg-typewhich leads to the change in the exponent in the T*-H diagram from 2/3 to 2. The observed phenomenon is universalit was observed in manganites of different composition and structural morphologyand represents a particular type of polyamorphism, namely, spin-glass polyamorphism.

  6. Spin-flop transition on Gd5Ge4 observed by x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and first-principles calculations of magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, L.; Kreyssig, A.; Nandi, S.; Jia, S.; Lee, Y. B.; Lang, J. C.; Islam, Z.; Lograsso, T.; Schlagel, D.; Pecharsky, V.; Gschneidner, K.; Canfield, P.; Harmon, B.; McQueeney, R.; Goldman, A.

    2008-02-21

    X-ray resonant magnetic scattering was employed to study a fully reversible spin-flop transition in orthorhombic Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} and to elucidate details of the magnetic structure in the spin-flop phase. The orientation of the moments at the three Gd sites flop 90{sup o} from the c axis to the a axis when a magnetic field, H{sub sf} = 9 kOe, is applied along the c axis at T = 9 K. The magnetic space group changes from Pnm'a to Pn'm'a' for all three Gd sublattices. The magnetic anisotropy energy determined from experimental measurements is in good agreement with the calculations of the magnetic anisotropy based on the spin-orbit coupling of the conduction electrons and an estimation of the dipolar interactions anisotropy. No significant magnetostriction effects were observed at the spin-flop transition.

  7. Quantum engineering of spin and anisotropy in magnetic molecular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Peter; Herden, Tobias; Muenks, Matthias; Laskin, Gennadii; Brovko, Oleg; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule magnets and single spin centres can be individually addressed when coupled to contacts forming an electrical junction. To control and engineer the magnetism of quantum devices, it is necessary to quantify how the structural and chemical environment of the junction affects the spin centre. Metrics such as coordination number or symmetry provide a simple method to quantify the local environment, but neglect the many-body interactions of an impurity spin coupled to contacts. Here, we utilize a highly corrugated hexagonal boron nitride monolayer to mediate the coupling between a cobalt spin in CoHx (x=1,2) complexes and the metal contact. While hydrogen controls the total effective spin, the corrugation smoothly tunes the Kondo exchange interaction between the spin and the underlying metal. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy together with numerical simulations, we quantitatively demonstrate how the Kondo exchange interaction mimics chemical tailoring and changes the magnetic anisotropy. PMID:26456084

  8. Electronic configurations and magnetic anisotropy in organometallic metallocenes

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kenji Kitaoka, Yukie; Nakamura, Kohji; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori

    2015-05-07

    Electronic configurations and magnetic anisotropy of organometallic metallocenes (MCp{sub 2}s) were investigated by means of first principles calculations based on the constraint density functional theory. The results predict that the ground states for M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni are the {sup 3}E{sub 2g}, {sup 2}E{sub 2g}, {sup 1}A{sub 1g}, {sup 2}E{sub 1g}, and {sup 3}A{sub 2g} states, respectively. The magnetizations of the CoCp{sub 2} and NiCp{sub 2} energetically favor highly orienting along the perpendicular and parallel directions to the cyclopentadienyl (Cp) plane, respectively, and the others show almost no preference for the magnetic easy axis.

  9. Quantum engineering of spin and anisotropy in magnetic molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Peter; Herden, Tobias; Muenks, Matthias; Laskin, Gennadii; Brovko, Oleg; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Single molecule magnets and single spin centres can be individually addressed when coupled to contacts forming an electrical junction. To control and engineer the magnetism of quantum devices, it is necessary to quantify how the structural and chemical environment of the junction affects the spin centre. Metrics such as coordination number or symmetry provide a simple method to quantify the local environment, but neglect the many-body interactions of an impurity spin coupled to contacts. Here, we utilize a highly corrugated hexagonal boron nitride monolayer to mediate the coupling between a cobalt spin in CoHx (x=1,2) complexes and the metal contact. While hydrogen controls the total effective spin, the corrugation smoothly tunes the Kondo exchange interaction between the spin and the underlying metal. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy together with numerical simulations, we quantitatively demonstrate how the Kondo exchange interaction mimics chemical tailoring and changes the magnetic anisotropy.

  10. Quantum engineering of spin and anisotropy in magnetic molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peter; Herden, Tobias; Muenks, Matthias; Laskin, Gennadii; Brovko, Oleg; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule magnets and single spin centres can be individually addressed when coupled to contacts forming an electrical junction. To control and engineer the magnetism of quantum devices, it is necessary to quantify how the structural and chemical environment of the junction affects the spin centre. Metrics such as coordination number or symmetry provide a simple method to quantify the local environment, but neglect the many-body interactions of an impurity spin coupled to contacts. Here, we utilize a highly corrugated hexagonal boron nitride monolayer to mediate the coupling between a cobalt spin in CoHx (x=1,2) complexes and the metal contact. While hydrogen controls the total effective spin, the corrugation smoothly tunes the Kondo exchange interaction between the spin and the underlying metal. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy together with numerical simulations, we quantitatively demonstrate how the Kondo exchange interaction mimics chemical tailoring and changes the magnetic anisotropy. PMID:26456084

  11. A large-area mesoporous array of magnetic nanostructure with perpendicular anisotropy integrated on Si wafers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Tofizur; Shams, Nazmun N; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2008-08-13

    Large-area, over several square centimeters, mesoporous array of magnetic nanostructure with perpendicular anisotropy is prepared by depositing Co/Pt multilayers (MLs) on a mesopore array of anodized alumina (AAO) fabricated on Si wafers. The MLs are mainly deposited on the top of AAO walls and perimeters of the pores; very small amounts of magnetic material reach the bottom due to the high aspect ratio of AAO. Consequently, ordered pores are present in the magnetic MLs. The mean pore diameter of the fabricated mesoporous array is 8.83nm with a standard deviation of 3.16nm and density of about 2.1 10(11)cm(-2). The Co/Pt MLs deposited on AAO and Si both exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, but the perpendicular coercivity (H(c)) increases by 15 times on AAO compared to that on Si. On the other hand, the magnetic cluster size decreases from 1000nm (on Si) to 100nm due to the presence of high-density pores. The dramatic increase in H(c) and the decrease in magnetic cluster size suggest that the pores behave as effective pinning sites. The magnetization-switching characteristics of the fabricated porous structure are different from those of the continuous films or Stoner-Wohlfarth-type (S-W) particles. One of the potential applications of this mesoporous structure may be in the field of high-density magnetic data storage. PMID:21828809

  12. Effect of temperature on magnetic susceptibility and thermodynamic properties of an asymmetric quantum dot in tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the specific heat, entropy and magnetic susceptibility of an asymmetric GaAs quantum dot (QD) are studied under the influence of temperature and a tilted external magnetic field. We first calculate the analytical wave functions and energy levels using a transformation to simplify the Hamiltonian of the system. Then, we obtain the analytical expressions for specific heat, entropy and magnetic susceptibility as the function of temperature, magnetic field and its direction for various anisotropy of the system. According to the results obtained from the present work, we find that (i) the specific heat and entropy are decreased when the magnetic field increases. (ii) When anisotropy is increased, the specific heat and entropy decrease. (iii) At large magnetic fields, the anisotropy has not important effect on specific heat and entropy. In briefly, the magnetic field, magnetic field direction and anisotropy play important roles in the specific heat, entropy and magnetic susceptibility of an asymmetric QD.

  13. Voltage-induced strain control of the magnetic anisotropy in a Ni thin film on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zighem, F.; Faurie, D.; Mercone, S.; Belmeguenai, M.; Haddadi, H.

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy has been quantitatively studied in polycrystalline Ni thin film deposited on flexible substrate using microstrip ferromagnetic resonance. This anisotropy is induced by a piezoelectric actuator on which the film/substrate system was glued. In our work, the control of the anisotropy through the applied elastic strains is facilitated by the compliant elastic behavior of the substrate. The in-plane strains in the film induced by the piezoelectric actuation have been measured by the digital image correlation technique. Non-linear variation of the resonance field as function of the applied voltage is found and well reproduced by taking into account the non linear and hysteretic variations of the induced in-plane strains as function of the applied voltage. Moreover, we show that initial uniaxial anisotropy attributed to compliant substrate curvature is fully compensated by the voltage induced anisotropy.

  14. Kinetic growth of nanoclusters with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, S.; Dieterich, W.; Maass, P.

    2006-07-01

    The growth of binary-alloy clusters on a weakly interacting substrate through codeposition of two atomic species is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. Our model describes salient features of CoPt3 nanoclusters, as obtained recently by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique. The clusters display perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a temperature window of growth favorable for applications. This temperature window is found to arise from the interplay of Pt surface segregation and aspect ratio for cluster shapes. Conclusions are drawn on how to optimize growth parameters with respect to PMA.

  15. Magnetic ordering and slow dynamics in a Ho-based bulk metallic glass with moderate random magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Q.; Schwarz, B.; Mattern, N.; Eckert, J.

    2011-06-01

    Results of magnetic measurements are presented for a Ho-based bulk metallic glass, which shows similarities and differences with conventional spin glasses (SGs), and significant differences with weak random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) systems. Both ac and dc magnetic measurements indicate a single transition from paramagnetic to speromagnetic or spin glasslike state around 5.6 K. The moderate RMA prevents the formation of long- (or quasilong)-range magnetic order and slows down the spin dynamics in the critical region. Further its isothermal remnant magnetization exhibits a small maximum, instead of a gradual increase with field in SGs. The roles of RMA in the magnetic structure and dynamics of disordered and frustrated systems are discussed by comparisons between the weak RMA system, the moderate or strong RMA system, and conventional SG.

  16. Tri-axial magnetic anisotropies in RE{sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 15−y} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Horii, Shigeru Doi, Toshiya; Okuhira, Shota; Yamaki, Momoko; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-21

    We report a novel quantification method of tri-axial magnetic anisotropy in orthorhombic substances containing rare earth (RE) ions using tri-axial magnetic alignment and tri-axial magnetic anisotropies depending on the type of RE in RE-based cuprate superconductors. From the changes in the axes for magnetization in magnetically aligned powders of (RE′{sub 1−x}RE″{sub x}){sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub y} [(RE′,RE″)247] containing RE ions with different single-ion magnetic anisotropies, the ratios of three-dimensional magnetic anisotropies between RE′247 and RE″247 could be determined. The results in (Y,Er)247, (Dy,Er)247, (Ho,Er)247, and (Y,Eu)247 systems suggest that magnetic anisotropies largely depended on the type of RE′ (or RE″), even in the heavy RE ions with higher magnetic anisotropies. An appropriate choice of RE ions in RE-based cuprate superconductors enables the reduction of the required magnetic field for the production of their bulks and thick films based on the tri-axial magnetic alignment technique using modulated rotation magnetic fields.

  17. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  18. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures. PMID:26456454

  19. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures. PMID:26456454

  20. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures.

  1. Effects of Heating on Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of Impact Breccias From the Chicxulub Crater, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Delgadillo, M.; Velasco, M.; Soler-Arechalde, A.

    2005-12-01

    Interest on investigating effects of heating on the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (AMS) has increased and studies on a wider range of lithologies are being analyzed. Initial studies on sedimentary rocks documented enhancement of the AMS fabrics with laboratory heating. Here we concentrate on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of impact breccias measured at low magnetic fields; in particular, on the effects of laboratory heating on the AMS and potential use in enhancing the directional magnetic fabrics. We report results for the breccia sequence of the Chicxulub crater, which is a large complex multi-ring structure formed in the Yucatan carbonate platform at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Samples are recovered from cores recovered in the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole (between about 800 to 900 m depth), which was drilled in the southern inner sector of the crater. Chicxulub breccias present carbonate-rich and melt-rich matrix, with clasts from a large range of lithologies from the Yucatan basement units and melt material. In general, study of the anisotropic properties of magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetizations of impact lithologies has received relatively little attention in paleomagnetic research. These studies have implications for the cratering processes, generation and deposition of breccias, and hydrothermal metamorphism. Mineralogical changes resulting from heating samples have been recognized, but no data on impact lithologies including breccias and melt rocks have been reported. The use of temperature induced effects to investigate composite magnetic fabrics in heterogeneous materials such as the impact breccias is discussed.

  2. First-order magnetization process as a tool of magnetic-anisotropy determination: Application to the uranium-based intermetallic U3C u4G e4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. I.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.; Skourski, Y.; Richter, M.; Havela, L.; Wosnitza, J.

    2016-02-01

    Uranium-based intermetallic compounds often display very strong magnetic anisotropies, the energy of which is usually not directly accessible by common experimental methods. Here, we report on static- and pulsed-field studies of U3C u4G e4 . This material orders ferromagnetically at TC=73 K with the easy magnetization direction along the a axis and a strong b c -plane anisotropy. The magnetization measured for fields along the hard b direction displays a first-order magnetization process that can be described well by use of a phenomenological theory yielding anisotropy constants up to the sixth order. This phenomenological description, working excellently for U3C u4G e4 , may also be applied for other uranium-based compounds.

  3. Enhanced current-induced domain wall motion by tuning perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2011-03-01

    The effect of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on current-induced domain wall (DW) motion is investigated by micromagnetic simulations. The critical current density JC to drive DWs into periodic transformation and continuous motion by adiabatic spin transfer torque decreases with increasing PMA. Also, with optimized PMA that almost exactly compensates the demagnetizing field, the adiabatic displacement of DWs driven by currents less than JC is strongly enhanced. Since PMA can be controlled easily in magnetic multilayer films, this technique of enhancing current-induced DW motion may be practical for device applications.

  4. Magnetic Fields and Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schep, T.J.

    2004-03-15

    Plasmas and magnetic fields are inseparably related in numerous physical circumstances. This is not only the case in natural occurring plasmas like the solar corona and the earth magnetic tail, but also in laboratory plasmas like tokamaks and stellarators.

  5. Solar wind turbulence: anisotropy, anisotropy, anisotropy!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, R.; Forman, M. A.; Summerlin, E. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Salem, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Turbulence heats the solar wind as it expands away from the Sun, but where and how does heating of ions and electrons occur? In order to understand this we must first look at the fluctuations making up the cascade, the properties and anisotropies of which will determine whether ions or electrons are heated and whether field-parallel or -perpendicular heating will occur, all of which amounts to a lot of different anisotropies! With this in mind, we present a review of recent advances in the observation of plasma turbulence in the solar wind and comparison with simulations; which features of solar wind turbulence are well reproduced and which need to be captured better? The first anisotropy is that of the fluctuations making up the turbulent cascade itself, fluctuations are known to be highly transverse, meaning that the perpendicular magnetic field components are dominant over the field-parallel component. The second anisotropy is that of the scaling of amplitude towards smaller scales with steeper spectra parallel to the local magnetic field direction. Observations of the anisotropy of the full power spectral tensor will be discussed, in particular with reference to Alfvenic and pseudo-Alfvenic fluctuations (effectively two different polarizations of Alfven waves), the next step beyond the traditional "slab + 2D" approach to incompressible MHD turbulence. The third anisotropy is that of the ion and electron distributions. Both sets of charged particles frequently show non-Maxwellian distributions with higher temperatures found either perpendicular to or parallel to the magnetic field direction. Proton distributions often show beams and the heavier alpha particles are often hotter than the protons. Localized structures such as current sheets and magnetic discontinuities are shown to be sites of intense and anisotropic heating. Small scale fluctuations filling the space between such discontinuities may also dissipate energy into ions and electrons, either through electric fields intrinsic to the modes generated by the turbulence or through resonant or stochastic processes. Observations show that kinetic Alfven waves are the dominant mode.

  6. Disclinations: The magnetism and the magnetic anisotropies of the rare-earth--3d transition-metal hard magnets (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E.; Bennett, L.H.; Melamud, M.

    1988-04-15

    An important class of hard magnets, involving rare earth and 3d transition metals and sometimes metalloids, includes Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B and Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/. We have noted a correlation between the local site magnetism in these two compounds and whether those sites lie on nets of so-called major ligand lines or disclinations, i.e., bond lines shared by six common nearest neighbors. We have proposed that a criterion for choosing candidate alloys with strong 3d moments is the occurrence of such disclination nets, and using this criterion, have listed several structures having 3d sites with this characteristic. We have also rationalized the crystal field anisotropies as relating to the orientation of the major ligand lines.

  7. Disclinations: The magnetism and the magnetic anisotropies of the rare earth-3d transition metal hard magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E.; Bennett, L.H.; Melamud, M.

    1987-01-01

    An important class of hard magnets, involving rare earth and 3d transition metals and sometimes metalloids, includes Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B and Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/. We have noted a correlation between the local site magnetism in these two compounds and whether those sites lie on nets of so called major ligand lines or disclinations, i.e., bond lines shared by six common nearest neighbors. We have proposed that a criterion for choosing candidate alloys with strong 3d moments is the occurrence of such disclination nets, and using this criterion, have listed several structures having 3d sites with this characteristic. We have also rationalized the crystal field anisotropies as relating to the orientation of the major ligand lines. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Magnetic structure and anisotropy of [Co/Pd ] 5/NiFe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Guo, Feng; Liu, Frank; Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Mohseni, Majid S.; Chung, Sunjae; Fang, Yeyu; kerman, Johan; McMichael, R. D.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetization behavior, magnetic anisotropy, and domain configurations of Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy capped with permalloy is investigated using magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance. The thickness of the Ni80Fe20 layer in [Co/Pd ] 5/NiFe (t ) was varied from t =0 to 80 nm in order to study the interplay between the anisotropy and magnetization directions of Co/Pd and NiFe. By varying the thickness of the NiFe layer, the net anisotropy changes sign, but domains with plane-normal magnetization are present even for the thickest NiFe. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show a decrease in damping with increasing NiFe thickness. The results demonstrate how the magnetic behavior of mixed-anisotropy thin films can be controlled.

  9. Impurity-induced enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Fe/MgO tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallal, A.; Dieny, B.; Chshiev, M.

    2014-08-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the impact of chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V) impurities on the magnetic anisotropy and spin polarization in Fe/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions. It is demonstrated, using layer resolved anisotropy calculation technique, that while the impurity near the interface has a drastic effect in decreasing the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), its position within the bulk allows maintaining high interfacial PMA while reducing the bulk magnetization and correlatively the easy-plane demagnetizing energy. As a result, the effective magnetic anisotropy tends to increase as a function of the Cr or V concentration resulting in an increase in the critical magnetic thickness at which the crossover from out-of-plane to in-plane anisotropy takes place. At the same time, the interfacial spin polarization is not affected by the magnetic layer bulk doping by Cr or V impurities and even enhanced in most situations thus favoring an increase of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) amplitude.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic damping in LSMO/STO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hankyu; Barsukov, Igor; Yang, Liu; Swartz, Adrian; Kim, Bongju; Hwang, Harold; Krivorotov, Ilya

    2015-03-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) is a promising material for spintronics applications due to its half-metallic nature. To successively exploit LSMO, both the magnetic anisotropy (MA) and damping need to be well understood and, ultimately, controlled. Here, we study 30 nm epitaxial LSMO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on TiO2 terminated (001)SrTiO3. By means of angle- and frequency dependent ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature, we separate various contributions to the in-plane MA: i) The four-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is present but negligibly small. ii) The strongest contribution Buni = 4.2 mT is uniaxial with EA along [010]. While uniaxial MA in LSMO systems is commonly related to terrace formation from the substrate miscut, we find that the terrace direction and the MA symmetry axes do not correlate, indicating a different origin of the MA. By evaluating the FMR linewidth, three nonlinear magnetic damping channels due to the two-magnon scattering are found: j) The dominant four-fold contribution with maxima along < 100 > axes emerges due to the crystalline defects. jj) A two-fold contribution with the maximum along [010] and jjj) a small two-fold contribution with maximum perpendicular to the terraces are identified.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy of NaxCoO2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. P.; Wang, Xiaolin; Lin, C. T.; Dou, S. X.

    2008-04-01

    We report the magnetic properties of single crystals of NaxCoO2 (x =0.42, 0.82, and 0.87). The magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed considerable anisotropy along H ?ab and H ?c for the as-grown single crystals. It was found that an antiferromagnetic transition with a Neel temperature TN=21K occurred for the x =0.82 sample, and there was a paramagnetic phase for the x =0.87 sample over a wide temperature range from 2to300K, but the sample with x =0.42 shows a monotonic increase of ? with increasing temperature above 100K. In addition, the x =0.82 sample has the largest derived anisotropic g-factor ratio (gab/gc1.30), whereas the sample with x =0.42 is nearly isotropic (gab/gc0.96).

  12. Pentacoordinate Ni(II) complexes: preparation, magnetic measurements, and ab initio calculations of the magnetic anisotropy terms.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Maurice, Rmi; Vendier, Laure

    2012-03-26

    Two novel mononuclear five-coordinate nickel complexes with distorted square-pyramidal geometries are presented. They result from association of a tridentate "half-unit" ligand and 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine according to a stepwise process that highlights the advantage of coordination chemistry in isolating an unstable tridentate ligand by nickel chelation. Their zero-field splittings (ZFS) were studied by means of magnetic data and state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical axial D parameters confirms that large single-ion nickel anisotropies are accessible. The synthetic process can also yield dinuclear nickel complexes in which the nickel ions are hexacoordinate. This possibility is facilitated by the presence of phenoxo oxygen atoms in the tridentate ligand that can introduce a bridge between the two nickel ions. Two different double bridges are characterized, with the bridging oxygen atoms coming from each nickel ion or from the same nickel ion. This coordination change introduces a difference in the antiferromagnetic interaction parameter J. Although the magnetic data confirm the presence of single-ion anisotropies in these complexes, these terms cannot be determined in a straightforward way from experiment due to the mismatch between the principal axes of the local anisotropies and the presence of intersite anisotropies. PMID:22354459

  13. Detection of electron energy distribution function anisotropy in a magnetized electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using a directional Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Kitaoka, H.

    2014-07-15

    Anisotropy in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma with magnetized electrons and weakly magnetized ions is experimentally investigated using a directional Langmuir probe. Under an assumption of independent EEDFs in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, the directional variation of the EEDF is evaluated. In the measured EEDFs, a significantly large population density of electrons with energies larger than 30 eV is found in one of the cross-field directions depending on the magnetic field direction. With the aid of an electron trajectory calculation, it is suggested that the observed anisotropic electrons originate from the EEDF anisotropy and the cross-field electron drift.

  14. Spin-transfer-torque switching in spin valve structures with perpendicular, canted, and in-plane magnetic anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, U.; Seinige, H.; Ferdousi, F.; Mantey, J.; Tsoi, M.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    We exploit canted anisotropies as possible means to enhance spin-transfer-torque (STT) and reduce switching currents. The STTs in spin-valve structures with perpendicular, canted, and, as a reference, in-plane magnetic anisotropies were studied. For perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and canted spin valves the thicknesses and number of Co and Pt layers were varied to obtain different angles of the magnetic anisotropy with respect to the sample plane. Point contact measurements were used to measure the change in the switching-field of the magnetization with the change in the bias current applied to the point contact. A larger STT effect, as evidenced by a larger change in the switching magnetic field for the unit change in the dc bias current, was observed for the sample with 45° tilt in magnetization compared to a sample with 12° tilt. Tilted magnetization of the reference layer causes precessional switching, decreasing the switching energy and time. Micromagnetic simulations were performed to explain the experimental observations.

  15. Giant magnetic anisotropy in Li3-xFexN permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesche, Anton; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Single crystals of Li2(Li1-xFex)N were successfully grown out of Li-flux. Fe-concentrations and lattice parameters were determined by means of single crystal and powder diffraction which also confirmed the substitution of Fe on only one of the Li sites resulting in Li1-xFex layers separated by Li2N layers. Magnetization measurements revealed a ferromagnetically ordered ground state with Curie temperatures of ~ 60 K for Fe concentrations of x ~ 20 %. Large saturation moments of up to 5 ?B per Fe atom were found along the hexagonal crystallographic c-axis. These values exceed the spin-only contribution of Fe and are also reflected in correspondingly large effective moments at room temperature. The anisotropy field at T = 2 K, defined as intersection of the magnetization for M ? c and M ? c , can be estimated to lie well beyond 100 Tesla. Electrical resistivity measurements show insulating behavior and raise questions about the nature of the underlying magnetic exchange mechanism. This work is supported by the US DOE, Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  16. Emergence of noncollinear anisotropies from interfacial magnetic frustration in exchange-bias systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, E.; Camarero, J.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Mikuszeit, N.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Hoffmann, A.; Dieny, B.; Miranda, R.; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona; Inst. de Microelectronica de Madrid; SPINTEC

    2009-01-01

    Exchange bias, referred to the interaction between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM), is a fundamental interfacial magnetic phenomenon, which is key to current and future applications. The effect was discovered half a century ago, and it is well established that the spin structures at the FM/AFM interface play an essential role. However, currently, ad hoc phenomenological anisotropies are often postulated without microscopic justification or sufficient experimental evidence to address magnetization-reversal behavior in exchange-bias systems. We advance toward a detailed microscopic understanding of the magnetic anisotropies in exchange-bias FM/AFM systems by showing that symmetry-breaking anisotropies leave a distinct fingerprint in the asymmetry of the magnetization reversal and we demonstrate how these emerging anisotropies are correlated with the intrinsic anisotropy. Angular and vectorial resolved Kerr hysteresis loops from FM/AFM bilayers with varying degree of ferromagnetic anisotropy reveal a noncollinear anisotropy, which becomes important for ferromagnets with vanishing intrinsic anisotropy. Numerical simulations show that this anisotropy naturally arises from the inevitable spin frustration at an atomically rough FM/AFM interface. As a consequence, we show in detail how the differences observed for different materials during magnetization reversal can be understood in general terms as originating from the interplay between interfacial frustration and intrinsic anisotropies. This understanding will certainly open additional avenues to tailor future advanced magnetic materials.

  17. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy and organization of nanoparticles in heads and antennae of neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Odivaldo C.; Srygley, Robert B.; Riveros, Andre J.; Barbosa, Marcia A.; Esquivel, Darci M. S.; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2014-10-01

    Oriented magnetic nanoparticles have been suggested as a good candidate for a magnetic sensor in ants. Behavioural evidence for a magnetic compass in neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Formicidae: Attini), motivated a study of the arrangement of magnetic particles in the ants four major body parts by measuring the angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra at room temperature. Spectra of the thoraces and those of the abdomens showed no significant angular dependence, while those of the antennae and those of the heads exhibited a periodic dependence relative to the magnetic field. Fitting of the angular dependence of the resonant field resulted in an unexpected magnetic anisotropy with uniaxial symmetry. High values of the first order anisotropy constant were observed for the magnetic material in antennae (-2.9? ?105?erg?cm-3) and heads (-1? ?106?erg?cm-3) as compared to body parts of other social insects. In addition, the magnitude of the anisotropy in the heads was comparable to that observed in magnetite nanoparticles of 4-5?nm diameter. For the antennae, the mean angle of the particles easy magnetization axis (EA) was estimated to be 41 relative to the straightened antennas long axis. For the heads, EA was approximately 60 relative to the heads axis running from midway between the spines to the clypeus. These physical characteristics indicate organized magnetic nanoparticles with a potential for directional sensitivity, which is an important feature of magnetic compasses.

  19. On the limits of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy tuning by a ripple surface pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, Jose M.; Palomares, Francisco J.

    2014-05-14

    Ion beam patterning of a nanoscale ripple surface has emerged as a versatile method of imprinting uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) on a desired in-plane direction in magnetic films. In the case of ripple patterned thick films, dipolar interactions around the top and/or bottom interfaces are generally assumed to drive this effect following Schlömann's calculations for demagnetizing fields of an ideally sinusoidal surface [E. Schlömann, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1617 (1970)]. We have explored the validity of his predictions and the limits of ion beam sputtering to induce UMA in a ferromagnetic system where other relevant sources of magnetic anisotropy are neglected: ripple films not displaying any evidence of volume uniaxial anisotropy and where magnetocrystalline contributions average out in a fine grain polycrystal structure. To this purpose, the surface of 100 nm cobalt films grown on flat substrates has been irradiated at fixed ion energy, fixed ion fluency but different ion densities to make the ripple pattern at the top surface with wavelength Λ and selected, large amplitudes (ω) up to 20 nm so that stray dipolar fields are enhanced, while the residual film thickness t = 35–50 nm is sufficiently large to preserve the continuous morphology in most cases. The film-substrate interface has been studied with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles and is found that there is a graded silicon-rich cobalt silicide, presumably formed during the film growth. This graded interface is of uncertain small thickness but the range of compositions clearly makes it a magnetically dead layer. On the other hand, the ripple surface rules both the magnetic coercivity and the uniaxial anisotropy as these are found to correlate with the pattern dimensions. Remarkably, the saturation fields in the hard axis of uniaxial continuous films are measured up to values as high as 0.80 kG and obey a linear dependence on the parameter ω{sup 2}/Λ/t in quantitative agreement with Schlömann's prediction for a surface anisotropy entirely ruled by dipolar interaction. The limits of UMA tuning by a ripple pattern are discussed in terms of the surface local angle with respect to the mean surface and of the onset of ripple detachment.

  20. High-spin organic molecules with dominant spin-orbit contribution and unprecedentedly large magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misochko, Eugenii Ya.; Akimov, Alexander V.; Masitov, Artem A.; Korchagin, Denis V.; Yakushchenko, Igor K.; Chapyshev, Sergei V.

    2012-08-01

    High-spin organic molecules with dominant spin-orbit contribution to magnetic anisotropy are reported. Quintet 4-azido-3,5-dibromopyridyl-2,6-dinitrene (Q-1), quintet 2-azido-3,5-dibromopyridyl-4,6-dinitrene (Q-2), and septet 3,5-dibromopyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene (S-1) were generated in solid argon matrices by ultraviolet irradiation of 2,4,6-triazido-3,5-dibromopyridine. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters, derived from electron spin resonance spectra, show unprecedentedly large magnitudes of the parameters D: |DQ1| = 0.289, |DQ2| = 0.373, and |DS1| = 0.297 cm-1. The experimental ZFS parameters were successfully reproduced by density functional theory calculations, confirming that magnetic anisotropy of high-spin organic molecules can considerably be enhanced by the "heavy atom effect." In bromine-containing high-spin nitrenes, the spin-orbit term is dominant and governs both the magnitude and the sign of magnetic anisotropy. The largest negative value of D among septet trinitrenes is predicted for 1,3,5-trinitrenobenzene bearing three heavy atoms (Br) in positions 2, 4, and 6 of the benzene ring.

  1. Magnetic anisotropy energy in disordered Ge1-xMnx Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, A.; Bogusławski, P.; Story, T.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically analyze the influence of chemical disorder on magnetic anisotropy in Ge1-xMnx Te semiconductor layers known to exhibit carrier-induced ferromagnetism and ferroelectric distortion of rhombohedral crystal lattice. Using DFT method we determine the local changes in the crystal structure due to Mn ions substitution for Ge and due to the presence in Ge1-xMnx Te of very high concentration of cation vacancies. We calculate the effect of this structural and chemical disorder on single ion magnetic anisotropy mechanism and show that its contribution is of the order of magnitude smaller as compared to magnetic anisotropy mechanism originating from the spin polarization induced by Mn ions into neighboring Te and Ge ions. We also discuss magnetic anisotropy effects due to pairs of Mn ions differently allocated in the lattice. The spatial averaging over chemical disorder strongly reduces the strength of this magnetic anisotropy mechanism and restores the global rhombohedral symmetry of magnetic system.

  2. Giant reversible rotating cryomagnetocaloric effect in KEr (MoO4)2 induced by a crystal-field anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tk?, V.; Orend?ov, A.; ?imr, E.; Orend?, M.; Feher, A.; Anders, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetocaloric properties of KEr(MoO4)2 single crystals were investigated using magnetization and specific heat measurements in the magnetic field applied along the easy and hard axis. Large conventional magnetocaloric effect was found around 10 K (-? Smax =14 J/kg K for 5 T) in the field applied along the easy axis. What is more, a huge magnetic anisotropy in the a b plane leads to a large anisotropy of magnetocaloric effect, -? SR ,max =10 and 13 J/kg K obtained by a simple rotating of the single crystal within the a b plane in the constant magnetic field 2 and 5 T, respectively. Large ? SR values with no hysteresis losses and rather wide working temperature spans imply that KEr(MoO4)2 may serve as a promising candidate for the implementation of a compact rotary magnetic cryorefrigerator.

  3. Time-dependent domain wall nucleation probability in field-coupled nanomagnets with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkreutz, Stephan; Fischer, Andreas; Kaffah, Silmi; Weigl, Stephanie; Eichwald, Irina; Ziemys, Grazvydas; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris; Becherer, Markus

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the domain wall (DW) nucleation time and the DW nucleation probability of field-coupled magnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are measured by experiment. A well-established Arrhenius model based on thermally activated magnetization reversal is applied to describe the time-dependent DW nucleation probability. Magneto-optical microscopy(MOKE) is used in the experiments to determine the DW nucleation time and the DW nucleation probability in a pNML inverter structure. The DW propagation speed is measured in order to calculate the required DW propagation time for entire magnetization reversal of pNML logic gates. Experimental results are compared to the derived model. Our results show that the interaction in pNML logic gates plays a significant role for the time-dependent DW nucleation probability and therefore for the reliability of field-coupled circuits.

  4. Magnetic field generator

    DOEpatents

    Krienin, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility curves of a nanoparticle assembly, I: Theoretical model and analytical expressions for a single magnetic anisotropy energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournus, F.; Bonet, E.

    2011-05-01

    We study a model system made of non-interacting monodomain ferromagnetic nanoparticles, considered as macrospins, with a randomly oriented uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. We derive a simple differential equation governing the magnetic moment evolution in an experimental magnetic susceptibility measurement, at low field and as a function of temperature, following the well-known Zero-Field Cooled/Field Cooled (ZFC/FC) protocol. Exact and approximate analytical solutions are obtained, together for the ZFC curve and the FC curve. The notion of blocking temperature is discussed and the influence of various parameters on the curves is investigated. A crossover temperature is defined and a comparison is made between our progressive crossover model (PCM) and the crude "two states" or abrupt transition model (ATM), where the particles are assumed to be either fully blocked or purely superparamagnetic. We consider here the case of a single magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE), which is a prerequisite before considering the more realistic and experimentally relevant case of an assembly of particles with a MAE distribution (cf. part II that follows).

  6. Magnetic dispersion and anisotropy in multiferroic BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Fishman, Randy Scott; Hong, Tao; Lee, C. H.; Ushiyama, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the full magnetic dispersion relations of multiferroic BiFeO3. In particular, two excitation gaps originating from magnetic anisotropies have been clearly observed. The direct observation of the gaps enables us to accurately determine the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and the single ion anisotropy. The DM interaction supports a sizable magneto-electric coupling in this compound.

  7. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface.

    PubMed

    Oyarzn, Simn; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Vronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3?nm diameter. PMID:26439626

  8. Statistical anisotropy of the curvature perturbation from vector field perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Lyth, David H.; Rodriguez, Yeinzon E-mail: m.karciauskas@lancaster.ac.uk E-mail: yeinzon.rodriguez@uan.edu.co

    2009-05-15

    The {delta}N formula for the primordial curvature perturbation {zeta} is extended to include vector as well as scalar fields. Formulas for the tree-level contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum of {zeta} are given, exhibiting statistical anisotropy. The one-loop contribution to the spectrum of {zeta} is also worked out. We then consider the generation of vector field perturbations from the vacuum, including the longitudinal component that will be present if there is no gauge invariance. Finally, the {delta}N formula is applied to the vector curvaton and vector inflation models with the tensor perturbation also evaluated in the latter case.

  9. Anisotropy Effect on Levitation Performance of Bulk High-Tc Superconductors Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Liao, Xinglin; Jing, Hailian; Lin, Qunxu; Ma, Guangtong; Yen, Fei; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu

    The anisotropy properties of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) are taken into consideration for the application of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems, which are especially based on the different flux-trapping capabilities as well as critical current density, Jc, values between the growth section boundary (GSB) and the growth sections (GS) in bulk superconductors. By adjusting the angle between the GSB of bulk HTSCs and the strongest magnetic field position of a permanent magnet guideway (PMG), the levitation force and its relaxation processes are compared at different field-cooling conditions. Experimental results show that the levitation capability and the suppression of levitation force decay can be enhanced by optimizing the GS/GSB alignment of every bulk HTSC above the PMG. Meanwhile, our conclusions may provide references to other HTS maglev systems with small levitation gaps, i.e., superconducting magnetic bearings.

  10. Modulation of the coordination environment: a convenient approach to tailor magnetic anisotropy in seven coordinate Co(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mamon; Dutta, Snigdha; Sarma, Bipul; Deka, Ramesh Ch; Gogoi, Nayanmoni

    2015-12-24

    The possibility of controlling magnetic anisotropy by tuning contribution of second order perturbation to spin-orbit coupling through modulation of the coordination environment is investigated. Subtle variation of the coordination environment triggers a remarkable deviation in the axial zero field splitting parameter of seven coordinate Co(ii) complexes. PMID:26568254

  11. Magnetic anisotropy in isotropic and nanopatterned strongly exchange-coupled nanolayers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the fabrication of magnetic multilayers with a controlled value of the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field in the range of 12 to 72 kA/m was achieved. This fabrication was accomplished by the deposition of bilayers consisting of an obliquely deposited (54) 8-nm-thick anisotropic Co layer and a second isotropic Co layer that was deposited at a normal incidence over the first layer. By changing the thickness value of this second Co layer (X) by modifying the deposition time, the value of the anisotropy field of the sample could be controlled. For each sample, the thickness of each bilayer did not exceed the value of the exchange correlation length calculated for these Co bilayers. To increase the volume of the magnetic films without further modification of their magnetic properties, a Ta spacer layer was deposited between successive Co bilayers at 54 to prevent direct exchange coupling between consecutive Co bilayers. This step was accomplished through the deposition of multilayered films consisting of several (Co8 nm-54/CoX nm-0/Ta6 nm-54) trilayers. PMID:23088782

  12. Anisotropy of the field-induced kinetic energy density in Bi2212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. P.; da Silva, R. R.; Pureur, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the in-field kinetic energy density in two Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals. The kinetic energy density is determined from magnetization measurements performed above the irreversibility line. Anisotropy effects are observed when an external magnetic field is applied in the direction perpendicular or parallel to the superconducting Cu-O2 planes. When the field is applied parallel to the c-axis, the most relevant contribution to the kinetic energy comes from the Abrikosov vortices. At low fields, an additional term related to granularity is also observed. A kink in the kinetic energy density associated to the decoupling of the superconducting layers is identified when the field is applied parallel to the ab planes.

  13. In-plane anisotropy of coercive field in permalloy square ring arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Metlushko, V. V.; Bordignon, G.; Fangohr, H.; Karapetrov, G.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Ilic, B.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Southampton; Univ. Illinois at Chicago; Cornell Univ.

    2006-04-15

    Magnetic ring arrays are promising candidates for application in magnetic random access memory devices. The magnetic reversal processes and anisotropy of the coercivity in arrays of square-shaped nanorings with different spacings were investigated by vector magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and micromagnetic simulations. Two-step magnetization reversal demonstrates fourfold symmetry in the film plane resulting from the shape anisotropy in rings. Our numerical simulations show good agreement with the experiment.

  14. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  15. Modification of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and domain wall velocity in Pt/Co/Pt by voltage-induced strain

    PubMed Central

    Shepley, P. M.; Rushforth, A. W.; Wang, M.; Burnell, G.; Moore, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Keff, magnetization reversal, and field-driven domain wall velocity in the creep regime are modified in Pt/Co(0.851.0?nm)/Pt thin films by strain applied via piezoelectric transducers. Keff, measured by the extraordinary Hall effect, is reduced by 10?kJ/m3 by tensile strain out-of-plane ?z = 9 10?4, independently of the film thickness, indicating a dominant volume contribution to the magnetostriction. The same strain reduces the coercive field by 24?Oe, and increases the domain wall velocity measured by wide-field Kerr microscopy by 30-100%, with larger changes observed for thicker Co layers. We consider how strain-induced changes in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can modify the coercive field and domain wall velocity. PMID:25605499

  16. Electron concentration dependent magnetization and magnetic anisotropy in ZnO:Mn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, J. L.; Biasini, M.; Beyermann, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    Well-above room temperature and electron concentration dependent ferromagnetism was observed in n-type ZnO:Mn films, indicating long-range ferromagnetic order. Magnetic anisotropy was also observed in these ZnO:Mn films, which is another indication for intrinsic ferromagnetism. The electron-mediated ferromagnetism in n-type ZnO:Mn contradicts the existing theory that the magnetic exchange in ZnO:Mn materials is mediated by holes.

  17. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields are a major agent in the interstellar medium. They contribute significantly to the total pressure which balances the gas disk against gravitation. They affect the gas flows in spiral arms (Gmez and Cox, 2002). The effective sound speed of the gas is increased by the presence of strong fields which reduce the shock strength. The interstellar fields are closely connected to gas clouds. They affect the dynamics of the gas clouds (Elmegreen, 1981; de Avillez and Breitschwerdt, 2004). The stability and evolution of gas clouds are also influenced by magnetic fields, but it is not understood how (Crutcher, 1999; see Chap. 7). Magnetic fields are essential for the onset of star formation as they enable the removal of angular momentum from the protostellar cloud during its collapse (magnetic braking, Mouschovias, 1990). Strong fields may shift the stellar mass spectrum towards the more massive stars (Mestel, 1990). MHD turbulence distributes energy from supernova explosions within the ISM (Subramanian, 1998) and regenerates the field via the dynamo process (Wielebinski, R., Krause, 1993, Beck et al., 1996; Sect. 6). Magnetic reconnection is a possible heating source for the ISM and halo gas (Birk et al., 1998). Magnetic fields also control the density and distribution of cosmic rays in the ISM. A realistic model for any process in the ISM needs basic information about the magnetic field which has to be provided by observations.

  18. Glycoligands tuning the magnetic anisotropy of Ni(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Charron, Galle; Bellot, Franois; Cisnetti, Federico; Pelosi, Giorgio; Rebilly, Jean-Nol; Rivire, Eric; Barra, Anne-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Policar, Clotilde

    2007-01-01

    Two organic ligands based on a sugar-scaffold derived from galactose and possessing three O-CH(2)-pyridine pendant arms at the 3-, 4-, and 5-positions of the galactopyranose that act as chelates afford mononuclear complexes when reacted with a Ni(II) salt. The magnetization behavior in the form of M=f(H/T) plots suggests the presence of appreciable magnetic anisotropy within the two complexes. The analysis of the EPR spectra performed at two different temperatures (7 and 17 K) and at three frequencies (190, 285, and 380 GHz) leads to the conclusion that the anisotropy has a high degree of axiality (E/D=0.17 for the two complexes), but with a different sign of the D parameter. The spin hamiltonian parameters D and E were reproduced for the two complexes by using calculations based on the angular overlap model (AOM). The structural difference between the two complexes responsible of the sign of the D parameters was also determined using AOM calculations. A thorough analysis of the structures showed that the structural differences in the coordination sphere of the two complexes responsible of the different D parameter sign result from the nature of the sugar scaffolds. In complex 1, the sugar scaffold imposes an intramolecular hydrogen bond with one of the atoms linked to Ni(II); this arrangement leads to a distorted coordination sphere and positive D value, while the absence of such a hydrogen bond in complex 2 leads to a less distorted environment around the Ni center and to a negative D value. PMID:17295363

  19. Tuning transverse anisotropy in Co(III)-Co(II)-Co(III) mixed-valence complex toward slow magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dayu; Zhang, Xingxing; Huang, Ping; Huang, Wei; Ruan, Mingyue; Ouyang, Z W

    2013-10-01

    Two cobalt mixed-valence complexes with different substituents have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to alter slow magnetic relaxation by tailoring the transverse anisotropy. The trinuclear complexes [(L(1))4Co3(H2O)2](NO3)4CH3OH5H2O (1-NO3) and [(L(2))4Co3(H2O)2](NO3)46H2O (2-NO3) feature a distorted octahedral Co(II) strongly hindered in a trinuclear Co(III)-Co(II)-Co(III) mixed-valence array. Detailed magnetic studies of 1-NO3 and 2-NO3 have been conducted using direct- and alternating-current magnetic susceptibility data. In accordance with variable-field magnetic susceptibility data at low temperatures, high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-EPR) spectroscopy reveals the presence of an easy-plane anisotropy (D > 0) with a significant transverse component, E, in complexes 1-NO3 and 2-NO3. These findings indicate that the onset of the variation of distortion within complex 2-NO3 leads to a suppression of quantum tunneling of the magnetization within the easy plane, resulting in magnetic bistability and slow relaxation behavior. Consequently, the anisotropy energy scale associated with the relaxation barrier, 5.46 cm(-1) (?o = 1.03 10(-5) s), is determined by the transverse E term. The results demonstrate that slow magnetic relaxation can be switched through optimization of the transverse anisotropy associated with magnetic ions that possess easy-plane anisotropy. PMID:24044879

  20. Electric-field guiding of magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where an electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Particularly, the speed and direction of the skyrmion can be manipulated by designing a desired energy landscape electrically, which we describe within Thiele's analytical model and demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations including electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy. We additionally use this electric-field control to construct gates for controlling skyrmion motion exhibiting a transistorlike and multiplexerlike function. The proposed electric-field effect can thus provide a low-energy electrical knob to extend the reach of information processing with skyrmions.

  1. Investigation of magnetic properties in thick CoFeB alloy films for controllable anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Huang, Ya; Chen, Ruofei; Xu, Zhan

    2016-02-01

    CoFeB alloy material has attracted interest for its wide uses in magnetic memory devices and sensors. We investigate magnetic properties of thick Co40Fe40B20 films in the thickness range from 10 to 100 nm sandwiched by MgO and Ta layers. Strong in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is revealed in the as-deposited amorphous films by angular dependent magnetic measurements, and the growth-induced anisotropy is found to strongly depend on the film thickness. A fourfold cubic magnetic anisotropy develops with annealing, as a result of improved crystalline structure in films confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The observed magnetic properties can be explained by the superposition of the uniaxial and additional cubic magnetic anisotropy, tuned by annealing temperature.

  2. IrMn as exchange-biasing material in systems with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Besnier, Magali; Moritz, Jerome; Coey, J. M. D.

    2005-05-01

    Contact between a Co /Pt multilayer and an IrMn film leads to perpendicular exchange bias. The exchange bias field does not depend on the degree of (111) film texture and for Co /Pt multilayers with IrMn at the bottom it can be enhanced by magnetic field annealing. The perpendicular exchange bias of the Co /Pt-IrMn system is limited by a misalignment between the Co spins and the film normal, which is due to a negative magnetic anisotropy contribution from the Co /IrMn interface (KSCo /IrMn=-0.09mJ/m2). The insertion of a 3 thick Pt layer at the Co /IrMn interface maximizes the perpendicular exchange-bias field.

  3. Origin of the magnetic anisotropy in heptacoordinate Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ruamps, Renaud; Batchelor, Luke J; Maurice, Rmi; Gogoi, Nayanmoni; Jimnez-Lozano, Pablo; Guihry, Nathalie; de Graaf, Coen; Barra, Anne-Laure; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Mallah, Talal

    2013-01-14

    The nature and magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy of heptacoordinate mononuclear Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes were investigated by a combination of experiment and ab initio calculations. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters D of [Ni(H(2)DAPBH)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(2)?2?H(2)O (1) and [Co(H(2)DAPBH)(H(2)O)(NO(3))](NO(3)) [2; H(2)DAPBH = 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis- (benzoyl hydrazone)] were determined by means of magnetization measurements and high-field high-frequency EPR spectroscopy. The negative D value, and hence an easy axis of magnetization, found for the Ni(II) complex indicates stabilization of the highest M(S) value of the S = 1 ground spin state, while a large and positive D value, and hence an easy plane of magnetization, found for Co(II) indicates stabilization of the M(S) = 1/2 sublevels of the S = 3/2 spin state. Ab initio calculations were performed to rationalize the magnitude and the sign of D, by elucidating the chemical parameters that govern the magnitude of the anisotropy in these complexes. The negative D value for the Ni(II) complex is due largely to a first excited triplet state that is close in energy to the ground state. This relatively small energy gap between the ground and the first excited state is the result of a small energy difference between the d(xy) and d(x(2)-y(2)) orbitals owing to the pseudo-pentagonal-bipyramidal symmetry of the complex. For Co(II), all of the excited states contribute to a positive D value, which accounts for the large magnitude of the anisotropy for this complex. PMID:23180690

  4. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest—and more attractive—systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination—without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation—of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude. PMID:26634987

  5. THE ROLE OF PRESSURE ANISOTROPY ON PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Knizhnik, K.

    2013-02-20

    Voyager spacecraft observations have revealed that contrary to expectations, the source of anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) is not at the local termination shock. A possible mechanism of ACR acceleration is magnetic reconnection in the heliosheath. Using a particle-in-cell code, we investigate the effects of {beta} on reconnection-driven particle acceleration by studying island growth in multiple interacting Harris current sheets. Many islands are generated, and particles are dominantly heated through Fermi reflection in contracting islands during island growth and merging. There is a striking difference between the heating of electrons versus the heating of ions. There is a strong dependence of {beta} on electron heating, while the ion heating is insensitive to {beta}. Anisotropies develop with T {sub Parallel-To} {ne} T for both electrons and ions. The electron anisotropies support the development of a Weibel instability that suppresses the Fermi acceleration of the electrons. Since the Weibel instability develops at a larger T {sub Parallel-To }/T in lower {beta} systems, electrons are able to accelerate more efficiently by the Fermi mechanism at low {beta}. The variance in anisotropy implies less electron acceleration in higher {beta} systems, and thus less heating. This study sheds light on particle acceleration mechanisms within the sectored magnetic field regions of the heliosheath and the dissipation of turbulence such as that produced by the magnetorotational instability in accreting systems.

  6. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Prado, Yoann; Daffé, Niéli; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest--and more attractive--systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [Co(II)(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination--without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation--of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude. PMID:26634987

  7. Magnetic fields at Neptune

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, N.F. ); Acuna, M.H.; Burlaga, L.F.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Lepping, R.P. ); Neubauer, F.M. )

    1989-12-15

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10{sup {minus}5} gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R{sub N}. The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R{sub N} can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R{sub N} and inclined by 47{degrees} with respect to the rotation axis. Within 4 R{sub N}, the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an oblique rotator.

  8. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effectTuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-04-01

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  9. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effect—Tuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-04-21

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  10. Measuring temperature and field profiles in heat assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohlfeld, J.; Zheng, X.; Benakli, M.

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a theoretical and experimental framework that enables quantitative measurements of the temperature and magnetic field profiles governing the thermo-magnetic write process in heat assisted magnetic recording. Since our approach allows the identification of the correct temperature dependence of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy field in the vicinity of the Curie point as well, it provides an unprecedented experimental foundation to assess our understanding of heat assisted magnetic recording.

  11. Dielectric anisotropy in polar solvents under external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2015-08-01

    We investigate dielectric saturation and increment in polar liquids under external fields. We couple a previously introduced dipolar solvent model to a uniform electric field and derive the electrostatic kernel of interacting dipoles. This procedure allows an unambiguous definition of the liquid dielectric permittivity embodying non-linear dielectric response and correlation effects. We find that the presence of the external field results in a dielectric anisotropy characterized by a two-component dielectric permittivity tensor. The increase of the electric field amplifies the permittivity component parallel to the field direction, i.e. dielectric increment is observed along the field. However, the perpendicular component is lowered below the physiological permittivity {{\\varepsilon}w}≈ 77 , indicating dielectric saturation perpendicular to the field. By comparison with Molecular Dynamics simulations from the literature, we show that the mean-field level dielectric response theory underestimates dielectric saturation. The inclusion of dipolar correlations at the weak-coupling level intensify the mean-field level dielectric saturation and improves the agreement with simulation data at weak electric fields. The correlation-corrected theory predicts as well the presence of a metastable configuration corresponding to the antiparallel alignment of dipoles with the field. This prediction can be verified by solvent-explicit simulations where solvent molecules are expected to be trapped transiently in this metastable state.

  12. Observing magnetic anisotropy in electronic transport through individual single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Burzur, E; Gaudenzi, R; van der Zant, H S J

    2015-03-25

    We review different electron transport methods to probe the magnetic properties, such as the magnetic anisotropy, of an individual Fe4 SMM. The different approaches comprise first and higher order transport through the molecule. Gate spectroscopy, focusing on the charge degeneracy-point, is presented as a robust technique to quantify the longitudinal magnetic anisotropy of the SMM in different redox states. We provide statistics showing the robustness and reproducibility of the different methods. In addition, conductance measurements typically show high-energy excited states well beyond the ground spin multiplet of SMM. Some of these excitations have their origin in excited spin multiplets, others in vibrational modes of the molecule. The interplay between vibrations, charge and spin may yield a new approach for spin control. PMID:25721135

  13. Inter-grain interaction in random magnetic anisotropy simulation in magnetic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-J.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta; Mitsumata, Chiharu

    2015-05-07

    Effect of inter-grain exchange interaction on the coercive forces was analyzed with a numerical simulation in magnetic materials with random magnetic anisotropy. The magnetization of an assembly of magnetically interacting grains with randomly oriented uniaxial anisotropy was calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We supposed a single spin model where the magnetizations in a grain were aligned in the same direction, for simplicity. Calculations were carried out for an N×N×N system, where the number of grains on a side, N ranged from 16 to 128. The relation between the coercive forces H{sub C} and the grain size D is represented by H{sub C}∝D{sup k}. With the increase of N, k decreased gradually and tended to reach a saturated value around k = 4.5–5, which dose not correspond to the primitive theory of the random anisotropy model where k = 6. The deviation was discussed in terms of the inter-grain interaction, essentially proportional to the inverse of D.

  14. Influence of shape and dimension on magnetic anisotropies and magnetization reversal of Py, Fe, and Co nano-objects with four-fold symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Andrea; Blachowicz, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Different magnetic anisotropies and magnetization reversal mechanisms were identified in magnetic nano-objects of four-fold symmetry, using micromagnetic simulations. Nano-particles with lateral dimensions between 50 nm and 400 nm, simulated with typical properties of permalloy, iron and cobalt, were tested in dependence of the angular orientation with respect to the externally applied magnetic field. All nano-objects exhibited steps on the sides of the hysteresis loops, which can be correlated with stable intermediate states at remanence, for some angular regions. Coercive fields were found to show an irregular and unpredictable angular dependence in case of cobalt nano-particles, while this material depicted the largest number of steps in general. Comparing the angular dependence of the coercive fields with previous calculations, it was shown that usual descriptions of fourfold anisotropies are no longer valid in most of the nano-objects under examination.

  15. Hybrid wood materials with magnetic anisotropy dictated by the hierarchical cell structure.

    PubMed

    Merk, Vivian; Chanana, Munish; Gierlinger, Notburga; Hirt, Ann M; Burgert, Ingo

    2014-06-25

    Anisotropic and hierarchical structures are bound in nature and highly desired in engineered materials, due to their outstanding functions and performance. Mimicking such natural features with synthetic materials and methods has been a highly active area of research in the last decades. Unlike these methods, we use the native biomaterial wood, with its intrinsic anisotropy and hierarchy as a directional scaffold for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles inside the wood material. Nanocrystalline iron oxide particles were synthesized in situ via coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions within the interconnected pore network of bulk wood. Imaging with low-vacuum and cryogenic electron microscopy as well as spectral Raman mapping revealed layered nanosize particles firmly attached to the inner surface of the wood cell walls. The mineralogy of iron oxide was identified by XRD powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy as a mixture of the spinel phases magnetite and maghemite. The intrinsic structural architecture of native wood entails a three-dimensional assembly of the colloidal iron oxide which results in direction-dependent magnetic features of the wood-mineral hybrid material. This superinduced magnetic anisotropy, as quantified by direction-dependent magnetic hysteresis loops and low-field susceptibility tensors, allows for directional lift, drag, alignment, (re)orientation, and actuation, and opens up novel applications of the natural resource wood. PMID:24873330

  16. Enhanced current-induced domain wall motion by tuning perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    The effect of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on current-induced domain wall (DW) motion is investigated by micromagnetic simulations. The critical current density Jc to drive DWs into periodic transformation and continuous motion by adiabatic spin transfer torque decreases with increasing PMA. Also, with optimized PMA that almost exactly compensates the demagnetizing field, the adiabatic displacement of DWs driven by currents less than Jc is strongly enhanced. Since PMA can be controlled easily in multilayer films (e.g. Co/Pt), this technique of enhancing current-induced DW motion may be practical for device applications.

  17. Elucidating the Magnetic Anisotropy and Relaxation Dynamics of Low-Coordinate Lanthanide Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jung, Julie; Zhang, Li; Tang, Jinkui; Le Guennic, Boris

    2016-02-15

    The magnetic relaxation and anisotropy of 3- and 4-coordinate lanthanide complexes were systematically investigated, and the change of SMM behavior originating from the equatorially coordinating ligand field was successfully elucidated through combined experimental and theoretical studies. Remarkably, a novel approach taking into account the different contributions of atomic charges, dipole moments, and quadrupole moments was used to map the electrostatic potential around the metal center in the Dy(III) derivatives, revealing the key role played by the ligands as a whole and not just by the coordinating donor atoms as often considered. PMID:26812039

  18. Magnetic anisotropy of embedded Co nanoparticles: Influence of the surrounding matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamion, Alexandre; Raufast, Ccile; Hillenkamp, Matthias; Bonet, Edgar; Jouanguy, J.; Canut, Bruno; Bernstein, Estella; Boisron, Olivier; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Dupuis, Vronique

    2010-04-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of Co clusters embedded in four different matrices (Ag, Au, Si, and amorphous carbon). The recently developed triple fit method for treating conventional magnetometry data allows, together with micro-superconducting quantum interference device ( ? -SQUID) investigations, the detailed study of the influence of the surrounding matrix on the magnetic volume and the magnetic anisotropy of Co nanoparticles. While interdiffusion between matrix and Co atoms cannot be excluded in Si and amorphous C matrices, the structure of clusters embedded in the metallic matrices remains intact. Ag and Au matrices increase significantly the magnetic anisotropy energy of the Co clusters. ? -SQUID experiments indicate that the magnetic anisotropy of embedded clusters is not affected by a magnetically dead layer and that an anisotropy dispersion must be taken into account for size-selected nanoparticles.

  19. Termination layer compensated tunnelling magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic Heusler compounds with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaewoo; Ferrante, Yari; Faleev, Sergey V.; Samant, Mahesh G.; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Although high-tunnelling spin polarization has been observed in soft, ferromagnetic, and predicted for hard, ferrimagnetic Heusler materials, there has been no experimental observation to date of high-tunnelling magnetoresistance in the latter. Here we report the preparation of highly textured, polycrystalline Mn3Ge films on amorphous substrates, with very high magnetic anisotropy fields exceeding 7 T, making them technologically relevant. However, the small and negative tunnelling magnetoresistance that we find is attributed to predominant tunnelling from the lower moment Mn-Ge termination layers that are oppositely magnetized to the higher moment Mn-Mn layers. The net spin polarization of the current reflects the different proportions of the two distinct termination layers and their associated tunnelling matrix elements that result from inevitable atomic scale roughness. We show that by engineering the spin polarization of the two termination layers to be of the same sign, even though these layers are oppositely magnetized, high-tunnelling magnetoresistance is possible.

  20. Electron theory of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co-ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Niizeki, Tomohiko; AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 ; Itoh, Hiroyoshi

    2014-02-15

    We develop an electron theory for the t{sub 2g} electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions to clarify the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) mechanism of Co-ferrite thin films by considering the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and crystal-field (CF) potentials induced by the local symmetry around the Co ions and the global tetragonal symmetry of the film. Uniaxial and in-plane MA constants K{sub u} and K{sub 1} at 0 K, respectively, are calculated for various values of SOI and CF. We show that reasonable parameter values explain the observed PMA and that the orbital moment for the in-plane magnetization reduces to nearly half of that of the out-of-plane magnetization.

  1. Magnetic anisotropy, unusual hysteresis and putative up-up-down magnetic structure in EuTAl4Si2 (T = Rh and Ir)

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Arvind; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Bonville, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed investigations on single crystals of quaternary EuRhAl4Si2 and EuIrAl4Si2. The two compounds order antiferromagnetically at TN1?=?11.7 and 14.7?K, respectively, each undergoing two magnetic transitions. The magnetic properties in the ordered state present a large anisotropy despite Eu2+being an S-state ion for which the single-ion anisotropy is expected to be weak. Two features in the magnetization measured along the c-axis are prominent. At 1.8?K, a ferromagnetic-like jump occurs at very low field to a value one third of the saturation magnetization (1/3?M0) followed by a wide plateau up to 2 T for Rh and 4 T for Ir-compound. At this field value, a sharp hysteretic spin-flop transition occurs to a fully saturated state (M0). Surprisingly, the magnetization does not return to origin when the field is reduced to zero in the return cycle, as expected in an antiferromagnet. Instead, a remnant magnetization 1/3 M0 is observed and the magnetic loop around the origin shows hysteresis. This suggests that the zero field magnetic structure has a ferromagnetic component, and we present a model with up to third neighbor exchange and dipolar interaction which reproduces the magnetization curves and hints to an up-up-down magnetic structure in zero field. PMID:26156410

  2. Magnetic anisotropy, unusual hysteresis and putative up-up-down magnetic structure in EuTAl4Si2 (T = Rh and Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Arvind; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Bonville, P.

    2015-07-01

    We present detailed investigations on single crystals of quaternary EuRhAl4Si2 and EuIrAl4Si2. The two compounds order antiferromagnetically at TN1?=?11.7 and 14.7?K, respectively, each undergoing two magnetic transitions. The magnetic properties in the ordered state present a large anisotropy despite Eu2+being an S-state ion for which the single-ion anisotropy is expected to be weak. Two features in the magnetization measured along the c-axis are prominent. At 1.8?K, a ferromagnetic-like jump occurs at very low field to a value one third of the saturation magnetization (1/3?M0) followed by a wide plateau up to 2 T for Rh and 4 T for Ir-compound. At this field value, a sharp hysteretic spin-flop transition occurs to a fully saturated state (M0). Surprisingly, the magnetization does not return to origin when the field is reduced to zero in the return cycle, as expected in an antiferromagnet. Instead, a remnant magnetization 1/3 M0 is observed and the magnetic loop around the origin shows hysteresis. This suggests that the zero field magnetic structure has a ferromagnetic component, and we present a model with up to third neighbor exchange and dipolar interaction which reproduces the magnetization curves and hints to an up-up-down magnetic structure in zero field.

  3. Temperature dependence of magnetization and anisotropy in uniaxial NiFe2O4 nanomagnets: Deviation from the Callen-Callen power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Biplab K.; Ghosh, C. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal variation of magnetic anisotropy (K) and saturation magnetization (MS) for uniaxial nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanomagnets are investigated. Major magnetic hysteresis loops are measured for the sample at temperatures over the range 5-280 K using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The high-field regimes of the hysteresis loops are modeled using the law of approach to saturation, based on the assumption that at sufficiently high field only direct rotation of spin-moment take place, with an additional forced magnetization term that is linear with applied field. The uniaxial anisotropy constant K is calculated from the fitting of the data to the theoretical equation. As temperature increases from 5 K to 280 K, a 49% reduction of K, accompanied by an 85% diminution of MS is observed. Remarkably, K is linearly proportional to MS2.6 in the whole temperature range violating the existing theoretical model by Callen and Callen. The unusual power-law behavior for the NiFe2O4 uniaxial nanomagnets is ascribed to the non-negligible contributions from inter-sublattice pair interactions, Neel surface anisotropy, and higher order anisotropies. A complete realization of the unusual anisotropy-magnetization scaling behavior for nanoscale two-sublattice magnetic materials require a major modification of the existing theory by considering the exact mechanism of each contributions to the effective anisotropy.

  4. Temperature dependence of magnetization and anisotropy in uniaxial NiFe₂O₄ nanomagnets: Deviation from the Callen-Callen power law

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Biplab K.; Ghosh, C. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-10-21

    The thermal variation of magnetic anisotropy (K) and saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) for uniaxial nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄) nanomagnets are investigated. Major magnetic hysteresis loops are measured for the sample at temperatures over the range 5–280 K using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The high-field regimes of the hysteresis loops are modeled using the law of approach to saturation, based on the assumption that at sufficiently high field only direct rotation of spin-moment take place, with an additional forced magnetization term that is linear with applied field. The uniaxial anisotropy constant K is calculated from the fitting of the data to the theoretical equation. As temperature increases from 5 K to 280 K, a 49% reduction of K, accompanied by an 85% diminution of M{sub S} is observed. Remarkably, K is linearly proportional to M{sub S}₂.₆ in the whole temperature range violating the existing theoretical model by Callen and Callen. The unusual power-law behavior for the NiFe₂O₄ uniaxial nanomagnets is ascribed to the non-negligible contributions from inter-sublattice pair interactions, Neel surface anisotropy, and higher order anisotropies. A complete realization of the unusual anisotropy-magnetization scaling behavior for nanoscale two-sublattice magnetic materials require a major modification of the existing theory by considering the exact mechanism of each contributions to the effective anisotropy.

  5. Giant Magnetic Anisotropy of Co, Ru, and Os Adatoms on MgO (001) Surface.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xuedong; Wang, Hongbo; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wu, Hua

    2015-12-18

    Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) is desirable and critical for nanoscale magnetic devices. Here, using ligand-field level diagrams and density functional calculations, we well explain the very recent discovery [I.?G. Rau etal., Science 344, 988 (2014)] that an individual Co adatom on a MgO (001) surface has a large MAE of more than 60meV. More importantly, we predict that a giant MAE up to 110meV could be realized for Ru adatoms on MgO (001), and even more for the Os adatoms (208meV). This is a joint effect of the special ligand field, orbital multiplet, and significant spin-orbit interaction, in the intermediate-spin state of the Ru or Os adatoms on top of the surface oxygens. The giant MAE could provide a route to atomic scale memory. PMID:26722941

  6. Thermally activated domain wall motion in [Co/Ni](111) superlattices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, S.; Vernier, N.; Montaigne, F.; Gottwald, M.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Ravelosona, D.; Mangin, S.; Andrieu, S.; Hauet, T.

    2015-02-01

    Field-induced magnetization dynamics in a [Co/Ni] superlattice exhibiting strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied using Kerr microscopy. We report domain wall velocity over 8 decades within thermally activated, transitory, and flow dynamical regimes. At low field, the thermally activated regime is characterized by dendritic domain growth that differs from the creep mechanism usually observed for the interaction of domains wall with a 2D random pinning potential for layers grown by sputtering. This result is explained by the epitaxial nature of the [Co/Ni] superlattices involving a single-type defect. The transition from the thermally activated to the flow regime is characterized by a reduction of the density of non-reversed domains which exists after domain wall displacement.

  7. Giant Magnetic Anisotropy of Co, Ru, and Os Adatoms on MgO (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Xuedong; Wang, Hongbo; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wu, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) is desirable and critical for nanoscale magnetic devices. Here, using ligand-field level diagrams and density functional calculations, we well explain the very recent discovery [I. G. Rau et al., Science 344, 988 (2014)] that an individual Co adatom on a MgO (001) surface has a large MAE of more than 60 meV. More importantly, we predict that a giant MAE up to 110 meV could be realized for Ru adatoms on MgO (001), and even more for the Os adatoms (208 meV). This is a joint effect of the special ligand field, orbital multiplet, and significant spin-orbit interaction, in the intermediate-spin state of the Ru or Os adatoms on top of the surface oxygens. The giant MAE could provide a route to atomic scale memory.

  8. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  9. Magnetosheath magnetic field variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations.

  10. Development of an identification method of pressure anisotropy based on equilibrium analysis and magnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Cooper, W. A.

    2013-02-15

    We evaluate the fluxes measured by the magnetic flux loops installed in LHD by using a three dimensional MHD equilibrium analysis code, ANIMEC, which enable us to directly determine the calibration function between the anisotropic pressure and the measured fluxes for the non-axisymmetric plasmas for the first time. The result indicates that the diamagnetic flux represents a nearly single-valued function of the beta perpendicular with respect to the field, and the saddle loop flux represents a nearly single-valued function of an equally weighted average of the beta values parallel and perpendicular to the field, regardless of the pressure anisotropy or the amount of energetic trapped particles. The values of the beta perpendicular to the field and the equal weighting averaged beta estimated by the single-valued functions (calibration functions) are investigated in order to clarify the magnitude of deviation from those original values, and the range of anisotropy where the beta value evaluated by the magnetic flux measurement is calculated within a 10% error.

  11. Competing magnetic anisotropies in an AFM-FM-AFM trilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, R.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Blamire, M.G.

    2009-08-01

    An antiferromagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet trilayer was grown in magnetic field using CoMn, permalloy (Py), and FeMn, respectively. Magnetometry studies show that the direction of exchange coupling of CoMn with Py was perpendicular to that of Py with FeMn. These results are explained by a spin flop in the CoMn layer and show that the spin structure of an antiferromagnet may undergo severe modification due to a relatively small magnetic field applied during its growth. The perpendicular exchange coupling was exploited in the CoMn-Py-FeMn trilayer to manipulate the easy axis of the ferromagnet.

  12. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in triangular wave-like ferromagnetic NiFe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Sanghoon; Dho, Joonghoe

    2015-05-01

    Triangular wave-like NiFe films were synthesized on m-plane Al2O3 with a triangularly rippled surface and their uniaxial magnetic anisotropies were investigated as a function of the average wavelength (?). The ratio of the oscillation height to ? was approximately maintained at 0.133. A large magnetic anisotropy energy of 80-150 kJ/m3, which is up to ten times larger than the reported values, was observed with the variation of ?. The increasing tendency of the anisotropy energy with decreasing ? is likely due to a change in the shape anisotropy, while the anisotropy energy generated by surface magnetic charges slightly increased with increasing ?.

  13. Tuneable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in single crystal [Co/Ni](111) superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, M.; Girod, S.; Andrieu, S.; Mangin, S.

    2010-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the preparation of thin film with a strong perpendicular to the film plane magnetic anisotropy, behaviour of great interest for spintronics. Single-crystalline [Co/Ni] (111) superlattices have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The epitaxial growth of Co and Ni was controlled by using reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED), allowing us to get an accurate control of the thicknesses . The superlattices magnetic properties were studied using magnetometry. All of them exhibit strong perpendicular to the plane magnetic anisotropy. The maximum of magneto-crystalline anisotropy is obtained for one cobalt mo nolayer. A simple model which takes into account surface and volume anisotropy explains the evolution of perpendicular anisotropy in these layers.

  14. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  15. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya anisotropy in nanomagnets with in-plane magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubukcu, M.; Sampaio, J.; Bouzehouane, K.; Apalkov, D.; Khvalkovskiy, A. V.; Cros, V.; Reyren, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a source of in-plane anisotropy in nanomagnets due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This anisotropy depends on the shape of the magnet, and is orthogonal to the demagnetization shape anisotropy. This effect originates from the DMI energy reduction due to an out-of-plane tilt of the spins at edges oriented perpendicular to the magnetization. Our numerical and analytical investigations demonstrate that this energy reduction can compensate the demagnetization shape anisotropy energy in magnets of elongated shape, provided that their volumes are small enough and thus that their magnetization is quasiuniform. Our model agrees quantitatively with magnetic force microscopy observations on preliminary sub-100-nm structures.

  16. Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Shinji; Matsuda, Kensho; Tanaka, Kazuhito; Kotani, Yoshinori; Goto, Minori; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2015-10-01

    In this study, voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions was investigated via the magneto-optical Kerr effect, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The Fe|MgO tunnel junctions showed enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy under external negative voltage, which induced charge depletion at the Fe|MgO interface. Despite the application of voltages of opposite polarity, no trace of chemical reaction such as a redox reaction attributed to O2- migration was detected in the x-ray absorption spectra of the Fe. The VCMA reported in the Fe|MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions must therefore originate from phenomena associated with the purely electric effect, that is, surface electron doping and/or redistribution induced by an external electric field.

  17. Pressure-Induced Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy in Mn(N(CN)2)2

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, P. A.; Rajan, D.; Peprah, M. K.; Brinzari, T. V.; Fishman, Randy Scott; Talham, Daniel R.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Using DC and AC magnetometry, the pressure dependence of the magnetization of the threedimensional antiferromagnetic coordination polymer Mn(N(CN)2)2 was studied up to 12 kbar and down to 8 K. The magnetic transition temperature, Tc, increases dramatically with applied pressure (P), where a change from Tc(P = ambient) = 16:0 K to Tc(P = 12:1 kbar) = 23:5 K was observed. In addition, a marked difference in the magnetic behavior is observed above and below 7.1 kbar. Specifically, for P < 7:1 kbar, the differences between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled (fc-zfc) magnetizations, the coercive field, and the remanent magnetization decrease with increasing pressure. However, for P > 7:1 kbar, the behavior is inverted. Additionally, for P > 8:6 kbar, minor hysteresis loops are observed. All of these effects are evidence of the increase of the superexchange interaction and the appearance of an enhanced exchange anisotropy with applied pressure.

  18. Evaluation of Microcracks orientation at Stromboli volcano using a Magnetic Ferrofluid and the Method of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, O.; Benson, P. M.; Vinciguerra, S.; Meredith, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Most crustal rocks are anisotropic. In volcanic areas, anisotropy primarily results due to preferred directions of microcracks as magma cools. This effect is, in turn, enhanced due to local stress fields during deposition. The combined effects of these processes may thus give rise to a complex anisotropic fabric. Such fabrics can play crucial roles when enhancing the formation of slip surfaces which can lead to sector collapses of volcanic edifices, as is the case of Stromboli volcano (Italy) which experienced 4 sector collapses in the past 13ka. However, the rapid analysis of anisotropic microcrack fabrics (in terms of magnitude and principal direction) remains non-trivial. Current methods range from time consuming microcrack analysis of thin sections to the preparation of oriented cores for elastic-wave velocity measurement. To further our understanding of how microcrack fabrics influence the bulk properties of volcanic basalt, we employ a novel method which rapidly evaluates the 3-D microcrack orientation using technique of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS). First, we determine the rock matrix AMS (mAMS) using standard methods (via a Agico KLY-4 Kappabridge). Samples are then saturated with a magnetic ferrofluid, filling the microcrack network with a magnetically susceptible suspension of microscopic (10nm) magnetite particles. The AMS is then re-measured, with the matrix susceptibility values subtracted from these readings to yield the average 3-D pore space shape, size and orientation (pAMS). We describe the use of this method using basalt from Stromboli and comparing to a granite (Takidani) from the Japanese Alps in order to verify the technique and to investigate the relationship between the basalt microcrack geometry and field scale observation. For Takidani granite we find the structural anisotropy formed by the void space, as measured by pAMS, is well described by elastic wave velocity measurement; exhibiting anisotropy values of 19.1% and 7.6% for P-waves and S-waves respectively. Stromboli basalt possesses a weaker anisotropy of 4.7% and 3.0% (P-wave and S-wave velocity). We relate our pore space AMS measurements to the layering observed in Stromboli basalt on the flanks of the volcanic edifice; and infer that the microcrack network is both formed by this deposition and active tectonics as well as providing a key control on its physical properties. Such data has crucial significance upon the accurate assessment of flank stability, with consequences to hazard assessment for the surrounding area.

  19. Large magnetic anisotropy enhancement in size controlled Ni nanowires electrodeposited into nanoporous alumina templates.

    PubMed

    Medina, J De La Torre; Hamoir, G; Velázquez-Galván, Y; Pouget, S; Okuno, H; Vila, L; Encinas, A; Piraux, L

    2016-04-01

    A large enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy of Ni nanowires (NWs) embedded in anodic aluminium oxide porous membranes is obtained as a result of an induced magnetoelastic (ME) anisotropy contribution. This unusual large anisotropy enhancement depends on the diameter of the NWs and exceeds the magnetostatic (MS) contribution. As a consequence, it leads to effective magnetic anisotropy energies as large as [Formula: see text] erg cm(-3), which are of the same order of magnitude and comparable to the MS energies of harder magnetic materials like Co NWs. Specifically, from ferromagnetic resonance experiments, the magnetic anisotropy of the NWs has been observed to increase as its diameter is decreased, leading to values that are about four times larger than the corresponding value when only the MS anisotropy is present. Our results are consistent with the recently proposed growth mechanism of Ni NWs that proceeds via a poly-crystalline stage at the bottom followed by a single-crystalline stage with texture [110] parallel to the axis of the NWs. A strong correlation between reducing the diameter of the NWs with the decrease of the length of the poly-crystalline segment and the enhancement of the effective magnetic anisotropy has been shown. Magnetization curves obtained from alternating gradient magnetometry experiments show that the average ME anisotropy results from the competition between the magnetic anisotropies of both crystalline segments of the NWs. Understanding the influence of size and confinement effects on the magnetic properties of nanocomposites is of prime interest for the development of novel and agile devices. PMID:26906237

  20. Magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for a lanthanide ion series in a fixed protein matrix.

    PubMed

    Bertini, I; Janik, M B; Lee, Y M; Luchinat, C; Rosato, A

    2001-05-01

    The full series of lanthanide ions (except the radioactive promethium and the S-state gadolinium) has been incorporated into the C-terminal calcium binding site of the dicalcium protein calbindin D(9k). A fairly constant coordination environment is maintained throughout the series. At variance with several lanthanide complexes with small chelating ligands investigated in the past, the large protein moiety provides a large number of NMR signals whose hyperfine shifts can be exclusively ascribed to pseudocontact shifts (PCS). The chemical shifts of 1H and 15N backbone and side chain amide NH groups were accurately measured through HSQC experiments. 1097 PCS were estimated from these by subtracting the diamagnetic contributions measured on HSQC spectra of either the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) or the 4f(14) lutetium(III) derivatives and used to define a quality factor for the structure. The differences in diamagnetic chemical shifts between the two diamagnetic blanks were relatively small, although some were not negligible especially for the nuclei closest to the metal center. These differences were used as a tolerance for the PCS. The magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for each paramagnetic lanthanide ion were obtained as the result of the solution structure determination performed by using the NOEs of the cerium(III) derivative and the PCS of all lanthanides simultaneously. This set of reliable magnetic data permits an experimental assessment of Bleaney's theory relative to the magnetic properties for an extended series of lanthanide complexes in solution. All of the obtained tensors show some rhombicity, as could be expected from the lack of symmetry of the protein environment. The directions of the largest magnetic susceptibility component for Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, and Ho and of the smallest magnetic susceptibility component for Eu, Er, Tm, and Yb were found to be all within 15 degrees from their average (within 20 degrees for Sm), confirming the essential similarity of the coordination environment for all lanthanides. Bleaney's theory is in excellent qualitative agreement with the observed pattern of axial anisotropies. Its quantitative agreement is substantially better than that suggested by previous analyses performed on more limited sets of PCS data for small lanthanide complexes, the so-called crystal field parameter varying only within +/-30% from one lanthanide to another. These variations are even smaller (+/-15%) if a reasonable T(-3) correction is taken into consideration. A knowledge of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy properties of lanthanides is essential in determining the self-orienting properties of lanthanide complexes in solution when immersed in magnetic fields. PMID:11457182

  1. Magnetic anisotropy of C and N doped bulk FeCo alloy: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2015-08-01

    Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method, we investigated the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of carbon and nitrogen doped FeCo in the interstitial site. Here, we have considered 3.125% impurity doping concentration. The impurity doping induces a tetragonal distortion in the FeCo lattice, and both carbon and nitrogen impurities play a similar role for lattice distortion. The local magnetic moment of Fe atom around the impurity site was greatly reduced, whereas the Co had rather robust magnetic moment. We found a uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of 0.65 and 0.58 MJ/m3 for C and N doped bulk FeCo, and this was mainly due to the tetragonal distortion induced by C and N impurity, not from the hybridization effect with Fe or Co. Additionally, the estimated maximum energy product and coercive field were 81.4, 72.5 MGOe and 600, 530 kA m-1 for C and N doped bulk FeCo, respectively. These results may imply that the interstitial C or N doped FeCo can be used for potential rare earth free permanent magnet although those values are likely to be suppressed in real samples due to micromagnetic factors such as structural defects, geometrical effect, or grain boundary effect.

  2. Effect of deposition technique of Ni on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, S.; Akbulut, A.; Özdemir, M.; Yildiz, F.

    2015-09-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Si/Pt 3.5/(Co 0.3/Ni 0.6)n /Co 0.3/ Pt 3 (all thicknesses are nm) multilayers were investigated for two different sample sets by using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques. In the first sample set all layers (buffer, cap, Co and Ni) were grown by magnetron sputtering technique while in the second sample set Ni sub-layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at high vacuum. Apart from deposition technique of Ni, all other parameters like thicknesses and growth rates of each layers are same for both sample sets. Multilayers in these two sample sets display PMA in the as grown state until a certain value of bilayer repetition (n) and the strength of PMA decreases with increasing n. Magnetic easy axis's of the multilayered samples switched from film normal to the film plane when n is 9 and 5 for the first and second sample sets, respectively. The reason for that, PMA was decreased due to increasing roughness with increasing n. This was confirmed by X Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements for both sample sets. Moreover, in the first sample set coercive field values are smaller than the second sample set, which means magnetic anisotropy is lower than the latter one. This stronger PMA is arising due to existence of stronger Pt (111) and Co/Ni (111) textures in the second sample set.

  3. Magnetic tunnel junctions using Co/Ni multilayer electrodes with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytvynenko, Ia.; Deranlot, C.; Andrieu, S.; Hauet, T.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic and magneto-transport properties of amorphous Al2O3-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) having two Co/Ni multilayer electrodes exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) are presented. An additional Co/Pt multilayer is required to maintain PMA in the top Co/Ni electrode. Slight stacking variations lead to dramatic magnetic changes due to dipolar interactions between the top and bottom electrodes. Tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) of up to 8% at 300 K is measured for the MTJ with two PMA electrodes. The TMR value increases when the top PMA electrode is replaced by an in-plane magnetized Co layer. These observations can be attributed to significant intermixing in the top Co/Ni electrode.

  4. Control of magnetic domains in Co/Pd multilayered nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Su Jung; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Okuda, Mitsunobu; Hayashi, Naoto; Kim, Young Keun

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic domain wall (DW) motion induced by spin transfer torque in magnetic nanowires is of emerging technological interest for its possible applications in spintronic memory or logic devices. Co/Pd multilayered magnetic nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated on the surfaces of Si wafers by ion-beam sputtering. The nanowires had different sized widths and pinning sites formed by an anodic oxidation method via scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with an MFM tip. The magnetic domain structure was changed by an anodic oxidation method. To discover the current-induced DW motion in the Co/Pd nanowires, we employed micromagnetic modeling based on the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The split DW motions and configurations due to the edge effects of pinning site and nanowire appeared. PMID:22523997

  5. Magnetic Field Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Joe; Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Waterman, Dave; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar; Dunn, Jonathan Hunter

    2007-01-19

    A magnetic field measurement system was designed, built and installed at MAX Lab, Sweden for the purpose of characterizing the magnetic field produced by Insertion Devices (see Figure 1). The measurement system consists of a large granite beam roughly 2 feet square and 14 feet long that has been polished beyond laboratory grade for flatness and straightness. The granite precision coupled with the design of the carriage yielded minimum position deviations as measured at the probe tip. The Hall probe data collection and compensation technique allows exceptional resolution and range while taking data on the fly to programmable sample spacing. Additional flip coil provides field integral data.

  6. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  7. Magnetic fields at neptune.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acua, M H; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1989-12-15

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the supersonic solar wind flow was detected upstream at 34.9 Neptune radii (R(N)), and the magnetopause boundary was tentatively identified at 26.5 R(N) near the planet-sun line (1 R(N) = 24,765 kilometers). A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10(-5) gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R(N). The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R(N) can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R(N) and inclined by 47 degrees with respect to the rotation axis. The OTD dipole moment is 0.133 gauss-R(N)(3). Within 4 R(N), the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. The obliquity of Neptune and the phase of its rotation at encounter combined serendipitously so that the spacecraft entered the magnetosphere at a time when the polar cusp region was directed almost precisely sunward. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an "oblique" rotator. PMID:17756002

  8. Design of Single-Molecule Magnets: Insufficiency of the Anisotropy Barrier as the Sole Criterion.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kasper S; Dreiser, Jan; Weihe, Hgni; Sibille, Romain; Johannesen, Heini V; Srensen, Mikkel A; Nielsen, Bjarne E; Sigrist, Marc; Mutka, Hannu; Rols, Stephane; Bendix, Jesper; Piligkos, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the electronic energy spectrum of a trigonal-symmetry mononuclear Yb(3+) single-molecule magnet (SMM) by high-resolution absorption and luminescence spectroscopies reveals that the first excited electronic doublet is placed nearly 500 cm(-1) above the ground one. Fitting of the paramagnetic relaxation times of this SMM to a thermally activated (Orbach) model {? = ?0 exp[?Orbach/(kBT)]} affords an activation barrier, ?Orbach, of only 38 cm(-1). This result is incompatible with the spectroscopic observations. Thus, we unambiguously demonstrate, solely on the basis of experimental data, that Orbach relaxation cannot a priori be considered as the main mechanism determining the spin dynamics of SMMs. This study highlights the fact that the general synthetic approach of optimizing SMM behavior by maximization of the anisotropy barrier, intimately linked to the ligand field, as the sole parameter to be tuned, is insufficient because of the complete neglect of the interaction of the magnetic moment of the molecule with its environment. The Orbach mechanism is expected dominant only in the cases in which the energy of the excited ligand field state is below the Debye temperature, which is typically low for molecular crystals and, thus, prevents the use of the anisotropy barrier as a design criterion for the realization of high-temperature SMMs. Therefore, consideration of additional design criteria that address the presence of alternative relaxation processes beyond the traditional double-well picture is required. PMID:26201004

  9. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  10. Influence of intermittency on the anisotropy of magnetic structure functions of solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua; Yan, Limei

    2016-02-01

    Intermittency appears to be connected with the spectral anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. We use the Local Intermittency Measure to identify and remove intermittency from the magnetic field data measured by the Ulysses spacecraft in fast solar wind. Structure functions are calculated based on the time sequences as obtained before and after removing intermittency and arranged by time scale (τ) and ΘRB (the angle between local mean magnetic field B0 and radial direction R). Thus, the scaling exponent (ξ(p, ΘRB)) of every structure function of order (p) is obtained for different angles. Before removing intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) shows a distinctive dependence on ΘRB: from monofractal scaling law at ΘRB ~0° to multifractal scaling law at ΘRB ~90°. In contrast after eliminating the intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) is found to be more monofractal for all ΘRB. The extended structure-function model is applied to ξ(p, ΘRB), revealing differences of its fitting parameters α (a proxy of the power spectral index) and P1 (fragmentation fraction) for the cases with and without intermittency. Parameter α shows an evident angular trend falling from 1.9 to 1.6 for the case with intermittency but has a relatively flat profile around 1.8 for the case without intermittency. Parameter P1 rises from around 0.5 to above 0.8 with increasing ΘRB for the intermittency case and is located between 0.5 and 0.8 for the case lacking intermittency. Therefore, we may infer that it is the anisotropy of intermittency that causes the scaling anisotropy of energy spectra and the unequal fragmentation of energy cascading.

  11. Determination of magnetic anisotropy constants in Fe ultrathin film on vicinal Si(111) by anisotropic magnetoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; He, Wei; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Hao-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Zi-Yu; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of ultrathin Fe film on Si(111) surface provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the contribution of magnetic anisotropy to magnetic behavior. Here, we present the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect of Fe single crystal film on vicinal Si(111) substrate with atomically flat ultrathin p(2 2) iron silicide as buffer layer. Owing to the tiny misorientation from Fe(111) plane, the symmetry of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy changes from the six-fold to a superposition of six-fold, four-fold and a weakly uniaxial contribution. Furthermore, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were derived from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. Our work suggests that AMR measurements can be employed to figure out precisely the contributions of various magnetic anisotropy constants. PMID:23828508

  12. Magnetization Reversal and Magnetic Anisotropy in Ordered CoNiP Nanowire Arrays: Effects of Wire Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Van Thiem, Luu; Tu, Le Tuan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2015-01-01

    Ordered CoNiP nanowires with the same length of 4 µm and varying diameters (d = 100 nm–600 nm) were fabricated by electrodeposition of CoNiP onto polycarbonate templates. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the quality of the fabricated nanowires. Magnetic measurements and theoretical analysis revealed that the magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy were significantly influenced by varying of the diameters of the nanowires. There existed a critical wire diameter (dc ≈ 276 nm), below which the magnetization reversal occurred via a coherent rotation mode, and above which the magnetization reversal occurred via a curling rotation mode. The easy axis of the magnetization tended to change in direction from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the wire axis as the wire diameter exceeded dc ≈ 276 nm. With increasing wire diameter, the coercive field (Hc) and the remanent to saturation magnetization ratio (Mr/Ms) were also found to rapidly decrease in the range d = 100–400 nm and gradually decrease for d > 400 nm. PMID:25760054

  13. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acua, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-01

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles. PMID:17812894

  14. Magnetic anisotropy of singly Mn-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Olivier; Benjamin, Emile; Lematre, Aristide

    2009-10-01

    We report on the microphotoluminescence spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) doped by a single Mn atom in a magnetic field either longitudinal or perpendicular to the optical axis. In both cases the spectral features of positive trion (X+) are found to split into strongly circularly polarized components, an effect very surprising in a perpendicular magnetic field. The field-induced splitting is ascribed to the transverse Zeeman splitting of the neutral acceptor complex A0 issued by the Mn impurity, whereas the circular optical selection rules result from the p-d exchange which acts as a very strong longitudinal magnetic field inhibiting the spin mixing by the transverse field of the QD heavy-hole ground state. A theoretical model of the spin interactions which includes (i) the local strain anisotropy experienced by the acceptor level and (ii) the anisotropic exchange due to the out-of-center Mn position provides a very good agreement with our observations.

  15. Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB/MgO structure with various underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Young-Wan; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-05-01

    Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in CoFeB/MgO structures was investigated and found to be critically relied on underlayer material and annealing temperature. With Ta or Hf underlayer, clear PMA is observed in as-deposited samples while no PMA was shown in those with Pt or Pd. This may be attributed to smaller saturation magnetization of the films with Ta or Hf underlayer, which makes the PMA of CoFeB/MgO interface dominates over demagnetization field. On the contrary, samples with Pt or Pd demonstrate PMA only after annealing, which might be due to the CoPt (or CoPd) alloy formation that enhances PMA.

  16. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of amorphous [CoSiB/Pt]{sub N} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. W.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, M. H.; Yoon, J. B.; Cho, J. H.; You, C.-Y.

    2015-05-07

    Materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have been intensively studied for high-density nonvolatile memory such as spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory with low switching current density and high thermal stability. Compared with crystalline PMA multilayers, considerable works have been done on amorphous PMA multilayers because the amorphous materials are expected to have lower pinning site density as well as smaller domain wall width. This study is an overview of the PMA properties of amorphous [CoSiB/Pt]{sub N} multilayers with varying N, where the energy contribution is changed from domain wall energy to magnetostatic energy around N = 6. By measuring the field-induced domain wall motion, we obtain the creep exponent of μ = 1/4. These results in the amorphous PMA multilayers of [CoSiB/Pt]{sub N} demonstrate possible potential as a free layer for PMA-based memory devices.

  17. Enhancement of magnetic anisotropy in mechanically attrited Cr 2O 3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajra, Partha; Brahma, Pradip; Dutta, Saurav; Banerjee, Sourish; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2012-04-01

    Cr2O3 nanoparticles of sizes from 24 to 12 nm were synthesized by mechanical grinding. Magnetic hysteresis loops were observed in the temperature range 5-300 K. Zero-field magnetization measurements showed two peaks, at low temperature in the range 36-52 K and at high temperature in the range 255-290 K. They were found to shift to higher temperatures as the particle size was reduced. This was ascribed due to the enhancement of the effective anisotropy constant with a decrease in particle size. The exchange bias was found to increase as the particle size became smaller. This is believed to arise due to an increase in uncompensated spins as a result of large surface area created.

  18. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal sources cannot be distinguished from core fields, nor cleanly separated from external fields. I will report on recent data acquired at altitudes as low as 25 km that have the potential to resolve these issues. The presence of remanent crustal fields would have profound implications for Mercury's thermal and dynamical histories.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy energy and effective exchange interactions in Co intercalated graphene on Ir(1 1 1).

    PubMed

    Shick, A B; Hong, S C; Maca, F; Lichtenstein, A I

    2014-11-26

    The electronic structure, magnetic moments, effective exchange interaction parameter and the magnetic anisotropy energy of [monolayer Co]/Ir(1 1 1) and Co intercalated graphene on Ir(1 1 1) are studied making use of the first-principles density functional theory calculations. A large positive magnetic anisotropy of 1.24 meV/Co is found for [monolayer Co]/Ir(1 1 1), and a high Curie temperature of 1190 K is estimated. These findings show the Co/Ir(1 1 1) system is a promising candidate for perpendicular ultra-high density magnetic recording applications. The magnetic moments, exchange interactions and the magnetic anisotropy are strongly affected by graphene. Reduction of the magnetic anisotropy and the Curie temperature are found for graphene/[monolayer Co]/Ir(1 1 1). It is shown that for graphene placed in the hollow-hexagonal positions over the monolayer Co, the magnetic anisotropy remains positive, while for the placements with one of the C atoms on the top of Co it becomes negative. These findings may be important for assessing the use of graphene for magnetic recording and magnetoelectronic applications. PMID:25351898

  20. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzún, Simón; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter. PMID:26439626

  1. Magnetic anisotropy in nickel complexes as determined by combined magnetic susceptibility/magnetization/theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malejov, Anna; Bo?a, Roman; Dlh?, L.'ubor; Herchel, Radovan

    2004-05-01

    The zero-field splitting in nickel(II) complexes was modeled by considering all relevant operators (electron repulsion, crystal-field, spin-orbit coupling, orbital-Zeeman, and spin-Zeeman) in the complete basis set spanned by d n-atomic terms. D-values between weak and strong crystal field limits were evaluated from the crystal-field multiplets as well as using the spin Hamiltonian formalism. Importance of the anisotropic orbital reduction factors is discussed and exemplified by D/hc=-22 cm-1 as subtracted from magnetic data for [Ni(imidazole) 4(acetate) 2] complex.

  2. Impact of reduced symmetry on magnetic anisotropy of a single iron phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    We study the magnetic anisotropy of a single iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecule on a Cu(110) (2 × 1)-O by using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. Two inelastic excitations derived from the splitting of the molecular triplet spin state appear as two pairs of steps symmetrically with respect to zero sample voltage. We measured IETS spectra with external magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the molecular plane, and we analyzed the spectral evolution with the effective spin Hamiltonian approach. We determined all parameters related with magnetic anisotropy at a single-molecule level, both the easy- and hard-magnetization directions, zero-field splitting constant, D = - 4.0 meV and E = 1.1 meV, the Lande g-tensor (" separators=" g xx , g yy , g zz ) = ( 1 . 82 , 2 . 02 , 2 . 34 ) , and the constant of spin-orbit coupling λ = - 19.1 meV. We stress that the symmetry breaking caused by the adsorption of FePc on the oxidized Cu(110) significantly impacts the magnetic anisotropy.

  3. Impact of reduced symmetry on magnetic anisotropy of a single iron phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu substrate.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki

    2016-01-28

    We study the magnetic anisotropy of a single iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecule on a Cu(110) (2 × 1)-O by using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. Two inelastic excitations derived from the splitting of the molecular triplet spin state appear as two pairs of steps symmetrically with respect to zero sample voltage. We measured IETS spectra with external magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the molecular plane, and we analyzed the spectral evolution with the effective spin Hamiltonian approach. We determined all parameters related with magnetic anisotropy at a single-molecule level, both the easy- and hard-magnetization directions, zero-field splitting constant, D = - 4.0 meV and E = 1.1 meV, the Lande g-tensor gxx, gyy, gzz=(1.82, 2.02, 2.34), and the constant of spin-orbit coupling λ = - 19.1 meV. We stress that the symmetry breaking caused by the adsorption of FePc on the oxidized Cu(110) significantly impacts the magnetic anisotropy. PMID:26827222

  4. Size Dependence Effect in MgO-Based CoFeB Tunnel Junctions with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenchen, Jacob Wang; Akhtar, Mohamed Akbar Khan Bin; Sbiaa, Rachid; Hao, Meng; Hwee Sunny, Lua Yan; Kai, Wong Seng; Ping, Luo; Carlberg, Patrick; Khoon Siah Arthur, Ang

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of junction sizes on the magnetization reversal process and spin-transfer torque switching of the MgO-based CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). From the magnetic field transport measurements, it was found that the miniaturization of MTJs inherently enhances the switching asymmetry and the PMA of the soft layer. Our micromagnetic simulations confirmed that the dipolar field from the hard layer is responsible for the switching asymmetry and the increase in perpendicular shape anisotropy induces improvement of the PMA. It was further revealed that this additional anisotropy gained from the smaller MTJ sizes is not sufficient to sustain the thermal stability to meet the long-term information storage at the state-of-the-art complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor technology node. The pulsed spin-transfer torque measurements showed that a higher current density is needed to switch the magnetization of the soft layer in MTJ with smaller lateral dimensions, which is attributed to the increase in PMA.

  5. Pressure-induced enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy in Mn(N(CN)2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, P. A.; Rajan, D.; Peprah, M. K.; Brinzari, T. V.; Fishman, R. S.; Talham, D. R.; Meisel, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Using dc and ac magnetometry, the pressure dependence of the magnetization of the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic coordination polymer Mn(N(CN)2)2 was studied up to 12 kbar and down to 8 K. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature, TN, increases dramatically with applied pressure (P ) , where a change from TN(P =ambient) =16.0 K to TN(P =12.1 kbar) =23.5 K was observed. In addition, a marked difference in the magnetic behavior is observed above and below 7.1 kbar. Specifically, for P <7.1 kbar, the differences between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetizations, the coercive field, and the remanent magnetization decrease with increasing pressure. However, for P >7.1 kbar, the behavior is inverted. Additionally, for P >8.6 kbar, minor hysteresis loops are observed. All of these effects are evidence of the increase of the superexchange interaction and the appearance of an enhanced exchange anisotropy with applied pressure.

  6. Supercritical dynamics of domain walls in magnetic films with in-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzunin, L. G.; Filippov, B. N.; Zverev, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the numerical solution of Landau-Lifshitz equations, the nonlinear dynamic behavior of vortex-like domain walls in films with in-plane anisotropy has been investigated in external magnetic fields H significantly exceeding critical fields H c , above which the stationary motion of domain walls is replaced by nonstationary (periodic or aperiodic) motion. A method has been proposed for the detection of complex aperiodic dynamics of structural rearrangements of domain walls, which is based on the construction of diagrams of the dependences of the tilt angle of the magnetization M with respect to the plane of the domain wall in some of its points on the corresponding angle in other points. It has been found that these diagrams significantly change with variations in the external magnetic field applied along the easy axis of magnetization in the range H > H c . It has been shown that the pattern of these changes is similar to the scenario of the Feigenbaum transition to dynamic chaos.

  7. Eruptive solar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    The quasi-steady evolution of solar magnetic fields in response to gradual photospheric changes is considered, with particular attention given to the threshold of a sudden eruption in the solar atmosphere. The formal model of an evolving, force-free field dependent on two Cartesian coordinates is extended to a field which is not force free but in static equilibrium with plasma pressure and gravity. The basic physics is illustrated through the evolution of a loop-shaped electric current sheet enclosing a potential bipolar field with footpoints rooted in the photosphere. A free-boundary problem is posed and then solved for the equilibrium configuration of the current sheet in a hydrostatically supported isothermal atmosphere. As the footpoints move apart to spread a constant photospheric magnetic flux over a larger region, the equilibria available extend the field to increasing heights.

  8. Accurate determination of the magnetic anisotropy in cluster-assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamion, Alexandre; Hillenkamp, Matthias; Tournus, Florent; Bonet, Edgar; Dupuis, Vronique

    2009-08-01

    The simultaneous triple adjustment of experimental magnetization curves under different conditions is shown to allow the unambiguous and consistent determination of both the magnetic particle size distribution and anisotropy for granular nanostructures of Co clusters embedded in protective matrices. The importance of interface effects resulting in magnetically dead layers is demonstrated.

  9. Magnetic and elastic wave anisotropy in partially molten rocks: insight from experimental melting of synthetic quartz-mica schist (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B.; Misra, S.; Biedermann, A. R.; Mainprice, D.

    2013-12-01

    We studied the magnetic and elastic wave speed anisotropy of a synthetically prepared quartz-mica schist, prior to, during and after experimental melting. The synthetic rock was manufactured from a mixture of powders with equal volumes of quartz and muscovite. The powders were initially compacted with 200 MPa uniaxial stress at room temperature and sealed in a stainless steel canister. Subsequently the sealed canister was isostatically pressed at 180 MPa and 580 °C for 24 hours. This produced a solid medium with ~25 % porosity. Mica developed a preferred grain-shape alignment due to the initial compaction with differential load, where mica flakes tend to orient perpendicular to the applied stress and hence define a synthetic foliation plane. In the last stage we used a Paterson gas-medium apparatus, to pressurize and heat the specimens up to 300 MPa and 750 °C for a six hour duration. This stage initially compacted the rock, followed by generation of melt, and finally crystallization of new minerals from the melt. Elastic wave speed measurements were performed in situ at pressure and temperature, with a transducer assembly mounted next to the sample. Magnetic measurements were performed before and after the partial melt experiments. Anisotropy was measured in low- and high-field, using a susceptibility bridge and torsion magnetometer, respectively. Additionally we performed measurements of hysteresis, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and susceptibility as a function of temperature, to investigate the magnetic properties of the rock. The elastic wave speed, before the melting-stage of the experiment, exhibits a distinct anisotropy with velocities parallel to the foliation being about 15 % higher than normal to the foliation plane. Measurements of the magnetic anisotropy in the bulk sample show that anisotropy is originating from the preferred orientation of muscovite, with a prominent flattening fabric. In contrast, specimens that underwent partial melting display a weaker elastic and magnetic anisotropy, because muscovite preferentially melts due to dehydration melting at 750 °C. The decrease in anisotropy can be inferred from in situ observation of elastic wave anisotropy, but also from comparison of measurements of magnetic anisotropy prior to and subsequent to experiment. A distinct anisotropy is however identified after the experiments both in susceptibility and remanence, which appears to be controlled by the original foliation. As muscovite undergoes dehydration melting a small amount of Fe is released into the melt. Crystallization from the melt indicates that the Fe is bound in biotite and Fe-oxides. The bulk susceptibility and saturation remanence increase by more than one order of magnitude in samples after the melting experiment. The newly formed ferrimagnetic phase, identified through hysteresis, IRM and thermomagnetic measurements, have a tight grouping in the magnetite pseudo-single-domain field on a Day plot. Our experiments are pertinent to the study of partially molten rocks and provide an opportunity to help guide research in magnetic and elastic wave anisotropy of migmatite and granite. In particular the results from experiments apply to the understanding of generation and percolation of melt prior to, or coeval to, the onset of deformation.

  10. Synergy and destructive interferences between local magnetic anisotropies in binuclear complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihry, Nathalie; Ruamps, Renaud; Maurice, Rmi; de Graaf, Coen

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic anisotropy is responsible for the single molecule magnet behavior of transition metal complexes. This behavior is characterized by a slow relaxation of the magnetization for low enough temperatures, and thus for a possible blocking of the magnetization. This bistable behavior can lead to possible technological applications in the domain of data storage or quantum computing. Therefore, the understanding of the microscopic origin of magnetic anisotropy has received a considerable interest during the last two decades. The presentation focuses on the determination of the anisotropy parameters of both mono-nuclear and bi-nuclear types of complexes and on the control and optimization of the anisotropic properties. The validity of the model Hamiltonians commonly used to characterize such complexes has been questioned and it is shown that neither the standard multispin Hamiltonian nor the giant spin Hamiltonian are appropriate for weakly coupled ions. Alternative models have been proposed and used to properly extract the relevant parameters. Rationalizations of the magnitude and nature of both local anisotropies of single ions and the molecular anisotropy of polynuclear complexes are provided. The synergy and interference effects between local magnetic anisotropies are studied in a series of binuclear complexes.

  11. High-purity cobalt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootera, Yasuaki; Shimada, Takuya; Kado, Masaki; Quinsat, Michael; Morise, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shiho; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    A study of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of high-purity cobalt thin films is described. The Co layer prepared by a thermal CVD technique with a Pt/Ta underlayer and a Pt cap layer shows a saturation magnetization (Ms) of ∼1.8 T and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an anisotropy energy (Ku) of ∼105 J/m3. The cobalt thickness dependence of Ku reveals that the interfacial anisotropy at the Pt/Co interface is most likely the origin of the obtained PMA.

  12. Influence of magnetic electrodes thicknesses on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Dieny, Bernard

    2014-08-04

    The influence of the bottom and top magnetic electrodes thicknesses on both perpendicular anisotropy and transport properties is studied in (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/FeCoB/Ta magnetic tunnel junctions. By carefully investigating the relative magnetic moment of the two electrodes as a function of their thicknesses, we identify and quantify the presence of magnetically dead layers, likely localized at the interfaces with Ta, that is, 0.33 nm for the bottom electrode and 0.60 nm for the top one. Critical thicknesses (spin-reorientation transitions) are determined as 1.60 and 1.65 nm for bottom and top electrodes, respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance ratio reaches its maximum value, as soon as both effective (corrected from dead layer) electrode thicknesses exceed 0.6 nm.

  13. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, their strength and structure in intergalactic space, their first occurrence in young galaxies, and their dynamical importance for galaxy evolution remain widely unknown. Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized radio synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 μG) and in central starburst regions (50-100 μG). Such fields are dynamically important; they can affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized radio emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, generated from isotropic turbulent fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 μG strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered (anisotropic turbulent) fields are also observed at the inner edges of the spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Irregular galaxies host isotropic turbulent fields often of similar strength as in spiral galaxies, but only weak ordered fields. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several galaxies reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field α -Ω dynamo. So far no indications were found in external galaxies of large-scale field reversals, like the one in the Milky Way. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. In the outflow cone above a starburst region of NGC 253, RM data indicate a helical magnetic field.

  14. Evolution of magnetic anisotropy and thermal stability during nanocrystal-chain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charilaou, M.; Sahu, K. K.; Faivre, D.; Fischer, A.; Garca-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2011-10-01

    We compare measurements and simulations of ferromagnetic resonance spectra of magnetite nanocrystal-chains at different growth-stages. By fitting the spectra, we extracted the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy field and the uniaxial dipole field at each stage. During the growth of the nanoparticle-chain assembly, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy grows linearly with increasing particle diameter. Above a threshold average diameter of D ? 23 nm, a dipole field is generated, which then increases with particle size and the ensemble becomes thermally stable. These findings demonstrate the anisotropy evolution on going from nano to mesoscopic scales and the dominance of dipole fields over crystalline fields in one-dimensional assemblies.

  15. Determination of magnetic anisotropy constants and domain wall pinning energy of Fe/MgO(001) ultrathin film by anisotropic magnetoresistance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; He, Wei; Ye, Jun; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Ahmad, Syed Sheraz; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    It is challenging to determine domain wall pinning energy and magnetic anisotropy since both coherent rotation and domain wall displacement coexist during magnetization switching process. Here, angular dependence anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements at different magnetic fields were employed to determine magnetic anisotropy constants and domain wall pinning energy of Fe/MgO(001) ultrathin film. The AMR curves at magnetic fields which are high enough to ensure the coherent rotation of magnetization indicate a smooth behavior without hysteresis between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) rotations. By analyzing magnetic torque, the magnetic anisotropy constants can be obtained. On the other hand, the AMR curves at low fields show abrupt transitions with hysteresis between CW and CCW rotations, suggesting the presence of multi-domain structures. The domain wall pinning energy can be obtained by analyzing different behaviors of AMR. Our work suggests that AMR measurements can be employed to figure out precisely the contributions of magnetic anisotropy and domain wall pinning energy, which is still a critical issue for spintronics. PMID:26369572

  16. Determination of magnetic anisotropy constants and domain wall pinning energy of Fe/MgO(001) ultrathin film by anisotropic magnetoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; He, Wei; Ye, Jun; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Ahmad, Syed Sheraz; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    It is challenging to determine domain wall pinning energy and magnetic anisotropy since both coherent rotation and domain wall displacement coexist during magnetization switching process. Here, angular dependence anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements at different magnetic fields were employed to determine magnetic anisotropy constants and domain wall pinning energy of Fe/MgO(001) ultrathin film. The AMR curves at magnetic fields which are high enough to ensure the coherent rotation of magnetization indicate a smooth behavior without hysteresis between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) rotations. By analyzing magnetic torque, the magnetic anisotropy constants can be obtained. On the other hand, the AMR curves at low fields show abrupt transitions with hysteresis between CW and CCW rotations, suggesting the presence of multi-domain structures. The domain wall pinning energy can be obtained by analyzing different behaviors of AMR. Our work suggests that AMR measurements can be employed to figure out precisely the contributions of magnetic anisotropy and domain wall pinning energy, which is still a critical issue for spintronics. PMID:26369572

  17. A 3-D finite-element computation of eddy currents and losses in laminated iron cores allowing for electric and magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, V.C.; Meunier, G.; Foggia, A.

    1995-05-01

    A 3-D scheme based on the Finite Element Method, which takes electric and magnetic anisotropy into consideration, has been developed for computing eddy-current losses caused by stray magnetic fields in laminated iron cores of large transformers and generators. The model is applied to some laminated iron-core samples and compared with equivalent solid-iron cases.

  18. Probing boundary magnetization through exchange bias in heterostructures with competing anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Binek, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Cr2O3 (chromia) is a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet with a bulk TN of 307 K. It has been utilized for electrically controlled exchange bias (EB) by taking advantage of voltage-controllable boundary magnetization (BM) occurring as a generic property in magnetoelectric single domain antiferromagnets.[2] In the perpendicular Cr2O3(0001)/CoPd EB system the EB-field shows an order parameter type T-dependence close to TN reflecting the T-dependence of the BM. At about 150 K a decrease of the EB-field sets in with decreasing temperature suggesting canting of the BM. To evidence this mechanism we use EB as a probe. Specifically, we investigate EB in Permalloy(5nm)/Cr2O3 (0001)(100nm) with Permalloy and chromia having competing anisotropies. We measure easy axis magnetic hysteresis loops via longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect for various temperatures after perpendicular and in-plane magnetic field-cooling. The T-dependence of the EB field supports the canting mechanism. In addition to the all thin film EB system, we explore a Permalloy(10nm)/Cr2O3(0001 single crystal) heterostructure where magnetoelectric annealing allows selecting Cr2O3 single domain states. Here the effect of T-dependent canting of the BM is compared with findings in the complementary perpendicular EB system. Financial support by NSF through MRSEC and the Nanoelectronic Research Initiative.

  19. Anisotropy and magnetic field dependence of the planar copper NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate in the superconducting state of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, J.A.; Barrett, S.E.; Klug, C.A.; O'Hara, K.E.; DeSoto, S.M.; Slichter, C.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Ginsberg, D.M. )

    1992-02-03

    The authors report mmeasurements of the planar {sup 63}Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rates {sup 63}{ital W}{sub 1{ital a}} ({sup 63}{ital W}{sub 1{ital c}}) for the static field oriented along the {ital a} ({ital c}) axis in the superconducting state of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. These measurements were made on a single sample as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The weak-field results are well explained by several recent calculations in terms of a BCS spin-singlet, orbital-{ital d}-wave pairing state. They also find that at low temperatures {sup 63}{ital W}{sub 1{ital c}} varies linearly with the applied magnetic field, suggesting that at high field it is dominated by fluxoid cores.

  20. Femtosecond laser-induced optical anisotropy in a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razdolski, I.; Krutyanskiy, V. L.; Murzina, T. V.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    Using pump-probe optical polarimetry we demonstrate that femtosecond laser excitation of a 2D regular lattice of magnetic nanodots effectively changes the optical anisotropy of the array. Study of the dynamics of the femtosecond laser-induced anisotropy reveals four main mechanisms occurring in the electronic, spin, and lattice subsystems. Below 1 ps, a strong Kerr-like nonlinearity causes linear birefringence, with its axis directed along the electric field of the linearly polarized femtosecond laser pump pulse. In addition, a long-living linear birefringence is also induced due to slowly relaxing excitations. Also below 1 ps, ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization of Co leads to a partial breakdown of the circular birefringence of the magnetic nanodots. On the timescale up to 300 ps, optically triggered acoustic modes of the dots drive oscillations of the linear optical birefringence. During this process, the oscillations damp while transferring their energy into acoustic modes of the substrate. On the nanosecond timescale, the signal is dominated by acoustic oscillations at the surface of the substrate.

  1. Torque acting on the magnetization vector during 90 pulsed magnetization of real garnet ferrite films with in-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotov, O. S.; Matyunin, A. V.; Nikoladze, G. M.; Polyakov, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The torque acting on the magnetization vector in the course of 90 pulsed magnetization of real garnet ferrite films with in-plane and biaxial anisotropy is calculated by a method in which the operating point trajectory is analyzed. The position of the operating point is described by azimuthal angle ? and torque component T m produced by pulsed magnetizing field H m . The time dependence of resultant torque T ? has a sharply ascending portion, within which the nonlinear magnetization oscillations are excited. Additionally, the shape of the curve T ?( t) within this portion depends on pulse rise time ? f only slightly. These results explain the weak dependence of the magnetization oscillation strength on ? f , which was experimentally found previously. It is shown analytically that when ? f decreases to 2.5-3.0 ns within the initial portion of the curve T ?( t) at ? ? 10, there arises an extra maximum of torque T ?. Simultaneously, an additional voltage peak appears in the initial part of the longitudinal magnetization signal. The appearance of the additional voltage peak is confirmed experimentally.

  2. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  3. Crystallographic orientation of Cr in longitudinal recording media and its relation to magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajan, Antony; Okamoto, Iwao

    2002-08-01

    A specific growth of Cr layer grains is found to exist when grown on the mechanically textured NiP-Al substrates used for longitudinal recording. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of a large number of individual Cr grains indicate a Cr110 preferential growth along the textured direction (groove or circumferential direction). This particular orientation of the Cr underlayer is found to be the cause of an in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the Co based magnetic layer. The temperature dependence of this in-plane magnetic anisotropy study indicated the importance of the specific crystallographic orientations of both the underlayer and the magnetic layer.

  4. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth and damping in perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic multilayers thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujour, Jean-Marc

    2010-03-01

    Transition metal ferromagnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidths that are one order of magnitude larger than soft magnetic materials, such as pure iron (Fe) and permalloy (NiFe) thin films. We have conducted systematic studies of a variety of thin film materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to investigate the origin of the enhanced FMR linewidths, including Ni/Co and CoFeB/Co/Ni multilayers. In Ni/Co multilayers the PMA was systematically reduced by irradiation with Helium ions, leading to a transition from out-of-plane to in-plane easy axis with increasing He ion fluence [1,2]. The FMR linewidth depends linearly on frequency for perpendicular applied fields and increases significantly when the magnetization is rotated into the film plane with an applied in-plane magnetic field. Irradiation of the film with Helium ions decreases the PMA and the distribution of PMA parameters, leading to a large reduction in the FMR linewidth for in-plane magnetization. These results suggest that fluctuations in the PMA lead to a large two magnon scattering contribution to the linewidth for in-plane magnetization and establish that the Gilbert damping is enhanced in such materials (?0.04, compared to ?0.002 for pure Fe) [2]. We compare these results to those on CoFeB/Co/Ni and published results on other thin film materials with PMA [e.g., Ref. 3]. [1] D. Stanescu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07B529 (2008). [2] J-M. L. Beaujour, D. Ravelosona, I. Tudosa, E. Fullerton, and A. D. Kent, Phys. Rev. B RC 80, 180415 (2009). [3] N. Mo, J. Hohlfeld, M. ulIslam, C. S. Brown, E. Girt, P. Krivosik, W. Tong, A. Rebel, and C. E. Patton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022506 (2008). *Research done in collaboration with: A. D. Kent, New York University, D. Ravelosona, Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Universit'e Paris Sud, E. E. Fullerton, Center for Magnetic Recording Research, UCSD, and supported by NSF-DMR-0706322.

  5. Strain-induced magnetic anisotropies in Co films on Mo(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, J.; Valdaitsev, D. A.; Kukunin, A.; Pratzer, M.; Schnhense, G.; Elmers, H. J.

    2004-11-01

    Mo/Co(0001)/Mo(110) epitaxial films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy in ultrahigh vacuum on (1120) oriented ?-Al2O3 substrates. Co grows on Mo(110) in the Nishiyama-Wassermann orientation, i.e., [1100]Co?[110]Mo . Low energy electron diffraction reveals a lateral expansive strain of the Co film independent of the thickness. Magnetic anisotropies were obtained from hard-axis magnetization loops measured by Kerr magnetometry in longitudinal and polar geometry. Magnetic interface anisotropies are very small (<0.04mJ/m2) . Deviations of the volume-type in-plane (Kv,p=0.79MJ/m3) and out-of-plane (Kv=-9.5MJ/m3) anisotropies from bulk values for hexagonal-close-packed Co are attributed to magnetoelastic anisotropies.

  6. Magnetic fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Bale, S D; Kasper, J C; Howes, G G; Quataert, E; Salem, C; Sundkvist, D

    2009-11-20

    The proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is known to be constrained by the theoretical thresholds for pressure-anisotropy-driven instabilities. Here, we use approximately 1x10;{6} independent measurements of gyroscale magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind to show for the first time that these fluctuations are enhanced along the temperature anisotropy thresholds of the mirror, proton oblique firehose, and ion cyclotron instabilities. In addition, the measured magnetic compressibility is enhanced at high plasma beta (beta_{ parallel} greater, similar1) along the mirror instability threshold but small elsewhere, consistent with expectations of the mirror mode. We also show that the short wavelength magnetic fluctuation power is a strong function of collisionality, which relaxes the temperature anisotropy away from the instability conditions and reduces correspondingly the fluctuation power. PMID:20366024

  7. Planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of planetary magnetic fields are synthesized with current knowledge of the composition and evolution of planets and the sources of planetary magnetism. The observations for earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, and small bodies and meteorites are summarized. The evolution and structure of the terrestrial planets, of Jupiter and Saturn, and of Uranus and Neptune are discussed in detail. Possible sources of planetary magnetism are discussed, and estimates are established which are sufficient in most cases to identify whether an observed field is likely to be the consequence of dynamo generation. Predictions of the existence or nonexistence of dynamos are offered for each large planet or satellite in the solar system.

  8. Structure-induced magnetic anisotropy in the Fe(110)/Mo(110)/Al2O3(1120) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraune, M.; Hauch, J. O.; Gntherodt, G.; Laufenberg, M.; Fonin, M.; Rdiger, U.; Mayer, J.; Turban, P.

    2006-02-01

    Fe(110) films were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates using a Mo(110) buffer layer in an ultrahigh-vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy system. The magnetic properties were examined ex situ by Brillouin light scattering and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. To determine the magnetic anisotropy constants the frequency of the Damon-Eshbach [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 308 (1961)] surface spin-wave mode was measured as a function of the in-plane angle between the external magnetic field and the Fe[001] crystal axis. The angle-dependent frequency was fitted by a spin-wave model. We found that the easy axis of the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 and an additional uniaxial in-plane anisotropy K?(2) are aligned parallel to the in-plane Fe[001] axis for Fe-layer thicknesses from 0.8 to 37 nm, with K1 increasing and K?(2) decreasing with increasing Fe thickness. Possible origins of the observed uniaxial anisotropy are discussed.

  9. Ultra Low Energy Switching of Ferromagnet with Perpendicular Anisotropy on Topological Insulator by Voltage Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Dey, Rik; Roy, Urmimala; Register, Leonard; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2015-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate, through simulation, an ultra low energy memory device on a topological insulator thin film. The device consists of a thin layer of Fe deposited on the surface of a topological insulator, Bi2Se3. The top surface of Fe is covered with MgO so that the ferromagnetic layer has perpendicular anisotropy. Current is passed on the surface of the topological insulator which switches the magnetization of the Fe ferromagnet through strong exchange interaction, between electrons contributing to the surface current on the Bi2Se3 and the d electrons in the ferromagnet, and spin transfer torque due to shunting of current through the ferromagnet. Voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy enables ultra low energy switching. Our micromagnetic simulations, predict switching time of the order of 2.4 ns and switching energy of the order of 0.16 fJ for a ferromagnetic bit with thermal stability of 90 kBT. The proposed structure combines the advantages of both large spin torque from topological insulators and those of perpendicular anisotropy materials. This work is supported by NRI SWAN and NSF NASCENT Center.

  10. Effect of the surface anisotropy and the shape on the magnetization behavior in an egg-shaped nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, An; Xu, Yuanyuan

    Using the classical Heisenberg model and Monte Carlo simulation, we compute the magnetization behavior of a ferromagnetic nanoparticle with an egg-shape in an external magnetic field along the symmetry axis. The particle is in a single-domain state with a surface anisotropy axis perpendicular to the surface of the particle. At low temperature, it is found that exchange bias appears in the hysteresis loop, which does not exist in the spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles. The bias field produced by the frozen spins on the surface of the egg-shaped nanoparticle may be the reason to produce the phenomenon of the exchange bias.

  11. Giant Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Graphene-Co Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongxin; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Spintec theory Team

    We report strongly enhanced perpendicular anisotropy (PMA) of Co films by graphene coating via ab-initio calculations. The results show that graphene coating can improve the surface anisotropy of Co film up to twice large of the bare Co case and keep the film effective anisotropy being out-of-plane till 25 Å of Co, in agreement with experiments. Our layer resolved analysis reveals that PMA of Co (Co/Gr) films mainly originates from the adjacent 3 Co layers close to surface (interface) and can be strongly influenced by graphene. Furthermore, orbital hybridization analysis uncovers the origin of the PMA enhancement which is due to graphene-Co bonding causing an inversion of Co 3dz 2 and 3dx 2 - y 2 Bloch states close to Fermi level. Finally, we propose to design Co-graphene heterostructures which possess a linearly increasing surface anisotropy and a constant effective anisotropy. These findings point towards a possible engineering graphene-Co junctions with giant anisotropy, which stands as a hallmark for future spintronic information processing. This work was supported by European Graphene Flagship, European Union-funded STREP project CONCEPT-GRAPHENE, French ANR Projects NANOSIM-GRAPHENE and NMGEM

  12. Large and negative magnetic anisotropy in pentacoordinate mononuclear Ni(ii) Schiff base complexes.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Svoboda, Ingrid; Bo?a, Roman; Trvn?ek, Zden?k

    2015-05-28

    A series of pentacoordinate Ni(ii) complexes of the general formula [Ni(L5)] () with various pentadentate Schiff base ligands H2L5 (originating in a condensation of aromatic ortho-hydroxy-aldehydes and aliphatic triamines) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis and magnetometry. The alternations of substituents on the H2L parent ligand resulted in the complexes with the geometry varying between the square-pyramid and trigonal-bipyramid. In the compounds whose chromophore geometry is closer to a trigonal-bipyramid, a large and negative uniaxial anisotropy (D = -64 cm(-1)) was identified. Moreover, the simple linear expression for the axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter, D/cm(-1) = 32.7(4.8) - 151(10)?, was proposed, where ? (in degrees) stands for the Addison parameter. The results of magnetic analysis were also supported by ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations of the ZFS splitting parameters D and E, and g tensors. Despite large and negative D-values of the reported compounds, slow relaxation of magnetization was not observed either in zero or non-zero static magnetic field, thus no single-molecule magnetic behaviour was detected. PMID:25919125

  13. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin ferromagnetic films adjacent to high-k oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Bi, Chong; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in thin ferromagnetic films has attracted a great deal of attention due to interesting physics and promising application in spintronic devices. The strength of PMA is often found to be strongly influenced by the adjacent heavy metal layer and oxide layer. A strong interest has emerged recently to control the PMA of these ultra-thin films by electric fields. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of perpendicularly magnetized 3d transitional metal films next to high-k oxides such as HfO2 and ZrO2. We have investigated structural, magnetic and transport properties of these films. The PMA strongly depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and the interfacial oxidation level of the bilayers. We will also discuss electric field controlled magnetic properties in these systems. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  14. Effects of auroral-particle anisotropies and mirror forces on high-latitude electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that, for most of the mechanisms for the strong electric fields that characterize the narrow regions in which there is acceleration and precipitation of ring current and/or plasma-sheet plasma, certain effects must be taken into account in simulations of auroral electric fields. The effects are those of auroral particle anisotropy, of mirror forces due to the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, of auroral electron backscatter by the atmosphere, and of electron trapping by the combination of magnetic mirroring and electrostatic forces. What is more, the effects of the very strong perpendicular electric field must also be taken into account in a kinetic description of the Poisson equation in order to achieve a unified theory of the auroral electrostatic structure. Progress in these areas during the past few years is reviewed. It is shown that particle anisotropies and mirror forces can account for some basic electrostatic features of the quiet arc, while additional effects may be occurring in strong events in which the parallel potential drop is more than about 10 kV.

  15. Effect of electron thermal anisotropy on the kinetic cross-field streaming instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, S. T.; Tanaka, M.; Gaffey, J. D., Jr.; Wu, C. S.; Da Jornada, E. H.; Ziebell, L. F.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of the kinetic cross-field streaming instability, motivated by the research of collisionless shock waves and previously studied by Wu et al. (1983), is discussed more fully. Since in the ramp region of a quasi-perpendicular shock electrons can be preferentially heated in the direction transverse to the ambient magnetic field, it is both desirable and necessary to include the effect of the thermal anisotropy on the instability associated with a shock. It is found that Te-perpendicular greater than Te-parallel can significantly enhance the peak growth rate of the cross-field streaming instability when the electron beta is sufficiently high. Furthermore, the present analysis also improves the analytical and numerical solutions previously obtained.

  16. Effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetization saturation on the mechanically induced switching in nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Min; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Shen, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    The effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku) and magnetization saturation (Ms) on the mechanically induced switching in nanomagnets are studied using a constraint-free phase field model, which allows explicit magneto-mechanical coupling and strictly constant magnetization magnitude. The effects of Ku and Ms on the transition boundary between the coherent and incoherent switching modes are presented in terms of the nanomagnet geometry. It is found that Ms rather than Ku can affect the transition boundary between the two switching modes. In the coherent mode, there exists a critical strain ( ɛc ) to induce a deterministic 90° switching. By using the dynamic nature and overrun behavior of the magnetization, a deterministic 180° switching can occur if the mechanical strain is removed once the magnetization rotates to the largest achievable angle ( ϑ1m ). For 90° switching, increasing Ku can enhance both ɛc and ϑ1m , whereas Ms incurs no noticeable changes. For 180° switching, the switching time (ts) increases with Ms linearly, but initially decreases with increasing Ku and then saturates. The results for ts suggest that moderate Ku and Ms are advisable to simultaneously obtain relatively low ɛc , quick switching, high storage density, and high magnetization-state stability in nanomagnets. This work provides insight on tuning mechanically assisted nanomagnet-based logic and memory devices through Ms and Ku.

  17. Nonepitaxially grown nanopatterned Co-Pt alloys with out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D.; Klimenta, F.; Fischer, S.; Liscio, F.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Maret, M.; Albrecht, M.

    2009-12-01

    A study on the structural and magnetic properties of 5-nm-thick Co-Pt alloy films grown on thermally oxidized SiO2/Si(100) substrates as well as on self-assemblies of spherical SiO2 particles with sizes down to 10 nm is presented. An out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization was stabilized at deposition temperatures as low as 250 C in a broad composition range between 40 and 70 at. % of Pt. Owing to the low deposition temperatures, no chemical long-range order is found. Thus, the strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy is expected to be caused by anisotropic short-range order effects. The magnetic behavior of CoPt alloys with an equiatomic composition grown on arrays of SiO2 particles was found to be similar to those on planar substrates. Structural investigations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a continuous CoPt layer has been formed, covering the particle tops and connecting them. The magnetic CoPt caps exhibit an out-of-plane easy axis for all particle sizes; however, no pronounced difference in coercive field with particle size was observed, which is associated with the specific morphology of the film structure.

  18. Enhanced film thickness for Nel wall in soft magnetic film by introducing strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Tao; Ma, Tianyong; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Shimeng; Li, Fashen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the magnetic domain walls in a single-layer soft magnetic film with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. The soft magnetic film is composed of a highly c-axis-oriented hcp-Co81Ir19 alloy with strong negative magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The domain structure of the soft Co81Ir19 films with thickness ranging from 50-230?nm in a demagnetization state was observed through magnetic force microscopy and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Results reveal that the critical transition thickness at which the domain wall changes from Nel type to Bloch type is about 138?nm, which is much larger than the critical value of traditional Fe- and Co-based soft magnetic films with negligible magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Theoretical calculation was also performed and the calculated result agrees well with experimental data. PMID:26821614

  19. Enhanced film thickness for Nel wall in soft magnetic film by introducing strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Tao; Ma, Tianyong; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Shimeng; Li, Fashen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the magnetic domain walls in a single-layer soft magnetic film with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. The soft magnetic film is composed of a highly c-axis-oriented hcp-Co81Ir19 alloy with strong negative magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The domain structure of the soft Co81Ir19 films with thickness ranging from 50230?nm in a demagnetization state was observed through magnetic force microscopy and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Results reveal that the critical transition thickness at which the domain wall changes from Nel type to Bloch type is about 138?nm, which is much larger than the critical value of traditional Fe- and Co-based soft magnetic films with negligible magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Theoretical calculation was also performed and the calculated result agrees well with experimental data.

  20. Ab initio modelling of magnetic anisotropy in Sr3NiPtO6.

    PubMed

    Pradipto, A-M; Broer, R; Picozzi, S

    2016-01-27

    First principles calculations in the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and wavefunction-based correlated methods have been performed to investigate in detail the magnetic anisotropy in Sr3NiPtO6. This material is known for the easy-plane anisotropy with a large anisotropy constant of about 7.5-9.3 meV. We find that by properly choosing the onsite Coulomb repulsion and exchange parameters, DFT can correctly explain the easy-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material, but the magnitude of the anisotropy constant is underestimated. On the other hand, a quantitative agreement with respect to experiments, both in the magnitude and direction of the magnetic anisotropy, can be recovered by using the wavefunction-based approach which is able to fully describe the multiplet physics. We also show that the presence of structural distortions of the local NiO6 coordination is crucial for stabilizing the magnetic anisotropy in this compound. PMID:26778078

  1. Induced magnetic anisotropy in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials: A transmission x-ray diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, R.; Yanai, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kato, A.; Ohnuma, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-05-01

    In order to better understand the origin of field-induced anisotropy (Ku) in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys, the lattice spacing of the bcc-Fe phase in nanocrystalline Fe94-xNb6Bx (x = 10, 12, 14) alloys annealed under an applied magnetic field has been investigated by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry (t-XRD) with the diffraction vector parallel and perpendicular to the field direction. The saturation magnetostriction (?s) of nanocrystalline Fe94-xNb6Bx was found to increase linearly with the volume fraction of the residual amorphous phase and is well described by taking into account the volume-weighted average of two local ?s values for the bcc-Fe nanocrystallites (-5 2 ppm) and the residual amorphous matrix (+8 2 ppm). The lattice distortion required to produce the measured Ku values (100 J/m3) was estimated via the inverse magnetostrictive effect using the measured ?s values and was compared to the lattice spacing estimations made by t-XRD. The lattice strain required to produce Ku under the magnetoelastic model was not observed by the t-XRD experiments and so the findings of this study suggest that the origin of magnetic field induced Ku cannot be explained through the magnetoelastic effect.

  2. Induced magnetic anisotropy in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials: A transmission x-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, R. Suzuki, K.; Yanai, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kato, A.; Ohnuma, M.

    2015-05-07

    In order to better understand the origin of field-induced anisotropy (K{sub u}) in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys, the lattice spacing of the bcc-Fe phase in nanocrystalline Fe{sub 94?x}Nb{sub 6}B{sub x} (x?=?10, 12, 14) alloys annealed under an applied magnetic field has been investigated by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry (t-XRD) with the diffraction vector parallel and perpendicular to the field direction. The saturation magnetostriction (?{sub s}) of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 94?x}Nb{sub 6}B{sub x} was found to increase linearly with the volume fraction of the residual amorphous phase and is well described by taking into account the volume-weighted average of two local ?{sub s} values for the bcc-Fe nanocrystallites (?5??2?ppm) and the residual amorphous matrix (+8??2?ppm). The lattice distortion required to produce the measured K{sub u} values (?100?J/m{sup 3}) was estimated via the inverse magnetostrictive effect using the measured ?{sub s} values and was compared to the lattice spacing estimations made by t-XRD. The lattice strain required to produce K{sub u} under the magnetoelastic model was not observed by the t-XRD experiments and so the findings of this study suggest that the origin of magnetic field induced K{sub u} cannot be explained through the magnetoelastic effect.

  3. Correlated oscillations of the magnetic anisotropy energy and orbital moment anisotropy in thin films: The role of quantum well states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first-principles study of the correlated behavior of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and orbital moment anisotropy (OMA) as the functions of the thickness N of the Fe film. The work is motivated by recent experimental studies combining photoemission, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and magnetic anisotropy measurements. In agreement with experiment, the correlated oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) are obtained that have their origin in the formation of the 3d quantum well states (QWS) confined in the films. The main contribution to the oscillation amplitude comes from the surface layer. This is an interesting feature of the phenomenon consisting in the peculiar dependence of the physical quantities on the thickness of the film. We demonstrate that the band structure of the bulk Fe does not reflect adequately the properties of the 3d QWS in thin films and, therefore, does not provide the basis for understanding the oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) . A detailed point-by-point analysis in the two-dimensional (2D) Brillouin zone (BZ) of the film shows that the contribution of the ? point, contrary to a rather common expectation, does not play an important role in the formation of the oscillations. Instead, the most important contributions come from a broad region of the 2D BZ distant from the center of the BZ. Combining symmetry arguments and direct calculations we show that orbital moments of the electronic states possess nonzero transverse components orthogonal to the direction of the spin magnetization. The account for this feature is crucial in the point-by-point analysis of the OMA. On the basis of the calculations for noncollinear spin configurations we suggest interpretations of two interesting experimental findings: fast temperature decay of the oscillation amplitude in MAE (N ) and unexpectedly strong spin mixing of the initial states of the photoemission process.

  4. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Giang, Chu Duy; Tam, Le Thi; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; García, José Ángel; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-15

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications. PMID:26933975

  5. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Duy Giang, Chu; Thi Tam, Le; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; Ángel García, José; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-01

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO–GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO–GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO–GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0–300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO–GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO–GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO–GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications.

  6. Biological Magnetometry: Torque on Superparamagnetic Beads in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oene, Maarten M.; Dickinson, Laura E.; Pedaci, Francesco; Köber, Mariana; Dulin, David; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic beads are widely used in biochemistry and single-molecule biophysics, but the nature of the anisotropy that enables the application of torques remains controversial. To quantitatively investigate the torques experienced by superparamagnetic particles, we use a biological motor to rotate beads in a magnetic field and demonstrate that the underlying potential is π periodic. In addition, we tether a bead to a single DNA molecule and show that the angular trap stiffness increases nonlinearly with magnetic field strength. Our results indicate that the superparamagnetic beads' anisotropy derives from a nonuniform intrabead distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

  7. Effects of magnetic anisotropy and exchange in Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, A. N. Bogdanov, S. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Park, J.-G.; Choi, Y. N.; Lee, Seongsu; Prokes, K.; Golosova, N. O.; Sashin, I. L.; Kudrevatykh, N. V.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Vokhmyanin, A. P.

    2012-11-15

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of two (2b and 2d) Tm sublattices and four (4f, 6g, 12j, and 12k) Fe sublattices in ferrimagnetic compound Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). We have determined the temperature dependence of the magnitude and orientation of magnetization for each of the thulium and iron sublattices in the range (10-300) K. A spontaneous rotation (at about 90 K) of the Tm and Fe sublattice magnetizations from the c-axis to the basal plane is accompanied by a drastic change in the magnetization magnitude, signifying a large magnetization anisotropy. Both Tm sublattices exhibit an easy-axis type of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The Fe sublattices manifest both the uniaxial and planar anisotropy types. The sublattice formed by Fe atoms at the 4f position reveals the largest planar anisotropy constant. The Fe atoms at the 12j position show a uniaxial anisotropy. We find that the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured below and above the spin-reorientation transition are remarkably different.

  8. ROTMOKE study of step-induced magnetic anisotropy in vicinal Cu/Py/Ni/Cu(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J. X.; Ma, Song; Tan, A.; Li, J.; Zhang, Z. D.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2015-03-01

    Py/Ni films were epitaxially grown on a 6o vicinal Cu(001) substrate with steps parallel to the [110] axis. The addition of Py film increases the Ni film spin reorientation transition (SRT) thickness to permit a study of the step-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy in a wider Ni thickness range. Rotation MOKE (ROTMOKE) was applied to determine the step-induced magnetic anisotropy in the vicinal Cu/Py/Ni/Cu(001) as a function of both the Py and Ni film thicknesses. We found that the atomic steps from the vicinal Cu(001) induce an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy that favors both Py and Ni magnetizations perpendicular to the steps. In addition, thickness-dependent ROTMOKE measurement allows a separation of the Py and Ni volume-type step-induced magnetic anisotropies. We show that Ni films exhibit different step-induced magnetic anisotropies below and above ~ 5-6ML Ni thickness. visiting scholar at University of California at Berkeley.

  9. Exchange-coupled Sm-Co/Nd-Co nanomagnets: correlation between soft phase anisotropy and exchange field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z. J.; Jiang, J. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.; Liu, J. P.

    2002-09-01

    The effect of the magnetic anisotropy of the Nd-Co soft phase on its exchange field (Hex) is reported for epitaxial Sm-Co/Nd-Co bilayers. It is found that Hex gradually increases with anisotropy K of the soft phase. The experimental values of Hex as well as its variation with K are quantitatively interpreted using an analytical model based on the formation of a partial domain wall on the soft phase side of the interface. The results suggest that one can enhance Hex, and hence, the volume fraction of the soft phase for effective exchange spring coupling between the hard and soft phases, by tailoring the anisotropy of the soft phase.

  10. Magnetic Signatures on Planets Without Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Brown, L. B.

    2002-03-01

    On extraterrestrial bodies with no present day magnetic fields, the majority of the magnetic signature must come from high coercivity phases such as hemo-ilmenite, ilmenohematite, or very fine-grained magnetite.

  11. Magnetic-field-modulated Kondo effect in a single-magnetic-ion molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Javier I.; Vernek, E.; Martins, G. B.; Mucciolo, E. R.

    2014-11-01

    We study numerically the low-temperature electronic transport properties of a single-ion magnet with uniaxial and transverse spin anisotropies. We find clear signatures of a Kondo effect caused by the presence of a transverse (zero-field) anisotropy in the molecule. This Kondo effect has an SU(2) pseudospin character, associated with a doublet ground state of the isolated molecule, which results from the transverse anisotropy. Upon applying a transverse magnetic field to the single-ion magnet, we observe oscillations of the Kondo effect due to the presence of diabolical points (degeneracies) of the energy spectrum of the molecule caused by geometrical phase interference effects, similar to those observed in the quantum tunneling of multi-ion molecular nanomagnets. The field-induced lifting of the ground-state degeneracy competes with the interference modulation, resulting in some cases in a suppression of the Kondo peak.

  12. Crustal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Ravat, D.; Frawley, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Cosmos 49, Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO-2, 4 and 6)) and Magsat have been the only low-earth orbiting satellites to measure the crustal magnetic field on a global scale. These missions revealed the presence of long- wavelength (> 500 km) crustal anomalies predominantly located over continents. Ground based methods were, for the most part, unable to record these very large-scale features; no doubt due to the problems of assembling continental scale maps from numerous smaller surveys acquired over many years. Questions arose as to the source and nature of these long-wave length anomalies. As a result there was a great stimulant given to the study of the magnetic properties of the lower crust and upper mantle. Some indication as to the nature of these deep sources has been provided by the recent results from the deep crustal drilling programs. In addition, the mechanism of magnetization, induced or remanent, was largely unknown. For computational ease these anomalies were considered to result solely from induced magnetization. However, recent results from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), a magnetometer-bearing mission to Mars, have revealed crustal anomalies with dimensions similar to the largest anomalies on Earth. These Martian features could only have been produced by remanent magnetization, since Mars lacks an inducing field. The origin of long-wavelength crustal anomalies, however, has not been completely determined. Several large crustal magnetic anomalies (e.g., Bangui, Kursk, Kiruna and Central Europe) will be discussed and the role of future satellite magnetometer missions (Orsted, SUNSAT and Champ) in their interpretation evaluated.

  13. Study of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in Co-based thin-film media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murao, R.; Okuyama, C.; Takahashi, K.; Kikuchi, A.; Kitamoto, Y.; Ishida, S.

    2002-04-01

    The relationship among macroscopic in-plane magnetic anisotropy, the crystal structure of both the Co-based magnetic layer and the Cr under-layer, and the surface morphology of the textured substrate was studied. In the highly oriented media, the preferred orientation of the c-axis of Co to the circumferential direction and the distortion of the Cr crystal lattice were observed. In-plane magnetic anisotropy is induced when the grain of the under-layer is smaller than the texture grooves.

  14. Tuning Magnetic Anisotropy in Metallic Multilayers by Surface Charging: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Daz, P.; Dasa, T. R.; Stepanyuk, V. S.

    2013-06-01

    Our ab initio studies show clear evidence that magnetic anisotropy (MA) and the direction of magnetization in metallic magnetic multilayers can be tailored at once by surface charging. By taking Fe-Pt multilayers as a representative example, we demonstrate that surface charging has a deep effect on the magnitude of the MA, which is composition dependent, achieving remarkably large values for systems featuring a single Fe layer capped with Pt. More intriguing is the behavior of the multilayers capped with iron bilayers, for which surface charging not only affects the value of the anisotropy but an easy-axis switching is also revealed. By analyzing the electronic structure of the magnetic layers and relating the MA to the orbital moment anisotropy, some insights about the origin of the MA from a local perspective can be inferred.

  15. Controlling the magnetic anisotropy of Ni cluster supported on graphene flakes with topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sanjubala; Khanna, Shiv N.; Entel, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of transition metal (TM) clusters remains one of the primary objectives for applications of cluster assembled materials in high-density magnetic data storage devices. In this regard, graphene supports with topological disorder are considered as promising substrate materials for the TM clusters as defects can act as anchoring centers. Based on density functional theory for Ni clusters deposited on graphene nanoflakes, we show that magnetic anisotropy of Ni clusters can be tuned by specific topological defects in the graphene substrate. Systematic studies performed on pentagonal and heptagonal defects in graphene flakes show that Ni13 deposited on heptagonal defected graphene flake is a promising candidate with a large magnetic anisotropy energy of about 16 meV.

  16. Interfacial magnetic anisotropy of Co90Zr10 on Pt layer.

    PubMed

    Kil, Joon Pyo; Bae, Gi Yeol; Suh, Dong Ik; Choi, Won Joon; Noh, Jae Sung; Park, Wanjun

    2014-11-01

    Spin Transfer Torque (STT) is of great interest in data writing scheme for the Magneto-resistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) using Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ). Scalability for high density memory requires ferromagnetic electrodes having the perpendicular magnetic easy axis. We investigated CoZr as the ferromagnetic electrode. It is observed that interfacial magnetic anisotropy is preferred perpendicular to the plane with thickness dependence on the interfaces with Pt layer. The anisotropy energy (K(u)) with thickness dependence shows a change of magnetic-easy-axis direction from perpendicular to in-plane around 1.2 nm of CoZr. The interfacial anisotropy (K(i)) as the directly related parameters to switching and thermal stability, are estimated as 1.64 erg/cm2 from CoZr/Pt multilayered system. PMID:25958513

  17. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetic phase transitions in RFe5Al7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. I.; Yasin, S.; Andreev, A. V.; Skourski, Y.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.

    2015-06-01

    RFe5Al7 (R - Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm) single crystals have been studied by measurements of magnetization, sound propagation (in static and pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T) and specific heat. Fundamental magnetic properties have been determined and compared for all these materials. RFe5Al7 are highly anisotropic ferrimagnets. Spontaneous and field-induced magnetic phase transitions of anisotropic and exchange nature have been observed in RFe5Al7. Strong magnetoelastic interactions are manifested by pronounced acoustic anomalies at the phase transformations. The detected magnetization jumps provide important information on the R-Fe inter-sublattice exchange interactions.

  18. Magnetic interface anisotropy in ultrathin cobalt films Au/Co/M/Au, with M = Au, Cu, Pd or Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvillain, P.; Chappert, C.; Grolier, V.; Mgy, R.; Ould-Mahfoud, S.; Renard, J. P.; Veillet, P.

    1993-03-01

    We have measured the bulk and interface contributions to magnetic anisotropy on mainly hcp (0001) cobalt ultrathin films grown on polycrystalline textured Au(111) substrate, and covered with different metals. We have studied magnetic anisotropies versus nature of coverage metal M = Au, Cu, Pd or Pt. Large interface anisotropy constants Ks were found for induced magnetic moment per interface atom was found in Co/Pd interface.

  19. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Jorge, Guillermo; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.; Negri, R. Martn

    2013-12-01

    Nickel (Ni) based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures (referred as needles) oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing. Nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature, under air ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure) and then calcined at 400 C (in air atmosphere also). The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at (10.0 0.6) nm with polydispersivity given by ? = (8.0 0.2) nm. The SAXS, X-ray powder diffraction, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) experiments are consistent with single crystal nanoparticles of spherical shape (average particle diameter obtained by TEM: (12 1) nm). Nickel-based nanochains (average diameter: 360 nm; average length: 3 ?m, obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy; aspect ratio = length/diameter 10) were obtained at 85 C and ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure). The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects. Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles. Magnetization curves, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra, and strain-stress curves of low filler's loading composites (2% w/w of fillers) were determined as functions of the relative orientation with respect to the needles. The results indicate that even at low loadings it is possible to obtain magnetorheological composites with anisotropic properties, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains. For instance, the magnetic remanence, the FMR field, and the elastic response to compression are higher when measured parallel to the needles (about 30% with nanochains as fillers). Analogously, the elastic response is also anisotropic, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains as fillers. Therefore, all experiments performed confirm the high potential of nickel nanochains to induce anisotropic effects in magnetorheological materials.

  20. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Negri, R. Martn; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Jorge, Guillermo; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.

    2013-12-07

    Nickel (Ni) based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures (referred as needles) oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing. Nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature, under air ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure) and then calcined at 400?C (in air atmosphere also). The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at (10.0??0.6) nm with polydispersivity given by ??=?(8.0??0.2) nm. The SAXS, X-ray powder diffraction, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) experiments are consistent with single crystal nanoparticles of spherical shape (average particle diameter obtained by TEM: (12??1) nm). Nickel-based nanochains (average diameter: 360?nm; average length: 3??m, obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy; aspect ratio?=?length/diameter ? 10) were obtained at 85?C and ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure). The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects. Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles. Magnetization curves, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra, and strain-stress curves of low filler's loading composites (2% w/w of fillers) were determined as functions of the relative orientation with respect to the needles. The results indicate that even at low loadings it is possible to obtain magnetorheological composites with anisotropic properties, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains. For instance, the magnetic remanence, the FMR field, and the elastic response to compression are higher when measured parallel to the needles (about 30% with nanochains as fillers). Analogously, the elastic response is also anisotropic, with larger anisotropy when using nanochains as fillers. Therefore, all experiments performed confirm the high potential of nickel nanochains to induce anisotropic effects in magnetorheological materials.

  1. Transport Properties of Equilibrium Argon Plasma in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Laricchiuta, A.; Chikhaoui, A.; Kustova, E. V.; Giordano, D.

    2005-05-16

    Electron electrical conductivity coefficients of equilibrium Argon plasma in a magnetic field are calculated up to the 12th Chapman-Enskog approximation at pressure of 1 atm and 0.1 atm for temperatures 500K-20000K; the magnetic Hall parameter spans from 0.01 to 100. The collision integrals used in the calculations are discussed. The convergence properties of the different approximations are assessed. The degree of anisotropy introduced by the presence of the magnetic field is evaluated. Differences with the isotropic case can be very substantial. The biggest effects are visible at high ionization degrees, i.e. high temperatures, and at strong magnetic fields.

  2. Fabrication of tunable Janus microspheres with dual anisotropy of porosity and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yin; Wang, Chaoyang; Ngai, To; Tong, Zhen

    2013-04-30

    This work presents a facile approach to produce a novel type of Janus microspheres with dual anisotropy of porosity and magnetism based on Pickering-type double emulsion templates. A stable aqueous Fe3O4 dispersion-in-oil-in-water (WF/O/W) double Pickering emulsion is first generated by using hydrophobic silica and hydrophilic mesoporous silica particles as stabilizers. Janus microspheres with multihollow structure possessing magnetite nanoparticles concentrated on one side of the microspheres are obtained after polymerization of the middle oil phase of the double emulsion under a magnetic field. The resultant Janus microspheres are characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Moreover, we have systematically investigated the influences of Fe3O4 particle concentration, hydrophobic silica particle content, and volume ratio of the inner water phase to middle oil phase (WF/O) on the double emulsion formation and consequently on the structure of the resulting Janus microspheres. Our results show that the distribution of the multihollow structures within the prepared microspheres can be accurately tailored by adjusting the ratio of WF/O. In addition, the obtained Janus microsphere can be fairly orientated under a magnetic field, making them a potential candidate for synthesizing Janus membrane. PMID:23565899

  3. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2015-07-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  4. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Zighem, F.; Chrif, S. M.; Tiusan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2 nm ? d ? 50 nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of -0.46 erg/cm2 and 0.74 erg/cm2 for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin.

  5. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility as a strain gauge in the Flamanville granite, NW France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogn, J. P.; Perroud, H.

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between strain and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been investigated in the Carboniferous Flamanville granite in the Armorican Massif, NW France. We measured the axial ratios of elliptical inclusions and the orientation of cleavage planes at eight sites around the granite margin. Measurements of AMS were made on 73 specimens using a Schonstedt spinner magnetometer. AMS measurements are shown to provide accurate predictions of cleavage and lineation direction, even where these structures are difficult to measure in the field. The strain and AMS ellipsoids show similar regional variations in shape and intensity, and a good correlation between the lengths of the principal axes. Finally, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Flamanville granite was syntectonically emplaced during the late stages of the Hercynian Orogeny.

  6. Nonmonotonic effects of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy on current-driven vortex wall motions in magnetic nanostripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuan-Chang; Lei, Hai-Yang; Hu, Jing-Guo

    2015-09-01

    In a magnetic nanostripe, the effects of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on the current-driven horizontal motion of vortex wall along the stripe and the vertical motion of the vortex core are studied by micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the horizontal and vertical motion can generally be monotonously enhanced by PMA. However, when the current is small, a nonmonotonic phenomenon for the horizontal motion is found. Namely, the velocity of the horizontal motion firstly decreases and then increases with the increase of the PMA. We find that the reason for this is that the PMA can firstly increase and then decrease the confining force induced by the confining potential energy. In addition, the PMA always enhances the driving force induced by the current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247026 and 11374253).

  7. Reionization constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Sethi, Shiv K.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    We study the impact of the extra density fluctuations induced by primordial magnetic fields on the reionization history in the redshift range: 6 < z < 10. We perform a comprehensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) physical analysis allowing the variation of parameters related to primordial magnetic fields (strength, B0, and power-spectrum index n_{B}), reionization and Λ cold dark matter cosmological model. We find that magnetic field strengths in the range: B0 ≃ 0.05-0.3 nG (for nearly scale-free power spectra) can significantly alter the reionization history in the above redshift range and can relieve the tension between the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and quasar absorption spectra data. Our analysis puts upper limits on the magnetic field strength B0 < 0.358, 0.120 and 0.059 nG (95 per cent c.l.) for n_{B} = -2.95, -2.9 and -2.85, respectively. These represent the strongest magnetic field constraints among those available from other cosmological observables.

  8. Effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of anisotropic magnetized plasma using generalized polytrope laws

    SciTech Connect

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of two magnetized anisotropic pressure plasmas flowing relative to each other is investigated using generalized polytrope laws. The anisotropic pressure with the generalized polytrope laws is considered with three-dimensional perturbations in the description of plasma using relevant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) set of equations. The magnetic field is assumed in the x-direction and parallel to the direction of the flow of plasma streams. A complete polytrope model is given for the considered system in terms of pressure components, magnetic field, and density of the fluids to discuss the condition of KH instability, stability, and overstability. The problem is solved using the normal mode analysis and the general dispersion relation is obtained by applying the appropriate boundary conditions. The case of nonvanishing wavenumber transverse to the direction of the stream is obtained, which represents the stationery configuration without excitation of KH instability. The longitudinal mode of propagation is discussed with conditions of KH instability, stability, and overstability for collisionless (anisotropic) double-adiabatic Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) and collisional (isotropic) MHD media, depending on various values of polytrope indices. The effects of pressure anisotropy, different flow velocities, and magnetic field are also discussed on the growth rate of KH instability. We observe that the presence of flow velocity and pressure anisotropy of the plasmas has a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the system. The growth rate is found larger for MHD set of equations in comparison to the CGL set of equations. The presence of magnetic field has a stabilizing role on the growth rate of the considered system.

  9. Effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of anisotropic magnetized plasma using generalized polytrope laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of two magnetized anisotropic pressure plasmas flowing relative to each other is investigated using generalized polytrope laws. The anisotropic pressure with the generalized polytrope laws is considered with three-dimensional perturbations in the description of plasma using relevant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) set of equations. The magnetic field is assumed in the x-direction and parallel to the direction of the flow of plasma streams. A complete polytrope model is given for the considered system in terms of pressure components, magnetic field, and density of the fluids to discuss the condition of KH instability, stability, and overstability. The problem is solved using the normal mode analysis and the general dispersion relation is obtained by applying the appropriate boundary conditions. The case of nonvanishing wavenumber transverse to the direction of the stream is obtained, which represents the stationery configuration without excitation of KH instability. The longitudinal mode of propagation is discussed with conditions of KH instability, stability, and overstability for collisionless (anisotropic) double-adiabatic Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) and collisional (isotropic) MHD media, depending on various values of polytrope indices. The effects of pressure anisotropy, different flow velocities, and magnetic field are also discussed on the growth rate of KH instability. We observe that the presence of flow velocity and pressure anisotropy of the plasmas has a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the system. The growth rate is found larger for MHD set of equations in comparison to the CGL set of equations. The presence of magnetic field has a stabilizing role on the growth rate of the considered system.

  10. Field dependence of the superconducting basal plane anisotropy of TmNi2B2C

    SciTech Connect

    Das, P.; Densmore, J.M.; Rastovski, C.; Schlesinger, K.J.; Laver, M.; Dewhurst, C.D.; Littrell, K.; Budko, Serguei L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Eskildsen, M.R.

    2012-10-01

    The superconductor TmNi2B2C possesses a significant fourfold basal plane anisotropy, leading to a square vortex lattice (VL) at intermediate fields. However, unlike other members of the borocarbide superconductors, the anisotropy in TmNi2B2C appears to decrease with increasing field, evident by a reentrance of the square VL phase. We have used small-angle neutron scattering measurements of the VL to study the field dependence of the anisotropy. Our results provide a direct, quantitative measurement of the decreasing anisotropy. We attribute this reduction of the basal plane anisotropy to the strong Pauli paramagnetic effects observed in TmNi2B2C and the resulting expansion of vortex cores near Hc2.

  11. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-12-10

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  12. The Galactic Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-12-01

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength ?20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  13. Global solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, J. T.

    The global solar magnetic field greatly affects the corona, heliosphere, and terrestrial environment as well as revealing much about the Sun itself. It may be useful to think of the global field in two ways: as an aggregate of many small scale processes and as an entity. When considering the origin and evolution of the global field, one immediately focuses on the smaller-scale features and processes that it comprises. These include the emergence of active regions, the interaction of new and existing flux patterns, the distortion and dispersal of flux over the surface by convective motions, the phenomena that produce the emergence of patterns with various periods, and the influence of convection and rotation at various depths on flux tubes. When contemplating the effects of the global field, one often focuses on it as an entity or on its large-scale features. Examples are the reversal of the polar fields, the asymmetry between the north and south hemispheres, the dipole or quadrupole structure of the coronal field and its observation of the Earth as 2 or 4 polarity sectors, and the rigid rotation seen in coronal holes. Both views help us appreciate the significance of the global field.

  14. Magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe-Si(001) single-crystal films under rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Tetsuroh; Aida, Takuya; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostrictive behaviors under rotating magnetic fields are investigated for bcc(001) single-crystal films of Fe100-x-Six(x = 0, 6, 10 at. %). The magnetostriction observation directions are along bcc[100] and bcc[110] of the films. The magnetostriction waveform varies greatly depending on the observation direction. For the observation along [100], the magnetostriction waveform of all the films is bathtub-like and the amplitude stays at almost constant even when the magnetic field is increased up to the anisotropy field. On the other hand, the waveform along [110] is triangular and the amplitude increases with increasing magnetic field up to the anisotropy field and then saturates. In addition, the waveform of Fe90Si10 film is distorted triangular when the applied magnetic fields are less than its anisotropy field. These magnetostrictive behaviors under rotating magnetic fields are well explained by employing a proposed modified coherent rotation model where the anisotropy field and the magnetization reversal field are determined by using measured magnetization curves. The results show that magnetocrystalline anisotropy plays important role on magnetostrictive behavior under rotating magnetic fields.

  15. Asymptotic dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic particle on the anisotropy of the particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, C. N.; Cregg, P. J.; Crothers, D. S. F.

    1992-01-01

    It is known that the direction of the magnetization vector of very fine single-domain ferromagnetic particles fluctuates under the influence of thermal agitation. Perturbation theory is applied rigorously to a singular integral equation to derive an asymptotic formula for the relaxation time of the magnetization, for the case of uniaxial anisotropy and an applied magnetic field. The result agrees with that of Brown [Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] as described succinctly by Aharoni [Phys. Rev. 177, 793 (1969)]. It should be emphasized that both Gilbert's equation and the earlier Landau-Lifshitz equation are merely phenomenological equations, which are used to explain the time decay of the average magnetization. Brown suggested that the Gilbert equation should be augmented by a white-noise driving term in order to explain the effect of thermal fluctuations of the surroundings on the magnetization.

  16. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.

  17. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  18. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  19. Experimental evidence of skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Stebliy, Maxim E. Kolesnikov, Alexander G.; Davydenko, Alexander V.; Ognev, Alexey V.; Samardak, Alexander S.; Chebotkevich, Ludmila A.

    2015-05-07

    Formation and existence of magnetic skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks (Ta(3?nm)/[Co(0.37?nm)/Ni(0.58?nm)]{sub 10}){sub 2} with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are shown experimentally at room temperature. Magnetization reversal through the skyrmion state is studied using magnetic hysteresis measurements. An evolution of skyrmion configurations in the nanodisk structure is analyzed. Experimental methods and micromagnetic simulations help to understand the magnetization reversal processes occurring through the stable skyrmion-like configurations. Formation of the intermediate C-states during magnetization reversal is demonstrated. The skyrmion number for all possible spin configurations is calculated.

  20. Experimental evidence of skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebliy, Maxim E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander G.; Davydenko, Alexander V.; Ognev, Alexey V.; Samardak, Alexander S.; Chebotkevich, Ludmila A.

    2015-05-01

    Formation and existence of magnetic skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks {Ta(3 nm)/[Co(0.37 nm)/Ni(0.58 nm)]10}2 with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are shown experimentally at room temperature. Magnetization reversal through the skyrmion state is studied using magnetic hysteresis measurements. An evolution of skyrmion configurations in the nanodisk structure is analyzed. Experimental methods and micromagnetic simulations help to understand the magnetization reversal processes occurring through the stable skyrmion-like configurations. Formation of the intermediate C-states during magnetization reversal is demonstrated. The skyrmion number for all possible spin configurations is calculated.