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1

Orientation of churches by magnetic compasses?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Christian religion the sunrise is of great symbolic importance. Therefore, many churches constructed in the Middle Ages point towards geographic East. Although `easting' of churches actually refers to the alignment towards the azimuth of sunrise on the individual churches' patron's day, deviation of nave alignment from the geographic East direction is often assumed to be caused by the use of magnetic compasses. Therefore, the church alignment could provide information about historical magnetic declination. We investigate 124 churches in Lower Austria and 68 in northern Germany to clarify this question as well as the `easting' hypothesis. Church orientations are determined from georeferenced satellite images. Metadata such as the construction year, possible reconstructions and the church patron are gathered to determine the date when current church direction was appointed, and to perform sunrise calculations. However, due to uncertainties of construction years and the declining importance of orientation tradition after the 15th century several churches are excluded from the study. Thus, 32 churches with reliable metadata remain for evaluation in each region. The analysis reveals a preferred alignment of naves towards geographic East in Lower Austria and northern Germany. The construction and alignment of churches was often affected by the pre-existing buildings and streets or topography and natural surroundings. Therefore, deviations from geographic East are more likely caused by town or landscape. The mean deviations from magnetic East in both regions are large compared to the mean deviations from geographic East and sunrise azimuths. Hence, the use of compasses cannot be confirmed. Despite a few churches indicating orientation according to their patron's day, a general trend cannot be observed in the data reviewed.

Arneitz, Patrick; Draxler, Andrea; Rauch, Roman; Leonhardt, Roman

2014-07-01

2

A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, ''Cluster N'', show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection

Dominik Heyers; Martina Manns; Harald Luksch; Onur Güntürkün; Henrik Mouritsen

2007-01-01

3

The effect of yellow and blue light on magnetic compass orientation in European robins, Erithacus rubecula  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the wavelength dependency of magnetic compass orientation, European robins were tested during spring migration\\u000a under light of various wavelengths. Under 565-nm green light (control) the birds showed excellent orientation in their migratory\\u000a direction; a 120° deflection of magnetic North resulted in a corresponding shift in the birds' directional tendencies, indicating\\u000a the use of the magnetic compass. Under 443-nm

W. Wiltschko; R. Wiltschko

1999-01-01

4

Migration, Orientation and Navigation: Magnetic Compasses in Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of magnetic information for orientation and navigation is a widespread phenomenon in animals. In contrast to navigational systems in vertebrates, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the insect magnetic perception and use of the information is at an early stage. Some insects use ma...

5

Use of a Magnetic Compass for Nocturnal Homing Orientation in the Palmate Newt, Lissotriton helveticus  

E-print Network

Use of a Magnetic Compass for Nocturnal Homing Orientation in the Palmate Newt, Lissotriton, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA Introduction Newts have proved to be an excellent model sys- tem ponds (Freake et al. 2006), make newts an excellent model for compari- son with vertebrates that home

Phillips, John B.

6

Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.

2003-04-01

7

Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic noise is emitted everywhere humans use electronic devices. For decades, it has been hotly debated whether man-made electric and magnetic fields affect biological processes, including human health. So far, no putative effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at intensities below the guidelines adopted by the World Health Organization has withstood the test of independent replication under truly blinded experimental conditions. No effect has therefore been widely accepted as scientifically proven. Here we show that migratory birds are unable to use their magnetic compass in the presence of urban electromagnetic noise. When European robins, Erithacus rubecula, were exposed to the background electromagnetic noise present in unscreened wooden huts at the University of Oldenburg campus, they could not orient using their magnetic compass. Their magnetic orientation capabilities reappeared in electrically grounded, aluminium-screened huts, which attenuated electromagnetic noise in the frequency range from 50?kHz to 5?MHz by approximately two orders of magnitude. When the grounding was removed or when broadband electromagnetic noise was deliberately generated inside the screened and grounded huts, the birds again lost their magnetic orientation capabilities. The disruptive effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is not confined to a narrow frequency band and birds tested far from sources of electromagnetic noise required no screening to orient with their magnetic compass. These fully double-blinded tests document a reproducible effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise on the behaviour of an intact vertebrate. PMID:24805233

Engels, Svenja; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Lefeldt, Nele; Hein, Christine Maira; Zapka, Manuela; Michalik, Andreas; Elbers, Dana; Kittel, Achim; Hore, P J; Mouritsen, Henrik

2014-05-15

8

Orientations Of Minoan Buildings On Crete May Indicate The First Recorded Use Of The Magnetic Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeomagnetic research has enabled the determination of the secular variation record of the past geomagnetic field and has been used as a tool for absolute and relative dating. The archaeomagnetic secular variation of declination can be used in conjunction with architectural building plan orientation angles (strike directions) to establish, whether or not, a magnetic compass was possibly used to align buildings. Until now, it has been speculative as to, how or why, Minoan buildings were orientated in an approximate North-South direction or at 'askew' angles to one another. Here, it is observed, that, the orientation angles, of some significant Minoan buildings on Crete which have been compared to the archaeomagnetic (secular variation of declination) reference curve record (Bulgaria) for that period, are consistent with the possible use of a magnetic compass. Four of the six main Palaces and other significant buildings may have been oriented using this method. This may indicate the first recorded use, by the Minoans of a magnetic compass. These findings have archaeological implications (chronology) and are of significant interest architecturally. They are also relevant to Minoan religious and cult studies and may have implications for Minoan maritime navigation studies.

Downey, W. S.

9

Light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in amphibians and insects: candidate receptors and candidate molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Magnetic compass orientation by amphibians, and some insects, is mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism. Cryptochrome photopigments, best known for their role in circadian rhythms, are proposed to mediate such responses. In this paper, we explore light-dependent properties of magnetic sensing at three levels: (i) behavioural (wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation), (ii) physiological (photoreceptors/photopigment systems with properties suggesting a role in magnetoreception), and (iii) molecular (cryptochrome-based and non-cryptochrome-based signalling pathways that are compatible with behavioural responses). Our goal is to identify photoreceptors and signalling pathways that are likely to play a specialized role in magnetoreception in order to definitively answer the question of whether the effects of light on magnetic compass orientation are mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism, or instead are due to input from a non-light-dependent (e.g. magnetite-based) magnetoreception mechanism that secondarily interacts with other light-dependent processes. PMID:20124357

Phillips, John B.; Jorge, Paulo E.; Muheim, Rachel

2010-01-01

10

Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel Caroline M. F. Durif , Howard I. Browman, John B. Phillips, Anne Berit Skiftesvik, L. Asbjrn Vllestad, Hans H. Stockhausen  

E-print Network

Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel Caroline M. F. Durif , Howard I. Browman, John B. Phillips, Anne Berit Skiftesvik, L. Asbjørn Vøllestad, Hans H. Stockhausen Abstract European eel migrate magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered

Phillips, John B.

11

Sanderlings (Calidris alba) have a magnetic compass: orientation experiments during spring migration in Iceland.  

PubMed

The migratory orientation of sanderlings (Calidris alba) was investigated with cage experiments during the spring migration in southwest Iceland. Sanderlings were exposed to 90 degrees counterclockwise-shifted magnetic fields under both clear skies and natural overcast. Clear sky control tests resulted in a northerly mean direction, in agreement with predictions based on ringing recovery data and earlier visual observations of departing flocks. Sanderlings closely followed experimental deflections of magnetic fields when tested under clear skies. Control experiments under natural overcast resulted in a bimodal distribution approximately coinciding with the magnetic north-south axis. Overcast tests did not reveal any predictable response to the experimental treatment, but instead resulted in a non-significant circular distribution. The time of orientation experiments in relation to the tidal cycle affects the motivation of the birds to depart, as shown by the lower directional scatter of headings of individuals tested within the appropriate tidal window under clear skies. Sanderlings were significantly more likely to become inactive under overcast conditions than under clear sky conditions. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that a wader species such as the sanderling possesses a magnetic compass and suggest that magnetic cues are of primary directional importance. However, overcast experiments indicate that both celestial and geomagnetic information are needed for sanderlings to realize a seasonally appropriate migratory orientation. PMID:11003824

Gudmundsson, G A; Sandberg, R

2000-10-01

12

Compasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offering on compasses. The first site is another great site from How Stuff Works.com called How Compasses Work (1). Visitors can read the interesting text and view attractive graphics on the basics of what a compass is and how it is used. The second site, maintained by Learn-Orienteering.com, is specifically about How to Use a Compass (2). Topics covered include the Compass Alone, Compass and Map Interacting, Magnetic Declination and Uncertainty, Suggested Exercises, Navigating Under Difficult Conditions, Finding the Directions Without a Compass, A Collection of Rhymes People use to Remember About Declination, and even information and tips on Buying a Compass. From Heather Williams of Williams College comes the next site entitled Compass Types (3 ). Here, those interested can learn about the workings, uses, and differences of the baseplate or protractor compass and the thumb compass. One other interesting paragraph describes how important the compass actually is for navigation. The fourth site is a quality lesson plan offered by National Geographic's Xpeditioin Web site called Which Direction Should I Go (4)? The activity "has students review and practice their knowledge of compass directions and do several brief exercises to practice using directions in their community and on maps." Next, the Make a Compass (5) Web site is part of the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Education page. Visitors learn how to make a simple compass out a sewing needle, magnet, bowl of water, and a piece of paper, pretty easily. The history of magnetism and the compass is chronicled in the next site from NASA called Magnetic Fields: History (6). The site explains what transpired when Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 carried out demonstrations of magnetism using a compass needle mounted on a wooden stand. The seventh site is part of Opticsgiant.com, an optics retailer, called Compasses (7). The site provides a short description on how to use a compass, but was primarily chosen to give readers an idea of the wide range of compasses that are available today for purchase. The last site on this subject is maintained by the US Geological Survey called Finding Your Way with Map and Compass (5). This well designed site does a good job of explaining everything from using topographic maps, determining direction, taking a compass bearing, and more.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

13

Wavelength specific effects of light on magnetic compass orientation of the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoreward magnetic compass orientation of male eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) was examined in a visually-symmetrical indoor arena. Groups of newts were first trained in a water-filled outdoor tank with an artificial shore at one end and then exposed to a rapid elevation of the training tank water temperature just prior to testing. The directional response of individual newts

J. B. Phillips; S. C. Borland

1992-01-01

14

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed Central

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-01-01

15

Magnetic compass orientation in the Eastern red-spotted newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the orientation behavior of adult Eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) to earth-strength magnetic fields. Groups of 30 to 40 newts were housed in water-filled, all-glass aquaria with an artificial shoreline at one end. The aquaria were located in a greenhouse or outdoors adjacent to the laboratory building, and aligned on either the magnetic

John B. Phillips

1986-01-01

16

PhET Simulation: Magnet and Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation, students explore how a compass works to point to Earth's poles. By moving a virtual compass around a bar magnet, users can predict the direction of the magnetic field for different locations. Now superimpose a planet Earth over the bar magnet and see the surprising results in the orientation of the poles! The simulation can be adapted well for use in middle school. For older students, add the field meter. Editor's Note: In a unit on magnetism, teachers may wish to introduce a hands-on experiment prior to introducing the simulation. See Related Materials for recommended hands-on magnet labs. This resource is part of a large collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET).

2011-01-23

17

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

18

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2010-10-01

19

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2011-10-01

20

46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 167.40-45...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-45 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All...

2012-10-01

21

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2013-10-01

22

46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 167.40-45...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-45 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All...

2011-10-01

23

46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 167.40-45...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-45 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All...

2014-10-01

24

46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 167.40-45...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-45 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All...

2013-10-01

25

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2014-10-01

26

46 CFR 108.715 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 108.715...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.715 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) Each...ocean or coastwise service must have a magnetic compass. (b) Each...

2012-10-01

27

Light-dependent magnetic compass in Iberian green frog tadpoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we provide evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in Pelophylax perezi (order Anura), similar to that observed in Rana catesbeiana (order Anura) and Notophthalmus viridescens (order Urodela), and confirm for the first time in an anuran amphibian that a 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength light (?500 nm) is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. Although magnetic compass orientation in other animals (e.g., birds and some insects) has been shown to be influenced by the wavelength and/or intensity of light, these two amphibian orders are the only taxa for which there is direct evidence that the magnetic compass is light-dependent. The remarkable similarities in the light-dependent magnetic compasses of anurans and urodeles, which have evolved as separate clades for at least 250 million years, suggest that the light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism is likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of the Lissamphibia (Early Permian, ~294 million years) and, possibly, much earlier. Also, we discuss a number of similarities between the functional properties of the light-dependent magnetic compass in amphibians and blue light-dependent responses to magnetic stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster, which suggest that the wavelength-dependent 90° shift in amphibians may be due to light activation of different redox forms of a cryptochrome photopigment. Finally, we relate these findings to earlier studies showing that the pineal organ of newts is the site of the light-dependent magnetic compass and recent neurophysiological evidence showing magnetic field sensitivity in the frog frontal organ (an outgrowth of the pineal).

Diego-Rasilla, Francisco Javier; Luengo, Rosa Milagros; Phillips, John B.

2010-12-01

28

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this paper, we present a series of simple activities adapted from the Matter & Interactions textbook for doing just this. Interestingly, these simple measurements are comparable to predictions made by the Bohr model of the atom. Although antiquated, Bohr's atom can lead the way to a deeper analysis of the atomic properties of magnets. Although originally developed for an introductory calculus-based course, these activities can easily be adapted for use in an algebra-based class or even at the high school level.

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

29

Compass Games: An Introduction to Orienteering Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compasses are useful tools for teaching the basics of navigation. Knowing where you are, where you are going, and how to get there are important facets of outdoor recreation. Compass games are a fun way to teach introductory navigation skills, and this article describes how they can be used as innovative, nontraditional activities in physical…

Sension-Hall, Debra

2011-01-01

30

Calibration of the magnetic compass of a migratory bird by celestial rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIGRATORY birds use a variety of environmental stimuli in orientation. Species that migrate primarily at night can use compasses based on the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun and patterns of skylight polarization1-4. These compass mechanisms can interact both when migratory birds make day-to-day orientation decisions5 and during their ontogeny in young birds6,7. All of the known compasses used by migratory birds seem to be modifiable by experience during early development. For example, a functional magnetic compass develops in birds that have never seen the sky8-11. But the preferred direction of orientation by the magnetic compass may be modified during the first three months of life by exposing naive birds to the sky under conditions in which magnetic directions differ substantially from compass directions indicated by the Sun and stars (true or geographic directions)6,9,10. For hand-raised Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), experience with either the clear daytime or night sky is sufficient to effect this calibration of the magnetic compass11. We therefore proposed that celestial rotation, which provides a source of geographic directions both day and night, is the calibrating reference. Here we report that the rotation of an artificial pattern of 'stars' calibrates the preferred direction of magnetic orientation of young Savannah sparrows.

Able, Kenneth P.; Able, Mary A.

1990-09-01

31

Do leaf-cutter ants Atta colombica orient their path-integrated, home vector with a magnetic compass?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf-cutter ants Atta colombica forage over 250 m in structurally-complex, Neotropical rainforests that occlude sun or polarized light cues. Night foraging makes the use of celestial cues and landmarks all the more difficult. We investigated the directional cues used by leaf-cutter ants to orient h...

32

White-throated sparrows calibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues during both autumn and spring migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The interaction and hierarchy of celestial and magnetic compass cues used by migratory songbirds for orientation has long been the topic of an intense debate. We have previously shown that migratory Savannah sparrows, Passerculus sandwichensis, use polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset to recalibrate their magnetic compass. Birds exposed to a ±90?deg. shifted artificial polarization

Rachel Muheim; John B. Phillips; Mark E. Deutschlander

2009-01-01

33

Development of lateralization of the magnetic compass in a migratory bird  

PubMed Central

The magnetic compass of a migratory bird, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula), was shown to be lateralized in favour of the right eye/left brain hemisphere. However, this seems to be a property of the avian magnetic compass that is not present from the beginning, but develops only as the birds grow older. During first migration in autumn, juvenile robins can orient by their magnetic compass with their right as well as with their left eye. In the following spring, however, the magnetic compass is already lateralized, but this lateralization is still flexible: it could be removed by covering the right eye for 6 h. During the following autumn migration, the lateralization becomes more strongly fixed, with a 6 h occlusion of the right eye no longer having an effect. This change from a bilateral to a lateralized magnetic compass appears to be a maturation process, the first such case known so far in birds. Because both eyes mediate identical information about the geomagnetic field, brain asymmetry for the magnetic compass could increase efficiency by setting the other hemisphere free for other processes. PMID:22933375

Gehring, Dennis; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Denzau, Susanne; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2012-01-01

34

Avian magnetic compass can be tuned to anomalously low magnetic intensities.  

PubMed

The avian magnetic compass works in a fairly narrow functional window around the intensity of the local geomagnetic field, but adjusts to intensities outside this range when birds experience these new intensities for a certain time. In the past, the geomagnetic field has often been much weaker than at present. To find out whether birds can obtain directional information from a weak magnetic field, we studied spontaneous orientation preferences of migratory robins in a 4 µT field (i.e. a field of less than 10 per cent of the local intensity of 47 µT). Birds can adjust to this low intensity: they turned out to be disoriented under 4 µT after a pre-exposure time of 8 h to 4 µT, but were able to orient in this field after a total exposure time of 17 h. This demonstrates a considerable plasticity of the avian magnetic compass. Orientation in the 4 µT field was not affected by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, but was disrupted by a radiofrequency magnetic field of 1.315 MHz, 480 nT, suggesting that a radical-pair mechanism still provides the directional information in the low magnetic field. This is in agreement with the idea that the avian magnetic compass may have developed already in the Mesozoic in the common ancestor of modern birds. PMID:23720547

Winklhofer, Michael; Dylda, Evelyn; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2013-07-22

35

Avian magnetic compass can be tuned to anomalously low magnetic intensities  

PubMed Central

The avian magnetic compass works in a fairly narrow functional window around the intensity of the local geomagnetic field, but adjusts to intensities outside this range when birds experience these new intensities for a certain time. In the past, the geomagnetic field has often been much weaker than at present. To find out whether birds can obtain directional information from a weak magnetic field, we studied spontaneous orientation preferences of migratory robins in a 4 µT field (i.e. a field of less than 10 per cent of the local intensity of 47 µT). Birds can adjust to this low intensity: they turned out to be disoriented under 4 µT after a pre-exposure time of 8 h to 4 µT, but were able to orient in this field after a total exposure time of 17 h. This demonstrates a considerable plasticity of the avian magnetic compass. Orientation in the 4 µT field was not affected by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, but was disrupted by a radiofrequency magnetic field of 1.315 MHz, 480 nT, suggesting that a radical-pair mechanism still provides the directional information in the low magnetic field. This is in agreement with the idea that the avian magnetic compass may have developed already in the Mesozoic in the common ancestor of modern birds. PMID:23720547

Winklhofer, Michael; Dylda, Evelyn; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2013-01-01

36

Interaction of visual and non-visual cues during migratory orientation by the Bobolink ( Dolichonyx oryzivorus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Bobolink appears to use an integrated orientation system involving at least a star compass and a magnetic compass. The magnetic compass appears to provide the primary reference for the system and the star compass serves as a secondary compass. The star compass appears to be checked against the magnetic compass every 1 to 5 nights, and adjusted to

Robert C. Beason

1987-01-01

37

Magnetism before Gilbert - Discovery of the Magnetic Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First of several linked files, telling the early history of the compass (discovered in China) and how Robert Norman in 1581 showed the magnetic force was not horizontal but slanted downwards, followed by William Gilbert's demonstration that the Earth behaved like a giant magnet; two reviews of Gilbert's 1600 book "De Magnete" follow, as well as a modern version of one of Gilbert's experiments. The web collection also includes several sections for science teachers.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

38

Magnetic compass mediates nocturnal homing by the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to investigate the use of magnetic compass cues in the nocturnal homing orientation of the alpine newt Triturus alpestris. Tests were carried out at a site 9 km to the east–northeast of the breeding pond. Newts were tested at night in an outdoor circular arena that provided an unimpeded view of celestial cues, in one of four

Francisco J. Diego-Rasilla; Rosa M. Luengo; John B. Phillips

2005-01-01

39

20. View of magnetic compass; "bigeyes," used for surveying ships ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of magnetic compass; "bigeyes," used for surveying ships and shore; and signal lights (covered). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

40

Night-Migratory Songbirds Possess a Magnetic Compass in Both Eyes  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on European robins, Erithacus rubecula, and Australian silvereyes, Zosterops lateralis, had suggested that magnetic compass information is being processed only in the right eye and left brain hemisphere of migratory birds. However, recently it was demonstrated that both garden warblers, Sylvia borin, and European robins have a magnetic compass in both eyes. These results raise the question if the strong lateralization effect observed in earlier experiments might have arisen from artifacts or from differences in experimental conditions rather than reflecting a true all-or-none lateralization of the magnetic compass in European robins. Here we show that (1) European robins having only their left eye open can orient in their seasonally appropriate direction both during autumn and spring, i.e. there are no strong lateralization differences between the outward journey and the way home, that (2) their directional choices are based on the standard inclination compass as they are turned 180° when the inclination is reversed, and that (3) the capability to use the magnetic compass does not depend on monocular learning or intraocular transfer as it is already present in the first tests of the birds with only one eye open. PMID:22984416

Lefeldt, Nele; Prior, Helmut; Mouritsen, Henrik

2012-01-01

41

White-throated sparrows calibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues during both autumn and spring migration.  

PubMed

The interaction and hierarchy of celestial and magnetic compass cues used by migratory songbirds for orientation has long been the topic of an intense debate. We have previously shown that migratory Savannah sparrows, Passerculus sandwichensis, use polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset to recalibrate their magnetic compass. Birds exposed to a +/-90 deg. shifted artificial polarization pattern at sunrise or sunset recalibrated their magnetic compass, but only when given full access to celestial cues, including polarized light cues near the horizon. In the current study, we carried out cue conflict experiments with white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis, during both spring and autumn migration in a transition zone between the species' breeding and wintering areas on the south shore of Lake Ontario. We show that white-throated sparrows also recalibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues at sunrise and sunset. Sunrise exposure to an artificial polarization pattern shifted relative to the natural magnetic field or exposure to a shift of the magnetic field relative to the natural sky both led to recalibration of the magnetic compass, demonstrating that artificial polarizing filters do not create an anomalous, unnatural orientation response. Our results further indicate that there is no evidence for a difference in compass hierarchy between different phases of migration, confirming previous work showing that polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset provide the primary calibration reference both in the beginning and at the end of migration. PMID:19837888

Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B; Deutschlander, Mark E

2009-11-01

42

Resonance effects indicate radical pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migratory birds possess a physiological magnetic compass that helps them to find north during their migratory flights, but the mechanism underlying this ability is not understood. In vitro experiments show that two types of mechanisms are in principle capable of detecting earth-strength magnetic fields in biological systems: the use of biological magnetic materials such as magnetite crystals, or magnetically sensitive chemical reactions. We have recently demonstrated that oscillating magnetic fields can provide a viable diagnostic test to identify the existence of a radical-pair mechanism as they will not affect the properties of magnetite-based sensors, but disrupt a radical-pair based mechanism through resonance effects. European robins, a species of migratory birds, were disoriented in a magnetic orientation test when a very weak (100 nT) oscillating field of 1.3 or 7 MHz was added to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the effect of the oscillating field depended on the alignment of oscillating field with the geomagnetic field and showed an intensity dependence consistent with theoretical expectations from the radical pair mechanism, thereby providing evidence for the existence of a radical-pair mechanism in birds. We will discuss future avenues of research towards identifying not only the mechanism, but also the chemical nature of the receptors underlying magnetoreception, and in particular the photoreceptor chryptochrome, an emerging candidate for the long sought after magnetoreceptor.

Ritz, Thorsten

2005-03-01

43

Applications of magnetic sensors for low cost compass systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for heading determination is described that will include the effects of pitch and roll as well as the magnetic properties of the vehicle. Using solid-state magnetic sensors and a tilt sensor, a low cost compass system can be realized. Commercial airlines today use attitude and heading reference systems that cost tens of thousands of dollars. For general aviation,

Michael J. Caruso

2000-01-01

44

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2014-10-01

45

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2010-10-01

46

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2011-10-01

47

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2012-10-01

48

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass—T/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2013-10-01

49

Sun Compass Orientation by Juvenile Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) CODY R. MOTT  

E-print Network

Sun Compass Orientation by Juvenile Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) CODY R. MOTT 1 AND MICHAEL while they swam tethered inside a large circular outdoor pool and were exposed to the sun. The turtles, the predicted direction if they used the sun for orientation. Westward orientation was unaffected by placing

Milton, Sarah

50

Calibration of the magnetic compass of a migratory bird by celestial rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIGRATORY birds use a variety of environmental stimuli in orientation. Species that migrate primarily at night can use compasses based on the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun and patterns of skylight polarization1-4. These compass mechanisms can interact both when migratory birds make day-to-day orientation decisions5 and during their ontogeny in young birds6,7. All of the known compasses used by migratory

Kenneth P. Able; Mary A. Able

1990-01-01

51

Probing a chemical compass: novel variants of low-frequency reaction yield detected magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

We present a study of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene triad previously shown to function as a chemical compass: the photogenerated carotenoid-fullerene radical pair recombines at a rate sensitive to the orientation of an applied magnetic field. To characterize the system we develop a time-resolved Low-Frequency Reaction Yield Detected Magnetic Resonance (tr-LF-RYDMR) technique; the effect of varying the relative orientation of applied static and 36 MHz oscillating magnetic fields is shown to be strongly dependent on the strength of the oscillating magnetic field. RYDMR is a diagnostic test for involvement of the radical pair mechanism in the magnetic field sensitivity of reaction rates or yields, and has previously been applied in animal behavioural experiments to verify the involvement of radical-pair-based intermediates in the magnetic compass sense of migratory birds. The spectroscopic selection rules governing RYDMR are well understood at microwave frequencies for which the so-called 'high-field approximation' is valid, but at lower frequencies different models are required. For example, the breakdown of the rotating frame approximation has recently been investigated, but less attention has so far been given to orientation effects. Here we gain physical insights into the interplay of the different magnetic interactions affecting low-frequency RYDMR experiments performed in the challenging regime in which static and oscillating applied magnetic fields as well as internal electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions are of comparable magnitude. Our observations aid the interpretation of existing RYDMR-based animal behavioural studies and will inform future applications of the technique to verify and characterize further the biological receptors involved in avian magnetoreception. PMID:25537133

Maeda, Kiminori; Storey, Jonathan G; Liddell, Paul A; Gust, Devens; Hore, P J; Wedge, C J; Timmel, Christiane R

2015-02-01

52

Daytime calibration of magnetic orientation in a migratory bird requires a view of skylight polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE orientation of migratory birds is based on a complex of interacting compass mechanisms (the geomagnetic field, stars, patterns of skylight polarization and, perhaps, the Sun)1,2. A magnetic compass develops in birds that have never seen the sky3-8, but the preferred direction of magnetic orientation may be modified during the first three months of life by exposing naive birds to

Kenneth P. Able; Mary A. Able

1993-01-01

53

Cryptochromes and neuronal-activity markers colocalize in the retina of migratory birds during magnetic orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual

Henrik Mouritsen; Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold; Miriam Liedvogel; Gesa Feenders; Julia Stalleicken; Petra Dirks; Reto Weiler

2004-01-01

54

Magnetic compass of migratory Savannah sparrows is calibrated by skylight polarization at sunrise and sunset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory birds use compass systems derived from the geomagnetic field, the stars, the sun and polarized light patterns. We\\u000a tested whether birds use a single underlying reference system for calibration of these compasses and, specifically, whether\\u000a sunset and sunrise polarized light cues from the region of the sky near the horizon are used to calibrate the magnetic compass.\\u000a We carried

Rachel Muheim; Susanne Åkesson; John B. Phillips

2007-01-01

55

Evidence for calibration of magnetic migratory orientation in Savannah sparrows reared in the field  

PubMed Central

The orientation system of migratory birds consists of a magnetic compass and compasses based upon celestial cues. In many places, magnetic compass directions and true or geographic compass directions differ (referred to as magnetic declination). It has been demonstrated experimentally in several species that the innate preferred direction of magnetic orientation can be calibrated by celestial rotation, an indicator of geographic directions. This calibration process brings the two types of compass into conformity and provides the birds with a mechanism that compensates for the spatial variation in magnetic declination. Calibration of magnetic orientation has heretofore been demonstrated only with hand-raised birds exposed to very large declination (90° or more). Here we show that the magnetic orientation of wild birds from near Albany, New York, USA (declination = 14° W) was N–S, a clockwise shift of 26° from the NNW–SSE direction of birds raised entirely indoors. Hand-raised birds having visual experience with either the daytime sky or both day and night sky orientated N–S, similar to wild-caught birds. These data provide the first confirmation that calibration of magnetic orientation occurs under natural conditions and in response to modest declination values.

P.Able, K.; A.Able, M.

1999-01-01

56

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator

L. B. Da Silva; D. L. Matthews; J. P. Fitch; M. J. Everett; B. W. Colston; G. F. Stone

1999-01-01

57

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which

Luiz B. Da Silva; Dennis L. Matthews; Joseph P. Fitch; Matthew J. Everett; Billy W. Colston; Gary F. Stone

1999-01-01

58

Rapid Learning of Magnetic Compass Direction by C57BL/6 Mice in a 4-Armed ‘Plus’ Water Maze  

PubMed Central

Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze) have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus) water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1) absence of alternative directional cues (2), rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3) electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats) have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds. PMID:24023673

Phillips, John B.; Youmans, Paul W.; Muheim, Rachel; Sloan, Kelly A.; Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S.; Anderson, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

59

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

60

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

1999-06-15

61

George Biddell Airy and his mechanical correction of the magnetic compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

George Biddell Airy (1801–1892) invented the first successful mechanical system of compass correction in 1838, at a time when iron ship-building, especially for steam-driven vessels, had become firmly established. One serious drawback to iron ships was the difficulty in the management of the magnetic compass on board due to the magnetic condition of the ship. The introduction to this paper,

Charles H. Cotter

1976-01-01

62

Calibration of sonobuoy compass via arrival time inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onboard magnetic compasses allow sonobuoys to measure their orientation and form beams along true headings. Compass failure means true array heading is unknown and the buoy's beams cannot be used for target localization and tracking. We describe a method for recovering buoy orientation by inverting the pattern of signal arrivals at the individual hydrophones, and present results using data recorded

K. J. Delaney; J. M. Alsup; P. Sullivan

2003-01-01

63

Sun Compass Orientation Helps Coral Reef Fish Larvae Return to Their Natal Reef  

PubMed Central

Reef fish sustain populations on isolated reefs and show genetic diversity between nearby reefs even though larvae of many species are swept away from the natal site during pelagic dispersal. Retention or recruitment to natal reefs requires orientation capabilities that enable larvae to find their way. Although olfactory and acoustically based orientation has been implicated in homing when larvae are in the reef’s vicinity, it is still unclear how they cope with greater distances. Here we show evidence for a sun compass mechanism that can bring the larvae to the vicinity of their natal reef. In a circular arena, pre-settlement larvae and early settlers (<24 hours) of the cardinal fish, Ostorhinchus doederleini, showed a strong SSE directional swimming response, which most likely has evolved to compensate for the locally prevailing large scale NNW current drift. When fish were clock-shifted 6 hours, they changed their orientation by ca. 180° as predicted by the tropical sun curve at One Tree Island, i.e. they used a time-compensated sun compass. Furthermore, the fish oriented most consistently at times of the day when the sun azimuth is easy to determine. Microsatellite markers showed that the larvae that had just arrived at One Tree Island genetically belonged to either the local reef population or to Fitzroy Reef located 12 kilometers to the SSE. The use of a sun compass adds a missing long-distance link to the hierarchy of other sensory abilities that can direct larvae to the region of origin, including their natal reef. Predominant local recruitment, in turn, can contribute to genetic isolation and potential speciation. PMID:23840396

Mouritsen, Henrik; Atema, Jelle; Kingsford, Michael J.; Gerlach, Gabriele

2013-01-01

64

REVIEW THE CASE FOR LIGHT-DEPENDENT MAGNETIC ORIENTATION IN ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-dependent models of magnetoreception have been proposed which involve an interaction between the magnetic field and either magnetite particles located within a photoreceptor or excited states of photopigment molecules. Consistent with a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass mechanism, magnetic orientation responses in salamanders, flies and birds have been shown to be affected by the wavelength of light. In birds and flies, it

MARK E. DEUTSCHLANDER; JOHN B. PHILLIPS; S. CHRIS BORLAND

65

Orientation of lizards in a Morris water-maze: roles of the sun compass and the parietal eye.  

PubMed

The present study examined for the first time whether a Morris water-maze can be used to explore compass and other orientation mechanisms in the ruin lizard Podarcis sicula. In the open field, during sunny days, lizards were individually trained to swim from the center of the water maze onto a hidden platform (the goal), positioned at the periphery of the maze in a single compass direction. The goal was invisible because it was placed just beneath the water surface and the water was rendered opaque. The results showed that lizards learn to swim directly towards the hidden goal under the sun in the absence of visual feature cues. We further examined whether the observed orientation response would be due to lizards learning the spatial position of the goal relative to the sun's azimuth, i.e. to the use of a time-compensated sun compass. Lizards reaching learning criteria were subjected to 6 h clock-shift (fast or slow), and tested for goal orientation in the Morris water-maze. Results demonstrated that the learned orientation response is mediated by a time-compensated sun compass. Further investigations provided direct evidence that in ruin lizards an intact parietal eye is required to perform goal orientation under the sun inside a Morris water-maze, and that other brain photoreceptors, like the pineal or deep brain photoreceptors, are not involved in orientation. PMID:19717673

Foà, Augusto; Basaglia, Francesca; Beltrami, Giulia; Carnacina, Margherita; Moretto, Elisa; Bertolucci, Cristiano

2009-09-15

66

Quantum probe and design for a chemical compass with magnetic nanostructures  

E-print Network

Magnetic fields as weak as Earth's may affect the outcome of certain photochemical reactions that go through a radical pair intermediate. When the reaction environment is anisotropic, this phenomenon can form the basis of a chemical compass and has been proposed as a mechanism for animal magnetoreception. Here, we demonstrate how to optimize the design of a chemical compass with a much better directional sensitivity simply by a gradient field, e.g. from a magnetic nanostructure. We propose an experimental test of these predictions, and suggest design principles for a hybrid metallic-organic chemical compass. In addition to the practical interest in designing a biomimetic weak magnetic field sensor, our result shows that gradient fields can server as powerful tools to probe spin correlations in radical pair reactions.

Jianming Cai

2010-11-24

67

Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

Schmierer, Eric N. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, F. Coyne (Los Alamos, NM); Hill, Dallas D. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-01-12

68

Research Papers Light-Dependent Shift in Bullfrog Tadpole Magnetic Compass  

E-print Network

the presence of a light-dependent magnetic compass in a urodele amphibian, the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens, mediated by extraocular photoreceptors located in or near the pineal organ. Newts relative to newts tested under full spectrum (white) or short-wavelength light. Here we report

Phillips, John B.

69

Should Animals Navigating Over Short Distances Switch to a Magnetic Compass Sense?  

PubMed Central

Magnetoreception can play a substantial role in long distance navigation by animals. I hypothesize that locomotion guided by a magnetic compass sense could also play a role in short distance navigation. Animals identify mates, prey, or other short distance navigational goals using different sensory modalities (olfaction, vision, audition, etc.) to detect sensory cues associated with those goals. In conditions where these cues become unreliable for navigation (due to flow changes, obstructions, noise interference, etc.), switching to a magnetic compass sense to guide locomotion toward the navigational goals could be beneficial. Using simulations based on known locomotory and flow parameters, I show this strategy has strong theoretical benefits for the nudibranch mollusk Tritonia diomedea navigating toward odor sources in variable flow. A number of other animals may garner similar benefits, particularly slow-moving species in environments with rapidly changing cues relevant for navigation. Faster animals might also benefit from switching to a magnetic compass sense, provided the initial cues used for navigation (acoustic signals, odors, etc.) are intermittent or change rapidly enough that the entire navigation behavior cannot be guided by a continuously detectable cue. Examination of the relative durations of navigational tasks, the persistence of navigational cues, and the stability of both navigators and navigational targets will identify candidates with the appropriate combination of unreliable initial cues and relatively immobile navigational goals for which this hypothetical behavior could be beneficial. Magnetic manipulations can then test whether a switch to a magnetic compass sense occurs. This hypothesis thus provides an alternative when considering the behavioral significance of a magnetic compass sense in animals. PMID:20740070

Wyeth, Russell C.

2010-01-01

70

DUMP; user-oriented memory dump utility. [CDC7600,6200,6400,6600; FTN V. 3 and COMPASS V3  

Microsoft Academic Search

DUMP is a user-oriented program dumping routine which provides diagnostics in English. It can be used to print a job's exchange package (operating registers) and part or all of its memory. It will print messages telling where the program was executing when it quit, why DUMP thinks it quit, and what routines have been called.CDC7600,6200,6400,6600; FTN V.3 and COMPASS V3;

2008-01-01

71

Create a Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this OLogy activity, kids learn how a compass works and why it will always point north. The activity begins with an overview that discusses our reliance on directions and how a compass works. Students are then given step-by-step, illustrated directions for creating a compass with a sewing needle, a small bar magnet, a small piece of foam, and other household items. The activity includes ideas about how to try out your compass.

72

Color appearance in interior daylight: observations of hue shifts in different compass orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper problems, aims, and preliminary results from an investigation of color appearance in north- and south- facing rooms are presented. This first part of the project includes an experimental study of six colors in two nuances of chromaticness, altogether twelve colors. Several methods for assessment and description have been used. Hue shifts are in focus together with chromaticness and room character. Color appearance was compared between rooms in different compass orientations and found to be clearly different. In the south facing room yellow colors tended towards elementary yellow, while greenish blue tended towards green. All colors increased in chromaticness. Colors in the north- facing room, on the other hand, tended to go in the opposite direction; greenish blue tended towards elementary blue and elementary blue increased its cromaticness most of all. Reddish blue colors showed no distinct tendency. Color variations due to reflexes, patches of light, shade and, shadow were important in assessing the identity color. The identity color is discussed together with the elasticity concept that has been developed to describe the range of different color appearances of an inherent color inside the room.

Harleman, Maud

2002-06-01

73

Interactions in the flexible orientation system of a migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIGRATING birds rely on interacting compass senses: magnetic, star, polarized light and perhaps Sun compasses1,2. During the development of orientation mechanisms, celestial rotation of stars at night3 and of polarized skylight patterns during the day time4 provide information about true compass directions that calibrates the direction of migration selected using the magnetic compass3-11. It might often be advantageous to adjust

Kenneth P. Able; Mary A. Able

1995-01-01

74

Dancing Compasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use compasses to detect the magnetic field created by current moving through a wire. This is one of four activities learners can complete related to PhysicsQuest 2008. Each activity gives a clue to solve a puzzle in the accompanying comic book, "Nikola Tesla and the Electric Fair."

Society, American P.

2009-01-01

75

Directional orientation of birds by the magnetic field under different light conditions  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the directional orientation of birds with the help of the geomagnetic field under various light conditions. Two fundamentally different types of response can be distinguished. (i) Compass orientation controlled by the inclination compass that allows birds to locate courses of different origin. This is restricted to a narrow functional window around the total intensity of the local geomagnetic field and requires light from the short-wavelength part of the spectrum. The compass is based on radical-pair processes in the right eye; magnetite-based receptors in the beak are not involved. Compass orientation is observed under ‘white’ and low-level monochromatic light from ultraviolet (UV) to about 565 nm green light. (ii) ‘Fixed direction’ responses occur under artificial light conditions such as more intense monochromatic light, when 590 nm yellow light is added to short-wavelength light, and in total darkness. The manifestation of these responses depends on the ambient light regime and is ‘fixed’ in the sense of not showing the normal change between spring and autumn; their biological significance is unclear. In contrast to compass orientation, fixed-direction responses are polar magnetic responses and occur within a wide range of magnetic intensities. They are disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, which indicates that the respective magnetic information is mediated by iron-based receptors located there. The influence of light conditions on the two types of response suggests complex interactions between magnetoreceptors in the right eye, those in the upper beak and the visual system. PMID:19864263

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

76

Freely Oriented, Portable Superconducting Magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-field low-temperature superconducting solenoidal magnet was developed that is portable and can be operated in any orientation relative to gravity. The design consists of several features that make this feasible; 1) bulk liquid cryogen storage occurs in a separate Dewar rather than as part of the magnet assembly, which allows single-person transport due to each component of the system having low relative weight, 2) vapor generated pressurization that circulates cryogenic fluid to and from the magnet with flexible transfer lines allowing operation in any orientation, and 3) composite, low-conducting structural members are used to suspend the magnet and shield layers within the vacuum vessel that provide a robust low heat loss design. Cooling is provided to the magnet through fluid channels that are in thermal contact with the magnet. The overall design of this magnet system, some of the analyses performed that address unique behavior of this system (pressure rise during a magnet quench and transient cooldown), and test results are presented.

Schmierer, E. N.; Charles, B.; Efferson, R.; Hill, D.; Jankowski, T.; Laughon, G.; Prenger, C.

2008-03-01

77

Magnetic Compass Orientation in Larval Iberian Green Frogs, Pelophylax Perezi  

E-print Network

been demonstrated in the cave salamander, Eurycea lucifuga (Phillips 1977), Eastern red-spotted newts et al. 2000) and, more recently, in alpine newts, Mesotriton alpestris (Diego- Rasilla 2003; Diego-Rasilla et al. 2005) and Bosca's newts, Lissotriton helveticus (Rodri´guez-Garci´a & Diego-Rasilla 2006

Phillips, John B.

78

Exact treatment of magnetism-driven ferroelectricity in the one-dimensional compass model  

E-print Network

We consider a class of one-dimensional compass models with antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction in an external magnetic field. Based on the exact solution derived by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation, we study the excitation gap, spin correlations, ground-state degeneracy, and critical properties at phase transitions. The phase diagram at finite electric and magnetic field consists of three phases: ferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic, and chiral. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction induces an electrical polarization in the ground state of the chiral phase, where the nonlocal string order and special features of entanglement spectra arise, while strong chiral correlations emerge at finite temperature in the other phases and are controlled by a gap between the nonchiral ground state and the chiral excitations. We further show that the magnetoelectric effects in all phases disappear above a typical temperature corresponding to the total bandwidth of the effective fermionic model. To this end we explore the entropy, specific heat, magnetization, electric polarization, and the magnetoelectric tensor at finite temperature. We identify rather peculiar specific-heat and polarization behavior of the compass model which follows from highly frustrated interactions.

Wen-Long You; Guang-Hua Liu; Peter Horsch; Andrzej M. Ole?

2014-09-20

79

Exact treatment of magnetism-driven ferroelectricity in the one-dimensional compass model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a class of one-dimensional compass models with antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction in an external magnetic field. Based on the exact solution derived by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation, we study the excitation gap, spin correlations, ground-state degeneracy, and critical properties at phase transitions. The phase diagram at finite electric and magnetic field consists of three phases: ferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic, and chiral. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction induces an electrical polarization in the ground state of the chiral phase, where the nonlocal string order and special features of entanglement spectra arise, while strong chiral correlations emerge at finite temperature in the other phases and are controlled by a gap between the nonchiral ground state and the chiral excitations. We further show that the magnetoelectric effects in all phases disappear above a typical temperature corresponding to the total bandwidth of the effective fermionic model. To this end we explore the entropy, specific heat, magnetization, electric polarization, and the magnetoelectric tensor at finite temperature. We identify rather peculiar specific-heat and polarization behavior of the compass model which follows from highly frustrated interactions.

You, Wen-Long; Liu, Guang-Hua; Horsch, Peter; Ole?, Andrzej M.

2014-09-01

80

Compassion Fatigue in Clinical Psychologists.  

E-print Network

?? This study examined the relationship between compassion fatigue, how Cognitive Behavioral oriented therapists are, self-efficacy, how positively respondents viewed their time spent in therapy,… (more)

Fulk, Brandi Leigh Anna

2014-01-01

81

Avian orientation at steep angles of inclination: experiments with migratory white-crowned sparrows at the magnetic North Pole.  

PubMed

The Earth's magnetic field and celestial cues provide animals with compass information during migration. Inherited magnetic compass courses are selected based on the angle of inclination, making it difficult to orient in the near vertical fields found at high geomagnetic latitudes. Orientation cage experiments were performed at different sites in high Arctic Canada with adult and young white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in order to investigate birds' ability to use the Earth's magnetic field and celestial cues for orientation in naturally very steep magnetic fields at and close to the magnetic North Pole. Experiments were performed during the natural period of migration at night in the local geomagnetic field under natural clear skies and under simulated total overcast conditions. The experimental birds failed to select a meaningful magnetic compass course under overcast conditions at the magnetic North Pole, but could do so in geomagnetic fields deviating less than 3 degrees from the vertical. Migratory orientation was successful at all sites when celestial cues were available. PMID:11564346

Akesson, S; Morin, J; Muheim, R; Ottosson, U

2001-09-22

82

Orientation effects in pulsed magnetic field treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the orientation effects on residual stress release by pulsed magnetic field treatment. Specimens are produced by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and the initial residual stresses in them are measured by the hole-drilling method. With different orientations these specimens are treated in the same magnetic field and the residual stresses are measured for the second time. By

Cai Zhipeng; Lin Jian; Zhao Haiyan; Lu Anli

2005-01-01

83

Orientation in a desert lizard ( Uma notata ): time-compensated compass movement and polarotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal escape response of fringetoed lizards (Uma notata) startled by predators demonstrates clear directional orientation not likely to depend on local landmarks in the shifting sands of their desert environment. Evidence that celestial orientation is involved in this behavior has been sought in the present experiments by testing the effects of (1) phase shifting the animal's internal clock by

Kraig Adler; John B. Phillips

1985-01-01

84

Magnetically guiding and orienting integrated chemical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent microsensors for detecting pH and oxygen were positioned and oriented using magnetic tweezers. These multifunctional integrated microsensors were fabricated by physically linking together nano-components including magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent nanoparticles, and metal hemisphere-shells. Two such microsensors are magnetic roll-shaped polystyrene particles with 120 nm fluorescent oxygen-sensing ormosil nanospheres that are physically pressed ("breaded") into the roll surface, and 4-5 µm fluorescent microspheres that are capped with a 50 nm thick metal hemispherical shell. The magnetic tweezers consisted of an iron wire that was magnetized in an external magnetic field. Rotating this external field oriented and rotated the microsensors.

Anker, Jeffrey N.; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kopelman, Raoul

2014-08-01

85

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

86

Compassion Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion fatigue is characterized by physical and psychological exhaustion resulting from excessive professional demands that drain available personal resources. While all helping professionals are vulnerable to compassion fatigue, the authors believe that social workers working with the elderly have unique stresses that make them a high-risk group for compassion fatigue. Increased frustration over limited financial, social and medical services for

Ana M. Leon; Judith A. S. Altholz; Sophia F. Dziegielewski

1999-01-01

87

Compact Optoelectronic Compass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact optoelectronic sensor unit measures the apparent motion of the Sun across the sky. The data acquired by this chip are processed in an external processor to estimate the relative orientation of the axis of rotation of the Earth. Hence, the combination of this chip and the external processor finds the direction of true North relative to the chip: in other words, the combination acts as a solar compass. If the compass is further combined with a clock, then the combination can be used to establish a threeaxis inertial coordinate system. If, in addition, an auxiliary sensor measures the local vertical direction, then the resulting system can determine the geographic position. This chip and the software used in the processor are based mostly on the same design and operation as those of the unit described in Micro Sun Sensor for Spacecraft (NPO-30867) elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. Like the unit described in that article, this unit includes a small multiple-pinhole camera comprising a micromachined mask containing a rectangular array of microscopic pinholes mounted a short distance in front of an image detector of the active-pixel sensor (APS) type (see figure). Further as in the other unit, the digitized output of the APS in this chip is processed to compute the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. Then the direction to the Sun, relative to the compass chip, is computed from the positions of the centroids (just like a sundial). In the operation of this chip, one is interested not only in the instantaneous direction to the Sun but also in the apparent path traced out by the direction to the Sun as a result of rotation of the Earth during an observation interval (during which the Sun sensor must remain stationary with respect to the Earth). The apparent path of the Sun across the sky is projected on a sphere. The axis of rotation of the Earth lies at the center of the projected circle on the sphere surface. Hence, true North (not magnetic North), relative to the chip, can be estimated from paths of the Sun images across the APS. In a test, this solar compass has been found to yield a coarse estimate of the North (within tens of degrees) in an observation time of about ten minutes. As expected, the accuracy was found to increase with observation time: after a few hours, the estimated direction of the rotation axis becomes accurate to within a small fraction of a degree.

Christian, Carl

2004-01-01

88

Compassion in the landscape of suffering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate compassion and its place within mindfulness-based approaches. Compassion is an orientation of mind that recognizes pain and the universality of pain in human experience and the capacity to meet that pain with kindness, empathy, equanimity and patience. We outline how learning to meet pain with compassion is part of how people come to live with

Christina Feldman; Willem Kuyken

2011-01-01

89

Compass models: Theory and physical motivations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compass models are theories of matter in which the couplings between the internal spin (or other relevant field) components are inherently spatially (typically, direction) dependent. A simple illustrative example is furnished by the 90° compass model on a square lattice in which only couplings of the form ?ix?jx (where {?ia}a denote Pauli operators at site i ) are associated with nearest-neighbor sites i and j separated along the x axis of the lattice while ?iy?jy couplings appear for sites separated by a lattice constant along the y axis. Similar compass-type interactions can appear in diverse physical systems. For instance, compass models describe Mott insulators with orbital degrees of freedom where interactions sensitively depend on the spatial orientation of the orbitals involved as well as the low-energy effective theories of frustrated quantum magnets, and a host of other systems such as vacancy centers, and cold atomic gases. The fundamental interdependence between internal (spin, orbital, or other) and external (i.e., spatial) degrees of freedom which underlies compass models generally leads to very rich behaviors, including the frustration of (semi-)classical ordered states on nonfrustrated lattices, and to enhanced quantum effects, prompting, in certain cases, the appearance of zero-temperature quantum spin liquids. As a consequence of these frustrations, new types of symmetries and their associated degeneracies may appear. These intermediate symmetries lie midway between the extremes of global symmetries and local gauge symmetries and lead to effective dimensional reductions. In this article, compass models are reviewed in a unified manner, paying close attention to exact consequences of these symmetries and to thermal and quantum fluctuations that stabilize orders via order-out-of-disorder effects. This is complemented by a survey of numerical results. In addition to reviewing past works, a number of other models are introduced and new results established. In particular, a general link between flat bands and symmetries is detailed.

Nussinov, Zohar; van den Brink, Jeroen

2015-01-01

90

Magnetoreception: activated cryptochrome 1a concurs with magnetic orientation in birds.  

PubMed

The radical pair model proposes that the avian magnetic compass is based on radical pair processes in the eye, with cryptochrome, a flavoprotein, suggested as receptor molecule. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is localized at the discs of the outer segments of the UV/violet cones of European robins and chickens. Here, we show the activation characteristics of a bird cryptochrome in vivo under natural conditions. We exposed chickens for 30 min to different light regimes and analysed the amount of Cry1a labelled with an antiserum against an epitope at the C-terminus of this protein. The staining after exposure to sunlight and to darkness indicated that the antiserum labels only an illuminated, activated form of Cry1a. Exposure to narrow-bandwidth lights of various wavelengths revealed activated Cry1a at UV, blue and turquoise light. With green and yellow, the amount of activated Cry1a was reduced, and with red, as in the dark, no activated Cry1a was labelled. Activated Cry1a is thus found at all those wavelengths at which birds can orient using their magnetic inclination compass, supporting the role of Cry1a as receptor molecule. The observation that activated Cry1a and well-oriented behaviour occur at 565 nm green light, a wavelength not absorbed by the fully oxidized form of cryptochrome, suggests that a state other than the previously suggested Trp/FAD radical pair formed during photoreduction is crucial for detecting magnetic directions. PMID:23966619

Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Stapput, Katrin; Ahmad, Margaret; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2013-11-01

91

Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass.  

PubMed

The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules. PMID:25375523

Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

2014-10-01

92

Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass  

E-print Network

The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

Yiteng Zhang; Gennady P. Berman; Sabre Kais

2014-02-01

93

Trough Compass with Case, 1916  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The storage case has a sliding lid. The compass is marked Troughton & Simms Ltd, London, 1916, No.9214. A trough compass is used with either a plane table or a theodolite. The needle is a long magnetized bar of steel which is pointed at both ends. Object ID: USGS-000824...

2009-07-20

94

North-centred orientation tracking on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic compasses and accelerometers provide absolute orientation measurements within the earth's reference frame. However, sensor output typically suffers from jitter and external disturbances. Conversely, visual tracking provides more stable orientation estimation relative to an unknown initial orientation rather than to true north. We propose a 3-degree-of-freedom orientation tracking approach combining the accuracy and stability of vision tracking with the absolute

Gerhard Schall; Alessandro Mulloni; Gerhard Reitmayr

2010-01-01

95

Cryptochromes and neuronal-activity markers colocalize in the retina of migratory birds during magnetic orientation.  

PubMed

Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception. PMID:15381765

Mouritsen, Henrik; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Liedvogel, Miriam; Feenders, Gesa; Stalleicken, Julia; Dirks, Petra; Weiler, Reto

2004-09-28

96

Magnetic material arrangement in oriented termites: a magnetic resonance study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of the magnetic resonance is used to study the magnetic material in oriented Neocapritermes opacus (N.o.) termite, the only prey of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.). A broad line in the g=2 region, associated to isolated nanoparticles shows that at least 97% of the magnetic material is in the termite's body (abdomen + thorax). From the temperature dependence of the resonant field and from the spectral linewidths, we estimate the existence of magnetic nanoparticles 18.5 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and an effective magnetic anisotropy constant, Keff between 2.1 and 3.2 × 10 4 erg/cm 3. A sudden change in the double integrated spectra at about 100 K for N.o. with the long body axis oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field can be attributed to the Verwey transition, and suggests an organized film-like particle system.

Alves, O. C.; Wajnberg, E.; de Oliveira, J. F.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

2004-06-01

97

Fiber optic compass development  

E-print Network

A fiber optic system for measuring magnetic heading and pitch of one or more compass heads in a towed acoustic array has been developed as a cooperative effort between engineers at Fiber Dynamics, Inc., and faculty and graduate students at Texas A...

Park, Kyongtae

2005-11-01

98

Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a ''compass organelle'' containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe3O4). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic

Richard A. Holland; Joseph L. Kirschvink; Thomas G. Doak; Martin Wikelski

2008-01-01

99

Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a “compass organelle” containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe3O4). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic

Richard A. Holland; Joseph L. Kirschvink; Thomas G. Doak; Martin Wikelski; Sarah Frances Brosnan

2008-01-01

100

Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

2004-04-01

101

The flexible migratory orientation system of the savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)  

PubMed

The orientation system of the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) is typical of nocturnal migrant passerine birds. It is based on a system of interacting compass senses: magnetic, star, polarized light and, perhaps, sun compasses. The magnetic compass capability develops in birds that have never seen the sky, but the preferred direction of magnetic orientation may be calibrated by celestial rotation (stars at night and polarized skylight patterns during the day). This ability to recalibrate magnetic orientation persists throughout life and enables the bird to compensate for variability in magnetic declination that may be encountered as it migrates. The polarized light compass may be manipulated by exposing young birds to altered patterns of skylight polarization. There is some evidence that the magnetic field may be involved in calibration of the polarized light compass. In short-term orientation decision-making during migration, visual information at sunset overrides both stars and magnetic cues, and polarized skylight is the relevant stimulus in dusk orientation. The star pattern compass seems to be of little importance. This extremely flexible orientation system enables the birds to respond to spatial and temporal variability in the quality and availability of orientation information. PMID:9317228

Able; Able

1996-01-01

102

Navigating the Earth with a Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is an introduction to the use of a magnetic compass. At a specific location, learners will locate an object using a compass, identify its bearing, and others will attempt to locate the object by only knowing the bearing reading and the corresponding location where the bearing was obtained. Next, learners will develop a method for determining if a magnetic storm is occurring, and they will test this method using online information and a compass. This activity requires compasses and access to the Internet. This is Activity 5 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide.

103

Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion  

PubMed Central

Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? People tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another’s suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). Following laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. Following exposure to others’ suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. Following neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed. PMID:23914766

Condon, Paul; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2014-01-01

104

A PURPOSE ORIENTED MAGNETIC SEPARATOR: SKIMMER  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic separator was designed to selectively separate fine-liberated magnetite. The conceptual design was simulated using CFD techniques. A separator tank was fabricated and a magnetic drum was used to capture magnetic particles. The initial tank design was modified to eliminate application oriented problems. The new separator was able to produce a fine product as a concentrate at relatively high feed rates. A plant simulation showed that such a device could lower circulating loads around ball mills by 16%, thereby creating room for a 5-8% increase in throughput at the same energy level. However, it was concluded that further improvements in terms of both size and mineral selectivity are needed to have a marketable product.

Salih Ersayin

2005-08-09

105

Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review  

PubMed Central

What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate three evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering, distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization, and a phenomenological experience and physiological response that orients the individual to social approach. This response profile of compassion differs from those of distress, sadness, and love, suggesting that compassion is indeed a distinct emotion. We conclude by considering how compassion shapes moral judgment and action, how it varies across different cultures, and how it may engage specific patterns of neural activation, as well as emerging directions of research. PMID:20438142

Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

2010-01-01

106

Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

2014-01-01

107

The orientation and navigation of juvenile alligators: evidence of magnetic sensitivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Displaced juvenile alligators, Alligator mississipiensis, were released on land in a 9 m diameter dodecagonal arena to test their ability to orient in the absence of terrestrial landmarks. Navigational ability seemed to improve with age. When displaced along a fairly direct route yearlings (age 7–14 months) compensated for their displacement, moving in the direction from the arena to their home sites. When displaced by a circuitous route, yearlings failed to compensate for their displacement, exhibiting instead simple compass orientation in a direction that would have returned them to water had they been released on land near the site where they were captured. The older juveniles were oriented in a homeward direction under all displacement and test conditions. The latter animals may have been using geomagnetic map information to select their homeward directions as the errors in their homeward bearings correlated with small deviations in the geomagnetic field's dip angle at the time of the test (1980r s=?0.6047,P=0.0131, all testsr s= ?0.4652,P=0.0084). This effect appeared to depend on a very short-term assessment of geomagnetic conditions, as values measured 20 min before or 30 min after the tests began did not correlate with the directions the animals moved. The older juveniles appeared to use magnetically quiet hours on the night of their capture as the baseline from which to measure the geomagnetic deviations that occurred at the time of the arena test. The magnitude of the magnetic effect in the older animals suggests that the geomagnetic information may have been used to perform a ‘map’ step, as small fluctuations in dip angle correlated with much larger deviations in homeward bearings. In addition, the compass-oriented yearlings and the seemingly route-based behavior of the homeward-oriented yearlings did not appear to be influenced by geomagnetic conditions. These findings have many parallels in results obtained from bird orientation studies, providing evidence that navigation may share a common basis in different vertebrate groups.

Rodda, Gordon H.

1984-01-01

108

Remotely readable fiber optic compass  

DOEpatents

A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.; Garrett, S.L.

1985-04-30

109

Remotely readable fiber optic compass  

DOEpatents

A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Garrett, Steven L. (Pebble Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

110

Compass and Kitaev models -- Theory and Physical Motivations  

E-print Network

Compass models are theories of matter in which the couplings between the internal spin (or other relevant field) components are inherently spatially (typically, direction) dependent. Compass-type interactions appear in diverse physical systems including Mott insulators with orbital degrees of freedom (where interactions sensitively depend on the spatial orientation of the orbitals involved), the low energy effective theories of frustrated quantum magnets, systems with strong spin-orbit couplings (such as the iridates), vacancy centers, and cold atomic gases. Kitaev's models, in particular the compass variant on the honeycomb lattice, realize basic notions of topological quantum computing. The fundamental inter-dependence between internal (spin, orbital, or other) and external (i.e., spatial) degrees of freedom which underlies compass models generally leads to very rich behaviors including the frustration of (semi-)classical ordered states on non-frustrated lattices and to enhanced quantum effects prompting, in certain cases, the appearance of zero temperature quantum spin liquids. As a consequence of these frustrations, new types of symmetries and their associated degeneracies may appear. These intermediate symmetries lie midway between the extremes of global symmetries and local gauge symmetries and lead to effective dimensional reductions. We review compass models in a unified manner, paying close attention to exact consequences of these symmetries, and to thermal and quantum fluctuations that stabilize orders via order out of disorder effects. We review non-trivial statistics and the appearance of topological quantum orders in compass systems in which, by virtue of their intermediate symmetry standard orders do not arise. This is complemented by a survey of numerical results. Where appropriate theoretical and experimental results are compared.

Zohar Nussinov; Jeroen van den Brink

2013-03-24

111

Detection of alterations in human sperm using magnetic orientation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we report on magnetic orientation of human sperms. Samples were taken from 17 donors. Normal human sperms became oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the magnetic field ( 1 Tesla maximum). Total orientation was achieved with magnetic field at about one Tesla, while for abnormal sperms the magnetic behavior was different. The dependence of the measured degree of orientation on the intensity of the magnetic field was in good agreement with the theoretical equation for the magnetic orientation of diamagnetic substances. As a result for a numerical analysis based on the equation, the anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of normal sperm was found to be ? ?= 8×10 -20 J/T2. The degree of orientation was influenced by the alterations in the shape of the head, body or the tail. It has been suggested that the DNA in the sperm head retain the strong magnetic anisotropy to counter balance the magnetic anisotropy retained by flagellum microtubules. Recent studies demonstrated a well-defined nuclear architecture in human sperm nucleus, where the head morphology has significant correlation with sperm chromatin structure assay SCSA. Then as the methods to evaluate SCSA can be difficult and expensive our simple magnetic orientation technique can be an alternative to diagnose alteration in DNA.

Sakhnini, Lama; Dairi, Maheen; Manaa, Hacene

2007-09-01

112

Compassion fatigue in nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion fatigue, trigger situations, and coping strategies were investigated in hospital and home care nurses. The Professional Quality of Life Scale measured compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. Narrative questions elicited trigger situations and coping strategies. Compassion fatigue scores were significantly different between nurses who worked 8- or 12-hour shifts. Fifteen percent of the participants had scores indicating risk of

Elizabeth A. Yoder

2010-01-01

113

Optimal coil orientation for transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

PubMed

We study the impact of coil orientation on the motor threshold (MT) and present an optimal coil orientation for stimulation of the foot. The result can be compared to results of models that predict this orientation from electrodynamic properties of the media in the skull and from orientations of cells, respectively. We used a robotized TMS system for precise coil placement and recorded motor-evoked potentials with surface electrodes on the abductor hallucis muscle of the right foot in 8 healthy control subjects. First, we performed a hot-spot search in standard (lateral) orientation and then rotated the coil in steps of 10° or 20°. At each step we estimated the MT. For navigated stimulation and for correlation with the underlying anatomy a structural MRI scan was obtained. Optimal coil orientation was 33.1 ± 18.3° anteriorly in relation to the standard lateral orientation. In this orientation the threshold was 54 ± 18% in units of maximum stimulator output. There was a significant difference of 8.0 ± 5.9% between the MTs at optimal and at standard orientation. The optimal coil orientations were significantly correlated with the direction perpendicular to the postcentral gyrus ([Formula: see text]). Robotized TMS facilitates sufficiently precise coil positioning and orientation to study even small variations of the MT with coil orientation. The deviations from standard orientation are more closely matched by models based on field propagation in media than by models based on orientations of pyramidal cells. PMID:23593200

Richter, Lars; Neumann, Gunnar; Oung, Stephen; Schweikard, Achim; Trillenberg, Peter

2013-01-01

114

Computational modeling of magnetically actuated propellant orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike terrestrial applications where gravity positions liquid at the 'bottom' of the tank, the location of liquid propellant in spacecraft tanks is uncertain unless specific actions are taken or special features are built into the tank. Some mission events require knowledge of liquid position prior to a particular action: liquid must be positioned over the tank outlet prior to starting the main engines and must be moved away from the tank vent before vapor can be released overboard to reduce pressure. It may also be desirable to positively position liquid to improve propulsion system performance: moving liquid away from the tank walls will dramatically decrease the rate of heat transfer to the propellant, suppressing the boil-off rate, thereby reducing overall mission propellant requirements. The process of moving propellant to a desired position is referred to as propellant orientation or reorientation. Several techniques have been developed to positively position propellant in spacecraft tanks and each technique imposes additional requirements on vehicle design. Propulsive reorientation relies on small auxiliary thrusters to accelerate the tank. The inertia of the liquid causes it to collect in the aft-end of the tank if the acceleration is forward. This technique requires that additional thrusters be added to the vehicle, that additional propellant be carried in the vehicle, and that an additional operational maneuver be executed. Another technique uses Liquid Acquisition Devices (LAD's) to positively position propellants. These devices rely on surface tension to hold the liquid within special geometries (i.e. vanes, wire-mesh channels, start-baskets). While avoiding some of the penalties of propulsive orientation, this technique requires the addition of complicated hardware inside the propellant tank and performance for long duration missions is uncertain. The subject of the present research is an alternate technique for positively positioning liquid within spacecraft propellant tanks: magnetic fields.

Hochstein, John I.

1996-01-01

115

The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement  

E-print Network

We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...

Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

2015-01-01

116

The development of migratory orientation mechanisms.  

PubMed

Recent experimental studies (since ca. 1985) on the ontogeny of orientation mechanisms in migratory birds are reviewed. The processes and interactions are synthesized into a framework that may help identify critical research questions. Birds that grow up in the earth's magnetic field develop the ability to perform appropriate migratory orientation, even in the absence of any experience with relevant visual cues. In two species, large changes in direction during the course of migration seem to be controlled by an endogenous time program. In one of these, the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), the correct magnetic orientation seems to occur only when the magnetic fields appropriate to the latitudes encountered en route were experienced at the proper seasonal time. The magnetic compass may be modified by visual experience with either the day or night sky. Celestial rotation may be the calibrating reference in this case, as it is in the development of the star compass. Young Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) learn to perform compass orientation at sunset based on polarized skylight. This compass capability seems to be calibrated by magnetic directions. Some problems of experimental design and the interpretation of results from experiments on development are discussed. PMID:1838514

Able, K P

1991-01-01

117

Compensation of magnetic disturbances improves inertial and magnetic sensing of human body segment orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a complementary Kalman filter design to estimate orientation of human body segments by fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer signals from miniature sensors. Ferromagnetic materials or other magnetic fields near the sensor module disturb the local earth magnetic field and, therefore, the orientation estimation, which impedes many (ambulatory) applications. In the filter, the gyroscope bias error, orientation error,

Daniel Roetenberg; Henk J. Luinge; Chris T. M. Baten; Peter H. Veltink

2005-01-01

118

Finding Your Way with Map and Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of navigating with a topographic map and compass. Topics include the features and symbols used on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) maps, the use of scale to represent distance, and how to determine direction with a magnetic compass. There is also information on the scales and areas represented on various USGS maps and on how to compensate for magnetic declination.

119

From Compass to Hard Drive--Integrated Activities for Studying Magnets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a range of practical activities that allows students to investigate the properties and applications of magnets. The activities can be used in isolation or used together to build a rounded understanding of the subject area. The activities include simple demonstrations using common or inexpensive equipment, hands-on experiments for small…

Dean, J.; Allwood, D. A.

2014-01-01

120

Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films  

SciTech Connect

Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-02-21

121

Magnetic orientation of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis), a species breeding in the high Arctic: passage migration through temperate-zone areas  

PubMed

Orientation tests were conducted with snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) exposed to artificially manipulated magnetic fields, during both spring and autumn migration. Experiments were run under clear sunset skies and under simulated complete overcast. The birds closely followed experimental shifts of the magnetic fields during both seasons regardless of whether they had access to celestial cues. Clear-sky tests in vertical magnetic fields resulted in a significant bimodal orientation, the directionality of which was almost identical during spring and autumn. When the snow buntings were deprived of celestial directional information and tested in vertical magnetic fields, they failed to show any statistically significant mean directions in either spring or autumn. The results demonstrate that snow buntings possess a magnetic compass and suggest that magnetic cues are of primary importance for their migratory orientation while on passage through temperate-zone areas. However, the axial orientation in vertical magnetic fields under clear skies may indicate an involvement of celestial cues as an auxiliary source of directional information. PMID:9319809

Sandberg; Pettersson

1996-01-01

122

Determination of orientational order parameters from 2H NMR spectra of magnetically partially oriented lipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

The partial orientation of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) in high magnetic fields is known to affect the shape of 2H NMR spectra. There are numerical methods for extracting either the orientational order parameters of lipid molecules for a random distribution of domain orientations in the sample, or the distribution of orientations for a known set of spectral anisotropies. A first attempt at determining the orientational order parameters in the presence of an unknown nonrandom distribution of orientations is presented. The numerical method is based on the Tikhonov regularization algorithm. It is tested using simulated partially oriented spectra. An experimental spectrum of a phospholipid-ether mixture in water is analyzed as an example. The experimental spectrum is consistent with an ellipsoidal shape of MLVs with a ratio of semiaxes of approximately 3.4. PMID:9533713

Schäfer, H; Mädler, B; Sternin, E

1998-01-01

123

Magnetic Position and Orientation Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-axis generation and sensing of quasi-static magneticdipole fields provide information sufficient to determine both the position and orientation of the sensor relative to the source. Linear rotation transformations based upon the previous measurements are applied to both the source excitation and sensor output vectors, yielding quantities that are linearly propotional to small changes in the position and orientation. Changes are

Frederick Raab; Ernest Blood; Terry Steiner; Herbert Jones

1979-01-01

124

Detection of weak magnetic signal for magnetic localization and orientation in capsule endoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A permanent magnet is embedded in the capsule endoscope to perform as an excitation source for tracking capsule's position and orientation, and a magnetic sensor array is built around the capsule to capture the signals from magnet. However, the magnet-field signal is weak and attenuates dramatically when the spatial distance between the magnet and the sensor increases. How to detect

Mao Li; Chao Hu; Shuang Song; Houde Dai; Max Q.-H. Meng

2009-01-01

125

Measuring Compassion Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript provides practitioners a gateway into understanding assessment instruments for compassion fatigue. We first\\u000a describe and then evaluate the leading assessments of compassion fatigue in terms of their reliability and their validity.\\u000a Although different instruments have different foci, each described instrument measures at least one component of compassion\\u000a fatigue. The final section discusses three factors in selecting a compassion

Brian E. Bride; Melissa Radey; Charles R. Figley

2007-01-01

126

Orientation of lipid tubules by a magnetic field.  

PubMed

Lipid tubules, which are straight hollow cylinders consisting of lipid bilayers, are shown to orient in strong magnetic fields. Birefringence measurements were made of dilute samples of tubules of 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC23PC) in magnetic fields of up to 4 T. The tubules were found to orient with their long axes parallel to the field direction, with saturated orientation [P2 (cos theta] approximately greater than 0.95) found at approximately 2 T. From known distributions of lengths and the number of bilayers in the walls, a value delta chi = (-7 +/- 1) X 10(-9) erg cm-3 G-2 was calculated for the tubules, which compares well with some previously reported values for phosphatidylcholines. Magnetic alignment will permit more sophisticated structural studies of monomeric and polymeric tubules, and provide a method of orienting macromolecules in the tubule walls or interior. PMID:3663833

Rosenblatt, C; Yager, P; Schoen, P E

1987-08-01

127

Conditioned discrimination of magnetic inclination in a spatial-orientation arena task by homing pigeons (Columba livia).  

PubMed

It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:25278470

Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P

2014-12-01

128

Polar plumes' orientation and the Sun's global magnetic field  

E-print Network

We characterize the orientation of polar plumes as a tracer of the large-scale coronal magnetic field configuration. We monitor in particular the north and south magnetic pole locations and the magnetic opening during 2007-2008 and provide some understanding of the variations in these quantities. The polar plume orientation is determined by applying the Hough-wavelet transform to a series of EUV images and extracting the key Hough space parameters of the resulting maps. The same procedure is applied to the polar cap field inclination derived from extrapolating magnetograms generated by a surface flux transport model. We observe that the position where the magnetic field is radial (the Sun's magnetic poles) reflects the global organization of magnetic field on the solar surface, and we suggest that this opens the possibility of both detecting flux emergence anywhere on the solar surface (including the far side) and better constraining the reorganization of the corona after flux emergence.

de Patoul, Judith; Cameron, Robert

2013-01-01

129

Search for order in magnetic dispersions: Magnetic field and shear induced particle orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic tapes are manufactured by a coating process where a magnetic dispersion is cast onto a polymer base film. Immediately after coating the wet films are subjected to a magnetic field that orients the rod-like magnetic particles parallel to the machine direction of the tape. In reality there is a distribution of particle orientations. Our interest in increasing the particle orientation order in magnetic tape has led us to search for methods of achieving high particle orientation order in magnetic dispersions. An understanding of the particle orientation order in the dispersion is of great importance in controlling the properties of the final product. Inspired by a mean field model and cryo-VSM technique, we have developed an experimental method to measure the degree of particle orientation order in magnetic dispersions, which can not only reveal the quality of dispersion quantitatively, but also help refine existing theoretical models. In this method, the angular dependence remanence of a frozen magnetic dispersion sample is measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer, and then the degree of particle order orientation can be calculated from those experimental results. The effect of the external magnetic field on the particle orientation of the magnetic dispersion is investigated using the technique of cryo-VSM. The effect of the particle loading is also investigated. We also compare the cryo-VSM results to the calculated orientation order parameter from the single particle mean field model developed by Bhandar and Wiest. Small angle neutron scattering measurements were performed to investigate effects of the magnetic field and shear flow on the orientation order of particles in magnetic dispersions. The order parameter S obtained by the SANS agreed well with the values obtained by the cryo-VSM method. We also introduce Dr. Mankey's idea to model the SANS experimental data. The particle size distributions are considered in Dr. Mankey's model.

He, Bin

130

Are migrating raptors guided by a geomagnetic compass?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested whether routes of raptors migrating over areas with homogeneous topography follow constant geomagnetic courses more or less closely than constant geographical courses. We analysed the routes taken over land of 45 individual raptors tracked by satellite-based radiotelemetry: 25 peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, on autumn migration between North and South America, and seven honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, and 13 ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, on autumn migration between Europe and Africa. Overall, migration directions showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses. Tracks deviated significantly from constant geomagnetic courses, but were not significantly different from geographical courses. After we removed movements directed far from the mean direction, which may not be migratory movements, migration directions still showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses, but the directions of honey buzzards and ospreys were not significantly different from constant geomagnetic courses either. That migration routes of raptors followed by satellite telemetry are in closer accordance with constant geographical compass courses than with constant geomagnetic compass courses may indicate that geographical (e.g. based on celestial cues) rather than magnetic compass mechanisms are of dominating importance for the birds' long-distance orientation.

Thorup, Kasper; Fuller, Mark R.; Alerstam, T.; Hake, M.; Kjellen, N.; Standberg, R.

2006-01-01

131

Creating moments that matter: strategies to combat compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

Understanding compassion fatigue and devising and implementing interventions to address the subject are important for nurses and patients. However, few literature reports exist that address interventions for nurses who experience compassion fatigue. This article discusses how nurses on a medical-surgical oncology unit in an academic, community Magnet™ hospital adopted these themes as a conceptual framework on which to focus actions to avoid and mitigate compassion fatigue. PMID:24305477

Reimer, Nicole

2013-12-01

132

The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement  

E-print Network

We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the "quantum avian compass" can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.

Yiteng Zhang; Gennady P. Berman; Sabre Kais

2015-02-02

133

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

Alerstam; Gudmundsson

1999-12-22

134

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA

1999-01-01

135

Unambiguous position and orientation tracking using a rotating magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement system for magnetic position and orientation tracking. It uses a rotating magnet as transmitter and a three-axis magnetic field sensor to measure the magnetic field ellipse produced by the magnet. A theory is given for the calculation of the magnet's position and orientation from the ellipse's semi-axis components. Detection range and accuracy of the tracking method and their dependence on magnetic moment, noise levels of the environment, and the sensor type are shown. Using a fluxgate sensor, which is the best choice for a typical urban environment, a NdFeB magnet with a volume of about 180 cm3 can be detected with 1% error up to 17 m distance. With the use of two moderately distant identical sensors and an adequate evaluation of the tracking components' evolution, the right one out of four possible solutions as delivered by the tracking algorithm can be reliably chosen, independent of the tracking course. This way, a unique solution of the three-dimensional inverse problem can be achieved.

Schultze, Volkmar; Andrä, Wilfried; Peiselt, Katja; Gleichmann, Nils; Meyer, Hans-Georg

2013-09-01

136

Accurate orientation estimation using AHRS under conditions of magnetic distortion.  

PubMed

Low cost, compact attitude heading reference systems (AHRS) are now being used to track human body movements in indoor environments by estimation of the 3D orientation of body segments. In many of these systems, heading estimation is achieved by monitoring the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. However, the Earth's magnetic field can be locally distorted due to the proximity of ferrous and/or magnetic objects. Herein, we propose a novel method for accurate 3D orientation estimation using an AHRS, comprised of an accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, under conditions of magnetic field distortion. The system performs online detection and compensation for magnetic disturbances, due to, for example, the presence of ferrous objects. The magnetic distortions are detected by exploiting variations in magnetic dip angle, relative to the gravity vector, and in magnetic strength. We investigate and show the advantages of using both magnetic strength and magnetic dip angle for detecting the presence of magnetic distortions. The correction method is based on a particle filter, which performs the correction using an adaptive cost function and by adapting the variance during particle resampling, so as to place more emphasis on the results of dead reckoning of the gyroscope measurements and less on the magnetometer readings. The proposed method was tested in an indoor environment in the presence of various magnetic distortions and under various accelerations (up to 3 g). In the experiments, the proposed algorithm achieves <2° static peak-to-peak error and <5° dynamic peak-to-peak error, significantly outperforming previous methods. PMID:25347584

Yadav, Nagesh; Bleakley, Chris

2014-01-01

137

Accurate Orientation Estimation Using AHRS under Conditions of Magnetic Distortion  

PubMed Central

Low cost, compact attitude heading reference systems (AHRS) are now being used to track human body movements in indoor environments by estimation of the 3D orientation of body segments. In many of these systems, heading estimation is achieved by monitoring the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. However, the Earth's magnetic field can be locally distorted due to the proximity of ferrous and/or magnetic objects. Herein, we propose a novel method for accurate 3D orientation estimation using an AHRS, comprised of an accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, under conditions of magnetic field distortion. The system performs online detection and compensation for magnetic disturbances, due to, for example, the presence of ferrous objects. The magnetic distortions are detected by exploiting variations in magnetic dip angle, relative to the gravity vector, and in magnetic strength. We investigate and show the advantages of using both magnetic strength and magnetic dip angle for detecting the presence of magnetic distortions. The correction method is based on a particle filter, which performs the correction using an adaptive cost function and by adapting the variance during particle resampling, so as to place more emphasis on the results of dead reckoning of the gyroscope measurements and less on the magnetometer readings. The proposed method was tested in an indoor environment in the presence of various magnetic distortions and under various accelerations (up to 3 g). In the experiments, the proposed algorithm achieves <2° static peak-to-peak error and <5° dynamic peak-to-peak error, significantly outperforming previous methods. PMID:25347584

Yadav, Nagesh; Bleakley, Chris

2014-01-01

138

Beyond compassion fatigue: the transactional model of physician compassion.  

PubMed

Physician compassion is expected by both patients and the medical profession and is central to effective clinical practice. Yet, despite the centrality of compassion to medical practice, most compassion-related research has focused on compassion fatigue, a specific type of burnout among health providers. Although such research has highlighted the phenomenon among clinicians, the focus on compassion fatigue has neglected the study of compassion itself. In this article, we present the Transactional Model of Physician Compassion. After briefly critiquing the utility of the compassion fatigue concept, we offer a view in which physician compassion stems from the dynamic but interrelated influences of physician, patient and family, clinical situation, and environmental factors. Illuminating the specific aspects of physicians' intrapersonal, interpersonal, clinical, and professional functioning that may interfere with or enhance compassion allows for targeted interventions to promote compassion in both education and practice as well as to reduce the barriers that impede it. PMID:24417804

Fernando, Antonio T; Consedine, Nathan S

2014-08-01

139

Stellar compass for the Clementine Mission  

SciTech Connect

A CCD sensor with 42 x 28 degrees FOV and 576 x 384 pixels was built by the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in the Physics Department at LLNL. That sensor, called the StarTracker camera, is used on the Clementine Lunar Mapping mission between January and May, 1994. Together with the Stellar Compass software, the StarTracker camera provided a way of identifying its orientation to within about 150 microradians in camera body pitch and yaw. This presentation will be an overview of basically how the Stellar Compass software works, along with showing some of its performance results.

Wilson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-15

140

The Enterprise Compass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a CIO leading an IT department through change and reorganization, the author developed the Enterprise Compass--a four-point guide to reaching goals and focusing achievement. The Enterprise Compass directs staff to look forward to future accomplishment, back for performance assessments, across campus for better understanding of practical working…

McCardle, Ken

2005-01-01

141

Testing avian compass calibration: comparative experiments with diurnal and nocturnal passerine migrants in South Sweden  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cue-conflict experiments were performed to study the compass calibration of one predominantly diurnal migrant, the dunnock (Prunella modularis), and two species of nocturnal passerine migrants, the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), and the European robin (Erithacus rubecula) during autumn migration in South Sweden. The birds' orientation was recorded in circular cages under natural clear and simulated overcast skies in the local geomagnetic field, and thereafter the birds were exposed to a cue-conflict situation where the horizontal component of the magnetic field (mN) was shifted +90° or ?90° at two occasions, one session starting shortly after sunrise and the other ca. 90?min before sunset and lasting for 60?min. The patterns of the degree and angle of skylight polarization were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry during the cue-conflict exposures and orientation tests. All species showed orientation both under clear and overcast skies that correlated with the expected migratory orientation towards southwest to south. For the European robin the orientation under clear skies was significantly different from that recorded under overcast skies, showing a tendency that the orientation under clear skies was influenced by the position of the Sun at sunset resulting in more westerly orientation. This sun attraction was not observed for the sedge warbler and the dunnock, both orientating south. All species showed similar orientation after the cue-conflict as compared to the preferred orientation recorded before the cue-conflict, with the clearest results in the European robin and thus, the results did not support recalibration of the celestial nor the magnetic compasses as a result of the cue-conflict exposure. PMID:25505150

Åkesson, Susanne; Odin, Catharina; Hegedüs, Ramón; Ilieva, Mihaela; Sjöholm, Christoffer; Farkas, Alexandra; Horváth, Gábor

2015-01-01

142

Testing avian compass calibration: comparative experiments with diurnal and nocturnal passerine migrants in South Sweden.  

PubMed

Cue-conflict experiments were performed to study the compass calibration of one predominantly diurnal migrant, the dunnock (Prunella modularis), and two species of nocturnal passerine migrants, the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), and the European robin (Erithacus rubecula) during autumn migration in South Sweden. The birds' orientation was recorded in circular cages under natural clear and simulated overcast skies in the local geomagnetic field, and thereafter the birds were exposed to a cue-conflict situation where the horizontal component of the magnetic field (mN) was shifted +90° or -90° at two occasions, one session starting shortly after sunrise and the other ca. 90?min before sunset and lasting for 60?min. The patterns of the degree and angle of skylight polarization were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry during the cue-conflict exposures and orientation tests. All species showed orientation both under clear and overcast skies that correlated with the expected migratory orientation towards southwest to south. For the European robin the orientation under clear skies was significantly different from that recorded under overcast skies, showing a tendency that the orientation under clear skies was influenced by the position of the Sun at sunset resulting in more westerly orientation. This sun attraction was not observed for the sedge warbler and the dunnock, both orientating south. All species showed similar orientation after the cue-conflict as compared to the preferred orientation recorded before the cue-conflict, with the clearest results in the European robin and thus, the results did not support recalibration of the celestial nor the magnetic compasses as a result of the cue-conflict exposure. PMID:25505150

Åkesson, Susanne; Odin, Catharina; Hegedüs, Ramón; Ilieva, Mihaela; Sjöholm, Christoffer; Farkas, Alexandra; Horváth, Gábor

2014-01-01

143

Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field Richard A. Holland1,2  

E-print Network

Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field Richard A. Holland1,2 *, Joseph L magnetite (Fe3O4). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic

144

Hard magnetization direction and its relation with magnetic permeability of highly grain-oriented electrical steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of highly grain-oriented electrical steel vary along different directions. In order to investigate these properties, standard Epstein samples were cut at different angles to the rolling direction. The hard magnetization direction was found at an angle of 60° to the rolling direction. To compare the measured and fitting curves, when the magnetic field intensity is higher than 7000 A/m, it is appropriate to simulate the relation of magnetic permeability and magnetization angle using the conventional elliptical model. When the magnetic field intensity is less than 3000 A/m, parabolic fitting models should be used; but when the magnetic field intensity is between 3000 and 7000 A/m, hybrid models with high accuracy, as proposed in this paper, should be applied. Piecewise relation models of magnetic permeability and magnetization angle are significant for improving the accuracy of electromagnetic engineering calculations of electrical steel, and these new models could be applied in further industrial applications.

Wang, Hao; Li, Chang-sheng; Zhu, Tao

2014-11-01

145

Compass Needles around a Simple Circuit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will set up a simple circuit using a battery, wire, and knife switch, and then use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding the wire. Next, they will add a coil of wire to the simple circuit and map the magnetic fields again. This is the second lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

146

Self-compassion and life satisfaction in gay men.  

PubMed

Summary.-Studies have shown that gay men are at increased risk for anxiety and depression due to social oppression; research suggests that self-compassion is positively associated with life-satisfaction and emotional resilience. In a sample of 68 gay men (M age = 39.7 yr., SD = 16.3), the influence of self-compassion on satisfaction with life was examined while controlling for age, income, and openness about sexual orientation. Analysis of the data revealed that self-compassion was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life. Implications of this finding were discussed. PMID:25539176

Jennings, Lisa K; Philip Tan, P

2014-12-01

147

Bats use magnetite to detect the earth's magnetic field.  

PubMed

While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a "compass organelle" containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic "Kalmijn-Blakemore" pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals. PMID:18301753

Holland, Richard A; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Doak, Thomas G; Wikelski, Martin

2008-01-01

148

Effect of Object Orientation Angle on T2* Image and Reconstructed Magnetic Susceptibility: Numerical Simulations  

PubMed Central

The magnetic field resulting from material magnetization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an object orientation effect, which produces an orientation dependence for acquired T2* images. On one hand, the orientation effect can be exploited for object anisotropy investigation (via multi-angle imaging); on the other hand, it is desirable to remove the orientation dependence using magnetic susceptibility reconstruction. In this report, we design a stick-star digital phantom to simulate multiple orientations of a stick-like object and use it to conduct various numerical simulations. Our simulations show that the object orientation effect is not propagated to the reconstructed magnetic susceptibility distribution. This suggests that accurate susceptibility reconstruction methods should be largely orientation independent. PMID:25114542

Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

2013-01-01

149

Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials  

DOEpatents

A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) exhibits superconducting properties and is capable of conducting very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. The highly anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of the polycrystalline metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state. 4 figs.

Capone, D.W.; Dunlap, B.D.; Veal, B.W.

1990-07-17

150

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 300 (2006) 127131 Electric current-induced spin orientation in quantum well structures  

E-print Network

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 300 (2006) 127­131 Electric current-induced spin is the orientation of spins by an electrical current flowing through low-dimensional carrier systems of sufficiently to orient the spin of charge carriers in GaAs based quantum wells (QWs) by driving an electric current

Ganichev, Sergey

151

The British Museum COMPASS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help visitors find treasures in its vast holdings, the British Museum presents COMPASS, which is based on a database of around 5000 objects selected from the Museum's collections. Simple keyword searches work well in COMPASS, and searches can be limited to a particular index. Who? searches for a particular person, What? searches for particular objects, How? for processes and materials, and Where/When? for geography and date. COMPASS automatically adds the word and between words, just like Google. Object pages include detailed information, written for the average museum go-er, with links into an online glossary, although we were unable to discover why a search on sextant returned astrolabes (consulting another dictionary revealed that the astrolabe was an nautical instrument used prior to the sextant). There are also guided tours, on a huge list of subjects from 100 Views of Mount Fuji to the Wetwang Chariot Burial, with Chinese Jade, several Egypt tours, and over 45 Highlights of the British Museum in between. Another great way to approach COMPASS is to try the Galleries search (found on the search page) where selecting any one of about 35 gallery names displays all the objects in that room.

152

Bow Compass with Case  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Bow Compass with Case. Also known as a Drop Bow Pen or Spring Bow, serial #760 C. This instrument was made by Eugene Dietzgen & Company, Chicago and New York and used by the U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Branch after 1945-1960s. Object ID: USGS-000645...

2009-07-20

153

Compassion for the Absurd  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Compassion for the Absurd, I hope to find transcendent moments in the ridiculous and mundane scenarios of various lives, some real, some imagined. In focusing on the ordinary, the poems pull the background of life into the foreground and ask the reader to find art in the real rather than the ideal. By focusing on the often ignored marginalia

Meredith E. McDonough

2010-01-01

154

The Compass Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this presentation, members of the Compass Project discuss ways to support underrepresented undergraduates in physics, especially at the critical freshman transition. The data presented is in the context of The Compass Project, a program created at the University of California, Berkeley in 2006. Drawing on physics education research, the project had two major goals in creating a two-week summer program for incoming freshman: building community and helping students develop productive beliefs about what physics is and how to learn it. Recently, an innovative semester-long course on physics problem-solving was developed to help the Compass students develop their critical thinking skills (and continue to build community) throughout the academic year. Starting with a first seed group of eleven students, the project members have mentored and encouraged undergraduates as they continue to make a positive impact on the Berkeley physical science departments by bringing other students into the Compass community, volunteering at inner-city schools, and even running a lecture series aimed at an undergraduate audience.

Little, Angela; Haggard, Hal; Hernandez, Felicitas; Corbo, Joel C.

2010-02-24

155

Influence of spherical assembly of copper ferrite nanoparticles on magnetic properties: orientation of magnetic easy axis.  

PubMed

The magnetic properties of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles prepared via sol-gel auto combustion and facile solvothermal method are studied focusing on the effect of nanoparticle arrangement. Randomly oriented CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NP) are obtained from the sol-gel auto combustion method, while the solvothermal method allows us to prepare iso-oriented uniform spherical ensembles of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NS). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used to investigate the composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The field-dependent magnetization measurement for the NS sample at low temperature exhibits a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop (M(R)/M(S) ~ 1), suggesting cubic anisotropy in the system, whereas for the NP sample, typical features of uniaxial anisotropy (M(R)/M(S) ~ 0.5) are observed. The coercive field (HC) for the NS sample shows anomalous temperature dependence, which is correlated with the variation of effective anisotropy (K(E)) of the system. A high-temperature enhancement of H(C) and K(E) for the NS sample coincides with a strong spin-orbit coupling in the sample as evidenced by significant modification of Cu/Fe-O bond distances. The spherical arrangement of nanocrystals at mesoscopic scale provokes a high degree of alignment of the magnetic easy axis along the applied field leading to a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of the system is carried out, emphasizing the influence of the formation of spherical iso-oriented assemblies. PMID:24714977

Chatterjee, Biplab K; Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Dey, Abhishek; Ghosh, Chandan K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

2014-06-01

156

Magnetic Orientation in Biology:. Virus Structure - Blood Clot Assembly - Cell Guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our childhood games with permanent magnets leave us with the impression that matter, in general, does not respond to a magnetic field. In reality, virtually everything is subjected to minute forces of attraction, repulsion or orientation. Strong fields combined with better understanding allow us to exploit these effects to tackle biological problems. In particular, the very weak diamagnetic anisotropy associated with individual molecules can give rise to high orientation of well organized structures such as crystals, liquid-crystals, semi-rigid polymers and individual cells. High orientation is often accompanied by better data and superior properties. In some circumstances, such as in crystallization, the orientating torque might induce effects over and above simple orientation. Magnetic field orientation has a number of advantages over other orienting techniques. Drawing or spinning produce fibers and can alter structure or cause damage while template methods invariable work only over a short range. The application of an electric field can cause heating and electrophoresis. In contrast, a magnetic field acts at a distance allowing uniform orientation in bulk and the creation of composites with components having different orientations. The contribution that magnetic orientation has made to a range of biological topics is illustrated by briefly describing a number of examples. For example, it has been a boon to x-ray studies of some non-crystalline filamentous complexes (e.g. fibrin, actin, microtubules, bacterial flagella and filamentous viruses) and is being vigorously exploited in NMR. The blood-clot polymer, fibrin, forms highly oriented gels when polymerized in a strong field and a number of its properties have been elucidated as a result. Magnetically oriented scaffolds of collagen, the major connective tissue protein, and fibrin are being used to study cell contact guidance. Oriented biomaterials might eventually be incorporated into specialized wound dressings, for example, to direct nerve repair.

Torbet, J.

2005-07-01

157

COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

1992-01-01

158

Two-stage magnetic orientation of uric acid crystals as gout initiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the magnetic behavior of uric acid crystals, which are responsible for gout. Under a sub-Tesla (T)-level magnetic field, rotational motion of the crystals, which were caused by diamagnetic torque, was observed. We used horizontal magnetic fields with a maximum magnitude of 500 mT generated by an electromagnet to observe the magnetic orientation of the uric acid microcrystals by a microscope. The uric acid crystals showed a perpendicular magnetic field orientation with a minimum threshold of 130 mT. We speculate that the distinct diamagnetic anisotropy in the uric acid crystals resulted in their rotational responses.

Takeuchi, Y.; Miyashita, Y.; Mizukawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

2014-01-01

159

The COMPASS Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Operations and Management Portal for Airborne Science Systems (COMPASS) project is a multi-center collaborative effort to advance and extend the research capabilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airborne Science Program (ASP). At its most basic, COMPASS provides tools for visualizing the position of aircraft and instrument observations during the course of a mission, and facilitates dissemination, discussion, and analysis and of multiple disparate data sources in order to more efficiently plan and execute airborne science missions. COMPASS targets a number of key objectives. First, deliver a common operating picture for improved shared situational awareness to all participants in NASA's Airborne Science missions. These participants include scientists, engineers, managers, and the general public. Second, encourage more responsive and collaborative measurements between instruments on multiple aircraft, satellites, and on the surface in order to increase the scientific value of these measurements. Fourth, provide flexible entry points for data providers to supply model and advanced analysis products to mission team members. Fifth, provide data consumers with a mechanism to ingest, search and display data products. Finally, embrace an open and transparent platform where common data products, services, and end user components can be shared with the broader scientific community. In pursuit of these objectives, and in concert with requirements solicited by the airborne science research community, the COMPASS project team has delivered a suite of core tools intended to represent the next generation toolset for airborne research. This toolset includes a collection of loosely coupled RESTful web-services, a system to curate, register, and search, commonly used data sources, end-user tools which leverage web socket and other next generation HTML5 technologies to aid real time aircraft position and data visualization, and an extensible a framework to rapidly accommodate mission specific requirements and mission tools.

Duley, A. R.; Sullivan, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Myers, J.; Craig, M.; Enomoto, F.; Van Gilst, D. P.; Johan, S.

2011-12-01

160

Pico Cricket Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners can program a compass to draw a circle by itself using a Pico Cricket, some Legos, and lots of tape! Pico Cricket is required. This activity teaches learners how to program a micro controller (mini computer), how to use gears and motors, and includes a video of the final product in action. This activity could made into a one-hour workshop if more programing was involved to draw a half circle or a quarter of a circle.

Minnesota, Science M.

2014-06-30

161

Orientation-dependent magnetic behavior in aligned nanoparticle arrays constructed by coaxial electrospinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified electrospinning process has been utilized to align magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles inside highly oriented poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibers. The structural characterization of the fiber encapsulated nanoparticle arrays via electron microscopy has been detailed, and the magnetic behavior has been studied using vibrating sample magnetometry. The fiber encapsulated nanoparticle arrays exhibit orientation-dependent magnetic behavior with respect to the applied magnetic field. A strong anisotropy along orthogonal axes is obtained for aligned arrays and is manifested as a notable increase in the coercivity and remanence magnetization in the parallel field configuration. The magnetic behavior of isotropic fibers is also examined as a reference and no orientation dependence is observed. The results were found to corroborate theoretical predictions from the chain-of-spheres model. Such hybrid nanoparticle arrays may find relevance in applications requiring an orientation-dependent physical response and in the directional transfer of signals.

Sharma, Nikhil; Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Shah, S. Ismat; Pochan, Darrin J.

2010-02-01

162

Efficient Linear Algorithm for Magnetic Localization and Orientation in Capsule Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To build a new wireless robotic capsule endoscope with external guidance for controllable GI tract examination, a sensing system is required for tracking the capsule's 3D location and 2D orientation. An appropriate sensing approach is to enclose a small permanent magnet in the capsule so as to establish a static magnetic field around. With the magnetic sensors outside the patient's

Chao Hu; Max Q.-H. Meng; Mrinal Mandal

2005-01-01

163

Magnetic field-based multi-DOF orientation sensor for PM-based spherical actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic sensors have been utilized to locate the orientation and position of solitary permanent magnets (PM) through characterization of its unique nonlinear magnetic field. Similar characterization can be applied to the existing symmetric assembly of multiple PMs in the rotors of PM-based spherical actuators. This paper introduces a sensing method that exploits the symmetry of the rotor PM configuration to

Shaohui Foong; Kok-Meng Lee

2009-01-01

164

Magnetic anisotropy investigation in (2 1 0)-oriented Bi-substituted magnetic garnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different methods of describing growth- and stress-induced anisotropy are analysed. Two-parameter and quadratic models (generally five parameters) are discussed. A (2 1 0)-oriented epitaxial garnet film was chosen as an example of this analysis. Magnetic anisotropy constants were analyzed using both the traditional FMR technique and a magneto-optical anisometer based on the Faraday effect. The two-parameter model turned out to be incorrect for anisotropy description in such films. Observed differences between the experimental values of anisotropy constants from FMR and magneto-optical methods may be connected to magnetostriction influence on the resonance frequency.

Maryško, M.; Maziewski, A.; Stankiewicz, A.; Tekielak, M.; Volkov, V. V.

1993-07-01

165

31P NMR first spectral moment study of the partial magnetic orientation of phospholipid membranes.  

PubMed Central

Structural data can be obtained on proteins inserted in magnetically oriented phospholipid membranes such as bicelles, which are most often made of a mixture of long and short chain phosphatidylcholine. Possible shapes for these magnetically oriented membranes have been postulated in the literature, such as discoidal structures with a thickness of one bilayer and with the short acyl chain phosphatidylcholine on the edges. In the present paper, a geometrical study of these oriented structures is done to determine the validity of this model. The method used is based on the determination of the first spectral moment of solid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. From this first moment, an order parameter is defined that allows a quantitative analysis of partially oriented spectra. The validity of this method is demonstrated in the present study for oriented samples made of DMPC, DMPC:DHPC, DMPC:DHPC:gramicidin A and adriamycin:cardiolipin. PMID:10423434

Picard, F; Paquet, M J; Levesque, J; Bélanger, A; Auger, M

1999-01-01

166

Sensing Magnetic Directions in Birds: Radical Pair Processes Involving Cryptochrome  

PubMed Central

Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1) it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but can adapt to other intensities, (2) it is an “inclination compass”, not based on the polarity of the magnetic field, but the axial course of the field lines, and (3) it requires short-wavelength light from UV to 565 nm Green. The Radical Pair-Model of magnetoreception can explain these properties by proposing spin-chemical processes in photopigments as underlying mechanism. Applying radio frequency fields, a diagnostic tool for radical pair processes, supports an involvement of a radical pair mechanism in avian magnetoreception: added to the geomagnetic field, they disrupted orientation, presumably by interfering with the receptive processes. Cryptochromes have been suggested as receptor molecules. Cry1a is found in the eyes of birds, where it is located at the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the UV-cones in chickens and robins. Immuno-histochemical studies show that it is activated by the wavelengths of light that allow magnetic compass orientation in birds.

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

167

Magnetic Texturing of Xenon-Irradiated Iron Films Studied by Magnetic Orientation Mössbauer Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications of magnetic properties upon heavy-ion irradiation have been recently investigated for films of ferromagnetic 3d-elements (Fe, Ni, Co) and alloys (permendur, permalloy), in relation to changes of their microstructure. Here we report on Xe-ion irradiation of a highly textured iron film prepared via pulsed-laser deposition on a MgO(100) single crystal and containing a thin 57Fe marker layer for magnetic orientation Mössbauer spectroscopy (MOMS). We compare the results with those obtained for a polycrystalline Fe/Si(100) sample produced by electron evaporation and premagnetized before Xe-irradiation in a 300 Oe external field. Characterization of the samples also included magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

Müller, G. A.; Lieb, K. P.; Carpene, E.; Zhang, K.; Schaaf, P.; Faupel, J.; Krebs, H. U.

2004-11-01

168

Useful Oriented Immobilization of Antibodies on Chimeric Magnetic Particles: Direct Correlation of Biomacromolecule Orientation with Biological Activity by AFM Studies.  

PubMed

The preparation and performance of a suitable chimeric biosensor based on antibodies (Abs) immobilized on lipase-coated magnetic particles by means of a standing orienting strategy are presented. This novel system is based on hydrophobic magnetic particles coated with modified lipase molecules able to orient and further immobilize different Abs in a covalent way without any previous site-selective chemical modification of biomacromolecules. Different key parameters attending the process were studied and optimized. The optimal preparation was performed using a controlled loading (1 nmol Ab g(-1) chimeric support) at pH 9 and a short reaction time to recover a biological activity of about 80%. AFM microscopy was used to study and confirm the Abs-oriented immobilization on lipase-coated magnetic particles and the final achievement of a highly active and recyclable chimeric immune sensor. This direct technique was demonstrated to be a powerful alternative to the indirect immunoactivity assay methods for the study of biomacromolecule-oriented immobilizations. PMID:25420004

Marciello, Marzia; Filice, Marco; Olea, David; Velez, Marisela; Guisan, José M; Mateo, Cesar

2014-12-16

169

Cultivating Compassion: Rhetoric or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the massive amounts of research conducted on the effect of college on students, almost no empirical work has been done on whether students grow in compassion during their undergraduate studies. Designed to address this gap, this longitudinal study of more than 500 students found that the majority demonstrated change in compassion across…

Lovette-Colyer, Michael

2014-01-01

170

Effects of field orientation on field uniformity in permanent magnet structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of magnetic-field orientation are investigated for permanent magnet structures designed for the generation of highly uniform fields. The structures considered are based closed cavities that produce exactly uniform internal fields. An open structure with an approximately uniform field is obtained by removing part of the wall from such a cavity. This paper explores how the magnetic-field uniformly depends on the field orientation relative to the opening. A yokeless, cylindrical cavity that is opened at both ends is considered in detail with the field oriented bith perpendicular to and parallel to the cylinder's axis. The field uniformity is shown to be substanially better for the perpendicular orientation. The leakage field outside the magnet is also contrasted for the two cases.

Jensen, J. H.; Abele, M. G.

1994-11-01

171

Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation.  

PubMed

This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media. PMID:25157136

Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

2014-09-01

172

Spin Physics at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off a longitudinally or a transversely polarized deuteron (6LiD) or proton (NH3) target. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavors. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.

C. Schill; for the COMPASS collaboration

2012-01-02

173

Compass & Straight Edge Constructions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use compass & straight edge to do basic constructions. Follow the directions to construct a segment bisector. construct midpoint or segment bisector Now, follow the directions to construct a perpendicular line through a point on a line. Construct a perpendicular line through a point on a line Another perpendicular line to construct is one through a point not on a line. Construct a perpendicular line through a point not on the line Now we\\'ve constructed perpendicular lines, let\\'s construct a parallel line. ...

Silotti, Mrs.

2007-06-12

174

Drawing Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a compass and a permanent magnet to trace the magnetic field lines produced by the magnet. By positioning the compass in enough spots around the magnet, the overall magnet field will be evident from the collection of arrows representing the direction of the compass needle. In activities 3 and 4 of this unit, students will use this information to design a way to solve the grand challenge of separating metal for a recycling company.

2014-09-18

175

Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen [Department of Mold and Die Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan (China); You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun [Metal Forming Technology Section, Metal Processing R and D Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, 1001 Kaonan Highway, Kaohsiung 81160, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-16

176

Manipulations of polarized skylight calibrate magnetic orientation in a migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Young migratory birds enter the world with two representations of the migratory direction, one coded with respect to the magnetic field, the other with respect to celestial rotation. The preferred magnetic direction of migratory orientation is malleable early in life: it may be calibrated by celestial rotation, observed either in daytime or at night.2.Previous experiments showed that early experience with

K. P. Able; M. A. Able

1995-01-01

177

Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films  

SciTech Connect

We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

2008-08-18

178

Orientation of Conductive Polymer PEDOT:PSS Films Prepared Under Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the magnetic field orientation effect of the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The films prepared under the magnetic field parallel to the substrates show clear anisotropy of the polarized infrared reflectivity and DC resistivity. The results indicate that the nano-crystals of PEDOT are aligned in the polymer films by magnetic fields.

Guziak, Milena A.; Honma, Yuta; Hashimoto, Kenichiro; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sasaki, Takahiko

179

Assembling a COMPASS  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications of histone proteins lie at the heart of the epigenetic landscape in the cell’s nucleus and the precise regulation of gene expression. A myriad of studies have showed that several histone-modifying enzymes are controlled by modulatory protein partner subunits and other post-transcriptional modifications deposited in the vicinity of the targeted site. All together, these mechanisms create an intricate network of interactions that regulate enzymatic activities and ultimately control the site-specific deposition of covalent modifications. In this Point-of-View, we discuss our evolving understanding on the assembly and architecture of histone H3 Lys-4 (H3K4) methyltransferase COMPASS complexes and the techniques that progressively allowed us to better define the molecular basis of complex formation and function. We further briefly discuss some of the challenges lying ahead and additional approaches required to understand mechanistic details for the function of such complexes. PMID:23470558

Couture, Jean-Francois; Skiniotis, Georgios

2013-01-01

180

A compass for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enlargement of complexity and effects of environmental problems has increased the need for a ‘compass’ to point us in the direction of sustainability. The four principles—System Conditions—which we have earlier described, along with a step-by-step approach to meet them, is such a compass. The System Conditions are first order principles for Sustainability:• they do not cover the whole area

Karl-Hennk Robèrt; Herman Daly; Paul Hawken; John Holmberg

1997-01-01

181

The Social Psychology of Compassion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article places social work clinicians’ compassion fatigue, burnout, and other negative consequences in a broader context\\u000a of positive social work. We argue for a paradigm shift towards identifying the factors that lead clinical social workers toward\\u000a human flourishing in their field. We introduce a model for creating “compassion satisfaction” or feelings of fulfillment with\\u000a clients, rooted in positive psychology

Melissa Radey; Charles R. Figley

2007-01-01

182

Using an electronic compass to determine telemetry azimuths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers typically collect azimuths from known locations to estimate locations of radiomarked animals. Mobile, vehicle-mounted telemetry receiving systems frequently are used to gather azimuth data. Use of mobile systems typically involves estimating the vehicle's orientation to grid north (vehicle azimuth), recording an azimuth to the transmitter relative to the vehicle azimuth from a fixed rosette around the antenna mast (relative azimuth), and subsequently calculating an azimuth to the transmitter (animal azimuth). We incorporated electronic compasses into standard null-peak antenna systems by mounting the compass sensors atop the antenna masts and evaluated the precision of this configuration. This system increased efficiency by eliminating vehicle orientation and calculations to determine animal azimuths and produced estimates of precision (azimuth SD=2.6 deg., SE=0.16 deg.) similar to systems that required orienting the mobile system to grid north. Using an electronic compass increased efficiency without sacrificing precision and should produce more accurate estimates of locations when marked animals are moving or when vehicle orientation is problematic.

Cox, R.R., Jr.; Scalf, J.D.; Jamison, B.E.; Lutz, R.S.

2002-01-01

183

Coordinating compass-based and nest-based flight directions during bumblebee learning and return flights.  

PubMed

Bumblebees tend to face their nest over a limited range of compass directions when learning the nest's location on departure and finding it on their approach after foraging. They thus obtain similar views of the nest and its surroundings on their learning and return flights. How do bees coordinate their flights relative to nest-based and compass-based reference frames to get such similar views? We show, first, that learning and return flights contain straight segments that are directed along particular compass bearings, which are independent of the orientation of a bee's body. Bees are thus free within limits to adjust their viewing direction relative to the nest, without disturbing flight direction. Second, we examine the coordination of nest-based and compass-based control during likely information gathering segments of these flights: loops during learning flights and zigzags on return flights. We find that bees tend to start a loop or zigzag when flying within a restricted range of compass directions and to fly towards the nest and face it after a fixed change in compass direction, without continuous interactions between their nest-based and compass-based directions of flight. A preferred trajectory of compass-based flight over the course of a motif, combined with the tendency of the bees to keep their body oriented towards the nest automatically narrows the range of compass directions over which bees view the nest. Additionally, the absence of interactions between the two reference frames allows loops and zigzags to have a stereotyped form that can generate informative visual feedback. PMID:23447669

Collett, Thomas S; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Philippides, Andrew

2013-03-15

184

An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array  

PubMed Central

An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators. PMID:25342000

Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

2014-01-01

185

Orientation in the wandering albatross: interfering with magnetic perception does not affect orientation performance  

PubMed Central

After making foraging flights of several thousands of kilometres, wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) are able to pinpoint a specific remote island where their nests are located. This impressive navigation ability is highly precise but its nature is mysterious. Here we examined whether albatrosses rely on the perception of the Earth's magnetic field to accomplish this task. We disturbed the perception of the magnetic field using mobile magnets glued to the head of nine albatrosses and compared their performances with those of 11 control birds. We then used satellite telemetry to monitor their behaviour. We found that the ability of birds to home to specific nest sites was unimpaired by this manipulation. In particular, experimental and control birds did not show significant differences with respect to either foraging trip duration, or length, or with respect to homing straightness index. Our data suggest that wandering albatrosses do not require magnetic cues to navigate back to their nesting sites. PMID:15799944

Bonadonna, F; Bajzak, C; Benhamou, S; Igloi, K; Jouventin, P; Lipp, H.P; Dell'Omo, G

2005-01-01

186

Reconstruction of Cardiac Ventricular Geometry and Fiber Orientation Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging method for the rapid reconstruction of fiber orientation throughout the cardiac ventricles is described. In this method, gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady-state (GRASS) imaging is used to measure ventricular geometry in formaldehyde-fixed hearts at high spatial resolution. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) is then used to estimate fiber orientation as the principle eigenvector of the diffusion tensor measured

D. F. Scollan; A. Holmes; J. Zhang; R. L. Winslow

2000-01-01

187

Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing  

PubMed Central

User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

188

Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing.  

PubMed

User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

189

Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other. PMID:24718656

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

190

Local Magnetic Properties in Non-oriented Electrical Steel and Their Dependence on Magnetic Easy Axis and Misorientation Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of how material parameters, especially orientation and misorientation, influence the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel (NOES) is important for improving the efficiency of the material in service. In this study, the local magnetic properties were measured using magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) on different test locations on different strips of NOES material. Local variations in magnetic properties, texture, and misorientation were revealed. A new interpretation for misorientation, called the easy axis misorientation (EAM), was created to describe the alignment of the magnetic easy axes between neighboring grains. This new EAM, visualized as a single value parameter or graphed as a distribution, was shown to be more effective at predicting the isotropic magnetic properties than previously used texture parameters based on standard orientation/misorientation definitions. It was found that a larger EAM value, especially when associated with a lower small angle EAM intensity distribution, was associated with a larger MBN energy. A larger MBN energy has been previously associated with lower losses, and therefore a greater material efficiency.

Gallaugher, Matthew; Samimi, Arash; Krause, Thomas W.; Clapham, Lynann C.; Chromik, Richard R.

2015-01-01

191

Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in a national sample of trauma treatment therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

For behavioral health professionals working with traumatized clients, continuous and prolonged exposure to the stress of working with the myriad of trauma-related stressors experienced by their clients can lead to various responses including burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. The present study investigates the impact of using evidence-based practices on compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in a random, national

C. D. Craig; G. Sprang

2010-01-01

192

Effects of Instructional Technology Integration Strategies in Orientation Programs on Nurse Retention in Magnet and Non-Magnet Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This applied dissertation study was designed to learn if the increased use of instructional technology integration strategies in nursing orientation programs resulted in an increased retention of new nurses. The study attempted to uncover the current retention rate and use of technology at the participating hospitals. The data obtained from Magnet

Hancharik, Sharon D.

2008-01-01

193

Effect of orientation of the solar wind magnetic clouds on the seasonal variation of geomagnetic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the causes of seasonal dependence of geomagnetic activity, taking into account orientation of large-scale plasma structures (of the magnetic cloud type) of the solar wind. The contribution of magnetic clouds of different orientation in the periods of equinoxes and solstices is demonstrated. It is established that in equinox periods the geomagnetic activity increases due to ejections with small angles of inclination of their axis to the ecliptic plane, most frequently detected in near-Earth space. In solstice periods, such clouds are not geoeffective structures because of a decreased magnitude of projection of the magnetic field of cloud axis onto the Earth's magnetic dipole during such intervals. This effect reveals itself in a reduced level of geomagnetic activity in summer and winter.

Barkhatov, N. A.; Revunova, E. A.; Vinogradov, A. B.

2014-07-01

194

Acoustic properties of hematite near the orientation phase transitions in magnetic fields and under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the results of the experimental investigation of the quasi-phonon (quasi-sound) branch of magnetoelastic waves in hematite (?-Fe2O3) in the easy-plane state near the orientation phase transitions in magnetic fields H and under uniaxial pressure P. It has been found that, in an applied external magnetic field H > 1.0 kOe and at a uniaxial pressure P > 40 MPa, the amplitude of the transmitted quasi-sound abruptly increases. The minima of quasi-sound velocities observed at the orientation phase transition points in the magnetic field H are consistent with the predictions of the existing theory of magnetoelastic waves, but their width significantly exceeds the theoretical values. The minima of quasi-sound velocities at a uniaxial pressure P are observed only in magnetic fields H < 3 kOe and, at H > 3 kOe, turn into extended plateaus.

Migachev, S. A.; Bogdanova, Kh. G.; Kurkin, M. I.

2015-01-01

195

Dependence of all-optical magnetic switching on the sublattice magnetization orientation in Tb-Fe thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the direction of all-optical switching (AOS) in rare-earth transition-metal (RE-TM) alloy Tb-Fe thin films depends on the orientation of the sublattice magnetization and not on the direction of the resulting net magnetization. For this purpose, we investigated the AOS ability for a sample dominated by the Fe sublattice magnetization (Tb24Fe76) and another dominated by the Tb sublattice (Tb30Fe70). This finding of the sublattice dependence of AOS contributes to the understanding of switching in RE-TM multilayered thin films and heterostructures.

Hassdenteufel, A.; Schubert, C.; Schmidt, J.; Richter, P.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Salvan, G.; Helm, M.; Bratschitsch, R.; Albrecht, M.

2014-09-01

196

Compassion, compassion fatigue, and burnout: key insights for oncology professionals.  

PubMed

When cancer care clinicians become stressed, sad, isolated--and unaware of this--they are placing themselves at risk for burnout and their patients at risk for suboptimal care. Despite their best intentions, clinicians can sink from a healthy work state of compassion, empathy, and well-being into compassion fatigue and burnout. Lessons from first responders demonstrate the importance for clinicians to recognize the warning signs of compassion and fatigue and burnout, as this recognition can enable them to take action towards prevention and/or recovery. The recognition of these issues as a threat to clinician performance has outstripped the development of evidence-based interventions, but interventions tested to date are effective, feasible, and scalable. These interventions could be incorporated systematically into cancer care. PMID:24857139

Back, Anthony L; Deignan, Paul F; Potter, Patricia A

2014-01-01

197

Sunset and the orientation of a nocturnal migrant bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE information required for compass orientation among migratory birds is potentially available in the form of numerous environmental stimuli or cues1. Most passerine migrants complete their annual migrations at night, and their orientation is though to depend on a star compass or one based on geomagnetic stimuli1. The pioneering work of Kramer2 suggested that the setting sun may play a

Frank R. Moore

1978-01-01

198

Delta G from Compass  

E-print Network

Measurements of the gluon polarization $\\frac{\\Delta G}{G}$ via the open charm channel and based on the helicity asymmetry of large transverse-momentum hadrons in the final state are presented. The data have been collected in the years 2002-2004 by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarized muon beam scattered off a polarized $^6$LiD target. The new result for $\\frac{\\Delta G}{G}$ from the charm channel is $-0.57 \\pm 0.41 (stat.)$ at $x_G \\simeq 0.15$ and scale $\\mu^2 \\simeq 13 $ (GeV/c)$^2$. The gluon polarization from high-$p_T$ hadron pairs is $\\frac{\\Delta G}{G} = 0.016\\pm 0.058 (stat.)\\pm 0.055 (syst.)$ at $x_G \\simeq 0.085^{+0.07}_{-0.035}$ ($Q^2 < 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$ and $\\mu^2 \\simeq 3$ (GeV/c)$^2$)

Krzysztof Kurek

2006-07-26

199

Self-Compassion and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions. Participants were 338 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale were used. The relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions…

Akin, Ahmet

2010-01-01

200

Orienteering and Rogaining Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orienteering and Rogaining WWW Server is now on-line with information on clubs and federations from around the world, including schedules, results, maps and people to contact for more information. Orienteering is the use of a highly detailed map and a compass to find one's way through unknown surroundings and, if done competitively, in the least possible time. Rogaining is the sport of long distance cross-country navigation in which teams of two to five members, on foot using map and compass, visit as many checkpoints as possible in up to twenty-four hours.

201

Transport driven plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA Tokamak in different orientations of magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Parallel plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA tokamak are measured in two orientations of total magnetic field. In each orientation, experiments are carried out by reversing the direction of the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The transport-driven component is determined by averaging flow Mach numbers, measured in two directions of the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current for the same orientation. It is observed that there is a significant transport-driven component in the measured flow and the component depends on the field orientation.

Sangwan, Deepak; Jha, Ratneshwar; Brotankova, Jana; Gopalkrishna, M. V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2014-06-15

202

ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS. OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

203

Orientation Dependence of the Critical Magnetic Field for Multiferroic BiFeO3  

SciTech Connect

Multiferroic BiFeO3 undergoes a transition from a distorted spiral phase to a G-type antiferromagnet above a critical field Hc that depends on the orientation m of the field. We show that Hc(m) has a maximum when oriented along a cubic diagonal parallel to the electric polarization P and a minimum in the equatorial plane normal to P when two magnetic domains with the highest critical fields are degenerate. The measured critical field along a cubic axis is about 19 T but Hc is predicted to vary by as much as 2.5 T above and below this value. The orientational dependence of Hc(m) is more complex than indicated by earlier work, which did not consider the competition between magnetic domains.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

2013-01-01

204

Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion

Antoine Lutz; Julie Brefczynski-Lewis; Tom Johnstone; Richard J. Davidson; Bernhard Baune

2008-01-01

205

The magnetic and quadrupole moment of oriented nuclei measured with the {beta}-LMR-NMR  

SciTech Connect

By combining two well established methods, the {beta}-level mixing resonance ({beta}-LMR) and the {beta}-nuclear magnetic resonance ({beta}-NMR), it is possible to determine the magnetic moment and the quadrupole moment of nuclei with low spin. The combined method can be applied on spin oriented ground state {beta}-decaying nuclei. It was tested on the known {sup 12}B and successfully applied on the neutron rich {sup 18}N. We found for the magnetic moment {mu}({sup 18}N)=0.157(7)n.m. and for the quadrupole moment Q({sup 18}N)=30(3)mbarn.

Teughels, S.; Neyens, G.; Coulier, N.; Georgiev, G.; Ternier, S.; Vyvey, K.; Balabanski, D. L.; Coussement, R. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200-D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rogers, W. F. [Westmont College, 955 La Paz Road, Santa Barbara, California 93108 (United States); Cortina-Gil, D.; De Oliveira, F.; Lewitowicz, M.; Mittig, W.; Roussel-Chomaz, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, B.P. 5027, F-14021 Caen Cedex (France); Lepine-Szily, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1998-12-21

206

A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

Green, J. A.; Gray, M. D.; Robishaw, T.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

2014-06-01

207

A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile  

E-print Network

Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

Green, J A; Robishaw, T; Caswell, J L; McClure-Griffiths, N M

2014-01-01

208

Interface deformations affect the orientation transition of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces  

E-print Network

Manufacturing new soft materials with specific optical, mechanical and magnetic properties is a significant challenge. Assembling and manipulating colloidal particles at fluid interfaces is a promising way to make such materials. We use lattice-Boltzmann simulations to investigate the response of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at liquid-liquid interfaces to external magnetic fields. We provide further evidence for the first-order orientation phase transition predicted by Bresme and Faraudo [Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 19 (2007), 375110]. We show that capillary interface deformations around the ellipsoidal particle significantly affect the tilt-angle of the particle for a given dipole-field strength, altering the properties of the orientation transition. We propose scaling laws governing this transition, and suggest how to use these deformations to facilitate particle assembly at fluid-fluid interfaces.

Gary B. Davies; Timm Krüger; Peter V. Coveney; Jens Harting; Fernando Bresme

2014-05-23

209

Preparation of non-oriented silicon steel with high magnetic induction using columnar grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Columnar grains can lead to detrimental surface ridging and an inhomogeneous microstructure, although their {1 0 0}<0 v w> texture is considered desirable due to their good magnetic properties in non-oriented silicon steel. Based on the hereditary tendency of {1 0 0}<0 v w> texture, the effects of lubrication and heating rate on texture and on final magnetic properties were investigated using a cast slab containing 100% columnar grains. Hot rolling with lubrication, normalization at low heating rate, two-stage cold rolling, and final annealing at 1000 °C helped achieve high performance. As a result, a new non-oriented silicon steel with high magnetic induction (B50=1.82 T) and low core loss (P1.5=2.35 W/kg) was prepared. The possibility of further performance optimization was also discussed.

Cheng, Ling; Yang, Ping; Fang, Yupei; Mao, Weimin

2012-11-01

210

Effect of modified magnetic field on the ocean migration of maturing chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of magnetic compass orientation in oceanic migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, an ultrasonic telemetry study was carried out in the western North Pacific off the coast of Kushiro, Hokkaido. Four salmon\\u000a were fitted with a tag which generated an artificial magnetic field and modified the geomagnetic field around the head of\\u000a the fish. Initially, the free-ranging

A. Yano; M. Ogura; A. Sato; Y. Sakaki; Y. Shimizu; N. Baba; K. Nagasawa

1997-01-01

211

Current profilers and current meters: compass and tilt sensors errors and calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current profilers and current meters have a magnetic compass and tilt sensors for relating measurements to a terrestrial reference frame. As compasses are sensitive to their magnetic environment, they must be calibrated in the configuration in which they will be used. A calibration platform for magnetic compasses and tilt sensors was built, based on a method developed in 2007, to correct angular errors and guarantee a measurement uncertainty for instruments mounted in mooring cages. As mooring cages can weigh up to 800?kg, it was necessary to find a suitable place to set up this platform, map the magnetic fields in this area and dimension the platform to withstand these loads. It was calibrated using a GPS positioning technique. The platform has a table that can be tilted to calibrate the tilt sensors. The measurement uncertainty of the system was evaluated. Sinusoidal corrections based on the anomalies created by soft and hard magnetic materials were tested, as well as manufacturers’ calibration methods.

Le Menn, M.; Lusven, A.; Bongiovanni, E.; Le Dû, P.; Rouxel, D.; Lucas, S.; Pacaud, L.

2014-08-01

212

Compassion Fatigue: What Is the Level Among Army Chaplains?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Army chaplains assigned to Fort Bragg, NC, units were explored for compassion fatigue with contributory factors, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. The Compassion Fatigue Process developed by Charles Figley was used as the framework of the study. The sample consisted of 69 individuals. Findings indicated a low level of compassion fatigue and burnout, and approximately average level of compassion satisfaction. However,

Della W. Stewart

2012-01-01

213

Anomalous Magnetic Orientations of Magnetosome Chains in a Magnetotactic Bacterium: Magnetovibrio blakemorei Strain MV-1  

PubMed Central

There is a good deal of published evidence that indicates that all magnetosomes within a single cell of a magnetotactic bacterium are magnetically oriented in the same direction so that they form a single magnetic dipole believed to assist navigation of the cell to optimal environments for their growth and survival. Some cells of the cultured magnetotactic bacterium Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1 are known to have relatively wide gaps between groups of magnetosomes that do not seem to interfere with the larger, overall linear arrangement of the magnetosomes along the long axis of the cell. We determined the magnetic orientation of the magnetosomes in individual cells of this bacterium using Fe 2p X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra measured with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). We observed a significant number of cases in which there are sub-chains in a single cell, with spatial gaps between them, in which one or more sub-chains are magnetically polarized opposite to other sub-chains in the same cell. These occur with an estimated frequency of 4.0±0.2%, based on a sample size of 150 cells. We propose possible explanations for these anomalous cases which shed insight into the mechanisms of chain formation and magnetic alignment. PMID:23308202

Kalirai, Samanbir S.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Hitchcock, Adam P.

2013-01-01

214

Crystal-oriented tungsten-bronze type ceramics prepared by a rotating magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forming and sintering of c-axis-oriented Sr2NaNb5O15 (SNN) ceramics were examined. Particle-oriented SNN was fabricated by using a rotating high magnetic field and subsequent sintering without magnetic field. SNN ceramics are tungsten-bronze-type ferroelectric materials with a tetragonal crystal system. The diamagnetic susceptibilities of the c-axis are smaller than that of the a- and b-axis (?c < ?a,b < 0). SNN powder was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction. The synthesized powder was mixed with distilled water and a dispersant by using ball milling to give a slurry with solid loading of 30 vol%. The slurry was poured into a plastic mold and this was placed in a 10Tesla magnetic field in a superconducting magnet. The mold was rotated at 30 rpm while the slurry dried at room temperature. The resulting powder compact with a columnar shape was heated at 5 K/min to 1473 K, held for 6 h, and then heated at 1525 K for 2 h to prevent exaggerated grain growth. XRD patterns showed that c-axis-oriented SNN polycrystalline ceramics were produced in the presence of the rotating magnetic field. In XRD patterns viewed from the top surface of the sintered specimens, peaks from the c-planes of the crystal, such as 001 and 002, were very strong. Diffraction peaks which were very strong in the ceramics, such as 320 and 410, were absent in the specimen. Oriented microstructure was developed well by sintering. Grain-growth along to c-axis was observed in the SNN ceramics heated at 1525 K.

Tanaka, S.; Doshida, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Furushima, R.; Uematsu, K.

2011-03-01

215

Biophysics of Magnetic Orientation: Radical Pairs, Biogenic Magnetite, or both?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in terrestrial animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, have been the subject of experiment and debate for the past 30 years. The magnetite hypothesis has stood the test of time: biogenic magnetite is synthesized biochemically in Bacteria, Protists, and numerous Animal phyla, as well as in some plants. Chains of single-domain crystals have been detected by clean-lab based SQUID magnetometry in animal tissues in all major phyla, followed by high-resolution TEM in selected model organisms, as well as by electrophysiological studies demonstrating the role of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in the magnetoreceptive process. Pulse-remagnetization - configured to uniquely flip the polarity of single-domain ferromagnets - has dramatic effects on the behavior of many birds, honeybees, mole rats, turtles, and bats, to cite a growing list. Magnetite-containing cells in the vicinity of these neurons in fish are now the subject of intense study by our consortium. The existence of a specialized class of magnetite-containing magnetoreceptor cells in animal tissues is no longer controversial. In contrast, less success has been achieved in gaining experimental support across a range of taxa for the radical-pair hypothesis. Although this mechanism was proposed to explain an early observation that birds would not respond to complete inversion of the magnetic vector, many organisms (even some birds) do indeed respond to the field polarity. We also note that few, if any, of these critical experiments have been done using fully double-blind methods. This is joint work with: M. M. Walker (University of Auckland, New Zealand) and M. Winklhofer (LMU Munich, Germany).

Kirschvink, Joe

2011-03-01

216

Magnetic-field-orientation dependent magnetization reversal and spin waves in elongated permalloy nanorings  

E-print Network

) Positive exchange bias and upward magnetic relaxation in a Fe-film/CoO-nanoparticle hybrid system Appl magnetite nano-hollow spheres J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064318 (2012) Magnetization reversal in multisegmented

Adeyeye, Adekunle

217

Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks, skates, and rays receive electrical information about the positions of their prey, the drift of ocean currents, and their magnetic compass headings. At sea, dogfish and blue sharks were observed to execute apparent feeding responses to dipole electric fields designed to mimic prey. In training experiments, stingrays showed the ability to orient relative to uniform electric fields similar to those produced by ocean currents. Voltage gradients of only 5 nanovolts per centimeter would elicit either behavior.

Kalmijn, Ad. J.

1982-11-01

218

Electric and magnetic field detection in elasmobranch fishes.  

PubMed

Sharks, skates, and rays receive electrical information about the positions of their prey, the drift of ocean currents, and their magnetic compass headings. At sea, dogfish and blue sharks were observed to execute apparent feeding responses to dipole electric fields designed to mimic prey. In training experiments, stingrays showed the ability to orient relative to uniform electric fields similar to those produced by ocean currents. Voltage gradients of only 5 nanovolts per centimeter would elicit either behavior. PMID:7134985

Kalmijn, A J

1982-11-26

219

Direct Experimental Observations on Concurrent Microstructure and Magnetic Property Developments in Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-grain oriented electrical steel, with minor in-grain orientation gradients, was subjected to interrupted tensile deformations and concurrent microtexture, magnetic property and residual stress measurements. After the upper yield point, clear signatures of mechanical stress relief were observed. Changes in orientation gradients led to annihilation of low-angle (1 to 3 deg) boundaries. Prior deformation compressive residual stresses became tensile and magnetic properties improved. Beyond an optimum true strain of 0.01, this boundary annihilation ceased, compressive stresses were generated, and magnetic properties degraded.

Shekhawat, S. K.; Basavaraj, V.; Hiwarkar, V. D.; Chakrabarty, R.; Nemade, J.; Guruprasad, P. J.; Suresh, K. G.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

2014-08-01

220

Magnetic behaviour of Tb impurities in Gd andY single crystals: a nuclear orientation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low temperature nuclear orientation of160Tb impurities in Gd andY single crystals has been studied in the temperature range 7 40 mK andin the external magnetic field range 0 7.3 T applied along a-, b- and c-crystal axes. In the case of Tb in Gd we found a considerable noncollinearity of the Tb magnetic moment with respect to the magnetic external field direction even for high B ext. In the case of Tb in Y the results cannot be described by a simple model, taking into account the simultaneous influence of the crystal andexternal magnetic fields. Some new proposals for interpretation of the experimental dat are given.

Trhlík, M.; Brewer, W. D.; Kuriplach, J.; Sedlák, B.; Dupák, J.

1993-03-01

221

Magnetic and transport properties of Mn2CoAl oriented films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, magnetic, and transport properties of thin films of the Heusler ferrimagnet Mn2CoAl have been investigated for properties related to spin gapless semiconductors. Oriented films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and the structure was found to transform from tetragonal to cubic for increasing annealing temperature. The anomalous Hall resistivity is found to be proportional to the square of the longitudinal resistivity and magnetization expected for a topological Berry curvature origin. A delicate balance of the spin-polarized carrier type when coupled with voltage gate-tuning could significantly impact advanced electronic devices.

Jamer, Michelle E.; Assaf, Badih A.; Devakul, Trithep; Heiman, Don

2013-09-01

222

Magnetic and transport properties of Mn{sub 2}CoAl oriented films  

SciTech Connect

The structure, magnetic, and transport properties of thin films of the Heusler ferrimagnet Mn{sub 2}CoAl have been investigated for properties related to spin gapless semiconductors. Oriented films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and the structure was found to transform from tetragonal to cubic for increasing annealing temperature. The anomalous Hall resistivity is found to be proportional to the square of the longitudinal resistivity and magnetization expected for a topological Berry curvature origin. A delicate balance of the spin-polarized carrier type when coupled with voltage gate-tuning could significantly impact advanced electronic devices.

Jamer, Michelle E.; Assaf, Badih A.; Devakul, Trithep; Heiman, Don [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

2013-09-30

223

Orientation Measurement Based on Magnetic Inductance by the Extended Distributed Multi-Pole Model  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel method to calculate magnetic inductance with a fast-computing magnetic field model referred to as the extended distributed multi-pole (eDMP) model. The concept of mutual inductance has been widely applied for position/orientation tracking systems and applications, yet it is still challenging due to the high demands in robust modeling and efficient computation in real-time applications. Recently, numerical methods have been utilized in design and analysis of magnetic fields, but this often requires heavy computation and its accuracy relies on geometric modeling and meshing that limit its usage. On the other hand, an analytical method provides simple and fast-computing solutions but is also flawed due to its difficulties in handling realistic and complex geometries such as complicated designs and boundary conditions, etc. In this paper, the extended distributed multi-pole model (eDMP) is developed to characterize a time-varying magnetic field based on an existing DMP model analyzing static magnetic fields. The method has been further exploited to compute the mutual inductance between coils at arbitrary locations and orientations. Simulation and experimental results of various configurations of the coils are presented. Comparison with the previously published data shows not only good performance in accuracy, but also effectiveness in computation. PMID:24977389

Wu, Fang; Moon, Seung Ki; Son, Hungsun

2014-01-01

224

The relative orientation between the magnetic field and structures traced by interstellar dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal structures, or ridges, in the intensity map with counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes with column density from 10^20 to 10^22 cm^-2. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane of the sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the magnetic field to be between 0.6 and 1.0, with a preferred value of 0.8. We find that the ridges are preferentially aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures. This trend becomes more striking for increasing polarization fraction and decreasing column density. We interpret the increase of alignment with polarization fraction as a consequence of projections effects. The decrease of alignment for high column density is not due to a loss of correlation between the structures and the geometry of the magnetic field. In molecular complexes, we observe structures perpendicular to the magnetic field, which cannot be accounted for by projection effects. We discuss our results in the context of models and MHD simulations, which describe the formation of structures in the magnetized ISM.

Bracco, Andrea; Planck Collaboration

2015-01-01

225

Magnetically orientable phospholipid bilayers containing small amounts of a bile salt analogue, CHAPSO.  

PubMed Central

Buffered mixtures of the detergent 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) orient in the presence of a strong magnetic field over a wide range of water contents (at least 65-85%) and CHAPSO:DMPC molar ratios (typically 1:10-1:3). 31P NMR studies show that the phospholipid in such mixtures is oriented with its director axis perpendicular to the magnetic field. 31P and 2H NMR results also suggest that the structure and dynamics of the DMPC molecules are similar to that of pure phospholipids existing in the liquid crystalline (L alpha) bilayer phase. The ability of 1:5 CHAPSO:DMPC samples to orient is highly tolerant of large changes in temperature, pH, and ionic strength, as well as to the addition of substantial amounts of charged amphiphiles or soluble protein. However, 2H NMR studies of deuterated beta-dodecyl melibiose (DD-MB) solubilized in the system indicate the head group conformation and/or dynamics of this glycolipid analogue is dependent upon the CHAPSO concentration. Despite the latter results, the orientational versatility of the system, together with the nondenaturing properties of CHAPSO, makes this system useful in spectroscopic studies of membrane-associated phenomena. PMID:2207249

Sanders, C R; Prestegard, J H

1990-01-01

226

Imperfect oriented attachment: Direct activation of high-temperature ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a simple nonequilibrium solvothermal synthesis of Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanocrystals. The crystal growth mechanism of imperfect three-dimensionally oriented attachment was revealed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The shallow donorlike defects as the legacy of aggregation-based growth were responsible for the observed high-temperature ferromagnetism (FM), further verifying the recent proposal. The solvothermal-treated strategy may

Xuefeng Wang; J. B. Xu; Ning Ke; Jiaguo Yu; Juan Wang; Quan Li; H. C. Ong; R. Zhang

2006-01-01

227

Orientation dependence of magnetic circular dichroism in tin-doped yttrium iron garnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements are reported of optical absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), in the range of wavelength 1.0-2.7 mu m, made on tin-doped YIG with the specimen orientations (100), (110) and (111). These effects are studied at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The transitions at 1.15, 1.65 and 2.00 mu m, are clearly observed in the low-temperature absorption spectrum as well as

F. Lucari; C. Mastrogiuseppe; G. Tomassetti

1979-01-01

228

CARBON-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments in Powdered and Oriented Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample reorientation during the mixing time of a two-dimensional ^{13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) exchange experiment allows the measurement of the principal values of chemical shift tensors in powdered samples whose one-dimensional powder patterns are too complex to reliably analyze. The experiment is relatively easy to perform, and the experimental artifacts can be accounted for with a straightforward physical model. The process of fitting the powdered sample spectra produces the principal values of the chemical shift tensor, and a function that describes the experimental artifacts in the spectrum. The method is useful for sorting out the principal values of overlapping chemical shift tensor powder patterns, and it also shows promise for characterizing heterogeneous materials. The experiment is useful for characterizing order in partially oriented samples. The orientational distribution of molecular fragments in extruded and drawn polymer samples have been measured. The distribution functions are quite similar to the predictions of a normal probability distribution on a sphere. The function that describes the experimental artifacts in the powder spectrum can be used to correct the analysis of the oriented sample's spectrum, thereby increasing the accuracy of orientational distribution measurements. In certain cases, the local conformation of a macromolecule can be determined from the spectrum of a very highly oriented sample.

Hughes, Craig Dale

229

Frustration and Entanglement in Compass and Spin-Orbital Models  

E-print Network

We review the consequences of intrinsic frustration of the orbital superexchange and of spin-orbital entanglement. While Heisenberg perturbing interactions remove frustration in the compass model, the lowest columnar excitations are robust in the nanoscopic compass clusters and might be used for quantum computations. Entangled spin-orbital states determine the ground states in some cases, while in others concern excited states and lead to measurable consequences, as in the $R$VO$_3$ perovskites. On-site entanglement for strong spin-orbit coupling generates the frustrated Kitaev-Heisenberg model with a rich magnetic phase diagram on the honeycomb lattice. Frustration is here reflected in hole propagation which changes from coherent in an antiferromagnet via hidden quasiparticles in zigzag and stripe phases to entirely incoherent one in the Kitaev spin liquid.

Andrzej M. Ole?

2014-10-24

230

A spot check for assessing static orientation consistency of inertial and magnetic sensing units.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of Magnetic and Inertial Measurement Units (MIMUs) for movement reconstruction, only a few studies have tackled issues related to their accuracy. It has been proved that their performance decreases over a period of use since calibration parameters become no longer effective. Good practice rules recommend to assess, prior to any experimental session, the instrumental errors associated to the relevant measures. Aim of this study was to provide a practical and reproducible spot check for assessing the performance of MIMUs in terms of consistency in determining their orientation with respect to a common (inter-MIMUs consistency, IC) and invariant (self-MIMU consistency, SC) global frame. IC was assessed by verifying the hypothesis that the orientation of 9 MIMUs aligned to each other on a rigid Plexiglas plank coincided at any orientation of the plank. SC was assessed separately by verifying differences between measured and imposed known rotations imparted to each MIMU. The orientation of MIMUs relative to the global frame was expressed in terms of quaternion. IC test showed that MIMUs defined their orientation differently. This difference was not constant but varied according to the plank's orientation. The least consistent MIMU showed discrepancy up to 5.7°. SC test confirmed the same MIMU as that affected by the highest inaccuracy (8.4°), whereas it revealed errors within limits (1°) in correspondence to other MIMUs. A tool has been proposed that allows the users to be aware of the errors that may be expected when using MIMUs for the estimate of absolute and relative segments kinematics. PMID:21227693

Picerno, Pietro; Cereatti, Andrea; Cappozzo, Aurelio

2011-03-01

231

Magnetic orientation and magnetically sensitive material in a transequatorial migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of animal species is sensitive to changes in natural and artificial magnetic fields. The receptor mechanism for this ability has been described for a few species, most notably magnetotactic bacteria1 and potential receptors have been reported for such animals as honey bees, homing pigeons and dolphins2-5. Some species of migratory birds also perceive changes in magnetic field6. We

Robert C. Beason; Joan E. Nichols

1984-01-01

232

Solving the Orientation Specific Constraints in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation by Rotating Fields  

PubMed Central

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a promising technology for both neurology and psychiatry. Positive treatment outcome has been reported, for instance in double blind, multi-center studies on depression. Nonetheless, the application of TMS towards studying and treating brain disorders is still limited by inter-subject variability and lack of model systems accessible to TMS. The latter are required to obtain a deeper understanding of the biophysical foundations of TMS so that the stimulus protocol can be optimized for maximal brain response, while inter-subject variability hinders precise and reliable delivery of stimuli across subjects. Recent studies showed that both of these limitations are in part due to the angular sensitivity of TMS. Thus, a technique that would eradicate the need for precise angular orientation of the coil would improve both the inter-subject reliability of TMS and its effectiveness in model systems. We show here how rotation of the stimulating field relieves the angular sensitivity of TMS and provides improvements in both issues. Field rotation is attained by superposing the fields of two coils positioned orthogonal to each other and operated with a relative phase shift in time. Rotating field TMS (rfTMS) efficiently stimulates both cultured hippocampal networks and rat motor cortex, two neuronal systems that are notoriously difficult to excite magnetically. This opens the possibility of pharmacological and invasive TMS experiments in these model systems. Application of rfTMS to human subjects overcomes the orientation dependence of standard TMS. Thus, rfTMS yields optimal targeting of brain regions where correct orientation cannot be determined (e.g., via motor feedback) and will enable stimulation in brain regions where a preferred axonal orientation does not exist. PMID:24505266

Neef, Nicole E.; Agudelo-Toro, Andres; Rakhmilevitch, David; Paulus, Walter; Moses, Elisha

2014-01-01

233

Self-Compassion and Internet Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of self-compassion and internet addiction. Participants were 261 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Self-compassion Scale and the Online Cognition Scale. The hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. In correlation analysis,…

Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

2011-01-01

234

Mindful Self-Compassion: Core Skills Training  

E-print Network

-compassion exercises to clients What To Expect Program activities include meditation, short talks, experiential.CenterForMSC.org Prerequisites No previous experience with mindfulness or meditation is required to attend the program for Meditation and Psychotherapy. He leads workshops internationally on mindfulness and self-compassion. Dr

Paulsson, Johan

235

Is compassion essential to nursing practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian Nurses' Association recently (2001) approved a new code of ethics that included compassion as one of the basic values in nursing care.This paper examines the idea of compassion in the context of the Bible story of the Good Samaritan using an analysis of qualitative data from nurses' clinical work with psychiatric patients.The aim is to show how the

MARIT HELENE HEM; KRISTIN HEGGEN

2004-01-01

236

Bats respond to polarity of a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Bats have been shown to use information from the Earth's magnetic field during orientation. However, the mechanism underlying this ability remains unknown. In this study we investigated whether bats possess a polarity- or inclination-based compass that could be used in orientation. We monitored the hanging position of adult Nyctalus plancyi in the laboratory in the presence of an induced magnetic field of twice Earth-strength. When under the influence of a normally aligned induced field the bats showed a significant preference for hanging at the northern end of their roosting basket. When the vertical component of the field was reversed, the bats remained at the northern end of the basket. However, when the horizontal component of the field was reversed, the bats changed their positions and hung at the southern end of the basket. Based on these results, we conclude that N. plancyi, unlike all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested to date, uses a polarity-based compass during orientation in the roost, and that the same compass is also likely to underlie bats' long-distance navigation abilities. PMID:17848365

Wang, Yinan; Pan, Yongxin; Parsons, Stuart; Walker, Michael; Zhang, Shuyi

2007-01-01

237

Magnetic field distortions produced by protective cages around sea turtle nests: unintended consequences for orientation and navigation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth’s magnetic field plays an important role in the orientation and navigation of sea turtles. Galvanized steel wire cages are often placed over turtle nests to protect them from predators, but the material typically used in cages has a high magnetic permeability and might therefore affect the nearby field. Here we report magnetometer measurements indicating that standard nest cages

William P. Irwin; Amy J. Horner; Kenneth J. Lohmann

2004-01-01

238

The effect of Pt interlayers on the magnetic and structural properties of perpendicularly oriented barium ferrite media  

E-print Network

The effect of Pt interlayers on the magnetic and structural properties of perpendicularly orientedM films with Pt interlayers were successfully fabricated. The magnetic and structural properties of BaM films were compared with BaM films without Pt interlayers. It was found that perpendicular c

Laughlin, David E.

239

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-based Filter for orientation determination using inertial and magnetic sensors.  

PubMed

In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2012-01-01

240

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors  

PubMed Central

In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2012-01-01

241

Multilevel magnetization switching by electric field in c-axis oriented polycrystalline Z-type hexaferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct and converse magnetoelectric (ME) effects, namely, magnetic-field (B) induced electric polarization (P) and electric-field (E) induced magnetization (M), respectively, were investigated at room temperature for c-axis oriented polycrystalline specimens of a Z-type hexaferrite, Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The B profile of the linear ME coefficient obtained from the converse effect well coincides with that obtained from the direct effect. Furthermore, M-E curves show a substantial hysteretic behavior, which allows reversal and multilevel switching of M by applying pulsed E. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of nonvolatile memory elements by using the ME Z-type hexaferrite at room temperature.

Okumura, K.; Haruki, K.; Ishikura, T.; Hirose, S.; Kimura, T.

2013-07-01

242

Magnetization reversal in a preferred oriented (111) L1(0) FePt grown on a soft magnetic metallic glass for tilted magnetic recording.  

PubMed

L1(0) FePt is an important material for the fabrication of high density perpendicular recording media, but the ultrahigh coercivity of L1(0) FePt restricts its use. Tilting of the magnetic easy axis and the introduction of a soft magnetic underlayer can solve this problem. However, high temperature processing and the requirement of epitaxial growth conditions for obtaining an L1(0) FePt phase are the main hurdles to be overcome. Here, we introduce a bilayered magnetic structure ((111) L1(0) FePt/glassy Fe(71)Nb(4)Hf(3)Y(2)B(20)/SiO(2)/Si) in which the magnetic easy axis of L1(0) FePt is tilted by ~36° from the film plane and epitaxial growth conditions are not required. The soft magnetic underlayer not only promotes the growth of L1(0) FePt with the preferred orientation but also provides an easy cost-effective micro/nanopatterning of recording bits. A detailed magnetic characterization of the bilayered structure in which the thickness of (111) L1(0) FePt with the soft magnetic Fe(71)Nb(4)Hf(3)Y(2)B(20) glassy underlayer varied from 5 to 60 nm is carried out in an effort to understand the magnetization switching mechanism. The magnetization switching behavior is almost the same for bilayered structures in which FePt layer thickness is >10 nm (greater than the domain wall thickness of FePt). For FePt film ~10 nm thick, magnetization reversal takes place in a very narrow field range. Magnetization reversal first takes place in the soft magnetic underlayer. On further increase in the reverse magnetic field, the domain wall in the soft magnetic layer compresses at the interface of the hard and soft layers. Once the domain wall energy becomes sufficiently large to overcome the nucleation energy of the domain wall in L1(0) FePt, the magnetization of the whole bilayer is reversed. This process takes place quickly because the domain walls in the hard layer do not need to move, and the formation of a narrower domain wall may not be favorable energetically. Our results showed that the present bilayered structure is very promising for the fabrication of tilted bit-patterned magnetic recording media. PMID:22293096

Wang, Yaocen; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

2012-02-22

243

Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations  

PubMed Central

White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:23296181

Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

2013-01-01

244

Kalman-filter-based orientation determination using inertial/magnetic sensors: observability analysis and performance evaluation.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical. PMID:22163689

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

245

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Hypersonic Flow over a Cylinder Using Axial- and Transverse-Oriented Magnetic Dipoles  

PubMed Central

Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (?1) calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field. PMID:24307870

Guarendi, Andrew N.; Chandy, Abhilash J.

2013-01-01

246

Kalman-Filter-Based Orientation Determination Using Inertial/Magnetic Sensors: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical. PMID:22163689

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

247

Magnetic orientation of nontronite clay in aqueous dispersions and its effect on water diffusion.  

PubMed

The diffusion rate of water in dilute clay dispersions depends on particle concentration, size, shape, aggregation and water-particle interactions. As nontronite clay particles magnetically align parallel to the magnetic field, directional self-diffusion anisotropy can be created within such dispersion. Here we study water diffusion in exfoliated nontronite clay dispersions by diffusion NMR and time-dependant 1H-NMR-imaging profiles. The dispersion clay concentration was varied between 0.3 and 0.7 vol%. After magnetic alignment of the clay particles in these dispersions a maximum difference of 20% was measured between the parallel and perpendicular self-diffusion coefficients in the dispersion with 0.7 vol% clay. A method was developed to measure water diffusion within the dispersion in the absence of a magnetic field (random clay orientation) as this is not possible with standard diffusion NMR. However, no significant difference in self-diffusion coefficient between random and aligned dispersions could be observed. PMID:25313485

Abrahamsson, Christoffer; Nordstierna, Lars; Nordin, Matias; Dvinskikh, Sergey V; Nydén, Magnus

2015-01-01

248

Pediatric novice nurses: examining compassion fatigue as a mediator between stress exposure and compassion satisfaction, burnout, and job satisfaction.  

PubMed

We investigated whether compassion fatigue mediated associations between nurse stress exposure and job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction, and burnout, controlling for pre-existing stress. The Life Events Checklist was administered to 251 novice pediatric nurses at the start of the nurse residency program (baseline) and 3 months after to assess pre-existing and current stress exposure. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout were assessed 3 months after baseline and job satisfaction 6 months after. Stress exposure significantly predicted lower compassion satisfaction and more burnout. Compassion fatigue partially mediated these associations. Results demonstrate a need for hospitals to prevent compassion fatigue in healthcare providers. PMID:24444742

Meyer, Rika M L; Li, Angela; Klaristenfeld, Jessica; Gold, Jeffrey I

2015-01-01

249

Orientation of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) close to the magnetic north pole  

PubMed

Orientation experiments were performed with first-year snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) during their autumn migration in a natural near-vertical geomagnetic field approximately 400 km away from the magnetic north pole. Migratory orientation of snow buntings was recorded using two different techniques: orientation cage tests and free-flight release experiments. Experiments were performed under clear skies, as well as under natural and simulated complete overcast. Several experimental manipulations were performed including an artificial shift of the E-vector direction of polarized light, depolarization of incoming light and a 4 h slow clock-shift experiment. The amount of stored fat proved to be decisive for the directional selections of the buntings. Fat individuals generally chose southerly mean directions, whereas lean birds selected northerly headings. These directional selections seemed to be independent of experimental manipulations of the buntings' access to visual cues even in the local near-vertical magnetic field. Under clear skies, the buntings failed to respond to either a deflection of the E-vector direction of polarized light or an experimental depolarization of incoming skylight. When tested under natural as well as simulated overcast, the buntings were still able to select a meaningful mean direction according to their fat status. Similarly, the free-flight release test under complete overcast resulted in a well-defined southsoutheast direction, possibly influenced by the prevailing light northwest wind. Clock-shift experiments did not yield a conclusive result, but the failure of these birds to take off during the subsequent free-flight release test may indicate some unspecified confusion effect of the treatment. PMID:9600868

Sandberg; BACkman; Ottosson

1998-05-21

250

(110) Orientation growth of magnetic metal nanowires with face-centered cubic structure using template synthesis technique  

SciTech Connect

A template-assisted assembly technique has been used to synthesize magnetic metal nanowire arrays. Fe, Co, Ni nanowires are fabricated using direct-current electrodeposition in the pores of anodic alumina membranes. The morphology and the crystal structure of the samples are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. The results indicate that Fe, Co, and Ni nanowires all have face-centered cubic (FCC) structure and a preferred orientation along the [110] direction. The ability to prepare well-defined orientation growth of magnetic metal nanowires with FCC structure opens up new opportunities for both fundamental studies and nanodevice applications. - Research Highlights: {yields} Fe, Co, and Ni nanowires are fabricated in the AAM templates by electrodeposition. {yields} Well-defined orientation growth of the nanowires with FCC structure were investigated. {yields} The electrodeposition parameters affect the crystal structure and growth orientation.

Wang Xuewei, E-mail: xwwang@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Lab for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yuan Zhihao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li Jushan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

2011-06-15

251

Magnetic moment of Ag-104(m) and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

E-print Network

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented Ag-104(g,m) nuclei with the NICOLE He-3-He-4 dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE/CERN. For Ag-104(g) (I-pi = 5(+)) the gamma-NMR/ON resonance signal was found at nu = 266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities in an Fe host at low temperature (magnetic moment mu(Ag-104m) = +3.691(3) mu(N), which is significantly more precise than previous results. The magnetic moments of the even-A Ag102 -110 isotopes are discussed in view of the competition between the (pi g(9/2))(7/2+)(-3)(nu d(5/2)nu g(7/2))(5/2+) and the (pi g(9/2))(9/2+)(-3)(nu d(5/2)nu g(7/2))(5/2+) configurations. The magnetic moments of the ground and isomeric states of Ag-104 can be explained by an almost complete mixing of these two configurations.

V. V. Golovko; I. S. Kraev; T. Phalet; B. Delaure; M. Beck; V. Yu. Kozlov; S. Coeck; F. Wauters; P. Herzog; Ch. Tramm; D. Zakoucky; D. Venos; D. Srnka; M. Honusek; U. Koester; N. Severijns

2010-06-30

252

Circuits and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the same method as in the activity from lesson 2 of this unit to explore the magnetism due to electric current instead of a permanent magnet. Students use a compass and circuit to trace the magnetic field lines induced by the electric current moving through the wire. Students develop an understanding of the effect of the electrical current on the compass needle through the induced magnetic field and understand the complexity of a three dimensional field system.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

253

Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among Colorado child protection workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to understand better the risk of compassion fatigue (the trauma suffered by the helping professional) and burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced sense of personal accomplishment), and the potential for compassion satisfaction (the fulfillment from helping others and positive collegial relationships) among Colorado county child protection staff using the Compassion Satisfaction\\/Fatigue Self-Test [Figley, C.

David Conrad; Yvonne Kellar-Guenther

2006-01-01

254

Orientation of lamellar phases of lyotropic multicomponent mixtures, based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide cationic detergent, in magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation of the lamellar phases in lyotropic systems based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) detergent has been studied by polarization optical microscopy and 2H-NMR methods. The lamellar lyotropics studied are shown to align under a strong magnetic field of 11.7 T. According to 2H-NMR data, structural transformations of the lamellar phases may occur during orientation when the sample temperature increases.

Kiirend, E. O.; Chumakova, S. P.; Pekhk, T. I.; Ivanov, N. R.

2013-11-01

255

A new stator-flux orientation strategy for flux-switching permanent magnet motor based on current-hysteresis control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stator-flux orientation strategy based on current hysteresis for the flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is proposed, in which the stator-PM FSPM motor is considered as a conventional rotor-PM surface-mounted motor and an equivalent rotor-orientated dq-axes synchronous reference frame is built although there are actually no rotary magnetic motive force produced by the stator magnets in the FSPM motor. Based on the proposed model, a vector-control strategy with current hysteresis for the FSPM motor drive is investigated and implemented on a dSPACE-based platform, and both the simulated and experimental results validate the effectiveness. It should be emphasized that the proposed stator-flux orientation strategy can be applied to other stator-PM machines (including doubly salient and flux-reversal PM machines) and other control methods (including space-vector pulsed-width-modification and direct torque control).

Hua, Wei; Cheng, Ming; Lu, Wei; Jia, Hongyun

2009-04-01

256

The advanced stellar compass onboard the Oersted satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced stellar compass (ASC) star tracker installed onboard the Danish Oersted satellite designed to map the earth's magnetic vector field is presented. The ASC instrument will provide attitude data for the satellite and its payload. It consists of a CCD camera connected to a microcomputer, and operates by comparing star images from camera frames with its internal star catalogs. The instrument design is detailed, considering its key parameters, operating principles, and the different types of noise and error sources. A ground-based real sky evaluation and the calibration of the ASC are reported.

Jorgensen, John L.; Liebe, Carl Christian; Eisenman, Allan R.; Jensen, Gunnar B.

1997-01-01

257

Dayside Magnetopause Transients Correlated with Changes of the Magnetosheath Magnetic Field Orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper analyses one long-term pass (26 August 2007) of the THEMIS spacecraft across the dayside low-latitude magnetopause. THEMIS B, serving partly as a magnetosheath monitor, observed several changes of the magnetic field that were accompanied by dynamic changes of the magnetopause location and/or the structure of magnetopause layers observed by THEMIS C, D, and E, whereas THEMIS A scanned the inner magnetosphere. We discuss the plasma and the magnetic field data with motivation to identify sources of observed quasiperiodic plasma transients. Such events at the magnetopause are usually attributed to pressure pulses coming from the solar wind, foreshock fluctuations, flux transfer events or surface waves. The presented transient events differ in nature (the magnetopause surface deformation, the low-latitude boundary layer thickening, the crossing of the reconnection site), but we found that all of them are associated with changes of the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation and with enhancements or depressions of the plasma density. Since these features are not observed in the data of upstream monitors, the study emphasizes the role of magnetosheath fluctuations in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

Tkachenko, O.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.; Sibeck, D. G.

2011-01-01

258

Magnetic properties of Mn3O4 film with a coexistence of two preferential orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Mn3O4 film with a coexistence of two preferential orientations has been grown on a Pt(111)//Si(100) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The structural characteristics and chemical compositions of the film are investigated by using X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectra in detail. Together with the magnetic tests, the film is demonstrated to be a polycrystalline hausmannite Mn3O4 with no other impurities. Moreover, the hysteresis loops of the film are found to display a step or a characteristic shrinking at low fields. On the other hand, similar magnetic characteristics have also been discovered on the film with two phases grown on a MgAl2O4(001) substrate. In our opinion, considering the large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy of the single crystal Mn3O4 film reported in previous works, the special structures and phases of the two films result in both of them as soft+hard magnetic composites, in agreement with some other reports.

Ren, Lizhu; Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yunjia; Meng, Meng; Wu, Shuxiang; Li, Shuwei

2014-07-01

259

Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO3 nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO3 slurry, BaTiO3 nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO3 grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

Kita, T.; Kondo, S.; Takei, T.; Kumada, N.; Nakashima, K.; Fujii, I.; Wada, S.; Suzuki, T. S.; Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kawada, S.; Kimura, M.

2011-10-01

260

Self-compassion in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Self-compassion is conceptualized as containing 3 core components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus overidentification, when relating to painful experiences. Research evidence demonstrates that self-compassion is related to psychological flourishing and reduced psychopathology. Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) is an 8-week training program, meeting 2.5 hours each week, designed to help participants cultivate self-compassion. MSC contains a variety of meditations (e.g., loving-kindness, affectionate breathing) as well as informal practices for use in daily life (e.g., soothing touch, self-compassionate letter writing). A detailed clinical case illustrates the journey of a client through the 8 weeks of MSC training, describing the key features of each session and the client's response. PMID:23775511

Germer, Christopher K; Neff, Kristin D

2013-08-01

261

Recognising and combating compassion fatigue in nursing.  

PubMed

In this monthly column, Aysha Mendes explores the reasons why nurses may feel compassion fatigue and ways NHS organisations and nurses themselves can engage in activities that will help them renew their emotional energy. PMID:25426529

Mendes, Aysha

2014-11-27

262

Raman spectra and magnetization of all-ferromagnetic superlattices grown on (110) oriented SrTiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superlattices consist of two ferromagnets La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and SrRuO3 (SRO) were grown in (110)-orientation on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra of these superlattices show the presence of in-plane compressive strain and orthorhombic structure of less than 4 u.c. thick LSMO spacer, respectively. Magnetic measurements reveal several features including reduced magnetization, enhanced coercivity, antiferromagnetic coupling, and switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic coupling with magnetic field orientations. These magnetic properties are explained by the observed orthorhombic structure of spacer LSMO in Raman scattering which occurs due to the modification in the stereochemistry of Mn at the interfaces of SRO and LSMO.

Behera, B. C.; Ravindra, A. V.; Padhan, P.; Prellier, W.

2014-03-01

263

Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are presented to examine the relation of self-compassion to psychological health. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying

Kristin D. Neff; Kristin L. Kirkpatrick; Stephanie S. Rude

2007-01-01

264

Magnetic information calibrates celestial cues during migration.  

PubMed

Migratory birds use celestial and geomagnetic directional information to orient on their way between breeding and wintering areas. Cue-conflict experiments involving these two orientation cue systems have shown that directional information can be transferred from one system to the other by calibration. We designed experiments with four species of North American songbirds to: (1) examine whether these species calibrate orientation information from one system to the other; and (2) determine whether there are species-specific differences in calibration. Migratory orientation was recorded with two different techniques, cage tests and free-flight release tests, during autumn migration. Cage tests at dusk in the local geomagnetic field revealed species-specific differences: red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus, and northern waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis, selected seasonally appropriate southerly directions whereas indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea, and grey catbird, Dumetella carolinensis, oriented towards the sunset direction. When tested in deflected magnetic fields, vireos and waterthrushes responded by shifting their orientation according to the deflection of the magnetic field, but buntings and catbirds failed to show any response to the treatment. In release tests, all four species showed that they had recalibrated their star compass on the basis of the magnetic field they had just experienced in the cage tests. Since release tests were done in the local geomagnetic field it seems clear that once the migratory direction is determined, most likely during the twilight period, the birds use their recalibrated star compass for orientation at departure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11032648

Sandberg; Bäckman; Moore; Lõhmus

2000-10-01

265

The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.  

PubMed

The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds. PMID:22693032

Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

2012-09-15

266

Honeybee navigation: critically examining the role of the polarization compass  

PubMed Central

Although it is widely accepted that honeybees use the polarized-light pattern of the sky as a compass for navigation, there is little direct evidence that this information is actually sensed during flight. Here, we ask whether flying bees can obtain compass cues derived purely from polarized light, and communicate this information to their nest-mates through the ‘waggle dance’. Bees, from an observation hive with vertically oriented honeycombs, were trained to fly to a food source at the end of a tunnel, which provided overhead illumination that was polarized either parallel to the axis of the tunnel, or perpendicular to it. When the illumination was transversely polarized, bees danced in a predominantly vertical direction with waggles occurring equally frequently in the upward or the downward direction. They were thus using the polarized-light information to signal the two possible directions in which they could have flown in natural outdoor flight: either directly towards the sun, or directly away from it. When the illumination was axially polarized, the bees danced in a predominantly horizontal direction with waggles directed either to the left or the right, indicating that they could have flown in an azimuthal direction that was 90° to the right or to the left of the sun, respectively. When the first half of the tunnel provided axial illumination and the second half transverse illumination, bees danced along all of the four principal diagonal directions, which represent four equally likely locations of the food source based on the polarized-light information that they had acquired during their journey. We conclude that flying bees are capable of obtaining and signalling compass information that is derived purely from polarized light. Furthermore, they deal with the directional ambiguity that is inherent in polarized light by signalling all of the possible locations of the food source in their dances, thus maximizing the chances of recruitment to it. PMID:24395964

Evangelista, C.; Kraft, P.; Dacke, M.; Labhart, T.; Srinivasan, M. V.

2014-01-01

267

The importance of magnetic-field-oriented thermal conduction in the interaction of SNR shocks with interstellar clouds  

E-print Network

We explore the importance of magnetic-field-oriented thermal conduction in the interaction of supernova remnant (SNR) shocks with radiative gas clouds and in determining the mass and energy exchange between the clouds and the hot surrounding medium. We perform 2.5D MHD simulations of a shock impacting on an isolated gas cloud, including anisotropic thermal conduction and radiative cooling; we consider the representative case of a Mach 50 shock impacting on a cloud ten-fold denser than the ambient medium. We consider different configurations of the ambient magnetic field and compare MHD models with or without the thermal conduction. The efficiency of the thermal conduction in the presence of magnetic field is, in general, reduced with respect to the unmagnetized case. The reduction factor strongly depends on the initial magnetic field orientation, and it is minimum when the magnetic field is initially aligned with the direction of shock propagation. The thermal conduction contributes to suppress hydrodynamic instabilities, reducing the mass mixing of the cloud and preserving the cloud from complete fragmentation. Depending on the magnetic field orientation, the heat conduction may determine a significant energy exchange between the cloud and the hot surrounding medium which, while remaining always at levels less than those in the unmagnetized case, leads to a progressive heating and evaporation of the cloud. This additional heating may contrast the radiative cooling of some parts of the cloud, preventing the onset of thermal instabilities.

S. Orlando; F. Bocchino; F. Reale; G. Peres; P. Pagano

2008-01-09

268

Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider practice patterns. Female gender was associated with higher levels of

Ginny Sprang; James J. Clark; Adrienne Whitt-Woosley

2007-01-01

269

Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Moment Orientation in Co2Z-Type Hexaferrite Estimated by High-Temperature Neutron Diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the correlation between the thermomagnetic curve of Co2Z-type hexagonal barium ferrite and its magnetic moment direction. We measured the thermomagnetic curve of Ba3Co1.8Fe24.2O41, prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method, in the temperature range from 294 to 773 K with a vibrating sample magnetometer under 70 Oe. The curve shows two significant magnetization slumps at 540 K and 680 K. High-temperature XRD patterns show that no crystal transformation occurs in the temperature region from 294 to 773 K. High-temperature neutron diffraction experiments were performed to investigate the magnetic moment orientation at elevated temperatures. The Rietveld analyses of the neutron diffraction patterns indicate that the temperature rise from 523 to 573 K makes the magnetic moments turn to the c-axis from a direction parallel to the c-plane most significantly. The slump in magnetization at 540 K may be attributed to the change in easy magnetization direction from the c-plane to the c-axis. The change in average orientation of the magnetic moments must be induced by the disappearance of the contribution of cobalt to magnetism in this temperature range.

Takada, Yukio; Nakagawa, Takashi; Fukuta, Yasunari; Tokunaga, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Takao A.; Tachibana, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji; Igawa, Naoki; Ishii, Yoshinobu

2005-05-01

270

Quantification of magnetic flux density in non-oriented electrical steel sheets by analysis of texture components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify the impact of crystallographic texture on the variation of magnetic flux density B(?) in non-oriented electrical steel, two sheet samples with identical chemical composition were produced in a way to achieve different textures. A correlation between the values of B(?) and an anisotropy parameter A(h?) obtained from the sheet textures was established. In turn, this correlation

H. G. Kang; K. M. Lee; M. Y. Huh; J. S. Kim; J. T. Park; O. Engler

2011-01-01

271

Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full three dimensional calculation  

SciTech Connect

The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.

Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2014-02-15

272

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding a coil of wire that is connected to a battery. This activity requires a large coil or spool of wire, a source of electricity such as 3 D-cell batteries or an AC to DC power adapter, alligator-clipped wire, and magnetic compasses. This is the third lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

273

Orientation Errors in Paleomagnetic Core Samples and Their Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In paleomagnetic studies, samples are often obtained as cylindrical cores by the use of engine drills. Two angles measured for the core in the field (the angle P between cylindrical axis and the horizontal plane, and the angle A between a horizontal direction in the core and the true north) are needed to describe the direction of magnetic remanence in geographic coordinates. These angles can be measured with an error of about 1 degree or less. The error in paleomagnetic directions are usually given by Fisher's semi-angle of 95% confidence (? 95), which is typically a few to ten degrees. It appears therefore that the orientation errors are negligibly small. However, this it not quite correct. There is no problem about the measurement of P, but the angle in the horizontal plane (A) is often measured by a magnetic compass, which is a source of large errors. In particular, large local magnetic anomalies often accompany volcanic rock terrain because of their strong magnetization. This effect is known quite a long time, but quantitative estimate of orientation errors is not available yet. We have obtained quite a large number of data (182 lavas, 903 samples) from Lundarhals area of Iceland. For more than 200 samples of these, three independent horizontal angles have been measured to estimate A; one by sun's direction, the second by reference to some landmark, and the third is by magnetic direction. Among the rest of samples, more than 600 have reference and magnetic directions. Only 30 samples are determined by magnetic compass alone. From a detailed analysis of these data, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) The difference between sun and reference azimuths are 0.0±0.6~circ (the mean and standard deviation in degrees, for n=203). This is small enough and can be ignored compared to other errors. Consequently, if either of these angles are available, we have almost error-free data for A. (2) The differences between the sun and magnetic azimuths are 0.5±7.8o (n=240), and those between the reference and magnetic azimuths are 0.0±6.9o (n=844). This error is not negligible in the paleosecular variation studies, in which the typical ASD is of the order of 10 to 20 degrees. (3) In general, samples from the same lava show similar errors. Thus it appears that the main reason for the error in A is the magnetization of the lavas itself. However, it is hard to find a good correlation between the direction of magnetization and the orientation errors.

Kono, M.

2011-12-01

274

Quantification of magnetic flux density in non-oriented electrical steel sheets by analysis of texture components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to quantify the impact of crystallographic texture on the variation of magnetic flux density B( ?) in non-oriented electrical steel, two sheet samples with identical chemical composition were produced in a way to achieve different textures. A correlation between the values of B( ?) and an anisotropy parameter A(h?) obtained from the sheet textures was established. In turn, this correlation was used to compute in-plane variations of B( ?) for various single crystal orientations as well as various characteristic polycrystal texture components. Since non-oriented electrical steel is mainly used in applications with changing directions of magnetization the planar magnetic flux density B¯, which averages the in-plane variation of B( ?), is an important measure of the overall magnetizing ability. A high planar magnetic flux density B¯ is achieved by increasing texture components with their {0 0 1} poles close to the sheet normal direction, perpendicular to the sheet plane, while suppressing texture components whose {0 0 1} poles deviate from the normal direction by more than 30°.

Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. M.; Huh, M. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Park, J. T.; Engler, O.

2011-09-01

275

Magnetic domain structure and crystallographic orientation of electrical steels revealed by a forescatter detector and electron backscatter diffraction.  

PubMed

The magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels (NOES) are an important factor in determining the efficiency of electric vehicle drivetrains. Due to the highly variable texture of NOES, the relationships between crystal orientation, the magnetic domain structure, and the final magnetic properties are complicated and not fully understood. In this study, a NOES sample was characterized with a method capable of imaging surface magnetic domains using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system equipped with a forescatter detector. This method used type II magnetic contrast without a specialized SEM setup, and imaged with a resolution limit of approximately 250-300nm. The domain structure of the NOES sample was successfully related to ?, which was defined as the angle between the closest magnetic easy axis and the surface of the sample (the RD-TD plane). However, it was shown that if the easy axes were aligned between neighbouring grains with respect to the grain boundary normal, the domain structure could align with an easy axis that was not the closest to the surface, and complex domain structures could be become wider. This structure and width change of complex domain structures has not been previously observed from single crystal or large-grained material studies. The successful application of this method to reveal the influence of surrounding grains can be used to better understand the magnetic properties of NOES. PMID:24769020

Gallaugher, Matthew; Brodusch, Nicolas; Gauvin, Raynald; Chromik, Richard R

2014-07-01

276

The calm before the storm? Burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

Studies have consistently highlighted the deleterious impact of burnout and compassion fatigue on professional nurses' well-being and willingness to remain in the profession. Yet, as to what extent these noxious conditions are suffered among nursing students is still unclear. In this study 436 undergraduate nursing students completed surveys assessing their experiences of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction (factors of burnout and compassion fatigue). There were no significant differences found between 3rd and 4th year students' reports of detrimental conditions and those of the 1st or 2nd year students. Furthermore, 4th year students reported significantly higher levels of personal accomplishment compared to 1st and 2nd year students. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 3rd and 4th year students revealed that their clinical exposure during these years (especially during the 4th year) may enhance their other-orientation as well as promote role actualization, which may serve as protective features. Students did, however, express concern regarding an inevitable onset of burnout at some point during their professional careers. It is suggested that a key to understanding the onset and experience of burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses is to continue to examine the transition from student to professional nurse and the cultural atmosphere of nursing education compared to professional practice. PMID:23434192

Michalec, Barret; Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Mahoney, Margaret

2013-04-01

277

Quantum dynamics of the avian compass  

E-print Network

The ability of migratory birds to orient relative to the Earth's magnetic field is believed to involve a coherent superposition of two spin states of a radical electron pair. However, the mechanism by which this coherence can be maintained in the face of strong interactions with the cellular environment has remained unclear. This Letter addresses the problem of decoherence between two electron spins due to hyperfine interaction with a bath of spin 1/2 nuclei. Dynamics of the radical pair density matrix are derived and shown to yield a simple mechanism for sensing magnetic field orientation. Rates of dephasing and decoherence are calculated ab initio and found to yield millisecond coherence times, consistent with behavioral experiments.

Zachary B. Walters

2012-08-13

278

Quantum dynamics of the avian compass.  

PubMed

The ability of migratory birds to orient relative to the Earth's magnetic field is believed to involve a coherent superposition of two spin states of a radical electron pair. However, the mechanism by which this coherence can be maintained in the face of strong interactions with the cellular environment has remained unclear. This paper addresses the problem of decoherence between two electron spins due to hyperfine interaction with a bath of spin-1/2 nuclei. Dynamics of the radical pair density matrix are derived and shown to yield a simple mechanism for sensing magnetic field orientation. Rates of dephasing and decoherence are calculated ab initio and found to yield millisecond coherence times, consistent with behavioral experiments. PMID:25375526

Walters, Zachary B

2014-10-01

279

Self-Compassion and the Dynamics of Investigating Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What role does compassion play in one's work? In the author's organization, the word "compassion" has been mostly linked to their values, mission, and programs. She has generally understood the concept of compassion as a deep feeling of empathy that flows from oneself towards others during certain situations and conditions. In her mind, "having…

Serri, Conchita Franco

2006-01-01

280

Compassion Fatigue Among Social Work Students in Field Placements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales indicated that social work students appear to be motivated and committed to

Cynthia Harr; Brenda Moore

2011-01-01

281

Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

2011-01-01

282

Compassion Fatigue and the Adult Protective Services Social Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects

Dara Bergel Bourassa

2009-01-01

283

Compassion Fatigue: Communication and Burnout toward Social Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study establishes the construct of “compassion fatigue,” encompassing desensitization and emotional burnout, as a phenomenon associated with pervasive communication about social problems. The study marks the first-known empirical investigation of compassion fatigue as it relates to media coverage and interpersonal communication about social problems. A telephone survey methodology was used to measure compassion fatigue among a general, adult population

Katherine N. Kinnick; Dean M. Krugman; Glen T. Cameron

1996-01-01

284

The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The sky polarized light pattern is visible underwater within the critical angle of refraction and can be used to position the sun in the sky. The present study determined whether the shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris could use this polarization pattern for sun compass orientation.2.In the laboratory, Palaemonetes oriented parallel to the e-vector of downwelling polarized light regardless of their phototactic state.

Sydnee M. Goddard; Richard B. Forward

1991-01-01

285

A Study of the Relationship Between Self-Care, Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout Among Hospice Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice care professionals (HCPs) experience a large number of stressors in their work settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-care, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among HCPs. Thirty-seven HCPs were surveyed regarding their levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Respondents also reported the types of self-care activities in which they took

Karen Alkema; Jeremy M. Linton; Randall Davies

2008-01-01

286

Magnetic gold nanoparticles in SERS-based sandwich immunoassay for antigen detection by well oriented antibodies.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop an indirect, robust and simple in application method for the detection of bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was applied as detection method. Magnetic gold nanoparticles (MNP-Au) modified by antibodies in oriented or random manner were used for the binding of gp51. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the best antibody immobilization and antigen capturing efficiency was achieved using fragmented antibodies obtained after reduction of intact antibodies with dithiothreitol. In order to increase efficiency and sensitivity of immunoassay Raman labels consisting of gold nanorods coated by 5-thio-nitrobenzoic acid layer with covalently bounded antibodies have been constructed. The LOD and LOQ of the proposed immunoassay for antigen gp51 detection were found to be 0.95?gmL(-1) and 3.14?gmL(-1), respectively. This immunoassay was successfully applied for the detection of gp51 in milk samples in a rapid, reliable and selective manner. We believe that the proposed SERS-based immunoassay format can be applied for the detection of other proteins. PMID:23334004

Baniukevic, Julija; Hakki Boyaci, Ismail; Goktug Bozkurt, Akif; Tamer, Ugur; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ramanaviciene, Almira

2013-05-15

287

Utilization of gyroscopic compass with borehole television camera in Devonian shale wells, Appalachian basin  

SciTech Connect

The color Borehole Television Camera has, in the three short years since its introduction in the Appalachian basin, become an extremely valuable tool in evaluating wells in Devonian shale. This has been due to the camera's ability to detect fracturing and small hydrocarbon entries that are below the resolution threshold of conventional geophysical logging. This potential of the camera has been greatly enhanced by the addition of a gyroscopic compass to the basic tool. This compass gives the added value of orientation to observed phenomena in both open and cased holes. In the open hole, the camera can be used to determine the orientation of fracturing. This feature is extremely important because fracture orientation can vary with depth, which may be the reason that some previously observed fractures make gas, whereas others within the same well bore do not. The productive fracture orientation can also be tied back to regional lineation studies. Within the open hole, the gyroscope can also be used to orient sidewall coring operations so that cores can, in addition to regular analyses, be evaluated for directional properties, such as permeability and direction of the source beds. Induced fractures, created by open-hole stress testing, can also be observed and their orientation determined.

Walbe, K.

1988-08-01

288

Performance of large pixelised Micromegas detectors in the COMPASS environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New large-size Micromegas detectors are being developed for the future physics program of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. These detectors will have a pixelised readout in their center to detect particles in the beam region, where the particle flux can reach several MHz/cm2 in nominal conditions, and will have to handle high intensity hadron beams (up to a few 107 hadrons/s) with a discharge rate lower than 0.01 to 0.001 discharge/s. Several prototypes with two different discharge rate reduction technologies (preamplification stage with a GEM foil and resistive readout with buried resistors) have been studied in the COMPASS beam since 2010. Four of them have been included in the spectrometer since 2012, and have been used for the track reconstruction. Their performance (detection efficiency, space and time resolutions, and discharge rates) for different beam intensities and magnetic fields environments are presented. These detectors play an important role in the track reconstruction at very small angle; their impact is presented, with a particular emphasis on the effect of the background reduction due to an improved cluster selection.

Thibaud, F.; Abbon, P.; Andrieux, V.; Anfreville, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Coquelet, C.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Desforge, D.; Dupraz, K.; Durand, R.; Ferrero, A.; Giganon, A.; Jourde, D.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Marchand, C.; Neyret, D.; Paul, B.; Platchkov, S.; Usseglio, M.; Vandenbroucke, M.

2014-02-01

289

Developing compassion in pre-registration education.  

PubMed

Compassion is a fundamental aspect of nursing and student nurses have to be able to demonstrate compassion in practice. Nurse educators in higher education institutions and clinical settings need to work together to prepare and support student nurses to deliver compassionate care. This article discusses the key components of compassionate care, and how students can be enabled to deliver high-quality care within rapidly changing, complex environments. A second article in this issue explores how nurses can be recruited with the values of the 6Cs (page 12). PMID:25318150

Pryce-Miller, Maxine; Vernel, Emanuel

290

Compassion fatigue in military healthcare teams.  

PubMed

Since the onset of the Iraq war and Afghanistan conflicts, military healthcare teams have had increasing exposure to the traumatic effects of caring for wounded warriors, leading to a phenomenon termed compassion fatigue. The purpose of this integrative review was to develop a proposed definition for compassion fatigue in support of these teams. There is no current standardized formal definition, and this lack of clarity can inhibit intervention. Seven main themes evolved from the literature review and were integrated with the core elements of the Bandura Social Cognitive Theory Model as the first step in developing a uniformed definition. PMID:24506980

Owen, Regina Peterson; Wanzer, Linda

2014-02-01

291

Magnetic monitoring of earth and space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For centuries, navigators of the world's oceans have been familiar with an effect of Earth's magnetic field: It imparts a directional preference to the needle of a compass. Although in some settings magnetic orientation remains important, the modern science of geomagnetism has emerged from its romantic nautical origins and developed into a subject of great depth and diversity. The geomagnetic field is used to explore the dynamics of Earth's interior and its surrounding space environment, and geomagnetic data are used for geophysical mapping, mineral exploration, risk mitigation, and other practical applications. A global distribution of ground-based magnetic observatories supports those pursuits by providing accurate records of the magnetic-field direction and intensity at fixed locations and over long periods of time. ?? 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Love, J.J.

2008-01-01

292

Microwave complex permeability of Fe3O4 nanoflake composites with and without magnetic field-induced rotational orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoflakes with widths of 100-200 nm and thicknesses of 10-80 nm were prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method. Fe3O4 nanoflake composites with and without magnetic field-induced rotational orientation of flake planes of Fe3O4 nanoflakes in paraffin binder were fabricated using 35 wt. % Fe3O4 nanoflakes. The rotationally oriented composite showed higher permeability and resonance frequency than the nonoriented one, and its value of (?0-1)fr reached 214.8 GHz and exceeded the Snoek's limit. Considering a uniform and a random distribution of flake planes of Fe3O4 nanoflakes in the oriented and nonoriented composites, respectively, the complex permeability of both composites was calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman's effective medium theory in the 2-18 GHz microwave frequency range.

Liu, Xianguo; Wing Or, Siu; Ming Leung, Chung; Ho, S. L.

2013-05-01

293

Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Team, University C.

2007-12-12

294

The polarization trajectory of terahertz magnetic dipole radiation in (110)-oriented PrFeO{sub 3} single crystal  

SciTech Connect

By using the polarized terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy, the macro-magnetization motion in (110)-oriented PrFeO{sub 3} single crystal was constructed. We emphasize that the trajectory of the emitted THz waveforms relies on not only the motion of macroscopic magnetization vector, but also the spin configuration in the ground state and the propagation of THz pulse. The azimuthal angle (the incident THz pulse polarization with respect to the crystal axes) enables us to control the polarization trajectories of the quasiferromagnetic and quasiantiferromagnetic mode radiations that can lead to further applications on multiple information storing and quantum processing.

Song, Gaibei; Jin, Zuanming; Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Wang, Xinyan; Wu, Hailong; Ma, Guohong, E-mail: ghma@staff.shu.edu.cn, E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn; Cao, Shixun, E-mail: ghma@staff.shu.edu.cn, E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2014-04-28

295

Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering.  

PubMed

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing. PMID:23696200

Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J

2013-07-01

296

Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering  

PubMed Central

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals’ capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (i) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior, and (ii) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy young adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, greater altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training, where greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement in neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of others, executive and emotional control, and reward processing. PMID:23696200

Weng, Helen Y.; Fox, Andrew S.; Shackman, Alexander J.; Stodola, Diane E.; Caldwell, Jessica Z. K.; Olson, Matthew C.; Rogers, Gregory M.; Davidson, Richard J.

2013-01-01

297

Quantification of magnetic flux density in non-oriented electrical steel sheets by analysis of texture components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify the impact of crystallographic texture on the variation of magnetic flux density B(alpha) in non-oriented electrical steel, two sheet samples with identical chemical composition were produced in a way to achieve different textures. A correlation between the values of B(alpha) and an anisotropy parameter A(h-->) obtained from the sheet textures was established. In turn, this correlation

H. G. Kang; K. M. Lee; M. Y. Huh; J. S. Kim; J. T. Park; O. Engler

2011-01-01

298

Effect of Choline Chloride on the Lipid Content and Composition in the Leaves of Principal Magnetically-Oriented Radish Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of radish seed treatment with choline chloride on the number and weight of leaves, the weight of roots, as well as the content and composition of polar and neutral lipids and their component fatty acids in the leaves of principal magnetically-oriented types (MOTs) of radish (cv. Rosovo-krasnyi s belym konchikom), that is, North–South (NS) and West–East (WE) ones,

G. V. Novitskaya; T. K. Kocheshkova; T. V. Feofilaktova; Yu. I. Novitskii

2004-01-01

299

Conformation of Alamethicin in Oriented Phospholipid Bilayers Determined by 15N Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conformation of the 20-residue antibiotic ionophore alamethicin in macroscopically oriented phospholipid bilayers has been studied using 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Differently 15N-labeled variants of alamethicin and an analog with three of the ?-amino-isobutyric acid residues replaced by alanines have been investigated to establish experimental structural constraints and

Mads Bak; Robert P. Bywater; Morten Hohwy; Jens K. Thomsen; Kim Adelhorst; Hans J. Jakobsen; Ole W. Sørensen; Niels C. Nielsen

2001-01-01

300

Domain wall assisted magnetization switching in (111) oriented L1{sub 0} FePt grown on a soft magnetic metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

We report on growth and magnetic properties of exchange-coupled (111)-L1{sub 0} FePt hard/CoFeTaB soft magnetic metallic glass bilayered structure processed at lower temperature ({approx}400 deg. C). Single phaselike hysteresis loops with tailorable coercivity (<8.2 kOe) in out of plane direction are obtained. The magnetization switching mechanism is identified as domain wall assisted. In views of excellent nanofabrication abilities of metallic glass thin film and the ability to grow preferred oriented L1{sub 0} FePt, the present bilayered structure is very promising for the fabrication of high density bit--patterned magnetic recording media and other spintronic devices.

Kaushik, Neelam [World Premier Initiative (WPI) Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sharma, Parmanand; Yubuta, Kunio; Makino, Akihiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-08-16

301

Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co2FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrathin films of Co2FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films.

Wen, F. S.; Xiang, J. Y.; Hao, C. X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y. F.; Wang, W. H.; Hu, W. T.; Liu, Z. Y.

2013-12-01

302

Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.  

PubMed

'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics. PMID:25516944

de Zulueta, Paquita C

2015-01-01

303

Compassion fatigue: nurse grief…who cares?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of a patient or a coworker through sudden death can be a shattering experience. The purpose of this presentation was to provide information on compassion fatigue. This presentation covered the affect of repeated traumatic death on nurses. The presentation was divided into two parts. In the first part, the presenter reviewed nurses as disenfranchised grievers, identified characteristics of

Barbara Rubel

2004-01-01

304

Walking alongside Children as They Form Compassion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affluence in the United States in the recent past has made it tempting to indulge children in individual achievement within a culture of abundance. Parents and teachers worry over how to teach compassion in a culture of abundance and competition for personal success, where children's time is over-scheduled and they are geographically dispersed…

Sanders, Wendy Hinrichs

2010-01-01

305

How dim is dim? Precision of the celestial compass in moonlight and sunlight  

PubMed Central

Prominent in the sky, but not visible to humans, is a pattern of polarized skylight formed around both the Sun and the Moon. Dung beetles are, at present, the only animal group known to use the much dimmer polarization pattern formed around the Moon as a compass cue for maintaining travel direction. However, the Moon is not visible every night and the intensity of the celestial polarization pattern gradually declines as the Moon wanes. Therefore, for nocturnal orientation on all moonlit nights, the absolute sensitivity of the dung beetle's polarization detector may limit the precision of this behaviour. To test this, we studied the straight-line foraging behaviour of the nocturnal ball-rolling dung beetle Scarabaeus satyrus to establish when the Moon is too dim—and the polarization pattern too weak—to provide a reliable cue for orientation. Our results show that celestial orientation is as accurate during crescent Moon as it is during full Moon. Moreover, this orientation accuracy is equal to that measured for diurnal species that orient under the 100 million times brighter polarization pattern formed around the Sun. This indicates that, in nocturnal species, the sensitivity of the optical polarization compass can be greatly increased without any loss of precision. PMID:21282173

Dacke, M.; Byrne, M. J.; Baird, E.; Scholtz, C. H.; Warrant, E. J.

2011-01-01

306

Anchor Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Video and Compass Information Fusion  

PubMed Central

Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras' orientations. PMID:24594614

Pescaru, Dan; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

2014-01-01

307

Attachment, caregiving, and altruism: boosting attachment security increases compassion and helping.  

PubMed

Recent studies based on J. Bowlby's (1969/1982) attachment theory reveal that both dispositional and experimentally enhanced attachment security facilitate cognitive openness and empathy, strengthen self-transcendent values, and foster tolerance of out-group members. Moreover, dispositional attachment security is associated with volunteering to help others in everyday life and to unselfish motives for volunteering. The present article reports 5 experiments, replicated in 2 countries (Israel and the United States), testing the hypothesis that increases in security (accomplished through both implicit and explicit priming techniques) foster compassion and altruistic behavior. The hypothesized effects were consistently obtained, and various alternative explanations were explored and ruled out. Dispositional attachment-related anxiety and avoidance adversely influenced compassion, personal distress, and altruistic behavior in theoretically predictable ways. As expected, attachment security provides a foundation for care-oriented feelings and caregiving behaviors, whereas various forms of insecurity suppress or interfere with compassionate caregiving. PMID:16351370

Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Gillath, Omri; Nitzberg, Rachel A

2005-11-01

308

Is it possible to receive information about the historical geomagnetic declination from church orientations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely known that the main structure of many churches was planned and built in an east-ward direction. This procedure, called "easting", was used for centuries especially in catholic structures. "Easting" usually refers to the direction of sunrise at the church patron's day. Assuming however that this direction is estimated by compasses there could be a significant correlation between the geographic orientation of the churches and the value of magnetic declination at the date of building. In Europe compasses are known since the 11th century. For this study altogether 124 churches located in lower Austria and built between 1100 to 1900 were analysed. Of primary interest is the geographic orientation of the churches, which was extracted out of georeferenced satellite images in Google Earth and the NO Atlas. The measured orientation of the church's nave is then compared to the geographic east direction as well as to the magnetic east direction, according to the magnetic field in the church's construction year which is determined by published geomagnetic field models. The resulting deviations for the geographic east direction split our data into two groups: churches that were built before 1500 and churches that were constructed after 1500. The boundary between these two data sets is marked by the Ottoman wars in the 16th century, where a lot of churches were destroyed. After 1500 the differences between the church's orientation and the geographic east direction are significantly bigger than before the Ottoman wars, so we shifted our focus for the following calculations on the time span from 1100 to 1500, where we found quite small deviations for both the geographic and the magnetic east direction. The principle idea of church orientation, usually referred to as "Easting" is to direct the church to the point of sunrise on the patron saint's day. Therefore we also calculated the solar azimuth on the patron saint's day and compared it to the orientation of the church. The differences we found were bigger than the deviations we got from the comparisons to the geographic and magnetic east directions, so this indicates that practically the solar azimuth was not used for the church's direction. Furthermore, our investigations indicate that the orientation of the investigated churches is more likely to be related to the geographic east direction than to magnetic east.

Draxler, Andrea; Rauch, Roman; Gruber, Karin; Leohardt, Roman

2013-04-01

309

Artifacts in the Wake: Leadership via an Oriented Compass Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although inextricable, the act of leading, the leader, and outcome of leadership are unique entities. Lack of such differentiation may ensnare novice leaders in broad suppositions. This conceptual article introduces a tool for analyzing leadership. Leaders can leverage the model to evaluate the act of leading, in route, via a measurable trajectory…

Fallon, Paul D.

2013-01-01

310

Mapping Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about bar magnets and their invisible magnetic fields. Learners will experiment with magnets and a compass to detect and draw magnetic fields. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource, entitled Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO.

2012-08-03

311

Electronic and magnetic properties of (1 1 1)-oriented CoCr2O4 epitaxial thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication of high quality (1 1 1)-oriented ferrimagnetic normal spinel CoCr2O4 epitaxial thin films on single crystal Al2O3 substrates. The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties were characterized by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, dc magnetization measurement, and element resolved resonant X-ray magnetic scattering. The comprehensive characterization reveals that no disorder in the cation distribution or multivalency issue is present in the samples. As a result, Kagomé and triangular layers are naturally formed via this specific growth approach. These findings offer a pathway to fabricate two dimensional Kagomé heterostructures with exotic quantum many-body phenomena by means of geometrical design.

Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M.; Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Jian; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Freeland, J. W.; Chakhalian, J.

2014-07-01

312

Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines seeks to increase safety and efficiency in U.S. coal mines. One approach is to develop technology for automation of a continuous mining machine. Realization of an autonomous mining machine requires development of subsystems for machine intelligence, navigation-positioning, and computer control. The report focuses on investigation of one subsystem, an onboard heading system, which would be responsible for determining and controlling machine heading. The onboard heading system investigated is a multisensor system to determine machine heading, pitch, and roll. A directional gyroscope provides heading (yaw), fluxgate sensors provide a compass heading, and gravity-referenced clinometers give machine pitch and roll. The system utilizes a dedicated microcontroller networked to an external system of computers. Tram commands, supplied to the network from external computers, are executed by the onboard system. Sensor feedback is employed for closed-loop control of machine heading by controlling pivots and turns. The report discusses operating limitations and error sources of system sensors and presents test results of closed-loop control of machine heading.

Sammarco, J.J.

1990-01-01

313

Detrital remanent magnetization in the solar nebula  

E-print Network

We introduce the theoretical basis of a new form of remanent magnetization that likely formed on primitive bodies in the solar system. Accretional detrital remanent magnetization (ADRM) operates via “compass needle”-type ...

Fu, Roger Rennan

314

Magnetic Declination Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool calculates magnetic declination for a variety of locations across Canada and elsewhere. Users select a city (Canada only) from a drop-down menu or enter latitude and longitude values (works for any location), and the tool calculates the proper magnetic declination (the angular difference between observed magnetic North on a compass and geographic or 'true' North). There are also links to information on how to use magnetic declination with a compass, and how to use the calculator to determine values of all seven magnetic components. For locations in Canada, the Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field (CGRF) is used; for other locations, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is used.

315

Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field  

The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the sameway for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. The range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.

None

2013-09-04

316

Exploring Magnetic Fields in Your Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about measuring magnetic field directions of Earth and in the environment. First, learners go outside, far away from buildings, power lines, or anything electrical or metal, and use compasses to identify magnetic North. Next, they use the compasses to probe whether there are any sources of magnetic fields in the local environment, including around electronic equipment such as a CD player and speakers. This is the first lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

317

Rise of pairwise thermal entanglement for an alternating Ising and Heisenberg spin chain in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically two particles (spins) could be maximally entangled at zero temperature, and for a certain temperature the phenomenon of entanglement vanishes at the threshold temperature. For the Heisenberg coupled model or even the Ising model with a transverse magnetic field, one can observe some rise of entanglement even for a disentangled region at zero temperature. So we can understand this emergence of entanglement at finite temperature as being due to the mixing of some maximally entangled states with some other untangled states. Here, we present a simple one-dimensional Ising model with alternating Ising and Heisenberg spins in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field, which can be mapped onto the classical Ising model with a magnetic field. This model does not show any evidence of entanglement at zero temperature, but surprisingly at finite temperature rise a pairwise thermal entanglement between two untangled spins at zero temperature when an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field is applied. This effect is a purely magnetic field, and the temperature dependence, as soon as the temperature increases, causes a small increase in concurrence, achieving its maximum at around 0.1. Even for long-range entanglement, a weak concurrence still survives. There are also some real materials that could serve as candidates that would exhibit this effect, such as Dy(NO3)(DMSO)2Cu(opba)(DMSO)2 [DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamoto)] [J. Stre?ka, M. Hagiwara, Y. Han, T. Kida, Z. Honda, and M. Ikeda, Condens. Matter Phys. 15, 43002 (2012), 10.5488/CMP.15.43002].

Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

2014-03-01

318

Recent results from the COMPASS hadron program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment aimed to study the structure and dynamics of hadrons. Using a 190 GeV/c pion beam, the spectrum of light mesons is studied at four-momentum transfers squared to the target between 0:1 and 1:0 GeV2/c2. The flagship channel is the diffractive production of ?-?-?+ final states for which COMPASS has recorded the world's largest data sample. The determination of properties of known resonances, and the search for new states is also pursued in the ?-?0?0 final state, and in centrally produced systems. The structure of light mesons is studied in Primakoff reactions at lowest four-momentum transfers. Using these processes, the polarizability of the pion, the radiative width of the a2 (1320) and, for the first time, that of the ?2 (1670) have been measured.

Uhl, Sebastian

2014-11-01

319

Self-Compassion and Well-being among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67–90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with poorer physical health, self-compassion was associated with greater subjective well-being. In Study 2, 71 participants between the ages of 63 and 97 completed a questionnaire assessing self-compassion, well-being, and their willingness to use assistance for walking, hearing, and memory. Self-compassionate participants reported being less bothered by the use of assistance than those low in self-compassion, although the relationship between self-compassion and willingness to use assistive devices was mixed. These findings suggest that self-compassion is associated with well-being in later life and that interventions to promote self-compassion may improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23525647

Allen, Ashley Batts; Goldwasser, Eleanor R.; Leary, Mark R.

2012-01-01

320

COMPASS: A general purpose computer aided scheduling tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas under the direction of the Software Technology Branch at JSC. COMPASS is intended to illustrate the latest advances in scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to potential NASA Space Station Freedom standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. These characteristics are discussed and used to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Fox, Barry; Culbert, Chris

1991-01-01

321

Electrophoretic and electro-optical studies on the conformation and susceptibility to psoralen crosslinking of magnetically oriented DNA  

SciTech Connect

Gel electrophoresis and electro-optical birefringence measurements were performed on the replicative form of bacteriophage phi X-174 DNA subjected to orientation in a homogeneous stationary magnetic field. The conformation of this superhelical double-stranded form of DNA, and its sensitivity to intercalation and crosslinking by a psoralen derivative, were found to be unaffected by a 1 h exposure to a 2.15 Tesla field. In addition, no alteration was detected in the infectivity of the exposed phi X-174 DNA in E. coli bacterial hosts.

Roots, R.J.; Kraft, G.H.; Farinato, R.S.; Tenforde, T.S.

1982-08-01

322

Compassion Fatigue and Countertransference: Two Different Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable conceptual confusion about the differences between compassion fatigue and countertransference.\\u000a This often results in them being treated as the same phenomena, both in the literature and clinically. This paper maintains\\u000a that these are, in fact, two different concepts that derive from different sources and serve different functions. Each of\\u000a these two concepts requires different kinds of

Joan Berzoff; Elizabeth Kita

2010-01-01

323

Topos, Compasses, and Triangles, Oh My!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to actually triangulate using a compass, topographical (topo) map and view of outside landmarks. It is best if a field trip to another location away from school is selected. The location should have easily discernable landmarks (like mountains or radio towers) and changes in elevation (to illustrate the topographical features) to enhance the activity. A national park is an ideal location, and visiting a number of parks, especially parks with hiking trails, is especially beneficial.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

324

Valuing compassion through definition and measurement.  

PubMed

The Leadership in Compassionate Care programme aims to embed compassionate care in practice and education. This article describes a project within the programme that explores with staff, patients and families the meaning of compassion and how this can be measured. The project has involved developing practice statements from noticing the aspects of compassionate care that work well. Staff were provided with support to consider, develop and implement actions that would help ensure consistency in developing compassionate care. PMID:21473217

Dewar, Belinda; Pullin, Simon; Tocheris, Ria

2011-02-01

325

The influence of the magnetic field orientation on the angular momentum loss in the pre-main sequence phase: The case of very slowly rotating magnetic Ap stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landstreet & Mathys (\\cite{lan00}) have discovered that almost all the magnetic Ap stars having rotation periods longer than about one month have their magnetic and rotation axes fairly closely aligned, in contrast to the more common magnetic Ap stars of shorter period, in which the two axes are usually inclined to one another at a large angle. Furthermore, as shown earlier by Mathys et al. (\\cite{mathys}) and by Hubrig et al. (\\cite{hnm00}), these most slowly rotating magnetic Ap stars have also magnetic fields several times larger than are typical for shorter period magnetic Ap stars, and generally have masses below 3 Msun. In this paper, we present calculations to show that the observed axial alignment in the slowest rotators may have arisen during the pre-main sequence (PMS) phase, when stars of a few solar masses are observed as Herbig Ae/Be stars. During the PMS phase, a star is expected to exchange angular momentum with a disk and with a stellar wind. As shown by St?pie? (\\cite{ste00}), a disk around a PMS magnetic Ap star tends to lock the rotation rate at a few days, while mass loss in the absence of a disk is able to slow the star to quite long periods. We argue that is it plausible to assume that the fraction of the PMS phase during which a disk persists depends on the orientation of the field axis to the plane of the disk, and that disk dissipation may have occurred more quickly in magnetic stars with aligned magnetic and rotation axes than in stars in which the angle between these axes is large. In this case, the magnetic Ap stars with aligned rotation and magnetic axes, especially those with large fields, could lose much more angular momentum than the stars of large obliquity. However, it is also shown that loss of nearly all the angular momentum is only possible for stars with masses below about 3 Msun (and with relatively large fields); for higher masses the available time is too short. Our model thus provides a reasonable explanation for all of the principle observational facts about the very slowly rotating magnetic Ap stars.

St?pie?, K.; Landstreet, J. D.

2002-03-01

326

Polarised Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the information that exists today about Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMDs) comes from SIDIS measurements with unpolarised and polarised beams and targets where they appear convoluted with fragmentation functions (FFs). Drell-Yan (DY) measurements are complementary to those by SIDIS experiments, as they allow to measure convolutions of only Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) without involving FFs. Moreover, given the T-odd character of both Sivers and Boer-Mulders functions, the sign of these TMDs is expected to be reversed when observed from SIDIS or from DY. Measurements of SIDIS were performed by Compass in the period 2002 to 2007 and in 2010, using a naturally polarised µ+ beam and a solid state target polarised either longitudinally or transversely with respect to the beam direction. Now the COMPASS Experiment has the unique opportunity to access TMDs from single-polarised Drell-Yan processes as well, in the same kinematical domain of the SIDIS data and with the same experimental setup; it will allow to test the TMDs universality and the sign change prediction for the first time. We present here the upcoming polarised DY measurements at COMPASS.

Chiosso, Michela

2015-01-01

327

Magnetic and other non-visual orientation mechanisms in some cave and surface urodeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals adapted to light-deprived habitats might have improved non-visual sensory systems. Specimens of several cave-dwelling\\u000a species of urodeles spontaneously and persistently align to natural or artificially-modified permanent magnetic fields. Video\\u000a observations under dim infrared illumination revealed an obvious individual preference for one particular magnetic direction\\u000a in every animal tested. Therefore, animals changed alignments predictably when the horizontal magnetic field vector

Peter A. Schlegel

2008-01-01

328

Personality Traits Associated with Genetic Counselor Compassion Fatigue: The Roles of Dispositional Optimism and Locus of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion fatigue (CMF) arises as a consequence of secondary exposure to distress and can be elevated in some health practitioners.\\u000a Locus of control and dispositional optimism are aspects of personality known to influence coping style. To investigate whether\\u000a these personality traits influence CMF risk, we surveyed 355 genetic counselors about their CMF, locus of control orientation,\\u000a and degree of dispositional

Marie C. Injeyan; Cheryl Shuman; Andrea Shugar; David Chitayat; Eshetu G. Atenafu; Amy Kaiser

329

Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) sapphire (Al2O3) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (Mr/Ms of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low Mr/Ms of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM ( 10 1 ¯ 0 ) //?-Fe2O3 ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) //Al2O3 ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) .

Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing; Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

2014-12-01

330

Optical properties of a semiconductor quantum dot with a single magnetic impurity: photoinduced spin orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the optical resonant manipulation of a single magnetic impurity in a self-assembled quantum dot. We show that using the resonant pumping one can address and manipulate selectively individual spin states of a magnetic impurity. The mechanisms of resonant optical polarization of a single impurity in a quantum dot involve anisotropic exchange interactions and are different than those in

Alexander O. Govorov; Alexander V. Kalameitsev

2005-01-01

331

The orientation and navigation of juvenile alligators: evidence of magnetic sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Displaced juvenile alligators,Alligator mississipiensis, were released on land in a 9 m diameter dodecagonal arena to test their ability to orient in the absence of terrestrial landmarks. Navigational ability seemed to improve with age. When displaced along a fairly direct route yearlings (age 7–14 months) compensated for their displacement, moving in the direction from the arena to their home

Gordon H. Rodda

1984-01-01

332

Biophysics of magnetic orientation: strengthening the interface between theory and experimental design.  

PubMed

The first demonstrations of magnetic effects on the behaviour of migratory birds and homing pigeons in laboratory and field experiments, respectively, provided evidence for the longstanding hypothesis that animals such as birds that migrate and home over long distances would benefit from possession of a magnetic sense. Subsequent identification of at least two plausible biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, led to major efforts over recent decades to test predictions of the two models, as well as efforts to understand the ultrastructure and function of the possible magnetoreceptor cells. Unfortunately, progress in understanding the magnetic sense has been challenged by: (i) the availability of a relatively small number of techniques for analysing behavioural responses to magnetic fields by animals; (ii) difficulty in achieving reproducible results using the techniques; and (iii) difficulty in development and implementation of new techniques that might bring greater experimental power. As a consequence, laboratory and field techniques used to study the magnetic sense today remain substantially unchanged, despite the huge developments in technology and instrumentation since the techniques were developed in the 1950s. New methods developed for behavioural study of the magnetic sense over the last 30 years include the use of laboratory conditioning techniques and tracking devices based on transmission of radio signals to and from satellites. Here we consider methodological developments in the study of the magnetic sense and present suggestions for increasing the reproducibility and ease of interpretation of experimental studies. We recommend that future experiments invest more effort in automating control of experiments and data capture, control of stimulation and full blinding of experiments in the rare cases where automation is impossible. We also propose new experiments to confirm whether or not animals can detect magnetic fields using the radical-pair effect together with an alternate hypothesis that may explain the dependence on light of responses by animals to magnetic field stimuli. PMID:20071390

Kirschvink, Joseph L; Winklhofer, Michael; Walker, Michael M

2010-04-01

333

Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

2011-01-01

334

The Phenomenon of Compassion Fatigue in Perioperative Nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion fatigue is described as the emotional burden that health care providers may experience as a result of overexposure to a traumatic event that has befallen victims. Perioperative nurses are experiencing increased exposure to major traumatic events within their practice, especially those nurses who work in level I trauma centers. This article helps nurses identify risks for compassion fatigue and

Kendall Schwam

1998-01-01

335

St. Pi Day construction with a compass & ruler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

St. Pi Day construction with compass This activity uses a compass and straight-edge(ruler) to construct a design. The design is then used to complete a worksheet involving perimeter, circumference, area and dimensional changes which affect the scale factor ratio.

Gaynr, Cheryl

2012-07-26

336

On the Magnetic Field Orientation and Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speeds of vertical flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a magnetostatic solution describing a balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. This approach explains why some of the flows are neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity. Both the observed upflows and the magnetic field dips in barbs are likely to be caused by photospheric magnetic reconnection.

Litvinenko, Yuri E.

2000-10-01

337

Visualizing Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students take the age old concept of etch-a-sketch a step further. Using iron filings, students begin visualizing magnetic field lines. To do so, students use a compass to read the direction of the magnet's magnetic field. Then, students observe the behavior of iron filings near that magnet as they rotate the filings about the magnet. Finally, students study the behavior of iron filings suspended in mineral oil which displays the magnetic field in three dimensions.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

338

Compassion fatigue resiliency training: the experience of facilitators.  

PubMed

This qualitative evaluation examined compassion fatigue facilitators' perceptions of the effects of a compassion fatigue resiliency training program in an urban medical center in the midwestern United States. Nine months after completing a compassion fatigue resiliency facilitator training program, 15 participants wrote short narratives describing how the program affected them. Participants described how the training program benefited them both personally and professionally. Two main themes were identified from the narrative analysis: self-improvement and application of resiliency. All of the participants described one or more self-improvements as a result of the program, particularly in regard to emotional health. All of the participants also described how they regularly applied one or more of the resiliency skills taught in the class to improve their ability to manage stress and prevent compassion fatigue. This program shows promise in ameliorating compassion fatigue and burnout in health care providers. PMID:25522376

Potter, Patricia; Pion, Sarah; Gentry, J Eric

2015-02-01

339

Who is at Risk for Compassion Fatigue? An Investigation of Genetic Counselor Demographics, Anxiety, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout.  

PubMed

Compassion fatigue is a state of detachment and isolation experienced when healthcare providers repeatedly engage with patients in distress. Compassion fatigue can hinder empathy and cause extreme tension. Prior research suggests 73.8 % of genetic counselors are at moderate to high risk for compassion fatigue and approximately 1 in 4 have considered leaving the field as a result Injeyan et al. (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 20, 526-540, 2011). Empirical data to establish a reliable profile of genetic counselors at risk for compassion fatigue are limited. Thus the purpose of this study was to establish a profile by assessing relationships between state and trait anxiety, burnout, compassion satisfaction, selected demographics and compassion fatigue risk in practicing genetic counselors. Practicing genetic counselors (n?=?402) completed an anonymous, online survey containing demographic questions, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Professional Quality of Life scale. Multiple regression analysis yielded four significant predictors which increase compassion fatigue risk (accounting for 48 % of the variance): higher levels of trait anxiety, burnout, and compassion satisfaction, and ethnicity other than Caucasian. Additional findings, study limitations, practice implications, and research recommendations are provided. PMID:24781713

Lee, Whiwon; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Macfarlane, Ian M; Leroy, Bonnie S

2014-05-01

340

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

341

Peptide backbone orientation and dynamics in spider dragline silk and two-photon excitation in nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the dissertation, spider dragline silk is studied by solid state NMR techniques. The dependence of NMR frequency on molecular orientation is exploited using the DECODER experiment to determine the orientation of the protein backbone within the silk fibre. Practical experimental considerations require that the silk fibres be wound about a cylindrical axis perpendicular to the external magnetic field, complicating the reconstruction of the underlying orientation distribution and necess-itating the development of numerical techniques for this purpose. A two-component model of silk incorporating static b-sheets and polyglycine II helices adequately fits the NMR data and suggests that the b-sheets are well aligned along the silk axis (20 FWHM) while the helices are poorly aligned (68 FWHM). The effects of fibre strain, draw rate and hydration on orientation are measured. Measurements of the time-scale for peptide backbone motion indicate that when wet, a strain-dependent frac-tion of the poorly aligned component becomes mobile. This suggests a mechanism for the supercontraction of silk involving latent entropic springs that undergo a local strain-dependent phase transition, driving supercontraction. In the second part of this dissertation a novel method is developed for exciting NMR and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) by rf irradiation at multiple frequencies that sum to (or differ by) the resonance frequency. This is fundamentally different than traditional NMR experiments where irradiation is applied on-resonance. With excitation outside the detection bandwidth, two-photon excitation allows for detection of free induction signals during excitation, completely eliminating receiver dead-time. A theoretical approach to describing two-photon excitation is developed based on average Hamiltonian theory. An intuition for two-photon excitation is gained by analogy to the coherent absorption of multiple photons requiring conservation of total energy and momentum. It is shown that two-photon excitation efficiency impro-ves when the two applied rf frequencies deviate from half-resonance. For two-photon NQR, it is shown that observable magnetization appears perpendicular to the excita-tion coil, requiring a second coil for detection, and that double quantum coherences are also generated. Several model systems and experimental geometries are used to demonstrate the peculiarities of two-photon excitation in NMR and NQR.

Eles, Philip Thomas

2005-07-01

342

Cell Migration Model with Multiple Chemical Compasses  

E-print Network

A simple model is proposed that describes the various morphodynamic principles of migrating cells from polar to amoeboidal motions. The model equation is derived using competing internal cellular compass variables and symmetries of the system. Fixed points for the $N = 2$ system are closely investigated to clarify how the competition among polaritors explains the observed morphodynamics. Response behaviors of cell--to--signal stimuli are also investigated. This model will be useful for classifying high-dimensional cell motions and investigating collective cellular behaviors.

Shuji Ishihara

2013-01-29

343

Enhancement of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in (111)-oriented Co0.8Fe2.2O4 thin film by deposition of PZT top layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CoFe2O4 and Co0.8Fe2.2O4 single layer (CFO) as well as PZT/CoFe2O4 and PZT/Co0.8Fe2.2O4 bilayer thin films were grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique on Pt(111)/Si substrates at 600 °C. All films had a perfect (111)-orientation and the degree of orientation of CFO films was improved by the deposition of a PZT top layer. Precision X-ray diffraction analysis (avoiding the shift of peaks due to sample misalignment) revealed that the CFO films on Pt(111)/Si substrate were under an out-of-plane contraction and the deposition of a PZT top layer led to the increase in the out-of-plane contraction. The (111)-oriented CFO single layer films had a strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy as a result of orientation as well as the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic properties of CFO film were altered by the deposition of a PZT top layer leading to the enhancement of in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The enhanced in-plane magnetic anisotropy was more detectable in PZT/Co0.8Fe2.2O4 rather than PZT/CoFe2O4 bilayer film, which could be expected from its higher magnetocrystalline as well as magnetostriction constants.

Khodaei, M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Park, Yong Jun; Ok, Jong Mok; Kim, Jun Sung; Son, Junwoo; Baik, Sunggi

2014-05-01

344

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

345

Chemical shift tensor determination using magnetically oriented microcrystal array (MOMA): 13C solid-state CP NMR without MAS.  

PubMed

Chemical shift tensors for the carboxyl and methyl carbons of L-alanine crystals were determined using a magnetically oriented microcrystal array (MOMA) prepared from a microcrystalline powder sample of L-alanine. A MOMA is a single-crystal-like composite in which microcrystals are aligned three-dimensionally in a matrix resin. The single-crystal rotation method was applied to the MOMA to determine the principal values and axes of the chemical shift tensors. The result showed good agreement with the literature data for the single crystal of L-alanine. This demonstrates that the present technique is a powerful tool for determining the chemical shift tensor of a crystal from a microcrystal powder sample. PMID:22975237

Kusumi, R; Kimura, F; Song, G; Kimura, T

2012-10-01

346

COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session was tasked to design a satellite to orbit in an elliptical lunar polar orbit to provide relay communications between lunar South Pole assets and the Earth. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The LRS is a half-TDRSS sized box spacecraft, which provides communications and navigation relay between lunar outposts (via Lunar Communications Terminals (LCT)) or Sortie parties (with user radios) and large ground antennas on Earth. The LRS consists of a spacecraft containing all the communications and avionics equipment designed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Team X to perform the relay between lunar-based assets and the Earth. The satellite design is a standard box truss spacecraft design with a thermal control system, 1.7 m solar arrays for 1 kWe power, a 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the LCT, and a Q-band dish for communications to/from the Earth based assets. While JPL's Team X and Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) I M Design Center (IMDC) have completed two other LRS designs, this NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COMPASS LRS design sits between them in terms of physical size and capabilities.

Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

2012-01-01

347

Precision Studies of Light Mesons at COMPASS  

E-print Network

The COMPASS experiment at CERN's SPS investigates the structure and excitations of strongly interacting systems. Using reactions of 190 GeV/c pions with protons and nuclear targets, mediated by the strong and electromagnetic interaction, an unprecedented statistical precision has been reached allowing new insight into the properties of light mesons. For the first time the diffractively produced 3pi final state has been analyzed simultaneously in bins of invariant mass and four-momentum transfer using a large set of 88 waves up to a total angular momentum of 6. In addition to a precise determination of the properties of known resonances and including a model-indepedent analysis of the pi pi S-wave isobar, a new narrow axial-vector state coupling strongly to f0(980)pi has been found in previously unchartered territory. By selecting reactions with very small four-momentum transfer COMPASS is able to study processes involving the exchange of quasi-real photons. These provide clean access to low-energy quantities such as radiative couplings and polarizabilities of mesons, and thus constitute a test of model predictions such as chiral perturbation theory.

Bernhard Ketzer; for the COMPASS Collaboration

2014-03-19

348

Developing a systemic program for compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

The effort in hospitals to improve the patient experience has yielded a new impetus to address compassion fatigue (CF), a combination of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Over the last 3 years, Barnes-Jewish Hospital has developed a systemic program for CF resiliency. An initial evaluation of the extent to which CF was affecting the hospital's oncology staff led to the formal implementation of a resiliency program for oncology registered nurses. The success of that program ultimately led to the implementation of a hospital-wide resiliency program, designed to help professional caregivers understand CF, recognize the physical, mental, and emotional effects of stress, and adopt resiliency strategies. The voluntary program has been very well received by participants, and a formal evaluation shows promising results with a decline in secondary traumatic stress and burnout among participants. Developing an institutional culture of recognition and support for CF is critical for health care organizations. Establishing such a culture may help managers proactively create work environments that provide opportunities for connection and support among staff. Compassion fatigue training allows professional caregivers to reconnect to their personal mission and then truly begin to connect with an organization's values and mission. PMID:24022286

Potter, Patricia; Deshields, Teresa; Rodriguez, Sean

2013-01-01

349

COMPASS time synchronization and dissemination—Toward centimetre positioning accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate methods to achieve highly accurate time synchronization among the satellites of the COMPASS global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Owing to the special design of COMPASS which implements several geo-stationary satellites (GEO), time synchronization can be highly accurate via microwave links between ground stations to the GEO satellites. Serving as space-borne relay stations, the GEO satellites can further disseminate time and frequency signals to other satellites such as the inclined geo-synchronous (IGSO) and mid-earth orbit (MEO) satellites within the system. It is shown that, because of the accuracy in clock synchronization, the theoretical accuracy of COMPASS positioning and navigation will surpass that of the GPS. In addition, the COMPASS system can function with its entire positioning, navigation, and time-dissemination services even without the ground link, thus making it much more robust and secure. We further show that time dissemination using the COMPASS-GEO satellites to earth-fixed stations can achieve very high accuracy, to reach 100 ps in time dissemination and 3 cm in positioning accuracy, respectively. In this paper, we also analyze two feasible synchronization plans. All special and general relativistic effects related to COMPASS clocks frequency and time shifts are given. We conclude that COMPASS can reach centimeter-level positioning accuracy and discuss potential applications.

Wang, ZhengBo; Zhao, Lu; Wang, ShiGuang; Zhang, JianWei; Wang, Bo; Wang, LiJun

2014-09-01

350

Introduction to Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Learners will use various magnets, magnetic film, and a compass to see and illustrate what magnetic fields look like. This is the fourth activity as part of the iMAGiNETICspace: Where Imagination, Magnetism, and Space Collide educator's guide. Instructions for downloading the iBook educator's guide and the associated Transmedia book student guide are available at the resource link.

2013-05-06

351

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

352

The Compass Project: Charting a New Course in Physics Education  

E-print Network

This article tells the story of the founding of the Compass Project at UC Berkeley and describes its impacts. The Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences. Its goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide our members with opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students, especially those from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. Compass fosters a diverse, collaborative student community by providing a wide range of services, including a summer program, fall and spring semester courses, mentoring, a research lecture series, and other academic and social support.

Roth, Nathaniel; Lee, Gloria; Corbo, Joel

2012-01-01

353

Burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress in trauma nurses.  

PubMed

The relationship of burnout (BO), compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) to personal/environmental characteristics, coping mechanisms, and exposure to traumatic events was explored in 128 trauma nurses. Of this sample, 35.9% had scores consistent with BO, 27.3% reported CF, 7% reported STS, and 78.9% had high CS scores. High BO and high CF scores predicted STS. Common characteristics correlating with BO, CF, and STS were negative coworker relationships, use of medicinals, and higher number of hours worked per shift. High CS correlated with greater strength of supports, higher participation in exercise, use of meditation, and positive coworker relationships. Caring for trauma patients may lead to BO, CF, and STS; identifying predictors of these can inform the development of interventions to mitigate or minimize BO, CF, and STS in trauma nurses. PMID:25023839

Hinderer, Katherine A; VonRueden, Kathryn T; Friedmann, Erika; McQuillan, Karen A; Gilmore, Rebecca; Kramer, Betsy; Murray, Mary

2014-01-01

354

Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks  

PubMed Central

Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2014-01-01

355

Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Navigational ability is a critical component of an animal's spatial ecology and may influence the invasive potential of species. Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are apex predators invasive to South Florida. We tracked the movements of 12 adult Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, six of which were translocated 21–36 km from their capture locations. Translocated snakes oriented movement homeward relative to the capture location, and five of six snakes returned to within 5 km of the original capture location. Translocated snakes moved straighter and faster than control snakes and displayed movement path structure indicative of oriented movement. This study provides evidence that Burmese pythons have navigational map and compass senses and has implications for predictions of spatial spread and impacts as well as our understanding of reptile cognitive abilities.

Pittman, Shannon E.; Hart, Kristen M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Snow, Ray W.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorcas, Michael E.

2014-01-01

356

Evolution of Recrystallization by Changes in Magnetic Hysteresis Loop in a Non-Oriented Electric Steel Cold Rolled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-oriented steels, with low carbon, are widely used in the fabrication of electrical motor nucleus. The performance of these motors is affected by the level of recrystallization. These steels can come from the steel plant in two different conditions: totally processed or semi-processed. The semi-processed steels have a partially deformed structure and are submitted to the final annealing process after reaching the end shape. An adequate annealing heat treatment is important to get an appropriate magnetic property. In the present study, samples of an electric steel, with the composition (0.05 wt% C, 1.28wt% Si, 0.29wt% Mn), cold rolled 50% in thickness, were withdrawn during the industrial heat treatment at temperatures of 575, 580, 600, 620 and 730 °C with the objective of evaluating the evolution of recrystalization with temperature. Magnetic properties were measured at room temperature in a vibrating sample magnetometer. Although the changes in magnetic hysteresis loop with temperature are difficult to observe, they have been identified by using pattern classification techniques, such as principal-component analysis and Karhunen-Loève expansion. These tools have been applied to vectors which are built from each hysteresis loop, properly renormalized, whose components correspond to amplitude of the loop at given equally spaced values of the renormalized field. The samples have been classified in four sets, namely, set A corresponding to temperatures 575/580, set B corresponding to temperatures 600/620, set C corresponding to the samples without annealing heat treatment, and set D corresponding to recrystallized samples. The results for the classification of the different microstructures have been obtained by using both techniques, and in particular a 100% success rate has been reached by using Karhunen-Loève expansion.

da Silva, F. E.; Freitas, F. N. C.; Abreu, H. F. G.; Gonçalves, L. L.; Moura, E. P.; Silva, M. R.

2011-06-01

357

Collinear ferromagnetism and spin orientation in the molecule-based magnets M[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} (M=Co,Ni)  

SciTech Connect

Zero-field unpolarized neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the low-T magnetic structure and {ital T}-dependent crystal structure of M[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} (M=Co,Ni). Both compounds show collinear ferromagnetism with spin orientation along the {ital c} axis. The results provide the determination of a complete magnetic structure in the ordered state for a molecule-based magnet. The {ital c} lattice parameter exhibits negative thermal expansion, explained by a wine-rack-like deformation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Kmety, C.R. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1106 (United States); Manson, J.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States); Huang, Q. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lynn, J.W.; Erwin, R.W. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Miller, J.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States); Epstein, A.J. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1106 (United States); [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1185 (United States)

1999-07-01

358

Robustness of the filamentation instability for asymmetric plasma shells collision in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The filamentation instability triggered when two counter streaming plasma shells overlap appears to be the main mechanism by which collisionless shocks are generated. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely suppress this instability. In a recent paper [Phys. Plasmas 18, 080706 (2011)], it was demonstrated in two dimensions that for the case of two cold, symmetric, relativistically colliding shells, such cancellation cannot occur if the field is not perfectly aligned. Here, this result is extended to the case of two asymmetric shells. The filamentation instability appears therefore as an increasingly robust mechanism to generate shocks.

Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2013-10-15

359

Steady-state solutions for atomic multipole moments in an arbitrarily oriented static magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive algebraic expressions for the atomic multipole moments mk ,q(F) describing the steady-state polarization of an atomic ensemble with angular momentum F in a static magnetic field of arbitrary direction and general multipole relaxation rates ?q(k). The longitudinal moments mk ,0 are given in terms of truncated continued fractions, while the transverse moments mk ,q?0, representing the ensemble coherence, are given by products of truncated continued fractions. The special case of isotropic relaxation leads to particularly simple and elegant expressions. Our results are relevant for all domains of physics that consider the evolution of a spin system interacting with vector-type perturbations.

Bevilacqua, G.; Breschi, E.; Weis, A.

2014-03-01

360

Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The relationship between mindfulness and self-compassion is explored in the health care literature, with a corollary emphasis on reducing stress in health care workers and providing compassionate patient care. Health care professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress overload and compassion fatigue due to an emotionally exhausting environment. Compassion fatigue among caregivers in turn has been associated with less effective delivery of care. Having compassion for others entails self-compassion. In Kristin Neff's research, self-compassion includes self-kindness, a sense of common humanity, and mindfulness. Both mindfulness and self-compassion involve promoting an attitude of curiosity and nonjudgment towards one's experiences. Research suggests that mindfulness interventions, particularly those with an added lovingkindness component, have the potential to increase self-compassion among health care workers. Enhancing focus on developing self-compassion using MBSR and other mindfulness interventions for health care workers holds promise for reducing perceived stress and increasing effectiveness of clinical care. PMID:24926896

Raab, Kelley

2014-01-01

361

52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view from starboard looking aft. Photograph by Jet Lowe, April 1988. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

362

Phenomenology of COMPASS data: multiplicities and Phenomenology - part II  

SciTech Connect

We present some of the main features of the multidimensional COMPASS multiplicities, via our analysis using the simple Gaussian model. We briefly discuss these results in connection with azimuthal asymmetries.

Anselmino, Mauro [TURIN; Boglione, Mariaelena [TURIN; Gonzalez H., J.O. [TORINO; Melis, Stefano [TURIN; Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB

2015-01-01

363

Rx for Better Health Care: Kindness and Compassion  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Rx for Better Health Care: Kindness and Compassion Data suggests that gentler, thoughtful ... Nov. 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Want to give health care a boost? Try a little kindness, experts say. ...

364

Improving Sensitivity in the NNSS COMPASS Model  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Analysis of Safeguards Strategies model, COMPASS, was initially implemented with the goal of eliminating functions and requirements that did not contribute to the MC&A program at the particular site. The model sub-elements were revised several times through additions and deletions as the process was better understood. Contributions and ratings were developed and implemented. Because of the original intent, the process left the contribution factors closely grouped toward the top of the range. The effect of this is a flat sensitivity; a change in any element and sub-element affected the system effectiveness to the same degree no matter which one changed. This paper describes a method for determining element and sub-element contributions so that changes in element effectiveness are more accurately reflected in the overall system effectiveness.

Wright, J

2012-07-15

365

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility versus lattice- and shape-preferred orientation in the Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body (Grenville province, Quebec)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body crops out in the outer portion of the 1.06 Ga Lac Allard anorthosite, a member of the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite suite from the Grenville province of North America. It is made up of ilmenitite (commonly with more than 95% hemo-ilmenite) associated with noritic lithologies and anorthosite. The present study compares the magnetic fabric of the ore body, as deduced from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements, with the crystallographic and shape fabrics, obtained from lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) and shape-preferred orientation (SPO) measurements made using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and 3D image analysis, respectively. Room-temperature hysteresis measurements, thermomagnetic curves and values of the bulk magnetic susceptibility reveal a magnetic mineralogy dominated by a mixed contribution of hemo-ilmenite and magnetite. The hemo-ilmenite grains display a LPO characterized by a strong preferred orientation of the basal (0001) plane of ilmenite along which hematite was exsolved. This LPO and the magnetic fabric fit well (angle between the crystallographic c-axis and the axis of minimum susceptibility ? ca. 15° for most samples), and the latter is thus strongly influenced by the hemo-ilmenite magneto-crystalline anisotropy. A magnetite SPO, concordant with the hemo-ilmenite LPO, may also influence and even dominate the magnetic fabric. The rock shape fabric is coaxial with the magnetic fabric that can thus be used to perform detailed structural mapping. Interpretation of the magnetic fabric and field structural data suggests that the Lac Tio ore body would be a sag point at the margin of the Lac Allard anorthosite, deformed by ballooning during the final stage of diapiric emplacement of the anorthosite body.

Bolle, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard; Bascou, Jérôme; Diot, Hervé; McEnroe, Suzanne A.

2014-08-01

366

Compassion: the missing link in quality of care.  

PubMed

This article discusses the impact of selected findings from a PhD-study that focuses on compassion as a guiding principle for contemporary nursing education and practice. The study, of which the literature review and empirical findings have already been published, looked at compassion as perceived within the relationship of nurses and older persons with a chronic disease. The patient group was chosen because daily life for them is characterized by long-term dependency on care. The literature review resulted in a theoretical framework of compassion that also explores other closely related concepts such as suffering and empathy. The empirical part of the study, in which 61 in-depth interviews and 6 group interviews with patients and nurses took place, showed that compassion is a mirroring process in response to grief. Compassion consists of seven dimensions such as attentiveness and presence, in which saliency, so as to anticipate patients' needs, is of major importance. Compassion is perceived by participants as an indispensable aspect of care, which helps to reveal relevant information in order to establish appropriate outcomes of care. This article focuses on the aspects of the PhD-study in which an analysis of compassion in the context of both modern as well as the history of nursing took place. Currently evidence based practice is regarded as the standard for good quality care. Nevertheless there is an on-going debate about what constitutes good quality care. Within this debate two opposing views are apparent. One view defines good care as care supported by the best scientific evidence. The other view states that good care takes place within the nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse performs professional care based on intuitive knowing. It is suggested that compassion is the (missing) link between these views. PMID:24856582

van der Cingel, Margreet

2014-09-01

367

Utilizing Compassion Fatigue Education in Hurricanes Ivan and Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion Fatigue is a state that includes the symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This text reviews events following\\u000a the Hurricane Ivan and Katrina disasters and how Compassion Fatigue education helped to identify and ameliorate symptoms of\\u000a the problem. I worked in a community center in the Pensacola area for one week following Ivan and in a shelter in my residential

Laura Campbell

2007-01-01

368

Sifting Through Trauma: Compassion Fatigue and HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the compassion fatigue of the author and the graduate students he supervised while conducting psychotherapy\\u000a with persons living with HIV\\/AIDS at a counseling center in Atlanta, Georgia. The metaphor of a sifter is suggested to represent\\u000a the self-care strategies that providers employ to avoid and manage compassion fatigue. Several vignettes are presented and\\u000a discussed from the perspective

Bryce D. Smith

2007-01-01

369

Robustness of the filamentation instability as shock mediator in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The filamentation instability (sometimes also referred to as ''Weibel'') is a key process in many astrophysical scenario. In the Fireball model for gamma ray bursts, this instability is believed to mediate collisionless shock formation from the collision of two plasma shells. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely cancel this instability. We show here that in the general case where there is an angle between the field and the flow, the filamentation instability can never be stabilized, regardless of the field strength. The presented model analyzes the stability of two symmetric counter-streaming cold electron/proton plasma shells. Relativistic effects are accounted for, and various exact analytical results are derived. This result guarantees the occurrence of the instability in realistic settings fulfilling the cold approximation.

Bret, A.; Alvaro, E. Perez [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain) and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2011-08-15

370

Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.  

PubMed

The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models. PMID:23848712

Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

2013-06-01

371

Quantum Coherence and Entanglement in the Avian Compass  

E-print Network

The radical pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields. However, little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper, we study the lifetime of radical pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also demonstrate that, due to a lack of orientational sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field, the birds are not able to orient themselves by the mechanism based directly on radical-pair entanglement. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of these factors are not present in the previous models.

James A. Pauls; Yiteng Zhang; Gennady P. Berman; Sabre Kais

2012-11-18

372

A sky polarization compass in lizards: the central role of the parietal eye.  

PubMed

The present study first examined whether ruin lizards Podarcis sicula are able to orientate using the e-vector direction of polarized light. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze, positioned under an artificial light source producing plane polarized light with a single e-vector, which provided an axial cue. Lizards were subjected to axial training by positioning two identical goals in contact with the centre of two opposite side walls of the Morris water maze. Goals were invisible because they were placed just beneath the water surface, and water was rendered opaque. The results showed that the directional choices of lizards meeting learning criteria were bimodally distributed along the training axis, and that after 90 deg rotation of the e-vector direction of polarized light the lizards directional choices rotated correspondingly, producing a bimodal distribution which was perpendicular to the training axis. The present results confirm in ruin lizards results previously obtained in other lizard species showing that these reptiles can use the e-vector direction of polarized light in the form of a sky polarization compass. The second step of the study aimed at answering the still open question of whether functioning of a sky polarization compass would be mediated by the lizard parietal eye. To test this, ruin lizards meeting learning criteria were tested inside the Morris water maze under polarized light after their parietal eyes were painted black. Lizards with black-painted parietal eyes were completely disoriented. Thus, the present data show for the first time that the parietal eye plays a central role in mediating the functioning of a putative sky polarization compass of lizards. PMID:20511518

Beltrami, G; Bertolucci, C; Parretta, A; Petrucci, F; Foà, A

2010-06-15

373

Electric and magnetic field-assisted orientational transitions in the ensembles of domains in a nematic liquid crystal on the polymer surface.  

PubMed

Using electro- and magneto-optical techniques, we investigated orientational transitions in the ensembles of domains in a nematic liquid crystal on the polycarbonate film surface under the conditions of competing surface forces that favor radial and uniform planar alignment of nematic molecules. Having analyzed field dependences of the intensity of light passed through a sample, we established the threshold character of the orientational effects, plotted the calculated intensity versus magnetic coherence length, and compared the latter with the equilibrium length that characterizes the balance of forces on the polymer surface. PMID:25279586

Parshin, Alexander M; Gunyakov, Vladimir A; Zyryanov, Victor Y; Shabanov, Vasily F

2014-01-01

374

Accelerating Fibre Orientation Estimation from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using GPUs  

PubMed Central

With the performance of central processing units (CPUs) having effectively reached a limit, parallel processing offers an alternative for applications with high computational demands. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) are massively parallel processors that can execute simultaneously thousands of light-weight processes. In this study, we propose and implement a parallel GPU-based design of a popular method that is used for the analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). More specifically, we are concerned with a model-based approach for extracting tissue structural information from diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI data. DW-MRI offers, through tractography approaches, the only way to study brain structural connectivity, non-invasively and in-vivo. We parallelise the Bayesian inference framework for the ball & stick model, as it is implemented in the tractography toolbox of the popular FSL software package (University of Oxford). For our implementation, we utilise the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming model. We show that the parameter estimation, performed through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), is accelerated by at least two orders of magnitude, when comparing a single GPU with the respective sequential single-core CPU version. We also illustrate similar speed-up factors (up to 120x) when comparing a multi-GPU with a multi-CPU implementation. PMID:23658616

Hernández, Moisés; Guerrero, Ginés D.; Cecilia, José M.; García, José M.; Inuggi, Alberto; Jbabdi, Saad; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.

2013-01-01

375

Group cohesion and organizational commitment: protective factors for nurse residents' job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout.  

PubMed

Stress can have detrimental effects on nurse residents' levels of job satisfaction, compassion, fatigue, and burnout. This can lead to high turnover rates and poor quality of care among novice nurses. Therefore, it is critical to identify protective factors to prevent the onset of negative nurse outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout, and job dissatisfaction) and to promote positive nurse outcomes (job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction). This study aimed to determine whether factors such as group cohesion and organizational commitment would be protective and moderate the association between stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms and other negative nurse outcomes, thus facilitating positive outcomes. Findings showed that group cohesion was effective in moderating the negative effects of current stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms on negative nurse outcomes, specifically on increased compassion fatigue and burnout, and reduced compassion satisfaction. In addition, organizational commitment was determined to promote positive nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and compassion satisfaction. The study findings are promising, as retention of quality nurses is a significant problem for hospitals. Nurse managers and hospital administrators should be aware of the benefits of group cohesion and organizational commitment and strive to make the promotion of these factors a priority. PMID:24503320

Li, Angela; Early, Sean F; Mahrer, Nicole E; Klaristenfeld, Jessica L; Gold, Jeffrey I

2014-01-01

376

Magnetic properties in oriented platelet Fe3O4 particles prepared by the polyol method using ?-FeOOH as precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of platelet Fe3O4 particles were studied to apply them to magnetic hyperthermia or thermoablation using hysteresis-loss heating. As precursor materials, platelet ?-FeOOH particles were synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of the precipitated Fe3+ ions in an alkaline solution of ethanolamine. Spinel-structured iron oxide particles were obtained from the platelet ?-FeOOH particles by a liquid-phase reduction process using tetra-ethylene glycol as the reducing agent and were recognized as platelet particles with size 30-100 nm by transmission electron microscopy. Their chemical composition and crystal structure were confirmed to be that of Fe3O4 by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses. The coercive force and saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 particles were 11.9 kA/m and 77.9 Am2/kg, respectively. A tape was prepared by orientating the platelet Fe3O4 particles in such a way that the particle planes were parallel to the tape plane. The calculated magnetic anisotropy field of the Fe3O4 particles was about two times larger than the in-plane coercive force of 12.6 kA/m of the oriented tape. The saturation field in direction perpendicular to the oriented tape was 390 kA/m, which is close to the demagnetizing field in the platelet Fe3O4 particles.

Kishimoto, Mikio; Isaka, Daiki; Horiuchi, Akari; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji

2014-02-01

377

Introducing minimum Fisher regularisation tomography to AXUV and soft x-ray diagnostic systems of the COMPASS tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution focuses on plasma tomography via the minimum Fisher regularisation (MFR) algorithm applied on data from the recently commissioned tomographic diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak. The MFR expertise is based on previous applications at Joint European Torus (JET), as exemplified in a new case study of the plasma position analyses based on JET soft x-ray (SXR) tomographic reconstruction. Subsequent application of the MFR algorithm on COMPASS data from cameras with absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiodes disclosed a peaked radiating region near the limiter. Moreover, its time evolution indicates transient plasma edge cooling following a radial plasma shift. In the SXR data, MFR demonstrated that a high resolution plasma positioning independent of the magnetic diagnostics would be possible provided that a proper calibration of the cameras on an x-ray source is undertaken.

Mlynar, J.; Imrisek, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Odstrcil, M.; Havlicek, J.; Janky, F.; Alper, B.; Murari, A.; JET-EFDA Contributors

2012-10-01

378

Self-Compassion, Affect, and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

PubMed

Objective: Emerging theory and research suggest that self-compassion promotes the practice of health behaviors, and implicates self-regulation as an explanatory factor. However, previous investigations focused only on behavior intentions or health risk behaviors, and did not investigate the role of emotions. This study expands on this research using a small-scale meta-analysis approach with our own data sets to examine the associations of self-compassion with a set of health-promoting behaviors, and test the roles of high positive affect and low negative affect as potential explanatory mechanisms. Method: Fifteen independent samples (N = 3,252) with correlations of self-compassion with the frequency of self-reported health-promoting behaviors (eating habits, exercise, sleep behaviors, and stress management) were meta-analyzed. Eight of these samples completed measures of positive and negative affect. Results: Self-compassion was positively associated with the practice of health-promoting behaviors across all 15 samples. The meta-analysis revealed a small effect size (average r = .25; p < .001) of self-compassion and health behaviors, with low variability. Tests of the indirect effects of self-compassion on health behaviors through positive and negative affect with multiple mediator analyses revealed small effects for each. Separate meta-analyses of the indirect effects (IE) were significant for positive (average IE = .08; p < .001) and negative affect (average IE = .06; p < .001), and their combined indirect effects (average IE = .15; p < .0001). Conclusion: Self-compassion may be an important quality to cultivate for promoting positive health behaviors, due in part to its association with adaptive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243717

Sirois, Fuschia M; Kitner, Ryan; Hirsch, Jameson K

2014-09-22

379

How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment.  

PubMed

Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a 'twilight board', which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and -8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago. PMID:24910520

Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

2014-06-01

380

Investigation of the growth and magnetic properties of highly oriented films of the Heusler alloy Co2MnSi on GaAs(001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly (001) oriented thin films of Co2MnSi have been grown on lattice matched GaAs(001) without a buffer layer. Stoichiometric films exhibited a saturation magnetization slightly reduced from the bulk value and films grown at the highest substrate temperature of 689 K showed the lowest resistivity (33 micro.ohm.cm at 4.2 K) and the lowest coercivity (14 Oe). The spin polarization of

L. J. Singh; Z. H. Barber; A. Kohn; A. K. Petford-Long; Y. Miyoshi; Y. Bugoslavsky; L. F. Cohen

2004-01-01

381

Characterization of the evolution of recrystallization by fluctuation and fractal analyses of the magnetic hysteresis loop in a cold rolled non-oriented electric steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon steels with non-oriented grains are widely used in the fabrication of electrical motor nucleus where a low magnetic\\u000a loss is an important point. The performance of these motors is affected by the level of recrystallization of these steels\\u000a which can come from the steel plant in a semi-processed condition. In this condition, they have a partially deformed structure\\u000a and

Francisco E. da Silva; Francisco Nelio C. Freitas; Hamilton Ferreira G. Abreu; Lindberg L. Gonçalves; Elineudo P. de Moura; Manoel R. Silva

2011-01-01

382

Relative effect(s) of texture and grain size on magnetic properties in a low silicon non-grain oriented electrical steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot rolled low Si (silicon) non-grain oriented electrical steel was cold rolled to different reductions. Cold rolled material was subsequently recrystallized, 650°C and 2h, and then temper rolled (to 7% reduction) for the final grain growth annealing and decarburization treatment at 850°C for 2–24h. The development of texture, grain size and magnetic properties were characterized at different stages of processing.

R. Premkumar; I. Samajdar; N. N. Viswanathan; V. Singal; V. Seshadri

2003-01-01

383

Self-Compassion Versus Global Self-Esteem: Two Different Ways of Relating to Oneself  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self- compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N 5 2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings

Kristin D. Neff; Roos Vonk

2009-01-01

384

Hadron Physics at the COMPASS Experiment  

E-print Network

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98\\% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The COMPASS experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ state, the $a_1(1420)$, is observed with a mass and width in the ranges $m = 1412-1422\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$ and $\\Gamma = 130-150\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$.

Fabian Krinner; for the COMPASS collaboration

2014-12-08

385

Highlights from COMPASS in hadron spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for $98\\%$ of the mass in the visible universe. The measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons, consisting of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which are made out of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be e.g. described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the COMPASS experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to ...

Krinner, Fabian

2015-01-01

386

COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

2010-01-01

387

New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with ?-) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized 6 LiD and NH3 targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c ?- beam on polarized NH3. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for SIDIS transverse spin asymmetries from four "Drell-Yan" Q2-ranges.

Parsamyan, Bakur

2015-01-01

388

Control of fault shearing on the fabric of a syn-tectonic granite : magnetic fabric and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late-Miocene monzogranitic pluton of Porto Azzurro (PA) on Elba Island (Italy), was emplaced in the footwall of the N-S striking Zuccale Fault (ZF), a Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF). In the Barbarossa outcrop, this poorly exposed pluton shows few NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE striking shear bands, respectively moderately dipping eastward and steeply dipping northward, which appear to be associated to the brittle fracturation, and no clear relationship between all these structures and the ZF is described. In order to get information about possible relationship between these shear bands, brittle structures and prior fabric of this igneous stock, and about the timing of formation of these ductile deformations relative to the pluton emplacement, rock fabrics were studied on samples taken both inside and outside of one of these shear bands. The magnetic fabric was analyzed with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements (AMS), and the crystallographic preferred orientations of dynamically recrystallized quartz were measured with the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) method. Quartz CPOs are directly compared, after EBSD data processing, with the macroscopic ductile structures orientation, according to the geographical North. The pooling of data of these two methods reveals two distinct petrofabrics within the Barbarossa monzogranite. The first fabric, with a low dip angle, is identified only on samples taken outside of the influence of the shear bands. Orientation of paramagnetic minerals, with biotite as the main magnetic mineral carrier, and quartz CPOs are consistent, pervasive within the whole outcrop and are linked to the eastward extension produced by the LANF Zuccale Fault. This fabric suggests that the dynamic of the magmatic supplies during emplacement of the pluton of PA was controlled by the LANF's extension, and confirms this magmatic intrusion to be likely syn-tectonic. The second fabric is identified close or within the studied shear bands with a similar orientation to them. Our data show that these ductile structures impose a local new tectonic fabric overprinting the pre-existing one. The common re-orientation of the magnetic minerals, of the recrystallized quartz and of the brittle structures suggest a strain localization and a continuous strain process localized along stain bands from late-magmatic flowing, highlighted by biotite orientation, then during shear bands activation, at temperature around 350-400° C. Finally, these structures would have remained active through the ductile-brittle transition, leading to the localized intense fracturation of the Barbarossa outcrop.

Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Oliot, Emilien

2013-04-01

389

Compassion fatigue among registered nurses: Connecting theory and research.  

PubMed

Unresolved compassion fatigue often causes physical and emotional exhaustion, and can significantly impair job performance. It is also known to cause increased absenteeism and even turnover among health care providers such as registered nurses. Often those experiencing compassion fatigue attempt to self-medicate in order to numb the intense emotions, and distance themselves from patients, colleagues, friends, and even family. This article describes the challenges of applying one widely used conceptual model to research among nurses who are at risk for experiencing this important and debilitating phenomenon. Through two qualitative studies that explored compassion fatigue among registered nurses, symptoms were identified that fit within the conceptual model. Several additional elements were not adequately captured by the conceptual model, and the term was perceived as being stigmatizing. PMID:25434861

Sheppard, Kate

2015-02-01

390

Electromagnetic Induction with Neodymium Magnets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 1820, Hans Christian Ørsted noticed that the needle of a nearby compass deflected briefly from magnetic north each time the electric current of the battery he was using for an unrelated experiment was turned on or off. Upon further investigation, he showed that an electric current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field. In 1831…

Wood, Deborah; Sebranek, John

2013-01-01

391

Peptide backbone orientation and dynamics in spider dragline silk and two-photon excitation in nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of the dissertation, spider dragline silk is studied by solid state NMR techniques. The dependence of NMR frequency on molecular orientation is exploited using the DECODER experiment to determine the orientation of the protein backbone within the silk fibre. Practical experimental considerations require that the silk fibres be wound about a cylindrical axis perpendicular to the

Philip Thomas Eles

2005-01-01

392

COMPASS results on collins and sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects is an important part of the scientific program of COMPASS, a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS taking data since 2002. The studies are carried on by measuring the hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of 160 GeV/ c muons off different targets. Among the possible asymmetries in the hadron azimuthal distributions, particularly interesting are the Collins and Sivers asymmetries which the COMPASS Collaboration has measured using transversely polarised deuteron and proton targets. Here new results for charged pions and kaons obtained from the 2010 run with a transversely polarised proton target are presented for the first time.

Martin, Anna

2014-01-01

393

Compassion Fatigue and Burnout among Rabbis Working as Chaplains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion Fatigue, Co~npassio~i Satisfaction, ;III~ Bur~~o~lt w(:I.(. st~~died ill a co~i\\\\renience santplr of 65 male and female Kal)l)is who wc)t.k as ch;ipl;~ir~s ant1 attended the annual corikrence of the National Associatiot~ oS~Jewislt Chaplains (NAJC) in 2002. Althougl~ Compassion Fatigue and Burnor~t wc~.e low among the survey participants, hoth measures were significa~~tly highel- amoug the women in the sample. C:ompassio~i Fatig~te

Rabbi Bonita; E. Taylor; Kevin J. Flannelly

2006-01-01

394

How Schwartz rounds can be used to combat compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

Hospice nurses were the first to have some of their experiences described as 'compassion fatigue' but this term can now be applied to all nursing staff in clinical environments. Compassion fatigue can suddenly render nurses unable to distinguish between their own emotions and those of their patients. This fatigue can result in staff becoming emotionally drained and therefore unable to provide high quality care. While nurses have to regain public trust in the wake of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust inquiry, this article considers whether or not Schwartz rounds, an initiative introduced from the US, can help maintain the wellbeing of staff and so protect the quality of patient care. PMID:23923178

Thompson, Alison

2013-07-01

395

Battlefield compassion and posttraumatic growth in combat servicepersons.  

PubMed

The literature is replete with studies related to the negative outcomes of serving in combat. However, for some military servicepersons, healing could be assisted by understanding the positive experiences and outcomes related to combat service. This study surveyed 59 servicepersons to identify acts of battlefield compassion, as well as other positive military experiences. In addition, participants were asked to identify personal changes as a result of compassionate experiences and to give an overall rating of their time in combat. Results are compared to the posttraumatic growth (PTG) literature and reveal that participants identified positive changes associated with experiences of compassion. PMID:23171388

Larick, Jayme Glover; Graf, Noreen M

2012-01-01

396

Highlights from COMPASS in hadron spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for $98\\%$ of the mass in the visible universe. The measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons, consisting of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which are made out of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be e.g. described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the COMPASS experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to study the light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unmatched precision. The overview shown here focuses on the light meson sector, presenting a detailed Partial-Wave Analysis of the processes: $\\pi^- p \\to \\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^- p$ and $\\pi^-p\\to \\pi^-\\pi^0\\pi^0p$. A new state, the $a_1(1420)$ with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is observed. Its Breit-Wigner parameters are found to be in the ranges: $m = 1412-1422\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$ and $\\Gamma = 130-150\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$. In the same analysis, a signal in a wave with $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ is observed. A resonant origin of this signal would not be explicable within the CQM. In addition to this possibility of an exotic state, a possible non resonant origin of this signal is discussed.

Fabian Krinner

2014-12-31

397

The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation.  

PubMed

King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home. PMID:23307799

Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco

2013-04-15

398

The Transaxial Orientation Is Superior to Both the Short Axis and Horizontal Long Axis Orientations for Determining Right Ventricular Volume and Ejection Fraction Using Simpson's Method with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance  

PubMed Central

We sought to determine which of the three orientations is the most reliable and accurate for quantifying right ventricular (RV) volume and ejection fraction (EF) by cardiac magnetic resonance using Simpson's method. We studied 20 patients using short axis (SA), transaxial (TA), and horizontal long axis (HLA) orientations. Three readers independently traced RV endocardial contours at end-diastole and end-systole for each orientation. End-diastolic volumes (EDVs), end-systolic volumes (ESVs), and EF were calculated and compared with the 3D piecewise smooth subdivision surface (PSSS) method. The intraclass correlation coefficients among the 3 readers for EDV, ESV, and EF were 0.92, 0.82, and 0.42, respectively, for SA, 0.95, 0.92, and 0.67 for TA, and 0.85, 0.93, and 0.69 for HLA. For mean data there was no significant difference between TA and PSSS for EDV (?2.6%, 95% CI: ?8.2 to 3.3%), ESV (?5.9%, ?15.2 to 4.5%), and EF (1.7%, ?1.5 to 4.9%). HLA was accurate for ESV (?8.9%, ?18.5 to 1.8%) and EF (?0.7%, ?3.8 to 2.5%) but significantly underestimated EDV (?9.8, ?16.6 to ?2.4%). SA was accurate for EDV (0.5%, ?6.0 to 7.5%) but overestimated ESV (10.5%, 0.1 to 21.9%) and had poor interrater reliability for EF. Conclusions. The TA orientation provides the most reliable and accurate measures of EDV, ESV, and EF. PMID:23691358

Atalay, Michael K.; Chang, Kevin J.; Grand, David J.; Haji-Momenian, Shawn; Machan, Jason T.; Sheehan, Florence H.

2013-01-01

399

Orientation of functional groups of soil organic matter on the surface of water repellent soils determined by pulse saturation magic angle spinning (PSTMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orientation of functional groups of soil organic matter on soil particles plays a crucial role in the occurrence of soil water repellency. In addition to a general method to characterize soil organic matter using cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, we determined the surface orientation of functional groups in water repellent soils by using pulse saturation magic angle spinning (PSTMAS) NMR technique. A preliminary experiment confirmed that the PSTMAS NMR spectrum successfully determined the high mobility of methyl group of octadecylsilylated silica gels when a comparison was made with that of CPMAS NMR. This means that the methyl group oriented towards the outside of the silica gel particle. Similarly, for an experimental system consisting of mixtures of octadecylsilylated silica gel and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the extremely high mobility of methyl group derived from DMSO was detected using the same methodology. For water repellent soils from Japan and New Zealand, it was found that the methyl and methylene groups were highly mobile. In contrast, the NMR signals of aromatic moiety, another hydrophobic moiety of soil organic matter, were not as intense in PSTMAS compared with CPMAS. From these results, we conclude that alkyl moiety (methyl and methylene groups) would be oriented towards the outside of the soil particle and would play an important role in the appearance of water repellency of soils.

Hiradate, Syuntaro; Kawamoto, Ken; Senani Wijewardana, Nadeeka; Müller, Karin; Møldrup, Per; Clothier, Brent; Komatsu, Toshiko

2014-05-01

400

Teacher's Resource Book for Magnets. Grade 1. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book introduces first-grade children to the world of magnetism and magnetic effects. The students are provided the opportunity to observe interactions between magnets, identify what materials a magnet will and will not attract, study magnetic fields, induce temporary magnetism, make an electromagnet, and use compasses. The 16 lessons…

Anchorage School District, AK.

401

DIGITAL MAGNETIC COMPASS AND GYROSCOPE INTEGRATION FOR PEDESTRIAN NAVIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

When satellite signals are available, the localisation of a pedestrian is fairly straightforward. However, in cities or indoors, dead reckoning systems are necessary. Our current research focuses on the development of algorithms for pedestrian navigation in both post-processing and real-time modes. Experience shows that the main source of error in position comes from the errors in the determination of the

Q. Ladetto; B. Merminod

2002-01-01

402

Different Relative Orientation of Static and Alternative Magnetic Fields and Cress Roots Direction of Growth Changes Their Gravitropic Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following variants of roots location relatively to static and alternative components of magnetic field were studied. At first variant the static magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the alternative magnetic field was directed perpendicular to static one; roots were directed perpendicular to both two fields’ components and gravitation vector. At the variant the negative gravitropysm for cress roots was observed. At second variant the static magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the alternative magnetic field was directed perpendicular to static one; roots were directed parallel to alternative magnetic field. At third variant the alternative magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the static magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the gravitation vector, roots were directed perpendicular to both two fields components and gravitation vector; At forth variant the alternative magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the static magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the gravitation vector, roots were directed parallel to static magnetic field. In all cases studied the alternative magnetic field frequency was equal to Ca ions cyclotron frequency. In 2, 3 and 4 variants gravitropism was positive. But the gravitropic reaction speeds were different. In second and forth variants the gravitropic reaction speed in error limits coincided with the gravitropic reaction speed under Earth’s conditions. At third variant the gravitropic reaction speed was slowed essentially.

Sheykina, Nadiia; Bogatina, Nina

403

Grid References and Compass Points: 3.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These 5 activities, part of the Mathematics Developmental Continuum of the State of Victoria, Australia, are intended to introduce young learners to compasses, the cardinal directions, left and right turns, and the use of map coordinates. Supporting documents and materials, teaching strategies, and progress indicators are included. Note that in Australia the noontime Sun is to the north.

2009-09-24

404

Astronomical Performance of the Engineering Model rsted Advanced Steller Compass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Danish geomagnetic microsatellite, rsted, is an autonomous sciencecraft which is scheduled for a May 1997 launch into polar orbit. It is produced by a consortium of universities, industry, and government and is Denmark's first national spacecraft. NASA support includes JPL real sky evaluation of its star tracker, the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC).

Eisenman, Allan; Liebe, Carl Christian; Jorgensen, John Leif

1996-01-01

405

Visualizing Planetary Magnetic Fields (and Why You Should Care)  

E-print Network

on Mars (and Venus) · Focus on differences in the magnetic fields using "global compass maps" (see me in the magnetic fields · In the absence of a global magnetic field (Mars and Venus like), the solar wind can magnetic field lines · Mars ­ (felt like) years in the making Photographic World Premier! (We

Fillingim, Matthew

406

Life with compass: diversity and biogeography of magnetotactic bacteria.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique in their ability to synthesize intracellular nano-sized minerals of magnetite and/or greigite magnetosomes for magnetic orientation. Thus, they provide an excellent model system to investigate mechanisms of biomineralization. MTB play important roles in bulk sedimentary magnetism and have numerous versatile applications in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, and biotechnological and biomedical fields. Significant progress has been made in recent years in describing the composition of MTB communities and distribution through innovative cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. In this review, the most recent contributions to the field of diversity and biogeography of MTB are summarized and reviewed. Emphasis is on the novel insights into various factors/processes potentially affecting MTB community distribution. An understanding of the present-day biogeography of MTB, and the ruling parameters of their spatial distribution, will eventually help us predict MTB community shifts with environmental changes and assess their roles in global iron cycling. PMID:24148107

Lin, Wei; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei; Pan, Yongxin

2014-09-01

407

Nanocolumnar interfaces and enhanced magnetic coercivity in preferentially oriented cobalt ferrite thin films grown using oblique-angle pulsed laser deposition.  

PubMed

Highly textured cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films were grown on Si (100) substrates using oblique-angle pulsed laser deposition (?-PLD). X-ray diffraction and in-depth strain analysis showed that the obliquely deposited CFO films had both enhanced orientation in the (111) crystal direction as well as tunable compressive strains as a function of the film thicknesses, in contrast to the almost strain-free polycrystalline CFO films grown using normal-incidence PLD under the same conditions. Using in situ optical plume diagnostics the growth parameters in the ?-PLD process were optimized to achieve smoother film surfaces with roughness values as low as 1-2 nm as compared to the typical values of 10-12 nm in the normal-incidence PLD grown films. Cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscope images revealed nanocolumnar growth of single-crystals of CFO along the (111) crystallographic plane at the film-substrate interface. Magnetic measurements showed larger coercive fields (?10 times) with similar saturation magnetization in the ?-PLD-grown CFO thin films as compared to those deposited using normal-incidence PLD. Such significantly enhanced magnetic coercivity observed in CFO thin films make them ideally suited for magnetic data storage applications. A growth mechanism based on the atomic shadowing effect and strain compression-relaxation mechanism was proposed for the obliquely grown CFO thin films. PMID:23829642

Mukherjee, Devajyoti; Hordagoda, Mahesh; Hyde, Robert; Bingham, Nicholas; Srikanth, Hariharan; Witanachchi, Sarath; Mukherjee, Pritish

2013-08-14

408

Migratory orientation of European Robins is affected by the wavelength of light as well as by a magnetic pulse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses of magnetoreception by photopigments and magnetoreception based on magnetite. Migratory European Robins, Erithacus rubecula, were tested under light of different wavelengths; after these tests, they were subjected to a brief, strong magnetic pulse designed to alter the magnetization of single domain magnetite. In control tests under “white” light, the

W. Wiltschko; R. Wiltschko

1995-01-01

409

Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with temperature and magnetic field orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear mode conversion (LMC) is the linear transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence ? of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, temperature ? =Te/mec2, adiabatic index ?, and orientation angle ? between the ambient density gradient ?N0 and ambient magnetic field B0 in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of ?, ?, and ? with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency ? is strongly dependent on ??, ? and ?, with ? ?(??)1/2 and ??(??)1/2. The power conversion efficiency ?p, on the other hand, is independent of ?? but does vary significantly with ? and ?. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients (? ?90°) and minimal for parallel orientation (? =0°) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same ?.

Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H.; Kim, E.-H.

2013-03-01

410

The Roles of Innate Information, Learning Rules and Plasticity in Migratory Bird Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper and the following three papers were presented at the RIN97 Conference held in Oxford under the auspices of the Animal Navigation Special Interest Group, April 1997. The full proceedings, under the title Orientation and Navigation - Birds, Humans and Other Animals, can be obtained from the Director (£30 to Members, £50 to non-Members).Studies of the compass mechanisms involved

Kenneth P. Able; Mary A. Able

1998-01-01

411

Exploring self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes.  

PubMed

Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one's potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being. PMID:24686956

Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

2014-04-01

412

Compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia.  

PubMed

Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population. PMID:25259643

Day, Jennifer R; Anderson, Ruth A; Davis, Linda L

2014-10-01

413

Combating compassion fatigue: an exemplar of an approach to nursing renewal.  

PubMed

Compassion fatigue is a phenomenon commonly experienced by nurses. The cumulative emotional burden of caring for critically ill patients and their families, coupled with the increasing complexity of the health care practice environment, significantly drives the experience of compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue can negatively impact nurses' physical and emotional well-being. If left unaddressed, compassion fatigue can lead to burnout among nurses. Burnout has been correlated to increased patient mortality, increased infection rates, and decreased patient satisfaction. In addition, it causes nurses to leave the nursing profession. Opportunities for nursing renewal, coupled with a leadership culture that values renewal practices, could combat the negative effects of compassion fatigue. A Center for Nursing Renewal was created at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to provide a variety of renewal opportunities for nurses. This center is supported by a nursing culture that recognizes the ill effects of compassion fatigue and promotes wellness and renewal practices among nurses. PMID:24022287

Romano, Jean; Trotta, Rebecca; Rich, Victoria L

2013-01-01

414

Differences in graft orientation using the transtibial and anteromedial portal technique in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in graft orientation between transtibial (TT) and anteromedial (AM) portal technique using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty-six patients who were undergoing ACL reconstruction underwent MRI of their healthy and reconstructed knee. Thirty patients had ACL reconstruction using the TT (group A), while in the remaining 26 the AM (group B) was used. In the femoral part graft orientation was evaluated in the coronal plane using the femoral graft angle (FGA). The FGA was defined as the angle between the axis of the femoral tunnel and the joint line. In the tibial part graft orientation was evaluated in the sagittal plane using the tibial graft angle (TGA). The TGA was defined as the angle between the axis of the tibial tunnel and a line perpendicular to the long axis of the tibia. The ACL angle of the normal knee in the sagittal view was also calculated. The mean FGA for group A was 72 degrees, while for the group B was 53 degrees and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The mean TGA for group A was 64 degrees, while for the group B was 63 degrees (P = 0.256). The mean intact ACL angle for group A was 52 degrees, while for the group B was 51 degrees. The difference between TGA and intact ACL angle was statistically significant (P < 0.001) for both groups. Using the AM portal technique, the ACL graft is placed in a more oblique direction in comparison with the TT technique in the femoral part. However, there are no differences between the two techniques in graft orientation in the tibial part. Normal sagittal obliquity is not restored with both techniques. PMID:19238359

Hantes, Michael Elias; Zachos, Vasilios C; Liantsis, Athanasios; Venouziou, Aaron; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Malizos, Konstantinos N

2009-08-01

415

Witness to suffering: mindfulness and compassion fatigue among traumatic bereavement volunteers and professionals.  

PubMed

This study used a survey to investigate the relationship between mindfulness and compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction among 41 volunteers and professionals at an agency serving the traumatically bereaved. Compassion fatigue comprises two aspects: secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Because prior research suggests that compassion satisfaction may protect against compassion fatigue, the authors hypothesized that (a) mindfulness would be positively correlated with compassion satisfaction, (b) mindfulness would be inversely correlated with compassion fatigue, and (c) there would be differences between respondents with a personal history of traumatic bereavement and those with no such history. Correlation analyses supported the first two hypotheses; an independent means t test did not provide evidence for the latter hypothesis, although the number ofnontraumatically bereaved respondents was small. Overall, this sample showed surprisingly high levels of compassion satisfaction and low levels of compassion fatigue, even among respondents thought to be at higher risk of problems due to personal trauma. Implications of these findings are particularly relevant for social workers and other professionals employed in positions in which they encounter trauma and high emotional stress. PMID:24640229

Thieleman, Kara; Cacciatore, Joanne

2014-01-01

416

An Educational Methodology and Program for the Mitigation of Compassion Fatigue for Combat Deploying Chaplains.  

E-print Network

??Combat deployment presents unique challenges to military chaplains. One such challenge relates to the Vicarious Traumatization, often called "Compassion Fatigue," faced by chaplains who minister… (more)

Greer, Paul Brian

2009-01-01

417

COMPASS-based ureter segmentation in CT urography (CTU)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters in CT urography (CTU), referred to as COmbined Model-guided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is the presence of regions not well opacified with intravenous (IV) contrast. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) path-finding and propagation, and (3) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. One hundred fourteen ureters in 74 CTU scans with IV contrast were collected from 74 patient files. On average, the ureters spanned 283 CT slices (range: 116 to 399, median: 301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 114 ureters was selected manually to initialize the tracking by COMPASS. Path-finding and segmentation were guided by the anatomical knowledge of ureters in CTU. The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter. Of the 114 ureters, 110 (96%) were segmented completely (100%), 111 (97%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 113 (99%) were segmented at least 50%. In comparison, using our previous method, 79 (69%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 92 (81%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 98 (86%) were segmented at least 50%. COMPASS improved significantly the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening and the narrowing of the lumen.

Zick, David; Hadjiiyski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

2014-03-01

418

Computerized segmentation of ureters in CT urography (CTU) using COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters on CTU, as a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is the presence of regions not well opacified with intravenous (IV) contrast. We propose a COmbined Model-guided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS) to track the ureters in CTU. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) edge profile extraction and feature analysis, and (3) path-finding and propagation. 114 ureters, filled with IV contrast material, on 74 CTU scans from 74 patients were segmented. On average the ureter occupied 286 CT slices (range:164 to 399, median:301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 114 ureters was selected manually, which served as an input to the COMPASS, to initialize the tracking. The path-finding and segmentation are guided by anatomical knowledge of the ureters in CTU. The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter. Of the 114 ureters, 75 (66%) were segmented completely (100%), 99 (87%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 104 (91%) were segmented at least 50%. Previously, without the model-guided approach, 61 (54%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 80 (70%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 96 (84%) were segmented at least 50%. COMPASS improved the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening and the narrowing of the lumen.

Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Niland, Luke; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

2013-03-01

419

Evolution of Recrystallization by Changes in Magnetic Hysteresis Loop in a Non-Oriented Electric Steel Cold Rolled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-oriented steels, with low carbon, are widely used in the fabrication of electrical motor nucleus. The performance of these motors is affected by the level of recrystallization. These steels can come from the steel plant in two different conditions: totally processed or semi-processed. The semi-processed steels have a partially deformed structure and are submitted to the final annealing process after

F. E. da Silva; F. N. C. Freitas; H. F. G. Abreu; L. L. Gonçalves; E. P. Moura; M. R. Silva

2011-01-01

420

EVOLUTION OF RECRYSTALLIZATION BY CHANGES IN MAGNETIC HYSTERESIS LOOP IN A NON-ORIENTED ELECTRIC STEEL COLD ROLLED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-oriented steels, with low carbon, are widely used in the fabrication of electrical motor nucleus. The performance of these motors is affected by the level of recrystallization. These steels can come from the steel plant in two different conditions: totally processed or semi-processed. The semi-processed steels have a partially deformed structure and are submitted to the final annealing process after

F. E. da Silva; F. N. C. Freitas; H. F. G. Abreu; E. P. Moura; M. R. Silva

2011-01-01

421

TD-AltBOC: A new COMPASS B2 modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AltBOC(15,10) is the baseline of COMPASS B2 signal modulation. It is a BOC-like signal having different PN codes in the lower and the upper main split lobes, which allow one signal service per lobe. The two lobes can be received and processed separately like two BPSK(10) signals, or coherently processed to achieve better performance. Interoperability among COMPASS B2, Galileo E5 and GPS L5 is also achievable using AltBOC modulation. However, Galileo's 4-code AltBOC has drawbacks such as low efficiency and great receiver complexity. This paper presents a new modulation type named TD-AltBOC (Time Division AltBOC). The signal generation scheme and receiving method are presented, and are compared with AltBOC in the areas of power spectrum, ranging accuracy, anti-multipath performance, anti-interference performance, processing flexibility and complexity. Analysis results show TD-AltBOC has similar spectrum characteristics, interoperability, flexibility and anti-interference performance with AltBOC. When the frontend bandwidth is more than 50 MHz, TD-AltBOC can achieve better ranging accuracy and anti-multipath performance. It also has such advantages as high efficiency and low receiver complexity. TD-AltBOC could be a good solution to COMPASS B2 navigation signal.

Tang, Zuping; Zhou, Hongwei; Wei, Jiaolong; Yan, Tao; Liu, Yuqi; Ran, Yihang; Zhou, Yanling

2011-06-01

422

Six "beyond Collins and Sivers" transverse spin asymmetries at COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COMPASS is a fixed-target high energy physics experiment at the SPS at CERN [1]. One of the important objectives of the experiment is the exploration of the transverse spin structure of the nucleon via spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries in single-hadron production in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/ c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized 6LiD (in 2002, 2003 and 2004) and NH3 (in 2007 and 2010) targets. Till now main attention was focused on Collins and Sivers asymmetries and obtained results play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and mechanism of SIDIS processes in terms of Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and Fragmentation Functions (FFs). In addition to these two measured leading-twist effects, the SIDIS cross-section counts six more target transverse spin dependent azimuthal effects, which have their own well defined leading or higher-twist interpretation in terms of QCD parton model. So far COMPASS presented preliminary results for these asymmetries from deuteron [2, 3] and "proton-2007" data [4]. In this contribution we review the results obtained with the last "proton-2010" data sample.

Parsamyan, B.

2014-01-01

423

Overview of the nucleon spin studies at COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COMPASS experiment [1] at CERN is one of the leading experiments studying the spin structure of the nucleon. These studies are being carried on since 2002, by measuring hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of 160 GeV/c polarised muons off different polarised targets (NH3 for polarised protons and 6LiD for polarised deuterons). One of the main goals is to determine how the total longitudinal spin projection of the nucleon, 1/2, is distributed among its constituents, quarks and gluons. We review here the recent results on the quark and gluon helicities obtained by COMPASS, using a longitudinally polarised target. However, the understanding of the nucleon (spin) structure based only on the parton helicities is not in any way complete. It basically provides us with a one-dimensional picture in a longitudinal momentum space. Therefore, COMPASS also studies the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) with a transversely polarised target. Concerning the TMDs, the latest results on the Collins and Sivers asymmetries will be shown. The former is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the latter re?ects the correlations between the quarks transverse momentum and the nucleon spin.

Franco, Celso

2014-04-01

424

Exploring compassion: implications for contemporary nursing. Part 2.  

PubMed

A range of contemporary political and professional literature endorse the principle of compassion in nursing as a core and underpinning philosophy fundamental to the profession. However, despite pledges to ensure that compassion lies at the heart of nursing, the concept has not been clearly defined. It is evident that uncovering the true meaning is complex and challenging owing to its subjective nature. In light of this, several implications must be considered. Effective student nurse recruitment is essential to ensure that the most appropriate individuals are selected. Contemporary marketing campaigns must be implemented, and recruitment strategies developed, which consider specific values and attitudes. Service user involvement in recruitment and selection, curriculum planning and learning and teaching strategies, and post-qualification education, can enhance nurses' understanding of the patient perspective and make headway in embedding compassion as a core nursing value. Additionally, effective role modelling in practice which demonstrates high-quality compassionate nursing care is essential. Nurses must be adequately supported in the clinical environment to facilitate compassionate behaviours and clinical leadership at all levels must uphold political and professional pledges to achieve this. Consideration of these implications for practice is essential to ensure that nurses are able to respond to patients with humanity and kindness, and deliver high-quality, compassionate care to all. PMID:22398938

Straughair, Collette

425

Exploratorium: Snacks About Magnetism - Circles of Magnetism I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the Exploratorium demonstrates the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire. A group of compasses are arranged around the wire to indicate the direction of the field (including Earth's field). The site provides an explanation of the physics that occurs and a description of the right-hand rule. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2006-07-20

426

Orientational alignment in solids from bidimensional isotropic-anisotropic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: applications to the analysis of aramide fibers.  

PubMed

The use of two-dimensional isotropic-anisotropic correlation spectroscopy for the analysis of orientational alignment in solids is presented. The theoretical background and advantages of this natural-abundance 13C NMR method of measurement are discussed, and demonstrated with a series of powder and single-crystal variable-angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) experiments on model systems. The technique is subsequently employed to analyze the orientational distributions of three polymer fibers: Kevlar 29, Kevlar 49 and Kevlar 149. Using complementary two-dimensional NMR data recorded on synthetic samples of poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide), the precursor of Kevlar, it was found that these commercial fibers possess molecules distributed over a very narrow orientational range with respect to the macroscopic director. The widths measured for these director distribution arrangements were (12 +/- 1.5) degrees for Kevlar 29, (15 +/- 1.5) degrees for Kevlar 49, and (8 +/- 1.5) degrees for Kevlar 149. These figures compare well with previous results obtained for non-commercial fiber samples derived from the same polymer. PMID:9176935

Sachleben, J R; Frydman, L

1997-02-01

427

Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.  

PubMed

Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves. PMID:23768676

Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

2013-09-01

428

Compassion Fatigue for Emergency Department Nurses who provided care during and after the hurriane season of 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care individuals such as emergency preparedness teams, clergy, nurses, and physicians are first responders during times of disaster. These types of responders are at risk to develop compassion stress, compassion fatigue, or even burnout.\\u000aCompassion stress is a result of the cumulative demands of experiencing and helping the suffering; compassion fatigue is defined as “a state of exhaustion and

Melanie Alexander

2006-01-01

429

Highly c-axis oriented ZnO:Ni thin film nanostructure by RF magnetron sputtering: Structural, morphological and magnetic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ni) thin films with different Ni concentrations were deposited on silicon substrates at 400 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of Ar and O2 gases. The X-ray diffraction and azimuthal patterns of the ZnO:Ni were carried out, and the quality of the strong preferred orientation of crystalline columns in the direction [0 0 1] perpendicular to the substrate surface were analysed. The grain size, distribution, and homogeneity of the thin film surfaces were studied by FE-SEM. The EDX and mapping confirmed that the Ni is incorporated into ZnO uniformly. The microstructure of the textured columns was analysed by TEM and HRTEM analyses. The average thickness and length of the columns were found to be about 50 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The rise of ferromagnetism by the influence of Ni content was studied by VSM magnetic studies at room temperature.

Siddheswaran, R.; Savková, Jarmila; Medlín, Rostislav; O?enášek, Jan; Životský, Ond?ej; Novák, Petr; Šutta, Pavol

2014-10-01

430

Current-induced switching of magnetic tunnel junctions: Effects of field-like spin-transfer torque, pinned-layer magnetization orientation, and temperature  

SciTech Connect

We study current-induced switching in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of a field-like spin-transfer torque and titled pinned-layer magnetization in the high current limit at finite temperature. We consider both the Slonczewski and field-like torques with coefficients a{sub J} and b{sub J}, respectively. At finite temperatures, ?=b{sub J}/a{sub J}=±1 leads to a smaller mean switching time compared that with ?=0. The reduction of switching time in the presence of the field-like term is due to the alignment effect (for ?>0) and the initial torque effect.

Tiwari, R. K.; Jhon, M. H.; Ng, N.; Gan, C. K., E-mail: ganck@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, 16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Srolovitz, D. J. [Department of Materials Science, Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2014-01-13

431

Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with temperature and magnetic field orientation  

SciTech Connect

Linear mode conversion (LMC) is the linear transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence {theta} of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, temperature {beta}=T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2}, adiabatic index {gamma}, and orientation angle {phi} between the ambient density gradient {nabla}N{sub 0} and ambient magnetic field B{sub 0} in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of {theta}, {gamma}, and {beta} with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency {epsilon} is strongly dependent on {gamma}{beta}, {phi} and {theta}, with {epsilon}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup 1/2} and {theta}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup 1/2}. The power conversion efficiency {epsilon}{sub p}, on the other hand, is independent of {gamma}{beta} but does vary significantly with {theta} and {phi}. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients ({phi} Almost-Equal-To 90 Degree-Sign ) and minimal for parallel orientation ({phi}=0 Degree-Sign ) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same {theta}.

Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kim, E.-H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2013-03-15

432

Investigation of the Effectiveness of the CompassLearning Math Program on the Mathematics Success of Urban Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the CompassLearning Odyssey® Math (Compass Math) program on increasing mathematics achievement scores for students in an urban environment over two consecutive years. Thousands of schools and districts across the country currently utilize the Compass Math program for their students…

Adams, Tanya

2012-01-01

433

The "Crisis of Pity" and the Radicalization of Solidarity: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article joins discussions concerning education as a means of cultivating compassion and pays explicit attention to the emotional complexities of teaching for/with compassion to help students become active and critical compassionate citizens. After reviewing the emotional aspects that establish feelings of pity and a sentimental relationship…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2013-01-01

434

Validity Evidence for ACT Compass® Placement Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2014 (2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the validity of using Compass® test scores and high school grade point average (GPA) for placing students in first-year college courses and for identifying students at risk of not succeeding. Consistent with other research, the combination of high school GPA and Compass scores performed better than either measure used alone. Results…

Westrick, Paul A.; Allen, Jeff

2014-01-01

435

Mindfulness and Compassion in Human Development: Introduction to the Special Section  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on contemplative practices (e.g., mindfulness or compassion training) is growing rapidly in the clinical, health and neuro-sciences, but almost none of this research takes an explicitly developmental life span perspective. At present, we know rather little about the naturalistic development of mindfulness or compassion in children and…

Roeser, Robert W.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2015-01-01

436

Contribution of Self-Compassion to Competence and Mental Health in Social Work Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the potential contribution of self-compassion to perceived competence and mental health in master's of social work students (N=65). It was hypothesized that the components of self-compassion (i.e., mindfulness, common humanity, self-kindness, overidentification, isolation, and self-judgment) would impact perceived competence…

Ying, Yu-Wen

2009-01-01

437

The Influence of Self-Compassion on Academic Procrastination and Dysfunctional Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, aims were (1) to determine gender differences in self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes and (2) to examine the relationships between self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes. Participants were 251 university students who completed a questionnaire package that…

Iskender, Murat

2011-01-01

438

Compassion Fatigue in Public Health Nurses working on Disaster Relief Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nursing shortage is of growing concern to the nation’s health care system. The problem and thus the solution are multifaceted. Many solutions exist in alleviating the nursing shortage, one of those solutions is to reduce the incidence of compassion fatigue among nurses. Compassion Fatigue can be a precursor to burnout, a phenomena that may be causing nurses to leave

Lauren Fullenkamp Adkinson

2005-01-01

439

Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

Bourassa, Dara

2012-01-01

440

Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers Against Compassion Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from

Dara Bourassa

2012-01-01

441

Self-Care in the New Millennium: Avoiding Burnout and Compassion Fatigue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a workshop for counselors and psychologists who are at a high risk for burnout and compassion fatigue. The workshop focuses on increasing the awareness of participants about the issues of burnout and compassion fatigue, and highlights a number of steps toward prevention. A report, which accompanies the workshop documentation,…

Lynch, Sherry K.

442

Exploring Compassion Fatigue and Trauma in the South African Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the incidence and nature of traumatic experiences that educators encounter in their work, and examined the effects of these experiences. Traumatic exposure in the classroom is viewed against the backdrop of educators' personal and professional experiences, and the levels of compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction and burnout were measured. The ways in which schools and educators deal with

Gloria Marsay; Craig Higson-Smith

443

Compassion Fatigue and Secondary Traumatization: Provider Self Care on Intensive Care Units for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionUnexpressed grief in health care providers who care for chronically ill children may lead to the development of some symptoms of compassion fatigue. The purpose of this study was to describe the scope of compassion fatigue in health care providers working on critical care units with children. A secondary aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of providing educational seminars on

Patrick Meadors; Angela Lamson

2008-01-01

444

Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise  

E-print Network

Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion meditation state. To probe affective reactivity, we presented emotional and neutral sounds during

Lutz, Antoine

445

An interplanetary planar magnetic structure oriented at a large (about 80 deg) angle to the Parker spiral  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field structures in the solar wind, characterized by a variation of the field vectors within a plane inclined to the ecliptic ('Planar Magnetic Structures', PMSs), were reported recently (Nakagawa et al., 1989). These PMSs have the property that the plane of variation of the field also contains the nominal Parker spiral direction. An observation of a PMS where the direction of the line of intersection of the plane of field variation with the ecliptic plane makes a large (about 80 deg) angle to the Parker spiral direction is presented. Furthermore, the angular variables of the field (1) vary over a restricted range, and (2) are linearly related. The latter property is related to the former. Currently proposed models for the origin of PMS, inasmuch as they require field configurations which retain strict alignment with the Parker spiral direction from formation to observation, are probably incomplete.

Farrugia, M. W.; Dunlop, M. W.; Geurts, F.; Balogh, A.; Southwood, D. J.; Bryant, D. A.; Neugebauer, M.

1990-01-01

446

Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: the case of HIV.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that self-compassion buffers people against the emotional impact of illness and is associated with medical adherence, 187 HIV-infected individuals completed a measure of self-compassion and answered questions about their emotional and behavioral reactions to living with HIV. Self-compassion was related to better adjustment, including lower stress, anxiety, and shame. Participants higher in self-compassion were more likely to disclose their HIV status to others and indicated that shame had less of an effect on their willingness to practice safe sex and seek medical care. In general, self-compassion was associated with notably more adaptive reactions to having HIV. PMID:23300046

Brion, John M; Leary, Mark R; Drabkin, Anya S

2014-02-01

447

The role of self-compassion in physical and psychological well-being.  

PubMed

The relation of self-compassion to physical and psychological well-being was investigated among 182 college students. The self-compassion scale was delineated into three composites, following the proposition by Neff that self-compassion consists of three main components: self-judgment versus self-kindness (SJ-SK), a sense of isolation versus common humanity (I-CH), and over-identification versus mindfulness (OI-M). Findings support the association between self-compassion and psychological and physical well-being, but the composites demonstrate different influences. SJ-SK and I-CH were predictive of both depressive symptomatology and physical well-being, and SJ-SK and OI-M were predictive of managing life stressors. The results of this study support and expand prior research on self-compassion. PMID:23885635

Hall, Cathy W; Row, Kathleen A; Wuensch, Karl L; Godley, Katelyn R

2013-01-01

448

Differential pattern of functional brain plasticity after compassion and empathy training.  

PubMed

Although empathy is crucial for successful social interactions, excessive sharing of others' negative emotions may be maladaptive and constitute a source of burnout. To investigate functional neural plasticity underlying the augmentation of empathy and to test the counteracting potential of compassion, one group of participants was first trained in empathic resonance and subsequently in compassion. In response to videos depicting human suffering, empathy training, but not memory training (control group), increased negative affect and brain activations in anterior insula and anterior midcingulate cortex-brain regions previously associated with empathy for pain. In contrast, subsequent compassion training could reverse the increase in negative effect and, in contrast, augment self-reports of positive affect. In addition, compassion training increased activations in a non-overlapping brain network spanning ventral striatum, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex. We conclude that training compassion may reflect a new coping strategy to overcome empathic distress and strengthen resilience. PMID:23576808

Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania

2014-06-01

449

The Roles of Innate Information, Learning Rules and Plasticity in Migratory Bird Orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper and the following three papers were presented at the RIN97 Conference held in Oxford under the auspices of the Animal Navigation Special Interest Group, April 1997. The full proceedings, under the title Orientation and Navigation - Birds, Humans and Other Animals, can be obtained from the Director (£30 to Members, £50 to non-Members).Studies of the compass mechanisms involved in the migratory orientation of birds have revealed a complex web of interactions, both during the development of orientation behaviour in young birds and in mature individuals exhibiting migratory activity. In young birds, the acquisition of compass orientation capabilities involves the interplay of apparently genetically programmed information with a suite of innate learning rules. The latter canalise the ways in which experience with relevant orientation information from the environment impinges on development. There are many general similarities with the development of singing behaviour in songbirds, although that system is more thoroughly understood, especially at the neuronal level.Here we shall attempt to synthesise what is known about the development of compass mechanisms in a framework of innate information and learning rules. The way in which orientation behaviour develops leaves open the possibility for plasticity that enables birds to compensate for variability in the environmental cues that form the basis of their compasses. For at least some components of the system, behavioural plasticity remains into adulthood, allowing