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1

Magnetic Compass Orientation in Larval Iberian Green Frogs, Pelophylax Perezi  

E-print Network

Magnetic Compass Orientation in Larval Iberian Green Frogs, Pelophylax Perezi Francisco J. Diego, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA Introduction Magnetic compass orientation has been demonstra- ted). Among urodele amphibians, use of directional information derived from the earth's magnetic field has

Phillips, John B.

2

Magnetic compass orientation in birds and its physiological basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current model suggests that magnetoreception of compass information starts with light-dependent primary processes. Light-dependency of magnetoreception is supported by behavioral experiments with homing pigeons and caged migratory birds. Three passerine species showed normal orientation under dim monochromatic light from the blue-green range of the spectrum, while they were disoriented under yellow and red light. A sevenfold increase in intensity and pre-exposure to specific wavelengths caused changes in behavior. The behavioral data indicate a complex relationship between the wavelength of light and magnetoreception, suggesting the involvement of more than one type of receptors. Extracellular recordings from the nucleus of the basal optic root and the tectum opticum identified units that responded to changes in magnetic North. Each unit showed a peak in a distinct spatial direction, so that the input of these units, processed collectively and integrated, would indicate compass directions.

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2002-09-01

3

A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds  

PubMed Central

The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, “Cluster N”, show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds “see” the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field. PMID:17895978

Heyers, Dominik; Manns, Martina; Luksch, Harald; Gunturkun, Onur; Mouritsen, Henrik

2007-01-01

4

The effect of yellow and blue light on magnetic compass orientation in European robins, Erithacus rubecula  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the wavelength dependency of magnetic compass orientation, European robins were tested during spring migration\\u000a under light of various wavelengths. Under 565-nm green light (control) the birds showed excellent orientation in their migratory\\u000a direction; a 120° deflection of magnetic North resulted in a corresponding shift in the birds' directional tendencies, indicating\\u000a the use of the magnetic compass. Under 443-nm

W. Wiltschko; R. Wiltschko

1999-01-01

5

Wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Wildtype Oregon-R Drosophila melanogaster were trained in the ambient magnetic field to a horizontal gradient of 365 nm light emanating from one of the 4 cardinal compass directions and were subsequently tested in a visually-symmetrical, radial 8-arm maze in which the magnetic field alignment could be varied. When tested under 365 nm light, flies exhibited consistent magnetic compass orientation in

J. B. Phillips; O. Sayeed

1993-01-01

6

Magnetic compass orientation in birds and its physiological basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current model suggests that magnetoreception of compass information starts with light-dependent primary processes. Light-dependency of magnetoreception is supported by behavioral experiments with homing pigeons and caged migratory birds. Three passerine species showed normal orientation under dim monochromatic light from the blue-green range of the spectrum, while they were disoriented under yellow and red light. A sevenfold increase in intensity

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

2002-01-01

7

Effect of light wavelength spectrum on magnetic compass orientation in Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many animal species, geomagnetic compass sensitivity has been demonstrated to depend on spectral composition of light to\\u000a which moving animals are exposed. Besides a loss of magnetic orientation, cases of a shift in the compass direction by 90°\\u000a following a change in the colour of light have also been described. This hitherto unclear phenomenon can be explained either\\u000a as

Martin Vácha; Tereza P?žová; Dana Drštková

2008-01-01

8

Use of a light-dependent magnetic compass for y-axis orientation in European common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles.  

PubMed

We provide evidence for the use of a magnetic compass for y-axis orientation (i.e., orientation along the shore-deep water axis) by tadpoles of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Furthermore, our study provides evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in amphibians. Tadpoles trained and then tested under full-spectrum light displayed magnetic compass orientation that coincided with the trained shore-deep water axes of their training tanks. Conversely, tadpoles trained under long-wavelength (?500 nm) light and tested under full-spectrum light, and tadpoles trained under full-spectrum light and tested under long-wavelength (?500 nm) light, exhibited a 90° shift in magnetic compass orientation relative to the trained y-axis direction. Our results are consistent with earlier studies showing that the observed 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength (?500 nm) light is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. These findings also show that wavelength-dependent effects of light do not compromise the function of the magnetic compass under a wide range of natural lighting conditions, presumably due to a large asymmetry in the relatively sensitivity of antagonistic short- and long-wavelength inputs to the light-dependent magnetic compass. PMID:23525820

Diego-Rasilla, Francisco J; Luengo, Rosa M; Phillips, John B

2013-07-01

9

Effect of light wavelength spectrum on magnetic compass orientation in Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

In many animal species, geomagnetic compass sensitivity has been demonstrated to depend on spectral composition of light to which moving animals are exposed. Besides a loss of magnetic orientation, cases of a shift in the compass direction by 90 degrees following a change in the colour of light have also been described. This hitherto unclear phenomenon can be explained either as a change in motivation or as a side effect of a light-dependent reception mechanism. Among the invertebrates, the 90 degrees shift has only been described in Drosophila. In this paper, another evidence of the phenomenon is reported. Learned compass orientation in the Tenebrio molitor was tested. If animals were trained to remember the magnetic position of a source of shortwave UV light and then tested in a circular arena in diffuse light of the same wavelength, they oriented according to the learned magnetic direction. If, however, they were tested in blue-green light after UV light training, their magnetic orientation shifted by 90 degrees CW. This result is being discussed as one of a few cases of 90 degrees shift reported to date, and as an argument corroborating the hypothesis of a close connection between photoreception and magnetoreception in insects. PMID:18696079

Vácha, Martin; P?zová, Tereza; Drstková, Dana

2008-10-01

10

Orientations Of Minoan Buildings On Crete May Indicate The First Recorded Use Of The Magnetic Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeomagnetic research has enabled the determination of the secular variation record of the past geomagnetic field and has been used as a tool for absolute and relative dating. The archaeomagnetic secular variation of declination can be used in conjunction with architectural building plan orientation angles (strike directions) to establish, whether or not, a magnetic compass was possibly used to align buildings. Until now, it has been speculative as to, how or why, Minoan buildings were orientated in an approximate North-South direction or at 'askew' angles to one another. Here, it is observed, that, the orientation angles, of some significant Minoan buildings on Crete which have been compared to the archaeomagnetic (secular variation of declination) reference curve record (Bulgaria) for that period, are consistent with the possible use of a magnetic compass. Four of the six main Palaces and other significant buildings may have been oriented using this method. This may indicate the first recorded use, by the Minoans of a magnetic compass. These findings have archaeological implications (chronology) and are of significant interest architecturally. They are also relevant to Minoan religious and cult studies and may have implications for Minoan maritime navigation studies.

Downey, W. S.

11

Light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in amphibians and insects: candidate receptors and candidate molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Magnetic compass orientation by amphibians, and some insects, is mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism. Cryptochrome photopigments, best known for their role in circadian rhythms, are proposed to mediate such responses. In this paper, we explore light-dependent properties of magnetic sensing at three levels: (i) behavioural (wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation), (ii) physiological (photoreceptors/photopigment systems with properties suggesting a role in magnetoreception), and (iii) molecular (cryptochrome-based and non-cryptochrome-based signalling pathways that are compatible with behavioural responses). Our goal is to identify photoreceptors and signalling pathways that are likely to play a specialized role in magnetoreception in order to definitively answer the question of whether the effects of light on magnetic compass orientation are mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism, or instead are due to input from a non-light-dependent (e.g. magnetite-based) magnetoreception mechanism that secondarily interacts with other light-dependent processes. PMID:20124357

Phillips, John B.; Jorge, Paulo E.; Muheim, Rachel

2010-01-01

12

Sanderlings (Calidris alba) have a magnetic compass: orientation experiments during spring migration in Iceland.  

PubMed

The migratory orientation of sanderlings (Calidris alba) was investigated with cage experiments during the spring migration in southwest Iceland. Sanderlings were exposed to 90 degrees counterclockwise-shifted magnetic fields under both clear skies and natural overcast. Clear sky control tests resulted in a northerly mean direction, in agreement with predictions based on ringing recovery data and earlier visual observations of departing flocks. Sanderlings closely followed experimental deflections of magnetic fields when tested under clear skies. Control experiments under natural overcast resulted in a bimodal distribution approximately coinciding with the magnetic north-south axis. Overcast tests did not reveal any predictable response to the experimental treatment, but instead resulted in a non-significant circular distribution. The time of orientation experiments in relation to the tidal cycle affects the motivation of the birds to depart, as shown by the lower directional scatter of headings of individuals tested within the appropriate tidal window under clear skies. Sanderlings were significantly more likely to become inactive under overcast conditions than under clear sky conditions. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that a wader species such as the sanderling possesses a magnetic compass and suggest that magnetic cues are of primary directional importance. However, overcast experiments indicate that both celestial and geomagnetic information are needed for sanderlings to realize a seasonally appropriate migratory orientation. PMID:11003824

Gudmundsson, G A; Sandberg, R

2000-10-01

13

A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration  

PubMed Central

Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420?nm. Notably, the significance of light <420?nm for inclination compass function was not considered in previous monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

2014-01-01

14

Wavelength specific effects of light on magnetic compass orientation of the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoreward magnetic compass orientation of male eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) was examined in a visually-symmetrical indoor arena. Groups of newts were first trained in a water-filled outdoor tank with an artificial shore at one end and then exposed to a rapid elevation of the training tank water temperature just prior to testing. The directional response of individual newts

J. B. Phillips; S. C. Borland

1992-01-01

15

Interrelation of magnetic compass and star orientation in night-migrating birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the orientation model that the stars derive their directional significance from the magnetic field, the orientation of European Robins (Erithacus rubecula) to an arbitrary pattern of 16 “stars” (Fig. 1) was examined.

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

1976-01-01

16

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed Central

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-01-01

17

Magnetic compass orientation in the Eastern red-spotted newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the orientation behavior of adult Eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) to earth-strength magnetic fields. Groups of 30 to 40 newts were housed in water-filled, all-glass aquaria with an artificial shoreline at one end. The aquaria were located in a greenhouse or outdoors adjacent to the laboratory building, and aligned on either the magnetic

John B. Phillips

1986-01-01

18

Evidence for celestial and magnetic compass orientation in lake migrating sockeye salmon fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Radially symmetrical, four-armed tanks were designed for testing the directional preferences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry as they commenced up-lake migrations following emergence from gravel nests and river migration to the lake.2.When tested during the day or night, as appropriate for their migration, fry from two different stocks moved in compass directions corresponding to the directions which they would

Thomas P. Quinn

1980-01-01

19

Magnetic Compass of European Robins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic compass of European robins does not use the polarity of the magnetic field for detecting the north direction. The birds derive their north direction from interpreting the inclination of the axial direction of the magnetic field lines in space, and they take the direction on the magnetic north-south axis for \\

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

1972-01-01

20

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2012-10-01

21

46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 167.40-45...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-45 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All...

2012-10-01

22

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2013-10-01

23

Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth's magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds.

Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Greiner, Walter

24

Light-dependent magnetic compass in Iberian green frog tadpoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we provide evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in Pelophylax perezi (order Anura), similar to that observed in Rana catesbeiana (order Anura) and Notophthalmus viridescens (order Urodela), and confirm for the first time in an anuran amphibian that a 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength light (?500 nm) is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. Although magnetic compass orientation in other animals (e.g., birds and some insects) has been shown to be influenced by the wavelength and/or intensity of light, these two amphibian orders are the only taxa for which there is direct evidence that the magnetic compass is light-dependent. The remarkable similarities in the light-dependent magnetic compasses of anurans and urodeles, which have evolved as separate clades for at least 250 million years, suggest that the light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism is likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of the Lissamphibia (Early Permian, ~294 million years) and, possibly, much earlier. Also, we discuss a number of similarities between the functional properties of the light-dependent magnetic compass in amphibians and blue light-dependent responses to magnetic stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster, which suggest that the wavelength-dependent 90° shift in amphibians may be due to light activation of different redox forms of a cryptochrome photopigment. Finally, we relate these findings to earlier studies showing that the pineal organ of newts is the site of the light-dependent magnetic compass and recent neurophysiological evidence showing magnetic field sensitivity in the frog frontal organ (an outgrowth of the pineal).

Diego-Rasilla, Francisco Javier; Luengo, Rosa Milagros; Phillips, John B.

2010-12-01

25

Resonance effects indicate a radical-pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory birds are known to use the geomagnetic field as a source of compass information. There are two competing hypotheses for the primary process underlying the avian magnetic compass, one involving magnetite, the other a magnetically sensitive chemical reaction. Here we show that oscillating magnetic fields disrupt the magnetic orientation behaviour of migratory birds. Robins were disoriented when exposed to

Thorsten Ritz; Peter Thalau; John B. Phillips; Roswitha Wiltschko; Wolfgang Wiltschko

2004-01-01

26

The magnetic compass of domestic chickens  

PubMed Central

In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

27

Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues. This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with declination.

Cochran, William W.; Mouritsen, Henrik; Wikelski, Martin

2004-04-01

28

Migrating songbirds recalibrate their magnetic compass daily from twilight cues.  

PubMed

Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues. This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with declination. PMID:15087541

Cochran, William W; Mouritsen, Henrik; Wikelski, Martin

2004-04-16

29

Compass Games: An Introduction to Orienteering Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compasses are useful tools for teaching the basics of navigation. Knowing where you are, where you are going, and how to get there are important facets of outdoor recreation. Compass games are a fun way to teach introductory navigation skills, and this article describes how they can be used as innovative, nontraditional activities in physical…

Sension-Hall, Debra

2011-01-01

30

Calibration of the magnetic compass of a migratory bird by celestial rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIGRATORY birds use a variety of environmental stimuli in orientation. Species that migrate primarily at night can use compasses based on the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun and patterns of skylight polarization1-4. These compass mechanisms can interact both when migratory birds make day-to-day orientation decisions5 and during their ontogeny in young birds6,7. All of the known compasses used by migratory birds seem to be modifiable by experience during early development. For example, a functional magnetic compass develops in birds that have never seen the sky8-11. But the preferred direction of orientation by the magnetic compass may be modified during the first three months of life by exposing naive birds to the sky under conditions in which magnetic directions differ substantially from compass directions indicated by the Sun and stars (true or geographic directions)6,9,10. For hand-raised Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), experience with either the clear daytime or night sky is sufficient to effect this calibration of the magnetic compass11. We therefore proposed that celestial rotation, which provides a source of geographic directions both day and night, is the calibrating reference. Here we report that the rotation of an artificial pattern of 'stars' calibrates the preferred direction of magnetic orientation of young Savannah sparrows.

Able, Kenneth P.; Able, Mary A.

1990-09-01

31

Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass.  

PubMed

Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180 degrees. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use-in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster-the inclination compass. PMID:18404256

Vácha, Martin; Drstková, Dana; P?zová, Tereza

2008-08-01

32

Magnetism before Gilbert - Discovery of the Magnetic Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First of several linked files, telling the early history of the compass (discovered in China) and how Robert Norman in 1581 showed the magnetic force was not horizontal but slanted downwards, followed by William Gilbert's demonstration that the Earth behaved like a giant magnet; two reviews of Gilbert's 1600 book "De Magnete" follow, as well as a modern version of one of Gilbert's experiments. The web collection also includes several sections for science teachers.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

33

20. View of magnetic compass; "bigeyes," used for surveying ships ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of magnetic compass; "bigeyes," used for surveying ships and shore; and signal lights (covered). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

34

Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either\\u000a polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass\\u000a types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups,

Martin Vácha; Dana Drstková; Tereza Puzová

2008-01-01

35

Applications of magnetic sensors for low cost compass systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for heading determination is described that will include the effects of pitch and roll as well as the magnetic properties of the vehicle. Using solid-state magnetic sensors and a tilt sensor, a low cost compass system can be realized. Commercial airlines today use attitude and heading reference systems that cost tens of thousands of dollars. For general aviation,

Michael J. Caruso

2000-01-01

36

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2013-10-01

37

Sun Compass Orientation by Juvenile Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) CODY R. MOTT  

E-print Network

Sun Compass Orientation by Juvenile Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) CODY R. MOTT 1 AND MICHAEL while they swam tethered inside a large circular outdoor pool and were exposed to the sun. The turtles, the predicted direction if they used the sun for orientation. Westward orientation was unaffected by placing

Milton, Sarah

38

A nocturnal mammal, the greater mouse-eared bat, calibrates a magnetic compass by the sun  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that bats can detect the geomagnetic field, but the way in which this is used by them for navigation to a home roost remains unresolved. The geomagnetic field may be used by animals both to indicate direction and to locate position. In birds, directional information appears to be derived from an interaction of the magnetic field with either the sun or the stars, with some evidence suggesting that sunset/sunrise provides the primary directional reference by which a magnetic compass is calibrated daily. We demonstrate that homing greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) calibrate a magnetic compass with sunset cues by testing their homing response after exposure to an altered magnetic field at and after sunset. Magnetic manipulation at sunset resulted in a counterclockwise shift in orientation compared with controls, consistent with sunset calibration of the magnetic field, whereas magnetic manipulation after sunset resulted in no change in orientation. Unlike in birds, however, the pattern of polarization was not necessary for the calibration. For animals that occupy ecological niches where the sunset is rarely observed, this is a surprising finding. Yet it may indicate the primacy of the sun as an absolute geographical reference not only for birds but also within other vertebrate taxa. PMID:20351296

Holland, Richard A.; Borissov, Ivailo; Siemers, Bjorn M.

2010-01-01

39

Modeling Compassion in Critical, Justice-Oriented Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the work of teacher education becomes increasingly focused on the challenges of helping mostly white, monolingual, middle-class prospective teachers become compassionate, successful teachers of racially, culturally, linguistically, economically, and academically diverse students, some teacher educators struggle to find compassion for the…

Conklin, Hilary Gehlbach

2008-01-01

40

Measuring Magnetic Declination With Compass, GPS and Virtual Globes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using virtual globe (VG) imagery to determine geographic bearing and a compass to determine magnetic bearing yielded acceptable experimental magnetic declination values for large linear physical features at 13 sites in the western continental United States. The geographic bearing of each feature was determined from measurements involving the latitude/longitude coordinate system associated with the VG image (from World Wind or Google Earth). The corresponding magnetic bearing was measured on the ground at the feature with a hand-bearing compass calibrated in 1-degree subdivisions. A sequence of GPS trackpoints, recorded while traveling along the feature either in an automobile or on foot, unambiguously identified the pertinent portion of the feature (a straight segment of a road, for example) when plotted on the VG image. For each physical feature located on a VG image, its geographic bearing was determined directly using on-screen measurement tools available with the VG program or by hand using ruler/protractor methods with printed copies of the VG image. An independent (no use of VG) geographic bearing was also extracted from the slope of a straight-line fit to a latitude/longitude plot of each feature's GPS coordinates, a value that was the same (to within the inherent uncertainty of the data) as the VG-determined bearing, thus validating this procedure for finding geographic bearings. Differences between the VG bearings and the magnetic bearings yielded experimental magnetic declination values within one degree (8 within 0.5 degree) of expected values. From the point of view of physics and geophysics pedagogy, this project affords students a simple magnetism/geodesy field experiment requiring only a good compass and a GPS receiver with memory and a data port. The novel and straightforward data analysis with VG software yields reliable experimental values for an important abstract geophysical quantity, magnetic declination. Just as the compass has long provided easy access to Magnetic North, the coordinate systems inherent in recently-developed VG and GPS satellite technologies now provide easy access (i.e., no astronomical measurements involving Polaris or the Sun) to Geographic North for this and future applications.

O'Brien, W. P.

2006-12-01

41

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. 32.15-35 Section 32.15-35 Shipping COAST...Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. (a) All tankships in ocean or coastwise service...

2012-10-01

42

Magnetic compass of migratory Savannah sparrows is calibrated by skylight polarization at sunrise and sunset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory birds use compass systems derived from the geomagnetic field, the stars, the sun and polarized light patterns. We\\u000a tested whether birds use a single underlying reference system for calibration of these compasses and, specifically, whether\\u000a sunset and sunrise polarized light cues from the region of the sky near the horizon are used to calibrate the magnetic compass.\\u000a We carried

Rachel Muheim; Susanne Åkesson; John B. Phillips

2007-01-01

43

Evidence for calibration of magnetic migratory orientation in Savannah sparrows reared in the field  

PubMed Central

The orientation system of migratory birds consists of a magnetic compass and compasses based upon celestial cues. In many places, magnetic compass directions and true or geographic compass directions differ (referred to as magnetic declination). It has been demonstrated experimentally in several species that the innate preferred direction of magnetic orientation can be calibrated by celestial rotation, an indicator of geographic directions. This calibration process brings the two types of compass into conformity and provides the birds with a mechanism that compensates for the spatial variation in magnetic declination. Calibration of magnetic orientation has heretofore been demonstrated only with hand-raised birds exposed to very large declination (90° or more). Here we show that the magnetic orientation of wild birds from near Albany, New York, USA (declination = 14° W) was N–S, a clockwise shift of 26° from the NNW–SSE direction of birds raised entirely indoors. Hand-raised birds having visual experience with either the daytime sky or both day and night sky orientated N–S, similar to wild-caught birds. These data provide the first confirmation that calibration of magnetic orientation occurs under natural conditions and in response to modest declination values.

P.Able, K.; A.Able, M.

1999-01-01

44

Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental

William W. Cochran; Henrik Mouritsen; Martin Wikelski

2004-01-01

45

The quantum compass chain in a transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the magnetic behaviors of a spin-1/2 quantum compass chain (QCC) in a transverse magnetic field, by means of the analytical spinless fermion approach and numerical Lanczos method. In the absence of the magnetic field, the phase diagram is divided into four gapped regions. To determine what happens by applying a transverse magnetic field, using the spinless fermion approach, critical fields are obtained as a function of exchanges. Our analytical results show, the field-induced effects depend on in which one of the four regions the system is. In two regions of the phase diagram, the Ising-type phase transition happens in a finite field. In another region, we have identified two quantum phase transitions (QPT)s in the ground state magnetic phase diagram. These quantum phase transitions belong to the universality class of the commensurate-incommensurate phase transition. We also present a detailed numerical analysis of the low energy spectrum and the ground state magnetic phase diagram. In particular, we show that the intermediate state (hc1 < h < hc2) is gapful, describing the spin-flop phase.

Motamedifar, M.; Mahdavifar, S.; Farjami Shayesteh, S.

2011-09-01

46

Dispositional attachment orientations, contextual variations in attachment security, and compassion fatigue among volunteers working with traumatized individuals.  

PubMed

In the present article, we report a series of studies examining the links between attachment orientations and compassion fatigue among volunteers working with traumatized individuals. Participants were volunteers in several trauma-related organizations, ranging in age from 18 to 69 years. In Study 1 (N?=?148), we examined associations between self-reports of attachment insecurities and compassion fatigue. In Study 2 (N?=?54), we used a diary design to assess attachment-related differences in emotional reactions to actual helping encounters over a 2-month period. In Study 3 (N?=?108), we examined the effects of the experimental enhancement of attachment security (security priming) on reactions to a hypothetical helping encounter. As expected, attachment insecurities, either anxiety or avoidance, were associated with heightened compassion fatigue. Moreover, security priming reduced compassion fatigue in response to a hypothetical helping encounter. These findings underscore the relevance of attachment theory for understanding and preventing compassion fatigue. PMID:23909745

Pardess, Eleanor; Mikulincer, Mario; Dekel, Rachel; Shaver, Phillip R

2014-10-01

47

The bookmark and the compass: orientation tools for hypertext users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of hypertext stems chiefly from the complex networks of conceptual links which hypertext documents can render explicit. This paper describes an array of orientation tools which help readers to choose a course through a complex information network without undue confusion or discomfort, while retaining the excitement and spontaneity users often experience when exploring complex information environments.

Mark Bernstein

1988-01-01

48

Orientation finding using a grid based visual compass  

E-print Network

a robot to orient itself in a changing environment. To build a model, colors in the image are discretized be extended to other location with a randomly walking robot. Finally, the strength of the approach the surroundings are changed in a controlled way. 1 Introduction Self-localization is an important part of robotics

Visser, Arnoud

49

REVIEW THE CASE FOR LIGHT-DEPENDENT MAGNETIC ORIENTATION IN ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-dependent models of magnetoreception have been proposed which involve an interaction between the magnetic field and either magnetite particles located within a photoreceptor or excited states of photopigment molecules. Consistent with a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass mechanism, magnetic orientation responses in salamanders, flies and birds have been shown to be affected by the wavelength of light. In birds and flies, it

MARK E. DEUTSCHLANDER; JOHN B. PHILLIPS; S. CHRIS BORLAND

50

Orientation with a Viking sun-compass, a shadow-stick, and two calcite sunstones under various weather conditions.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that Vikings used sun-compasses to derive true directions from the cast shadow of a gnomon. It has been hypothesized that when a cast shadow was not formed, Viking navigators relied on crude skylight polarimetry with the aid of dichroic or birefringent crystals, called "sunstones." We demonstrate here that a simple tool, that we call "shadow-stick," could have allowed orientation by a sun-compass with satisfying accuracy when shadows were not formed, but the sun position could have reliably been estimated. In field tests, we performed orientation trials with a set composed of a sun-compass, two calcite sunstones, and a shadow-stick. We show here that such a set could have been an effective orientation tool for Vikings only when clear, blue patches of the sky were visible. PMID:24085076

Bernáth, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

2013-09-01

51

Fractionating dead reckoning: role of the compass, odometer, logbook, and home base establishment in spatial orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rats use multiple sources of information to maintain spatial orientation. Although previous work has focused on rats’ use of environmental cues, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that rats also use self-movement cues to organize navigation. This review examines the extent that kinematic analysis of naturally occurring behavior has provided insight into processes that mediate dead-reckoning-based navigation. This work supports a role for separate systems in processing self-movement cues that converge on the hippocampus. The compass system is involved in deriving directional information from self-movement cues; whereas, the odometer system is involved in deriving distance information from self-movement cues. The hippocampus functions similar to a logbook in that outward path unique information from the compass and odometer is used to derive the direction and distance of a path to the point at which movement was initiated. Finally, home base establishment may function to reset this system after each excursion and anchor environmental cues to self-movement cues. The combination of natural behaviors and kinematic analysis has proven to be a robust paradigm to investigate the neural basis of spatial orientation.

Wallace, Douglas G.; Martin, Megan M.; Winter, Shawn S.

2008-06-01

52

Vehicle Detection and Compass Applications using AMR Magnetic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest magnetic field detectors allowed navigation over trackless oceans by sensing the earth's magnetic poles. Magnetic field sensing has vastly expanded as industry has adapted a variety of magnetic sensors to detect the presence, strength, or direction of magnetic fields not only from the earth, but also from permanent magnets, magnetized soft magnets, vehicle distur- bances, brain wave activity,

Michael J. Caruso; Lucky S. Withanawasam

53

Visual compass Frederic Labrosse  

E-print Network

Visual compass Fr´ed´eric Labrosse Department of Computer Science University of Wales, Aberystwyth://www.taros.org.uk. #12;Visual compass Fr´ed´eric Labrosse Department of Computer Science University of Wales Aberystwyth results that show a performance similar to a magnetic compass. In particular, the heading measured

Labrosse, Frédéric

54

Create a Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this OLogy activity, kids learn how a compass works and why it will always point north. The activity begins with an overview that discusses our reliance on directions and how a compass works. Students are then given step-by-step, illustrated directions for creating a compass with a sewing needle, a small bar magnet, a small piece of foam, and other household items. The activity includes ideas about how to try out your compass.

55

Orientation and Magnitude of Mars' Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field measured by the MGS magnetometer as it sped over the surface of Mars during an early aerobraking pass (Day of the year, 264; 'P6' periapsis pass). At each point along the spacecraft trajectory we've drawn vectors in the direction of the magnetic field measured at that instant; the length of the line is scaled to show the relative magnitude of the field. Imagine traveling along with the MGS spacecraft, holding a string with a magnetized needle on one end: this essentially a compass with a needle that is free to spin in all directions. As you pass over the surface the needle would swing rapidly, first pointing towards the planet and then rotating quickly towards 'up' and back down again. All in a relatively short span of time, say a minute or two, during which time the spacecraft has traveled a couple of hundred miles. You've just passed over one of many 'magnetic anomalies' thus far detected near the surface of Mars. A second major anomaly appears a little later along the spacecraft track, about 1/4 the magnitude of the first - can you find it? The short scale length of the magnetic field signature locates the source near the surface of Mars, perhaps in the crust, a 10 to 75 kilometer thick outer shell of the planet (radius 3397 km).

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

56

Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on COMPASS-C tokamak discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results from the COMPASS-C tokamak reveal a sharp threshold in amplitude above which externally applied static resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) induce stationary magnetic islands. Such islands (in particular, m=2, n=1 islands) give rise to a significant degradation in energy and particle confinement, suppression of the sawtooth oscillation and a large change in the impurity ion toroidal velocity. The observed threshold for inducing stationary (2,1) islands is consistent with a phenomenological resistive MHD model which takes into account plasma rotation (including poloidal flow damping) and externally applied resonant fields. Broadly similar results are found for applied fields other than m=2, n=1. Other results from RMP experiments are also discussed, such as the stabilization of rotating MHD activity, stimulated disruptions and extensions to the disruptive density limit. Finally, the likely effect of field errors on large tokamaks is briefly examined in the light of the COMPASS-C results

Hender, T. C.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Morris, A. W.; Carolan, P. G.; Durst, R. D.; Edlington, T.; Ferreira, J.; Fielding, S. J.; Haynes, P. S.; Hugill, J.; Jenkins, I. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Parham, B. J.; Robinson, D. C.; Todd, T. N.; Valovic, M.; Vayakis, G.

1992-12-01

57

Dancing Compasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use compasses to detect the magnetic field created by current moving through a wire. This is one of four activities learners can complete related to PhysicsQuest 2008. Each activity gives a clue to solve a puzzle in the accompanying comic book, "Nikola Tesla and the Electric Fair."

Society, American P.

2009-01-01

58

Magnetic orientation of migratory robins, Erithacus rubecula, under long-wavelength light.  

PubMed

The avian magnetic compass is an inclination compass that appears to be based on radical pair processes. It requires light from the short-wavelength range of the spectrum up to 565 nm green light; under longer wavelengths, birds are disoriented. When pre-exposed to longer wavelengths for 1 h, however, they show oriented behavior. This orientation is analyzed under 582 nm yellow light and 645 nm red light in the present study: while the birds in spring prefer northerly directions, they do not show southerly tendencies in autumn. Inversion of the vertical component does not have an effect whereas reversal of the horizontal component leads to a corresponding shift, indicating that a polar response to the magnetic field is involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range do not affect the behavior but anesthesia of the upper beak causes disorientation. This indicates that the magnetic information is no longer provided by the radical pair mechanism in the eye but by the magnetite-based receptors in the skin of the beak. Exposure to long-wavelength light thus does not expand the spectral range in which the magnetic compass operates but instead causes a different mechanism to take over and control orientation. PMID:21865522

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Denzau, Susanne; Gehring, Dennis; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2011-09-15

59

Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Joachim Traudt; Onur Güntürkün; Helmut Prior; Roswitha Wiltschko

2002-01-01

60

Exact treatment of magnetism-driven ferroelectricity in the one-dimensional compass model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a class of one-dimensional compass models with antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction in an external magnetic field. Based on the exact solution derived by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation, we study the excitation gap, spin correlations, ground-state degeneracy, and critical properties at phase transitions. The phase diagram at finite electric and magnetic field consists of three phases: ferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic, and chiral. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction induces an electrical polarization in the ground state of the chiral phase, where the nonlocal string order and special features of entanglement spectra arise, while strong chiral correlations emerge at finite temperature in the other phases and are controlled by a gap between the nonchiral ground state and the chiral excitations. We further show that the magnetoelectric effects in all phases disappear above a typical temperature corresponding to the total bandwidth of the effective fermionic model. To this end we explore the entropy, specific heat, magnetization, electric polarization, and the magnetoelectric tensor at finite temperature. We identify rather peculiar specific-heat and polarization behavior of the compass model which follows from highly frustrated interactions.

You, Wen-Long; Liu, Guang-Hua; Horsch, Peter; Ole?, Andrzej M.

2014-09-01

61

Exact treatment of magnetism-driven ferroelectricity in the one-dimensional compass model  

E-print Network

We consider a class of one-dimensional compass models with antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction in an external magnetic field. Based on the exact solution derived by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation, we study the excitation gap, spin correlations, ground-state degeneracy, and critical properties at phase transitions. The phase diagram at finite electric and magnetic field consists of three phases: ferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic, and chiral. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction induces an electrical polarization in the ground state of the chiral phase, where the nonlocal string order and special features of entanglement spectra arise, while strong chiral correlations emerge at finite temperature in the other phases and are controlled by a gap between the nonchiral ground state and the chiral excitations. We further show that the magnetoelectric effects in all phases disappear above a typical temperature corresponding to the total bandwidth of the effective fermionic model. To this end we explore the entropy, specific heat, magnetization, electric polarization, and the magnetoelectric tensor at finite temperature. We identify rather peculiar specific-heat and polarization behavior of the compass model which follows from highly frustrated interactions.

Wen-Long You; Guang-Hua Liu; Peter Horsch; Andrzej M. Ole?

2014-09-20

62

Avian orientation at steep angles of inclination: experiments with migratory white-crowned sparrows at the magnetic North Pole.  

PubMed

The Earth's magnetic field and celestial cues provide animals with compass information during migration. Inherited magnetic compass courses are selected based on the angle of inclination, making it difficult to orient in the near vertical fields found at high geomagnetic latitudes. Orientation cage experiments were performed at different sites in high Arctic Canada with adult and young white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in order to investigate birds' ability to use the Earth's magnetic field and celestial cues for orientation in naturally very steep magnetic fields at and close to the magnetic North Pole. Experiments were performed during the natural period of migration at night in the local geomagnetic field under natural clear skies and under simulated total overcast conditions. The experimental birds failed to select a meaningful magnetic compass course under overcast conditions at the magnetic North Pole, but could do so in geomagnetic fields deviating less than 3 degrees from the vertical. Migratory orientation was successful at all sites when celestial cues were available. PMID:11564346

Akesson, S; Morin, J; Muheim, R; Ottosson, U

2001-09-22

63

Chinese tombs oriented by a compass: Evidence from paleomagnetic changes versus the age of tombs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant written records indicate that knowledge of an ancient type of compass in China is very old — dating back to before\\u000a the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) to at least the 4th century BC. Geomancy (feng shui) was practised for a long time (for millenia)\\u000a and had a profound influence on the face of China’s landscape and city plans.

Ivanka Charvátová; Jaroslav Kloko?ník; Josef Kolmaš; Jan Kostelecký

2011-01-01

64

Compassion Fatigue in Clinical Psychologists.  

E-print Network

?? This study examined the relationship between compassion fatigue, how Cognitive Behavioral oriented therapists are, self-efficacy, how positively respondents viewed their time spent in therapy,… (more)

Fulk, Brandi Leigh Anna

2014-01-01

65

Microfluxgate sensor with amorphous cobalt (Co-Nb-Zr) soft magnetic core for electronic compass  

SciTech Connect

A silicon based microfluxgate sensor with a cobalt based amorphous soft magnetic core for electronic compass is presented in this paper. A sputtered Co{sub 85}Nb{sub 12}Zr{sub 3} magnetic core having a rectangular ring shape is combined with microcopper solenoid coils for excitation and pickup, which were wound alternately around the core to increase the number of coil turns. The Co{sub 85}Nb{sub 12}Zr{sub 3} as a core material is adopted for improving properties of the magnetic core and easy integration with micromachining processes to achieve a small size of the sensor. The sputtered Co{sub 85}Nb{sub 12}Zr{sub 3} showed dc effective permeability of {approx}10 000 and an extremely low coercivity of {approx}0.03 Oe with the thickness of 1 {mu}m. The Co{sub 85}Nb{sub 12}Zr{sub 3} as a thin film core with high permeability and low coercivity was easily saturated by a low excitation magnetic field, enhancing the sensitivity and linearity of the microfluxgate sensor. Finally, the sensor showed excellent linearity response over the range of -300 to 300 {mu}T with sensitivity of 60 V/T at the excitation condition of 3.0 V{sub p-p} and 5.0 MHz square wave form. The sensor size excluding pad region is about 0.55x1.4 mm{sup 2}.

Na, Kyoung-Won; Yuan, Jingli; Ji, Joon-Ho; Choi, Sang-On [Nano Fabrication Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) (Korea, Republic of); MEMS Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) (Korea, Republic of)

2006-04-15

66

Optimizing magnetization orientation of permanent magnets for maximal gradient force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The force exercised on a permanent magnet (PM) in a nonuniform field (gradient force) is dependent on the magnetization orientation of the magnet. In this paper, it is shown theoretically that the gradient force is greatest when the magnetization through the magnet, or at least at its surface, is collinear with the external field. The formulae for calculating the force

Arvi Kruusing

2001-01-01

67

How do honeybees use their magnetic compass? Can they see the North?  

PubMed

While seeking food sources and routes back to their hive, bees make use of their advanced nervous and sensory capacities, which underlie a diverse behavioral repertoire. One of several honeybee senses that is both exceptional and intriguing is magnetoreception - the ability to perceive the omnipresent magnetic field (MF) of the Earth. The mechanism by which animals sense MFs has remained fascinating as well as elusive because of the intricacies involved, which makes it one of the grand challenges for neural and sensory biology. However, investigations in recent years have brought substantial progress to our understanding of how such magneto-receptor(s) may work. Some terrestrial animals (birds) are reported to be equipped even with a dual perception system: one based on diminutive magnetic particles - in line with the original model which has also always been hypothesized for bees - and the other one, as the more recent model describes, based on a sensitivity of some photochemical reactions to MF (radical-pair or chemical mechanism). The latter model postulates a close link to vision and supposes that the animals can see the position of the geomagnetic North as a visible pattern superimposed on the picture of the environment. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that radical-pair magnetoreception might also be used by insects. It is realistic to expect that such evidence will inspire a re-examination and extension or confirmation of established views on the honeybee magnetic-compass mechanism. However, the problem of bee magnetoreception will not be solved at the moment that a receptor is discovered. On the contrary, the meaning of magnetoreception in insect life and its involvement in the orchestration of other senses is yet to be fully understood. The crucial question to be addressed in the near future is whether the compass abilities of the honeybee could suffer from radio frequency (RF) smog accompanying modern civilization and whether the fitness of this dominant pollinator might be affected by RF fields. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the path that the behavioral research on honeybee magnetoreception has taken and to discuss it in the context of contemporary data obtained on other insects. PMID:22313997

Válková, T; Vácha, M

2012-08-01

68

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

69

Magnetoreception: activated cryptochrome 1a concurs with magnetic orientation in birds.  

PubMed

The radical pair model proposes that the avian magnetic compass is based on radical pair processes in the eye, with cryptochrome, a flavoprotein, suggested as receptor molecule. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is localized at the discs of the outer segments of the UV/violet cones of European robins and chickens. Here, we show the activation characteristics of a bird cryptochrome in vivo under natural conditions. We exposed chickens for 30 min to different light regimes and analysed the amount of Cry1a labelled with an antiserum against an epitope at the C-terminus of this protein. The staining after exposure to sunlight and to darkness indicated that the antiserum labels only an illuminated, activated form of Cry1a. Exposure to narrow-bandwidth lights of various wavelengths revealed activated Cry1a at UV, blue and turquoise light. With green and yellow, the amount of activated Cry1a was reduced, and with red, as in the dark, no activated Cry1a was labelled. Activated Cry1a is thus found at all those wavelengths at which birds can orient using their magnetic inclination compass, supporting the role of Cry1a as receptor molecule. The observation that activated Cry1a and well-oriented behaviour occur at 565 nm green light, a wavelength not absorbed by the fully oxidized form of cryptochrome, suggests that a state other than the previously suggested Trp/FAD radical pair formed during photoreduction is crucial for detecting magnetic directions. PMID:23966619

Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Stapput, Katrin; Ahmad, Margaret; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2013-11-01

70

Magnetoreception: activated cryptochrome 1a concurs with magnetic orientation in birds  

PubMed Central

The radical pair model proposes that the avian magnetic compass is based on radical pair processes in the eye, with cryptochrome, a flavoprotein, suggested as receptor molecule. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is localized at the discs of the outer segments of the UV/violet cones of European robins and chickens. Here, we show the activation characteristics of a bird cryptochrome in vivo under natural conditions. We exposed chickens for 30 min to different light regimes and analysed the amount of Cry1a labelled with an antiserum against an epitope at the C-terminus of this protein. The staining after exposure to sunlight and to darkness indicated that the antiserum labels only an illuminated, activated form of Cry1a. Exposure to narrow-bandwidth lights of various wavelengths revealed activated Cry1a at UV, blue and turquoise light. With green and yellow, the amount of activated Cry1a was reduced, and with red, as in the dark, no activated Cry1a was labelled. Activated Cry1a is thus found at all those wavelengths at which birds can orient using their magnetic inclination compass, supporting the role of Cry1a as receptor molecule. The observation that activated Cry1a and well-oriented behaviour occur at 565 nm green light, a wavelength not absorbed by the fully oxidized form of cryptochrome, suggests that a state other than the previously suggested Trp•/FAD• radical pair formed during photoreduction is crucial for detecting magnetic directions. PMID:23966619

Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Stapput, Katrin; Ahmad, Margaret; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2013-01-01

71

Optimizing magnetization orientation of permanent magnets for maximal gradient force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The force exercised on a permanent magnet (PM) in a nonuniform field (gradient force) is dependent on the magnetization orientation of the magnet. In this paper, it is shown theoretically that the gradient force is greatest when the magnetization through the magnet, or at least at its surface, is collinear with the external field. The formulae for calculating the force between an axis-symmetric optimal magnet and a coaxial axis-symmetric coil are presented. Using the finite element method (FEM), calculations of the magnetic field distribution of an optimal cylindrical magnet and some its approximations are performed. The forces between these magnets and a pancake coil are computed and compared. For a system consisting of a magnet with a height of 1 unit and a diameter of 2 units and magnetization invariant in field and an annular pancake coil with a diameter of 2.4 units, a thickness of 0.2 units, an inner diameter of 0.4 units and a distance from the magnet of 0.2 units, the force on the optimal magnet was 1.44 times greater than the force on an axially magnetized magnet of the same size and magnetization magnitude. The optimal magnetization may be approximated by magnetization inclined at a constant angle to the axis and by a combination of axially and radially magnetized sections. With magnetization at a constant angle to the axis in the axis plane, the force was greatest when the angle was about 45°, being 1.38-fold compared to the force on an axially magnetized magnet. When the magnet was composed of an axially magnetized cylindrical core and a radially magnetized outer ring, the force was greatest when the volume of the core was approximately equal to the volume of the ring, being 1.26-fold compared to the force on an axially magnetized magnet. The optimal magnet and its approximations also provided a reduced stray field. A short review of methods of the fabrication of permanent magnets (PMs) with a continuous variation of the magnetization orientation and with radial magnetization orientation is given. The results of this study can be used to design linear electromagnetic (micro)actuators.

Kruusing, Arvi

2001-09-01

72

Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass  

E-print Network

The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

Yiteng Zhang; Gennady P. Berman; Sabre Kais

2014-02-01

73

Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass  

E-print Network

The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

2014-01-01

74

Cryptochromes and neuronal-activity markers colocalize in the retina of migratory birds during magnetic orientation.  

PubMed

Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception. PMID:15381765

Mouritsen, Henrik; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Liedvogel, Miriam; Feenders, Gesa; Stalleicken, Julia; Dirks, Petra; Weiler, Reto

2004-09-28

75

Rediscovering compassion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern in our society that compassion is a dying virtue, gradually being strangled by narcissism, competition, prejudice, and revenge. Yet psychologists, philosophers, and theologians agree that compassion is at the heart of the behavior that keeps individuals, families, institutions, and societies alive, namely, caring, altruism, justice, morality, and love. This article is meant to be a

Michael E. Cavanagh

1995-01-01

76

Magnetic material arrangement in oriented termites: a magnetic resonance study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of the magnetic resonance is used to study the magnetic material in oriented Neocapritermes opacus (N.o.) termite, the only prey of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.). A broad line in the g=2 region, associated to isolated nanoparticles shows that at least 97% of the magnetic material is in the termite's body (abdomen + thorax). From the temperature dependence of the resonant field and from the spectral linewidths, we estimate the existence of magnetic nanoparticles 18.5 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and an effective magnetic anisotropy constant, Keff between 2.1 and 3.2 × 10 4 erg/cm 3. A sudden change in the double integrated spectra at about 100 K for N.o. with the long body axis oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field can be attributed to the Verwey transition, and suggests an organized film-like particle system.

Alves, O. C.; Wajnberg, E.; de Oliveira, J. F.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

2004-06-01

77

Self-Compassion and Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Self-compassion refers to having an accepting and caring orientation towards oneself. Although self-compassion has been studied primarily in healthy populations, one particularly compelling clinical context in which to examine self-compassion is social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD is characterized by high levels of negative self-criticism as well as an abiding concern about others’ evaluation of one’s performance. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) people with SAD would demonstrate less self-compassion than healthy controls (HCs), (2) self-compassion would relate to severity of social anxiety and fear of evaluation among people with SAD, and (3) age would be negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, but not for HC. As expected, people with SAD reported less self-compassion than HCs on the Self-Compassion Scale and its subscales (Neff, 2003b). Within the SAD group, lesser self-compassion was not generally associated with severity of social anxiety, but it was associated with greater fear of both negative and positive evaluation. Age was negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, whereas age was positively correlated with self-compassion for HC. These findings suggest that self-compassion may be a particularly important target for assessment and treatment in persons with SAD. PMID:21895450

Werner, Kelly H.; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

2014-01-01

78

Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional precision of these humpback whale track segments is far better than the ±25°-40° precision of the avian magnetic compass. The positional and directional orientation data presented suggests signal transduction provides spatial information to migrating animals with better than 1° precision.

Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

2010-12-01

79

Transverse spin effects in COMPASS  

E-print Network

In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with the LiD target polarization oriented transversely with respect to the muon beam direction for about 20% of the running time, to measure transverse spin effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, one of the main objectives of the COMPASS spin program. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH_3 target with the data taking time equally shared between longitudinal and transverse polarization of the target. After reviewing the results obtained with the deuteron, the new results for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of the proton will be presented.

A. Bressan; for the COMPASS experiment

2009-02-02

80

Navigating the Earth with a Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is an introduction to the use of a magnetic compass. At a specific location, learners will locate an object using a compass, identify its bearing, and others will attempt to locate the object by only knowing the bearing reading and the corresponding location where the bearing was obtained. Next, learners will develop a method for determining if a magnetic storm is occurring, and they will test this method using online information and a compass. This activity requires compasses and access to the Internet. This is Activity 5 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide.

81

Preferred Orientation in Nanocomposite Permanent Magnet Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt-spun (Nd11.4Fe82.9B5.7)0.99M1 ribbons (M = Zr, Nb, Ga, Zr + Ga, Nb + Ga) were prepared by melt-spinning technique. Ga addition is found to be effective for the orientation of c-axis of Nd2Fe14B grains perpendicular to the ribbon plane. Better magnetic properties can be achieved by adding both the two kinds of elements Zr + Ca, Nb + Ca, and

Lijia Pang; Guangfei Sun; Jufang Chen; Wenjiang Qiang; Wenan Li; Jinbiao Zhang

2006-01-01

82

Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion  

PubMed Central

Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? People tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another’s suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). Following laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. Following exposure to others’ suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. Following neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed. PMID:23914766

Condon, Paul; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2014-01-01

83

Chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception.  

PubMed

Approximately 50 species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, crustaceans and insects, are known to use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Birds in particular have been intensively studied, but the biophysical mechanisms that underlie the avian magnetic compass are still poorly understood. One proposal, based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions, is gaining support despite the fact that no chemical reaction in vitro has been shown to respond to magnetic fields as weak as the Earth's ( approximately 50 muT) or to be sensitive to the direction of such a field. Here we use spectroscopic observation of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene model system to demonstrate that the lifetime of a photochemically formed radical pair is changed by application of < or =50 microT magnetic fields, and to measure the anisotropic chemical response that is essential for its operation as a chemical compass sensor. These experiments establish the feasibility of chemical magnetoreception and give insight into the structural and dynamic design features required for optimal detection of the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. PMID:18449197

Maeda, Kiminori; Henbest, Kevin B; Cintolesi, Filippo; Kuprov, Ilya; Rodgers, Christopher T; Liddell, Paul A; Gust, Devens; Timmel, Christiane R; Hore, P J

2008-05-15

84

The sun compass revisited  

PubMed Central

Many animals, and birds in particular, are thought to use directional information from the sun in the form of a time-compensated sun compass, with predictably deviated orientation under clock shift being regarded as the litmus test of this. We suggest that this paradigm obscures a number of other ways in which solar-derived information could be important in animal orientation. We distinguish between the known use of the sun's azimuth to provide absolute geographical direction (compass mechanism) and its possible use to detect changes in heading (heading indicator mechanism). Just as in an aircraft, these two kinds of information may be provided by separate mechanisms and used for different functions, for example for navigation versus steering. We also argue that although a solar compass must be time-referenced to account for the sun's apparent diurnal movement, this need not entail full time compensation. This is because animals might also use time-dependent solar information in an associatively acquired, and hence time-limited, way. Furthermore, we show that a solar heading indicator, when used on a sufficiently short timescale, need not require time compensation at all. Finally, we suggest that solar-derived cues, such as shadows, could also be involved in navigation in ways that depend explicitly upon position, and are therefore not strictly compass-related. This could include giving directionality to landmarks, or acting as time-dependent landmarks involved in place recognition. We conclude that clock shift experiments alone are neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the occurrence of all conceivable uses of solar information in animal orientation, so that a predictable response to clock shift should not be regarded as an acid test of the use of solar information in navigation. PMID:25389374

Guilford, Tim; Taylor, Graham K.

2014-01-01

85

Finding Your Way with Map and Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet introduces topographic maps and explains how scale is used in a map to convey distance, how direction is determined using a compass, and how to use both a map and compass together by taking a compass bearing from a map. Contacts are provided to obtain current and historical magnetic declination information for any place in the United States.

2001-03-01

86

The orientation and navigation of juvenile alligators: evidence of magnetic sensitivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Displaced juvenile alligators, Alligator mississipiensis, were released on land in a 9 m diameter dodecagonal arena to test their ability to orient in the absence of terrestrial landmarks. Navigational ability seemed to improve with age. When displaced along a fairly direct route yearlings (age 7–14 months) compensated for their displacement, moving in the direction from the arena to their home sites. When displaced by a circuitous route, yearlings failed to compensate for their displacement, exhibiting instead simple compass orientation in a direction that would have returned them to water had they been released on land near the site where they were captured. The older juveniles were oriented in a homeward direction under all displacement and test conditions. The latter animals may have been using geomagnetic map information to select their homeward directions as the errors in their homeward bearings correlated with small deviations in the geomagnetic field's dip angle at the time of the test (1980r s=?0.6047,P=0.0131, all testsr s= ?0.4652,P=0.0084). This effect appeared to depend on a very short-term assessment of geomagnetic conditions, as values measured 20 min before or 30 min after the tests began did not correlate with the directions the animals moved. The older juveniles appeared to use magnetically quiet hours on the night of their capture as the baseline from which to measure the geomagnetic deviations that occurred at the time of the arena test. The magnitude of the magnetic effect in the older animals suggests that the geomagnetic information may have been used to perform a ‘map’ step, as small fluctuations in dip angle correlated with much larger deviations in homeward bearings. In addition, the compass-oriented yearlings and the seemingly route-based behavior of the homeward-oriented yearlings did not appear to be influenced by geomagnetic conditions. These findings have many parallels in results obtained from bird orientation studies, providing evidence that navigation may share a common basis in different vertebrate groups.

Rodda, Gordon H.

1984-01-01

87

Context Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an easy and natural method for accessing contextual data shown on an electronic map in a wearable computer. The information is stored as virtual objects in a known network database. The objects are retrieved from a point of interest database and visualized on a head-worn display of a wearable computer. Our method uses the familiar compass metaphor to

Riku Suomela; Juha Lehikoinen

2000-01-01

88

Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

2014-01-01

89

Remotely readable fiber optic compass  

DOEpatents

A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.; Garrett, S.L.

1985-04-30

90

Remotely readable fiber optic compass  

DOEpatents

A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Garrett, Steven L. (Pebble Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

91

COMPASS: A probabilistic indoor positioning system based on 802.11 and digital compasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Positioning systems,are one,of the key elements,required by context-aware application and location-based services. This paper presents the design, implementation and anaylsis of a positioning system called COMPASS which is based on 802.11 compliant net- work infrastructure and digital compasses. On the mobile device, COMPASS samples the signal strength values of different access points in communication,range and utilizes the orientation of

Thomas King; Stephan Kopf; Thomas Haenselmann; Christian Lubberger; Wolfgang Effelsberg

2006-01-01

92

An fMRI study of caring vs self-focus during induced compassion and pride  

PubMed Central

This study examined neural activation during the experience of compassion, an emotion that orients people toward vulnerable others and prompts caregiving, and pride, a self-focused emotion that signals individual strength and heightened status. Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired as participants viewed 55?s continuous sequences of slides to induce either compassion or pride, presented in alternation with sequences of neutral slides. Emotion self-report data were collected after each slide condition within the fMRI scanner. Compassion induction was associated with activation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region that is activated during pain and the perception of others’ pain, and that has been implicated in parental nurturance behaviors. Pride induction engaged the posterior medial cortex, a region that has been associated with self-referent processing. Self-reports of compassion experience were correlated with increased activation in a region near the PAG, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Self-reports of pride experience, in contrast, were correlated with reduced activation in the IFG and the anterior insula. These results provide preliminary evidence towards understanding the neural correlates of important interpersonal dimensions of compassion and pride. Caring (compassion) and self-focus (pride) may represent core appraisals that differentiate the response profiles of many emotions. PMID:21896494

Godzik, Jakub; Castle, Elizabeth; Antonenko, Olga; Ponz, Aurelie; Kogan, Aleksander; Keltner, Dacher J.

2012-01-01

93

Precise vector-2D magnetic field sensor system for electronic compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

An high sensitivity vector-2D magnetic sensor system for low magnetic field measurements has been realized and tested. The system, realized in PCB technology, consists of a double axis fluxgate magnetic sensor with its front-end electronic circuitry based on second-harmonic detection. The amorphous magnetic materials Vitrovac 6025X (25 ?m thick) and Vitrovac 6025Z (20 ?m thick) were used as a ferromagnetic

A. Baschirotto; E. Dallago; P. Malcovati; M. Marchesi; G. Venchi

2004-01-01

94

The Direction of the Neutral Hydrogen Velocity in the Inner Heliosphere as a Possible Interstellar Magnetic Field Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the physical reasons that lead to the deflection of the interstellar neutral hydrogen flow from the direction of propagation of neutral helium in the inner heliosheath. On the basis of numerical simulations, the possibilities are investigated for deriving the orientation of the interstellar magnetic field as a function of the deflection angle.

Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Zank, Gary P.

2006-01-01

95

The cricket compass for context-aware mobile applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to determine the orientation of a device is of fundamental importance in context aware and location-dependent mobile computing. By analogy to a traditional compass, knowledge of orientation through the Cricket compass attached to a mobile device enhances various applications, including efficient way-finding and navigation, directional service discovery, and “augmented-reality” displays. Our compass infrastructure enhances the spatial inference capability

Nissanka B. Priyantha; Allen K. L. Miu; Hari Balakrishnan; Seth J. Teller

2001-01-01

96

Aircraft compass characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

1937-01-01

97

A compass without a map: tortuosity and orientation of eastern painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta picta ) released in unfamiliar territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orientation mechanisms allow animals to spend minimal time in hostile areas while reaching needed resources. Identification of the specific mechanism used by an animal can be difficult, but examining an animal's path in familiar and unfamiliar areas can provide clues to the type of mechanism in use. Semiaquatic turtles are known to use a homing mechanism in familiar territory to

I. R. Caldwell; V. O. Nams

2006-01-01

98

The Cricket Compass for ContextAware Mobile Applications  

E-print Network

The Cricket Compass for Context­Aware Mobile Applications Nissanka B. Priyantha, Allen K. L. Miu,aklmiu,hari,seth}@lcs.mit.edu http://nms.lcs.mit.edu/cricket/ Abstract The ability to determine the orientation of a device compass, knowledge of orientation through the Cricket com- pass attached to a mobile device enhances

99

Integrated vector sensor and magnetic compass using a novel 3D Hall structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 3D silicon vector sensor using the Hall effect principle is realized and characterized. This microtransducer functionally integrates in a common sensor region two parallel-field Hall devices for the in-plane components of the magnetic field and one orthogonal Hall magnetic field version for the perpendicular to the chip. The advantages of this microtransducer are its very low channel cross-sensitivities

Ch. Roumenin; K. Dimitrov; A. Ivanov

2001-01-01

100

Deflection of the Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Flow Across the Heliospheric Interface: an Interstellar Magnetic Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of SOHO-SWAN observations show that the interstellar neutral H flow direction differs by about 4 degrees from the neutral He flow direction recently derived with an unprecedented accuracy using combined data sets (Mobius et al, 2004). The most likely explanation is a distortion of the heliospheric interface under the action of an inclined interstellar magnetic field, with imprints of the distorsion on the neutral H flow due to charge-transfer reactions between H atoms and ions. The direction of the ambient interstellar magnetic field and the heliospheric shape can be derived from the observed deviation. Implications for Voyager trajectories are discussed.

Lallement, R.; Eric, Q.; Jean-Loup, B.; Dimitra, K.; Risto, P.

2005-05-01

101

Finding Your Way with Map and Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of navigating with a topographic map and compass. Topics include the features and symbols used on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) maps, the use of scale to represent distance, and how to determine direction with a magnetic compass. There is also information on the scales and areas represented on various USGS maps and on how to compensate for magnetic declination.

102

Ambulatory position and orientation tracking fusing magnetic and inertial sensing.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design and testing of a portable magnetic system combined with miniature inertial sensors for ambulatory 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) human motion tracking. The magnetic system consists of three orthogonal coils, the source, fixed to the body and 3-D magnetic sensors, fixed to remote body segments, which measure the fields generated by the source. Based on the measured signals, a processor calculates the relative positions and orientations between source and sensor. Magnetic actuation requires a substantial amount of energy which limits the update rate with a set of batteries. Moreover, the magnetic field can easily be disturbed by ferromagnetic materials or other sources. Inertial sensors can be sampled at high rates, require only little energy and do not suffer from magnetic interferences. However, accelerometers and gyroscopes can only measure changes in position and orientation and suffer from integration drift. By combing measurements from both systems in a complementary Kalman filter structure, an optimal solution for position and orientation estimates is obtained. The magnetic system provides 6 DOF measurements at a relatively low update rate while the inertial sensors track the changes position and orientation in between the magnetic updates. The implemented system is tested against a lab-bound camera tracking system for several functional body movements. The accuracy was about 5 mm for position and 3 degrees for orientation measurements. Errors were higher during movements with high velocities due to relative movement between source and sensor within one cycle of magnetic actuation. PMID:17518285

Roetenberg, Daniel; Slycke, Per J; Veltink, Peter H

2007-05-01

103

From compass to hard drive—integrated activities for studying magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a range of practical activities that allows students to investigate the properties and applications of magnets. The activities can be used in isolation or used together to build a rounded understanding of the subject area. The activities include simple demonstrations using common or inexpensive equipment, hands-on experiments for small groups, and interactive problem solving suitable for whole classes. These can be tailored for students in either primary or secondary education.

Dean, J.; Allwood, D. A.

2014-11-01

104

Compassion fatigue in nurses.  

PubMed

Compassion fatigue, trigger situations, and coping strategies were investigated in hospital and home care nurses. The Professional Quality of Life Scale measured compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. Narrative questions elicited trigger situations and coping strategies. Compassion fatigue scores were significantly different between nurses who worked 8- or 12-hour shifts. Fifteen percent of the participants had scores indicating risk of the compassion fatigue. There were significant differences in compassion satisfaction, depending on the unit worked and time as a nurse. The most common category of trigger situations was caring for the patient. Work-related and personal coping strategies were identified. PMID:21035028

Yoder, Elizabeth A

2010-11-01

105

Exact static equilibrium of vertically oriented magnetic flux tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is prescribed for generating exact solutions of magnetostatic equilibrium describing a cylindrically symmetric magnetic flux tube oriented vertically in a stratified medium. Given the geometric shape of the field lines, compact formulae are presented for the direct calculation of all the possible distributions of pressure, density, temperature and magnetic field strength compatible with these field lines under the

B. C. Low

1980-01-01

106

Neural basis of the magnetic compass: interactions of visual, magnetic and vestibular inputs in the pigeon's brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single unit electrical activity was recorded extracellularly in the lateral and superior vestibular nuclei, the vestibulo-cerebellum and the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) under earth-strength magnetic stimulation. Units in the vestibular system responded with either inhibition or excitation to the magnetic stimuli only if the animal was moved out of the horizontal plane. No responses to the artificial

P. Semm; D. Nohr; C. Demaine; W. Wiltschko

1984-01-01

107

Foundations and Light Compass Foundations and Light Compass  

E-print Network

Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Jennifer L. WongQuantitative Sensor--centric Designcentric Design Light CompassLight Compass ­­ Models and Abstractions Contaminant Transport Marine Microorganisms Ecosystems, Biocomplexity What is a Light Compass?What is a Light

Wong, Jennifer L.

108

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

Alerstam; Gudmundsson

1999-12-22

109

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA

1999-01-01

110

Video Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a flexible approach for determin- ing the relative orientation of the camera with respect to the scene. The main premise of the approach is the fact that in man-made environments, the majority of lines is aligned with the principal orthogonal directions of the world coordinate frame. We exploit this observation towards e- cient detection and

Jana Kosecká; Wei Zhang

2002-01-01

111

Spin Physics at Compass  

E-print Network

COMPASS is a new fixed target experiment presently in operation at CERN. It has the goal to investigate hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy by using either muon or hadron beams. From measurements of various hadron asymmetries in polarized muon - nucleon scattering it will be possible to determine the contribution of the gluons to the nucleon spin. Main objective of the hadron program is the search of exotic states, and glueballs in particular. This physics programme is carried out with a two-stage magnetic spectrometer, with particle identification and calorimetry in both stages, which has started collecting physics data in 2002, and will run at the CERN SPS at least until 2010. Preliminary results from the 2002 run with a 160 GeV muon beam are presented for several physics channels under investigation.

F. Bradamante

2004-11-24

112

Unambiguous position and orientation tracking using a rotating magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement system for magnetic position and orientation tracking. It uses a rotating magnet as transmitter and a three-axis magnetic field sensor to measure the magnetic field ellipse produced by the magnet. A theory is given for the calculation of the magnet's position and orientation from the ellipse's semi-axis components. Detection range and accuracy of the tracking method and their dependence on magnetic moment, noise levels of the environment, and the sensor type are shown. Using a fluxgate sensor, which is the best choice for a typical urban environment, a NdFeB magnet with a volume of about 180 cm3 can be detected with 1% error up to 17 m distance. With the use of two moderately distant identical sensors and an adequate evaluation of the tracking components' evolution, the right one out of four possible solutions as delivered by the tracking algorithm can be reliably chosen, independent of the tracking course. This way, a unique solution of the three-dimensional inverse problem can be achieved.

Schultze, Volkmar; Andrä, Wilfried; Peiselt, Katja; Gleichmann, Nils; Meyer, Hans-Georg

2013-09-01

113

Accurate Orientation Estimation Using AHRS under Conditions of Magnetic Distortion.  

PubMed

Low cost, compact attitude heading reference systems (AHRS) are now being used to track human body movements in indoor environments by estimation of the 3D orientation of body segments. In many of these systems, heading estimation is achieved by monitoring the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. However, the Earth's magnetic field can be locally distorted due to the proximity of ferrous and/or magnetic objects. Herein, we propose a novel method for accurate 3D orientation estimation using an AHRS, comprised of an accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, under conditions of magnetic field distortion. The system performs online detection and compensation for magnetic disturbances, due to, for example, the presence of ferrous objects. The magnetic distortions are detected by exploiting variations in magnetic dip angle, relative to the gravity vector, and in magnetic strength. We investigate and show the advantages of using both magnetic strength and magnetic dip angle for detecting the presence of magnetic distortions. The correction method is based on a particle filter, which performs the correction using an adaptive cost function and by adapting the variance during particle resampling, so as to place more emphasis on the results of dead reckoning of the gyroscope measurements and less on the magnetometer readings. The proposed method was tested in an indoor environment in the presence of various magnetic distortions and under various accelerations (up to 3 g). In the experiments, the proposed algorithm achieves <2° static peak-to-peak error and <5° dynamic peak-to-peak error, significantly outperforming previous methods. PMID:25347584

Yadav, Nagesh; Bleakley, Chris

2014-01-01

114

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells has been investigated in static high magnetic fields. The anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility Deltachi of erythrocytes and blood platelets are determined. Deltachi of blood platelets is 1.5 times larger than that of erythrocytes. The contribution of microtubules to the Deltachi of platelets is also discussed.

A. Yamagashi; T. Takeuchi; T. Hagashi; M. Date

1992-01-01

115

Beyond compassion fatigue: the transactional model of physician compassion.  

PubMed

Physician compassion is expected by both patients and the medical profession and is central to effective clinical practice. Yet, despite the centrality of compassion to medical practice, most compassion-related research has focused on compassion fatigue, a specific type of burnout among health providers. Although such research has highlighted the phenomenon among clinicians, the focus on compassion fatigue has neglected the study of compassion itself. In this article, we present the Transactional Model of Physician Compassion. After briefly critiquing the utility of the compassion fatigue concept, we offer a view in which physician compassion stems from the dynamic but interrelated influences of physician, patient and family, clinical situation, and environmental factors. Illuminating the specific aspects of physicians' intrapersonal, interpersonal, clinical, and professional functioning that may interfere with or enhance compassion allows for targeted interventions to promote compassion in both education and practice as well as to reduce the barriers that impede it. PMID:24417804

Fernando, Antonio T; Consedine, Nathan S

2014-08-01

116

MD Simulation of Particle Orientation in Magnetic Inks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have done molecular-dynamics type simulations of particle re-orientation in a magnetic colloid, by a magnetic field during tape and disk manufacture. The model takes into account switching (in a Stoner- Wohlfarth model) as well as particle translation and rotation in response to magnetic, steric, Brownian, and hydrodynamic drag forces and torques. Magnetic interactions are fully included; hysteresis loops with and without magnetic interaction will be displayed, with corresponding ? M curves. Images of the network structure at various points of the hysteresis loop will be shown. Further information is available at http:// www.mint.ua.edu/colloids/march.html.

Visscher; Günal

1997-03-01

117

Color Edge Detection with the Compass Operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compass operator detects step edges without as- suming that the regions on either side have constant color. Using distributions of pixel colors rather than the mean, the operator finds the orientation of a diameter that maximizes the difference between two halves of a circular window. Junctions can also be detected by exploiting their lack of bilateral symmetry. This approach

Mark A. Ruzon; Carlo Tomasi

1999-01-01

118

True North, Magnetic North  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand why compass angles need to be corrected for regional magnetic variation. The magnetic compass, perfected slowly over years of experimentation, trial, and scientific endeavor, became the sailor's most common and most reliable direction-indicating aid, but is influenced by magnetic variabilities and the location of magnetic north. Terms introduced include compass, magnetic variation, true north, and magnetic north.

119

FEA Simulations of Magnets with Grain Oriented Steel  

SciTech Connect

One of the potential successors of the Large Hadron Collider is a Muon Col- lider. Muons are short-lived particles, which therefore require fast acceleration. One potential avenue is a very fast cycling cyclotron, where the bending is sup- plied by a combination of fixed-field superconducting magnets and fast ramping normal conducting iron-cored coils. Due to the high ramping rate (around 1 kHz) eddy current and hysteresis losses are a concern. One way to overcome these is by using grain-oriented soft-iron, which promises superior magnetic properties in the direction of the grains. This note summarizes efforts to include the anisotropic material properties of grain-oriented steel in finite element analysis to predict the behaviour of the dipole magnets for this accelerator. It was found that including anisotropic material properties has a detrimental effect on model convergence. During this study it was not possible to include grain oriented steel with an accuracy necessary to study the field quality of a dipole magnet.

Witte H.

2012-08-06

120

Ecological causes and consequences of bird orientation.  

PubMed

An advanced orientation capability offers possibilities for birds to optimize movement patterns in a wide variety of ecological situations. The adaptive significance of various patterns of angular dispersion and of orientation responses to topography and sociality are elucidated. The orientation capacity is characterized by flexibility, exemplified by reorientation, promoting safety and restoration of fat reserves during migration. There are also limitations to the orientation process, leading to costs of migration through mis- or disorientation, and to constraints on the evolution of routes and timing of migratory flights. Young migrants may acquire an erroneous compass sense, and misorient several thousands of kilometers off their normal course. Widespread and dense fog of long duration causes disorientation and mortality among land birds migrating over the sea. Orientational constraints in the evolution of migration routes may be most easily disclosed at high geographic and magnetic latitudes. Here the birds are faced with special difficulties in using their celestial as well as their magnetic compasses. The sun compass could be used for great circle orientation, but observed spring flight trajectories of high-arctic waders and geese seem to conform with rhumbline routes. PMID:1838516

Alerstam, T

1991-01-01

121

COMPASS 2015 Setting the post-2015 development compass  

E-print Network

COMPASS 2015 Setting the post-2015 development compass: voices from the ground #12;Research. Setting the post-2015 development compass: voices from the ground #12;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 INTRODUCTION 11 CONCLUSIONS 59 IMPLICATIONS FOR A POST-2015 FRAMEWORK 62 Annex I ­ COMPASS 2015 partners 66 Annex II

Cambridge, University of

122

Compassion 1 Running head: CONCEPTUALIZING AND EXPERIENCING COMPASSION  

E-print Network

Compassion 1 Running head: CONCEPTUALIZING AND EXPERIENCING COMPASSION Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion Paul Condon1 & Lisa Feldman Barrett1,2 Northeastern University1 Massachusetts General 02115 Fax: 617-373-8714 condon.p@husky.neu.edu Word count: 2559 #12;Compassion 2 Abstract Does

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

123

Luminosity Measurement at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The measurement of absolutely normalized cross sections for high-energy scattering processes is an important reference for theoretical models. This paper discusses the first determination of the luminosity for data of the COMPASS experiment, which is the basis for such measurements. The resulting normalization is validated via the determination of the structure function $F_2$ from COMPASS data, which is compared to literature.

C. Höppner for the COMPASS Collaboration

2011-04-14

124

COMPASS Results on Collins and Sivers Asymmetries  

E-print Network

In the list of the main items studied by the CERN COMPASS experiment there are the transverse spin and momentum effects visible in the azimuthal distributions of hadrons produced in the deep inelastic scattering. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a 6LiD target with the polarization oriented transversely with respect to the muon beam direction for about 20% of the running time; in 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH_3 target with the data taking time equally shared between longitudinal and transverse polarization of the target. After reviewing the results obtained with the deuteron, the new results for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of the proton will be presented.

Andrea Bressan; for the COMPASS Collaboration

2009-07-31

125

Pigeon orientation: effects of the application of magnets under overcast skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To verify the existence of a magnetic compass in birds, researchers have often released homing pigeons under overcast skies that are equipped with bar magnets on various parts of their body. In particular, Keeton was successful in finding disorientation in overcast conditions in a first series of tests, but not in a second series. The experiments reported here attempt to explain this contradiction on the basis of findings obtained by releasing pigeons equipped in a way similar to that reported in Keeton's tests and pigeons equipped in a way similar to that reported by other authors.

Ioalè, P.

126

Compass Needles around a Simple Circuit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will set up a simple circuit using a battery, wire, and knife switch, and then use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding the wire. Next, they will add a coil of wire to the simple circuit and map the magnetic fields again. This is the second lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

127

Magnetic and elastic properties of CoFe2O4- polydimethylsiloxane magnetically oriented elastomer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic elastic structured composites were prepared by using CoFe2O4 ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrixes, which were cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Cobalt-iron oxide nanoparticles of three different average sizes (between 2 and 12 nm) were synthesized and characterized. The smallest nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior, with a blocking temperature of approximately 75 K, while larger particles are already blocked at room temperature. Macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-CoFe2O4 composites were obtained when curing the dispersion of the nanoparticles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field (0.3 T). The formation of the particle's chains (needles) orientated in the direction of the magnetic field was observed only when loading with the larger magnetically blocked nanoparticles. The SEM images show that the needles are formed by groups of nanoparticles which retain their original average size. The Young's moduli of the structured composites are four times larger when measured along the oriented needles than in the perpendicular direction. Magnetization (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance curves of the structured composites were determined as a function of the relative orientation between the needles and the probe field. The remanence magnetization was 30% higher when measured parallel to the needles, while the coercive field remains isotropic. These observations are discussed in terms of the individual nanoparticle's properties and its aggregation in the composites.

Soledad Antonel, P.; Jorge, Guillermo; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Gabriela Leyva, A.; Martín Negri, R.

2011-08-01

128

SCIENCE'S COMPASS thetransformationof propagulesfrominert  

E-print Network

SCIENCE'S COMPASS thetransformationof propagulesfrominert to trophicformsandback:botharenecessaryingredientsof a properunderstandingof nature.Anexperi- mentdonewithno theoreticalframeworkto analyzeorinterprettheresults the Departmentof Immunology, WrightFlemingInstitute,ImperialCollegeSchoolof Medicine,NorfolkPlace,LondonW2 1PG

Nowak, Martin A.

129

Theory of fluorescence polarization in magnetically oriented photosynthetic systems.  

PubMed Central

Many cells and cell fragments are known to assume specific alignments with respect to an applied magnetic field. One indicator of this alignment is a difference between the intensities of fluorescence observed in polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic filed. We calculate these two intensities using a model that assumes axially symmetric membranes and that covers a wide variety of shapes from flat disk to right cylinder. The fluorescence is assumed to originate at chromophores randomly exicted but nonrandomly oriented in the membranes. The membrane alignment is assumed to be due to the net torque on a nonrandom distribution of diamagnetically anisotropic molecules. The predicted results are consistent with most magnetoorientation data from green cells, but we are able to show that Chlorella data are not consistent with the hypothesis that the membranes have, and maintain, a cuplike configuration. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:737283

Knox, R S; Davidovich, M A

1978-01-01

130

Magnetic Flux Circulation During Dawn-Dusk Oriented Interplanetary Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic flux circulation is a primary mode of energy transfer from the solar wind into the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. For southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), magnetic flux circulation is described by the Dungey cycle (dayside merging, night side reconnection, and magnetospheric convection), and both the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere receive energy. For dawn-dusk oriented IMF, magnetic flux circulation is not well understood, and the inner magnetosphere does not receive energy. Several models have been suggested for possible reconnection patterns; the general pattern is: dayside merging; reconnection on the dayside or along the dawn/dusk regions; and, return flow on dayside only. These models are consistent with the lack of energy in the inner magnetosphere. We will present evidence that the Dungey cycle does not explain the energy transfer during dawn-dusk oriented IMF. We will also present evidence of how magnetic flux does circulate during dawn-dusk oriented IMF, specifically how the magnetic flux reconnects and circulates back.

Mitchell, E. J.; Lopez, R. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Deng, Y.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J.

2010-01-01

131

Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials  

DOEpatents

A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Dunlap, Bobby D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Veal, Boyd W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1990-01-01

132

Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials  

DOEpatents

A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) exhibits superconducting properties and is capable of conducting very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. The highly anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of the polycrystalline metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state. 4 figs.

Capone, D.W.; Dunlap, B.D.; Veal, B.W.

1990-07-17

133

Behavioral studies have demonstrated that many organisms orient and navigate using the Earth's magnetic field (reviewed  

E-print Network

experiments have demonstrated that Tritonia can use the Earth's magnetic field as an orientation cue (Lohmann in earth-strength magnetic fields with increased spiking (Lohmann et al., 1991; Popescu and Willows, 1999 diomedea can use the Earth's magnetic field as an orientation cue. Little is known, however, about

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

134

Influence of magnetic field on the orientation of anisotropic magnetic particles at liquid interfaces.  

PubMed

We study theoretically the influence of an external magnetic field on the orientation of an ellipsoidal magnetic particle adsorbed at a liquid interface. Using the finite element program Surface Evolver, we calculate the equilibrium meniscus shape around the ellipsoidal particle and its equilibrium tilt angle with respect to the undeformed interface ?t when a magnetic field B is applied perpendicular to the interface. We find that as we increase field strength, ?t increases and at a critical magnetic field Bc1 and tilt angle ?c1, the particle undergoes a discontinuous transition to the 'perpendicular' orientation (?t = 90°). Our results agree qualitatively with the simplified theory of Bresme and Faraudo [F. Bresme and J. Faraudo, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 2007, 19, 375110] which assumes that the liquid interface is flat, while they agree quantitatively with recent lattice-Boltzmann simulations of Davies et al. [G. Davies et al., Soft Matter, 2014, 10, 6742] which account for the deformation of the liquid meniscus. We also show for the first time that upon reducing the external magnetic field, at a critical magnetic field Bc2 < Bc1, the particle undergoes a second discontinuous transition from the perpendicular orientation to a finite tilt angle ?c2 < ?c1. In other words, for micron-sized particles where the thermal energy kBT is negligible compared to the interfacial energy, the tilt angle vs. magnetic field curve exhibits hysteresis behaviour. Due to the higher degree of accuracy of the Surface Evolver method, we are able to analyse the behaviour of the particles near these orientational transitions accurately and study how the critical quantities Bc1, Bc2, ?c1 and ?c2 vary with particle aspect ratio and contact angle. PMID:25360885

Newton, Bethany J; Brakke, Kenneth A; Buzza, D Martin A

2014-12-21

135

Effect of Object Orientation Angle on T2* Image and Reconstructed Magnetic Susceptibility: Numerical Simulations  

PubMed Central

The magnetic field resulting from material magnetization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an object orientation effect, which produces an orientation dependence for acquired T2* images. On one hand, the orientation effect can be exploited for object anisotropy investigation (via multi-angle imaging); on the other hand, it is desirable to remove the orientation dependence using magnetic susceptibility reconstruction. In this report, we design a stick-star digital phantom to simulate multiple orientations of a stick-like object and use it to conduct various numerical simulations. Our simulations show that the object orientation effect is not propagated to the reconstructed magnetic susceptibility distribution. This suggests that accurate susceptibility reconstruction methods should be largely orientation independent. PMID:25114542

Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

2013-01-01

136

Bats use magnetite to detect the earth's magnetic field.  

PubMed

While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a "compass organelle" containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic "Kalmijn-Blakemore" pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals. PMID:18301753

Holland, Richard A; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Doak, Thomas G; Wikelski, Martin

2008-01-01

137

Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field  

PubMed Central

While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a “compass organelle” containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe3O4). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic “Kalmijn-Blakemore” pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals. PMID:18301753

Holland, Richard A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Doak, Thomas G.; Wikelski, Martin

2008-01-01

138

Magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel in model transformer under direct current-biased magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron losses and acoustic noises of the model transformer under DC-biased magnetization were empirically investigated. To clarify the influence of magnetic properties of transformer core materials, two types of grain oriented electrical steels—high permeability grade (HGO) and conventional grade (CGO)—were used as core materials. Iron losses increased with superimposing DC-bias magnetic field (HDC) in both materials, and the iron loss increment in HGO was larger than that in CGO. Acoustic noises increased with increasing HDC in both materials; however, noises emitted from the core of HGO were smaller than those of CGO.

Inoue, Hirotaka; Okabe, Seiji

2014-05-01

139

An Ultrasonic Compass for Context-Aware Mobile Applications  

E-print Network

the foundations for leveraging the Cricket indoor location system to supply orientation information. I first characterize the use of ultrasound in Cricket for distance and orientation measurements. I then propose a set in the Cricket system. I design and implement a prototype of this Cricket Compass using a combination of hardware

140

Smart Compass-Clinometer: A smartphone application for easy and rapid geological site investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a smartphone application for geological site investigation. The application allows a smartphone to replace a diverse array of instrumentation and processes required for data measurement, visualization, and analysis. This application, named Smart Compass-Clinometer, consists of a digital compass-clinometer module, a data visualization module, a data analysis module, and a data management module. The compass-clinometer module measures the orientation of geological structures using data collected from built-in sensors. It converts the sensor data to orientation information using an algorithm developed specifically for this purpose. The visualization module plots the measured data on stereographic projections using three different methods, and can be used concurrently with the compass-clinometer module. The analysis module conducts instability analyses on the measured data, and can present the results in graphical and statistical forms. Users can send or receive data wirelessly with the data management module, even without a connection to a cellular network. To evaluate and validate the precision and accuracy of the compass-clinometer module, indoor and outdoor tests were conducted using Smart Compass-Clinometer and a conventional compass-clinometer. The minimum standard deviation of measured values with Smart Compass-Clinometer was 0.096° for dip and 0.122° for dip direction. The average difference between values measured using Smart Compass-Clinometer and the conventional compass-clinometer in the outdoor test was 1.70° for dip and 2.63° for dip direction. In an underground mine, the average discrepancies between Smart Compass-Clinometer and the conventional compass-clinometer were 2.57° in dip and 4.57° in dip direction. Smart Compass-Clinometer offers geoscientists a fast, reliable, and convenient tool for geological investigation.

Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-dong

2013-12-01

141

Three-dimensional odor compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional odor compass is proposed to develop a navigation tool used in searching for an odor source. The compass, which continuously points to the source, is equipped with four semiconductor gas sensors and a small fan to draw air to the sensors. The direction of the source is obtained by rotating the compass head to obtain the direction where

Hiroshi Ishida; Akito Kobayashi; Takamichi Nakamoto; Toyosaka Moriizumi

1999-01-01

142

Charter for Compassion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for the Charter for Compassion came from Karen Armstrong, who is a former Roman Catholic nun who left a British convent to pursue a degree in modern literature at Oxford. In 2008 she won the TED Prize, and as part of this prize she wished for help starting the Charter for Compassion. Essentially, the Charter is "a cooperative effort to restore not only compassionate thinking but, more importantly, compassionate action to the center of religious, moral and political life." Visitors to the site can read the Charter, and then add their name to the list of those who have affirmed its principles. On the site, visitors can also read reflections from people who have signed the Charter and also learn more about "Acts of Compassion" performed by various people around the world.

143

Resource representation in COMPASS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of viewgraphs on resource representation in COMPASS is given. COMPASS is an incremental, interactive, non-chronological scheduler written in Ada with an X-windows user interface. Beginning with an empty schedule, activities are added to the schedule one at a time, taking into consideration the placement of the activities already on the timeline and the resources that have been reserved for them. The order that the activities are added to the timeline and their location on the timeline are controlled by selection and placement commands invoked by the user. The order that activities are added to the timeline and their location are independent. The COMPASS code library is a cost effective platform for the development of new scheduling applications. It can be effectively used off the shelf for compatible scheduling applications or it can be used as a parts library for the development of custom scheduling systems.

Fox, Barry R.

1991-01-01

144

Pulsar analysis within COMPASS.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COMPASS system is a large software package, involving several subsystems, whose development has been 'shared' by the four institutes of the COMPTEL Collaboration. A principle goal of the COMPTEL mission is the observation of point sources whose emission, in gamma or in other energy bands, is pulsed. In order to search for periodicity in the gamma-ray emission from these sources and from the new COMPTEL-detected sources, the COMPASS subsystem PUL (for "PULsar analysis") has been designed. In this paper a description of the PUL performance, with the adopted analysis methods, is given.

Busetta, M.; Bennett, K.; Buccheri, R.; Clear, J.; Diehl, R.; den Herder, J. W.; Hermsen, W.; Kuiper, L.; Lockwood, J.; McConnell, M.; Ryan, J.; Schönfelder, V.; Strong, A.; Taylor, B. G.; Winkler, C.

145

Orientation in pied flycatchers: the relative importance of magnetic and visual information at dusk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the orientation of juvenile pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, during autumn migration in south Sweden using orientation cage experiments, to study the relative importance of visual and magnetic information at sunset. We performed cage tests under 12 experimental conditions that manipulated the geomagnetic and visual sunset cues available for orientation: natural clear skies in the local or a vertical

SUSANNE Ar KESSON; JOHAN BA CKMAN

1999-01-01

146

Analysis and microprocessor implementation of field oriented control for permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical motor for a permanent magnet hysteresis hybrid synchronous motor has been developed. A microprocessor-based field oriented control scheme has been successfully experimented for a laboratory magnet hysteresis motor. A scheme for measuring the torque angle is proposed. The test results confirm the improvement of the dynamic performances using a field-oriented control strategy

J. Qian; M. Azizur Rahman

1991-01-01

147

Compass Financial Stability and Savings Program  

E-print Network

Compass Financial Stability and Savings Program Pilot Evaluation: Second Year Report April 2013 Prepared for Compass Working Capital Boston, MA Prepared by Delia Kimbrel, Research Associate Institute, MA #12;Compass Working Capital Compass Working Capital ("Compass") provides incentive-based financial

Fraden, Seth

148

Class of 2003 Alumni Compass Project: GOAL 120 compasses = $4,800 Every Warnell student will need a compass for field measurements. Not only will a compass  

E-print Network

Class of 2003 Alumni Compass Project: GOAL 120 compasses = $4,800 Every Warnell student will need a compass for field measurements. Not only will a compass literally help each student find their way, a note would like to give a new student a compass when he or she enters the professional program, we would love

Teskey, Robert O.

149

2007-2009 UC Regents Career Compass...  

E-print Network

© 2007-2009 UC Regents Career Compass... the SISC initiatives #12;2 What is the Career Compass?What is the Career Compass?What is the Career Compass? Training linked to common job success factors and individual Fars Happened So Far 55+ Career Compass presentations and open sessions provided to over 2200 campus

Jacobs, Lucia

150

Hadron Spectroscopy in COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. In the naive Constituent Quark Model (CQM) mesons are bound states of quarks and antiquarks. QCD, however, predict the existence of hadrons beyond the CQM with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). One main goal of COMPASS is to search for these states. Particularly interesting are so called spin-exotic mesons which have J^{PC} quantum numbers forbidden for ordinary q\\bar{q} states. Its large acceptance, high resolution, and high-rate capability make the COMPASS experiment an excellent device to study the spectrum of light-quark mesons in diffractive and central production reactions up to masses of about 2.5 GeV. COMPASS is able to measure final states with charged as well as neutral particles, so that resonances can be studied ...

Grube, Boris

2012-01-01

151

Compassion: Practical Classroom Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compassion is a deep feeling of sharing the suffering of another. It is a mixture of words, thoughts, and actions that allow a child to be sympathetic to the needs of others. Young children today witness many conflicting values. Values promoted in the media and popular culture often glorify disrespect and unkindness, with beauty and possessions…

Wong, Lily; Duffy, Roslyn Ann

2010-01-01

152

Compassion and Moral Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critiquing Skinner's and Kohlberg's moral development theories as inadequate, the author asserts that affective development (compassion, empathy, caring) is necessary to moral action. While saying that schools are limited in their ability to provide moral education, he outlines qualities of an educational environment which could facilitate moral…

Susky, John E.

1979-01-01

153

Bow Compass with Case  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Bow Compass with Case. Also known as a Drop Bow Pen or Spring Bow, serial #760 C. This instrument was made by Eugene Dietzgen & Company, Chicago and New York and used by the U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Branch after 1945-1960s. Object ID: USGS-000645...

2009-07-20

154

Compassion for the Absurd  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Compassion for the Absurd, I hope to find transcendent moments in the ridiculous and mundane scenarios of various lives, some real, some imagined. In focusing on the ordinary, the poems pull the background of life into the foreground and ask the reader to find art in the real rather than the ideal. By focusing on the often ignored marginalia

Meredith E. McDonough

2010-01-01

155

The British Museum COMPASS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help visitors find treasures in its vast holdings, the British Museum presents COMPASS, which is based on a database of around 5000 objects selected from the Museum's collections. Simple keyword searches work well in COMPASS, and searches can be limited to a particular index. Who? searches for a particular person, What? searches for particular objects, How? for processes and materials, and Where/When? for geography and date. COMPASS automatically adds the word and between words, just like Google. Object pages include detailed information, written for the average museum go-er, with links into an online glossary, although we were unable to discover why a search on sextant returned astrolabes (consulting another dictionary revealed that the astrolabe was an nautical instrument used prior to the sextant). There are also guided tours, on a huge list of subjects from 100 Views of Mount Fuji to the Wetwang Chariot Burial, with Chinese Jade, several Egypt tours, and over 45 Highlights of the British Museum in between. Another great way to approach COMPASS is to try the Galleries search (found on the search page) where selecting any one of about 35 gallery names displays all the objects in that room.

156

Compassion for keeps.  

PubMed

A three-year programme in Scotland to encourage compassion in every aspect of nursing care drew to a close this summer. However, senior nurses are still involved in the Leadership in Compassionate Care programme, and are determined that its influence will continue to spread across the country. PMID:23252051

Trueland, Jennifer

157

Influence of spherical assembly of copper ferrite nanoparticles on magnetic properties: orientation of magnetic easy axis.  

PubMed

The magnetic properties of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles prepared via sol-gel auto combustion and facile solvothermal method are studied focusing on the effect of nanoparticle arrangement. Randomly oriented CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NP) are obtained from the sol-gel auto combustion method, while the solvothermal method allows us to prepare iso-oriented uniform spherical ensembles of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NS). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used to investigate the composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The field-dependent magnetization measurement for the NS sample at low temperature exhibits a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop (M(R)/M(S) ~ 1), suggesting cubic anisotropy in the system, whereas for the NP sample, typical features of uniaxial anisotropy (M(R)/M(S) ~ 0.5) are observed. The coercive field (HC) for the NS sample shows anomalous temperature dependence, which is correlated with the variation of effective anisotropy (K(E)) of the system. A high-temperature enhancement of H(C) and K(E) for the NS sample coincides with a strong spin-orbit coupling in the sample as evidenced by significant modification of Cu/Fe-O bond distances. The spherical arrangement of nanocrystals at mesoscopic scale provokes a high degree of alignment of the magnetic easy axis along the applied field leading to a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of the system is carried out, emphasizing the influence of the formation of spherical iso-oriented assemblies. PMID:24714977

Chatterjee, Biplab K; Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Dey, Abhishek; Ghosh, Chandan K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

2014-06-01

158

Compass magnetoreception in birds arising from photo-induced radical pairs in rotationally disordered cryptochromes  

PubMed Central

According to the radical pair model, the magnetic compass sense of migratory birds relies on photochemical transformations in the eye to detect the direction of the geomagnetic field. Magnetically sensitive radical pairs are thought to be generated in cryptochrome proteins contained in magnetoreceptor cells in the retina. A prerequisite of the current model is for some degree of rotational ordering of both the cryptochromes within the cells and of the cells within the retina so that the directional responses of individual molecules do not average to zero. Here, it is argued that anisotropic distributions of radical pairs can be generated by the photoselection effects that arise from the directionality of the light entering the eye. Light-induced rotational order among the transient radical pairs rather than intrinsic ordering of their molecular precursors is seen as the fundamental condition for a magnetoreceptor cell to exhibit an anisotropic response. A theoretical analysis shows that a viable compass magnetoreceptor could result from randomly oriented cryptochromes contained in randomly oriented cells distributed around the retina. PMID:22977104

Lau, Jason C. S.; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Hore, P. J.

2012-01-01

159

Compass magnetoreception in birds arising from photo-induced radical pairs in rotationally disordered cryptochromes.  

PubMed

According to the radical pair model, the magnetic compass sense of migratory birds relies on photochemical transformations in the eye to detect the direction of the geomagnetic field. Magnetically sensitive radical pairs are thought to be generated in cryptochrome proteins contained in magnetoreceptor cells in the retina. A prerequisite of the current model is for some degree of rotational ordering of both the cryptochromes within the cells and of the cells within the retina so that the directional responses of individual molecules do not average to zero. Here, it is argued that anisotropic distributions of radical pairs can be generated by the photoselection effects that arise from the directionality of the light entering the eye. Light-induced rotational order among the transient radical pairs rather than intrinsic ordering of their molecular precursors is seen as the fundamental condition for a magnetoreceptor cell to exhibit an anisotropic response. A theoretical analysis shows that a viable compass magnetoreceptor could result from randomly oriented cryptochromes contained in randomly oriented cells distributed around the retina. PMID:22977104

Lau, Jason C S; Rodgers, Christopher T; Hore, P J

2012-12-01

160

Prediction of structures and magnetic orientations in solid alpha and beta-O2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quasi-harmonic-lattice-dynamics method coupled with a pattern-recognition optimization scheme is used to determine the minimum energy structures and magnetic orientations of solid oxygen. It is shown that the magnetic interaction is responsible for the stability of alpha-O2 with respect to beta-O2 at zero temperature and pressure. The calculated alpha-O2 lattice parameters, magnetic orientations, and sublimation energy are in good agreement with experiment. Phonon dispersion curves are calculated at vector k not equal to zero and the acoustic sound velocities are determined. The rms translational and orientational fluctuations from equilibrium are also calculated. The beta-O2 phase is described by constraining the magnetic moments so that the magnetic Hamiltonian preserves the hexagonal symmetry of the crystal. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experiments, and a three-sublattice, quasi-helical magnetic orientation is predicted from structural and energetic considerations.

Etters, R. D.; Helmy, A. A.; Kobashi, K.

1983-01-01

161

A low-power resonant micromachined compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a micromachined magnetic field sensor based on magnetic resonant structures. A micromechanical resonator fabricated using surface micromachining techniques is modified so as to incorporate a magnetic material. The shift of the fundamental mechanical resonant frequency of the device, caused by the interaction of the external magnetic field and the magnetic component of the resonant system, is used to determine the amplitude or the direction of the external field. We have designed, fabricated and tested two types of micromachined magnetic field sensors relying on the proposed principle of operation. The fabrication of the sensors follows CMOS-compatible and low temperature processes based on surface micromachining. Devices have been fabricated which exhibit a minimum resolution of 45° at 30 µT or less, at an excitation voltage of 10 V, demonstrating their utility as a magnetic compass. The power consumed to actuate the resonator is on the order of 20 nW. A theoretical model of the magnetic field sensor was developed using vibration analysis and nonlinear deflection theory. Good agreement was observed between the predicted and observed behavior of the compass.

Leïchlé, Thierry C.; Von Arx, Martin; Reiman, Stephen; Zana, Iulica; Ye, Wenjing; Allen, Mark G.

2004-04-01

162

Object-Oriented Fast Multipole Simulation: Magnetic Colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In simulating a system of N particles, if the interaction is long-ranged all pair interactions must be calculated, requiring CPU time of order N^2. Recently-developed ``fast multipole'' methods (FMM) can reduce this time to order N, at the cost of considerable programming complexity. We have developed an object-oriented approach which uses similar ideas but is conceptually much simpler. The system is represented by a hierarchical tree whose root is the entire system and whose lowest nodes are the particles. The entire calculation of the particle interactions consists of a single call to a recursive function CalculateInteractions(A,B) with A=B=root, which uses a simple opening-angle criterion to choose between multipole expansion and calling itself (subdividing A and B.) The resulting algorithm is essentially equivalent to the FMM, but the choice of when to subdivide (which is laboriously hard-wired in FMM) is made automatically. We will discuss the implementation of periodic BCs and the application of the method to continuum systems (cylindrical magnetic particles).

Visscher, Pieter; Günal, Yüksel

1997-08-01

163

Two-stage magnetic orientation of uric acid crystals as gout initiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the magnetic behavior of uric acid crystals, which are responsible for gout. Under a sub-Tesla (T)-level magnetic field, rotational motion of the crystals, which were caused by diamagnetic torque, was observed. We used horizontal magnetic fields with a maximum magnitude of 500 mT generated by an electromagnet to observe the magnetic orientation of the uric acid microcrystals by a microscope. The uric acid crystals showed a perpendicular magnetic field orientation with a minimum threshold of 130 mT. We speculate that the distinct diamagnetic anisotropy in the uric acid crystals resulted in their rotational responses.

Takeuchi, Y.; Miyashita, Y.; Mizukawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

2014-01-01

164

Autocalibration of an electronic compass in an outdoor augmented reality system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate registration in an augmented reality system requires accurate trackers. An electronic compass can be a valuable sensor in an outdoor augmented reality system because it provides absolute heading estimates. However, compasses are vulnerable to distortion caused by environmental disturbances to Earth's magnetic field. These disturbances vary with geographic location and are not trivial to model. Static calibration methods exist

Bruce Hoff; Ronald Azuma

2000-01-01

165

A Simplified Quaternion-Based Algorithm for Orientation Estimation From Earth Gravity and Magnetic Field Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orientation of a static or slow-moving rigid body can be determined from the measured gravity and local magnetic field vectors. Some formulation of the QUaternion ESTimator (QUEST) algorithm is commonly used to solve this problem. Triads of accelerometers and magnetometers are used to measure gravity and local magnetic field vectors in sensor coordinates. In the QUEST algorithm, local magnetic field

Xiaoping Yun; Eric R. Bachmann; Robert B. McGhee

2008-01-01

166

Physics Results from COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS Experiment at the CERN SPS has a broad physics program focused on the nucleon spin structure and on hadron spectroscopy, using muon and hadron beams. Main objectives for the spin program with the muon beam are the direct measurement of the gluon contribution to the spin of the nucleon, semi-inclusive measurements, and the measurement of the transverse spin distribution $\\Delta_T q$. The COMPASS apparatus consists of a two-stage large acceptance spectrometer designed for high data rates and equipped with high-resolution tracking, particle identification and electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The data taking is ongoing since 2002 and till now was mainly devoted to the spin programme using a 160 GeV$/c$ naturally polarized, $\\mu^+$ beam and a polarized \\mrf{^6LiD} target. First physics results from the 2002 and 2003 runs are presented.

A. Bressan

2005-01-17

167

Transversity Measurements at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The measurement of transverse spin effects in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering is an important part of the COMPASS physics program. From the analysis of the 2002-2004 data, new results for the transverse target spin asymmetry of z-ordered identified pion and kaon pairs are presented. In addition, a first result for the transverse target spin asymmetry of exclusively produced rho^0 mesons on the deuteron is shown.

COMPASS Collaboration; C. Schill

2007-09-28

168

Pico Cricket Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners can program a compass to draw a circle by itself using a Pico Cricket, some Legos, and lots of tape! Pico Cricket is required. This activity teaches learners how to program a micro controller (mini computer), how to use gears and motors, and includes a video of the final product in action. This activity could made into a one-hour workshop if more programing was involved to draw a half circle or a quarter of a circle.

Minnesota, Science M.

2014-06-30

169

The COMPASS Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Operations and Management Portal for Airborne Science Systems (COMPASS) project is a multi-center collaborative effort to advance and extend the research capabilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airborne Science Program (ASP). At its most basic, COMPASS provides tools for visualizing the position of aircraft and instrument observations during the course of a mission, and facilitates dissemination, discussion, and analysis and of multiple disparate data sources in order to more efficiently plan and execute airborne science missions. COMPASS targets a number of key objectives. First, deliver a common operating picture for improved shared situational awareness to all participants in NASA's Airborne Science missions. These participants include scientists, engineers, managers, and the general public. Second, encourage more responsive and collaborative measurements between instruments on multiple aircraft, satellites, and on the surface in order to increase the scientific value of these measurements. Fourth, provide flexible entry points for data providers to supply model and advanced analysis products to mission team members. Fifth, provide data consumers with a mechanism to ingest, search and display data products. Finally, embrace an open and transparent platform where common data products, services, and end user components can be shared with the broader scientific community. In pursuit of these objectives, and in concert with requirements solicited by the airborne science research community, the COMPASS project team has delivered a suite of core tools intended to represent the next generation toolset for airborne research. This toolset includes a collection of loosely coupled RESTful web-services, a system to curate, register, and search, commonly used data sources, end-user tools which leverage web socket and other next generation HTML5 technologies to aid real time aircraft position and data visualization, and an extensible a framework to rapidly accommodate mission specific requirements and mission tools.

Duley, A. R.; Sullivan, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Myers, J.; Craig, M.; Enomoto, F.; Van Gilst, D. P.; Johan, S.

2011-12-01

170

The Role of Self-compassion in Women's Self-determined Motives to Exercise and Exercise-related Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-compassion is emerging in the literature as a healthy conceptualization of the self (Neff, 2003a). This study explored how self-compassion is related to, and explains unique variance beyond self-esteem on, women's motives to exercise and exercise-related outcomes. Participants were 252 women exercisers. Self-compassion was positively related to intrinsic motivation and negatively related to external and introjected motivation, ego goal orientation,

Cathy M. R. Magnus; Kent C. Kowalski; Tara-Leigh F. McHugh

2010-01-01

171

In search of the sky compass in the insect brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many vertebrate species, insects rely on a sun compass for spatial orientation and long- range navigation. In addition to the sun, however, insects can also use the polarization pattern of the sky as a reference for estimating navigational directions. Recent analysis of polarization vision pathways in the brain of orthopteroid insects sheds some light onto brain areas that might

Uwe Homberg

2004-01-01

172

Differential effects of magnetic pulses on the orientation of naturally migrating birds  

PubMed Central

In migratory passerine birds, strong magnetic pulses are thought to be diagnostic of the remagnetization of iron minerals in a putative sensory system contained in the beak. Previous evidence suggests that while such a magnetic pulse affects the orientation of migratory birds in orientation cages, no effect was present when pulse-treated birds were tested in natural migration. Here we show that two migrating passerine birds treated with a strong magnetic pulse, designed to alter the magnetic sense, migrated in a direction that differed significantly from that of controls when tested in natural conditions. The orientation of treated birds was different depending on the alignment of the pulse with respect to the magnetic field. These results can aid in advancing understanding of how the putative iron-mineral-based receptors found in birds' beaks may be used to detect and signal the intensity and/or direction of the Earth's magnetic field. PMID:20453067

Holland, Richard A.

2010-01-01

173

Mag Lab U: Interactive Tutorials - Oersted's Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial simulates the simple, yet groundbreaking, 1820 experiment that paved the way for understanding the relationship between electricity and magnetism. It is a virtual version of Hans Christian Oersted's voltaic pile battery outfitted with a live electrical wire. Students can turn the current on/off and also flip the battery. Watch what happens to the nearby compass to see why this experiment rocked the scientific world of the early 1800's. Mag Lab U is part of a large collection of web-based educational materials for K-20, developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

2011-01-23

174

An adaptive calibration approach for a 2-axis digital compass in a low-cost pedestrian navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic compass requires a careful calibration procedure and complicated compensation algorithms before obtaining precise heading because of its vulnerability to several types of errors. Existing calibration approaches are not applicable for a 2-axis digital compass applied in pedestrian navigation, especially in order to eliminate predictable magnetic disturbances and tilt error without a tilt sensor or external information on the

Wei Chen; Ruizhi Chen; Yuwei Chen; H. Kuusniemi; Zhongqian Fu; Jianyu Wang

2010-01-01

175

Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran\\u000a amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo) during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation\\u000a in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed

Lukas Landler; Günter Gollmann

2011-01-01

176

Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation.  

PubMed

This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media. PMID:25157136

Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

2014-09-01

177

Orientation of Homing Pigeons Altered by a Change in the Direction of an Applied Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homing pigeons were equipped with a pair of small coils around their heads. Birds with an induced field of 0.6 gauss and the south magnetic pole up, oriented toward home normally under both sun and overcast. Birds with the polarity reversed oriented toward home when the sun was visible but often flew away from home under overcast.

Charles Walcott; Robert P. Green

1974-01-01

178

Analysis of field oriented control for permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field oriented control schemes provide significant improvement to the dynamic performance of ac motors. A microprocessor implementation of the field oriented control scheme for the permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motor has been reported for the first time. The basic principle is to decouple the torque-current component from the flux-current component so that these two components can be independently controlled. A

J. Qian; M. A. Rahman

2009-01-01

179

Statistical study of low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations near Venus under the different interplanetary magnetic field orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field fluctuations near Venus are investigated in the frequency range 0.03–0.3 Hz on the basis of the measurements observed by Venus Express from April 2006 to December 2008. The data are sorted by the angle between interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind flow. The spatial distributions of fluctuation properties under the different IMF orientations are presented and

J. Du; T. L. Zhang; W. Baumjohann; C. Wang; M. Volwerk; Z. Vörös; L. Guicking

2010-01-01

180

Compass Financial Stability and Savings Program  

E-print Network

Compass Financial Stability and Savings Program Pilot Evaluation: Final Report 1 April 2014 Prepared for Compass Working Capital Boston, MA Prepared by Delia Kimbrel, Research Associate Sandra Venner Brandeis University, Waltham, MA #12;2 Compass Working Capital ("Compass") provides incentive

Fraden, Seth

181

COMPASS Model Review Draft February 29, 2008  

E-print Network

COMPASS Model Review Draft February 29, 2008 Page i Comprehensive Passage (COMPASS) Model ­ version 1.1 Review DRAFT February 2008 #12;COMPASS Model Review Draft February 29, 2008 Page ii Table-Bonneville survival 8c. Prospective hydrological modeling Appendix 9. Sensitivity analyses #12;COMPASS Model Review

Washington at Seattle, University of

182

Spin Physics at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off a longitudinally or a transversely polarized deuteron (6LiD) or proton (NH3) target. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavors. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.

C. Schill; for the COMPASS collaboration

2011-10-21

183

Magnet Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the relationship between electric charges and magnetic fields. Learners create a magnetic field using electricity and observe its effect on the magnetic needle of a compass.

Kansas, University O.

2006-01-01

184

Baryon Spectroscopy at COMPASS  

E-print Network

At the COMPASS experiment, diffractive dissociation of the beam proton is one of the dominant processes for the 190GeV/c positive hadron beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The status of the analysis of the reactions pp -> p_f pi^+ pi^- p_s and pp -> p_f K^+ K^- p_s is presented, where dominant features of the light-baryon spectrum become clearly visible. Furthermore, partial-wave analysis techniques to disentangle these spectra are discussed.

Alexander Austregesilo; for the the COMPASS collaboration

2011-09-01

185

Effect of a magnetic field on the orientation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments have shown that lysozyme crystallization in a magnetic field of the order of 1 T can result in a significant degree of orientation of the crystals. We present more extensive experimental results and propose a model to account for this phenomenon. Because of the small susceptibility anisotropy of most protein molecules, the orienting effect is unimportant for smaller aggregates, even those much larger than a critical nucleus. However, during sedimentation crystals grow larger and are more likely to become aligned. The degree of orientation thus depends on crystal growth rate and container geometry, in addition to magnetic field strength, as we have confirmed experimentally.

Yanagiya, Shin-ichiro; Sazaki, Gen; Durbin, Stephen D.; Miyashita, Satoru; Nakada, Toshitaka; Komatsu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro

1999-01-01

186

Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-03-01

187

Potential curves and orientational distributions of magnetic moments of chainlike clusters composed of secondary particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the potential curves of linear chainlike clusters which are composed of secondary magnetic particles. The orientational distributions of the magnetic moments of the primary particles within the secondary particles are also clarified by means of the usual Monte Carlo method. The results obtained here can be summarized as follows. For the parallel arrangement, in which one

A. Satoh; R. W. Chantrell; S. Kamiyama; G. N. Coverdale

1996-01-01

188

Radially oriented high energy product Nd-Fe-B ring magnets  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the extruded radially oriented magnets made from rapidly solidified Nd-Fe-B material. The effect of chemical composition on the magnetic properties and hot workability was studied for various compositions in Nd-Fe-Co-Ga-B system. The composition ranges of Nd and B which shows maximum energy product and hot workability were determined.

Yoshikawa, Norio; Iriyama, Takahiko; Yamada, Hiyoshi; Kasai, Yasuaki; Panchanathan, V.

1999-09-01

189

Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen [Department of Mold and Die Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan (China); You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun [Metal Forming Technology Section, Metal Processing R and D Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, 1001 Kaonan Highway, Kaohsiung 81160, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-16

190

Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo) during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis). When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm) and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system. PMID:21418651

2011-01-01

191

Magnetic resonance of 160Tb oriented in a terbium single crystal at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first observation of magnetic resonance of oriented rare-earth nuclei in a rare-earth host. Radioactive 160Tb implanted in a single crystal of ferromagnetic terbium was subjected to magnetic resonance detected by perturbation of the gamma-ray anisotropy. The open Tb 4f shell gives rise to a strong electric quadrupole interaction in addition to the magnetic interaction; the resulting resonance

P. Roman; W. D. Brewer; E. Klein; H. Marshak; K. Freitag; P. Herzog

1986-01-01

192

Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout: A Survey of CACREP Counseling Interns' Perceptions of Wellness.  

E-print Network

??Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout: A Survey of CACREP Counseling Interns' Perceptions of Wellness Vanessa Walters Bowles ABSTRACT Counselor wellness is an important concept… (more)

Bowles, Vanessa Walters

2010-01-01

193

Understanding compassion literacy in nursing through a clinical compassion cafe.  

PubMed

This article presents a method of reconnecting and reaffirming with nurses the importance of compassion in health care by using a clinical compassion cafe, which describes nine steps that provide a forum to reaffirm clinicians' core values. This process has the potential to engage clinical staff in a different modality removed from the usual didactic approaches. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2014;45(11):484-486. PMID:25365185

Billings, Diane M; Kowalski, Karren; Winch, Sarah; Henderson, Amanda Jane; Kay, Margaret; Burridge, Letitia Helen; Livesay, Georgia Jane; Sinnott, Michael John

2014-11-01

194

Orientation in the wandering albatross: interfering with magnetic perception does not affect orientation performance  

PubMed Central

After making foraging flights of several thousands of kilometres, wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) are able to pinpoint a specific remote island where their nests are located. This impressive navigation ability is highly precise but its nature is mysterious. Here we examined whether albatrosses rely on the perception of the Earth's magnetic field to accomplish this task. We disturbed the perception of the magnetic field using mobile magnets glued to the head of nine albatrosses and compared their performances with those of 11 control birds. We then used satellite telemetry to monitor their behaviour. We found that the ability of birds to home to specific nest sites was unimpaired by this manipulation. In particular, experimental and control birds did not show significant differences with respect to either foraging trip duration, or length, or with respect to homing straightness index. Our data suggest that wandering albatrosses do not require magnetic cues to navigate back to their nesting sites. PMID:15799944

Bonadonna, F; Bajzak, C; Benhamou, S; Igloi, K; Jouventin, P; Lipp, H.P; Dell'Omo, G

2005-01-01

195

The geographical scale factor in orientation of migrating birds  

PubMed

Migration routes of birds throw light on orientation performance at different geographic scales, over distances ranging from a few kilometres to more than 104 km. Detailed knowledge about the flight routes may be used to test predictions about optimal orientation according to theoretical principles and about the use of compasses based on celestial or magnetic cues. Ringing recoveries demonstrate that the migratory journey of many species, such as the wheatear and willow warbler, is divided into successive legs with different main orientation. Autumn and spring migration routes are often different, sometimes diverging on a continental scale. Aerial radiotracking of whooping cranes in North America and satellite tracking of brent geese migrating from Iceland across the Greenland ice cap point to the significant role of large-scale topography for the shaping of migration routes. Compass and position control are also required, e.g. during long passages across featureless sea or ice, but how these elements are integrated into the birds' orientation system remains unclear. Radar studies from the Arctic Ocean illustrate the importance of map projections for interpreting flight paths and suggest that birds accomplish approximate great circle orientation. Gradual course changes shown by migrating knots monitored by radar in Scandinavia are at variance with expected changes if the birds were to use a star, sun or magnetic compass over longer distances. Accurate recording of short flight segments shows how flying birds respond to visual, audible and electromagnetic cues, and also documents orientation precision and capacity to integrate rapidly shifting courses into a consistent resulting orientation. Analyses of flight patterns are crucial for understanding how birds find and follow their migration routes over different ranges of geographical scale. PMID:9317235

Alerstam

1996-01-01

196

Magnetically induced anisotropic orientation of graphene oxide locked by in situ hydrogelation.  

PubMed

A general method to prepare polymer gels containing anisotropically oriented graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed, by using the magnetically induced orientation of GO. Under a magnetic field, an aqueous dispersion of GO was gelated by in situ cross-linking polymerization of an acryl monomer and a cross-linker. In the resultant hydrogel, the orientation of GO was retained even in the absence of the magnetic field, because the gel network trapped GO via noncovalent interactions and efficiently suppressed the structural relaxation of GO. The locked structure enabled quantitative investigation on the magnetic orientation of GO using 2D small-angle X-ray scattering, which revealed that GO nanosheets orient parallel to the magnetic field with an order parameter of up to 0.80. Systematic studies with varying gelation conditions indicate that the present method can afford a wide range of GO-hybridized anisotropic materials, in terms of GO alignment direction, sample shape, and GO concentration. Also by virtue of the locked structure, the orientation of GO in the hydrogel was well preserved throughout the in situ chemical reduction of GO, yielding an RGO-hybridized anisotropic hydrogel, as well as the conversion of the hydrogel into organo- and ionogels through the replacement of the internal water with solvents. As a preliminary demonstration of the present method for practical application, a polymer-composite film containing RGO oriented vertical to the film surface was prepared, and its anisotropically enhanced electroconductivity along the orientation direction of RGO was confirmed by the flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity measurement. PMID:24738828

Wu, Linlin; Ohtani, Masataka; Takata, Masaki; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Aida, Takuzo

2014-05-27

197

An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array.  

PubMed

An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators. PMID:25342000

Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

2014-01-01

198

An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array  

PubMed Central

An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators. PMID:25342000

Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

2014-01-01

199

An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

2014-10-01

200

Transversity Physics at Compass  

E-print Network

Transverse spin physics is an important part of the scientific programme of the COMPASS experiment at CERN, which started taking data in 2002, scattering 160 GeV/c muon beam on a polarized $^6$LiD target. The analysis of the data taken with the target polarized orthogonally to the muon beam direction has allowed to measure for the first time the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of the deuteron. Both for the positive and the negative hadrons produced in semi-inclusive DIS the measured asymmetries are small and, within errors, compatible with zero: results on part of the accumulated statistics have already been published. Two-hadron asymmetries and $\\Lambda$ polarization transfered from the struck quark are also being investigated, and preliminary results on the data collected in the years 2002 and 2003 are given.

F. Bradamante

2006-02-06

201

Transversity signals at COMPASS  

E-print Network

COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS, with a rich physics program focused on nucleon spin structure and on hadron spectroscopy. One of the main goals of the spin program is the measurement of the transverse spin distribution function $\\Delta_T q(x)$ in semi-inclusive DIS off transversely polarized nucleons. For this purpose approximately 20% of the running time in the years 2002 to 2004 with the longitudinally polarized muon beam of 160 GeV and with $^6$LiD polarized target was used to collect data with the target polarized transversely with respect to the beam direction. The 2002 data have been already analysed and published. We present here the preliminary results from the full statistics for the Collins and Sivers single hadron asymmetries and for the transverse spin asymmetry in hadron pair production.

By COMPASS Collaboration

2007-12-19

202

Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS  

E-print Network

COMPASS is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. One primary goal is the search for new hadronic states, in particular spin-exotic mesons and glueballs. We present recent results of partial-wave analyses of (3\\pi)^- and \\pi^-\\eta' final states based on a large data set of diffractive dissociation of a 190 GeV/c \\pi^- beam on a proton target in the squared four-momentum-transfer range 0.1 < t' < 1 (GeV/c)^2. We also show first results from a partial-wave analysis of diffractive dissociation of K^- into K^-\\pi^+\\pi^- final states are presented.

Boris Grube; for the COMPASS Collaboration

2011-08-29

203

A compass for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enlargement of complexity and effects of environmental problems has increased the need for a ‘compass’ to point us in the direction of sustainability. The four principles—System Conditions—which we have earlier described, along with a step-by-step approach to meet them, is such a compass. The System Conditions are first order principles for Sustainability:• they do not cover the whole area

Karl-Hennk Robèrt; Herman Daly; Paul Hawken; John Holmberg

1997-01-01

204

Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing.  

PubMed

User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

205

Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing  

PubMed Central

User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

206

Analysis of field oriented control for permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microprocessor implementation of the field-oriented control scheme for the permanent magnet (PM) hysteresis synchronous motor is reported. The basic principle is to decouple the torque-current component from the flux-current component so that these two components can be independently controlled. A d-q axis model of the PM hysteresis synchronous motor is presented, and the field-oriented control obtained from the basic

Jianhua Qian; M. Azizur Rahman

1993-01-01

207

RESEARCH PAPER Enhancing Compassion: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Enhancing Compassion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Compassion Cultivation and qualities. One particular target is compassion, but it is not yet clear whether compassion can be trained, participants completed self-report inven- tories that measured compassion for others, receiving compassion from

Gross, James J.

208

Sensitive chemical compass assisted by quantum criticality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radical-pair-based chemical reaction might be used by birds for navigation via the geomagnetic direction. The inherent physical mechanism is that the quantum coherent transition from a singlet state to triplet states of the radical pair could respond to a weak magnetic field and be sensitive to the direction of such a field; this then results in different photopigments to be sensed by the avian eyes. Here, we propose a quantum bionic setup, inspired by the avian compass, as an ultrasensitive probe of a weak magnetic field based on the quantum phase transition of the environments of the two electrons in the radical pair. We prove that the yield of the chemical products via recombination from the singlet state is determined by the Loschmidt echo of the environments with interacting nuclear spins. Thus quantum criticality of environments could enhance the sensitivity of detection of weak magnetic fields.

Cai, C. Y.; Ai, Qing; Quan, H. T.; Sun, C. P.

2012-02-01

209

Coordinating compass-based and nest-based flight directions during bumblebee learning and return flights.  

PubMed

Bumblebees tend to face their nest over a limited range of compass directions when learning the nest's location on departure and finding it on their approach after foraging. They thus obtain similar views of the nest and its surroundings on their learning and return flights. How do bees coordinate their flights relative to nest-based and compass-based reference frames to get such similar views? We show, first, that learning and return flights contain straight segments that are directed along particular compass bearings, which are independent of the orientation of a bee's body. Bees are thus free within limits to adjust their viewing direction relative to the nest, without disturbing flight direction. Second, we examine the coordination of nest-based and compass-based control during likely information gathering segments of these flights: loops during learning flights and zigzags on return flights. We find that bees tend to start a loop or zigzag when flying within a restricted range of compass directions and to fly towards the nest and face it after a fixed change in compass direction, without continuous interactions between their nest-based and compass-based directions of flight. A preferred trajectory of compass-based flight over the course of a motif, combined with the tendency of the bees to keep their body oriented towards the nest automatically narrows the range of compass directions over which bees view the nest. Additionally, the absence of interactions between the two reference frames allows loops and zigzags to have a stereotyped form that can generate informative visual feedback. PMID:23447669

Collett, Thomas S; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Philippides, Andrew

2013-03-15

210

Magnetic orientation as a tool to study the initial stage of crystallization of lysozyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tetragonal crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme align their c-axis in the direction of a magnetic field. By applying the magnetic field of 1.6 T only over some period during the whole crystallization process, it was possible to know when the crystals sedimented. It was found that crystals grew in solution, and started to sediment on reaching a critical size. We evaluated the critical size to be 1-2 ?m by changing the magnetic field strength (0.1-1.2 T) and analyzing the relation between the field strength and the proportion of magnetic orientation.

Ataka, Mitsuo; Katoh, Eriko; Wakayama, Nobuko I.

1997-04-01

211

Diamagnetic Orientation of Polymerized Molecules under High Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamagnetic alignment of polymerized organic molecules is discussed both from the theoretical and experimental points of view. When a number of molecules aggregate with their diamagnetic principal axes along the same direction, the resultant diamagnetic anisotropy energy becomes comparable to the thermal energy and the aggregated molecule can align under a conventional magnetic field, even at room temperatures. Polymerization of

Akio Yamagishi; Tetsuya Takeuchi; Terumasa Higashi; Muneyuki Date

1989-01-01

212

Normal fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field influence pigeon orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to determine whether naturally occurring fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field influence homing pigeons' initial bearings, three series of test releases (1970, 1972, 1973) at a site 45.7 miles north of the loft were conducted under an experimental design that controlled for most extraneous variables. The mean bearings for each series showed a significant inverse correlation with

William T. Keeton; Timothy S. Larkin; Donald M. Windsor

1974-01-01

213

Compassion and professional care: exploring the domain.  

PubMed

Compassion unites people during times of suffering and distress. Unfortunately, compassion cannot take away suffering. Why then, is compassion important for people who suffer? Nurses work in a domain where human suffering is evidently present. In order to give meaning to compassion in the domain of professional care, it is necessary to describe what compassion is. The purpose of this paper is to explore questions and contradictions in the debate on compassion related to nursing care. The paper reviews classical philosophers as well as contemporary scientists' main arguments on compassion. First, I will examine the relationship between compassion and suffering. Second, how does one recognize serious suffering? This issue raises questions about the role of imagination and the need for identification. Third, literature describes compassion as an emotion. Some philosophers consider emotions uncontrollable feelings; others see a clear rational dimension in emotions. In order to determine what compassion is, it is necessary to weigh these contradictional arguments. Fourth, I will discuss motives for compassion. Is compassion an act of altruism or egoism? In this debate Nietzsche and Schopenhauer are well-known opponents. Today, analysis of their arguments leads to some surprising conclusions. Fifth, there is the issue of fault and compassion. Can we only feel compassionate when people who suffer are not to blame for their own suffering? Such a condition faces professional caretakers with a dilemma which needs a thorough analysis if compassion is to be of use in the field of professional care. Finally, I will explore the moral meaning of compassion. Compassion, described as a concept with cognitive as well as affective dimensions, also has volitional and behavioural aspects. These aspects specifically are of importance to nursing care and further research of compassion in the nursing domain. PMID:19291200

van der Cingel, Margreet

2009-04-01

214

Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other. PMID:24718656

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

215

Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in a national sample of trauma treatment therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

For behavioral health professionals working with traumatized clients, continuous and prolonged exposure to the stress of working with the myriad of trauma-related stressors experienced by their clients can lead to various responses including burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. The present study investigates the impact of using evidence-based practices on compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in a random, national

C. D. Craig; G. Sprang

2010-01-01

216

Compass and Straightedge in the Poincare Disk  

E-print Network

Compass and Straightedge in the Poincar´e Disk Chaim Goodman-Strauss The spirit of this article of hyperbolic geometry; our construc- tions use only a Euclidean compass and Euclidean straightedge, and can

Goodman-Strauss, Chaim

217

Magnetic moment of Ag104m and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR\\/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented Ag104g,m nuclei with the NICOLE He3-He4 dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE\\/CERN. For Ag104g (Ipi=5+) the gamma-NMR\\/ON resonance signal was found at nu=266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities in an Fe host

V. V. Golovko; I. S. Kraev; T. Phalet; B. Delauré; M. Beck; V. Yu. Kozlov; S. Coeck; F. Wauters; P. Herzog; Ch. Tramm; D. Zákoucký; D. Vénos; D. Srnka; M. Honusek; U. Köster; N. Severijns

2010-01-01

218

Incorporating Orienteering in School Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orienteering has been described as being "either a serious sport, or a relaxing recreation". Orienteering can be a family affair or an individual fight against the clock. In its simplest form, orienteering can be described as a cross-country run, jog, or walk on a predetermined course, using a map and a compass to find several control points on…

Bradford, Douglas

219

Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms  

PubMed Central

A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration. PMID:12107283

Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

2002-01-01

220

Fibrinogen and fibrin structure and fibrin formation measured by using magnetic orientation.  

PubMed Central

Accurate birefringence measurements show that fibrinogen orients to a small degree in high magnetic fields. This effect can be explained as due to the molecule having about 30% (by weight) alpha-helix oriented relatively parallel to the long axis. Birefringence measurements on fully oriented fibrin suggest that aligned alpha-helical content is less than that estimated for fibrinogen. But because of limitations in the analysis this difference must be viewed with caution. Highly oriented fibrin results when polymerization takes place slowly in a strong magnetic field. Low-angle neutron diffraction patterns from oriented fibrin made in the presence of EDTA, made in the presence of calcium, or stabilized with factor XIIIa are very similar, showing that the packing of the molecules within the fibers is the same or very similar in these different preparations. The induced magnetic birefringence was used to follow fibrin formation under conditions in which thrombin was rate limiting. The fiber network formed by approximately the gelation point constitutes a kind of matrix or frame that is largely built upon during the remaining approximately 85% of the reaction. After gelation the reaction is pseudo-first order. PMID:6572926

Freyssinet, J M; Torbet, J; Hudry-Clergeon, G; Maret, G

1983-01-01

221

Delta G from Compass  

E-print Network

Measurements of the gluon polarization $\\frac{\\Delta G}{G}$ via the open charm channel and based on the helicity asymmetry of large transverse-momentum hadrons in the final state are presented. The data have been collected in the years 2002-2004 by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarized muon beam scattered off a polarized $^6$LiD target. The new result for $\\frac{\\Delta G}{G}$ from the charm channel is $-0.57 \\pm 0.41 (stat.)$ at $x_G \\simeq 0.15$ and scale $\\mu^2 \\simeq 13 $ (GeV/c)$^2$. The gluon polarization from high-$p_T$ hadron pairs is $\\frac{\\Delta G}{G} = 0.016\\pm 0.058 (stat.)\\pm 0.055 (syst.)$ at $x_G \\simeq 0.085^{+0.07}_{-0.035}$ ($Q^2 < 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$ and $\\mu^2 \\simeq 3$ (GeV/c)$^2$)

Krzysztof Kurek

2006-07-26

222

Meson spectroscopy with COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS is dedicated to the study of hadron structure and dynamics. In the physics programme using hadron beams, the focus is on the detection of new states, in particular the search for $J^{PC}$ exotic states and glueballs. After a short pilot run in 2004 (190 GeV/c negative pion beam, lead target), we started our hadron spectroscopy programme in 2008 by collecting an unprecedented statistics with a negative hadron beam (190 GeV/c) on a liquid hydrogen target. A similar amount of data with positive hadron beam (190 GeV/c) has been taken in 2009, as well as some additional data with negative beam on nuclear targets. The spectrometer features a large angular acceptance and high momentum resolution and also good coverage by electromagnetic calorimetry, crucial for the detection of final states involving $\\pi^0$ or $\\eta$. A first important result is the observation of a significant $J^{PC}$ spin exotic signal consistent with the disputed $\\pi_1(1600)$ in the pilot run data. This result was recently published. We present an overview of the status of various ongoing analyses on the 2008/09 data.

Frank Nerling; for the COMPASS collaboration

2010-12-02

223

Rousseau and the Education of Compassion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine Rousseau's strategy for teaching compassion in "Book Four of Emile." In particular, I look at the three maxims on compassion that help to organise Rousseau's discussion, and the precise strategy that Emile's tutor uses to instil compassion while avoiding other passions, such as anger, fear and pride. The very idea of an…

White, Richard

2008-01-01

224

Social Compass 60(1) 115133  

E-print Network

Social Compass 60(1) 115­133 © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0037768612471770 scp.sagepub.com social compass The politics of religious dualism: Naim'Ascq Cedex, France. Email: albert.doja@univ-lille1.fr 471770SCP60110.1177/0037768612471770Social Compass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

Akin, Ahmet

2012-01-01

226

Develop student compassion through service-learning.  

PubMed

Compassion is the ability to be sympathetic along with the desire to remedy distress and offer help. The art and science of nursing speaks to the need of having compassion toward those nurses serve, especially when different from the nurse. This article examines the concept of service-learning as a teaching strategy and way of developing compassion in today's nursing students. PMID:24282881

Brown, Esther

2013-01-01

227

Self-Compassion and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions. Participants were 338 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale were used. The relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions…

Akin, Ahmet

2010-01-01

228

Magnetic properties and domain structure in grain-oriented 3% Si-Fe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic domain observations have been used to clarify the relationship between metallurgical structure and the core loss, permeability, and magnetostriction of grain-oriented 3% Si-Fe. Both the prediction of domain structures based on anisotropy, magnetostatics, stress, etc., and the various methods of making domain observations are reviewed. Both static and dynamic domain structures are shown and used to illustrate the relationships

J. W. SHILLING

1974-01-01

229

ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS. OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

230

Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion

Antoine Lutz; Julie Brefczynski-Lewis; Tom Johnstone; Richard J. Davidson

2008-01-01

231

Standard CMOS Hall-Sensor with Integrated Interface Electronics for a 3D Compass Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A smart compass sensor has been developed in standard CMOS with integrated signal conditioning and interface electronics. The compass sensors measure the horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field, which has a typical field strength of 25muT. The sensor's offset is 4muT (3sigma), and its offset stability is less than 0.25muT\\/week. Due to this low offset stability, the detection level

Jeroen van der Meer; K. Makinwa; J. Huijsing

2007-01-01

232

Transverse Spin Physics at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The study of transverse spin effects is part of the scientific program of COMPASS, a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. COMPASS investigates the transversity PDFs in semi-inclusive DIS, using a longitudinally polarized muon beam of 160 GeV/c impinging on a transversely polarized target. From 2002 to 2004, data have been collected using a $^6$LiD target transversely polarized. Transversity has been measured using different quark polarimeters: the azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of baryons ($\\Lambda$ hyperons). All the asymmetries have been found to be small, and compatible with zero, a result which has been interpreted as a cancellation between the u and d-quark contributions. In 2007 COMPASS has taken data using a NH$_3$ polarized proton target which will give complementary information on transverse spin effects.

Federica Sozzi; for the COMPASS Collaboration

2009-02-02

233

Transverse Spin Physics at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The investigation of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in deep inelastic scattering is one of the key physics programs of the COMPASS collaboration. Three channels have been analyzed at COMPASS to access the transversity distribution function: The azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, involving the Collins fragmentation function, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, involving the two-hadron interference fragmentation function, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of Lambda hyperons in the final state. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering give important information on the inner structure of the nucleon as well, and can be used to estimate both the quark transverse momentum k_T in an unpolarized nucleon and to access the so-far unmeasured Boer-Mulders function. COMPASS has measured these asymmetries using spin-averaged 6LiD data.

Christian Schill; for the COMPASS collaboration

2010-09-04

234

Synthesis, Magnetic Anisotropy and Optical Properties of Preferred Oriented Zinc Ferrite Nanowire Arrays  

PubMed Central

Preferred oriented ZnFe2O4 nanowire arrays with an average diameter of 16 nm were fabricated by post-annealing of ZnFe2 nanowires within anodic aluminum oxide templates in atmosphere. Selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction exhibit that the nanowires are in cubic spinel-type structure with a [110] preferred crystallite orientation. Magnetic measurement indicates that the as-prepared ZnFe2O4 nanowire arrays reveal uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the easy magnetization direction is parallel to the axis of nanowire. The optical properties show the ZnFe2O4 nanowire arrays give out 370–520 nm blue-violet light, and their UV absorption edge is around 700 nm. The estimated values of direct and indirect band gaps for the nanowires are 2.23 and 1.73 eV, respectively. PMID:20676211

2010-01-01

235

Interface deformations affect the orientation transition of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces.  

PubMed

Manufacturing new soft materials with specific optical, mechanical and magnetic properties is a significant challenge. Assembling and manipulating colloidal particles at fluid interfaces is a promising way to make such materials. We use lattice-Boltzmann simulations to investigate the response of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at liquid-liquid interfaces to external magnetic fields. We provide further evidence for the first-order orientation phase transition predicted by Bresme and Faraudo [Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2007, 19, 375110]. We show that capillary interface deformations around the ellipsoidal particle significantly affect the tilt-angle of the particle for a given dipole-field strength, altering the properties of the orientation transition. We propose scaling laws governing this transition, and suggest how to use these deformations to facilitate particle assembly at fluid-fluid interfaces. PMID:25069609

Davies, Gary B; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V; Harting, Jens; Bresme, Fernando

2014-09-21

236

Functional magnetic resonance adaptation reveals the involvement of the dorsomedial stream in hand orientation for grasping.  

PubMed

Reach-to-grasp actions require coordination of different segments of the upper limbs. Previous studies have examined the neural substrates of arm transport and hand grip components of such actions; however, a third component has been largely neglected: the orientation of the wrist and hand appropriately for the object. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation (fMRA) to investigate human brain areas involved in processing hand orientation during grasping movements. Participants used the dominant right hand to grasp a rod with the four fingers opposing the thumb or to reach and touch the rod with the knuckles without visual feedback. In a control condition, participants passively viewed the rod. Trials in a slow event-related design consisted of two sequential stimuli in which the rod orientation changed (requiring a change in wrist posture while grasping but not reaching or looking) or remained the same. We found reduced activation, that is, adaptation, in superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) when the object was repeatedly grasped with the same orientation. In contrast, there was no adaptation when reaching or looking at an object in the same orientation, suggesting that hand orientation, rather than object orientation, was the critical factor. These results agree with recent neurophysiological research showing that a parieto-occipital area of macaque (V6A) is modulated by hand orientation during reach-to-grasp movements. We suggest that the human dorsomedial stream, like that in the macaque, plays a key role in processing hand orientation in reach-to-grasp movements. PMID:21795615

Monaco, Simona; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Sedda, Anna; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; Culham, Jody C

2011-11-01

237

Quantitative study of crystallization kinetics of hen egg-white lysozyme using magnetic orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic stabilization energy of a lysozyme crystal is a function of both magnetic strength and the number of molecules in a crystal. We therefore used magnetic orientation to clarify the process under normal gravity where crystals grow in solution and then sediment to the bottom of the vessel, where they continue to grow. When a magnetic field of 1.6 T was applied immediately after the solution preparation ( t=0) and was continued for various duration times, photomicrographs taken after completion of the crystallization process showed that magnetically oriented crystals sediment before the field was switched off ( t=t). The ratio of the number of magnetically orientated crystals to the total number of crystals could be approximated by Ratio=1-exp(- kt), where k is a rate constant of the crystal growth and sedimentation. When the supersaturation ratio ? was 5.3, 6.7, and 8.0, the approximated value of k was 0.016, 0.15, and 0.48/h, respectively. k significantly increases with increasing ?. This equation explains quantitatively the transient behavior of the growth and sedimentation of crystals. We also analyzed Ratio by growing crystals under various magnetic-field strengths (0-1.6 T), and found that most crystals sediment to the bottom, when their size is 2-6 ?m. Numerical simulation also showed that the process of sedimentation is determined by the size of crystals. In conclusion, a rate constant k that we determined in this study characterizes the process where crystals grow to 2-6 ?m and then sediment to the bottom of the vessel, and that crystallization growth strongly depends on the supersaturation ratio ?.

Wakayama, N. I.

1998-01-01

238

Crystal-oriented tungsten-bronze type ceramics prepared by a rotating magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forming and sintering of c-axis-oriented Sr2NaNb5O15 (SNN) ceramics were examined. Particle-oriented SNN was fabricated by using a rotating high magnetic field and subsequent sintering without magnetic field. SNN ceramics are tungsten-bronze-type ferroelectric materials with a tetragonal crystal system. The diamagnetic susceptibilities of the c-axis are smaller than that of the a- and b-axis (?c < ?a,b < 0). SNN powder was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction. The synthesized powder was mixed with distilled water and a dispersant by using ball milling to give a slurry with solid loading of 30 vol%. The slurry was poured into a plastic mold and this was placed in a 10Tesla magnetic field in a superconducting magnet. The mold was rotated at 30 rpm while the slurry dried at room temperature. The resulting powder compact with a columnar shape was heated at 5 K/min to 1473 K, held for 6 h, and then heated at 1525 K for 2 h to prevent exaggerated grain growth. XRD patterns showed that c-axis-oriented SNN polycrystalline ceramics were produced in the presence of the rotating magnetic field. In XRD patterns viewed from the top surface of the sintered specimens, peaks from the c-planes of the crystal, such as 001 and 002, were very strong. Diffraction peaks which were very strong in the ceramics, such as 320 and 410, were absent in the specimen. Oriented microstructure was developed well by sintering. Grain-growth along to c-axis was observed in the SNN ceramics heated at 1525 K.

Tanaka, S.; Doshida, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Furushima, R.; Uematsu, K.

2011-03-01

239

Studies of TMDs at COMPASS  

E-print Network

Transverse spin and transverse momentum distribution functions of the constituents of the nucleon are a crucial input for a complete description of the nucleon. COMPASS measured such for longitudinally and transversely polarized deuterons and protons. In the following we will focus on recent results from the 2007 transverse proton data and on the results for unpolarized deuterons.

H. Wollny; for the COMPASS collaboration

2010-08-03

240

Envy and Compassion in Tournaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many experiments and field studies indicate that most individuals are not purely motivated by material self-interest but also care about the well being of others. In this paper, we examine tournaments among inequity averse agents, who dislike disadvantageous inequity (envy) and advantageous inequity (compassion). It turns out that inequity averse agents exert higher efforts than purely self-interested agents for a

Christian Grund; Dirk Sliwka

2005-01-01

241

Exclusive meson production at COMPASS  

E-print Network

We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

Josef Pochodzalla; Lech Mankiewicz; Murray Moinester; Gunther Piller; Andrzej Sandacz; Marc Vanderhaeghen

1999-09-28

242

The COMPASS experiment at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COMPASS experiment makes use of the CERN SPS high-intensity muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the nucleon spin structure and the spectroscopy of hadrons. One or more outgoing particles are detected in coincidence with the incoming muon or hadron. A large polarised target inside a superconducting solenoid is used for the measurements with the muon beam. Outgoing

P. Abbon; E. Albrecht; V. Yu. Alexakhin; Yu. Alexandrov; G. D. Alexeev; M. G. Alekseev; A. Amoroso; H. Angerer; V. A. Anosov; B. Badelek; F. Balestra; J. Ball; J. Barth; G. Baum; M. Becker; Y. Bedfer; P. Berglund; C. Bernet; R. Bertini; M. Bettinelli; R. Birsa; J. Bisplinghoff; P. Bordalo; Michel Bosteels; Franco Bradamante; André Braem; A. Bravar; A. Bressan; G. Brona; E. Burtin; M. P. Bussa; V. N. Bytchkov; M. Chalifour; A. Chapiro; M. Chiosso; P. Ciliberti; A. Cicuttin; M. Colantoni; A. A. Colavita; S. Costa; M. L. Crespo; P. Cristaudo; T. Dafni; N. d’Hose; S. Dalla Torre; C. d’Ambrosio; S. Das; S. S. Dasgupta; E. Delagnes; R. De Masi; P. Deck; N. Dedek; D. Demchenko; O. Yu. Denisov; L. Dhara; V. Diaz; N. Dibiase; A. M. Dinkelbach; A. V. Dolgopolov; A. Donati; S. V. Donskov; V. A. Dorofeev; N. Doshita; D. Durand; V. Duic; W. Dünnweber; A. Efremov; P. D. Eversheim; W. Eyrich; M. Faessler; V. Falaleev; P. Fauland; A. Ferrero; L. Ferrero; M Jr Finger; H. Fischer; C. Franco; J. Franz; F. Fratnik; J. M. Friedrich; V. Frolov; U. Fuchs; R. Garfagnini; L. Gatignon; F. Gautheron; O. P. Gavrichtchouk; S. Gerassimov; R. Geyer; J. M. Gheller; Arnaud Giganon; M Giorgiab; B. Gobbo; S. Goertz; A. M. Gorin; F. Gougnaud; S. Grabmüller; O. A. Grajek; A. Grasso; B. Grube; A. Grünemaier; A Guskovh; F. Haas; R. Hagemann; J. Hannappel; D. von Harrach; T. Hasegawa; J. Heckmann; S. Hedicke; F. H. Heinsius; R. Hermann; C Hess; F. Hinterberger; M. von Hodenberg; N. Horikawa; S. Horikawa; I. Horn; C. Ilgner; A. I. Ioukaev; S. Ishimoto; I. Ivanchin; O. Ivanov; T. Iwata; R. Jahn; A. Janata; R. Joosten; N. I. Jouravlev; E Kabuss; V. Kalinnikov; D. Kang; F. Karstens; W. Kastaun; B. Ketzer; G. V. Khaustov; Yu. A. Khokhlov; J. Kiefer; Yu. Kisselev; F. Klein; K. Klimaszewski; S. Koblitz; J. H. Koivuniemi; V. N. Kolosov; E. V. Komissarov; K. Kondo; K C Königsmann; A. K. Konoplyannikov; I. Konorov; V. F. Konstantinov; A. S. Korentchenko; A. Korzenev; A. M. Kotzinian; N A Koutchinskih; O. Kouznetsov; K. Kowalik; Daniel Kramer; N. P. Kravchuk; G. V. Krivokhizhin; Z. V. Kroumchtein; J. Kubart; R. Kuhn; V. Kukhtin; Fabienne Kunne; K. Kurek; N. A. Kuzmin; M. Lamanna; J. M. Le Goff; M. Leberig; A. A. Lednev; A. Lehmann; V. Levinski; S. Levorato; V. I Lyashenko; J. Lichtenstadt; T. Liska; I. Ludwig; A. Maggiora; M. Maggiora; A. Magnon; G. K. Mallot; A. Mann; I. V. Manuilov; C. Marchand; J. Marroncle; A. Martin; J. Marzec; L. Masek; F. Massmann; T. Matsuda; D. Matthiä; A N Maksimov; G. Menon; W. Meyer; A. Mielech; Yu. V. Mikhailov; M. A. Moinester; F. Molinié; F. Mota; A. Mutter; T. Nagel; O. Nähle; J. Nassalski; S. Neliba; F. Nerling; D. Neyret; M. Niebuhr; T. Niinikoski; V. I. Nikolaenko; A. A. Nozdrin; A G Olshevskii; M. Ostrick; A. Padee; P. Pagano; S. Panebianco; B. Parsamyan; D. Panzieri; S Pault; B. Pawlukiewicz; H. Pereira; D. V. Peshekhonov; V. D. Peshekhonov; D. Piedigrossi; G. Piragino; S. Platchkov; K. Platzer; J. Pochodzalla; J. Polak; V. A. Polyakov; G. Pontecorvo; A. A. Popov; J. Pretz; S. Procureur; C. Quintans; J.-F. Rajotte; S. Ramos; I. Razaq; P. Rebourgeard; D. Reggiani; G. Reicherz; A. Richter; F. Robinet; E. Rocco; E. Rondio; Leszek Ropelewski; J. Y. Roussé; A. M. Rozhdestvensky; D. Ryabchikov; A. G. Samartsev; V. D. Samoylenko; A. Sandacz; M. Sans Merce; H. Santos; M G Sapozhnikovh; Fabio Sauli; I. A. Savin; Paolo Schiavon; C. Schill; T. Schmidt; H Schmittj; L. Schmitt; P. Schönmeier; W. Schroeder; D. Seeharsch; M. Seimetz; D. Setter; A. Shaligin; O. Yu. Shevchenko; A. A. Shishkin; H.-W. Siebert; L. Silva; F. Simon; L. Sinha; A. N. Sissakian; M. Slunecka; G. I. Smirnov; D. Sora; S. Sosio; F. Sozzi; A. Srnka; F. Stinzing; M. Stolarski; V. P. Sugonyaev; M. Sulc; R. Sulej; Gérard Tarte; N. Takabayashi; V. V. Tchalishev; S. Tessaro; F. Tessarotto; A. Teufel; D. Thers; L. G. Tkatchev; T. Toeda; V. V. Tokmenin; S. Trippel; J. Urban; R. Valbuena; G. Venugopal; M. Virius; N. V. Vlassov; A. Vossen; M. Wagner; R. Webb; E. Weise; Q. Weitzel; U. Wiedner; M. Wiesmann; R. Windmolders; S. Wirth; W. Wislicki; H. Wollny; A. M. Zanetti; K. Zaremba; M. Zavertyaev; J. Zhao; R. Ziegler; M. Ziembicki; Y. L. Zlobin; A. Zvyagin

2007-01-01

243

An Analytical Expression for Estimating a Buried Object's Location, Orientation and Magnetic Polarization to Support UXO Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new physics based expression is presented for determining a buried object's location, orientation and magnetic polarizability. The approach assumes the target exhibits a dipolar response and uses only three global values: (1) a H magnetic field vector, (2) a vector potential A and (3) a scalar magnetic potential psi all at a single location in space. To illustrate the

F. Shubitidze; D. Karkashadze; B. Barrowes; K. O'Neill

2007-01-01

244

Magnetic and transport properties of Mn2CoAl oriented films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, magnetic, and transport properties of thin films of the Heusler ferrimagnet Mn2CoAl have been investigated for properties related to spin gapless semiconductors. Oriented films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and the structure was found to transform from tetragonal to cubic for increasing annealing temperature. The anomalous Hall resistivity is found to be proportional to the square of the longitudinal resistivity and magnetization expected for a topological Berry curvature origin. A delicate balance of the spin-polarized carrier type when coupled with voltage gate-tuning could significantly impact advanced electronic devices.

Jamer, Michelle E.; Assaf, Badih A.; Devakul, Trithep; Heiman, Don

2013-09-01

245

Self-organisation, orientation and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticle arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organised magnetic arrays (SOMA) of high anisotropy particles are a promising candidate for ultra-high-density recording media. In principle SOMA media have the capability of storing 1 bit per particle, leading to possible reecording densities in excess of 10 Tbit/sq in. In this paper we consider two major aspects of SOMA media, namely the self-organisation process itself and the physics of the particle orientation process.

Verdes, C.; Chantrell, R. W.; Satoh, A.; Harrell, J. W.; Nikles, D.

2006-09-01

246

Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Orientation  

E-print Network

2013-14 Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Orientation Manual A Guide to History, Programs, Procedures, and Training #12;Page | 1 Welcome to the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center! You may be here because you are a new Kennedy Center is an exciting, innovative organization where caring, compassion, professional expertise

Sarkar, Nilanjan

247

Magnetic moment of ¹°Ag{sup m} and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR\\/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented ¹°Ag{sup g,m} nuclei with the NICOLE ³He-He dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE\\/CERN. For ¹°Ag{sup g} (I{sup p}i=5{sup +}) the gamma-NMR\\/ON resonance signal was found at nu=266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities

V. V. Golovko; I. S. Kraev; T. Phalet; B. Delaure; M. Beck; V. Yu. Kozlov; S. Coeck; F. Wauters; N. Severijns; P. Herzog; Ch. Tramm; D. Zakoucky; D. Venos; D. Srnka; M. Honusek; U. Koester

2010-01-01

248

Magnetically Actuated Propellant Orientation, Controlling Fluids in a Low-Gravity Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic fluid management (CFM) is a technology area common to virtually every space transportation propulsion concept envisioned. Storage, supply, transfer and handling of sub-critical cryogenic fluids are basic capabilities that have long been needed by multiple programs and the need is expected to continue in the future. The use of magnetic fields provides another method, which could replace or augment current/traditional approaches, potentially simplifying vehicle operational constraints. The magnetically actuated propellant orientation (MAPO) program effort focused on the use of magnetic fields to control fluid motion as it relates to positioning (i.e. orientation and acquisition) of a paramagnetic substance such as LO2. Current CFM state- of-the-art systems used to control and acquire propellant in low gravity environments rely on liquid surface tension devices which employ vanes, fine screen mesh channels and baskets. These devices trap and direct propellant to areas where it's needed and have been used routinely with storable (non-cryogenic) propellants. However, almost no data exists r,egarding their operation in cryogenics and the use of such devices confronts designers with a multitude of significant technology issues. Typical problems include a sensitivity to screen dry out (due to thermal loads and pressurant gas) and momentary adverse accelerations (generated from either internal or external sources). Any of these problems can potentially cause the acquisition systems to ingest or develop vapor and fail. The use of lightweight high field strength magnets may offer a valuable means of augmenting traditional systems potentially mitigating or at least easing operational requirements. Two potential uses of magnetic fields include: 1) strategically positioning magnets to keep vent ports clear of liquid (enabling low G vented fill operations), and 2) placing magnets in the center or around the walls of the tank to create an insulating vapor pocket (between the liquid and the tank wall) which could effectively lower heat transfer to the liquid (enabling increased storage time).

Martin, James J.; Holt, James B.

2000-01-01

249

Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax ( Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations «Salutå and «Mirå. This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant - tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built «Magnetogravistatå facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad(H 2/2)? 10 7 Oe 2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature.

Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Chikov, V. M.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

2001-01-01

250

Cosmic ray pressure driven magnetic field amplification: dimensional, radiative and field orientation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of non-thermal emission from several supernova remnants suggest that magnetic fields close to the blastwave are much stronger than would be naively expected from simple shock compression of the field permeating the interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate in some detail a simple model based on turbulence generation by cosmic ray pressure gradients. Previously, this model was investigated using 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Motivated by the well-known qualitative differences between 2D and 3D turbulence, we further our investigations of this model using both 2D and 3D simulations to study the influence of the dimensionality of the simulations on the field amplification achieved. Further, since the model implies the formation of shocks which can, in principle, be efficiently cooled by collisional cooling, we include such cooling in our simulations to ascertain whether it could increase the field amplification achieved. Finally, we examine the influence of different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the normal of the blastwave. We find that dimensionality has a slight influence on the overall amplification achieved, but a significant impact on the morphology of the amplified field. Collisional cooling has surprisingly little impact, primarily due to the short time which any element of the ISM resides in the precursor region for supernova blastwaves. Even allowing for a wide range of orientations of the magnetic field, we find that the magnetic field can be expected to be amplified by, on average, at least an order of magnitude in the precursors of supernova blastwaves.

Downes, T. P.; Drury, L. O'C.

2014-10-01

251

Status and characterisation of COMPASS RICH-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COMPASS RICH-1, a gas-radiator RICH detector with large transversal dimensions, which makes use of MWPC with CsI photocathodes as photon detectors, is in operation at COMPASS since 2001. The behaviour of the detector components is optimised and fully understood. The characterisation of the detector is now complete. We report about the detector status and its response in the COMPASS environment.

Albrecht, E.; Baum, G.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Ciliberti, P.; Colavita, A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; Cristaudo, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Diaz, V.; Duic, V.; Fauland, P.; Finger, M.; Fratnik, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mielech, A.; Pagano, P.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schiavon, P.; Sozzi, F.; Tessarotto, F.

2005-11-01

252

Magnetically Actuated Propellant Orientation Experiment, Controlling Fluid Motion With Magnetic Fields in a Low-Gravity Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report details the results of a series of fluid motion experiments to investigate the use of magnets to orient fluids in a low-gravity environment. The fluid of interest for this project was liquid oxygen (LO2) since it exhibits a paramagnetic behavior (is attracted to magnetic fields). However, due to safety and handling concerns, a water-based ferromagnetic mixture (produced by Ferrofluidics Corporation) was selected to simplify procedures. Three ferromagnetic fluid mixture strengths and a nonmagnetic water baseline were tested using three different initial fluid positions with respect to the magnet. Experiment accelerometer data were used with a modified computational fluid dynamics code termed CFX-4 (by AEA Technologies) to predict fluid motion. These predictions compared favorably with experiment video data, verifying the code's ability to predict fluid motion with and without magnetic influences. Additional predictions were generated for LO2 with the same test conditions and geometries used in the testing. Test hardware consisted of a cylindrical Plexiglas tank (6-in. bore with 10-in. length), a 6,000-G rare Earth magnet (10-in. ring), three-axis accelerometer package, and a video recorder system. All tests were conducted aboard the NASA Reduced-Gravity Workshop, a KC-135A aircraft.

Martin, J. J.; Holt, J. B.

2000-01-01

253

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faraday's Law of Induction 3. The image shows a rectangular loop oriented 42 degrees from a magnetic field.  

E-print Network

a floor of dimensions 22 m by 18 m. The local magnetic field due to Earth has a horizontal component 2 oriented 42 degrees from a magnetic field. Solve equation 23-1 for the magnetic field. Calculate the magnetic field: ( )( ) 5 2 4.8 10 Tm 0.020 T cos 0.051 m 0.068 m cos47 B A - � = = = ° 4. A house has

Kioussis, Nicholas

254

An orientation tracking algorithm valid in a hemisphere space based on the gravity field and the earth magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel orientation tracking algorithm is introduced. The algorithm can provide 3DOF orientation information of an object in a hemisphere space. It is based on two-dimensional information about the gravity field and the earth magnetic field. Comparing with the traditional algorithm, it reduced the needed information from three dimensions to two dimensions in operation. It is faster and simpler. The

Zhigang Yan; Kui Yuan

2004-01-01

255

Compassion: its neglect and importance.  

PubMed Central

Dose it matter that personal care of one doctor to one patient is being diluted by larger teams with increased delegation of work? In arguing that it does, this paper focuses on compassion, 'fellow feeling which is likely to be expressed'. General practitioner morale, patient satisfaction, and clinical medicine are examined, and teleology, game theory, and 'psycho-immuno endocrinology' touched upon, to come to the paper's conclusion, which is to call for the resuscitation of the 'Personal Doctor'. PMID:9302796

Taylor, M B

1997-01-01

256

The COMPASS spin physics program  

E-print Network

One of the main aims of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is the study of the spin structure of the nucleon and in particular the determination of the gluon polarization in the nucleon. We present some new results of 2002-2003 data analysis. They concern a precise measurement of the deuteron structure function g1 at small x, some preliminary result on Collins and Sivers asymmetries which are linked to transversity and a new measurement of DeltaG/G.

S. Panebianco

2005-05-03

257

Transverse Spin Effects at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The investigation of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in deep inelastic scattering is one of the key physics programs of the COMPASS collaboration. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS took data scattering 160 GeV muons on a transversely polarized 6LiD target. In 2007, a transversely polarized NH3 target was used. Three different channels to access the transversity distribution function have been analyzed: The azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, involving the Collins fragmentation function, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, involving the two-hadron interference fragmentation function, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of lambda hyperons in the final state. Transverse quark momentum effects in a transversely polarized nucleon have been investigated by measuring the Sivers distribution function. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering give important information on the inner structure of the nucleon as well, and can be used to estimate both the quark transverse momentum in an unpolarized nucleon and to access the so-far unmeasured Boer-Mulders function. COMPASS has measured these asymmetries using spin-averaged 6LiD data.

C. Schill

2009-09-29

258

A spot check for assessing static orientation consistency of inertial and magnetic sensing units.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of Magnetic and Inertial Measurement Units (MIMUs) for movement reconstruction, only a few studies have tackled issues related to their accuracy. It has been proved that their performance decreases over a period of use since calibration parameters become no longer effective. Good practice rules recommend to assess, prior to any experimental session, the instrumental errors associated to the relevant measures. Aim of this study was to provide a practical and reproducible spot check for assessing the performance of MIMUs in terms of consistency in determining their orientation with respect to a common (inter-MIMUs consistency, IC) and invariant (self-MIMU consistency, SC) global frame. IC was assessed by verifying the hypothesis that the orientation of 9 MIMUs aligned to each other on a rigid Plexiglas plank coincided at any orientation of the plank. SC was assessed separately by verifying differences between measured and imposed known rotations imparted to each MIMU. The orientation of MIMUs relative to the global frame was expressed in terms of quaternion. IC test showed that MIMUs defined their orientation differently. This difference was not constant but varied according to the plank's orientation. The least consistent MIMU showed discrepancy up to 5.7°. SC test confirmed the same MIMU as that affected by the highest inaccuracy (8.4°), whereas it revealed errors within limits (1°) in correspondence to other MIMUs. A tool has been proposed that allows the users to be aware of the errors that may be expected when using MIMUs for the estimate of absolute and relative segments kinematics. PMID:21227693

Picerno, Pietro; Cereatti, Andrea; Cappozzo, Aurelio

2011-03-01

259

Sun-compass migration by Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa): population retention and reproduction in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in Saanich Inlet, a north-south oriented fjord in British Columbia, uses a sun compass to migrate in a southeasterly direction during the day. When the sky is overcast and at night, A. aurita orients randomly and is dispersed passively by gentle tidal currents. The net result is daily reaggregation of medusae into enormous swarms along the

W. M. Hamner; P. P. Hamner; S. W. Strand

1994-01-01

260

Effect of metallurgical factors on the bulk magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-oriented electrical steel (NOES) is one of the most common material used in electrical motors. Core loss and permeability are the most important properties that the motor manufacturers look for. Both these properties are structure sensitive and depend on several metallurgical factors; such as chemistry, grain size, crystallographic texture, cleanliness and stress states in non-oriented electrical steels. It has been observed in this course of the study that the grain size and Si content of NOES are the primary controlling factors to core loss, especially at higher frequencies. On the contrary, crystallographic texture plays an important role at lower frequencies. At higher frequency, core loss increases with increasing grain size and decreasing Si content of the steels. Small difference in grain size (~50 ?m) at lower frequency range has little influence on the magnetic properties but has significant adverse effect as frequency reaches high enough.

Ghosh, Pampa; Chromik, Richard R.; Knight, Andrew M.; Wakade, Shekhar G.

2014-04-01

261

Delta-opiate DPDPE in magnetically oriented phospholipid micelles: binding and arrangement of aromatic pharmacophores.  

PubMed Central

D-Penicillamine(2,5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) is a potent opioid peptide that exhibits a high selectivity for the delta-opiate receptors. This zwitterionic peptide has been shown, by pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR diffusion studies, to have significant affinity for a zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer. The bilayer lipid is in the form of micelles composed of dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) mixtures, where the DMPC forms the bilayer structure. At high lipid concentration (25% w/w) these micelles orient in the magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer. The resulting 1H-13C dipolar couplings and chemical shift changes in the natural abundance 13C resonances for the Tyr and Phe aromatic rings were used to characterize the orientations in the bilayer micelles of these two key pharmacophores. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 8 PMID:9414244

Rinaldi, F; Lin, M; Shapiro, M J; Petersheim, M

1997-01-01

262

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

263

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-based Filter for orientation determination using inertial and magnetic sensors.  

PubMed

In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2012-01-01

264

Solving the Orientation Specific Constraints in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation by Rotating Fields  

PubMed Central

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a promising technology for both neurology and psychiatry. Positive treatment outcome has been reported, for instance in double blind, multi-center studies on depression. Nonetheless, the application of TMS towards studying and treating brain disorders is still limited by inter-subject variability and lack of model systems accessible to TMS. The latter are required to obtain a deeper understanding of the biophysical foundations of TMS so that the stimulus protocol can be optimized for maximal brain response, while inter-subject variability hinders precise and reliable delivery of stimuli across subjects. Recent studies showed that both of these limitations are in part due to the angular sensitivity of TMS. Thus, a technique that would eradicate the need for precise angular orientation of the coil would improve both the inter-subject reliability of TMS and its effectiveness in model systems. We show here how rotation of the stimulating field relieves the angular sensitivity of TMS and provides improvements in both issues. Field rotation is attained by superposing the fields of two coils positioned orthogonal to each other and operated with a relative phase shift in time. Rotating field TMS (rfTMS) efficiently stimulates both cultured hippocampal networks and rat motor cortex, two neuronal systems that are notoriously difficult to excite magnetically. This opens the possibility of pharmacological and invasive TMS experiments in these model systems. Application of rfTMS to human subjects overcomes the orientation dependence of standard TMS. Thus, rfTMS yields optimal targeting of brain regions where correct orientation cannot be determined (e.g., via motor feedback) and will enable stimulation in brain regions where a preferred axonal orientation does not exist. PMID:24505266

Neef, Nicole E.; Agudelo-Toro, Andres; Rakhmilevitch, David; Paulus, Walter; Moses, Elisha

2014-01-01

265

Orientational dynamics of ferrofluids with finite magnetic anisotropy of the particles: Relaxation of magneto-birefringence in crossed fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic birefringence in a ferrofluid subjected to crossed bias (constant) and probing (pulse or ac) fields is considered, assuming that the nanoparticles have finite magnetic anisotropy. This is done on the basis of the general Fokker-Planck equation that takes into account both internal magnetic and external mechanical degrees of freedom of the particle. We describe the orientation dynamics in terms

Yu. L. Raikher; V. I. Stepanov; J.-C. Bacri; R. Perzynski

2002-01-01

266

Orientational dynamics of ferrofluids with finite magnetic anisotropy of the particles: Relaxation of magneto-birefringence in crossed fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic birefringence in a ferrofluid subjected to crossed bias ~constant! and probing ~pulse or ac! fields is considered, assuming that the nanoparticles have finite magnetic anisotropy. This is done on the basis of the general Fokker-Planck equation that takes into account both internal magnetic and external mechanical degrees of freedom of the particle. We describe the orientation dynamics in terms

Yu. L. Raikher; V. I. Stepanov; J.-C. Bacri; R. Perzynski

2002-01-01

267

Is compassion essential to nursing practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian Nurses' Association recently (2001) approved a new code of ethics that included compassion as one of the basic values in nursing care.This paper examines the idea of compassion in the context of the Bible story of the Good Samaritan using an analysis of qualitative data from nurses' clinical work with psychiatric patients.The aim is to show how the

MARIT HELENE HEM; KRISTIN HEGGEN

2004-01-01

268

Self-compassion: a concept analysis.  

PubMed

This concept analysis uses a modification of the evolutionary method (Rodgers, 1989) to identify the antecedent, attributes, and consequences of self-compassion. The antecedent to self-compassion is suffering, experienced in six possible realms: an event, a situation, an emotional response, a psychological state, spiritual alienation, or a physical response to illness or pain. Suffering has three dimensions: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual. Suffering manifests as a pattern of decreased self-care, decreased ability to relate to others, and diminished autonomy. The attributes of self-compassion are self-kindness, mindfulness, commonality, and wisdom. The consequences of self-compassion are the opposite of the antecedent: self-compassion manifests as a pattern of increased self-care capacity, compassion for others, and increased relatedness, autonomy, and sense of self. Ideal, borderline and contrary cases of self-compassion provide examples of the concept. The article concludes with a discussion of implications of the concept of self-compassion for nursing practice and research. PMID:22024954

Reyes, Darcel

2012-06-01

269

Cosmic-ray pressure driven magnetic field amplification: dimensional, radiative and field orientation effects  

E-print Network

Observations of non-thermal emission from several supernova remnants suggest that magnetic fields close to the blastwave are much stronger than would be naively expected from simple shock compression of the field permeating the interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate in some detail a simple model based on turbulence generation by cosmic-ray pressure gradients. Previously this model was investigated using 2D MHD simulations. Motivated by the well-known qualitative differences between 2D and 3D turbulence, we further our investigations of this model using both 2D and 3D simulations to study the influence of the dimensionality of the simulations on the field amplification achieved. Further, since the model implies the formation of shocks which can, in principle, be efficiently cooled by collisional cooling we include such cooling in our simulations to ascertain whether it could increase the field amplification achieved. Finally, we examine the influence of different orientations of the magnetic field with resp...

Downes, T P

2014-01-01

270

Comparison of lattice preferred orientation and magnetic fabric of a chloritoid-bearing slate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional analysis of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on chloritoid-bearing slates of the Paleozoic Plougastel Formation in the low-grade metamorphic conditions (epizonal) of the Monts d'Arrée slate belt in Central Armorica (Brittany, France) reveals very high values for the degree of anisotropy (PJ), up to 1.43 (Haerinck et al. 2013a). In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent slates free of chloritoid, in the very low-grade metamorphic conditions (anchizonal) of the Crozon fold-and-thrust belt, show a lower degree of anisotropy, with PJ values up to 1.27. Classically, very strong magnetic fabrics (i.e. those with PJ above 1.35) are attributed to a contribution of ferromagnetic (s.l.) minerals. Nonetheless, high-field torque magnetometry indicates that the magnetic fabric of the chloritoid-bearing slates is dominantly paramagnetic. The ferromagnetic (sensu lato) contribution to the AMS is less than 10%. Based on these observations, it would seem that chloritoid has an intrinsic magnetic anisotropy that is significantly higher than that of most paramagnetic silicates and the frequently used upper limit for the paramagnetic contribution to the AMS. Using two independent approaches, i.e. (a) directional magnetic hysteresis measurements, and (b) torque magnetometry, on a collection of single chloritoid crystals, collected from different tectonometamorphic settings worldwide, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of monoclinic chloritoid has been determined (Haerinck et al. 2013b). The determined paramagnetic high-field AMS ellipsoids have a highly oblate shape with the minimum susceptibility direction subparallel to the crystallographic c-axis of chloritoid and the degree of anisotropy of chloritoid is found to be 1.47 ± 0.06. The obtained very high magnetocrystalline degree of anisotropy suggests that chloritoid-bearing slates with a pronounced mineral alignment can have a high degree of anisotropy (PJ) without the need of invoking a significant contribution of strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic (s.l.)minerals. To validate this assumption a texture analysis has been performed on a representative sample of the chloritoid-bearing slates (PJ = 1.40), using hard X-ray synchrotron diffraction (e.g. Wenk et al. 2010). For estimation of the mineralogical composition and the preferred orientation a Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction images has been performed. The Rietveld refinement confirms that the slate contains a significant fraction of chloritoid (21 vol%). The resulting orientation distribution of both muscovite and chloritoid display an approximate axial symmetric (001) pole figure pattern with respect to the minimum magnetic susceptibility axis K3, that has an extremely strong preferred orientation (~36 m.r.d. for muscovite and ~19 m.r.d. for chloritoid). It is therefore fair to conclude that the strong preferred orientation of the chloritoid basal planes parallel to the magnetic fabric, in combination with the pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy of chloritoid, explains the very high values for the degree of magnetic anisotropy (PJ) observed in the chloritoid-bearing slates. References Haerinck et al. 2013a. Journal of the Geological Society, London 170, 263-280, doi:10.1144/jgs2012-062. Haerinck et al. 2013b. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118(8), 3886-3898, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50276. Wenk et al. 2010. Journal of Structural Geology 32(4), 478-489, doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2010.02.003.

Haerinck, Tom; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

2014-05-01

271

Bats respond to polarity of a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Bats have been shown to use information from the Earth's magnetic field during orientation. However, the mechanism underlying this ability remains unknown. In this study we investigated whether bats possess a polarity- or inclination-based compass that could be used in orientation. We monitored the hanging position of adult Nyctalus plancyi in the laboratory in the presence of an induced magnetic field of twice Earth-strength. When under the influence of a normally aligned induced field the bats showed a significant preference for hanging at the northern end of their roosting basket. When the vertical component of the field was reversed, the bats remained at the northern end of the basket. However, when the horizontal component of the field was reversed, the bats changed their positions and hung at the southern end of the basket. Based on these results, we conclude that N. plancyi, unlike all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested to date, uses a polarity-based compass during orientation in the roost, and that the same compass is also likely to underlie bats' long-distance navigation abilities. PMID:17848365

Wang, Yinan; Pan, Yongxin; Parsons, Stuart; Walker, Michael; Zhang, Shuyi

2007-01-01

272

Facile orientation of unmodified BN nanosheets in polysiloxane\\/BN composite films using a high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite films consisting of highly oriented boron nitride (BN) nanosheets in polysiloxane were fabricated without modifying\\u000a the BN surface by applying a high magnetic field generated by a superconducting magnet. The hexagonal BN nanosheets were dispersed\\u000a by sonication in a prepolymer mixture of polysiloxane. The homogeneous suspension was then cast on a polyamide spacer of microscale\\u000a thickness and a magnetic

Hong-Baek Cho; Yoshinori Tokoi; Satoshi Tanaka; Tsuneo Suzuki; Weihua Jiang; Hisayuki Suematsu; Koichi Niihara; Tadachika Nakayama

2011-01-01

273

The Compass That Steered Robotics Bruce R. Donald  

E-print Network

The Compass That Steered Robotics Bruce R. Donald Department of Computer Science Duke University profound results in this field. These are first embodied in his 1978 paper On the Power of the Compass show below, this work steers using Dexter's compass. 1 The Power of the Compass In 1978, Blum and Kozen

Donald, Bruce Randall

274

RESEARCH PAPER Enhancing Compassion: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Enhancing Compassion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Compassion Cultivation in cultivating positive emotional states and qualities. One particular target is compassion, but it is not yet clear whether compassion can be trained. A community sample of 100 adults were randomly assigned to a 9

Gross, James J.

275

The contours and consequences of compassion at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper describes two studies that explore core questions about compassion at work. Findings from a pilot survey indicate that compassion occurs with relative frequency among a wide variety of individuals, suggesting a relationship between experienced compassion, positive emotion, and affective commitment. A complementary narrative study reveals a wide range of compassion triggers and illuminates ways that work colleagues

Jacoba M. Lilius; Monica C. Worline; Sally Maitlis; Jason Kanov; Jane E. Dutton; Peter Frost

2008-01-01

276

Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow over a cylinder using axial- and transverse-oriented magnetic dipoles.  

PubMed

Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (<1) calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field. PMID:24307870

Guarendi, Andrew N; Chandy, Abhilash J

2013-01-01

277

Kalman-filter-based orientation determination using inertial/magnetic sensors: observability analysis and performance evaluation.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical. PMID:22163689

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

278

Magnetic-field-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of hard colloidal platelets  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic-field-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of colloidal gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}] platelets is studied by means of optical birefringence and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The suspensions display field-induced ordering at moderate field strengths (a few Tesla), which increases with increasing particle concentration. The gibbsite particles align their normals perpendicular to the magnetic field and hence possess a negative anisotropy of their diamagnetic susceptibility {delta}{chi}. The results can be described following a simple, Onsager-like approach. A simplified model is derived that allows one to obtain the orientational distribution function directly from the scattering data. However, it leads to an underestimate of the diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy {delta}{chi}. This accounts for the difference between the {delta}{chi} values provided by the two experimental techniques (SAXS and magneto-optics). The order of magnitude {delta}{chi}{approx}10{sup -22} J/T{sup 2} lies in between that of goethite suspensions and that of suspensions of organic particles.

Beek, D. van der; Petukhov, A.V.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W. [Van't Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Davidson, P.; Ferre, J.; Jamet, J.P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 510, 91405 Orsay (France); Wensink, H.H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, Gebaeude 25.32, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2006-04-15

279

Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations  

PubMed Central

White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:23296181

Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

2013-01-01

280

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL 1 Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering...............................................................................................2 Compassion and Reappraisal Training Study Compassion Meditation Training (COM) ................................................3 Reappraisal Training

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

281

Magnetic moment of Ag-104(m) and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

E-print Network

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented Ag-104(g,m) nuclei with the NICOLE He-3-He-4 dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE/CERN. For Ag-104(g) (I-pi = 5(+)) the gamma-NMR/ON resonance signal was found at nu = 266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities in an Fe host at low temperature (magnetic moment mu(Ag-104m) = +3.691(3) mu(N), which is significantly more precise than previous results. The magnetic moments of the even-A Ag102 -110 isotopes are discussed in view of the competition between the (pi g(9/2))(7/2+)(-3)(nu d(5/2)nu g(7/2))(5/2+) and the (pi g(9/2))(9/2+)(-3)(nu d(5/2)nu g(7/2))(5/2+) configurations. The magnetic moments of the ground and isomeric states of Ag-104 can be explained by an almost complete mixing of these two configurations.

V. V. Golovko; I. S. Kraev; T. Phalet; B. Delaure; M. Beck; V. Yu. Kozlov; S. Coeck; F. Wauters; P. Herzog; Ch. Tramm; D. Zakoucky; D. Venos; D. Srnka; M. Honusek; U. Koester; N. Severijns

2010-06-30

282

Global axis shape of magnetic clouds deduced from the distribution of their local axis orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are routinely tracked with imagers in the interplanetary space, while magnetic clouds (MCs) properties are measured locally by spacecraft. However, both imager and in situ data do not provide any direct estimation of the general flux rope properties. Aims: The main aim of this study is to constrain the global shape of the flux rope axis from local measurements and to compare the results from in-situ data with imager observations. Methods: We performed a statistical analysis of the set of MCs observed by WIND spacecraft over 15 years in the vicinity of Earth. We analyzed the correlation between different MC parameters and studied the statistical distributions of the angles defining the local axis orientation. With the hypothesis of having a sample of MCs with a uniform distribution of spacecraft crossing along their axis, we show that a mean axis shape can be derived from the distribution of the axis orientation. As a complement, while heliospheric imagers do not typically observe MCs but only their sheath region, we analyze one event where the flux rope axis can be estimated from the STEREO imagers. Results: From the analysis of a set of theoretical models, we show that the distribution of the local axis orientation is strongly affected by the overall axis shape. Next, we derive the mean axis shape from the integration of the observed orientation distribution. This shape is robust because it is mostly determined from the overall shape of the distribution. Moreover, we find no dependence on the flux rope inclination on the ecliptic. Finally, the derived shape is fully consistent with the one derived from heliospheric imager observations of the June 2008 event. Conclusions: We have derived a mean shape of MC axis that only depends on one free parameter, the angular separation of the legs (as viewed from the Sun). This mean shape can be used in various contexts, such as studies of high-energy particles or space weather forecasts.

Janvier, M.; Démoulin, P.; Dasso, S.

2013-08-01

283

Transverse Spin Effects at COMPASS  

E-print Network

Single spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized nucleon targets have been under intense experimental investigation over the past few years. They provide new insights into QCD and the nucleon structure. For instance, they allow the determination of the third yet-unknown leading-twist quark distribution function $\\Delta_{T}q(x)$, the transversity distribution. Additionally, they give insight into the parton transverse momentum distribution and angular momentum. The measurement of transverse spin effects in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering is an important part of the COMPASS physics program. In the years 2002-2004 data were collected scattering a 160 GeV muon beam on a transversely polarized deuteron target. In 2007, additional data were collected on a transversely polarized proton target. New results from the analysis of the proton data will be presented. A different but not less important insight into the nucleon structure might be given by the Sivers asymmetry. This angular dependence of the cross-section arises from an intrinsic asymmetry in the parton transverse momentum distribution. The Sivers function is tightly related to the total angular momentum carried by the quarks in the nucleon. New COMPASS results for the Sivers asymmetry of the proton will be shown.

H. Wollny

2009-02-03

284

The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme  

E-print Network

COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral perturbation theory. An overview of the ongoing analyses will be presented. In particular, the employed partial wave analysis techniques will be illustrated and recent results will be shown for a selection of final states.

A. Austregesilo; for the COMPASS collaboration

2012-07-04

285

Roe v. Wade. Reflective compassion.  

PubMed

The US has arrived at the correct legal status for induced abortion by permitting it on constitutional grounds within limits. In addition, the general consensus among American Catholics is in favor of abortion rights while disapproving of abortion and wishing to discourage it. Concerns about the morality of abortion, however, arise out of our uncertainty about the personhood of a fetus before birth or before viability. Early church leaders taught that a fetus did not obtain personhood until it acquired a human form, and the Catholic church did not baptize aborted fetuses without human shape or hold formal funeral services for dead fetuses. While official church teaching is adamant about the immorality of abortion, official church teaching has changed in the past in regard to the salvation of non-Catholics, slavery, inquisitions and torture, ecumenism, worship in the vernacular, and divorce and remarriage. No one is forced to have an abortion in the US because the legal right exists, and Catholics are more likely to heed Church teachings that do not seek legal force and punishment though "infallible" pronouncements and insensitive condemnation of women. If the Catholic church expects compassion for its wrong decisions in the past, then it should extend compassion to women in difficult situations. PMID:12178887

Padovano, A T

1998-01-01

286

A new stator-flux orientation strategy for flux-switching permanent magnet motor based on current-hysteresis control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stator-flux orientation strategy based on current hysteresis for the flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is proposed, in which the stator-PM FSPM motor is considered as a conventional rotor-PM surface-mounted motor and an equivalent rotor-orientated dq-axes synchronous reference frame is built although there are actually no rotary magnetic motive force produced by the stator magnets in the FSPM motor. Based on the proposed model, a vector-control strategy with current hysteresis for the FSPM motor drive is investigated and implemented on a dSPACE-based platform, and both the simulated and experimental results validate the effectiveness. It should be emphasized that the proposed stator-flux orientation strategy can be applied to other stator-PM machines (including doubly salient and flux-reversal PM machines) and other control methods (including space-vector pulsed-width-modification and direct torque control).

Hua, Wei; Cheng, Ming; Lu, Wei; Jia, Hongyun

2009-04-01

287

Self-compassion and fear of self-compassion interact to predict response to eating disorders treatment: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilbert (2005) proposed that the capacity for self-compassion is integral to overcoming shame and psychopathology. We tested this model among 74 individuals with an eating disorder admitted to specialized treatment. Participants completed measures assessing self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, shame, and eating disorder symptoms at admission and every 3 weeks during treatment. At baseline, lower self-compassion and higher fear of self-compassion

Allison C. Kelly; Jacqueline C. Carter; David C. Zuroff; Sahar Borairi

2012-01-01

288

Dayside Magnetopause Transients Correlated with Changes of the Magnetosheath Magnetic Field Orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper analyses one long-term pass (26 August 2007) of the THEMIS spacecraft across the dayside low-latitude magnetopause. THEMIS B, serving partly as a magnetosheath monitor, observed several changes of the magnetic field that were accompanied by dynamic changes of the magnetopause location and/or the structure of magnetopause layers observed by THEMIS C, D, and E, whereas THEMIS A scanned the inner magnetosphere. We discuss the plasma and the magnetic field data with motivation to identify sources of observed quasiperiodic plasma transients. Such events at the magnetopause are usually attributed to pressure pulses coming from the solar wind, foreshock fluctuations, flux transfer events or surface waves. The presented transient events differ in nature (the magnetopause surface deformation, the low-latitude boundary layer thickening, the crossing of the reconnection site), but we found that all of them are associated with changes of the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation and with enhancements or depressions of the plasma density. Since these features are not observed in the data of upstream monitors, the study emphasizes the role of magnetosheath fluctuations in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

Tkachenko, O.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.; Sibeck, D. G.

2011-01-01

289

Dayside magnetopause transients correlated with changes of the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyses one long-term pass (26 August 2007) of the THEMIS spacecraft across the dayside low-latitude magnetopause. THEMIS B, serving partly as a magnetosheath monitor, observed several changes of the magnetic field that were accompanied by dynamic changes of the magnetopause location and/or the structure of magnetopause layers observed by THEMIS C, D, and E, whereas THEMIS A scanned the inner magnetosphere. We discuss the plasma and the magnetic field data with motivation to identify sources of observed quasiperiodic plasma transients. Such events at the magnetopause are usually attributed to pressure pulses coming from the solar wind, foreshock fluctuations, flux transfer events or surface waves. The presented transient events differ in nature (the magnetopause surface deformation, the low-latitude boundary layer thickening, the crossing of the reconnection site), but we found that all of them are associated with changes of the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation and with enhancements or depressions of the plasma density. Since these features are not observed in the data of upstream monitors, the study emphasizes the role of magnetosheath fluctuations in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

Tkachenko, O.; Šafránková, J.; N?me?ek, Z.; Sibeck, D. G.

2011-04-01

290

Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among Colorado child protection workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to understand better the risk of compassion fatigue (the trauma suffered by the helping professional) and burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced sense of personal accomplishment), and the potential for compassion satisfaction (the fulfillment from helping others and positive collegial relationships) among Colorado county child protection staff using the Compassion Satisfaction\\/Fatigue Self-Test [Figley, C.

David Conrad; Yvonne Kellar-Guenther

2006-01-01

291

Effects of a Self-care Intervention for Counselors on Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction.  

E-print Network

??This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational and experiential structured counselor self-care curriculum, developed by Drs. Charles and Kathleen Figley, on compassion fatigue and… (more)

Koehler, Christine Marie Guthrie

2012-01-01

292

Coherent triplet excitation suppresses the heading error of the avian compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radical-ion pair reactions are currently understood to underlie the biochemical magnetic compass of migratory birds. It was recently shown that radical-ion pair reactions form a rich playground for the application of quantum-information-science concepts and effects. We will show here that the intricate interplay between the quantum Zeno effect and the coherent excitation of radical-ion pairs leads to an exquisite angular sensitivity of the reaction yields. This results in a significant and previously unanticipated suppression of the avian compass heading error, opening the way to quantum engineering precision biological sensors.

Katsoprinakis, G. E.; Dellis, A. T.; Kominis, I. K.

2010-08-01

293

The advanced stellar compass onboard the Oersted satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced stellar compass (ASC) star tracker installed onboard the Danish Oersted satellite designed to map the earth's magnetic vector field is presented. The ASC instrument will provide attitude data for the satellite and its payload. It consists of a CCD camera connected to a microcomputer, and operates by comparing star images from camera frames with its internal star catalogs. The instrument design is detailed, considering its key parameters, operating principles, and the different types of noise and error sources. A ground-based real sky evaluation and the calibration of the ASC are reported.

Jorgensen, John L.; Liebe, Carl Christian; Eisenman, Allan R.; Jensen, Gunnar B.

1997-01-01

294

Algorithms onboard the Oersted microsatellite stellar compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the state-of-the-art attitude determination instruments for spacecraft applications is an advanced stellar compass (ASC or a star tracker). It is able to determine the attitude of a spacecraft relative to the stars with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond (4.8 microradian). This is achieved utilizing a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The microcomputer analyzes the CCD images using an onboard software star catalogue. The objective of the Danish Oersted microsatellite is to measure the magnetic field of the earth. The field is measured with a very accurate vector magnetometer. The accurate vector measurements must be related to some celestial coordinate system. The only instrument capable of doing so with the required accuracy is an ASC. Therefore the Oersted microsatellite is equipped with an ASC, which is discussed in this paper. The design of the ASC is novel compared to conventional star trackers, because it is able to make the initial attitude acquisition autonomously (lost in space). This is achieved utilizing pattern recognition of star constellations in the CCD image and a preflight compiled version of the star catalogue. The technique is described and the performance analyzed. Also, the ASC is more accurate than conventional star trackers. A conventional star tracker typically tracks 2 - 10 stars in a single frame, whereas the ASC tracks up to 200 stars, yielding more accurate attitude estimates with similar lens configuration. The accuracy, the performance and the high sky coverage of this new approach are discussed.

Liebe, Carl C.; Joergensen, John L.

1996-10-01

295

Self-Compassion, Stress, and Coping  

PubMed Central

People who are high in self-compassion treat themselves with kindness and concern when they experience negative events. The present article examines the construct of self-compassion from the standpoint of research on coping in an effort to understand the ways in which people who are high in self-compassion cope with stressful events. Self-compassionate people tend to rely heavily on positive cognitive restructuring but do not appear to differ from less self-compassionate people in the degree to which they cope through problem-solving and distraction. Existing evidence does not show clear differences in the degree to which people who are low vs. high in self-compassion seek support as a coping strategy, but more research is needed. PMID:20686629

Allen, Ashley Batts; Leary, Mark R.

2010-01-01

296

Landscapes of Compassion: A Guatemalan Experience.  

E-print Network

??ABSTRACT LANDSCAPES OF COMPASSION: A GUATEMALAN EXPERIENCE MAY 2011 TRAVIS WILLIAM SHULTZ A.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST B.A., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST M.A., UNIVERSITY OF… (more)

Shultz, Travis W.

2011-01-01

297

The COMPASS Experiment at CERN  

E-print Network

The COMPASS experiment makes use of the CERN SPS high-intensitymuon and hadron beams for the investigation of the nucleon spin structure and the spectroscopy of hadrons. One or more outgoing particles are detected in coincidence with the incoming muon or hadron. A large polarized target inside a superconducting solenoid is used for the measurements with the muon beam. Outgoing particles are detected by a two-stage, large angle and large momentum range spectrometer. The setup is built using several types of tracking detectors, according to the expected incident rate, required space resolution and the solid angle to be covered. Particle identification is achieved using a RICH counter and both hadron and electromagnetic calorimeters. The setup has been successfully operated from 2002 onwards using a muon beam. Data with a hadron beam were also collected in 2004. This article describes the main features and performances of the spectrometer in 2004; a short summary of the 2006 upgrade is also given.

COMPASS Collaboration; P. Abbon

2007-03-30

298

Hole propagation in the orbital compass models  

E-print Network

We explore the propagation of a single hole in the generalized quantum compass model which interpolates between fully isotropic antiferromagnetic (AF) phase in the Ising model and nematic order of decoupled AF chains for frustrated compass interactions. We observe coherent hole motion due to either interorbital hopping or due to the three-site effective hopping, while quantum spin fluctuations in the ordered background do not play any role.

Wojciech Brzezicki. Maria Daghofer; Andrzej M. Ole?

2014-05-21

299

Changes in the composition and content of lipids in the leaves of radish plants of different magnetic orientation induced by weak permanent magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of weak permanent horizontal magnetic field (PMF) with the intensity of 403 A\\/m on the composition and content\\u000a of polar and neutral lipids and their constituent FAs was investigated in the leaves of radish plants (Raphanus sativus L., var. radicula D.C.), cv. Rozovo-krasnyi s belym konchikom, which belong to two major types of magnetic orientation (TMO): North-South (NS)

G. V. Novitskaya; T. V. Feofilaktova; T. K. Kocheshkova; I. U. Yusupova; Yu. I. Novitskii

2008-01-01

300

Geomagnetic Navigation beyond the Magnetic Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing uncertainty regarding the reliability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) has led the navigation community to seek valuable alternatives. Aerospace navigation by integration of inertial systems with reference to maps of Geophysical Fields of the Earth (GFE) is a promising area which can be highly advanced utilizing tremendous achievements in embedded micro-processing, including the memory devices capability and miniature

Felix Goldenberg

2006-01-01

301

Circles of Magnetism I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to magnetism and electricity, learners create a magnetic field that's stronger than the Earth's magnetic field. Learners use electric currents that are stronger than the field of the Earth to move a compass needle. The assembly is made using a lantern battery, heavy wire, a Tinkertoy⢠set, and poster board and utilizes 4-6 small compasses and 2 electrical lead wires.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-05

302

Characterization of circular differential selective scattering in randomly and magnetically oriented chloroplasts and light harvesting chlorophyll a\\/b aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative circular dichroism studies were carried out in chloroplasts and the aggregated chlorophyll a\\/b light harvesting pigment protein complex (LHC). Much of the intense circular dichroism (CD) signal of chloroplasts and that of aggregated, isolated LHC were found to originate in circular differential light scattering (CDS). The difference spectra obtained between the CD spectra of randomly and magnetically oriented thylakoids

G. Garab; A. Faludi-Daniel; J. C. Sutherland; G. Hind

1986-01-01

303

Magnetic information calibrates celestial cues during migration.  

PubMed

Migratory birds use celestial and geomagnetic directional information to orient on their way between breeding and wintering areas. Cue-conflict experiments involving these two orientation cue systems have shown that directional information can be transferred from one system to the other by calibration. We designed experiments with four species of North American songbirds to: (1) examine whether these species calibrate orientation information from one system to the other; and (2) determine whether there are species-specific differences in calibration. Migratory orientation was recorded with two different techniques, cage tests and free-flight release tests, during autumn migration. Cage tests at dusk in the local geomagnetic field revealed species-specific differences: red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus, and northern waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis, selected seasonally appropriate southerly directions whereas indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea, and grey catbird, Dumetella carolinensis, oriented towards the sunset direction. When tested in deflected magnetic fields, vireos and waterthrushes responded by shifting their orientation according to the deflection of the magnetic field, but buntings and catbirds failed to show any response to the treatment. In release tests, all four species showed that they had recalibrated their star compass on the basis of the magnetic field they had just experienced in the cage tests. Since release tests were done in the local geomagnetic field it seems clear that once the migratory direction is determined, most likely during the twilight period, the birds use their recalibrated star compass for orientation at departure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11032648

Sandberg; Bäckman; Moore; Lõhmus

2000-10-01

304

The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.  

PubMed

The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds. PMID:22693032

Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

2012-09-15

305

Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction among Residential Child Care Workers: The Role of Personality Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential…

Zerach, Gadi

2013-01-01

306

The Effect of Spark Ablation on High Permeability Grain-Oriented 3% Silicon Iron under Two-Dimensional Magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spark ablation method is one of the techniques used to improve performance in rolling direction of grain oriented 3% silicon iron sheets. In some parts of electrical devices such as the cores of electrical motors, and the transformers, notably joints, the magnetization vector has a two-dimensional as well as a one-dimensional (rolling direction), components. The former caused an increase in total core losses. In this paper, a study on magnetic properties of the spark ablated material under two-dimensional magnetization is presented.

Mahadi, W. N. L.

2007-05-01

307

Magnetic domain structure and crystallographic orientation of electrical steels revealed by a forescatter detector and electron backscatter diffraction.  

PubMed

The magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels (NOES) are an important factor in determining the efficiency of electric vehicle drivetrains. Due to the highly variable texture of NOES, the relationships between crystal orientation, the magnetic domain structure, and the final magnetic properties are complicated and not fully understood. In this study, a NOES sample was characterized with a method capable of imaging surface magnetic domains using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system equipped with a forescatter detector. This method used type II magnetic contrast without a specialized SEM setup, and imaged with a resolution limit of approximately 250-300nm. The domain structure of the NOES sample was successfully related to ?, which was defined as the angle between the closest magnetic easy axis and the surface of the sample (the RD-TD plane). However, it was shown that if the easy axes were aligned between neighbouring grains with respect to the grain boundary normal, the domain structure could align with an easy axis that was not the closest to the surface, and complex domain structures could be become wider. This structure and width change of complex domain structures has not been previously observed from single crystal or large-grained material studies. The successful application of this method to reveal the influence of surrounding grains can be used to better understand the magnetic properties of NOES. PMID:24769020

Gallaugher, Matthew; Brodusch, Nicolas; Gauvin, Raynald; Chromik, Richard R

2014-07-01

308

Orientational microdynamics and magnetic-field-induced ordering of clay platelets detected by 2H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The orientation of montmorillonite clays induced by a static magnetic field is quantified by using (2)H NMR spectroscopy. Indeed, the residual quadrupolar splitting of the (2)H resonance line measured for heavy water is a direct consequence of the specific orientation of the clay platelets in the static magnetic field. In the dilute regime, this residual splitting increases linearly with clay concentration, which confirms that the clay/clay electrostatic repulsions remain negligible by comparison with the diamagnetic coupling of these anisotropic platelets. At higher concentration, the electrostatic repulsion between clay particles markedly enhances the detected splitting. Such enhancement is well predicted by numerical simulations. By varying the size of the clay platelets and the strength of the static magnetic field, it is possible to evaluate the order of magnitude of the diamagnetic susceptibility of these anisotropic colloids. PMID:20047274

Porion, Patrice; Faugère, Anne Marie; Michot, Laurent J; Paineau, Erwan; Delville, Alfred

2010-05-18

309

Effects of magnetic field orientation on optical decoherence in Er3+:Y2SiO5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the anisotropic Zeeman effect on optical decoherence was studied for the 1.54?m telecom transition in Er3+:Y2SiO5 using photon echo spectroscopy as a function of applied magnetic field orientation and strength. The decoherence strongly correlates with the Zeeman energy splittings described by the ground- and excited-state g factor variations for all inequivalent Er3+ sites, with the observed decoherence times arising from the combined effects of the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling strength and the ground- and excited-state spin-flip rates, along with the natural lifetime of the upper level. The decoherence time was maximized along a preferred magnetic field orientation that minimized the effects of spectral diffusion and that enabled the measurement of an exceptionally narrow optical resonance in a solid—demonstrating a homogeneous linewidth as narrow as 73 Hz.

Böttger, Thomas; Thiel, C. W.; Cone, R. L.; Sun, Y.

2009-03-01

310

Orientation Errors in Paleomagnetic Core Samples and Their Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In paleomagnetic studies, samples are often obtained as cylindrical cores by the use of engine drills. Two angles measured for the core in the field (the angle P between cylindrical axis and the horizontal plane, and the angle A between a horizontal direction in the core and the true north) are needed to describe the direction of magnetic remanence in geographic coordinates. These angles can be measured with an error of about 1 degree or less. The error in paleomagnetic directions are usually given by Fisher's semi-angle of 95% confidence (? 95), which is typically a few to ten degrees. It appears therefore that the orientation errors are negligibly small. However, this it not quite correct. There is no problem about the measurement of P, but the angle in the horizontal plane (A) is often measured by a magnetic compass, which is a source of large errors. In particular, large local magnetic anomalies often accompany volcanic rock terrain because of their strong magnetization. This effect is known quite a long time, but quantitative estimate of orientation errors is not available yet. We have obtained quite a large number of data (182 lavas, 903 samples) from Lundarhals area of Iceland. For more than 200 samples of these, three independent horizontal angles have been measured to estimate A; one by sun's direction, the second by reference to some landmark, and the third is by magnetic direction. Among the rest of samples, more than 600 have reference and magnetic directions. Only 30 samples are determined by magnetic compass alone. From a detailed analysis of these data, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) The difference between sun and reference azimuths are 0.0±0.6~circ (the mean and standard deviation in degrees, for n=203). This is small enough and can be ignored compared to other errors. Consequently, if either of these angles are available, we have almost error-free data for A. (2) The differences between the sun and magnetic azimuths are 0.5±7.8o (n=240), and those between the reference and magnetic azimuths are 0.0±6.9o (n=844). This error is not negligible in the paleosecular variation studies, in which the typical ASD is of the order of 10 to 20 degrees. (3) In general, samples from the same lava show similar errors. Thus it appears that the main reason for the error in A is the magnetization of the lavas itself. However, it is hard to find a good correlation between the direction of magnetization and the orientation errors.

Kono, M.

2011-12-01

311

Magnetic moment of Ag-104(m) and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

E-print Network

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented Ag-104(g,m) nuclei with the NICOLE He-3-He-4 dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE/CERN. For Ag-104(g) (I-pi = 5(+)) the gamma-NMR/ON resonance signal was found at nu = 266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities in an Fe host at low temperature (< 1 K) is found to be vertical bar B-hf(AgFe)vertical bar = 44.709(35) T. A detailed analysis of other relevant data available in the literature yields three more values for this hyperfine field. Averaging all four values yields a new and precise value for the hyperfine field of Ag in Fe; that is, vertical bar B-hf(AgFe)vertical bar = 44.692(30) T. For Ag-104(m) (I-pi = 2(+)), the anisotropy of the beta particles provided the NMR/ON resonance signal at nu = 627.7(4) MHz. Using the new value for the hyperfine field of Ag in Fe, this frequency corresponds to the mag...

Golovko, V V; Phalet, T; Delaure, B; Beck, M; Kozlov, V Yu; Coeck, S; Wauters, F; Herzog, P; Tramm, Ch; Zakoucky, D; Venos, D; Srnka, D; Honusek, M; Koster, U; Severijns, N

2010-01-01

312

Einstein and Quantum Nonlocality: A Doorway to Emptiness and Compassion  

E-print Network

1 Einstein and Quantum Nonlocality: A Doorway to Emptiness and Compassion Vic Mansfield Physics to the practice of universal compassion. Emptiness and Quantum Nonlocality There is an extraordinarily precise

Mansfield, Vic

313

Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation: Potential for Psychological Interventions  

PubMed Central

Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and CM are associated with an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect. Preliminary findings from neuroendocrine studies indicate that CM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune response. Neuroimaging studies suggest that LKM and CM may enhance activation of brain areas that are involved in emotional processing and empathy. Finally, preliminary intervention studies support application of these strategies in clinical populations. It is concluded that, when combined with empirically supported treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, LKM and CM may provide potentially useful strategies for targeting a variety of different psychological problems that involve interpersonal processes, such as social anxiety, marital conflict, anger, and coping with the strains of long-term caregiving. PMID:21840289

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Grossman, Paul; Hinton, Devon E.

2011-01-01

314

Magnetic field sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

Silva, Nicolas

2012-09-01

315

The calm before the storm? Burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

Studies have consistently highlighted the deleterious impact of burnout and compassion fatigue on professional nurses' well-being and willingness to remain in the profession. Yet, as to what extent these noxious conditions are suffered among nursing students is still unclear. In this study 436 undergraduate nursing students completed surveys assessing their experiences of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction (factors of burnout and compassion fatigue). There were no significant differences found between 3rd and 4th year students' reports of detrimental conditions and those of the 1st or 2nd year students. Furthermore, 4th year students reported significantly higher levels of personal accomplishment compared to 1st and 2nd year students. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 3rd and 4th year students revealed that their clinical exposure during these years (especially during the 4th year) may enhance their other-orientation as well as promote role actualization, which may serve as protective features. Students did, however, express concern regarding an inevitable onset of burnout at some point during their professional careers. It is suggested that a key to understanding the onset and experience of burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses is to continue to examine the transition from student to professional nurse and the cultural atmosphere of nursing education compared to professional practice. PMID:23434192

Michalec, Barret; Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Mahoney, Margaret

2013-04-01

316

COMPASS: A Programmable Data Prefetcher Using Idle GPU Shaders  

E-print Network

COMPASS: A Programmable Data Prefetcher Using Idle GPU Shaders Dong Hyuk Woo Hsien-Hsin S. Lee. In this paper, we propose COMPASS, a compute shader-assisted data prefetching scheme, to leverage the GPU cores with very lightweight architectural support, COMPASS can emulate the functionality of a hardware

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

317

Self-Compassion and the Dynamics of Investigating Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What role does compassion play in one's work? In the author's organization, the word "compassion" has been mostly linked to their values, mission, and programs. She has generally understood the concept of compassion as a deep feeling of empathy that flows from oneself towards others during certain situations and conditions. In her mind, "having…

Serri, Conchita Franco

2006-01-01

318

Beyond Assessment: Compassion as a Challenge to Catholic Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that compassion trumps assessment and competition in the Catholic educator's classroom. Stresses that no strings can be attached to what the author refers to as teacherly love. Equates this compassion with the teachings of the Gospels. Describes teaching as a call to be an instrument of God's compassion. (Contains three references.) (NB)

Calfapietra, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

319

Compassion, Pride, and Social Intuitions of Self-Other Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion and pride serve contrasting social functions: Compassion motivates care-taking behavior, whereas pride enables the signaling and negotiation of rank within social hierarchies. Across 3 studies, compassion was associated with increased perceived self-other similarity, particularly to weak or vulnerable others. In contrast, pride was associated with an enhanced sense of similarity to strong others, and a decreased sense of similarity

Christopher Oveis; E. J. Horberg; Dacher Keltner

2010-01-01

320

Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

2011-01-01

321

First results from EBW emission diagnostics on COMPASS.  

PubMed

COMPASS tokamak shots at low magnetic field feature overdense plasmas during the extended current flat-top phase. The first harmonic of the electron cyclotron emission is completely cutoff for O and X modes and so the emission caused by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field and undergoing so called EBW-X-O conversion process can be observed. We perform an angular scan of the EBW emission during a set of comparable shots in order to determine the optimum antenna direction. A weak dependence of the radiative temperature on the antenna angles indicates an influence of multiple reflections from the vessel wall. The low temperature at the mode conversion region is responsible for the collisional damping of EBW, which can explain several times lower measured radiative temperature than the electron temperature measured by the Thomson scattering system. PMID:23126985

Zajac, J; Preinhaelter, J; Urban, J; Aftanas, M; Bílková, P; Böhm, P; Fuchs, V; Nanobashvili, S; Weinzettl, V; Zácek, F

2012-10-01

322

A Study of the Relationship Between Self-Care, Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout Among Hospice Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice care professionals (HCPs) experience a large number of stressors in their work settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-care, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among HCPs. Thirty-seven HCPs were surveyed regarding their levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Respondents also reported the types of self-care activities in which they took

Karen Alkema; Jeremy M. Linton; Randall Davies

2008-01-01

323

Magnetic moment of {sup 104}Ag{sup m} and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented {sup 104}Ag{sup g,m} nuclei with the NICOLE {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE/CERN. For {sup 104}Ag{sup g} (I{sup p}i=5{sup +}) the gamma-NMR/ON resonance signal was found at nu=266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities in an Fe host at low temperature (<1 K) is found to be |B{sub hf}(AgFe)|=44.709(35) T. A detailed analysis of other relevant data available in the literature yields three more values for this hyperfine field. Averaging all four values yields a new and precise value for the hyperfine field of Ag in Fe; that is, |B{sub hf}(AgFe)|=44.692(30) T. For {sup 104}Ag{sup m} (I{sup p}i=2{sup +}), the anisotropy of the beta particles provided the NMR/ON resonance signal at nu=627.7(4) MHz. Using the new value for the hyperfine field of Ag in Fe, this frequency corresponds to the magnetic moment mu({sup 104m}Ag)=+3.691(3) mu{sub N}, which is significantly more precise than previous results. The magnetic moments of the even-A {sup 102-110}Ag isotopes are discussed in view of the competition between the (pig{sub 9/2}){sub 7/2}{sup +-3}(nud{sub 5/2}nug{sub 7/2}){sub 5/2}{sup +} and the (pig{sub 9/2}){sub 9/2}{sup +-3}(nud{sub 5/2}nug{sub 7/2}){sub 5/2}{sup +} configurations. The magnetic moments of the ground and isomeric states of {sup 104}Ag can be explained by an almost complete mixing of these two configurations.

Golovko, V. V.; Kraev, I. S.; Phalet, T.; Delaure, B.; Beck, M.; Kozlov, V. Yu.; Coeck, S.; Wauters, F.; Severijns, N. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Herzog, P.; Tramm, Ch. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Zakoucky, D.; Venos, D.; Srnka, D.; Honusek, M. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

324

Quantum dynamics of the avian compass  

E-print Network

The ability of migratory birds to orient relative to the Earth's magnetic field is believed to involve a coherent superposition of two spin states of a radical electron pair. However, the mechanism by which this coherence can be maintained in the face of strong interactions with the cellular environment has remained unclear. This Letter addresses the problem of decoherence between two electron spins due to hyperfine interaction with a bath of spin 1/2 nuclei. Dynamics of the radical pair density matrix are derived and shown to yield a simple mechanism for sensing magnetic field orientation. Rates of dephasing and decoherence are calculated ab initio and found to yield millisecond coherence times, consistent with behavioral experiments.

Zachary B. Walters

2012-08-13

325

Quantum dynamics of the avian compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of migratory birds to orient relative to the Earth's magnetic field is believed to involve a coherent superposition of two spin states of a radical electron pair. However, the mechanism by which this coherence can be maintained in the face of strong interactions with the cellular environment has remained unclear. This paper addresses the problem of decoherence between two electron spins due to hyperfine interaction with a bath of spin-1/2 nuclei. Dynamics of the radical pair density matrix are derived and shown to yield a simple mechanism for sensing magnetic field orientation. Rates of dephasing and decoherence are calculated ab initio and found to yield millisecond coherence times, consistent with behavioral experiments.

Walters, Zachary B.

2014-10-01

326

The neurobiological link between compassion and love  

PubMed Central

Summary Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general ‘positive state’, even ‘spiritual’ at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain’s limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly ‘amazing’. PMID:21358615

Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

2011-01-01

327

Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Team, University C.

2007-12-12

328

Influence of magnetic field orientation on the Zeeman spin-splitting in InGaAs quantum point contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of the Zeeman spin-splitting in a quantum point contact (QPC) etched into an InGaAs/InP heterostructure [1], comparing magnetic field orientations in the plane and perpendicular to the InGaAs quantum well. We observe an isotropic Zeeman splitting for fields oriented in the plane of the quantum well, with a magnitude that is enhanced by up to a factor of two compared to two-dimensional electron systems in InGaAs/InP [2]. The Zeeman splitting is much larger when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the quantum well, resulting in a g-factor of 15.7 in the one dimensional limit. [4pt] [1] T. P. Martin, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 012105 (2008).[0pt] [2] B. Kowalski, et al., Phys. Rev. B 49, 14786 (1994).

Martin, Theodore; Szorkovszky, Alex; Micolich, Adam; Hamilton, Alex; Marlow, Colleen; Taylor, Richard; Linke, Heiner; Xu, Hongqi

2010-03-01

329

Orientation of superconducting crystalline MgB(sub 2) in magnetic field determined by x-ray diffraction.  

SciTech Connect

It is well established experimentally and theoretically that MgB{sub 2} exhibits unique and intriguing anisotropic properties. These are manifested in the ratios of the upper critical fields {gamma}{sub H} = H{sub c2}, {sup ab}/H{sub cw}{sup c} and of the London penetration depth {gamma}{sub {lambda}} = {lambda}{sub c}/{lambda}{sub ab}. Experimental evidence shows that {gamma}{sub H} = {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {approx} 2 near T{sub c}, and at low temperatures {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {approx} 1 and {gamma}{sub H} {approx} 6. For a crystal with {gamma}{sub H} = {gamma}{sub {lambda}} in a field along the c-axis, superconducting free single crystal grains experience a torque that tends to orient their ab plane parallel to the field. However, for {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {ne} {gamma}{sub H}, recent theoretical predictions suggest that a crystal will orient with its c-axis along the magnetic field. Thus, the temperature dependencies of {gamma}{sub {lambda}} and {gamma}{sub H} suggest that near T{sub c}, where {gamma}{sub H} = {gamma}{sub {lambda}} an MgB{sub 2} crystal will orient with its ab-axis parallel to magnetic field, and at low temperatures where {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {ne} {gamma}{sub H} it will orient with its c-axis along the field. Herein, we present synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies to determine the preferred orientation of crystalline powdered samples under applied magnetic fields at various temperatures.

Li, J.; Vaknin, D.; Bud'ko, S.; Canfield, P. C.; Pal, D.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Islam, Z.; Kogan, V. G.; Iowa State; Univ. of Notre Dame

2006-01-01

330

The origins of the Carolinian sidereal compass  

E-print Network

. Comparing the movement of the sky in tropic and temperate regions Figure 4. The Carolinian sidereal compass Figure 5. Windrose from Ontong Java Figure 6. Nadur ese sidereal compass Figure 7. The Arab sidereal rose as it appeared in the early nineteenth... it is called the Big Bird and determines the east-west line, the main axis of the system (Gladwin 1970:154; Goodenough 1953:5; Thomas 1982:2; Alkire 1970:44). Goodenough (1953:12, 12n. 1) notes some confusion over the origin of the name of this constellation...

Halpern, Michael David

2012-06-07

331

Developing compassion in pre-registration education.  

PubMed

Compassion is a fundamental aspect of nursing and student nurses have to be able to demonstrate compassion in practice. Nurse educators in higher education institutions and clinical settings need to work together to prepare and support student nurses to deliver compassionate care. This article discusses the key components of compassionate care, and how students can be enabled to deliver high-quality care within rapidly changing, complex environments. A second article in this issue explores how nurses can be recruited with the values of the 6Cs (page 12). PMID:25318150

Pryce-Miller, Maxine; Vernel, Emanuel

332

An emancipatory theory of compassion for nursing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to critique and synthesize the trajectory of the work of Dr Jane Georges in Advances in Nursing Science over the past decade in the development of an emancipatory theory of compassion, with implications for contemporary nursing. Specifically, this article (1) summarizes and critiques the work in each stage of its development, describing missing elements at each stage and subsequent development of ideas built upon previous work, and (2) proposes future directions for the work, including the proposal of a theory of compassion within the emancipatory paradigm to guide further scholarly inquiry in nursing. PMID:23370495

Georges, Jane M

2013-01-01

333

Domain wall assisted magnetization switching in (111) oriented L1{sub 0} FePt grown on a soft magnetic metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

We report on growth and magnetic properties of exchange-coupled (111)-L1{sub 0} FePt hard/CoFeTaB soft magnetic metallic glass bilayered structure processed at lower temperature ({approx}400 deg. C). Single phaselike hysteresis loops with tailorable coercivity (<8.2 kOe) in out of plane direction are obtained. The magnetization switching mechanism is identified as domain wall assisted. In views of excellent nanofabrication abilities of metallic glass thin film and the ability to grow preferred oriented L1{sub 0} FePt, the present bilayered structure is very promising for the fabrication of high density bit--patterned magnetic recording media and other spintronic devices.

Kaushik, Neelam [World Premier Initiative (WPI) Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sharma, Parmanand; Yubuta, Kunio; Makino, Akihiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-08-16

334

Magnetic monitoring of earth and space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For centuries, navigators of the world's oceans have been familiar with an effect of Earth's magnetic field: It imparts a directional preference to the needle of a compass. Although in some settings magnetic orientation remains important, the modern science of geomagnetism has emerged from its romantic nautical origins and developed into a subject of great depth and diversity. The geomagnetic field is used to explore the dynamics of Earth's interior and its surrounding space environment, and geomagnetic data are used for geophysical mapping, mineral exploration, risk mitigation, and other practical applications. A global distribution of ground-based magnetic observatories supports those pursuits by providing accurate records of the magnetic-field direction and intensity at fixed locations and over long periods of time.

Love, J. J.

2008-01-01

335

Orientation dependent resistive transition broadening in magnetic field of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the orientation dependent resistive transition broadening in magnetic field of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films on MgO(100) sustrate grown in situ by off-axis single target sputtering. There is less broadening for H\\/\\/J than for H?J for H parallel to ab planes. We conclude that in these films the resistive transition broadening for H?J is in large part due to Lorentz

C. B. Eom; J. Z. Sun; S. Ryu; S. S. Laderman; K. Yamamoto; A. Kapitulnik; T. H. Geballe

1989-01-01

336

Utilization of gyroscopic compass with borehole television camera in Devonian shale wells, Appalachian basin  

SciTech Connect

The color Borehole Television Camera has, in the three short years since its introduction in the Appalachian basin, become an extremely valuable tool in evaluating wells in Devonian shale. This has been due to the camera's ability to detect fracturing and small hydrocarbon entries that are below the resolution threshold of conventional geophysical logging. This potential of the camera has been greatly enhanced by the addition of a gyroscopic compass to the basic tool. This compass gives the added value of orientation to observed phenomena in both open and cased holes. In the open hole, the camera can be used to determine the orientation of fracturing. This feature is extremely important because fracture orientation can vary with depth, which may be the reason that some previously observed fractures make gas, whereas others within the same well bore do not. The productive fracture orientation can also be tied back to regional lineation studies. Within the open hole, the gyroscope can also be used to orient sidewall coring operations so that cores can, in addition to regular analyses, be evaluated for directional properties, such as permeability and direction of the source beds. Induced fractures, created by open-hole stress testing, can also be observed and their orientation determined.

Walbe, K.

1988-08-01

337

Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering  

PubMed Central

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals’ capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (i) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior, and (ii) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy young adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, greater altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training, where greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement in neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of others, executive and emotional control, and reward processing. PMID:23696200

Weng, Helen Y.; Fox, Andrew S.; Shackman, Alexander J.; Stodola, Diane E.; Caldwell, Jessica Z. K.; Olson, Matthew C.; Rogers, Gregory M.; Davidson, Richard J.

2013-01-01

338

Second-harmonic generation in magnetic colloids by orientation of the nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that an optical second harmonic (SH) is generated in a magnetic colloid if a static magnetic field which breaks the fluid isotropy is applied. We propose a statistical model in which all the magnetic nanoparticles are supposed to be identical with a nonzero complex second-order polarizability tensor bound to their magnetic moment. These grains align under a static

J. Lenglet; A. Bourdon; J.-C. Bacri; R. Perzynski; G. Demouchy

1996-01-01

339

COMPASS - a facility to study QCD  

E-print Network

An overview on the new COMPASS II experimental programme is presented. The main topics include a study of Primakoff reactions, generalised parton distributions via deeply virtual Compton scattering and transverse momentum dependent distributions in Drell-Yan processes in the pion scattering off polarised protons. Moreover, the studies of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on unpolarised target will be continued.

Eva-Maria Kabuss

2011-09-13

340

Highlights from the SMC and COMPASS experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main physics results of the SMC experiment and their impact on spin physics are briefly reviewed. After a short account of the motivations for a new experiment to further investigate the spin structure of the nucleon through semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, the physics objectives of the COMPASS experiment and an overall description of the experimental apparatus are given. .

Bradamante, F.

2001-06-01

341

Gyrohorizon compass system on a spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations of motion are obtained for a gyrohorizon compass system from the kinetic moment theorem of Blumin and Zavozin (1979). Inequalities are derived which are the sufficient conditions of the stability of the gyro system for the case of arbitrary motion of the spacecraft in a Newtonian gravitational field.

Zavozin, Zh. G.

1981-11-01

342

Neural correlates of admiration and compassion  

PubMed Central

In an fMRI experiment, participants were exposed to narratives based on true stories designed to evoke admiration and compassion in 4 distinct categories: admiration for virtue (AV), admiration for skill (AS), compassion for social/psychological pain (CSP), and compassion for physical pain (CPP). The goal was to test hypotheses about recruitment of homeostatic, somatosensory, and consciousness-related neural systems during the processing of pain-related (compassion) and non-pain-related (admiration) social emotions along 2 dimensions: emotions about other peoples' social/psychological conditions (AV, CSP) and emotions about others' physical conditions (AS, CPP). Consistent with theoretical accounts, the experience of all 4 emotions engaged brain regions involved in interoceptive representation and homeostatic regulation, including anterior insula, anterior cingulate, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. However, the study also revealed a previously undescribed pattern within the posteromedial cortices (the ensemble of precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial region), an intriguing territory currently known for its involvement in the default mode of brain operation and in self-related/consciousness processes: emotions pertaining to social/psychological and physical situations engaged different networks aligned, respectively, with interoceptive and exteroceptive neural systems. Finally, within the anterior insula, activity correlated with AV and CSP peaked later and was more sustained than that associated with CPP. Our findings contribute insights on the functions of the posteromedial cortices and on the recruitment of the anterior insula in social emotions concerned with physical versus psychological pain. PMID:19414310

Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; McColl, Andrea; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio

2009-01-01

343

Compassion and Mindfulness in Research among Colleagues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I offer a case of the predicaments I encountered in conducting teacher education research at my own institution and re-examine these predicaments using an ethic of mindfulness and compassion. I explore how this Buddhist perspective might help researchers navigate what can be a lonely, ethically complicated research journey among…

Conklin, Hilary

2009-01-01

344

Walking alongside Children as They Form Compassion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affluence in the United States in the recent past has made it tempting to indulge children in individual achievement within a culture of abundance. Parents and teachers worry over how to teach compassion in a culture of abundance and competition for personal success, where children's time is over-scheduled and they are geographically dispersed…

Sanders, Wendy Hinrichs

2010-01-01

345

Compassion fatigue: nurse grief…who cares?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of a patient or a coworker through sudden death can be a shattering experience. The purpose of this presentation was to provide information on compassion fatigue. This presentation covered the affect of repeated traumatic death on nurses. The presentation was divided into two parts. In the first part, the presenter reviewed nurses as disenfranchised grievers, identified characteristics of

Barbara Rubel

2004-01-01

346

The DAQ of the COMPASS experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at CERN's SPS. In 2002, a first physics run was completed with 260 TB of data recorded, corresponding to 5 billion events. The data acquisition architecture is based on custom frontends, buffers based on PCI cards, and server PCs networked via Gigabit Ethernet. A custom timing and trigger distribution system provides unique event identification

L. Schmitt; H. Angerer; N. Franz; B. Grube; B. Ketzer; I. Konorov; R. Kuhn; W. Liebl; S. Paul; H. Fischer; F.-H. Heinsius; T. Schmidt; U. Fuchs; M. Lamanna; E. Lamanna

2004-01-01

347

Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines seeks to increase safety and efficiency in U.S. coal mines. One approach is to develop technology for automation of a continuous mining machine. Realization of an autonomous mining machine requires development of subsystems for machine intelligence, navigation-positioning, and computer control. The report focuses on investigation of one subsystem, an onboard heading system, which would be responsible for determining and controlling machine heading. The onboard heading system investigated is a multisensor system to determine machine heading, pitch, and roll. A directional gyroscope provides heading (yaw), fluxgate sensors provide a compass heading, and gravity-referenced clinometers give machine pitch and roll. The system utilizes a dedicated microcontroller networked to an external system of computers. Tram commands, supplied to the network from external computers, are executed by the onboard system. Sensor feedback is employed for closed-loop control of machine heading by controlling pivots and turns. The report discusses operating limitations and error sources of system sensors and presents test results of closed-loop control of machine heading.

Sammarco, J.J.

1990-01-01

348

How dim is dim? Precision of the celestial compass in moonlight and sunlight.  

PubMed

Prominent in the sky, but not visible to humans, is a pattern of polarized skylight formed around both the Sun and the Moon. Dung beetles are, at present, the only animal group known to use the much dimmer polarization pattern formed around the Moon as a compass cue for maintaining travel direction. However, the Moon is not visible every night and the intensity of the celestial polarization pattern gradually declines as the Moon wanes. Therefore, for nocturnal orientation on all moonlit nights, the absolute sensitivity of the dung beetle's polarization detector may limit the precision of this behaviour. To test this, we studied the straight-line foraging behaviour of the nocturnal ball-rolling dung beetle Scarabaeus satyrus to establish when the Moon is too dim--and the polarization pattern too weak--to provide a reliable cue for orientation. Our results show that celestial orientation is as accurate during crescent Moon as it is during full Moon. Moreover, this orientation accuracy is equal to that measured for diurnal species that orient under the 100 million times brighter polarization pattern formed around the Sun. This indicates that, in nocturnal species, the sensitivity of the optical polarization compass can be greatly increased without any loss of precision. PMID:21282173

Dacke, M; Byrne, M J; Baird, E; Scholtz, C H; Warrant, E J

2011-03-12

349

Flight results of the COMPASS-1 picosatellite mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the COMPASS-1 picosatellite is to take pictures of the earth, to validate a space-borne GPS receiver developed by the German Aerospace Center, and to verify the proper operation of the magnetic attitude control system in orbit. The spacecraft was launched on April 28, 2008 from the Indian space port Sriharikota, as part of the PSLV-C9 world record launch that simultaneously brought ten satellites into orbit. The mission operations were carried out from the ground stations in Aachen and Tainan. Arising difficulties in the communication link were overcome with the support of individuals from the amateur radio community. After several months of mission operation, abundant housekeeping and mission data has been commanded, received and analyzed and is presented in this paper.

Scholz, A.; Ley, W.; Dachwald, B.; Miau, J. J.; Juang, J. C.

2010-11-01

350

Detrital remanent magnetization in the solar nebula  

E-print Network

We introduce the theoretical basis of a new form of remanent magnetization that likely formed on primitive bodies in the solar system. Accretional detrital remanent magnetization (ADRM) operates via “compass needle”-type ...

Fu, Roger Rennan

351

Magnetic field distortions produced by protective cages around sea turtle nests: unintended consequences for orientation  

E-print Network

Magnetic field distortions produced by protective cages around sea turtle nests: unintended in cages has a high magnetic per- meability and might therefore affect the nearby field. Here we report, although whether turtles that develop in an un- natural magnetic field actually suffer navigational

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

352

Magnetospheric currents during sawtooth events: Event-oriented magnetic field model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of inner magnetosphere current systems associated with a sawtooth sequence is examined using empirical magnetic field models during a sawtooth event on 18 April 2002. Three different empirical magnetic field models were developed for the same time period. In each case, the models were fitted using in situ magnetic field observations to minimize the differences between the model

M. Kubyshkina; T. I. Pulkkinen; N. Yu. Ganushkina; N. Partamies

2008-01-01

353

COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a broad  

E-print Network

COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a broad sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (COMPASS) is a computational initiative to provide predictive and analysis

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

354

(Revised December 30, 2013) Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

of the points where the magnetic fields of the Earth and the bar magnet sum to zero. INTRODUCTION A magnetic(Revised December 30, 2013) Magnetic Fields GOALS (1) To visualize the magnetic fields produced compasses to trace out the magnetic field lines of a single bar magnet on a large sheet of paper. (3

Collins, Gary S.

355

Planck intermediate results. XXXII. The relative orientation between the magnetic field and structures traced by interstellar dust  

E-print Network

The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal structures, or ridges, in the intensity map with counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes with column density from $10^{20}$ to $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane of the sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of ...

Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oppermann, N; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wiesemeyer, H; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

2014-01-01

356

Magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 films with various crystal orientations and tunnel magnetoresistance effect at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe3O4 is a ferrimagnetic spinel ferrite that exhibits electric conductivity at room temperature (RT). Although the material has been predicted to be a half metal according to ab-initio calculations, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Fe3O4 electrodes have demonstrated a small tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. Not even the sign of the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio has been experimentally established. Here, we report on the magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 films with various crystal orientations. The films exhibited apparent crystal orientation dependence on hysteresis curves. In particular, Fe3O4(110) films exhibited in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. With respect to the squareness of hysteresis, Fe3O4 (111) demonstrated the largest squareness. Furthermore, we fabricated MTJs with Fe3O4(110) electrodes and obtained a TMR effect of -12% at RT. The negative TMR ratio corresponded to the negative spin polarization of Fe3O4 predicted from band calculations.

Nagahama, Taro; Matsuda, Yuya; Tate, Kazuya; Kawai, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Nozomi; Hiratani, Shungo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yanase, Takashi; Shimada, Toshihiro

2014-09-01

357

ComPaSS: efficient communication services for scalable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In massively parallel computers (MPCS), efictent communicat~on among processors is critzcal to performance. This paper describes the znzt~al implementation of the ComPaSS communication library to support scalable software development in MPCS. ComPaSS provides hxgh-level global commun~cation operations for both data manipulation and process control, many of which are based upon a small set of low-level communication prim$ttves. The ComPaSS ltbrary

Philip K. McKinley; Hong Xu; Edgar T. Kalns; Lionel M. Ni

1992-01-01

358

Time-varying magnetic fields: effects of orientation on chondrocyte proliferation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of orientation of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured in PEMFs (repetitive pulse at 72 Hz) generated using Helmholtz coils oriented either parallel (horizontal) or perpendicular (vertical) to the plane of cell adhesion. Dissipation of signal energy in the form of heat increased the temperature of the PEMF coils by 2 degrees C and the tissue culture medium by 1 degree C. Therefore, control coils, which emitted no PEMFs, were heated to the temperature of PEMF coils by circulating water. Chondrocytes were cultured in 16-mm-well culture plates, and the data for individual wells were pooled as triplicates. Although not observed by microscopic examination of individual wells, positionally dependent electric field effects may be minimized by this approach. PEMFs generated by coils oriented vertically significantly decreased chondrocyte proliferation. The effect was dependent on the concentration of serum in the culture media. At 3% serum concentration, the total cell number attained after 10 days of culture was reduced by 50% in stimulated cultures when compared with controls. At 5% serum concentration, there was no effect. PEMFs applied by coils oriented horizontally did not alter proliferation of articular chondrocytes. PEMFs had no effect on synthesis of extracellular matrix by chondrocytes plated at high density, irrespective of orientation.

Elliott, J.P.; Smith, R.L.; Block, C.A.

1988-01-01

359

Heading towards a Better World Part 1: Wisdom, Compassion and Personal Responsibility  

E-print Network

1 Heading towards a Better World Part 1: Wisdom, Compassion and Personal Responsibility Richard R compassion, mutual understanding, and responsibility. Few societal issues receive wider public agreement than

Sandoghdar, Vahid

360

Measurement of the Pion Polarizability at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The value of the pion polarizability is predicted with high precision by Chiral Perturbation Theory. However, the existing experimental values are at tension with this prediction as well as among themselves. The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect, where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. Flagship channel is the Primakoff reaction in which a single real photon is produced, giving access to pion Compton scattering. Using this process the pion polarizability is extracted from the measured cross-section shape. End of 2009 COMPASS performed a measurement of the pion polarizability using a nickel target. The large amount of data collected in combination with the possibility to study systematic effects using the analogous reaction with a muon beam, the most precise experimental value to date was determined.

Stefan Huber

2014-01-20

361

Measurement of the Pion Polarizability at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The value of the pion polarizability is predicted with high precision by Chiral Perturbation Theory. However, the existing experimental values are at tension with this prediction as well as among themselves. The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect, where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. Flagship channel is the Primakoff reaction in which a single real photon is produced, giving access to pion Compton scattering. Using this process the pion polarizability is extracted from the measured cross-section shape. End of 2009 COMPASS performed a measurement of the pion polarizability using a nickel target. The large amount of data collected in combination with the possibility to study systematic effects using the analogous reaction with a muon beam, the most precise experimental value to date was determined.

Huber, Stefan

2014-01-01

362

Examining compassion and resilience through various lenses.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of the Mid-Staffs Enquiry, as part of our midwifery students' enquiry-based learning curriculum, a session was devised with the aim of enabling the students to harness the energy for change of the Francis report (Francis 2013) to explore their understanding and experience of compassion. In this article, Mary Nolan describes the structure of the sessions, and three of the students give an account of the work they undertook in small groups to explore strategies for remaining resilient in the face of the inevitable challenges they will meet once qualified. While they were already keenly aware of threats to compassion in midwifery, they were optimistic that their passion for their chosen profession, and their increased understanding of factors promoting resilience, would be protective. PMID:25326961

Nolan, Mary; Oliver, Fiona; McIntosh, Laura; Lee, Jodie

2014-09-01

363

Self-Compassion and Well-being among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67–90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with poorer physical health, self-compassion was associated with greater subjective well-being. In Study 2, 71 participants between the ages of 63 and 97 completed a questionnaire assessing self-compassion, well-being, and their willingness to use assistance for walking, hearing, and memory. Self-compassionate participants reported being less bothered by the use of assistance than those low in self-compassion, although the relationship between self-compassion and willingness to use assistive devices was mixed. These findings suggest that self-compassion is associated with well-being in later life and that interventions to promote self-compassion may improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23525647

Allen, Ashley Batts; Goldwasser, Eleanor R.; Leary, Mark R.

2012-01-01

364

The Lambda Method for the GNSS Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Navigation Satellite System carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision positioning and attitude determination. In this contribution the author considers the GNSS compass model. The integer least-squares estimators are derived and the various steps involved in the ambiguity resolution process are discussed. This includes the method that has successfully been used by Park & Teunissen, 2003. Emphasized is the unaided, single frequency, single epoch case, since this is considered the most challenging mode of GNSS attitude determination.

Teunissen, P. J. G.

365

Topos, Compasses, and Triangles, Oh My!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to actually triangulate using a compass, topographical (topo) map and view of outside landmarks. It is best if a field trip to another location away from school is selected. The location should have easily discernable landmarks (like mountains or radio towers) and changes in elevation (to illustrate the topographical features) to enhance the activity. A national park is an ideal location, and visiting a number of parks, especially parks with hiking trails, is especially beneficial.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

366

Compassion Fatigue and Countertransference: Two Different Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable conceptual confusion about the differences between compassion fatigue and countertransference.\\u000a This often results in them being treated as the same phenomena, both in the literature and clinically. This paper maintains\\u000a that these are, in fact, two different concepts that derive from different sources and serve different functions. Each of\\u000a these two concepts requires different kinds of

Joan Berzoff; Elizabeth Kita

2010-01-01

367

Compass roses on the Book of Navigation ( Kitab-? Bahriye): Declination data source for geomagnetic field models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is surrounded by a geomagnetic field that is generated by dynamo processes in the core like a gigantic magnet. The Earth's geomagnetic field shifts with time and location. There has been a comprehensive effort for modelling the geomagnetic field of the Earth at regional and global scales by several researchers in the recent decades. The magnetic data from historical sources have a great importance in geomagnetic field modelling. The declination was the first measured geomagnetic field element with the early use of compasses for navigation. In this study the declination values estimated from compass roses drawn on the Book of Navigation ( Kitab-? Bahriye) that are georeferenced by an artificial neural network are compared to the declination values based on the geomagnetic field models CALS3K.3 and SCHA.DIF.3K. The results show that the compass roses drawn on the portolan charts of Kitab-? Bahriye can be used as declination data sources for regional or global geomagnetic field models.

Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Gullu, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Dereli, Mehmet A.

2010-10-01

368

Effect of asymmetric hot rolling on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties in a non-grain oriented electrical steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, both asymmetric hot rolling (AHR) and conventional hot rolling (CHR) were carried out to study the effect of the hot rolling conditions on the evolution of the texture and microstructure in a non-grain oriented (NGO) steel. The microstructure and texture in the subsequent processing stages were characterised and related to the final magnetic properties. The results show that AHR, compared with CHR, tends to homogenise texture through thickness of the hot band strips. AHR results in a higher fraction of the ?-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the ?-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips, which are favourable features in relation to the magnetic properties of the strip. However, the favourable features observed in hot rolled AHR strips are eliminated after cold rolling and annealing. Contrarily, the required ?-fibre is decreased and the unwanted ?-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling and their strength is maintained in the subsequent process steps. On the other hand, AHR does not produce a discernible change in the grain size in the hot band annealed strip and in the final annealed sheet, except that the magnetic anisotropy in the AHR is improved after skin pass and extra annealing as the result of the redistribution of the texture components within the ?-fibre, no significant improvement of the magnetic properties as a direct consequence of the application of asymmetric hot rolling has been observed under the current AHR experimental conditions.

Chen, S.; Butler, J.; Melzer, S.

2014-11-01

369

Adherence to gender roles as a predictor of compassion and self-compassion in women and men.  

E-print Network

??Previous research has demonstrated consistent differences between men and women in self-reported compassion, but has yielded inconsistent results regarding sex differences in reported capacities for… (more)

Tatum, Kelsie J.

2012-01-01

370

Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation on polar cap ion trajectories - Energy gain and drift effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation on the transport of low-energy ions injected from the ionosphere is investigated using three-dimensional particle codes. It is shown that, unlike the auroral zone outflow, the ions originating from the polar cap region exhibit drastically different drift paths during southward and northward IMF. During southward IMF orientation, a 'two-cell' convection pattern prevails in the ionosphere, and three-dimensional simulations of ion trajectories indicate a preferential trapping of the light ions H(+) in the central plasma sheet, due to the wide azimuthal dispersion of the heavy ions, O(+). In contrast, for northward IMF orientation, the 'four-cell' potential distribution predicted in the ionosphere imposes a temporary ion drift toward higher L shells in the central polar cap. In this case, while the light ions can escape into the magnetotail, the heavy ions can remain trapped, featuring more intense acceleration (from a few electron volts up to the keV range) followed by precipitation at high invariant latitudes, as a consequence of their further travel into the tail.

Delcourt, D. C.; Horwitz, J. L.; Swinney, K. R.

1988-01-01

371

Characterization of circular differential selective scattering in randomly and magnetically oriented chloroplasts and light harvesting chlorophyll a/b aggregates  

SciTech Connect

Comparative circular dichroism studies were carried out in chloroplasts and the aggregated chlorophyll a/b light harvesting pigment protein complex (LHC). Much of the intense circular dichroism (CD) signal of chloroplasts and that of aggregated, isolated LHC were found to originate in circular differential light scattering (CDS). The difference spectra obtained between the CD spectra of randomly and magnetically oriented thylakoids resembled the selective light scattering spectra of chloroplasts. Furthermore, orientation-dependent changes in the CDS signal outside the principal absorbance bands were correlated with changes in the non-selective forward light scattering. These results provide evidence of a significant contribution by CDS to the CD spectrum of chloroplasts. A comparison between the CD signals of chloroplasts and aggregated LHC revealed that both preparations exhibit ''anomalous'' CD bands. The spectral shape and amplitude of these bands are changed dramatically upon magnetic alignment of the particles. These similarities are suggestive of the existence of similar helical domains in chloroplasts and the isolated LHC aggregate; hence our experimental results support the hypothesis of Faludi-Daniel and Mustardy that the LHC in the thylakoid membrane is aggregated in a liquid crystal-like structure resembling that which self-assembles in vitro. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Garab, G.; Faludi-Daniel, A.; Sutherland, J.C.; Hind, G.

1986-01-01

372

Biophysics of magnetic orientation: strengthening the interface between theory and experimental design  

PubMed Central

The first demonstrations of magnetic effects on the behaviour of migratory birds and homing pigeons in laboratory and field experiments, respectively, provided evidence for the longstanding hypothesis that animals such as birds that migrate and home over long distances would benefit from possession of a magnetic sense. Subsequent identification of at least two plausible biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, led to major efforts over recent decades to test predictions of the two models, as well as efforts to understand the ultrastructure and function of the possible magnetoreceptor cells. Unfortunately, progress in understanding the magnetic sense has been challenged by: (i) the availability of a relatively small number of techniques for analysing behavioural responses to magnetic fields by animals; (ii) difficulty in achieving reproducible results using the techniques; and (iii) difficulty in development and implementation of new techniques that might bring greater experimental power. As a consequence, laboratory and field techniques used to study the magnetic sense today remain substantially unchanged, despite the huge developments in technology and instrumentation since the techniques were developed in the 1950s. New methods developed for behavioural study of the magnetic sense over the last 30 years include the use of laboratory conditioning techniques and tracking devices based on transmission of radio signals to and from satellites. Here we consider methodological developments in the study of the magnetic sense and present suggestions for increasing the reproducibility and ease of interpretation of experimental studies. We recommend that future experiments invest more effort in automating control of experiments and data capture, control of stimulation and full blinding of experiments in the rare cases where automation is impossible. We also propose new experiments to confirm whether or not animals can detect magnetic fields using the radical-pair effect together with an alternate hypothesis that may explain the dependence on light of responses by animals to magnetic field stimuli. PMID:20071390

Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Winklhofer, Michael; Walker, Michael M.

2010-01-01

373

The visual compass: performance and limitations of an appearance-based method  

E-print Network

that the orientation is known from another source. For example, the orientation can be estimated using a known magnetic magnetic field on Mars #12;and Earth's magnetic field can vary enormously when close to other sources such as a magnetic field or stars is attractive since this does not require integration but provides an immediate

Labrosse, Frédéric

374

Use of the earth's magnetic field by orienting cave salamanders ( Eurycea lucifuga )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups ofEurycea lucifuga were trained to move bidirectionally within separate training corridors by alternately supplying moisture to limestone-filled compartments located at each end. Both corridors were aligned horizontally along the magnetic North-South axis of the earth. One corridor was enclosed within a cube coil which rotated the magnetic field horizontally 90° clockwise, so that the group contained in this

John B. Phillips

1977-01-01

375

A Distinct Layer of the Medulla Integrates Sky Compass Signals in the Brain of an Insect  

PubMed Central

Mass migration of desert locusts is a common phenomenon in North Africa and the Middle East but how these insects navigate is still poorly understood. Laboratory studies suggest that locusts are able to exploit the sky polarization pattern as a navigational cue. Like other insects locusts detect polarized light through a specialized dorsal rim area (DRA) of the eye. Polarization signals are transmitted through the optic lobe to the anterior optic tubercle (AOTu) and, finally, to the central complex in the brain. Whereas neurons of the AOTu integrate sky polarization and chromatic cues in a daytime dependent manner, the central complex holds a topographic representation of azimuthal directions suggesting a role as an internal sky compass. To understand further the integration of sky compass cues we studied polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the medulla that may be intercalated between DRA photoreceptors and AOTu neurons. Five types of POL-neuron were characterized and four of these in multiple recordings. All neurons had wide arborizations in medulla layer 4 and most, additionally, in the dorsal rim area of the medulla and in the accessory medulla, the presumed circadian clock. The neurons showed type-specific orientational tuning to zenithal polarized light and azimuth tuning to unpolarized green and UV light spots. In contrast to neurons of the AOTu, we found no evidence for color opponency and daytime dependent adjustment of sky compass signals. Therefore, medulla layer 4 is a distinct stage in the integration of sky compass signals that precedes the time-compensated integration of celestial cues in the AOTu. PMID:22114712

el Jundi, Basil; Pfeiffer, Keram; Homberg, Uwe

2011-01-01

376

AMS measurements on obsidian from the Inyo Domes, CA: a comparison of magnetic and mineral preferred orientation fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on lavas can yield information concerning flow directions, deformation regimes, and relative shear rates. Here we report results of measurements made on samples of rhyolitic obsidian collected from Obsidian Dome, CA. Comparisons of AMS measurements with previously determined 3D microlite orientation distributions in these samples serve as a calibration of the AMS technique. Despite the low values of bulk susceptibility (1.06-7.04×10 -3 SI) found in the dome relative to typical values in basalts (10 -2 SI), the degree of anisotropy is extremely high in all specimens (3.4-10.7). Furthermore, susceptibility tensors exhibit a wide range of shapes varying from prolate to triaxial and flattened ellipsoids ( B parameter from -8.6 to +6.4) corresponding to various degrees of microlite dispersion. Our results also indicate that despite the tight clustering of principal susceptibility axes obtained on each site, bulk flow directions inferred from the orientations of kmax axes may be misleading because the orientation of the local extension changes from place to place within the dome. However, it is shown that the AMS of each specimen provides a good measure of the direction of local extension. Consequently, it is possible to interpret spatial variations in flow regime from systematic changes in the orientation of principal susceptibility axes. As the proposed association between the local deformation regime and AMS is strongly dependent on the aspect ratio of the crystals embedded in the flowing lava, some caution must be exerted when interpreting AMS results from other flows, and a direct comparison between different flows may not be granted in many occasions.

Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo; Castro, Jonathan

2004-06-01

377

Magnetic field orientation and suprathermal ion streams in the earth's foreshock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different populations of backstreaming ions found earlier with ISEE instruments outside the earth's bow shock were organized by the orientation of the IMF to the shock in the plane containing B\\/sub SW\\/ and the solar ecliptic X axis (the B-X plane). The associations of ion classes with field geometry and shock structure are shown by means of computer-drawn three-dimensional

E. W. Greenstadt; C.T. Russell; M. Hoppe

1980-01-01

378

Quaternion-based extended Kalman filter for determining orientation by inertial and magnetic sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a quaternion based extended Kalman filter (EKF) is developed for determining the orientation of a rigid body from the outputs of a sensor which is configured as the integration of a tri-axis gyro and an aiding system mechanized using a tri-axis accelerometer and a tri-axis magnetometer. The suggested applications are for studies in the field of human

Angelo M. Sabatini

2006-01-01

379

COMPASS: the COMPTEL Processing and Analysis Software System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describe the features of the COMPASS, the system for the processing and analysis of data from COMPTEL, a gamma-ray telescope which will be put into orbit onboard the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory. The main features of the COMPASS are: high host system independence, data integrity maintenance facilities, a menu-controlled user shell, and data access via data abstractions.

Diehl, R.; Simpson, G.; Casilli, T.; Schoenfelder, V.; Lichti, G.; Steinle, H.; Swanenburg, B.; Aarts, H.; Deerenberg, A.; Hermsen, W.; Bennett, K.; Winkler, C.; Snelling, M.; Lockwood, J.; Morris, D.; Ryan, J.

380

An Autonomous Agent Navigating with a Polarized Light Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental abilities required in autonomous agents is homing. Natural agents—for instance, desert ants—solve the homing problem mainly by using path integration within an egocentric frame of reference. When employing such a mechanism, compass information for determining direction is necessary, and the precision of the compass will have a crucial effect on the precision of homing. For deriving

Dimitrios Lambrinos; Hiroshi Kobayashi; Rolf Pfeifer; Marinus Maris; Thomas Labhart; Rüdiger Wehner

1997-01-01

381

The Influence of Anger and Compassion on Negotiation Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the discrete, other-directed emotions of anger and compassion exert a greater influence on negotiations than mood. Drawing on cognitive appraisal theories of emotion, we specifically tested whether negotiators who felt high anger and low compassion for each other would (1) have less desire to work with each other in the future, (2) achieve fewer joint gains, and

Keith G. Allred; John S. Mallozzi; Fusako Matsui; Christopher P. Raia

1997-01-01

382

Passivity Based Control Of The Compass Gait Biped  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In this paper we discuss the passivity based control of the two-link robotknown as the Compass Gait Biped. Starting from a narrow region of initial conditions,the compass gait biped is capable of locomotion down shallow inclines without actuationor feedback control of any kind. We will discuss some feedback control strategiesthat can exploit these passive dynamics by shaping the energy

Mark W. Spong

1999-01-01

383

Effectiveness of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading for Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Odyssey Reading, published by CompassLearning, is a comprehensive reading/language arts program using adaptive software for core instruction. This is the first study of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading (CLO) in PUSD and was based on data from the school years 2006-2008. For this study, Odyssey Reading was implemented in reading classes in grades…

Empirical Education Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

384

St. Pi Day construction with a compass & ruler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

St. Pi Day construction with compass This activity uses a compass and straight-edge(ruler) to construct a design. The design is then used to complete a worksheet involving perimeter, circumference, area and dimensional changes which affect the scale factor ratio.

Gaynr, Cheryl

2012-07-26

385

Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

2011-01-01

386

Preferential orientation of magnetization and interfacial disorder in Co/Au multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two families of Co/Au multilayer films with different interlayer magnetostatic coupling were grown by the DC magnetron sputtering technique. The structure of these films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. All these techniques give complementary information about the structure of the multilayers and the magnetization direction as a function of thickness of the Co layers. The structural analysis shows a decrease of the interfacial disorder for increasing Co layer thickness in both groups of samples. This behavior has been correlated with a transition of the magnetization direction from perpendicular to parallel to the films plane. Thin Co layer samples gave high remnant magnetization with very low saturation field while thick Co layer samples showed low remnant magnetization with high value of saturation field. In the FMR study, the spectra showed two resonance modes, which were associated to the internal and interfacial Co atoms. Volume (Kv) and surface (Ks) anisotropy constants were deduced from the FMR experiments and are in good agreement with the reported values for Co/Au multilayers.

Quispe-Marcatoma, J.; Pandey, B.; Alayo, W.; de Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

2013-10-01

387

Self-compassion: a novel link with symptoms in schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Self-compassion has been linked to both positive aspects of well-being and less psychopathology in nonclinical samples. Although this construct has begun to be investigated in case studies, the clinical correlates of self-compassion for those with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have yet to be explored. This study aimed to explore the relationship between self-compassion, symptoms, and insight in individuals with schizophrenia. A total of 88 participants with either schizophrenia (n = 51) or schizoaffective disorder (n = 37) who were enrolled in a study of metacognition at a Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center completed measures of self-compassion and insight, along with a symptom interview. Higher self-compassion scores were associated with lower scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive, excitement, and emotional discomfort symptom scales in addition to poorer insight. Implications for treatment and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:23588223

Eicher, Amanda C; Davis, Louanne W; Lysaker, Paul H

2013-05-01

388

Compass-M1 Broadcast Codes and Their Application to Acquisition and Tracking  

E-print Network

Compass-M1 Broadcast Codes and Their Application to Acquisition and Tracking Grace Xingxin Gao his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1983. ABSTRACT With the launch of the Compass-M1 systems (GNSS). The satellite, sometimes referred to as Compass-2 or Beidou-2, is the first of the Compass

Stanford University

389

COMPASS III: Teaching L2 grammar graphically on a tablet computer Karin Harbusch1  

E-print Network

COMPASS III: Teaching L2 grammar graphically on a tablet computer Karin Harbusch1 , Johannes Härtel2 grammar teaching system COMPASS III. COMPASS stands for COMbina- torial and Paraphrastic Assembly]. COMPASS invites the student to construct sentences by composing syntactic trees out of lexically anchored

Harbusch, Karin

390

2007-2009 UC Regents Updated: June 24, 2009 Career Compass Job  

E-print Network

© 2007-2009 UC Regents Updated: June 24, 2009 Career Compass Job Titles Go Live! May - June 2009 #12;2 Career Compass Job Titles Go Live! May 1, 2009 Career Compass Job TitlesCareer Compass Job campaigns: More consistent and fair classification of jobs into logical job titles (described

Jacobs, Lucia

391

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

392

Nuclear Magnetic Dipole Interactions in Field-Oriented Proteins: Information for Structure Determination in Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of dipolar contributions to the splitting of 15N resonances of ^1H-15N amide pairs in multidimensional high-field NMR spectra of field-oriented cyanometmyoglobin is reported. The splittings appear as small field-dependent perturbations of normal scalar couplings. Assignment of more than 90 resonances to specific sequential sites in the protein allows correlation of the dipolar contributions with predictions based on the known susceptibility and known structure of the protein. Implications as an additional source of information for protein structure determination in solution are discussed.

Tolman, J. R.; Flanagan, J. M.; Kennedy, M. A.; Prestegard, J. H.

1995-09-01

393

Nuclear magnetic dipole interactions in field-oriented proteins: information for structure determination in solution.  

PubMed Central

The measurement of dipolar contributions to the splitting of 15N resonances of 1H-15N amide pairs in multidimensional high-field NMR spectra of field-oriented cyanometmyoglobin is reported. The splittings appear as small field-dependent perturbations of normal scalar couplings. Assignment of more than 90 resonances to specific sequential sites in the protein allows correlation of the dipolar contributions with predictions based on the known susceptibility and known structure of the protein. Implications as an additional source of information for protein structure determination in solution are discussed. PMID:7568117

Tolman, J R; Flanagan, J M; Kennedy, M A; Prestegard, J H

1995-01-01

394

Effect of crystalline orientation and lattice distortion of FeCo spin polarization enhancement layer in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with RE-TM alloy films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationship between FeCo crystalline orientation and magnetic properties of TbFeCo\\/FeCo\\/Ta trilayer films was investigated. FeCo crystalline orientation could be controlled by changing FeCo deposition rate. Ferromagnetic Hall effect observation clarified that perpendicular component of magnetization in FeCo layer of TbFeCo\\/FeCo(001)\\/Ta were better than that of TbFeCo\\/FeCo(110)\\/Ta. Lattice spacing of both FeCo(001) films and FeCo(110) ones in the TbFeCo(50 nm)\\/FeCo (X

Naoaki Miyamoto; Hideto Ohmori; Keisuke Mamiya; Shigeki Nakagawa

2010-01-01

395

A Comparison Between Counselors Who Practice Meditation and Those Who Do Not on Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, Burnout and Self-Compassion.  

E-print Network

??One hundred sixty-four professional counselors completed an on-line survey that included the PRO-QOL (Professional Quality of Life Scale) and the SCS (Self-Compassion Scale). Participants also… (more)

Ringenbach, Ron T.

2009-01-01

396

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

397

Future Programme of COMPASS at CERN  

E-print Network

COMPASS at CERN is preparing for a new series of measurements on the nucleon structure comprising deep virtual Compton scattering and hard exclusive meson production using muon beams, as well as Drell-Yan reactions using a polarised proton target and a negative pion beam. The former will mainly constrain the generalised parton distribution H and determine the transverse size of the nucleon, while the latter measurements will provide information on transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions. The projected results of the programme and the necessary hardware upgrades are discussed.

Gerhard K. Mallot

2012-06-12

398

Hard Exclusive ?^0-Meson Production at COMPASS  

E-print Network

New results for the transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry A_{UT}^{sin(\\phi-\\phi_S)} for hard exclusive \\rho^0-meson production on a transversely polarised ^6LiD and NH_3 target will be presented. The measurement was performed with the COMPASS detector using the 160 GeV/c muon beam of the SPS at CERN. The asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distribution E, which is related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon.

H. Wollny for the COMPASS collaboration

2012-05-30

399

Zef Damen Constructions with ruler and compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A page that answers the question, What are ruler-and-compass constructions? With links to step-by-step drawings for constructions: bisecting a given angle; constructing: a line perpendicular to a given line that divides it into two equal parts; a line perpendicular to a given line passing through a given point on the line (or not on the line); the horizontal and vertical centerlines of a given circle; an equilateral triangle, given one side; an equilateral triangle inscribed in a given circle; a pentagon inscribed in a given circle; a hexagon, given one side, or inscribed in a given circle; a heptagon.

Damen, Zef

2001-01-01

400

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

401

Culture, Ethnic Conflict and Moral Orientation in Bosnian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has identified two moral orientations in people's reasoning about moral dilemmas: an orientation to rights, fairness, and justice and another based on care, compassion and concern for others and the self. To investigate the association of political violence and ethnic conflict with children's preferred moral orientation, two studies were conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the first with 10-12-year-olds

Andrew Garrod; Carole R. Beal; William Jaeger; Joshua Thomas; Jay Davis; Nicole Leiser; Almin Hodzic

2003-01-01

402

Precision Studies of Light Mesons at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS experiment at CERN's SPS investigates the structure and excitations of strongly interacting systems. Using reactions of 190 GeV/c pions with protons and nuclear targets, mediated by the strong and electromagnetic interaction, an unprecedented statistical precision has been reached allowing new insight into the properties of light mesons. For the first time the diffractively produced 3pi final state has been analyzed simultaneously in bins of invariant mass and four-momentum transfer using a large set of 88 waves up to a total angular momentum of 6. In addition to a precise determination of the properties of known resonances and including a model-indepedent analysis of the pi pi S-wave isobar, a new narrow axial-vector state coupling strongly to f0(980)pi has been found in previously unchartered territory. By selecting reactions with very small four-momentum transfer COMPASS is able to study processes involving the exchange of quasi-real photons. These provide clean access to low-energy quantities ...

Ketzer, Bernhard

2014-01-01

403

Precision Studies of Light Mesons at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS experiment at CERN's SPS investigates the structure and excitations of strongly interacting systems. Using reactions of 190 GeV/c pions with protons and nuclear targets, mediated by the strong and electromagnetic interaction, an unprecedented statistical precision has been reached allowing new insight into the properties of light mesons. For the first time the diffractively produced 3pi final state has been analyzed simultaneously in bins of invariant mass and four-momentum transfer using a large set of 88 waves up to a total angular momentum of 6. In addition to a precise determination of the properties of known resonances and including a model-indepedent analysis of the pi pi S-wave isobar, a new narrow axial-vector state coupling strongly to f0(980)pi has been found in previously unchartered territory. By selecting reactions with very small four-momentum transfer COMPASS is able to study processes involving the exchange of quasi-real photons. These provide clean access to low-energy quantities such as radiative couplings and polarizabilities of mesons, and thus constitute a test of model predictions such as chiral perturbation theory.

Bernhard Ketzer; for the COMPASS Collaboration

2014-03-19

404

Estimating orientation using magnetic and inertial sensors and different sensor fusion approaches: accuracy assessment in manual and locomotion tasks.  

PubMed

Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2014-01-01

405

Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks  

PubMed Central

Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2014-01-01

406

Robustness of the filamentation instability for asymmetric plasma shells collision in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The filamentation instability triggered when two counter streaming plasma shells overlap appears to be the main mechanism by which collisionless shocks are generated. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely suppress this instability. In a recent paper [Phys. Plasmas 18, 080706 (2011)], it was demonstrated in two dimensions that for the case of two cold, symmetric, relativistically colliding shells, such cancellation cannot occur if the field is not perfectly aligned. Here, this result is extended to the case of two asymmetric shells. The filamentation instability appears therefore as an increasingly robust mechanism to generate shocks.

Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2013-10-15

407

Control of VLF burst activity in the nightside ionosphere of Venus by the magnetic field orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A burst identificaton method developed by Ho et al. (1991) is used to analyze data on the nightside ionosphere of Venus in order to determine whether VLF bursts observed there are better interpreted as whistler mode waves or ion acoustic waves. The correlation between burst occurrence and the angle between the magnetic field and the radial direction, as well as the spacecraft flight direction are examined. Narrow-band 100-Hz bursts are found to be more frequently associated with radial magnetic fields while wideband signals are more frequently associated with horizontal fields. Under the assumption of vertical propagation, the normalized 100-Hz burst rate inside the resonance cone is larger than that outside. The burst rate inside the resonance cone dominates the altitude distribution. By assuming vertical propagation, the 100-Hz signals clearly divide into two populations. One is whistler mode propagating inside the resonance cone. The other is a nonpropagating mode outside the resonance cone which decreases quickly with altitude with a scale height of about 20 km.

Ho, C.-M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.

1992-01-01

408

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser-geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion  

E-print Network

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser- geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion when a recruit requires bereavement leave to attend a family

Kim, Duck O.

409

Evolution of Recrystallization by Changes in Magnetic Hysteresis Loop in a Non-Oriented Electric Steel Cold Rolled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-oriented steels, with low carbon, are widely used in the fabrication of electrical motor nucleus. The performance of these motors is affected by the level of recrystallization. These steels can come from the steel plant in two different conditions: totally processed or semi-processed. The semi-processed steels have a partially deformed structure and are submitted to the final annealing process after reaching the end shape. An adequate annealing heat treatment is important to get an appropriate magnetic property. In the present study, samples of an electric steel, with the composition (0.05 wt% C, 1.28wt% Si, 0.29wt% Mn), cold rolled 50% in thickness, were withdrawn during the industrial heat treatment at temperatures of 575, 580, 600, 620 and 730 °C with the objective of evaluating the evolution of recrystalization with temperature. Magnetic properties were measured at room temperature in a vibrating sample magnetometer. Although the changes in magnetic hysteresis loop with temperature are difficult to observe, they have been identified by using pattern classification techniques, such as principal-component analysis and Karhunen-Loève expansion. These tools have been applied to vectors which are built from each hysteresis loop, properly renormalized, whose components correspond to amplitude of the loop at given equally spaced values of the renormalized field. The samples have been classified in four sets, namely, set A corresponding to temperatures 575/580, set B corresponding to temperatures 600/620, set C corresponding to the samples without annealing heat treatment, and set D corresponding to recrystallized samples. The results for the classification of the different microstructures have been obtained by using both techniques, and in particular a 100% success rate has been reached by using Karhunen-Loève expansion.

da Silva, F. E.; Freitas, F. N. C.; Abreu, H. F. G.; Gonçalves, L. L.; Moura, E. P.; Silva, M. R.

2011-06-01

410

Burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress in trauma nurses.  

PubMed

The relationship of burnout (BO), compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) to personal/environmental characteristics, coping mechanisms, and exposure to traumatic events was explored in 128 trauma nurses. Of this sample, 35.9% had scores consistent with BO, 27.3% reported CF, 7% reported STS, and 78.9% had high CS scores. High BO and high CF scores predicted STS. Common characteristics correlating with BO, CF, and STS were negative coworker relationships, use of medicinals, and higher number of hours worked per shift. High CS correlated with greater strength of supports, higher participation in exercise, use of meditation, and positive coworker relationships. Caring for trauma patients may lead to BO, CF, and STS; identifying predictors of these can inform the development of interventions to mitigate or minimize BO, CF, and STS in trauma nurses. PMID:25023839

Hinderer, Katherine A; VonRueden, Kathryn T; Friedmann, Erika; McQuillan, Karen A; Gilmore, Rebecca; Kramer, Betsy; Murray, Mary

2014-01-01

411

Collinear ferromagnetism and spin orientation in the molecule-based magnets M[N(CN)2]2 (M=Co,Ni)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero-field unpolarized neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the low-T magnetic structure and T-dependent crystal structure of M[N(CN)2]2 (M=Co,Ni). Both compounds show collinear ferromagnetism with spin orientation along the c axis. The results provide the determination of a complete magnetic structure in the ordered state for a molecule-based magnet. The c lattice parameter exhibits negative thermal expansion, explained by a wine-rack-like deformation.

Kmety, Carmen R.; Manson, Jamie L.; Huang, Qingzhen; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Erwin, Ross W.; Miller, Joel S.; Epstein, Arthur J.

1999-07-01

412

Magnetic field orientation and suprathermal ion streams in the earth's foreshock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is noted that as a result of the ISEE 1 and 2 missions, it was found that return ions, that is, ions streaming into the solar wind away from the bow shock, are comprised of separate classes having distinguishable energy and directional distributions. In addition, each of these classes of return ions, which are essentially all protons, is associated with its own level of upstream magnetic wave activity. It is shown that each class is also associated with a particular section of the foreshock determined by the IMF and the energies of the particles themselves. A series of schematic figures depicting the IMF-shock geometry for selected instants during the first two hours of ISEE particle data of November 8, 1977, is presented.

Greenstadt, E. W.; Russell, C. T.; Hoppe, M.

1980-01-01

413

Astronomical performance of the engineering model Oersted Advanced Stellar Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Danish geomagnetic microsatellite, Orsted, is an autonomous sciencecraft which is scheduled for a May 1997 launch into polar orbit. It is produced by a consortium of universities, industry and government and is Denmark's first national spacecraft. NASA support includes JPL real sky evaluation of its star tracker, the advanced stellar compass (ASC). The ASC features low cost, low mass, low power, low magnetic disturbance, autonomous operation, a high level of functionality and the high precision. These features are enabled by the use of advanced optical and electronic design which permit the direct integration of the ASC and the science payload. The ASC provides the required attitude information for its associated vector magnetometer and the sciencecraft. It consists of two units, a CCD based camera head and a data processing unit with a powerful microcomputer. The microcomputer contains two large star data bases which enable the computer to recognize star patterns in the field-of-view, to quickly solve the lost-in- space acquisition problem and to derive the attitude of the ASC camera head. The flight model of the camera head has a mass and a power consumption of 127 grams (without baffle) and 0.5 W, respectively. Typical, beginning-of-life, relative measurement precision in pitch and yaw are in the order of two arcseconds (1 sigma) or better have been achieved in the tests and are substantiated.

Eisenman, Allan R.; Joergensen, John L.; Liebe, Carl C.

1996-10-01

414

Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakes.  

PubMed

Navigational ability is a critical component of an animal's spatial ecology and may influence the invasive potential of species. Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are apex predators invasive to South Florida. We tracked the movements of 12 adult Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, six of which were translocated 21-36 km from their capture locations. Translocated snakes oriented movement homeward relative to the capture location, and five of six snakes returned to within 5 km of the original capture location. Translocated snakes moved straighter and faster than control snakes and displayed movement path structure indicative of oriented movement. This study provides evidence that Burmese pythons have navigational map and compass senses and has implications for predictions of spatial spread and impacts as well as our understanding of reptile cognitive abilities. PMID:24647727

Pittman, Shannon E; Hart, Kristen M; Cherkiss, Michael S; Snow, Ray W; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Smith, Brian J; Mazzotti, Frank J; Dorcas, Michael E

2014-03-01

415

Self-Compassion Among Psychotherapists: A Phenomenological Inquiry.  

E-print Network

??Self-compassion has become a focus for psychology research and practice, in part, due to its many psychological benefits, including life satisfaction, social connectedness, self-awareness, improved… (more)

Patershuk, Clare A. R.

2013-01-01

416

Self-Compassion in Overcontrolled, Undercontrolled, and Resilient Personality Types  

E-print Network

The psychological benefits of self-compassion, a construct associated with adaptively dealing with emotional suffering from life's problems appear to overlap with those of trait resiliency in terms of theoretical underpinnings and outcome research...

Ramkumar, Neeta

2012-10-19

417

Tuning magnetic anisotropy in (001) oriented L1{sub 0} (Fe{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}){sub 55}Pt{sub 45} films  

SciTech Connect

We have achieved (001) oriented L1{sub 0} (Fe{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}){sub 55}Pt{sub 45} thin films, with magnetic anisotropy up to 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}, using atomic-scale multilayer sputtering and post annealing at 400 Degree-Sign C for 10 s. By fixing the Pt concentration, structure and magnetic properties are systematically tuned by the Cu addition. Increasing Cu content results in an increase in the tetragonal distortion of the L1{sub 0} phase, significant changes to the film microstructure, and lowering of the saturation magnetization and anisotropy. The relatively convenient synthesis conditions, along with the tunable magnetic properties, make such materials highly desirable for future magnetic recording technologies.

Gilbert, Dustin A.; Liu, Kai [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Wang, Liang-Wei; Lai, Chih-Huang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Klemmer, Timothy J.; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich [Seagate Technology, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)] [Seagate Technology, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

2013-04-01

418

Accelerating Fibre Orientation Estimation from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using GPUs  

PubMed Central

With the performance of central processing units (CPUs) having effectively reached a limit, parallel processing offers an alternative for applications with high computational demands. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) are massively parallel processors that can execute simultaneously thousands of light-weight processes. In this study, we propose and implement a parallel GPU-based design of a popular method that is used for the analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). More specifically, we are concerned with a model-based approach for extracting tissue structural information from diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI data. DW-MRI offers, through tractography approaches, the only way to study brain structural connectivity, non-invasively and in-vivo. We parallelise the Bayesian inference framework for the ball & stick model, as it is implemented in the tractography toolbox of the popular FSL software package (University of Oxford). For our implementation, we utilise the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming model. We show that the parameter estimation, performed through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), is accelerated by at least two orders of magnitude, when comparing a single GPU with the respective sequential single-core CPU version. We also illustrate similar speed-up factors (up to 120x) when comparing a multi-GPU with a multi-CPU implementation. PMID:23658616

Hernandez, Moises; Guerrero, Gines D.; Cecilia, Jose M.; Garcia, Jose M.; Inuggi, Alberto; Jbabdi, Saad; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.

2013-01-01

419

Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: longitudinal relaxation dispersion for spin I = 1.  

PubMed

The frequency dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate, known as the magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD), can provide a frequency-resolved characterization of molecular motions in complex biological and colloidal systems on time scales ranging from 1 ns to 100 ?s. The conformational dynamics of immobilized proteins and other biopolymers can thus be probed in vitro or in vivo by exploiting internal water molecules or labile hydrogens that exchange with a dominant bulk water pool. Numerous water (1)H and (2)H MRD studies of such systems have been reported, but the widely different theoretical models currently used to analyze the MRD data have resulted in divergent views of the underlying molecular motions. We have argued that the essential mechanism responsible for the main dispersion is the exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings when internal water molecules or labile hydrogens escape from orientationally confining macromolecular sites. In the EMOR model, the exchange process is thus not just a means of mixing spin populations but it is also the direct cause of spin relaxation. Although the EMOR theory has been used in several studies to analyze water (2)H MRD data from immobilized biopolymers, the fully developed theory has not been described. Here, we present a comprehensive account of a generalized version of the EMOR theory for spin I = 1 nuclides like (2)H. As compared to a previously described version of the EMOR theory, the present version incorporates three generalizations that are all essential in applications to experimental data: (i) a biaxial (residual) electric field gradient tensor, (ii) direct and indirect effects of internal motions, and (iii) multiple sites with different exchange rates. In addition, we describe and assess different approximations to the exact EMOR theory that are useful in various regimes. In particular, we consider the experimentally important dilute regime, for which approximate analytical results are derived. As shown by the analytical expressions, and confirmed by exact numerical calculations, the dispersion is governed by the pure nuclear quadrupole resonance frequencies in the ultraslow-motion regime, where the relaxation rate also exhibits a much stronger dependence on the electric field gradient asymmetry than in the motional-narrowing regime. PMID:22894360

Nilsson, Tomas; Halle, Bertil

2012-08-01

420

Improving Sensitivity in the NNSS COMPASS Model  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Analysis of Safeguards Strategies model, COMPASS, was initially implemented with the goal of eliminating functions and requirements that did not contribute to the MC&A program at the particular site. The model sub-elements were revised several times through additions and deletions as the process was better understood. Contributions and ratings were developed and implemented. Because of the original intent, the process left the contribution factors closely grouped toward the top of the range. The effect of this is a flat sensitivity; a change in any element and sub-element affected the system effectiveness to the same degree no matter which one changed. This paper describes a method for determining element and sub-element contributions so that changes in element effectiveness are more accurately reflected in the overall system effectiveness.

Wright, J

2012-07-15

421

The earth's magnetic field: Its history, origin and planetary perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism is examined, and an analysis and description of the present geomagnetic field is presented. The magnetic compass is discussed along with declination, inclination, secular variation, magnetic charts and the search for the poles, fossil magnetism and the magnetic field in the past, transient magnetic variations regarding the external magnetic field, the origin of the

R. T. Merrill; M. W. McElhinny

1983-01-01

422

Magnetic Fields on the Surface of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about magnetism in solar flares. Learners will map magnetic fields around bar magnets and investigate how this configuration relates to magnetic fields of sunspots. This activity requires compasses, bar magnets, and a equipment for the instructor to project a PowerPoint or pdf lecture presentation. This is Activity 1 in the Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares teachers guide.

423

Further results on control of the compass gait biped  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper continues our investigations into the passivity-based control of the compass gait biped. It was shown in [Spong, M.W., 1999] for the compass gait biped, and in [Spong, M.W., and Bullo, F., 2002] for the general case, that a passive limit cycle for a given constant slope can be made slope invariant via potential energy shaping control. In this

Mark W. Spong; Gagandeep Bhatia

2003-01-01

424

Damping a gyro horizon compass by means of newtonmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the problem of finding various damping moments that can be generated along axes rigidly coupled with the sensitive elements of a gyro horizon compass. This is done by means of newtonmeters situated on these axes. Expressions are obtained for the moments that should be imposed about the axes of the gyroframe in order to damp the small motions of the compass.

Degtiarev, V. G.; Ratafeva, L. S.; Tvaradze, S. V.

1986-07-01

425

Compassion: the missing link in quality of care.  

PubMed

This article discusses the impact of selected findings from a PhD-study that focuses on compassion as a guiding principle for contemporary nursing education and practice. The study, of which the literature review and empirical findings have already been published, looked at compassion as perceived within the relationship of nurses and older persons with a chronic disease. The patient group was chosen because daily life for them is characterized by long-term dependency on care. The literature review resulted in a theoretical framework of compassion that also explores other closely related concepts such as suffering and empathy. The empirical part of the study, in which 61 in-depth interviews and 6 group interviews with patients and nurses took place, showed that compassion is a mirroring process in response to grief. Compassion consists of seven dimensions such as attentiveness and presence, in which saliency, so as to anticipate patients' needs, is of major importance. Compassion is perceived by participants as an indispensable aspect of care, which helps to reveal relevant information in order to establish appropriate outcomes of care. This article focuses on the aspects of the PhD-study in which an analysis of compassion in the context of both modern as well as the history of nursing took place. Currently evidence based practice is regarded as the standard for good quality care. Nevertheless there is an on-going debate about what constitutes good quality care. Within this debate two opposing views are apparent. One view defines good care as care supported by the best scientific evidence. The other view states that good care takes place within the nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse performs professional care based on intuitive knowing. It is suggested that compassion is the (missing) link between these views. PMID:24856582

van der Cingel, Margreet

2014-09-01

426

Self-compassion and well-being among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67 to 90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective

Ashley Batts Allen; Eleanor R. Goldwasser; Mark R. Leary

2011-01-01

427

Light-Meson Spectroscopy with COMPASS  

E-print Network

COMPASS is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron investigating the structure and spectrum of hadrons. One primary goal is the search for new hadronic states, in particular spin-exotic mesons and glueballs. After a short pilot run in 2004 with a 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on a Pb target, which showed a significant spin-exotic $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ resonance consistent with the controversial $\\pi_1(1600)$, COMPASS collected large data samples with negative and positive hadron beams on H$_2$, Ni, W, and Pb targets in 2008 and 2009. We present results from a partial-wave analysis of diffractive dissociation of 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ into $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final states on Pb and H$_2$ targets with squared four-momentum transfer in the range 0.1 < t' < 1 (GeV/c)^2. This reaction provides clean access to the light-quark meson spectrum up to masses of 2.5 GeV/c^2. A first comparison of the data from Pb and H$_2$ target shows a strong target dependence of the production strength of states with spin projections $M = 0$ and 1 relative to the $a_2(1320)$. The 2004 Pb data were also analyzed in the region of small squared four-momentum transfer t' < 10^{-2} (GeV/c)^2, where we observe interference of diffractive production and photoproduction in the Coulomb-field of the Pb nucleus.

Boris Grube for the COMPASS Collaboration

2010-11-30

428

Compassion Fatigue and Burnout Amongst Clinicians: A Medical Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Compassion fatigue is a broad term comprising of two components – burnout and secondary traumatic stress. The current study is aimed at identifying ‘burnout’ and ‘compassion fatigue’ among clinicians involved in care of individuals suffering from medical illness. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 clinicians were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to gather information related to personal, professional, anthropometric, and metabolic profile of the study participants. Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL Version V) was used to assess burnout, compassion satisfaction and secondary traumatic stress. Analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 19.0. Results: The mean age of clinicians was 46.68±11.06 (range 26-67 years). Burnout score was significantly higher in those involved in diabetology practice. Similarly, compassion satisfaction score was greater among those with greater years of practice as well as among those in private practice. Clinicians who reported a poor working condition, as opposed to good, had more burnout and less compassion satisfaction. Conclusion: The current study suggests that it is important to find out ways of decreasing burnout and compassion fatigue among clinicians. PMID:23723540

Bhutani, Jaikrit; Bhutani, Sukriti; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Kalra, Sanjay

2012-01-01

429

INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ORIENTATION SCHEDULE FALL 2014 SEMESTER (SUBJECT TO CHANGE)  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ORIENTATION SCHEDULE ­ FALL 2014 SEMESTER (SUBJECT TO CHANGE) DATE TIME EVENT MANDATORY for freshman undergraduate students without ACT, SAT, or Compass scores Maxim Doucet Room 211 (C6-1 students or students who have met the University's math proficiency requirement on the ACT, SAT

Kearfott, R. Baker

430

Electric and magnetic field-assisted orientational transitions in the ensembles of domains in a nematic liquid crystal on the polymer surface.  

PubMed

Using electro- and magneto-optical techniques, we investigated orientational transitions in the ensembles of domains in a nematic liquid crystal on the polycarbonate film surface under the conditions of competing surface forces that favor radial and uniform planar alignment of nematic molecules. Having analyzed field dependences of the intensity of light passed through a sample, we established the threshold character of the orientational effects, plotted the calculated intensity versus magnetic coherence length, and compared the latter with the equilibrium length that characterizes the balance of forces on the polymer surface. PMID:25279586

Parshin, Alexander M; Gunyakov, Vladimir A; Zyryanov, Victor Y; Shabanov, Vasily F

2014-01-01

431

Electric and Magnetic Field-Assisted Orientational Transitions in the Ensembles of Domains in a Nematic Liquid Crystal on the Polymer Surface  

PubMed Central

Using electro- and magneto-optical techniques, we investigated orientational transitions in the ensembles of domains in a nematic liquid crystal on the polycarbonate film surface under the conditions of competing surface forces that favor radial and uniform planar alignment of nematic molecules. Having analyzed field dependences of the intensity of light passed through a sample, we established the threshold character of the orientational effects, plotted the calculated intensity versus magnetic coherence length, and compared the latter with the equilibrium length that characterizes the balance of forces on the polymer surface. PMID:25279586

Parshin, Alexander M.; Gunyakov, Vladimir A.; Zyryanov, Victor Y.; Shabanov, Vasily F.

2014-01-01

432

Magnetic properties in oriented platelet Fe3O4 particles prepared by the polyol method using ?-FeOOH as precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of platelet Fe3O4 particles were studied to apply them to magnetic hyperthermia or thermoablation using hysteresis-loss heating. As precursor materials, platelet ?-FeOOH particles were synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of the precipitated Fe3+ ions in an alkaline solution of ethanolamine. Spinel-structured iron oxide particles were obtained from the platelet ?-FeOOH particles by a liquid-phase reduction process using tetra-ethylene glycol as the reducing agent and were recognized as platelet particles with size 30-100 nm by transmission electron microscopy. Their chemical composition and crystal structure were confirmed to be that of Fe3O4 by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses. The coercive force and saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 particles were 11.9 kA/m and 77.9 Am2/kg, respectively. A tape was prepared by orientating the platelet Fe3O4 particles in such a way that the particle planes were parallel to the tape plane. The calculated magnetic anisotropy field of the Fe3O4 particles was about two times larger than the in-plane coercive force of 12.6 kA/m of the oriented tape. The saturation field in direction perpendicular to the oriented tape was 390 kA/m, which is close to the demagnetizing field in the platelet Fe3O4 particles.

Kishimoto, Mikio; Isaka, Daiki; Horiuchi, Akari; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji

2014-02-01

433

Introducing minimum Fisher regularisation tomography to AXUV and soft x-ray diagnostic systems of the COMPASS tokamak  

SciTech Connect

The contribution focuses on plasma tomography via the minimum Fisher regularisation (MFR) algorithm applied on data from the recently commissioned tomographic diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak. The MFR expertise is based on previous applications at Joint European Torus (JET), as exemplified in a new case study of the plasma position analyses based on JET soft x-ray (SXR) tomographic reconstruction. Subsequent application of the MFR algorithm on COMPASS data from cameras with absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiodes disclosed a peaked radiating region near the limiter. Moreover, its time evolution indicates transient plasma edge cooling following a radial plasma shift. In the SXR data, MFR demonstrated that a high resolution plasma positioning independent of the magnetic diagnostics would be possible provided that a proper calibration of the cameras on an x-ray source is undertaken.

Mlynar, J.; Weinzettl, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Imrisek, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU Prague, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Brehova 8, CZ-115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU Prague, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Brehova 8, CZ-115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J.; Janky, F. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Alper, B. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX, Association EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

2012-10-15

434

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

435

Modification of magnetic properties through the control of growth orientation and epitaxial strain in SrRuO3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the correlation between the magnetic properties and the structural modifications in SrRuO3 thin films. Previous results on the control of growth orientation in SrRuO3 thin film have been rather limited. For example, only orthorhombic a-axis growth could be obtained for SrRuO3 film on SrTiO3 (110) substrates. Here we were able to obtain various SrRuO3 films with (100)o, (010)o, and (111)o growth orientations, as well as with different amount of strain on SrTiO3 (110) substrates by using (Ca,Sr)SnO3 and CaHfO3 buffer layers. The magnetic properties were found to change systematically with the structural distortion of the SrRuO3 thin films.

Lee, B. W.; Jung, C. U.

2010-03-01

436

Absence of spontaneous magnetism associated with a possible time-reversal symmetry breaking state beneath the surface of (110)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-? superconducting films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a search for spontaneous magnetism due to a time-reversal symmetry breaking phase in the superconducting state of (110)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-? films, expected near the surface in this geometry. Zero field and weak transverse field measurements performed using the low-energy muon spin rotation technique with muons implanted a few nm inside optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-?-(110) films show no appearance of spontaneous magnetic fields below the superconducting temperature down to 2.9 K. Our results give an upper limit of ˜0.02 mT for putative spontaneous internal fields.

Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.; Morenzoni, E.

2013-11-01

437

Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue. PMID:22229086

Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.

2011-01-01

438

Take it Easy on Yourself: The Role o Self-Compassion in Response to Social Ostracism.  

E-print Network

??Self-compassion involves forgiving oneself following failure, viewing negative emotions from a mindful perspective, and understanding that all human beings are imperfect (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion is… (more)

Clark, Joshua L.

2012-01-01

439

Self-Compassion Versus Global Self-Esteem: Two Different Ways of Relating to Oneself  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self- compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N 5 2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings

Kristin D. Neff; Roos Vonk

2009-01-01

440

Self-compassion and Psychological Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-compassion is an adaptive way of relating to the self when considering personal inadequacies or difficult life circumstances. However, prior research has only examined self-compassion among adults. The current study examined self-compassion among adolescents (N = 235; Mage = 15.2) and included a sample of young adults as a comparison group (N = 287; Mage = 21.1). Results indicated that self-compassion was strongly associated with well-being among adolescents

Kristin D. Neff; Pittman McGehee

2010-01-01

441

New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS  

E-print Network

One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...

Parsamyan, Bakur

2014-01-01

442

New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS  

E-print Network

One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for SIDIS transverse spin asymmetries from four "Drell-Yan" $Q^2$-ranges.

Bakur Parsamyan

2014-11-06

443

The Development and Evaluation of a Compassion Scale  

PubMed Central

Compassion is the capacity for being moved by the suffering of others and wanting to help alleviate it. Compassion may mediate the health benefits and hazards of social networks and relationships. The monitoring and management of the level of compassion across social networks and relationships may be critical to the preservation of the health benefits and the prevention of the health hazards of social networks and relationships. We developed a 10-item self-report measure of compassion and evaluated its psychometric properties among 310 respondents drawn from the University and its surrounding communities. The mean total score was 3.62 (SD=1.09). The item-to-total correlations ranged from 0.50-0.71. The mean inter-item correlation was 0.33. The internal consistency was 0.82. The scale correlated well with the Sprecher and Fehr's Compassionate Love Scale (r=0.66; p=.000). Two method factors measuring the same construct explained 57% of the variance in the sample. The scale is user-friendly, easy to score, and characterized by good psychometric properties. It can be used to foster the understanding of the impact of the level of compassion on disease occurrence and outcomes across social networks and relationships. PMID:23974394

Martins, David; Nicholas, Nichole A.; Shaheen, Magda; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith

2013-01-01

444

Compassion fatigue and burnout: prevalence among oncology nurses.  

PubMed

This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in inpatient nursing units and outpatient clinics in a cancer center in the midwestern United States. The sample of 153 healthcare providers included RNs, medical assistants, and radiology technicians. The fourth revision of the 30-item Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL R-IV) scale was used for measuring compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. A series of cross tab analyses examined the relationship between participant demographics and three ProQOL R-IV subscales. The study sample scored similarly on compassion satisfaction and burnout when compared with participants who used the ProQOL R-IV in previous studies. Value exists in analyzing the prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue among oncology healthcare providers. Understanding the needs of distinct demographic groups offers valuable direction for intervention program development. Applying internal evidence in the design of a relevant stress-reduction program will better equip healthcare providers to recognize and manage compassion fatigue and burnout. PMID:20880809

Potter, Patricia; Deshields, Teresa; Divanbeigi, Joyce; Berger, Julie; Cipriano, Doreen; Norris, Lori; Olsen, Sarah

2010-10-01

445

COMPASS: AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AT AN ANGULAR SCALE OF 200  

E-print Network

COMPASS: AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AT AN ANGULAR SCALE OF 200, 11 and Peter T. Timbie6 Receivved 2003 Auggust 19; accepted 2004 April 12 ABSTRACT COMPASS is an on with the Cosmic Microwave Polari- zation at Small Scales (COMPASS) telescope. Although this limit is about

Timbie, Peter

446

COMPASS Latency Optimal Routing in Heterogeneous Chord-based P2P Systems  

E-print Network

COMPASS � Latency Optimal Routing in Heterogeneous Chord-based P2P Systems Lukas Probst Nenad. In this report, we present COMPASS, a protocol for efficient data access in het- erogeneous mobile Chord-based P2P systems. COMPASS takes into ac- count that the network latencies of nodes in a mobile P2P network

Vetter, Thomas

447

COMPASS SELF SERVICE TIPS (Revised 3/2/10 for EFS Updates)  

E-print Network

COMPASS SELF SERVICE TIPS (Revised 3/2/10 for EFS Updates) SIGNING ON 1. Username and password Fiscal Year 2009 and beyond (Compass data from on or after 7/1/08 - PeopleSoft) This Invoice Query fields. Fiscal Year 2008 and before (Compass data prior to 7/1/08-CUFS) 1. When searching for charges

Weiblen, George D

448

Compass Routing on Geometric Networks Evangelos Kranakis, School of Computer Science,  

E-print Network

Compass Routing on Geometric Networks Evangelos Kranakis, School of Computer Science, Carleton are represented by the vertices of our graphs, and streets by straight line segments. Compass rout- ing to the CN-tower. Compass Routing Suppose that we want to travel from an initial vertex s to a destination

Urrutia, Jorge

449

COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales  

E-print Network

COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales 44106, USA Abstract COMPASS is an on-axis 2.6-m telescope coupled to a correlation polarimeter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Instrument design COMPASS was designed to measure the po

Timbie, Peter

450

Visualizing and realizing your business design with WebSphere Business Compass  

E-print Network

to solve business problems. In Compass, the documents are connected through predefined and custom linkVisualizing and realizing your business design with WebSphere Business Compass Skill Level@ca.ibm.com) BPMN Lead Developer IBM 08 Sep 2010 WebSphere Business Compass is a web 2.0-based collaborative

451

For Whom the Bell Tolls: Context, Complexity, and Compassion in Psychoanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author claims that psychoanalytic theorizing that emphasizes system, context, and complexity is particularly compassion friendly. She hypothesizes that compassion can be an emergent property of well attuned relational fields or systems, just as hostility and contempt seem as if naturally to characterize others. Compassion, or suffering with, is presented as both process and attitude. In the essay's attention to

Donna M. Orange

2006-01-01

452

Rare earth permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent magnets were discovered centuries ago from what was known as {open_quotes}lodestone{close_quotes}, a rock containing large quantities of the iron-bearing mineral magnetite (FeâOâ). The compass was the first technological use for permanent magnetic materials; it was used extensively for navigational purposes by the fifteenth century. During the twentieth century, as new applications for permanent magnets were developed, interest and research

Major-Sosias

1993-01-01

453

Effect of crystalline orientation and lattice distortion of FeCo spin polarization enhancement layer in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with RE-TM alloy films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationship between FeCo crystalline orientation and magnetic properties of TbFeCo/FeCo/Ta trilayer films was investigated. FeCo crystalline orientation could be controlled by changing FeCo deposition rate. Ferromagnetic Hall effect observation clarified that perpendicular component of magnetization in FeCo layer of TbFeCo/FeCo(001)/Ta were better than that of TbFeCo/FeCo(110)/Ta. Lattice spacing of both FeCo(001) films and FeCo(110) ones in the TbFeCo(50 nm)/FeCo (X nm) was also observed. Expansion ratios of FeCo(001) toward film normal direction were higher than that of FeCo(110) as increasing FeCo film thickness, and this indicated that FeCo(001) films were more favorable for magnetic coupling with rare-earth transition metal (RE-TM) alloy films than FeCo(110) ones when FeCo films become thick. However investigation of relationship between FeCo expansion ratios and magnetic properties of TbFeCo/FeCo(001) or (110) (X nm)/Ta trilayer films showed that squareness ratios of specimens with FeCo(001) were worse than that with FeCo(110).

Miyamoto, Naoaki; Ohmori, Hideto; Mamiya, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Shigeki

2010-05-01

454

A high accuracy magnetic heading system composed of fluxgate magnetometers and a microcomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a magnetic heading system consisting of two fluxgate magnetometers and a single-chip microcomputer. The system, when compared to gyro compasses, is smaller in size, lighter in weight, simpler in construction, quicker in reaction time, free from drift, and more reliable. Using a microcomputer in the system, heading error due to compass deviation, sensor offsets. scale factor uncertainty,

Sheng-Wu Liu; Zhao-Nian Zhang; J. C. Hung

1989-01-01

455

COMPASS Results on Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries  

E-print Network

New results on single spin asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on a transversely polarised LiD target are presented. The data were taken in the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 with the COMPASS spectrometer using the muon beam of the CERN SPS at 160 GeV/c. Preliminary results are given for the Sivers asymmetry and for all the three ``quark polarimeters'' presently used in COMPASS to measure the transversity distributions. The Collins and the Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons turn out to be compatible with zero, within the small (~1%) statistical errors, at variance with the results from HERMES on a transversely polarised proton target. Similar results have been obtained for the two hadron asymmetries and for the Lambda polarisation. First attempts to describe the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries measured by COMPASS and HERMES allow to give a consistent picture of these transverse spin effects.

Anna Martin

2007-02-01

456

The COMPASS RICH-1 fast photon detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast photon detection system has been built as a part of the upgrade of the COMPASS RICH-1 detector: it is based on 576 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and fast readout electronics