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1

Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.  

PubMed

European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier. PMID:23554997

Durif, Caroline M F; Browman, Howard I; Phillips, John B; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H

2013-03-15

2

Magnetic compass orientation in birds and its physiological basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current model suggests that magnetoreception of compass information starts with light-dependent primary processes. Light-dependency of magnetoreception is supported by behavioral experiments with homing pigeons and caged migratory birds. Three passerine species showed normal orientation under dim monochromatic light from the blue-green range of the spectrum, while they were disoriented under yellow and red light. A sevenfold increase in intensity and pre-exposure to specific wavelengths caused changes in behavior. The behavioral data indicate a complex relationship between the wavelength of light and magnetoreception, suggesting the involvement of more than one type of receptors. Extracellular recordings from the nucleus of the basal optic root and the tectum opticum identified units that responded to changes in magnetic North. Each unit showed a peak in a distinct spatial direction, so that the input of these units, processed collectively and integrated, would indicate compass directions.

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2002-09-01

3

A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, ''Cluster N'', show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection

Dominik Heyers; Martina Manns; Harald Luksch; Onur Güntürkün; Henrik Mouritsen

2007-01-01

4

A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds  

PubMed Central

The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, “Cluster N”, show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds “see” the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

Heyers, Dominik; Manns, Martina; Luksch, Harald; Gunturkun, Onur; Mouritsen, Henrik

2007-01-01

5

The effect of yellow and blue light on magnetic compass orientation in European robins, Erithacus rubecula  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the wavelength dependency of magnetic compass orientation, European robins were tested during spring migration\\u000a under light of various wavelengths. Under 565-nm green light (control) the birds showed excellent orientation in their migratory\\u000a direction; a 120° deflection of magnetic North resulted in a corresponding shift in the birds' directional tendencies, indicating\\u000a the use of the magnetic compass. Under 443-nm

W. Wiltschko; R. Wiltschko

1999-01-01

6

Wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Wildtype Oregon-R Drosophila melanogaster were trained in the ambient magnetic field to a horizontal gradient of 365 nm light emanating from one of the 4 cardinal compass directions and were subsequently tested in a visually-symmetrical, radial 8-arm maze in which the magnetic field alignment could be varied. When tested under 365 nm light, flies exhibited consistent magnetic compass orientation in

J. B. Phillips; O. Sayeed

1993-01-01

7

Magnetic compass orientation in birds and its physiological basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current model suggests that magnetoreception of compass information starts with light-dependent primary processes. Light-dependency of magnetoreception is supported by behavioral experiments with homing pigeons and caged migratory birds. Three passerine species showed normal orientation under dim monochromatic light from the blue-green range of the spectrum, while they were disoriented under yellow and red light. A sevenfold increase in intensity

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

2002-01-01

8

Initial orientation of homing pigeons at the magnetic equator with and without sun compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the present hypotheses concerning the functioning of the bird's magnetic compass, pigeons reared near the magnetic and geographic equator (Fortaleza, NE Brasil) were released 300 km NW of their home in the horizontal field at the magnetic equator. Pigeons released in the morning and in the afternoon were roughly homeward oriented whereas pigeons released at noon with the

R. Ranvaud; K. Schmidt-Koenig; J. Kiepenheuer; O. C. Gasparotto

1983-01-01

9

Night-migratory garden warblers can orient with their magnetic compass using the left, the right or both eyes  

PubMed Central

Several studies have suggested that the magnetic compass of birds is located only in the right eye. However, here we show that night-migrating garden warblers (Sylvia borin) are able to perform magnetic compass orientation with both eyes open, with only the left eye open and with only the right eye open. We did not observe any clear lateralization of magnetic compass orientation behaviour in this migratory songbird, and, therefore, it seems that the suggested all-or-none lateralization of magnetic compass orientation towards the right eye only cannot be generalized to all birds, and that the answer to the question of whether magnetic compass orientation in birds is lateralized is probably not as simple as suggested previously.

Hein, Christine Maira; Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Kutzschbauch, Sandra; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Mouritsen, Henrik

2010-01-01

10

Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic orientation in mammals has been demonstrated convincingly in only two genera of subterranean mole-rats (Spalax and Cryptomys sp.) by examining the directional placement of nests in radially symmetrical indoor arenas. Mole-rats show a spontaneous directional preference to place their nests to the south or southeast of magnetic north. Using a similar nest-building assay, we show that laboratory-raised Siberian hamsters

Mark E. Deutschlander; Michael J. Freake; S. Christopher Borland; John B. Phillips; Robert C. Madden; Larry E. Anderson; Bary W. Wilson

2003-01-01

11

Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.

2003-04-01

12

Orientations Of Minoan Buildings On Crete May Indicate The First Recorded Use Of The Magnetic Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeomagnetic research has enabled the determination of the secular variation record of the past geomagnetic field and has been used as a tool for absolute and relative dating. The archaeomagnetic secular variation of declination can be used in conjunction with architectural building plan orientation angles (strike directions) to establish, whether or not, a magnetic compass was possibly used to align buildings. Until now, it has been speculative as to, how or why, Minoan buildings were orientated in an approximate North-South direction or at 'askew' angles to one another. Here, it is observed, that, the orientation angles, of some significant Minoan buildings on Crete which have been compared to the archaeomagnetic (secular variation of declination) reference curve record (Bulgaria) for that period, are consistent with the possible use of a magnetic compass. Four of the six main Palaces and other significant buildings may have been oriented using this method. This may indicate the first recorded use, by the Minoans of a magnetic compass. These findings have archaeological implications (chronology) and are of significant interest architecturally. They are also relevant to Minoan religious and cult studies and may have implications for Minoan maritime navigation studies.

Downey, W. S.

13

Magnetic compass orientation in two strictly subterranean rodents: learned or species-specific innate directional preference?  

PubMed

Evidence for magnetoreception in mammals remains limited. Magnetic compass orientation or magnetic alignment has been conclusively demonstrated in only a handful of mammalian species. The functional properties and underlying mechanisms have been most thoroughly characterized in Ansell's mole-rat, Fukomys anselli, which is the species of choice due to its spontaneous drive to construct nests in the southeastern sector of a circular arena using the magnetic field azimuth as the primary orientation cue. Because of the remarkable consistency between experiments, it is generally believed that this directional preference is innate. To test the hypothesis that spontaneous southeastern directional preference is a shared, ancestral feature of all African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia), we employed the same arena assay to study magnetic orientation in two other mole-rat species, the social giant mole-rat, Fukomys mechowii, and the solitary silvery mole-rat, Heliophobius argenteocinereus. Both species exhibited spontaneous western directional preference and deflected their directional preference according to shifts in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Because all of the experiments were performed in total darkness, our results strongly suggest that all African mole-rats use a light-independent magnetic compass for near-space orientation. However, the spontaneous directional preference is not common and may be either innate (but species-specific) or learned. We propose an experiment that should be performed to distinguish between these two alternatives. PMID:22855619

Oliveriusová, Ludmila; N?mec, Pavel; Králová, Zuzana; Sedlá?ek, František

2012-08-01

14

THE INITIAL ORIENTATION OF HOMING PIGEONS AT THE MAGNETIC EQUATOR: COMPASS MECHANISMS AND THE EFFECT OF APPLIED MAGNETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Homing pigeons are thought to use the earth's magnetic field for direction finding. Though the sensory system and the characteristics of the magnetic field used are unknown, it can be hypothesized that pigeons have an inclination compass, as do some migratory birds. When released at the magnetic equator, this inclination compass ought to be suspended. In addition, releasing pigeons

RONALD RANVAUD; KLAUS SCHMIDT-KOENIG; JORG U. GANZHORN; JAKOB KIEPENHEUER; ODIVAL C. GASPAROTTO; LUIZ R. G. BRITTO

15

Wavelength specific effects of light on magnetic compass orientation of the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoreward magnetic compass orientation of male eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) was examined in a visually-symmetrical indoor arena. Groups of newts were first trained in a water-filled outdoor tank with an artificial shore at one end and then exposed to a rapid elevation of the training tank water temperature just prior to testing. The directional response of individual newts

J. B. Phillips; S. C. Borland

1992-01-01

16

Interrelation of magnetic compass and star orientation in night-migrating birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the orientation model that the stars derive their directional significance from the magnetic field, the orientation of European Robins (Erithacus rubecula) to an arbitrary pattern of 16 “stars” (Fig. 1) was examined.

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

1976-01-01

17

Ontogenetic development of magnetic compass orientation in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus).  

PubMed

Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) can be trained to search for a social stimulus in a specific magnetic direction, and cryptochrome 1a, found in the retina, has been proposed as a receptor molecule mediating magnetic directions. The present study combines immuno-histochemical and behavioural data to analyse the ontogenetic development of this ability. Newly hatched chicks already have a small amount of cryptochrome 1a in their violet cones; on day 5, the amount of cryptochrome 1a reached the same level as in adult chickens, suggesting that the physical basis for magnetoreception is present. In behavioural tests, however, young chicks 5 to 7 days old failed to show a preference of the training direction; on days 8, 9 and 12, they could be successfully trained to search along a specific magnetic axis. Trained and tested again 1 week later, the chicks that had not shown a directional preference on days 5 to 7 continued to search randomly, while the chicks tested from day 8 onward preferred the correct magnetic axis when tested 1 week later. The observation that the magnetic compass is not functional before day 8 suggests that certain maturation processes in the magnetosensitive system in the brain are not yet complete before that day. The reasons why chicks that have been trained before that day fail to learn the task later remain unclear. PMID:23661773

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-05-09

18

Use of a magnetic compass for Y -axis orientation in premetamorphic newts ( Triturus boscai )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to investigate whether premetamorphic larvae of Boscas newt (Triturus boscai) are capable of using the geomagnetic field for Y-axis orientation (i.e., orientation toward and away from shore). Larvae were trained outdoor in two different training configurations, using one training tank aligned along the magnetic north–south axis, with shore facing north, and another training tank positioned with

Lorenzo Rodríguez-García; Francisco Javier Diego-Rasilla

2006-01-01

19

Magnetic compass orientation in the Eastern red-spotted newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the orientation behavior of adult Eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) to earth-strength magnetic fields. Groups of 30 to 40 newts were housed in water-filled, all-glass aquaria with an artificial shoreline at one end. The aquaria were located in a greenhouse or outdoors adjacent to the laboratory building, and aligned on either the magnetic

John B. Phillips

1986-01-01

20

Magnetic Compass of European Robins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic compass of European robins does not use the polarity of the magnetic field for detecting the north direction. The birds derive their north direction from interpreting the inclination of the axial direction of the magnetic field lines in space, and they take the direction on the magnetic north-south axis for \\

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

1972-01-01

21

Evidence for celestial and magnetic compass orientation in lake migrating sockeye salmon fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Radially symmetrical, four-armed tanks were designed for testing the directional preferences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry as they commenced up-lake migrations following emergence from gravel nests and river migration to the lake.2.When tested during the day or night, as appropriate for their migration, fry from two different stocks moved in compass directions corresponding to the directions which they would

Thomas P. Quinn

1980-01-01

22

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In…

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

23

Adaptive and learning calibration of magnetic compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic compasses are widely used in vehicle navigation systems to measure the vehicle headings with respect to the Earth's magnetic north. Due to the local variation of the Earth's magnetic flux density and the induced magnetic field of the magnetized vehicle body, continuous calibrations of magnetic compasses are required to maintain accurate heading measurements. In this paper two different online

Wei-Wen Kao; Chin-Lang Tsai

2006-01-01

24

Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth's magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds.

Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Greiner, Walter

25

Resonance effects indicate a radical-pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory birds are known to use the geomagnetic field as a source of compass information. There are two competing hypotheses for the primary process underlying the avian magnetic compass, one involving magnetite, the other a magnetically sensitive chemical reaction. Here we show that oscillating magnetic fields disrupt the magnetic orientation behaviour of migratory birds. Robins were disoriented when exposed to

Thorsten Ritz; Peter Thalau; John B. Phillips; Roswitha Wiltschko; Wolfgang Wiltschko

2004-01-01

26

Magnetic compass orientation in the yellow-faced honeyeater, Lichenostomus chrysops , a day migrating bird from Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia, the southern populations of the yellow-faced honeyeater, Lichenostomus chrysops (Meliphagidae), perform annual migrations, with routes following the eastern coastline. In order to assess the role of magnetic cues in the migratory orientation of this diurnal migrant, its directional behaviour was recorded in recording cages under natural and experimentally manipulated magnetic-field conditions. During autumn the birds tested indoors in

Ursula Munro; Wolfgang Wiltschko

1993-01-01

27

Compass Games: An Introduction to Orienteering Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compasses are useful tools for teaching the basics of navigation. Knowing where you are, where you are going, and how to get there are important facets of outdoor recreation. Compass games are a fun way to teach introductory navigation skills, and this article describes how they can be used as innovative, nontraditional activities in physical…

Sension-Hall, Debra

2011-01-01

28

Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; P?žová, Tereza

2008-08-01

29

Do leaf-cutter ants Atta colombica orient their path-integrated, home vector with a magnetic compass?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf-cutter ants Atta colombica forage over 250 m in structurally-complex, Neotropical rainforests that occlude sun or polarized light cues. Night foraging makes the use of celestial cues and landmarks all the more difficult. We investigated the directional cues used by leaf-cutter ants to orient h...

30

Chinese tombs oriented by a compass: evidence from paleomagnetic declination changes versus tombs age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the magnetic compass in China is documented at least since the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), but may be older. Geomancy (fengshui) practicised for a long time had a profound influence on the face of China's landscape and city plans. The tombs (pyramids) near Xian (together with suburban fields and roads) have strange space orientations, sometimes in the basic south-north direction (with respect to the geographic pole), but ussually with deviations of several degrees to east or west. The use of the compass means that the needle is directed to the actual magnetic pole at the time of construction or last reconstruction of the given tomb. The magnetic pole however, relative to the 'fixed' geographic pole, wanders significantly in time. We successfully correlated (found a close trends), by using paleomagnetic data (for the central China and the time interval of interest), the starting date of pyramids building with respect to the magnetic pole position at that time. As in Mesoamerica, where according to Fuson hypothesis, the Olmecs and Maya oriented their ceremonial buildings and pyramids by compass even before the Chinese, here in central China the same technique may have been used. The agreeement of building alignments with likely magnetic pole positions at the time is fairly good. There are several written records that the knowledge of the various ancient types of compass in China is older than from the Han period but paleomagnetic declinations for China are generally so far not too precise.

Charvatova, Ivanka; Klokocnik, Jaroslav; Kolmas, Josef; Kostelecky, Jan

2010-05-01

31

Development of lateralization of the magnetic compass in a migratory bird  

PubMed Central

The magnetic compass of a migratory bird, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula), was shown to be lateralized in favour of the right eye/left brain hemisphere. However, this seems to be a property of the avian magnetic compass that is not present from the beginning, but develops only as the birds grow older. During first migration in autumn, juvenile robins can orient by their magnetic compass with their right as well as with their left eye. In the following spring, however, the magnetic compass is already lateralized, but this lateralization is still flexible: it could be removed by covering the right eye for 6 h. During the following autumn migration, the lateralization becomes more strongly fixed, with a 6 h occlusion of the right eye no longer having an effect. This change from a bilateral to a lateralized magnetic compass appears to be a maturation process, the first such case known so far in birds. Because both eyes mediate identical information about the geomagnetic field, brain asymmetry for the magnetic compass could increase efficiency by setting the other hemisphere free for other processes.

Gehring, Dennis; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Gunturkun, Onur; Denzau, Susanne; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2012-01-01

32

Development of lateralization of the magnetic compass in a migratory bird.  

PubMed

The magnetic compass of a migratory bird, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula), was shown to be lateralized in favour of the right eye/left brain hemisphere. However, this seems to be a property of the avian magnetic compass that is not present from the beginning, but develops only as the birds grow older. During first migration in autumn, juvenile robins can orient by their magnetic compass with their right as well as with their left eye. In the following spring, however, the magnetic compass is already lateralized, but this lateralization is still flexible: it could be removed by covering the right eye for 6 h. During the following autumn migration, the lateralization becomes more strongly fixed, with a 6 h occlusion of the right eye no longer having an effect. This change from a bilateral to a lateralized magnetic compass appears to be a maturation process, the first such case known so far in birds. Because both eyes mediate identical information about the geomagnetic field, brain asymmetry for the magnetic compass could increase efficiency by setting the other hemisphere free for other processes. PMID:22933375

Gehring, Dennis; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Denzau, Susanne; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2012-08-29

33

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use a magnetic compass for navigation.  

PubMed

Fall migratory monarch butterflies, tested for their directional responses to magnetic cues under three conditions, amagnetic, normal, and reversed magnetic fields, showed three distinct patterns. In the absence of a magnetic field, monarchs lacked directionality as a group. In the normal magnetic field, monarchs oriented to the southwest with a group pattern typical for migrants. When the horizontal component of the magnetic field was reversed, the butterflies oriented to the northeast. In contrast, nonmigratory monarchs lacked directionality in the normal magnetic field. The results are a direct demonstration of magnetic compass orientation in migratory insects. PMID:10570160

Etheredge, J A; Perez, S M; Taylor, O R; Jander, R

1999-11-23

34

Avian magnetic compass can be tuned to anomalously low magnetic intensities.  

PubMed

The avian magnetic compass works in a fairly narrow functional window around the intensity of the local geomagnetic field, but adjusts to intensities outside this range when birds experience these new intensities for a certain time. In the past, the geomagnetic field has often been much weaker than at present. To find out whether birds can obtain directional information from a weak magnetic field, we studied spontaneous orientation preferences of migratory robins in a 4 µT field (i.e. a field of less than 10 per cent of the local intensity of 47 µT). Birds can adjust to this low intensity: they turned out to be disoriented under 4 µT after a pre-exposure time of 8 h to 4 µT, but were able to orient in this field after a total exposure time of 17 h. This demonstrates a considerable plasticity of the avian magnetic compass. Orientation in the 4 µT field was not affected by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, but was disrupted by a radiofrequency magnetic field of 1.315 MHz, 480 nT, suggesting that a radical-pair mechanism still provides the directional information in the low magnetic field. This is in agreement with the idea that the avian magnetic compass may have developed already in the Mesozoic in the common ancestor of modern birds. PMID:23720547

Winklhofer, Michael; Dylda, Evelyn; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2013-05-29

35

Magnetism before Gilbert - Discovery of the Magnetic Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First of several linked files, telling the early history of the compass (discovered in China) and how Robert Norman in 1581 showed the magnetic force was not horizontal but slanted downwards, followed by William Gilbert's demonstration that the Earth behaved like a giant magnet; two reviews of Gilbert's 1600 book "De Magnete" follow, as well as a modern version of one of Gilbert's experiments. The web collection also includes several sections for science teachers.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

36

Magnetic compass mediates nocturnal homing by the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to investigate the use of magnetic compass cues in the nocturnal homing orientation of the alpine newt Triturus alpestris. Tests were carried out at a site 9 km to the east–northeast of the breeding pond. Newts were tested at night in an outdoor circular arena that provided an unimpeded view of celestial cues, in one of four

Francisco J. Diego-Rasilla; Rosa M. Luengo; John B. Phillips

2005-01-01

37

20. View of magnetic compass; "bigeyes," used for surveying ships ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of magnetic compass; "bigeyes," used for surveying ships and shore; and signal lights (covered). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

38

Night-Migratory Songbirds Possess a Magnetic Compass in Both Eyes  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on European robins, Erithacus rubecula, and Australian silvereyes, Zosterops lateralis, had suggested that magnetic compass information is being processed only in the right eye and left brain hemisphere of migratory birds. However, recently it was demonstrated that both garden warblers, Sylvia borin, and European robins have a magnetic compass in both eyes. These results raise the question if the strong lateralization effect observed in earlier experiments might have arisen from artifacts or from differences in experimental conditions rather than reflecting a true all-or-none lateralization of the magnetic compass in European robins. Here we show that (1) European robins having only their left eye open can orient in their seasonally appropriate direction both during autumn and spring, i.e. there are no strong lateralization differences between the outward journey and the way home, that (2) their directional choices are based on the standard inclination compass as they are turned 180° when the inclination is reversed, and that (3) the capability to use the magnetic compass does not depend on monocular learning or intraocular transfer as it is already present in the first tests of the birds with only one eye open.

Lefeldt, Nele; Prior, Helmut; Mouritsen, Henrik

2012-01-01

39

A Compass Using a Thin Magnetic Film Component  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and development of an allelectronic device which indicates bearing from local magnetic north is reported on. The device contains no moving parts and produces a d-c output voltage proportional to the bearing of a reference direction of the device from magnetic north. The sensing element of the compass consists of two thin magnetic films each of which contains

P. Castro

1964-01-01

40

Measuring Magnetic Declination With Compass, GPS and Virtual Globes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using virtual globe (VG) imagery to determine geographic bearing and a compass to determine magnetic bearing yielded acceptable experimental magnetic declination values for large linear physical features at 13 sites in the western continental United States. The geographic bearing of each feature was determined from measurements involving the latitude\\/longitude coordinate system associated with the VG image (from World Wind or

W. P. O'Brien

2006-01-01

41

Applications of magnetic sensors for low cost compass systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for heading determination is described that will include the effects of pitch and roll as well as the magnetic properties of the vehicle. Using solid-state magnetic sensors and a tilt sensor, a low cost compass system can be realized. Commercial airlines today use attitude and heading reference systems that cost tens of thousands of dollars. For general aviation,

Michael J. Caruso

2000-01-01

42

46 CFR 32.15-35 - Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnetic Compass and Gyrocompass-T/OC. ...Navigation Equipment § 32.15-35 Magnetic Compass and GyrocompassâT/OC. ...coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b) All tankships...

2012-10-01

43

Artificial light and sun compass orientation in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Crustacea, Amphipoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on compass orientation under artificial light were conducted with adult individuals of Talitrus saltator. The aim was to reproduce in the laboratory an orientation based on the sun compass corresponding to that recorded in conditions\\u000a of the true sun and sky. This was obtained by the creation within an opaque Plexiglas dome of a scenario that permitted variation\\u000a of

A. Ugolini; B. Tiribilli; C. Castellini

1997-01-01

44

Magnetic Compass of Birds Is Based on a Molecule with Optimal Directional Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Abstract The avian magnetic compass has been well characterized in behavioral tests: it is an “inclination compass” based on the inclination of the field lines rather than on the polarity, and its operation requires short-wavelength light. The “radical pair” model suggests that these properties reflect the use of specialized photopigments in the primary process of magnetoreception; it has recently been supported by experimental evidence indicating a role of magnetically sensitive radical-pair processes in the avian magnetic compass. In a multidisciplinary approach subjecting migratory birds to oscillating fields and using their orientation responses as a criterion for unhindered magnetoreception, we identify key features of the underlying receptor molecules. Our observation of resonance effects at specific frequencies, combined with new theoretical considerations and calculations, indicate that birds use a radical pair with special properties that is optimally designed as a receptor in a biological compass. This radical pair design might be realized by cryptochrome photoreceptors if paired with molecular oxygen as a reaction partner.

Ritz, Thorsten; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Hore, P.J.; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Timmel, Christiane R.; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

45

Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.  

PubMed

During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

2009-09-25

46

Retinal cryptochrome in a migratory passerine bird: a possible transducer for the avian magnetic compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The currently discussed model of magnetoreception in birds proposes that the direction of the magnetic field is perceived by radical-pair processes in specialized photoreceptors, with cryptochromes suggested as potential candidate molecules mediating magnetic compass information. Behavioral studies have shown that magnetic compass orientation takes place in the eye and requires light from the blue-green part of the spectrum. Cryptochromes are known to absorb in the same spectral range. Because of this we searched for cryptochrome (CRY) in the retina of European robins, Erithacus rubecula, passerine birds that migrate at night. Here, we report three individually expressed cryptochromes, eCRY1a, eCRY1b, and eCRY2. While eCRY1a and eCRY2 are similar to the cryptochromes found in the retina of the domestic chicken, eCRY1b has a unique carboxy (C)-terminal. In light of the ‘radical-pair’ model, our findings support a potential role of cryptochromes as transducers for the perception of magnetic compass information in birds.

Möller, Andrea; Sagasser, Sven; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Schierwater, Bernd

2004-12-01

47

A nocturnal mammal, the greater mouse-eared bat, calibrates a magnetic compass by the sun  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that bats can detect the geomagnetic field, but the way in which this is used by them for navigation to a home roost remains unresolved. The geomagnetic field may be used by animals both to indicate direction and to locate position. In birds, directional information appears to be derived from an interaction of the magnetic field with either the sun or the stars, with some evidence suggesting that sunset/sunrise provides the primary directional reference by which a magnetic compass is calibrated daily. We demonstrate that homing greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) calibrate a magnetic compass with sunset cues by testing their homing response after exposure to an altered magnetic field at and after sunset. Magnetic manipulation at sunset resulted in a counterclockwise shift in orientation compared with controls, consistent with sunset calibration of the magnetic field, whereas magnetic manipulation after sunset resulted in no change in orientation. Unlike in birds, however, the pattern of polarization was not necessary for the calibration. For animals that occupy ecological niches where the sunset is rarely observed, this is a surprising finding. Yet it may indicate the primacy of the sun as an absolute geographical reference not only for birds but also within other vertebrate taxa.

Holland, Richard A.; Borissov, Ivailo; Siemers, Bjorn M.

2010-01-01

48

Avian orientation at steep angles of inclination: experiments with migratory white-crowned sparrows at the magnetic North Pole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth's magnetic ¢eld and celestial cues provide animals with compass information during migra- tion. Inherited magnetic compass courses are selected based on the angle of inclination, making it dicult to orient in the near vertical ¢elds found at high geomagnetic latitudes. Orientation cage experi- ments were performed at di¡erent sites in high Arctic Canada with adult and young white-crowned

S. Akesson; J. Morin; R. Muheim; U. Ottosson

2001-01-01

49

Fuzzy calibration of a magnetic compass for vehicular applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a strapdown compass on a vehicle, three-axis magnetometers measure the Earth's magnetic field vector along the body axes of the vehicle to determine its heading angle. Owing to the local magnetic effects, the measurements frequently deviate from the geomagnetic field vector coordinated in the body frame. Therefore, online calibration of the compass should be considered to satisfy the requirements of the vehicle navigation system. In this paper, a new intelligent method is developed to implement online calibration of the compass system. First, a regression model is proposed to increase the convergence probability of the calibration process using the attitude angles in the measurement equations. Second, based on the knowledge of expert engineers, a Mamdani type fuzzy batch least-square (FBLS) algorithm is designed to estimate the calibration bias and scaling parameters. Generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) and the changes of estimated parameters are considered as the main information of the fuzzy system in which the length of data batch and the associated weighting factor are updated continuously. The results of simulations and experiments reveal the superiority of the proposed approach to the non-fuzzy methods.

Keighobadi, Jafar

2011-08-01

50

The Ancestral Circadian Clock of Monarch Butterflies: Role in Time-compensated Sun Compass Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian clock has a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, which contributes to navigation to the overwintering grounds. The location of circa- dian clock cells in monarch brain has been identified in the dorsolateral protocerebrum (pars lateralis); these cells express PERIOD, TIMELESS, and a Drosophila-like cryptochrome designated

S. M. Reppert

2007-01-01

51

Sun Compass and Landmark Orientation by Black-Capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus), nutcrackers, and jays use a variety of visual cues to relocate and retrieve hidden food caches. Results with scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) show that sun compass orientation may play an important role in cache retrieval. In a series of experiments, black-capped chickadees were trained to find food along 1 side of an octagonal cage and then

Sarah J. Duff; Lesley A. Brownlie; David F. Sherry; Mark Sangster

1998-01-01

52

Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental

William W. Cochran; Henrik Mouritsen; Martin Wikelski

2004-01-01

53

The optimization of resonant magnetic perturbation spectra for the COMPASS tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COMPASS tokamak, recently transferred from UKAEA Culham to IPP Prague, is equipped with a set of saddle coils for producing controlled resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In the future experimental programme of COMPASS we plan to focus on studies of RMPs, especially in view of their application as an ELM control mechanism and their considered use in ITER. In the

P. Cahyna; R. Pánek; V. Fuchs; L. Krlín; M. Bécoulet; G. Huysmans; E. Nardon

2009-01-01

54

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator

L. B. Da Silva; D. L. Matthews; J. P. Fitch; M. J. Everett; B. W. Colston; G. F. Stone

1999-01-01

55

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which

Luiz B. Da Silva; Dennis L. Matthews; Joseph P. Fitch; Matthew J. Everett; Billy W. Colston; Gary F. Stone

1999-01-01

56

The ancestral circadian clock of monarch butterflies: role in time-compensated sun compass orientation.  

PubMed

The circadian clock has a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, which contributes to navigation to the overwintering grounds. The location of circadian clock cells in monarch brain has been identified in the dorsolateral protocerebrum (pars lateralis); these cells express PERIOD, TIMELESS, and a Drosophila-like cryptochrome designated CRY1. Monarch butterflies, like all other nondrosophilid insects examined so far, express a second cry gene (designated insect CRY2) that encodes a vertebrate-like CRY that is also expressed in pars lateralis. An ancestral circadian clock mechanism has been defined in monarchs, in which CRY1 functions as a blue light photoreceptor for photic entrainment, whereas CRY2 functionswithin the clockwork as themajor transcriptional repressor of an intracellular negative transcriptional feedback loop. A CRY1-staining neural pathway has been identified that may connect the circadian (navigational) clock to polarized light input important for sun compass navigation, and a CRY2-positive neural pathway has been discovered that may communicate circadian information directly from the circadian clock to the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass. The monarch butterfly may thus use the CRY proteins as components of the circadian mechanism and also as output molecules that connect the clock to various aspects of the sun compass apparatus. PMID:18419268

Reppert, S M

2007-01-01

57

The bookmark and the compass: orientation tools for hypertext users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of hypertext stems chiefly from the complex networks of conceptual links which hypertext documents can render explicit. This paper describes an array of orientation tools which help readers to choose a course through a complex information network without undue confusion or discomfort, while retaining the excitement and spontaneity users often experience when exploring complex information environments.

Mark Bernstein

1988-01-01

58

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

1999-06-15

59

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

60

Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.  

PubMed

Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze) have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus) water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(°) so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1) absence of alternative directional cues (2), rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3) electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats) have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds. PMID:24023673

Phillips, John B; Youmans, Paul W; Muheim, Rachel; Sloan, Kelly A; Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Anderson, Christopher R

2013-08-30

61

A suboptimal Kalman filter with fading factors for DGPS\\/MEMS-IMU\\/magnetic compass integrated navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach that performs DGPS\\/MEMS-IMU\\/magnetic compass integrated navigation based on a suboptimal Kalman filter is proposed. The purpose is bounding MEMS-IMU errors with non-drift DGPS and magnetic compass through a robust filter as long as DGPS locked information is available. Because the difficulties of establishing an accurate sensor error model for MEMS-IMU and the limitation of

Jing Zhang; Zhi-hua Jin; Wei-feng Tian

2003-01-01

62

Discordant timing between antennae disrupts sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.  

PubMed

To navigate during their long-distance migration, monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass. The sun compass timing elements reside in light-entrained circadian clocks in the antennae. Here we show that either antenna is sufficient for proper time compensation. However, migrants with either antenna painted black (to block light entrainment) and the other painted clear (to permit light entrainment) display disoriented group flight. Remarkably, when the black-painted antenna is removed, re-flown migrants with a single, clear-painted antenna exhibit proper orientation behaviour. Molecular correlates of clock function reveal that period and timeless expression is highly rhythmic in brains and clear-painted antennae, while rhythmic clock gene expression is disrupted in black-painted antennae. Our work shows that clock outputs from each antenna are processed and integrated together in the monarch time-compensated sun compass circuit. This dual timing system is a novel example of the regulation of a brain-driven behaviour by paired organs. PMID:22805565

Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

2012-07-17

63

Orientation with a Viking sun-compass, a shadow-stick, and two calcite sunstones under various weather conditions.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that Vikings used sun-compasses to derive true directions from the cast shadow of a gnomon. It has been hypothesized that when a cast shadow was not formed, Viking navigators relied on crude skylight polarimetry with the aid of dichroic or birefringent crystals, called "sunstones." We demonstrate here that a simple tool, that we call "shadow-stick," could have allowed orientation by a sun-compass with satisfying accuracy when shadows were not formed, but the sun position could have reliably been estimated. In field tests, we performed orientation trials with a set composed of a sun-compass, two calcite sunstones, and a shadow-stick. We show here that such a set could have been an effective orientation tool for Vikings only when clear, blue patches of the sky were visible. PMID:24085076

Bernáth, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

2013-09-01

64

The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.  

PubMed

Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation. PMID:23430992

Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

2013-02-21

65

Chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50 species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, crustaceans and insects, are known to use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Birds in particular have been intensively studied, but the biophysical mechanisms that underlie the avian magnetic compass are still poorly understood. One proposal, based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions, is gaining support despite the fact

Kiminori Maeda; Kevin B. Henbest; Filippo Cintolesi; Ilya Kuprov; Christopher T. Rodgers; Paul A. Liddell; Devens Gust; P. J. Hore

2008-01-01

66

Should animals navigating over short distances switch to a magnetic compass sense?  

PubMed

Magnetoreception can play a substantial role in long distance navigation by animals. I hypothesize that locomotion guided by a magnetic compass sense could also play a role in short distance navigation. Animals identify mates, prey, or other short distance navigational goals using different sensory modalities (olfaction, vision, audition, etc.) to detect sensory cues associated with those goals. In conditions where these cues become unreliable for navigation (due to flow changes, obstructions, noise interference, etc.), switching to a magnetic compass sense to guide locomotion toward the navigational goals could be beneficial. Using simulations based on known locomotory and flow parameters, I show this strategy has strong theoretical benefits for the nudibranch mollusk Tritonia diomedea navigating toward odor sources in variable flow. A number of other animals may garner similar benefits, particularly slow-moving species in environments with rapidly changing cues relevant for navigation. Faster animals might also benefit from switching to a magnetic compass sense, provided the initial cues used for navigation (acoustic signals, odors, etc.) are intermittent or change rapidly enough that the entire navigation behavior cannot be guided by a continuously detectable cue. Examination of the relative durations of navigational tasks, the persistence of navigational cues, and the stability of both navigators and navigational targets will identify candidates with the appropriate combination of unreliable initial cues and relatively immobile navigational goals for which this hypothetical behavior could be beneficial. Magnetic manipulations can then test whether a switch to a magnetic compass sense occurs. This hypothesis thus provides an alternative when considering the behavioral significance of a magnetic compass sense in animals. PMID:20740070

Wyeth, Russell C

2010-07-30

67

Should Animals Navigating Over Short Distances Switch to a Magnetic Compass Sense?  

PubMed Central

Magnetoreception can play a substantial role in long distance navigation by animals. I hypothesize that locomotion guided by a magnetic compass sense could also play a role in short distance navigation. Animals identify mates, prey, or other short distance navigational goals using different sensory modalities (olfaction, vision, audition, etc.) to detect sensory cues associated with those goals. In conditions where these cues become unreliable for navigation (due to flow changes, obstructions, noise interference, etc.), switching to a magnetic compass sense to guide locomotion toward the navigational goals could be beneficial. Using simulations based on known locomotory and flow parameters, I show this strategy has strong theoretical benefits for the nudibranch mollusk Tritonia diomedea navigating toward odor sources in variable flow. A number of other animals may garner similar benefits, particularly slow-moving species in environments with rapidly changing cues relevant for navigation. Faster animals might also benefit from switching to a magnetic compass sense, provided the initial cues used for navigation (acoustic signals, odors, etc.) are intermittent or change rapidly enough that the entire navigation behavior cannot be guided by a continuously detectable cue. Examination of the relative durations of navigational tasks, the persistence of navigational cues, and the stability of both navigators and navigational targets will identify candidates with the appropriate combination of unreliable initial cues and relatively immobile navigational goals for which this hypothetical behavior could be beneficial. Magnetic manipulations can then test whether a switch to a magnetic compass sense occurs. This hypothesis thus provides an alternative when considering the behavioral significance of a magnetic compass sense in animals.

Wyeth, Russell C.

2010-01-01

68

Vehicle Detection and Compass Applications using AMR Magnetic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest magnetic field detectors allowed navigation over trackless oceans by sensing the earth's magnetic poles. Magnetic field sensing has vastly expanded as industry has adapted a variety of magnetic sensors to detect the presence, strength, or direction of magnetic fields not only from the earth, but also from permanent magnets, magnetized soft magnets, vehicle distur- bances, brain wave activity,

Michael J. Caruso; Lucky S. Withanawasam

69

Dancing Compasses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use compasses to detect the magnetic field created by current moving through a wire. This is one of four activities learners can complete related to PhysicsQuest 2008. Each activity gives a clue to solve a puzzle in the accompanying comic book, "Nikola Tesla and the Electric Fair."

Society, American P.

2009-01-01

70

Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Joachim Traudt; Onur Güntürkün; Helmut Prior; Roswitha Wiltschko

2002-01-01

71

Directional orientation of birds by the magnetic field under different light conditions  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the directional orientation of birds with the help of the geomagnetic field under various light conditions. Two fundamentally different types of response can be distinguished. (i) Compass orientation controlled by the inclination compass that allows birds to locate courses of different origin. This is restricted to a narrow functional window around the total intensity of the local geomagnetic field and requires light from the short-wavelength part of the spectrum. The compass is based on radical-pair processes in the right eye; magnetite-based receptors in the beak are not involved. Compass orientation is observed under ‘white’ and low-level monochromatic light from ultraviolet (UV) to about 565 nm green light. (ii) ‘Fixed direction’ responses occur under artificial light conditions such as more intense monochromatic light, when 590 nm yellow light is added to short-wavelength light, and in total darkness. The manifestation of these responses depends on the ambient light regime and is ‘fixed’ in the sense of not showing the normal change between spring and autumn; their biological significance is unclear. In contrast to compass orientation, fixed-direction responses are polar magnetic responses and occur within a wide range of magnetic intensities. They are disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, which indicates that the respective magnetic information is mediated by iron-based receptors located there. The influence of light conditions on the two types of response suggests complex interactions between magnetoreceptors in the right eye, those in the upper beak and the visual system.

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

72

Magnetic orientation of migratory robins, Erithacus rubecula, under long-wavelength light.  

PubMed

The avian magnetic compass is an inclination compass that appears to be based on radical pair processes. It requires light from the short-wavelength range of the spectrum up to 565 nm green light; under longer wavelengths, birds are disoriented. When pre-exposed to longer wavelengths for 1 h, however, they show oriented behavior. This orientation is analyzed under 582 nm yellow light and 645 nm red light in the present study: while the birds in spring prefer northerly directions, they do not show southerly tendencies in autumn. Inversion of the vertical component does not have an effect whereas reversal of the horizontal component leads to a corresponding shift, indicating that a polar response to the magnetic field is involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range do not affect the behavior but anesthesia of the upper beak causes disorientation. This indicates that the magnetic information is no longer provided by the radical pair mechanism in the eye but by the magnetite-based receptors in the skin of the beak. Exposure to long-wavelength light thus does not expand the spectral range in which the magnetic compass operates but instead causes a different mechanism to take over and control orientation. PMID:21865522

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Denzau, Susanne; Gehring, Dennis; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2011-09-15

73

How do honeybees use their magnetic compass? Can they see the North?  

PubMed

While seeking food sources and routes back to their hive, bees make use of their advanced nervous and sensory capacities, which underlie a diverse behavioral repertoire. One of several honeybee senses that is both exceptional and intriguing is magnetoreception - the ability to perceive the omnipresent magnetic field (MF) of the Earth. The mechanism by which animals sense MFs has remained fascinating as well as elusive because of the intricacies involved, which makes it one of the grand challenges for neural and sensory biology. However, investigations in recent years have brought substantial progress to our understanding of how such magneto-receptor(s) may work. Some terrestrial animals (birds) are reported to be equipped even with a dual perception system: one based on diminutive magnetic particles - in line with the original model which has also always been hypothesized for bees - and the other one, as the more recent model describes, based on a sensitivity of some photochemical reactions to MF (radical-pair or chemical mechanism). The latter model postulates a close link to vision and supposes that the animals can see the position of the geomagnetic North as a visible pattern superimposed on the picture of the environment. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that radical-pair magnetoreception might also be used by insects. It is realistic to expect that such evidence will inspire a re-examination and extension or confirmation of established views on the honeybee magnetic-compass mechanism. However, the problem of bee magnetoreception will not be solved at the moment that a receptor is discovered. On the contrary, the meaning of magnetoreception in insect life and its involvement in the orchestration of other senses is yet to be fully understood. The crucial question to be addressed in the near future is whether the compass abilities of the honeybee could suffer from radio frequency (RF) smog accompanying modern civilization and whether the fitness of this dominant pollinator might be affected by RF fields. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the path that the behavioral research on honeybee magnetoreception has taken and to discuss it in the context of contemporary data obtained on other insects. PMID:22313997

Válková, T; Vácha, M

2012-02-01

74

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

75

Compassion in the landscape of suffering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate compassion and its place within mindfulness-based approaches. Compassion is an orientation of mind that recognizes pain and the universality of pain in human experience and the capacity to meet that pain with kindness, empathy, equanimity and patience. We outline how learning to meet pain with compassion is part of how people come to live with

Christina Feldman; Willem Kuyken

2011-01-01

76

Trough Compass with Case, 1916  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The storage case has a sliding lid. The compass is marked Troughton & Simms Ltd, London, 1916, No.9214. A trough compass is used with either a plane table or a theodolite. The needle is a long magnetized bar of steel which is pointed at both ends. Object ID: USGS-000824...

2009-07-20

77

Magnetic Orientation of BI-2212 Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Accelerator Lab at Texas A&M is developing a method of texturing Bi-2212 powder for an oriented powder multifilament round wire. Results of preliminary experiments relating to the orientation of Bi-2212 powders by magnetic fields are presented.

Damborsky, K.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.

2010-04-01

78

Self-compassion and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Self-compassion refers to having an accepting and caring orientation towards oneself. Although self-compassion has been studied primarily in healthy populations, one particularly compelling clinical context in which to examine self-compassion is social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD is characterized by high levels of negative self-criticism as well as an abiding concern about others' evaluation of one's performance. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) people with SAD would demonstrate less self-compassion than healthy controls (HCs), (2) self-compassion would relate to severity of social anxiety and fear of evaluation among people with SAD, and (3) age would be negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, but not for HC. As expected, people with SAD reported less self-compassion than HCs on the Self-Compassion Scale and its subscales. Within the SAD group, lesser self-compassion was not generally associated with severity of social anxiety, but it was associated with greater fear of both negative and positive evaluation. Age was negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, whereas age was positively correlated with self-compassion for HC. These findings suggest that self-compassion may be a particularly important target for assessment and treatment in persons with SAD. PMID:21895450

Werner, Kelly H; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Ziv, Michal; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

2011-09-06

79

Spontaneous preferences for magnetic compass direction in the American red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae, Urodela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to other sensory modalities, migratory vertebrates are able to use the earths’ magnetic field for orientation\\u000a and navigation. The magnetic cue may also serve as a reference for other orientation mechanisms. In this study, significant\\u000a evidence is shown that, even in darkness, newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Salamandridae) spontaneously align according to the natural or to the deviated earth’s magnetic

Peter A. Schlegel

2007-01-01

80

Cryptochromes and neuronal-activity markers colocalize in the retina of migratory birds during magnetic orientation.  

PubMed

Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception. PMID:15381765

Mouritsen, Henrik; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Liedvogel, Miriam; Feenders, Gesa; Stalleicken, Julia; Dirks, Petra; Weiler, Reto

2004-09-20

81

Method and Apparatus for Calibrating Gyroscopically-Stabilized, Magnetically-Slaved Heading Reference System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A heading reference system mounted in a vehicle, e.g., an aircraft or a tank, includes a magnetic compass and a gyroscope. The magnetic compass is subject to deviation in the magnetic field, hence the system must be calibrated. If the vehicle is oriented ...

M. J. Fisher W. J. Gregory

1979-01-01

82

Magnetic material arrangement in oriented termites: a magnetic resonance study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of the magnetic resonance is used to study the magnetic material in oriented Neocapritermes opacus (N.o.) termite, the only prey of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.). A broad line in the g=2 region, associated to isolated nanoparticles shows that at least 97% of the magnetic material is in the termite's body (abdomen+thorax). From the temperature dependence of the resonant field and from the spectral linewidths, we estimate the existence of magnetic nanoparticles 18.5+/-0.3nm in diameter and an effective magnetic anisotropy constant, Keff between 2.1 and 3.2×104erg/cm3. A sudden change in the double integrated spectra at about 100K for N.o. with the long body axis oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field can be attributed to the Verwey transition, and suggests an organized film-like particle system.

Alves, O. C.; Wajnberg, E.; de Oliveira, J. F.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

2004-06-01

83

Context Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an easy and natural method for accessing contextual data shown on an electronic map in a wearable computer. The information is stored as virtual objects in a known network database. The objects are retrieved from a point of interest database and visualized on a head-worn display of a wearable computer. Our method uses the familiar compass metaphor to

Riku Suomela; Juha Lehikoinen

2000-01-01

84

Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review  

PubMed Central

What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate three evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering, distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization, and a phenomenological experience and physiological response that orients the individual to social approach. This response profile of compassion differs from those of distress, sadness, and love, suggesting that compassion is indeed a distinct emotion. We conclude by considering how compassion shapes moral judgment and action, how it varies across different cultures, and how it may engage specific patterns of neural activation, as well as emerging directions of research.

Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

2010-01-01

85

Planetary Magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fact that a small needle of lodestone suspended at its centre of mass maintains an almost constant orientation with respect\\u000a to the Earth’s body has been known for thousands of years and widely used in compasses for navigation purposes. Indeed, the\\u000a magnetic compass has been employed in China at least since the 4th century AD and used by Amalfl’s

Bruno Bertotti; Paolo Farinella; David Vokrouhlický

86

Finding Your Way with Map and Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet introduces topographic maps and explains how scale is used in a map to convey distance, how direction is determined using a compass, and how to use both a map and compass together by taking a compass bearing from a map. Contacts are provided to obtain current and historical magnetic declination information for any place in the United States.

2001-03-01

87

Create a Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use simple materials to build their own compass. This resource contains information about compasses as well as suggestions on how learners can try out their home-made compasses in their lives.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

88

46 CFR 121.402 - Compasses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... § 121.402 Compasses. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section every vessel must be fitted with a suitable magnetic compass designed for marine use, to be mounted at the primary operating station. (b) The following vessels need not...

2012-10-01

89

Growing up in an altered magnetic field affects the initial orientation of young homing pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether the sun compass of pigeons is calibrated by the magnetic field, a group of young pigeons was raised in an altered magnetic field in which magnetic north was turned ca. 65o (in 1974 and 1975) and 120o (in 1980) clockwise. They could see the sun only in an abnormal relation to the magnetic field, since they were

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko; William T. Keeton; Robert Madden

1983-01-01

90

An fMRI study of caring vs self-focus during induced compassion and pride  

PubMed Central

This study examined neural activation during the experience of compassion, an emotion that orients people toward vulnerable others and prompts caregiving, and pride, a self-focused emotion that signals individual strength and heightened status. Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired as participants viewed 55?s continuous sequences of slides to induce either compassion or pride, presented in alternation with sequences of neutral slides. Emotion self-report data were collected after each slide condition within the fMRI scanner. Compassion induction was associated with activation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region that is activated during pain and the perception of others’ pain, and that has been implicated in parental nurturance behaviors. Pride induction engaged the posterior medial cortex, a region that has been associated with self-referent processing. Self-reports of compassion experience were correlated with increased activation in a region near the PAG, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Self-reports of pride experience, in contrast, were correlated with reduced activation in the IFG and the anterior insula. These results provide preliminary evidence towards understanding the neural correlates of important interpersonal dimensions of compassion and pride. Caring (compassion) and self-focus (pride) may represent core appraisals that differentiate the response profiles of many emotions.

Godzik, Jakub; Castle, Elizabeth; Antonenko, Olga; Ponz, Aurelie; Kogan, Aleksander; Keltner, Dacher J.

2012-01-01

91

An fMRI study of caring vs self-focus during induced compassion and pride.  

PubMed

This study examined neural activation during the experience of compassion, an emotion that orients people toward vulnerable others and prompts caregiving, and pride, a self-focused emotion that signals individual strength and heightened status. Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired as participants viewed 55 s continuous sequences of slides to induce either compassion or pride, presented in alternation with sequences of neutral slides. Emotion self-report data were collected after each slide condition within the fMRI scanner. Compassion induction was associated with activation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region that is activated during pain and the perception of others' pain, and that has been implicated in parental nurturance behaviors. Pride induction engaged the posterior medial cortex, a region that has been associated with self-referent processing. Self-reports of compassion experience were correlated with increased activation in a region near the PAG, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Self-reports of pride experience, in contrast, were correlated with reduced activation in the IFG and the anterior insula. These results provide preliminary evidence towards understanding the neural correlates of important interpersonal dimensions of compassion and pride. Caring (compassion) and self-focus (pride) may represent core appraisals that differentiate the response profiles of many emotions. PMID:21896494

Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Godzik, Jakub; Castle, Elizabeth; Antonenko, Olga; Ponz, Aurelie; Kogan, Aleksander; Keltner, Dacher J

2011-09-06

92

The cricket compass for context-aware mobile applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to determine the orientation of a device is of fundamental importance in context aware and location-dependent mobile computing. By analogy to a traditional compass, knowledge of orientation through the Cricket compass attached to a mobile device enhances various applications, including efficient way-finding and navigation, directional service discovery, and “augmented-reality” displays. Our compass infrastructure enhances the spatial inference capability

Nissanka B. Priyantha; Allen K. L. Miu; Hari Balakrishnan; Seth J. Teller

2001-01-01

93

Evaluation of Long-Distance Orientation in Birds on the Basis of Migration Routes Recorded by Radar and Satellite Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted flight trajectories differ depending on which orientation cues are used by migrating birds. If birds orient by time-independent celestial rotation cues they are expected to travel along geographic loxodromes, if they rely on magnetic orientation they will follow magnetic loxodromes and if they use the sun compass they will follow curved trajectories approaching great circle routes (orthodromes) at high

Thomas Alerstam

2001-01-01

94

Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion.  

PubMed

Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? Westerners tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another's suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). After laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. After exposure to others' suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. After neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23914766

Condon, Paul; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

2013-08-05

95

Finding Your Way with Map and Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of navigating with a topographic map and compass. Topics include the features and symbols used on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) maps, the use of scale to represent distance, and how to determine direction with a magnetic compass. There is also information on the scales and areas represented on various USGS maps and on how to compensate for magnetic declination.

96

Can compassion be taught?  

PubMed Central

Socrates (in the Meno) denied that virtues like courage could be taught, whereas Protagoras defended this claim. Compassion is discussed below in this context; it is distinguished from related, but different, moral qualities, and the role of imagination is emphasised. 'Sympathy's and role-modelling views of compassion's acquisition are criticised. Compassion can indeed be taught, but neither by the example of a few, isolated physicians nor by creation of Departments of Compassion. In replying to one standard objection to teaching compassion, it is emphasised that scientific competence and compassion aren't mutually exclusive.

Pence, G E

1983-01-01

97

Development of sunset orientation in a migratory bird: no calibration by the magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of orientation mechanisms in migratory birds involves a complex of programmed learning rules and calibrations between the several compasses used during migration. Visual information at sunset, especially the pattern of polarized skylight, provides a primary source of orientation information for night-migrating species. To examine the development of visual orientation mechanisms at sunset, hand-raised Savannah sparrows,Passerculus sandwichensiswere given controlled

KENNETH P. ABLE; MARY A. ABLE

1997-01-01

98

Do leaf-cutter ants orient their path-integrated, home vector with a magnetic compass?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf-cutter ants Atta colombica forage over 250 m in structurally-complex, Neotropical rainforests that occlude sun or polarized light cues. Night foraging makes the use of celestial cues and landmarks all the more difficult. Typically leaf-cutter ants follow architecturally-modified, pheromonally-m...

99

Measuring Compassion Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript provides practitioners a gateway into understanding assessment instruments for compassion fatigue. We first\\u000a describe and then evaluate the leading assessments of compassion fatigue in terms of their reliability and their validity.\\u000a Although different instruments have different foci, each described instrument measures at least one component of compassion\\u000a fatigue. The final section discusses three factors in selecting a compassion

Brian E. Bride; Melissa Radey; Charles R. Figley

2007-01-01

100

Optimal coil orientation for transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

PubMed

We study the impact of coil orientation on the motor threshold (MT) and present an optimal coil orientation for stimulation of the foot. The result can be compared to results of models that predict this orientation from electrodynamic properties of the media in the skull and from orientations of cells, respectively. We used a robotized TMS system for precise coil placement and recorded motor-evoked potentials with surface electrodes on the abductor hallucis muscle of the right foot in 8 healthy control subjects. First, we performed a hot-spot search in standard (lateral) orientation and then rotated the coil in steps of 10° or 20°. At each step we estimated the MT. For navigated stimulation and for correlation with the underlying anatomy a structural MRI scan was obtained. Optimal coil orientation was 33.1 ± 18.3° anteriorly in relation to the standard lateral orientation. In this orientation the threshold was 54 ± 18% in units of maximum stimulator output. There was a significant difference of 8.0 ± 5.9% between the MTs at optimal and at standard orientation. The optimal coil orientations were significantly correlated with the direction perpendicular to the postcentral gyrus ([Formula: see text]). Robotized TMS facilitates sufficiently precise coil positioning and orientation to study even small variations of the MT with coil orientation. The deviations from standard orientation are more closely matched by models based on field propagation in media than by models based on orientations of pyramidal cells. PMID:23593200

Richter, Lars; Neumann, Gunnar; Oung, Stephen; Schweikard, Achim; Trillenberg, Peter

2013-04-11

101

Magnetic Anisotropy and the Orientation of Retinal Rods in a Homogeneous Magnetic Field  

PubMed Central

The reported orientation of retinal rods in a homogeneous magnetic field can be explained by the magnetic anisotropy of oriented molecules in the disc membranes of the rods. The energy of a single rod as a function of orientation in the magnetic field, the time required for alingment of the rod in a viscous medium, and the fluctuations of orientation are calculated. Arguments that rhodopsin is the constituent responsible for the effect are given. The possibility of orientation due to inhomogeneity of the magnetic field is ruled out. The application of magnetic anisotropy as an experimental tool in biology is indicated.

Hong, Felix T.; Mauzerall, David; Mauro, Alexander

1971-01-01

102

Neural basis of the magnetic compass: interactions of visual, magnetic and vestibular inputs in the pigeon's brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single unit electrical activity was recorded extracellularly in the lateral and superior vestibular nuclei, the vestibulo-cerebellum and the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) under earth-strength magnetic stimulation. Units in the vestibular system responded with either inhibition or excitation to the magnetic stimuli only if the animal was moved out of the horizontal plane. No responses to the artificial

P. Semm; D. Nohr; C. Demaine; W. Wiltschko

1984-01-01

103

Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: Potential for psychological interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and

Stefan G. Hofmann; Paul Grossman; Devon E. Hinton

2011-01-01

104

Compensation of magnetic disturbances improves inertial and magnetic sensing of human body segment orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a complementary Kalman filter design to estimate orientation of human body segments by fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer signals from miniature sensors. Ferromagnetic materials or other magnetic fields near the sensor module disturb the local earth magnetic field and, therefore, the orientation estimation, which impedes many (ambulatory) applications. In the filter, the gyroscope bias error, orientation error,

Daniel Roetenberg; Henk J. Luinge; Chris T. M. Baten; Peter H. Veltink

2005-01-01

105

Video Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a flexible approach for determin- ing the relative orientation of the camera with respect to the scene. The main premise of the approach is the fact that in man-made environments, the majority of lines is aligned with the principal orthogonal directions of the world coordinate frame. We exploit this observation towards e- cient detection and

Jana Kosecká; Wei Zhang

2002-01-01

106

Magnetic Position and Orientation Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-axis generation and sensing of quasi-static magneticdipole fields provide information sufficient to determine both the position and orientation of the sensor relative to the source. Linear rotation transformations based upon the previous measurements are applied to both the source excitation and sensor output vectors, yielding quantities that are linearly propotional to small changes in the position and orientation. Changes are

Frederick Raab; Ernest Blood; Terry Steiner; Herbert Jones

1979-01-01

107

Determination of orientational order parameters from 2H NMR spectra of magnetically partially oriented lipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

The partial orientation of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) in high magnetic fields is known to affect the shape of 2H NMR spectra. There are numerical methods for extracting either the orientational order parameters of lipid molecules for a random distribution of domain orientations in the sample, or the distribution of orientations for a known set of spectral anisotropies. A first attempt at determining the orientational order parameters in the presence of an unknown nonrandom distribution of orientations is presented. The numerical method is based on the Tikhonov regularization algorithm. It is tested using simulated partially oriented spectra. An experimental spectrum of a phospholipid-ether mixture in water is analyzed as an example. The experimental spectrum is consistent with an ellipsoidal shape of MLVs with a ratio of semiaxes of approximately 3.4.

Schafer, H; Madler, B; Sternin, E

1998-01-01

108

Exact static equilibrium of vertically oriented magnetic flux tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is prescribed for generating exact solutions of magnetostatic equilibrium describing a cylindrically symmetric magnetic flux tube oriented vertically in a stratified medium. Given the geometric shape of the field lines, compact formulae are presented for the direct calculation of all the possible distributions of pressure, density, temperature and magnetic field strength compatible with these field lines under the

B. C. Low

1980-01-01

109

A New Method of Double Electric Compass for Localization in Automobile Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

On account of its sensitivity to external interferences of the magnetic field, the electric compass itself is not accurate enough to be used for localization compared with the rate gyroscope. To overcome this shortcoming, in this research, a robust electric compass was designed by using two electric compasses to efficiently cancel out the low-frequency interferences. That is, in this paper,

Xiaomeng Li; Qiuzhan Zhou; Shaofang Lu; Hao Lu

2006-01-01

110

Polar plumes' orientation and the Sun's global magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We characterize the orientation of polar plumes as a tracer of the large-scale coronal magnetic field configuration. We monitor in particular the north and south magnetic pole locations and the magnetic opening during 2007-2008 and provide some understanding of the variations in these quantities. Methods: The polar plume orientation is determined by applying the Hough-wavelet transform to a series of EUV images and extracting the key Hough space parameters of the resulting maps. The same procedure is applied to the polar cap field inclination derived from extrapolating magnetograms generated by a surface flux transport model. Results: We observe that the position where the magnetic field is radial (the Sun's magnetic poles) reflects the global organization of magnetic field on the solar surface, and we suggest that this opens the possibility of both detecting flux emergence anywhere on the solar surface (including the far side) and better constraining the reorganization of the corona after flux emergence.

de Patoul, Judith; Inhester, Bernd; Cameron, Robert

2013-10-01

111

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes.

Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA

1999-01-01

112

Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

2004-03-01

113

Magnetization reversal in an obliquely oriented metal evaporated tape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization reversal in obliquely oriented metal evaporated videotapes as a function of the tape depth was studied by vector magneto-optic Kerr effect and polarized neutron reflectivity. The magnetization vector was found to rotate coherently out-of-plane by an angle ? during the magnetization reversal for a substantial part of the hysteresis cycle. However ? differs between the surface-facing and the substrate-facing sides of the film, with the more oxidized surface layer following closely the applied field. Close to M~0 the film breaks down magnetically into a collage of small domains, reflecting the crystalline microstructure of the material.

Srinath, S.; Vavassori, P.; Rekveldt, M. Th.; Cook, R. E.; Felcher, G. P.

2004-08-01

114

Orientation by solidification in a magnetic field: A new process to texture SmCo compounds used as permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification of molten alloys in a static magnetic field is proposed as a new way of orienting polycrystalline materials. A high degree of orientation is obtained with samarium-cobalt compounds solidified in a static magnetic field. Whatever the cooling condition used from the liquid state, a magnetic field of several tesla induces crystallographic orientation in the solid. The easy magnetization

B. A. Legrand; R. Perrier de La Bathie; R. Tournier; D. Chateigner

1997-01-01

115

Orientation by solidification in a magnetic field A new process to texture SmCo compounds used as permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification of molten alloys in a static magnetic field is proposed as a new way of orienting polycrystalline materials. A high degree of orientation is obtained with samarium-cobalt compounds solidified in a static magnetic field. Whatever the cooling condition used from the liquid state, a magnetic field of several tesla induces crystallographic orientation in the solid. The easy magnetization

B. A. Legrand; D. Chateigner; R. Perrier de la Bathie; R. Tournier

1997-01-01

116

Experimental evidence for a magnetic sense in Neotropical migrating butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether migrating Aphrissa statira butterflies orient with a magnetic compass. We captured mi- grants flying over Lake Gatun, Panama, and exposed experimental butterflies to a strong magnetic field. These and unmanipulated control butterflies were released back over the lake. Experimental butterflies had a more dispersed pattern of orientation than control butterflies. The average direction adopted was northeast, 160

Robert B. Srygley; Robert Dudley; Evandro G. Oliveira; Andre J. Riveros

2006-01-01

117

COMPASS-II: COMPASS Future Programs  

SciTech Connect

The COMPASS (COmmon Muon and Proton apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) experiment started more than 10 years ago and has published many results concerning nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy. We propose additional measurements for a new fascinating QCD-related studies of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy with small modifications of the present apparatus, that includes either an unpolarized or polarized target.

Doshita, Norihiro [Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Kojirakawa-machi 1-4-12, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

2011-12-14

118

Defect induced magnetism in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: bulk magnetization and 19F hyperfine interaction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made bulk and local investigations on defect induced magnetism in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) irradiated with a 40 MeV carbon beam. The local magnetic response of irradiated HOPG was studied by measuring the hyperfine field of recoil implanted 19F using ?-ray time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) measurements. While the bulk magnetic properties of the irradiated sample

S K Mohanta; S N Mishra; S M Davane; S K Srivastava

2012-01-01

119

Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata  

PubMed Central

Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range disturb radical pair mechanisms but do not affect magnetic particles. Thus, application of such oscillating fields in behavioral experiments can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide between the two alternatives. Methods In a setup that eliminates all directional cues except the geomagnetic field zebra finches were trained to search for food in the magnetic north/south axis. The birds were then tested for orientation performance in two magnetic conditions. In condition 1 the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field was shifted by 90 degrees using a helmholtz coil. In condition 2 a high frequently oscillating field (1.156 MHz) was applied in addition to the shifted field. Another group of birds was trained to solve the orientation task, but with visual landmarks as directional cue. The birds were then tested for their orientation performance in the same magnetic conditions as applied for the first experiment. Results The zebra finches could be trained successfully to orient in the geomagnetic field for food search in the north/south axis. They were also well oriented in test condition 1, with the magnetic field shifted horizontally by 90 degrees. In contrast, when the oscillating field was added, the directional choices during food search were randomly distributed. Birds that were trained to visually guided orientation showed no difference of orientation performance in the two magnetic conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that zebra finches use a receptor that bases on radical pair processes for sensing the direction of the earth magnetic field in this short distance orientation behavior.

Keary, Nina; Ruploh, Tim; Voss, Joe; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

120

True North, Magnetic North  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand why compass angles need to be corrected for regional magnetic variation. The magnetic compass, perfected slowly over years of experimentation, trial, and scientific endeavor, became the sailor's most common and most reliable direction-indicating aid, but is influenced by magnetic variabilities and the location of magnetic north. Terms introduced include compass, magnetic variation, true north, and magnetic north.

121

Unambiguous position and orientation tracking using a rotating magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement system for magnetic position and orientation tracking. It uses a rotating magnet as transmitter and a three-axis magnetic field sensor to measure the magnetic field ellipse produced by the magnet. A theory is given for the calculation of the magnet's position and orientation from the ellipse's semi-axis components. Detection range and accuracy of the tracking method and their dependence on magnetic moment, noise levels of the environment, and the sensor type are shown. Using a fluxgate sensor, which is the best choice for a typical urban environment, a NdFeB magnet with a volume of about 180 cm3 can be detected with 1% error up to 17 m distance. With the use of two moderately distant identical sensors and an adequate evaluation of the tracking components' evolution, the right one out of four possible solutions as delivered by the tracking algorithm can be reliably chosen, independent of the tracking course. This way, a unique solution of the three-dimensional inverse problem can be achieved.

Schultze, Volkmar; Andrä, Wilfried; Peiselt, Katja; Gleichmann, Nils; Meyer, Hans-Georg

2013-09-01

122

Magnetic orientation and magnetic anisotropy in paramagnetic layered oxides containing rare-earth ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic anisotropies and easy axes of magnetization at room temperature were determined, and the effects of rare-earth (RE) ions were clarified for RE-based cuprates, RE-doped bismuth-based cuprates and RE-doped Bi-based cobaltite regarding the grain orientation by magnetic field. The easy axis, determined from the powder orientation in a static field of 10 T, depended qualitatively on the type of RE ion for all three systems. On the other hand, the magnetization measurement of the c-axis oriented powders, aligned in static or rotating fields, revealed that the type of RE ion strongly affected not only the directions of the easy axis but also the absolute value of magnetic anisotropy, and an appropriate choice of RE ion is required to minimize the magnetic field used for grain orientation. We also studied the possibility of triaxial grain orientation in high-critical-temperature superconductors by a modulated oval magnetic field. In particular, triaxial orientation was attempted in a high-oxygen-pressure phase of orthorhombic RE-based cuprates Y2Ba4Cu7Oy. Although the experiment was performed in epoxy resin, which is not practical, in-plane alignment within 3° was achieved.

Horii, Shigeru; Ishihara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Takayuki; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Ogino, Hiraku; Suzuki, Tohru S.; Sakka, Yoshio; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

2009-01-01

123

Magnetic dipole moment of 127Sb and 129Sb by nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of low temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) experiments has been initiated to measure accurately ground-state magnetic dipole moments of a sequence of odd-proton antimony isotopes up to the neutron shell closure at N=82 using the sensitive technique of nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei (NMR\\/ON). The main aim of this investigation is to clarify the single-particle+collective core coupling mechanism

M. Lindroos; M. Booth; D. Doran; Y. Koh; I. Oliveira; J. Rikovska; P. Richards; N. J. Stone; M. Veskovic; D. Zákoucký; B. Fogelberg

1996-01-01

124

Compensation of magnetic disturbances improves inertial and magnetic sensing of human body segment orientation.  

PubMed

This paper describes a complementary Kalman filter design to estimate orientation of human body segments by fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer signals from miniature sensors. Ferromagnetic materials or other magnetic fields near the sensor module disturb the local earth magnetic field and, therefore, the orientation estimation, which impedes many (ambulatory) applications. In the filter, the gyroscope bias error, orientation error, and magnetic disturbance error are estimated. The filter was tested under quasi-static and dynamic conditions with ferromagnetic materials close to the sensor module. The quasi-static experiments implied static positions and rotations around the three axes. In the dynamic experiments, three-dimensional rotations were performed near a metal tool case. The orientation estimated by the filter was compared with the orientation obtained with an optical reference system Vicon. Results show accurate and drift-free orientation estimates. The compensation results in a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the orientation estimates with compensation of magnetic disturbances in comparison to no compensation or only gyroscopes. The average static error was 1.4 degrees (standard deviation 0.4) in the magnetically disturbed experiments. The dynamic error was 2.6 degrees root means square. PMID:16200762

Roetenberg, Daniel; Luinge, Henk J; Baten, Chris T M; Veltink, Peter H

2005-09-01

125

Detecting the orientation of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of galaxies, filled with hot magnetized plasma, are the largest bound objects in existence and an important touchstone in understanding the formation of structures in our Universe. In such clusters, thermal conduction follows field lines, so magnetic fields strongly shape the cluster's thermal history; that some have not since cooled and collapsed is a mystery. In a seemingly unrelated puzzle, recent observations of Virgo cluster spiral galaxies imply ridges of strong, coherent magnetic fields offset from their centre. Here we demonstrate, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations, that such ridges are easily explained by galaxies sweeping up field lines as they orbit inside the cluster. This magnetic drape is then lit up with cosmic rays from the galaxies' stars, generating coherent polarized emission at the galaxies' leading edges. This immediately presents a technique for probing local orientations and characteristic length scales of cluster magnetic fields. The first application of this technique, mapping the field of the Virgo cluster, gives a startling result: outside a central region, the magnetic field is preferentially oriented radially as predicted by the magnetothermal instability. Our results strongly suggest a mechanism for maintaining some clusters in a `non-cooling-core' state.

Pfrommer, Christoph; Jonathan Dursi, L.

2010-07-01

126

Preferred orientation of Si 3N 4 ceramics by slip casting in a high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferred orientation of Si3N4 ceramics by slip casting in a high magnetic field was obtained. Although the magnetic susceptibility of non-magnetic Si3N4 ceramics is very small, it is possible to control the crystal orientation of Si3N4 using a high magnetic field. The orientation of Si3N4 ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction and the orientation degree was calculated. The results indicated

Shuqin Li; Kensuke Sassa; Shigeo Asai

2006-01-01

127

Orientation of samarium–cobalt compounds by solidification in a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification from the liquid state in a magnetic field produces oriented polycrystalline materials. A high degree of orientation is obtained with Sm–Co compounds solidified in several Tesla. The samples are crystallographically oriented with their easy-magnetization axes lying along the direction of the magnetic field applied during solidification. The process can be applied to the production of bulk anisotropic permanent

B. A. Legrand; D. Chateigner; R. Perrier de la Bathie; R. Tournier

1998-01-01

128

Three-dimensional odor compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional odor compass is proposed to develop a navigation tool used in searching for an odor source. The compass, which continuously points to the source, is equipped with four semiconductor gas sensors and a small fan to draw air to the sensors. The direction of the source is obtained by rotating the compass head to obtain the direction where

Hiroshi Ishida; Akito Kobayashi; Takamichi Nakamoto; Toyosaka Moriizumi

1999-01-01

129

Charter for Compassion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for the Charter for Compassion came from Karen Armstrong, who is a former Roman Catholic nun who left a British convent to pursue a degree in modern literature at Oxford. In 2008 she won the TED Prize, and as part of this prize she wished for help starting the Charter for Compassion. Essentially, the Charter is "a cooperative effort to restore not only compassionate thinking but, more importantly, compassionate action to the center of religious, moral and political life." Visitors to the site can read the Charter, and then add their name to the list of those who have affirmed its principles. On the site, visitors can also read reflections from people who have signed the Charter and also learn more about "Acts of Compassion" performed by various people around the world.

130

Pigeon orientation: effects of the application of magnets under overcast skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To verify the existence of a magnetic compass in birds, researchers have often released homing pigeons under overcast skies that are equipped with bar magnets on various parts of their body. In particular, Keeton was successful in finding disorientation in overcast conditions in a first series of tests, but not in a second series. The experiments reported here attempt to explain this contradiction on the basis of findings obtained by releasing pigeons equipped in a way similar to that reported in Keeton's tests and pigeons equipped in a way similar to that reported by other authors.

Ioalè, P.

131

Compassion for keeps.  

PubMed

A three-year programme in Scotland to encourage compassion in every aspect of nursing care drew to a close this summer. However, senior nurses are still involved in the Leadership in Compassionate Care programme, and are determined that its influence will continue to spread across the country. PMID:23252051

Trueland, Jennifer

132

The British Museum COMPASS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help visitors find treasures in its vast holdings, the British Museum presents COMPASS, which is based on a database of around 5000 objects selected from the Museum's collections. Simple keyword searches work well in COMPASS, and searches can be limited to a particular index. Who? searches for a particular person, What? searches for particular objects, How? for processes and materials, and Where/When? for geography and date. COMPASS automatically adds the word and between words, just like Google. Object pages include detailed information, written for the average museum go-er, with links into an online glossary, although we were unable to discover why a search on sextant returned astrolabes (consulting another dictionary revealed that the astrolabe was an nautical instrument used prior to the sextant). There are also guided tours, on a huge list of subjects from 100 Views of Mount Fuji to the Wetwang Chariot Burial, with Chinese Jade, several Egypt tours, and over 45 Highlights of the British Museum in between. Another great way to approach COMPASS is to try the Galleries search (found on the search page) where selecting any one of about 35 gallery names displays all the objects in that room.

133

Compassion: Practical Classroom Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compassion is a deep feeling of sharing the suffering of another. It is a mixture of words, thoughts, and actions that allow a child to be sympathetic to the needs of others. Young children today witness many conflicting values. Values promoted in the media and popular culture often glorify disrespect and unkindness, with beauty and possessions…

Wong, Lily; Duffy, Roslyn Ann

2010-01-01

134

Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Olmec Primacy?: Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo, Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Considering the unique morphology (purposefully shaped polished bar with a groove) and composition (magnetic mineral with magnetic moment vector in the floating plane) of M-160, and acknowledging that the Olmec were a sophisticated people who possessed advanced knowledge and skill in working iron ore minerals, I would suggest for consideration that the Early Formative artifact M-160 was probably manufactured and used as what I have called a zeroth-order compass, if not a first-order compass. The data I have presented in this article support this hypothesis, although they are not sufficient to prove it. That M-160 could be used today as a geomagnetically directed pointer is undeniable. The original whole bar may indeed have pointed close to magnetic north-south. The groove functions well as a sighting mark, and the slight angle it makes with the axis of the bar appears to be the result of calibration rather than accident. A negative supporting argument is that M-160 looks utilitarian rather than decorative, and no function for the object other than that of a compass pointer has been suggested by anyone who has examined it critically. Whether such a pointer would have been used to point to something astronomical (zeroth-order compass) or to geomagnetic north-south (first-order compass) is entirely open to speculation. The observation of the family of Olmec site alignments 8 degrees west of north is a curiosity in its own right, and the possibility that these alignments have an astronomical or geomagnetic origin should be explored. I also believe that it is constructive to compare the first millennium Chinese, who used the lodestone compass for geomancy, with the Gulf Coast Olmec since both were agrarian-terrestrial societies. The Olmec's apparent concern with orientation and skillful use of magnetic minerals also stimulates one to draw cross-cultural parallels. The evidence and analysis offered in this article provide a basis for hypotheses of parallel cultural developments in China and the Olmec New World. If the Olmec did discover the geomagnetic orienting properties of lodestone, as did the Han Chinese, it is most reasonable to speculate that they would have used their compass for comparable geomantic purposes. It should, however, be recognized that the Olmec claim, if documented, predates the Chinese discovery of the geomagnetic lodestone compass by more than a millennium. At present, M-160 is a unique artifact and San Lorenzo a unique site: "The first civilized center of Mesoamerica and probably of the New World" (19, p. 89). Further documentation of the Olmec claim must await the discovery of similar artifacts in museums, private collections, or as yet undiscovered Olmec sites. I would welcome communications from anyone possessing information relating to such artifacts. Regardless of shape, purposefully grooved and highly polished specimens of magnetic minerals are of particular interest. It would also be useful for the archeologist excavating Olmec burials and offerings to carefully note their alignments and consider them in a geomantic context. In addition to the discovery of supporting artifacts, establishment of Olmec primacy of the lodestone compass depends on the acquisition of the archeomagnetic data for the Early Formative period. I appeal to archeologists who find good archeomagnetic samples (burned hearths and post-holes) from the Formative periods to convey this information to R. DuBois of the University of Oklahoma. In a few years, the archeomagnetic data should be available for the last three millennia and the possibilities are very exciting. PMID:17777565

Carlson, J B

1975-09-01

135

Magnetic and elastic properties of CoFe2O4- polydimethylsiloxane magnetically oriented elastomer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic elastic structured composites were prepared by using CoFe2O4 ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrixes, which were cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Cobalt-iron oxide nanoparticles of three different average sizes (between 2 and 12 nm) were synthesized and characterized. The smallest nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior, with a blocking temperature of approximately 75 K, while larger particles are already blocked at room temperature. Macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-CoFe2O4 composites were obtained when curing the dispersion of the nanoparticles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field (0.3 T). The formation of the particle's chains (needles) orientated in the direction of the magnetic field was observed only when loading with the larger magnetically blocked nanoparticles. The SEM images show that the needles are formed by groups of nanoparticles which retain their original average size. The Young's moduli of the structured composites are four times larger when measured along the oriented needles than in the perpendicular direction. Magnetization (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance curves of the structured composites were determined as a function of the relative orientation between the needles and the probe field. The remanence magnetization was 30% higher when measured parallel to the needles, while the coercive field remains isotropic. These observations are discussed in terms of the individual nanoparticle's properties and its aggregation in the composites.

Soledad Antonel, P.; Jorge, Guillermo; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Gabriela Leyva, A.; Martín Negri, R.

2011-08-01

136

Observation of the orientation of membrane protein crystals grown in high magnetic force fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization of membrane proteins in magnetic fields is thought to reveal the magnetic orientations of crystals, and is expected to enhance crystal quality for X-ray crystallographic analysis. The light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from a photosynthetic bacterium, Thermochromatium tepidum was crystallized in steep-gradient magnetic fields. The rod-shaped crystals of LH2 grown in the magnetic fields were oriented parallel to the magnetic field direction. An X-ray diffraction experiment indicated that the overall R value and crystal mosaicity are improved for the magnetically oriented crystal, and the helix bundles of LH2 were located parallel to the magnetic field direction in the crystal packing.

Numoto, Nobutaka; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Miki, Kunio; Kita, Akiko

2013-03-01

137

Diamagnetic Orientation of Bull Sperms and Related Materials in Static Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic orientation is a clear magnetic field effect on biological systems. Since most of the biological molecules are composed of diamagnetic elements such as proteins and lipids, they are oriented by the magnetic field as a result of a net diamagnetic anisotropy of the molecule. A considerable magnetic orientation is found in bull sperms, their head parts and paramecium cilia and the order parameter of these materials are evaluated both by the light transmission and the microscopic observation. They are analyzed by the theory of the magnetic orientation with a diamagnetic anisotropy model.

Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Nakaoka, Yasuo; Emura, Runa; Higashi, Terumasa

2002-01-01

138

Magnetic Flux Circulation During Dawn-Dusk Oriented Interplanetary Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic flux circulation is a primary mode of energy transfer from the solar wind into the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. For southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), magnetic flux circulation is described by the Dungey cycle (dayside merging, night side reconnection, and magnetospheric convection), and both the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere receive energy. For dawn-dusk oriented IMF, magnetic flux circulation is not well understood, and the inner magnetosphere does not receive energy. Several models have been suggested for possible reconnection patterns; the general pattern is: dayside merging; reconnection on the dayside or along the dawn/dusk regions; and, return flow on dayside only. These models are consistent with the lack of energy in the inner magnetosphere. We will present evidence that the Dungey cycle does not explain the energy transfer during dawn-dusk oriented IMF. We will also present evidence of how magnetic flux does circulate during dawn-dusk oriented IMF, specifically how the magnetic flux reconnects and circulates back.

Mitchell, E. J.; Lopez, R. E.; Fok, M. H.; Deng, Y.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.

2010-12-01

139

Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits

Nina Keary; Tim Ruploh; Joe Voss; Peter Thalau; Roswitha Wiltschko; Wolfgang Wiltschko; Hans-Joachim Bischof

2009-01-01

140

Pico Cricket Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners can program a compass to draw a circle by itself using a Pico Cricket, some Legos, and lots of tape! Pico Cricket is required. This activity teaches learners how to program a micro controller (mini computer), how to use gears and motors, and includes a video of the final product in action. This activity could made into a one-hour workshop if more programing was involved to draw a half circle or a quarter of a circle.

Minnesota, Science M.

2011-10-31

141

Autocalibration of an electronic compass in an outdoor augmented reality system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate registration in an augmented reality system requires accurate trackers. An electronic compass can be a valuable sensor in an outdoor augmented reality system because it provides absolute heading estimates. However, compasses are vulnerable to distortion caused by environmental disturbances to Earth's magnetic field. These disturbances vary with geographic location and are not trivial to model. Static calibration methods exist

Bruce Hoff; Ronald Azuma

2000-01-01

142

The Role of Self-compassion in Women's Self-determined Motives to Exercise and Exercise-related Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-compassion is emerging in the literature as a healthy conceptualization of the self (Neff, 2003a). This study explored how self-compassion is related to, and explains unique variance beyond self-esteem on, women's motives to exercise and exercise-related outcomes. Participants were 252 women exercisers. Self-compassion was positively related to intrinsic motivation and negatively related to external and introjected motivation, ego goal orientation,

Cathy M. R. Magnus; Kent C. Kowalski; Tara-Leigh F. McHugh

2010-01-01

143

In search of the sky compass in the insect brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many vertebrate species, insects rely on a sun compass for spatial orientation and long- range navigation. In addition to the sun, however, insects can also use the polarization pattern of the sky as a reference for estimating navigational directions. Recent analysis of polarization vision pathways in the brain of orthopteroid insects sheds some light onto brain areas that might

Uwe Homberg

2004-01-01

144

Orientation experiments with displaced juvenile barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica ) during autumn migratory season  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we reported that juvenile barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) trapped during the autumn migratory season and tested in modified Emlen funnels under overcast conditions can use magnetic\\u000a information for compass orientation, although they did not orient toward the expected migratory direction. To further investigate\\u000a this behaviour, in the present paper, we report the results of two series

Dimitri Giunchi; N. Emilio Baldaccini

2006-01-01

145

Mag Lab U: Interactive Tutorials - Oersted's Compass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial simulates the simple, yet groundbreaking, 1820 experiment that paved the way for understanding the relationship between electricity and magnetism. It is a virtual version of Hans Christian Oersted's voltaic pile battery outfitted with a live electrical wire. Students can turn the current on/off and also flip the battery. Watch what happens to the nearby compass to see why this experiment rocked the scientific world of the early 1800's. Mag Lab U is part of a large collection of web-based educational materials for K-20, developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

2011-01-23

146

Daytime TV's day of compassion for AIDS.  

PubMed

Daytime television's national Day of Compassion programming, a Hollywood Supports-sponsored event where entire shows and storylines were devoted to HIV/AIDS topics, is highlighted. Programming successes are examined, including cable TV's contribution to the event and the general public's approval. Richard Jennings of Hollywood Supports, the entertainment industry group that works to counter workplace fears and discrimination based on HIV status and sexual orientation, states that he and his group are aiming at prime time next year. This mission is particularly important now given the tenor of hateful distortion about people with AIDS from the religious right and the current mood of Congress towards AIDS-related funding. PMID:11362727

McFarlane, R

1995-07-01

147

MAGNETIC ORIENTATION OF MIGRATORY WHEATEARS (OENANTHE OENANTHE) IN SWEDEN AND GREENLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Orientation experiments were performed with wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) subjected to artificially manipulated magnetic fields, in Sweden and Western Greenland, during the autumn migration period. The objective was to compare responses by birds exposed to widely different geomagnetic conditions and, specifically, to clarify if birds are able to use magnetic cues for orientation at high geomagnetic latitudes, as in Western

ROLAND SANDBERG; ULF OTTOSSON; JAN PETTERSSON

1991-01-01

148

Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-02-01

149

78 FR 35073 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application June...LLC (the ``Adviser'') and Compass EMP Funds Trust (``the Trust''). Filing...1\\ Those 23 series are Compass EMP U.S. 500 Volatility Weighted Fund,...

2013-06-11

150

Effects of light on the orientation of the snail Physa pomillia in a weak magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The orientation of fresh-water snails (Physa pomillia) in a symmetrical magnetic field was studied from February to March and from September to October, 1965, during the hours 8:30 to 17:30.2.The orientation of the snails was studied in an augmented magnetic field, 9 times that of the earth's field at Gainesville, Florida, with a bar magnet aligned parallel and at right

David G. Badman

1966-01-01

151

Conformation of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol bound to a magnetically oriented membrane system.  

PubMed Central

The conformation of uniformly 13C-labeled sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) is studied in both membrane and solution environments using NMR spectroscopy. Analysis in a membrane-like environment is based on the measurement of dipolar interactions between 13C-13C and 1H-13C spin pairs and on the measurement of 13C chemical shift anisotropy offsets, which appear in magnetically oriented phospholipid-based membrane fragments. Potential energy maps for glycosidic torsions, phi, psi and theta 1, are calculated with a membrane interaction energy and are used in the interpretation of experimental data. The membrane-bound description for SQDG is most consistent with a set of low-energy conformations that extends the headgroup of SQDG away from the membrane surface. Analysis of the conformation of SQDG in CD3OD solution is based on measured 3JCH scalar couplings. The description of the solution conformation is modeled as a mixture of low-energy conformers predicted in the absence of a membrane interaction term and involves more extensive motional averaging than the model for SQDG embedded in the lipid matrix. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6

Howard, K P; Prestegard, J H

1996-01-01

152

Magnetic Marker Monitoring Using a Permanent Magnetic Sphere Oriented by a Rotating Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic marker monitoring (MMM) is a diagnostic technique known since about 1990 and mainly applied for motility assessment in the digestive tract. A particularly favorable MMM method uses a rotating marker, which can be aligned along an externally applied magnetic field HP. This novel method of rotating magnetic marker monitoring (RMMM) provides the starting point for the construction of small

W. Andrä; M. E. Bellemann; M. Brand; J. Haueisen; H. Lausch; P. Saupe; C. Werner

153

Control of the orientation of human erythrocytes by magnetic and electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation of human red blood cells (RBCs) was controlled by the application of magnetic and electric fields. Because of their anisotropic diamagnetism, RBCs orient parallel to strong magnetic fields. The electric orientation of erythrocytes is also caused by electric dipoles induced by an electric field. The RBCs orientation is parallel to both the electric and magnetic fields. A 4-5 kV/m alternating current (ac) electric field (10-200 kHz, sine wave) was applied to RBCs suspended in a phosphate buffer solution using a pair of platinum black electrodes spaced 200-250 ?m apart. An 8 T magnetic field was applied to the RBCs perpendicular to the direction of the electric field. It was observed that all RBCs were oriented in the same direction and parallel to the electric and magnetic fields. By the application of a horizontal 8 T magnetic field and a 4 kV/m ac electric field positioned perpendicular to one another, the RBCs oriented horizontally and their sedimentation rate was decreased by 18%. The flowing rate of the 10% RBCs suspension was decreased by 7.6% with the application of an 8 T magnetic field and a 4 kV/m ac electric field perpendicular to the direction of the suspension flow. It was observed that flowing RBCs were oriented perpendicular to the direction of the flow by the application of the fields, when the velocity of the suspension of RBCs was less than 300 ?m/s.

Suda, T.; Ueno, S.

1999-04-01

154

Are orientation mechanisms among migratory birds speciesospecific?  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which migratory birds find their way from breeding grounds to winter quarters and back have been the subject of intensive research during the past four decades. Birds are equipped with genetic information about the migratory direction, and they can use the earth's magnetic field, star patterns and the sun and/or skylight polarization patterns as compass references. Studies on a number of North American and European species have suggested possible species-specific differences in the relative role of the compass mechanisms. This may be largely the result of divergent experimental designs, which make results difficult to compare. Comparative studies with identical methods are needed to see how much species-specific variation exists in basic orientation mechanisms. PMID:21232394

Helbig, A J

1990-11-01

155

Rallying the Armies of Compassion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Government has a solemn responsibility to help meet the needs of poor Americans and distressed neighborhoods, but it does not have a monopoly on compassion. America is richly blessed by the diversity and vigor of neighborhood healers: civic, social, chari...

2001-01-01

156

Relative orientation of the magnetic moments in modulated multiferroic CaMn7O12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modulated magnetic ordering in the multiferroic manganite CaMn7O12 has been studied by using the neutron powder diffraction technique. The relative orientation of the magnetic moments of Mn4+ and Mn3+ ions located in Mn3 sublattice at (0,0,1/2) and Mn2 sublattice at (1/2,0,1/2) is shown to be antiparallel, i.e. their relative orientation angle ?=?. This result differs from that given by other authors who propose another relative orientation with a value of ?=0.84(4)?. The relative orientation angle is an important parameter used in model studies based on effective hamiltonians.

Przenios?o, Rados?aw; Wardecki, Dariusz; S?awi?ski, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Izabela; Keller, Lukas

2013-11-01

157

The Social Psychology of Compassion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article places social work clinicians’ compassion fatigue, burnout, and other negative consequences in a broader context\\u000a of positive social work. We argue for a paradigm shift towards identifying the factors that lead clinical social workers toward\\u000a human flourishing in their field. We introduce a model for creating “compassion satisfaction” or feelings of fulfillment with\\u000a clients, rooted in positive psychology

Melissa Radey; Charles R. Figley

2007-01-01

158

A compass for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enlargement of complexity and effects of environmental problems has increased the need for a ‘compass’ to point us in the direction of sustainability. The four principles—System Conditions—which we have earlier described, along with a step-by-step approach to meet them, is such a compass. The System Conditions are first order principles for Sustainability:• they do not cover the whole area

Karl-Hennk Robèrt; Herman Daly; Paul Hawken; John Holmberg

1997-01-01

159

Orientation dependence of the critical magnetic field for multiferroic BiFeO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic BiFeO3 undergoes a transition from a distorted spiral phase to a G-type antiferromagnet above a critical field Hc that depends on the field orientation m. We show that Hc(m) has a maximum when oriented along a cubic diagonal parallel to the electric polarization P and a minimum in the equatorial plane normal to P when two magnetic domains with the highest critical fields are degenerate. The orientational dependence of Hc(m) is more complex than indicated by earlier work, which did not consider the competition between magnetic domains. Some recent measurements might be explained by a mixture of magnetic domains.

Fishman, Randy S.

2013-09-01

160

Ordering and Phase Transition of the Potts Compass Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Mott insulating phase of the transition metal oxides, the effective orbital-orbital interaction is directional both in the orbital space and in the real space. A model with directional dependent coupling is the Compass Model, given by H=sum_i(S_i^xS_i+x^x+S_i^yS_i+y^y), where S is the iso-spin operator. Due to the entropy gap, four orientations S are favoured. By restricting to these orientations, the Compass Model is approximated by a Potts version, H=sum_i(?_i?_i+x+?_i?_i+y) where, ?_i=±1, ?_i=0 or, ?_i=±1, ?_i=0,. In the thermodynamics limit, the Potts Compass Model (PCM) is mapped exactly into the 2D Ising model (2DIM). Using this mapping, we show rigorously that there is no conventional orbital order at finite T, but there is LRO in orbital fluctuations. Tc is solved exactly to be 0.42J. For finite size, the PCM differs from the 2DIM. We study the finite-size crossover using numerical simulations and real space RG calculations of the PCM. Numerical simulations on the original Compass Model shows that it has a lower Tc due to slow fluctuations absent in the PCM.

Mishra, Anup; Ma, Michael; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Tang, Lei-Han; Guertler, Siegfried

2004-03-01

161

Small angle x-ray scattering studies of magnetically oriented lipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

Magnetically oriented lipid/detergent bilayers are potentially useful for studies of membrane-associated molecules and complexes using x-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). To establish whether the system is a reasonable model of a phospholipid bilayer, we have studied the system using x-ray solution scattering to determine the bilayer thickness, interparticle spacing, and orientational parameters for magnetically oriented lipid bilayers. The magnetically orientable samples contain the phospholipid L-alpha-dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and the bile salt analog 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO) in a 3:1 molar ratio in 70% water (w/v) and are similar to magnetically orientable samples used as NMR media for structural studies of membrane-associated molecules. A bilayer thickness of 30 A was determined for the DLPC/CHAPSO particles, which is the same as the bilayer thickness of pure DLPC vesicles, suggesting that the CHAPSO is not greatly perturbing the lipid bilayer. These data, as well as NMR data on molecules incorporated in the oriented lipid particles, are consistent with the sample consisting of reasonably homogeneous and well dispersed lipid particles. Finally, the orientational energy of the sample suggests that the size of the cooperatively orienting unit in the samples is 2 x 10(7) phospholipid molecules. Images FIGURE 1

Hare, B J; Prestegard, J H; Engelman, D M

1995-01-01

162

Magnet Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the relationship between electric charges and magnetic fields. Learners create a magnetic field using electricity and observe its effect on the magnetic needle of a compass.

Kansas, University O.

2006-01-01

163

Orientation by solidification in a magnetic field: A new process to texture SmCo compounds used as permanent magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification of molten alloys in a static magnetic field is proposed as a new way of orienting polycrystalline materials. A high degree of orientation is obtained with samarium-cobalt compounds solidified in a static magnetic field. Whatever the cooling condition used from the liquid state, a magnetic field of several tesla induces crystallographic orientation in the solid. The easy magnetization axis of the polycrystal lies along the direction of the field applied during solidification. This texturing process is applied to the elaboration of Sm2Co17 permanent magnets. Anisotropic bulk magnets with a coercive field up to 2250 kA/m and energy product above 160 kJ/m3 are obtained. This process provides an alternative to the currently used industrial technology which is based on powder metallurgy. The paramagnetic susceptibility of the substituted Sm2Co17 compounds is measured at high temperatures from which the susceptibility anisotropy at solidification temperature is determined. The orientation of the sample, solidified in a cold induction crucible, is analysed as a function of the applied magnetic field. Assuming a model in which particles are free to orient before complete solidification takes place, a critical size of these particles is deduced.

Legrand, B. A.; Perrier de La Bathie, R.; Tournier, R.; Chateigner, D.

1997-02-01

164

Sensitive chemical compass assisted by quantum criticality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radical-pair-based chemical reaction might be used by birds for navigation via the geomagnetic direction. The inherent physical mechanism is that the quantum coherent transition from a singlet state to triplet states of the radical pair could respond to a weak magnetic field and be sensitive to the direction of such a field; this then results in different photopigments to be sensed by the avian eyes. Here, we propose a quantum bionic setup, inspired by the avian compass, as an ultrasensitive probe of a weak magnetic field based on the quantum phase transition of the environments of the two electrons in the radical pair. We prove that the yield of the chemical products via recombination from the singlet state is determined by the Loschmidt echo of the environments with interacting nuclear spins. Thus quantum criticality of environments could enhance the sensitivity of detection of weak magnetic fields.

Cai, C. Y.; Ai, Qing; Quan, H. T.; Sun, C. P.

2012-02-01

165

Coordinating compass-based and nest-based flight directions during bumblebee learning and return flights.  

PubMed

Bumblebees tend to face their nest over a limited range of compass directions when learning the nest's location on departure and finding it on their approach after foraging. They thus obtain similar views of the nest and its surroundings on their learning and return flights. How do bees coordinate their flights relative to nest-based and compass-based reference frames to get such similar views? We show, first, that learning and return flights contain straight segments that are directed along particular compass bearings, which are independent of the orientation of a bee's body. Bees are thus free within limits to adjust their viewing direction relative to the nest, without disturbing flight direction. Second, we examine the coordination of nest-based and compass-based control during likely information gathering segments of these flights: loops during learning flights and zigzags on return flights. We find that bees tend to start a loop or zigzag when flying within a restricted range of compass directions and to fly towards the nest and face it after a fixed change in compass direction, without continuous interactions between their nest-based and compass-based directions of flight. A preferred trajectory of compass-based flight over the course of a motif, combined with the tendency of the bees to keep their body oriented towards the nest automatically narrows the range of compass directions over which bees view the nest. Additionally, the absence of interactions between the two reference frames allows loops and zigzags to have a stereotyped form that can generate informative visual feedback. PMID:23447669

Collett, Thomas S; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Philippides, Andrew

2013-03-15

166

Using an electronic compass to determine telemetry azimuths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers typically collect azimuths from known locations to estimate locations of radiomarked animals. Mobile, vehicle-mounted telemetry receiving systems frequently are used to gather azimuth data. Use of mobile systems typically involves estimating the vehicle's orientation to grid north (vehicle azimuth), recording an azimuth to the transmitter relative to the vehicle azimuth from a fixed rosette around the antenna mast (relative azimuth), and subsequently calculating an azimuth to the transmitter (animal azimuth). We incorporated electronic compasses into standard null-peak antenna systems by mounting the compass sensors atop the antenna masts and evaluated the precision of this configuration. This system increased efficiency by eliminating vehicle orientation and calculations to determine animal azimuths and produced estimates of precision (azimuth SD=2.6 deg., SE=0.16 deg.) similar to systems that required orienting the mobile system to grid north. Using an electronic compass increased efficiency without sacrificing precision and should produce more accurate estimates of locations when marked animals are moving or when vehicle orientation is problematic.

Cox, R. R., Jr.; Scalf, J. D.; Jamison, B. E.; Lutz, R. S.

2002-01-01

167

Different responses in two strains of chickens ( Gallus gallus ) in a magnetic orientation test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrated that layer strain domestic chicks bred for egg production can orient using directional cues\\u000a from the magnetic field; here we report that chicks from a broiler strain bred for meat production do not use magnetic cues\\u000a for orientation. We imprinted both strains of chicken on a red ball and subsequently trained them in a featureless testing\\u000a arena.

Rafael Freire; Ursula Munro; Lesley J. Rogers; Sven Sagasser; Roswitha Wiltschko; Wolfgang Wiltschko

2008-01-01

168

Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in a national sample of trauma treatment therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

For behavioral health professionals working with traumatized clients, continuous and prolonged exposure to the stress of working with the myriad of trauma-related stressors experienced by their clients can lead to various responses including burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. The present study investigates the impact of using evidence-based practices on compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in a random, national

C. D. Craig; G. Sprang

2010-01-01

169

Magnetic Multipole Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Multipole Field Model shows the field of a magnetic dipole or quadrupole with little compasses that indicate direction and relative field strength. A slider changes the angular orientation of the dipole and a movable compass shows the magnetic field direction and magnitude. Compass values can be recorded into a data table and analyzed using a built-in data analysis tool. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Multipole Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticMultipoleField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne; Franciscouembre

2010-02-14

170

Database Design for Magnetic Properties Oriented to Electromagnetic Field Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the preliminary investigation of the database of magnetic properties of magnetic materials to realize the highly accurate magnetic field analysis. By showing the various measured properties, the contents of database, which are possible to be prepared by means of current measurement techniques, were shown.

Kitagawa, Wataru; Hattori, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Koji; Ishihara, Yoshiyuki; Todaka, Toshiyuki

171

Self-Compassion and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions. Participants were 338 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale were used. The relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions…

Akin, Ahmet

2010-01-01

172

Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

Akin, Ahmet

2012-01-01

173

Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

Akin, Ahmet

2012-01-01

174

Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering; distinct

Jennifer L. Goetz; Dacher Keltner; Emiliana Simon-Thomas

2010-01-01

175

Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct…

Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

2010-01-01

176

A classification of dayside auroral forms and activities as a function of interplanetary magnetic field orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a classification of auroral forms in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere, based on ground observations from Svalbard. Having sorted the different auroral forms by magnetic local time (MLT) and morphological and optical spectral characteristics, we then study them as a function of the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We find that the IMF clock angle theta is

Per Even Sandholt; Charles J. Farrugia; Jøran Moen; Øystein Noraberg; Bjørn Lybekk; Torleif Sten; Truls Hansen

1998-01-01

177

Chapter 10 - Lanthanide-loaded paramagnetic liposomes as switchable magnetically oriented nanovesicles.  

PubMed

Magnetically oriented liposomes can be prepared by exposing unilamellar spherical systems loaded with paramagnetic lanthanide(III) complexes to hyperosmotic stress. The resulting nonspherical, lens-shaped, nanoparticles can orient within a static magnetic field, depending on the magnetic properties of their membrane bilayer. The orientation of the vesicles can be easily determined by measuring the paramagnetic contribution to the (1)H chemical shift of the intraliposomal water proton resonance. As the latter shift is dominated by the bulk magnetic susceptibility contribution, its sign (negative or positive) reports about the preferred orientation adopted by the nanovesicles. The alignment within the field depends upon the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of the liposome membrane, Delta(chi)(LIPO). When Delta(chi)(LIPO) has a negative value (e.g., for nonspherical liposomes made of conventional phospholipids), the nanoparticles align with their long axis parallel to the field, whereas when Delta(chi)(LIPO)>0 the vesicles flip by 90 degrees . The sign of the chemical shift of the intraliposomal water resonance is positive in the former case and negative in the latter, respectively. The liposome orientation can be switched by incorporating in the liposome bilayer suitable amphiphilic paramagnetic lanthanide(III) complexes. The sign of Delta(chi)(LIPO), and consequently the magnetic alignment, will correspond to the sign of the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of the metal complex. The magnetic susceptibility anisotropy is dependent on both the electronic configuration of the lanthanide ion and the structural characteristics of the amphiphilic complex incorporated in the liposome membrane. The magnetic orientation of such vesicles is maintained in vivo, thus opening promising perspectives for the application of nonspherical liposomes in medical imaging. PMID:19903556

Aime, Silvio; Castelli, Daniela Delli; Terreno, Enzo

2009-01-01

178

In search of the sky compass in the insect brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many vertebrate species, insects rely on a sun compass for spatial orientation and long- range navigation. In addition to the sun, however, insects can also use the polarization pattern of the sky as a reference for estimating navigational directions. Recent analysis of polarization vision pathways in the brain of orthopteroid insects sheds some light onto brain areas that might act as internal navigation centers. Here I review the significance, peripheral mechanisms, and central processing stages for polarization vision in insects with special reference to the locust Schistocerca gregaria. As in other insect species, polarization vision in locusts relies on specialized photoreceptor cells in a small dorsal rim area of the compound eye. Stages in the brain involved in polarized light signaling include specific areas in the lamina, medulla and lobula of the optic lobe and, in the midbrain, the anterior optic tubercle, the lateral accessory lobe, and the central complex. Integration of polarized-light signals with information on solar position appears to start in the optic lobe. In the central complex, polarization-opponent interneurons form a network of interconnected neurons. The organization of the central complex, its connections to thoracic motor centers, and its involvement in the spatial control of locomotion strongly suggest that it serves as a spatial organizer within the insect brain, including the functions of compass orientation and path integration. Time compensation in compass orientation is possibly achieved through a neural pathway from the internal circadian clock in the accessory medulla to the protocerebral bridge of the central complex.

Homberg, Uwe

179

Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo) during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis). When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm) and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system.

2011-01-01

180

Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion

Antoine Lutz; Julie Brefczynski-Lewis; Tom Johnstone; Richard J. Davidson

2008-01-01

181

Envy and Compassion in Tournaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many experiments and field studies indicate that most individuals are not purely motivated by material self-interest but also care about the well being of others. In this paper, we examine tournaments among inequity averse agents, who dislike disadvantageous inequity (envy) and advantageous inequity (compassion). It turns out that inequity averse agents exert higher efforts than purely self-interested agents for a

Christian Grund; Dirk Sliwka

2005-01-01

182

Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms.  

PubMed

A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration. PMID:12107283

Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J

2002-07-09

183

Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms  

PubMed Central

A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration.

Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

2002-01-01

184

Flux controlled magnetic barkhausen noise measurements on grain oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) in grain-oriented electrical steel using flux-control and its relationship to power losses obtained from standard Epstein tests. The effects of flux, frequency, grain size and texture in five samples of similar thickness with known core loss values were examined. A comparison with a non-oriented sample indicated that the grain oriented Si-Fe has higher magnetic anisotropy and greater MBN signal variability with position, which is associated with its larger grain size. Angular MBN measurements demonstrated a major easy axis along the rolling direction (RD) that was attributed to its Goss texture. An inverse relation between MBN energy and core loss values was observed. The inverse relation was associated with a greater proportion of Barkhausen events with magnetization changes projected out of the plane of the sample. This generates microscopic eddy currents that do not add vectorily to the bulk eddy currents and thereby reduces excess power losses.

Samimi, Arash A.; Krause, Thomas W.; Clapham, Lynann

2012-05-01

185

Reconstruction of Cardiac Ventricular Geometry and Fiber Orientation Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging method for the rapid reconstruction of fiber orientation throughout the cardiac ventricles is described. In this method, gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady-state (GRASS) imaging is used to measure ventricular geometry in formaldehyde-fixed hearts at high spatial resolution. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) is then used to estimate fiber orientation as the principle eigenvector of the diffusion tensor measured

D. F. Scollan; A. Holmes; J. Zhang; R. L. Winslow

2000-01-01

186

Orientational ordering of protein particles with asymmetric introductions of ferritin in a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of orientational ordering of protein particles in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, proposed by the authors in\\u000a Phys. Wave Phenom. 13(1), 1 (2005), was extended to ferritin inclusions in such particles, taking into account the probable\\u000a appearance of superantiferromagnetic susceptibility properties. Degrees of orientational ordering, ordered state formation\\u000a and decay times achievable in bioparticle suspensions were estimated for a

I. G. Lyakhov; G. A. Lyakhov; N. V. Suyazov

2007-01-01

187

Do neotropical migrant butterflies navigate using a solar compass?  

PubMed

Many tropical butterfly species are well-known for their migratory behaviour. Although these insects can maintain a constant direction throughout the day, the physiological mechanisms of orientation are unknown. It has been argued that tropical migrant butterflies must use a time-compensated sun compass to accomplish their journey, but the crucial experimental manipulations to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. This study reports the results of clock-shift experiments performed with two species of migrating butterflies (Pieridae: Aphrissa statira and Phoebis argante) captured during flight across Lake Gatun, Panama. The observed constant flight bearing of natural controls suggests that these species are capable of performing time-compensated celestial navigation. Our clock-shift experiments suggest that a sun compass is involved. Individuals submitted to a 4 h advance shift took significantly different mean orientations on release compared with control butterflies. The direction of this difference was consistent with the use of a sun compass. The magnitude was approximately half the predicted value if the vanishing bearing of released butterflies was used as the variable to evaluate the effect of time-shifting and approximately three-quarters of that predicted if the estimated heading was the variable used. Mean vanishing bearings of control and experimental butterflies did not correspond to predicted values. This difference can be attributed largely to the combined effects of wind and handling. PMID:9817829

Oliveira; Srygley; Dudley

1998-12-01

188

Magnetic tri-axial orientation in rare-earth-based cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a new high oxygen pressure synthesis method of orthorhombic and twin-free RE2Ba4Cu7Oy (RE247, RE = rare earth elements) superconductors and their tri-axial orientation using by a modulated rotation magnetic field. By the new synthesis method using quartz ampoule and a chemical reaction generating additional source of oxygen pressure in it, we have successfully fabricated RE247 (RE=Y, Er) polycrystals in the almost same synthesis conditions with those using a high oxygen pressure furnace. Furthermore, tri-axial orientation of these RE247 powders has been successfully accomplished using a modulated rotation magnetic field. Although our experimental studies on the magnetic orientation were performed in epoxy resin, high degrees of in-plane orientation less than 6° were achieved. Especially for RE=Y, the degree of in-plane orientation was found to be less than 1.5°, and high effectiveness of this tri-axial orientation technique was shown in principle.

Horii, S.; Fukushima, T.; Sato, S.; Uchikoshi, T.; Suzuki, T. S.; Sakka, Y.; Ogino, H.; Shimoyama, J.; Kishio, K.

2009-02-01

189

Preferred orientation and anisotropy of seismic and magnetic properties in gabbronorites from the Bushveld layered intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preferred orientation of plagioclase and pyroxene in gabbronorites from the Bushveld layered igneous intrusion (South Africa) was investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. In two localities 200 km apart (Belfast and Rustenburg) strong preferred orientation was observed with the principal fabric features aligned in the subhorizontal foliation plane (defined by (010) planes of plagioclase and (100) planes of pyroxene). The pattern appears to result from the orientation of tabular crystals during the dynamic intrusion events that formed the layered structure. Primary magmatic oxides are also influenced by the preferred orientation of plagioclase, generating an oblate magnetic susceptibility fabric parallel to the foliation plane. Plagioclase preferred orientation gives rise to other directionally dependent geophysical properties including a large seismic anisotropy with p-waves traveling 4 8% faster in the vertical than in the horizontal direction.

Feinberg, Joshua M.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Scott, Gary R.; Renne, Paul R.

2006-07-01

190

Multiple Triangulation Analysis: another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Another approach (Multiple Triangulation Analysis, MTA) is presented to determine the orientation of magnetic flux rope, based on 4-point measurements. A 2-D flux rope model is used to examine the accuracy of the MTA technique in a theoretical way. It is found that the precision of the estimated orientation is dependent on both the spacecraft separation and the constellation path relative to the flux rope structure. However, the MTA error range can be shown to be smaller than that of the traditional MVA technique. As an application to real Cluster data, several flux rope events on 26 January 2001 are analyzed using MTA, to obtain their orientations. The results are compared with the ones obtained by several other methods which also yield flux rope orientation. The estimated axis orientations are shown to be fairly close, suggesting the reliability of the MTA method.

Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Pu, Z. Y.; Fritz, T. A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Shi, Q. Q.; Wang, J.; Wei, Y.

2006-07-01

191

Optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in GaAs in weak longitudinal magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B?100??mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins. PMID:21561222

Akimov, I A; Dzhioev, R I; Korenev, V L; Kusrayev, Yu G; Sapega, V F; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M

2011-04-05

192

Orienteering and Rogaining Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orienteering and Rogaining WWW Server is now on-line with information on clubs and federations from around the world, including schedules, results, maps and people to contact for more information. Orienteering is the use of a highly detailed map and a compass to find one's way through unknown surroundings and, if done competitively, in the least possible time. Rogaining is the sport of long distance cross-country navigation in which teams of two to five members, on foot using map and compass, visit as many checkpoints as possible in up to twenty-four hours.

193

Normal fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field influence pigeon orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to determine whether naturally occurring fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field influence homing pigeons' initial bearings, three series of test releases (1970, 1972, 1973) at a site 45.7 miles north of the loft were conducted under an experimental design that controlled for most extraneous variables. The mean bearings for each series showed a significant inverse correlation with

William T. Keeton; Timothy S. Larkin; Donald M. Windsor

1974-01-01

194

Compassion, caring and communication: skills for nursing practice compassion, caring and communication: skills for nursing practice.  

PubMed

COMPASSION IS at the heart of what we believe nursing to be. But recent cases of poor nursing care have led us to question the fundamentals of compassion, caring and communication, and their place in patient care. PMID:24063332

2013-10-01

195

Nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented 196Au, 198Au, and 200Aum in Ni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective hyperfine splitting frequencies ?¯ of 196Au (I?=2-, T12=6.2 d), 198Au (I?=2-, T12=2.7 d), and 200Aum (I?=12-, T12=18.7 h) in nickel at a temperature of ~10 mK were measured with nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei to be 59.65(6) MHz, 60.06(5) MHz, and 99.1(3) MHz, respectively. All frequencies are considerably larger than those known from previous nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei measurements. Our results show that the noncontact contribution to the hyperfine field of AuNi is smaller than deduced before. The magnetic moment of 200Aum [configuration |(?112-)(?132+)>12-], | ? |=5.90(9)?N, fits well into the systematics of magnetic moments of 12- isomers in this mass region.

Hagn, E.; Zech, E.

1984-11-01

196

A vector oriented control for a magnetically levitated shaft  

SciTech Connect

Considering the nonlinear model of Active Magnetic Bearings, a new means of nonlinear control is presented which treats variables as rotating vectors in the control plane, specially the unbalance. It became easy to cancel out the effect of this perturbation in a rotating reference. Therefore, the rotor can rotate around any desired point, particularly the geometric center or the center of gravity. Simulations illustrate the efficacy of this control law.

De Miras, J.; Charara, A. [UTC, Compiegne (France)

1998-07-01

197

Attachment and mental and physical health: self-compassion and mattering as mediators.  

PubMed

Research shows a strong link between adult attachment and mental and physical health, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these relationships. The present study examined self-compassion and mattering, two constructs from positive psychology literature, as potential mediators. Using survey data from a sample of 208 college students, relationships among attachment, self-compassion, mattering, and functional health were explored. Correlational analyses indicated that attachment anxiety and avoidance were strongly related to the mental health component of functional health. Mediation analyses indicated that mattering and self-compassion mediated the relationships between attachment orientation (i.e., levels of avoidance and anxiety) and mental health. These findings suggest that individuals' abilities to be kind toward themselves and their sense of belonging and being important to others are pathways through which attachment orientation relates to mental health. PMID:21463033

Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Ericson, Sara K; Jackson, John; Martin, Helena M; Bryan, Nicole A

2011-04-01

198

Measuring compassion in physician assistants.  

PubMed

While compassion is generally agreed to be one of the professional qualities required of physician assistants (PAs), the concept has been remarkably difficult to define and measure. The authors describe a series of studies that generated preliminary information about the compassionate qualities of PAs. In an initial survey, PAs rated their own compassionate qualities, after which their patients assessed the same qualities in them. The patients validated three elements of compassion having to do with communication between PA and patient but failed to validate seven other items. Subsequent research dealt with a halo effect related to the wording of the questions and a confounding effect associated with the intimacy of the medical setting. PMID:12635436

Skaff, Karen O; Toumey, Christopher P; Rapp, Doris; Fahringer, David

2003-01-01

199

Emotional Memory, Mindfulness and Compassion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter considers the role that mindfulness and compassion can play in helping people who come from difficult and traumatic\\u000a backgrounds. These individuals often have a highly elevated sense of threat – both from the outside (what others might do\\u000a to them) and from the inside (feeling overwhelmed by aversive feelings or memories; or their own selfdislike\\/ contempt for\\u000a themselves).

Paul Gilbert; Dennis Tirch

200

Fabrication of oriented ?-alumina from porous bodies by slip casting in a high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing texture is one possible way for improving the electrical, chemical, mechanical and other properties of ceramics. We have reported that oriented ?-alumina was obtained by slip casting in a high magnetic field followed by sintering. ?-Alumina is well known as sodium ion conductor used in a sodium-sulfur battery. ?-Alumina consists of spinel blocks and ion conductive planes. Since the

Yoshio Sakka; Atsushi Honda; Tohru S. Suzuki; Yusuke Moriyoshi

2004-01-01

201

Cluster magnetic field observations of the bowshock: Orientation, motion and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four spacecraft Cluster magnetic field observations of the low quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bowshock are presented for the first time. Multiple quasi-perpendicular crossings on 25 December 2000 are analysed. By combining data from the four spacecraft, bowshock orientations and velocities can be calculated. It is shown that, even while in rapid motion, the bowshock normal direction remains remarkably constant, and that coplanarity

T. S. Horbury; P. J. Cargill; E. A. Lucek; A. Balogh; M. W. Dunlop; T. M. Oddy; C. Carr; P. Brown; A. Szabo; K.-H. Fornaçon

2001-01-01

202

Magnetic-field effect on the photoactivation reaction of Escherichia coli DNA photolyase  

PubMed Central

One of the two principal hypotheses put forward to explain the primary magnetoreception event underlying the magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is based on a magnetically sensitive chemical reaction. It has been proposed that a spin-correlated radical pair is produced photochemically in a cryptochrome and that the rates and yields of the subsequent chemical reactions depend on the orientation of the protein in the Earth's magnetic field. The suitability of cryptochrome for this purpose has been argued, in part, by analogy with DNA photolyase, although no effects of applied magnetic fields have yet been reported for any member of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field effect on the photochemical yield of a flavin–tryptophan radical pair in Escherichia coli photolyase. This result provides a proof of principle that photolyases, and most likely by extension also cryptochromes, have the fundamental properties needed to form the basis of a magnetic compass.

Henbest, Kevin B.; Maeda, Kiminori; Hore, P. J.; Joshi, Monika; Bacher, Adelbert; Bittl, Robert; Weber, Stefan; Timmel, Christiane R.; Schleicher, Erik

2008-01-01

203

Orientation Dependence of the Critical Magnetic Field for Multiferroic BiFeO3  

SciTech Connect

Multiferroic BiFeO3 undergoes a transition from a distorted spiral phase to a G-type antiferromagnet above a critical field Hc that depends on the orientation m of the field. We show that Hc(m) has a maximum when oriented along a cubic diagonal parallel to the electric polarization P and a minimum in the equatorial plane normal to P when two magnetic domains with the highest critical fields are degenerate. The measured critical field along a cubic axis is about 19 T but Hc is predicted to vary by as much as 2.5 T above and below this value. The orientational dependence of Hc(m) is more complex than indicated by earlier work, which did not consider the competition between magnetic domains.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

2013-01-01

204

Preparation of non-oriented silicon steel with high magnetic induction using columnar grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Columnar grains can lead to detrimental surface ridging and an inhomogeneous microstructure, although their {1 0 0}<0 v w> texture is considered desirable due to their good magnetic properties in non-oriented silicon steel. Based on the hereditary tendency of {1 0 0}<0 v w> texture, the effects of lubrication and heating rate on texture and on final magnetic properties were investigated using a cast slab containing 100% columnar grains. Hot rolling with lubrication, normalization at low heating rate, two-stage cold rolling, and final annealing at 1000 °C helped achieve high performance. As a result, a new non-oriented silicon steel with high magnetic induction (B50=1.82 T) and low core loss (P1.5=2.35 W/kg) was prepared. The possibility of further performance optimization was also discussed.

Cheng, Ling; Yang, Ping; Fang, Yupei; Mao, Weimin

2012-11-01

205

The effect of receiver coil orientations on the imaging performance of magnetic induction tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic induction tomography is an imaging modality which aims to reconstruct the conductivity distribution of the human body. It uses magnetic induction to excite the body and an array of sensor coils to detect the perturbations in the magnetic field. Up to now, much effort has been expended with the aim of finding an efficient coil configuration to extend the dynamic range of the measured signal. However, the merits of different sensor orientations on the imaging performance have not been studied in great detail so far. Therefore, the aim of the study is to fill the void of a systematic investigation of coil orientations on the reconstruction quality of the designs. To this end, a number of alternative receiver array designs with different coil orientations were suggested and the evaluations of the designs were performed based on the singular value decomposition. A generalized class of quality measures, the subclasses of which are linked to both the spatial resolution and uncertainty measures, was used to assess the performance on the radial and axial axes of a cylindrical phantom. The detectability of local conductivity perturbations in the phantom was explored using the reconstructed images. It is possible to draw the conclusion that the proper choice of the coil orientations significantly influences the number of usable singular vectors and accordingly the stability of image reconstruction, although the effect of increased stability on the quality of the reconstructed images was not of paramount importance due to the reduced independent information content of the associated singular vectors.

Gürsoy, D.; Scharfetter, H.

2009-10-01

206

Functional magnetic resonance adaptation reveals the involvement of the dorsomedial stream in hand orientation for grasping.  

PubMed

Reach-to-grasp actions require coordination of different segments of the upper limbs. Previous studies have examined the neural substrates of arm transport and hand grip components of such actions; however, a third component has been largely neglected: the orientation of the wrist and hand appropriately for the object. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation (fMRA) to investigate human brain areas involved in processing hand orientation during grasping movements. Participants used the dominant right hand to grasp a rod with the four fingers opposing the thumb or to reach and touch the rod with the knuckles without visual feedback. In a control condition, participants passively viewed the rod. Trials in a slow event-related design consisted of two sequential stimuli in which the rod orientation changed (requiring a change in wrist posture while grasping but not reaching or looking) or remained the same. We found reduced activation, that is, adaptation, in superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) when the object was repeatedly grasped with the same orientation. In contrast, there was no adaptation when reaching or looking at an object in the same orientation, suggesting that hand orientation, rather than object orientation, was the critical factor. These results agree with recent neurophysiological research showing that a parieto-occipital area of macaque (V6A) is modulated by hand orientation during reach-to-grasp movements. We suggest that the human dorsomedial stream, like that in the macaque, plays a key role in processing hand orientation in reach-to-grasp movements. PMID:21795615

Monaco, Simona; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Sedda, Anna; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; Culham, Jody C

2011-07-27

207

Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks, skates, and rays receive electrical information about the positions of their prey, the drift of ocean currents, and their magnetic compass headings. At sea, dogfish and blue sharks were observed to execute apparent feeding responses to dipole electric fields designed to mimic prey. In training experiments, stingrays showed the ability to orient relative to uniform electric fields similar to those produced by ocean currents. Voltage gradients of only 5 nanovolts per centimeter would elicit either behavior.

Kalmijn, Ad. J.

1982-11-01

208

Self-compassion: a concept analysis.  

PubMed

This concept analysis uses a modification of the evolutionary method (Rodgers, 1989) to identify the antecedent, attributes, and consequences of self-compassion. The antecedent to self-compassion is suffering, experienced in six possible realms: an event, a situation, an emotional response, a psychological state, spiritual alienation, or a physical response to illness or pain. Suffering has three dimensions: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual. Suffering manifests as a pattern of decreased self-care, decreased ability to relate to others, and diminished autonomy. The attributes of self-compassion are self-kindness, mindfulness, commonality, and wisdom. The consequences of self-compassion are the opposite of the antecedent: self-compassion manifests as a pattern of increased self-care capacity, compassion for others, and increased relatedness, autonomy, and sense of self. Ideal, borderline and contrary cases of self-compassion provide examples of the concept. The article concludes with a discussion of implications of the concept of self-compassion for nursing practice and research. PMID:22024954

Reyes, Darcel

2011-10-24

209

Anomalous magnetic orientations of magnetosome chains in a magnetotactic bacterium: Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1.  

PubMed

There is a good deal of published evidence that indicates that all magnetosomes within a single cell of a magnetotactic bacterium are magnetically oriented in the same direction so that they form a single magnetic dipole believed to assist navigation of the cell to optimal environments for their growth and survival. Some cells of the cultured magnetotactic bacterium Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1 are known to have relatively wide gaps between groups of magnetosomes that do not seem to interfere with the larger, overall linear arrangement of the magnetosomes along the long axis of the cell. We determined the magnetic orientation of the magnetosomes in individual cells of this bacterium using Fe 2p X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra measured with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). We observed a significant number of cases in which there are sub-chains in a single cell, with spatial gaps between them, in which one or more sub-chains are magnetically polarized opposite to other sub-chains in the same cell. These occur with an estimated frequency of 4.0±0.2%, based on a sample size of 150 cells. We propose possible explanations for these anomalous cases which shed insight into the mechanisms of chain formation and magnetic alignment. PMID:23308202

Kalirai, Samanbir S; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Hitchcock, Adam P

2013-01-08

210

Use of patterned magnetic films to retain and orient micro-components during fluidic assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterned magnetic thin films have for the first time been used to orient and retain micron-sized III-V elements on silicon substrates during fluidic hybrid assembly. Modeling of the forces between Ni thin films patterned on one surface of 5-6 ?m target areas on Si substrates predicts that the strength and fall-off characteristics of the attractive forces can be engineered to orient and securely retain only pills that are right side up. Verification of this behavior has been obtained by assembling 50×100 ?m2 micropills in recesses with patterns of Sm-Co rectangles.

Cheng, D. I.; Rumpler, J. J.; Cramer, E. S.; Zuneska, R. W.; Cadieu, F. J.

2009-04-01

211

Sun-compass migration by Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa): population retention and reproduction in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in Saanich Inlet, a north-south oriented fjord in British Columbia, uses a sun compass to migrate in a southeasterly direction during the day. When the sky is overcast and at night, A. aurita orients randomly and is dispersed passively by gentle tidal currents. The net result is daily reaggregation of medusae into enormous swarms along the

W. M. Hamner; P. P. Hamner; S. W. Strand

1994-01-01

212

Crystal-oriented tungsten-bronze type ceramics prepared by a rotating magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forming and sintering of c-axis-oriented Sr2NaNb5O15 (SNN) ceramics were examined. Particle-oriented SNN was fabricated by using a rotating high magnetic field and subsequent sintering without magnetic field. SNN ceramics are tungsten-bronze-type ferroelectric materials with a tetragonal crystal system. The diamagnetic susceptibilities of the c-axis are smaller than that of the a- and b-axis (?c < ?a,b < 0). SNN powder was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction. The synthesized powder was mixed with distilled water and a dispersant by using ball milling to give a slurry with solid loading of 30 vol%. The slurry was poured into a plastic mold and this was placed in a 10Tesla magnetic field in a superconducting magnet. The mold was rotated at 30 rpm while the slurry dried at room temperature. The resulting powder compact with a columnar shape was heated at 5 K/min to 1473 K, held for 6 h, and then heated at 1525 K for 2 h to prevent exaggerated grain growth. XRD patterns showed that c-axis-oriented SNN polycrystalline ceramics were produced in the presence of the rotating magnetic field. In XRD patterns viewed from the top surface of the sintered specimens, peaks from the c-planes of the crystal, such as 001 and 002, were very strong. Diffraction peaks which were very strong in the ceramics, such as 320 and 410, were absent in the specimen. Oriented microstructure was developed well by sintering. Grain-growth along to c-axis was observed in the SNN ceramics heated at 1525 K.

Tanaka, S.; Doshida, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Furushima, R.; Uematsu, K.

2011-03-01

213

Reconstruction of Cardiac Ventricular Geometry and Fiber Orientation Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

An imaging method for the rapid reconstruction of fiber orientation throughout the cardiac ventricles is described. In this method, gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady-state (GRASS) imaging is used to measure ventricular geometry in formaldehyde-fixed hearts at high spatial resolution. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) is then used to estimate fiber orientation as the principle eigenvector of the diffusion tensor measured at each image voxel in these same hearts. DTMRI-based estimates of fiber orientation in formaldehyde-fixed tissue are shown to agree closely with those measured using histological techniques, and evidence is presented suggesting that diffusion tensor tertiary eigenvectors may specify the orientation of ventricular laminar sheets. Using a semiautomated software tool called heartworks, a set of smooth contours approximating the epicardial and endocardial boundaries in each GRASS short-axis section are estimated. These contours are then interconnected to form a volumetric model of the cardiac ventricles. DTMRI-based estimates of fiber orientation are interpolated into these volumetric models, yielding reconstructions of cardiac ventricular fiber orientation based on at least an order of magnitude more sampling points than can be obtained using manual reconstruction methods.

Scollan, D. F.; Holmes, A.; Zhang, J.; Winslow, R. L.

2005-01-01

214

[Pharmacotherapeutic compass 2000/2001].  

PubMed

The Commission Pharmaceutical Help of the Health Care Insurance Board uses the Pharmacotherapeutical compass to inform the medical profession annually about medical drugs. In the 2000/2001 edition the most important alterations are changes in the introductions of: antidepressants, medicines for peptic disorders, medicines for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, haematopoietic growth factors, anticonvulsants, medicines for Parkinson, medicines for congestive heart failure, antiretroviral medicines, medicines for osteoporosis, short acting insuline-analogues and oral antihyperglycaemics. The introductions about Horton's neuralgia and erectile dysfunction are new. For some (new) medicines recommendations are made, for the antidepressants and medicines for peptic disorders some recommendations have been changed. PMID:11004950

Taspinar, A

2000-09-01

215

Magnetic Properties and Domain Structure of Non-oriented Electrical Steel Under Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of stresses on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels was studied. The dependence of iron loss on compressive stress was affected by grain size. The magnetic polarization J at high magnetic fields such as 5000A/m and 10000A/m increased by compressive stresses and decreased by tensile stresses in samples with low Si contents. Using Kerr-effect domain observation, it was found that the reduction in J caused by tensile stresses was attributable to residual striped domains. Magnetostriction measurements at high magnetic fields indicated that the increase in J under compressive stresses originated from the Villari-effect due to negative magnetostriction in low Si materials.

Senda, Kunihiro; Fujita, Akira; Honda, Atsuhito; Kuroki, Naoki; Yagi, Masaaki

216

Kalman-Filter-Based Orientation Determination Using Inertial/Magnetic Sensors: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical.

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-01-01

217

Development of the Shielding Materials Having the Highly Orientation Characteristics in the RF Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional electromagnetic shielding technique is all but impossible to fundamental solution of the problems in the information and communication fields, such as virtual image for radar. Namely, it is necessary to receive a required electromagnetic wave as the information signal, and to shield a needless electromagnetic wave as the noise. the present research has developed the carbon, copper, ferrite, and BPSCCO plates, as the typical shielding material, having the orientation characteristics in the RF (radio frequency) magnetic field. To exhibit the orientation characteristics in the plane wave, it has formed the slit on the surface of typical shielding materials; termed the slit plate. For example, the value of RF magnetic shielding degree SDHP of slit carbon plate for holding the slit perpendicularly to the ground increased with frequency in the region from 1 MHz (7 dB) to 3 GHz (70 dB). And, the value of SDHH when holding the slit horizontally is indicated an average value of approximately 10 dB in this frequency region. That is, the difference values, SDHP-SDHH, indicated the orientation characteristics. Experimental results revealed several characteristics of the slit plates that include the influences of orientation characteristics on the slit length, slit width, and slit number. In the present paper, it was succeeded to improved the difference average value of approximately 35 dB for SDHP-SDHH, by the sandwich of slit ferrite plate over a slit carbon plate, in the civilian communication frequency region from 1 MHz to 3 GHz. In addition, important criteria are discussed for the design of an effective RF magnetic shielding plate having orientation characteristics.

Nishikubo, Tokoh; Itoh, Mineo

218

Magnetic and transport properties of Mn2CoAl oriented films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, magnetic, and transport properties of thin films of the Heusler ferrimagnet Mn2CoAl have been investigated for properties related to spin gapless semiconductors. Oriented films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and the structure was found to transform from tetragonal to cubic for increasing annealing temperature. The anomalous Hall resistivity is found to be proportional to the square of the longitudinal resistivity and magnetization expected for a topological Berry curvature origin. A delicate balance of the spin-polarized carrier type when coupled with voltage gate-tuning could significantly impact advanced electronic devices.

Jamer, Michelle E.; Assaf, Badih A.; Devakul, Trithep; Heiman, Don

2013-09-01

219

Modeling the behavior of oriented permanent magnet material using current double theory  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method for modeling two dimensional dipoles, quadrupoles and other higher multipoles built using oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium cobalt (one of the rare earth cobalt REC materials). The technique presented here uses complex current doublet to model the magnetized material. This technique can be used in conjunction with an infinitely permeable circular iron shield which lies outside the REC material. Examples of two types of dipoles and quadrupoles are presented in this report. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Green, M.A.

1987-11-01

220

A novel method for assessing the 3-D orientation accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors.  

PubMed

A novel method for assessing the accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors is presented. The method, referred to as the "residual matrix" method, is advantageous because it decouples the sensor's error with respect to Earth's gravity vector (attitude residual error: pitch and roll) from the sensor's error with respect to magnetic north (heading residual error), while remaining insensitive to singularity problems when the second Euler rotation is close to ±90°. As a demonstration, the accuracy of an inertial/magnetic sensor mounted to a participant's forearm was evaluated during a reaching task in a laboratory. Sensor orientation was measured internally (by the inertial/magnetic sensor) and externally using an optoelectronic measurement system with a marker cluster rigidly attached to the sensor's enclosure. Roll, pitch and heading residuals were calculated using the proposed novel method, as well as using a common orientation assessment method where the residuals are defined as the difference between the Euler angles measured by the inertial sensor and those measured by the optoelectronic system. Using the proposed residual matrix method, the roll and pitch residuals remained less than 1° and, as expected, no statistically significant difference between these two measures of attitude accuracy was found; the heading residuals were significantly larger than the attitude residuals but remained below 2°. Using the direct Euler angle comparison method, the residuals were in general larger due to singularity issues, and the expected significant difference between inertial/magnetic sensor attitude and heading accuracy was not present. PMID:24016678

Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Rizun, Peter; Dennerlein, Jack T

2013-08-12

221

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of Fe doped fullerene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies on Fe doped fullerene thin film and bulk highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The element-specific hysteresis curves were recorded by measuring the XMCD at the Fe L3 edge as a function of the applied field strength at different temperatures. These investigations suggest that Fe doped fullerene is ferromagnetic at room temperature, while

Amit Kumar; P. Thakur; N. B. Brookes; D. K. Avasthi

2009-01-01

222

The orientation of membrane bound radicals: an EPR investigation of magnetically ordered spinach chloroplasts.  

PubMed

The orientation of membrane-bound radicals in spinach chloroplasts is examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of chloroplasts oriented by magnetic fields. Several of the membrane-bound radicals which possess g-tensor anisotropy display EPR signals with a marked dependence on the orientation of the membranes relative to the applied EPR field. The fraction of oxidized and reduced plastocyanin, P-700, iron-sulfur proteins A and B, and the X center, an early acceptor of Photosystem I, can be controlled by the light intensity during steady-state illumination and can be trapped by cooling. The X center can be photoreduced and trapped in the absence of strong reductants and high pH, conditions previously found necessary for its detection. These results confirm its role as an early electron acceptor in P-700 photo-oxidation. X is oriented with its smallest principal g-tensor axis (gx) predominantly parallel to the normal to the thylakoid membrane, the same orientation as was found for an early electron acceptor based on time-resolved electron spin polarization studies. We propose that the X center is the first example of a high potential iron-sulfur protein which functions in electron transfer in its 'superreduced' state. We present evidence which suggests that iron-sulfur proteins A and B are 4Fe-4S clusters in an 8Fe-8S protein. Center B is oriented with gy predominantly normal to the membrane plane. The spectra of center A and plastocyanin do not show significant changes with sample orientation. In the case of plastocyanin, this may indicate a lack of molecular orientation. The absence of an orientation effect for reduced center A is reconcilable with a 4Fe-4S geometry, provided that the electron obtained upon reduction can be shared between any pair of Fe atoms in the center. Orientation of the 'Rieske' iron-sulfur protein is also observed. It has axial symmetry with g parallel close to the plane of the membrane. A model is proposed for the organization of these proteins in the thylakoid membrane. A new EPR signal was observed in oriented chloroplasts. This broad unresolved resonance displays a g value of 3.2 when the membrane normal is parallel to the field. It shifts to g = 1.9 when the membrane normal is perpendicular to the field. The signal is sensitive to illumination and to washing of the thylakoid membranes of broken chloroplasts. We suggest that there is a relation between this signal and the water-oxidizing enzyme system. PMID:214110

Dismukes, G C; Sauer, K

1978-12-01

223

Ocelli contribute to the encoding of celestial compass information in the Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti.  

PubMed

Many animal species, including some social hymenoptera, use the visual system for navigation. Although the insect compound eyes have been well studied, less is known about the second visual system in some insects, the ocelli. Here we demonstrate navigational functions of the ocelli in the visually guided Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti. These ants are known to rely on both visual landmark learning and path integration. We conducted experiments to reveal the role of ocelli in the perception and use of celestial compass information and landmark guidance. Ants with directional information from their path integration system were tested with covered compound eyes and open ocelli on an unfamiliar test field where only celestial compass cues were available for homing. These full-vector ants, using only their ocelli for visual information, oriented significantly towards the fictive nest on the test field, indicating the use of celestial compass information that is presumably based on polarised skylight, the sun's position or the colour gradient of the sky. Ants without any directional information from their path-integration system (zero-vector) were tested, also with covered compound eyes and open ocelli, on a familiar training field where they have to use the surrounding panorama to home. These ants failed to orient significantly in the homeward direction. Together, our results demonstrated that M. bagoti could perceive and process celestial compass information for directional orientation with their ocelli. In contrast, the ocelli do not seem to contribute to terrestrial landmark-based navigation in M. bagoti. PMID:21346116

Schwarz, Sebastian; Albert, Laurence; Wystrach, Antoine; Cheng, Ken

2011-03-15

224

Orientational Order-Magnetization Coupling in Mixtures of Magnetic Nanoparticles and the Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the ferroelectric SmC* phase of SCE9 ferroelectric liquid crystal (LC) mixtures with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). The impact of the NPs on the Goldstone and soft mode dielectric response has been determined by the dielectric spectroscopy measurements. The possible indirect coupling between the magnetic moments and the electrical polarization has been verified by measuring the impact of the

B. Roži?; M. Jagodi?; S. Gyergyek; M. Drofenik; S. Kralj; G. Lahajnar; Z. Jagli?i?; Z. Kutnjak

2010-01-01

225

Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among Colorado child protection workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to understand better the risk of compassion fatigue (the trauma suffered by the helping professional) and burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced sense of personal accomplishment), and the potential for compassion satisfaction (the fulfillment from helping others and positive collegial relationships) among Colorado county child protection staff using the Compassion Satisfaction\\/Fatigue Self-Test [Figley, C.

David Conrad; Yvonne Kellar-Guenther

2006-01-01

226

Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax ( Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations «Salutå and «Mirå. This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant - tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built «Magnetogravistatå facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad(H 2/2)? 10 7 Oe 2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature.

Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Chikov, V. M.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

2001-01-01

227

Self-compassion and fear of self-compassion interact to predict response to eating disorders treatment: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilbert (2005) proposed that the capacity for self-compassion is integral to overcoming shame and psychopathology. We tested this model among 74 individuals with an eating disorder admitted to specialized treatment. Participants completed measures assessing self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, shame, and eating disorder symptoms at admission and every 3 weeks during treatment. At baseline, lower self-compassion and higher fear of self-compassion

Allison C. Kelly; Jacqueline C. Carter; David C. Zuroff; Sahar Borairi

2012-01-01

228

Bi-axial magnetic orientation in a twinned ErBa2Cu3Oy superconductor by controlling grain size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi-axial magnetic orientation in ErBa2Cu3Oy (Er123) superconductor with a twinned microstructure was demonstrated. A ball-milling process effectively improved the degree of the in-plane and c-axis orientation of Er123 powder samples oriented in a modulated rotating magnetic field of 10 T. From the relationship between the particle size and the degree of orientation, it is concluded that pulverization induced the appearance of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of Er123 grains through inhomogenization of two different types of domains in their grains. The present study presents a production technique of RE123 bulk magnets and coated conductors without epitaxy technology.

Horii, S.; Tanoue, T.; Yamaki, M.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.

2011-05-01

229

Effects of rolling conditions on grain orientation and magnetic properties of thin-gauged 3% Si-Fe sheets  

SciTech Connect

3% Si-Fe sheets are widely used as core material of large transformers, large rotating machines and pole transformers due to characteristic soft magnetic properties, where energy losses during magnetization are critically concerned. The magnetic characteristics in silicon iron arises from a preferred grain orientation, i.e. (110) [001] Goss texture which forms after cold rolling followed by secondary recrystallization. In this paper, effects of rolling direction on the grain orientation and magnetic properties of the thin-gauged 3% Si-Fe sheets are investigated.

Kim, J.C.; Heo, N.H. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Materials and Corrosion Lab.; Chai, K.H.; Na, J.G. [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Metals; Woo, J.S. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Lab.; Kim, G.M. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

1998-04-03

230

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

231

Bipolar magnetic materials for electrical manipulation of spin-polarization orientation.  

PubMed

In spintronics, both the charge and spin of the electrons are exploited for information processing. Developing simple methods to manipulate and detect the carriers' spin orientation is among the key issues for spintronics applications. Electrical field has the advantage that it can be easily applied locally in contrast with a conventionally used magnetic field, thus it is more convenient and efficient. Bipolar magnetic materials, characterized by a unique electronic structure where the valence band and conduction band possess opposite spin polarization around the Fermi level, serve as a new class of materials for spintronics through which electrical control of spin-polarization direction can be realized simply by applying a gate voltage. This article reviews a range of materials that have bipolar spin polarization, including bipolar half metals and bipolar magnetic semiconductors, and their potential applications for creating, manipulating, and detecting spin-polarized carriers. These materials provide a promising future for electrically controllable spintronics devices. PMID:23995379

Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

2013-08-30

232

Magnetic dipole moment of ¹²⁷Sb and ¹²⁹Sb by nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of low temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) experiments has been initiated to measure accurately ground-state magnetic dipole moments of a sequence of odd-proton antimony isotopes up to the neutron shell closure at {ital N}=82 using the sensitive technique of nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei (NMR\\/ON). The main aim of this investigation is to clarify the single-particle+collective core coupling

M. Lindroos; M. Booth; D. Doran; Y. Koh; I. Oliveira; J. Rikovska; P. Richards; N. J. Stone; M. Veskovic; D. Zakoucky; B. Fogelberg

1996-01-01

233

Moon and sun compasses in sandhoppers rely on two separate chronometric mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the chronometric system of compensation for the apparent movement of the sun and that for the moon has been the subject of several, never proven, hypotheses. Our studies on sandhoppers have demonstrated that the chronometric mechanism of the moon compass is separate from that of the sun compass. They show (i) that a period of seven days in constant darkness has no influence on the capacity for orientation, either solar or lunar, and indicates the presence of one or more continuously operating timing mechanisms; (ii) that two different shifts in the light–dark phase have no effect on the chronometric mechanism of lunar orientation, but they do affect that of solar orientation; and (iii) that exposure to an artificial moon delayed by seven days with respect to the natural cycle causes the expected change in the mean direction of individuals tested under the natural moon, but not of those tested under the sun.

Ugolini, A.; Melis, C.; Innocenti, R.; Tiribilli, B.; Castellini, C.

1999-01-01

234

Quaternion-based extended Kalman filter for determining orientation by inertial and magnetic sensing.  

PubMed

In this paper, a quaternion based extended Kalman filter (EKF) is developed for determining the orientation of a rigid body from the outputs of a sensor which is configured as the integration of a tri-axis gyro and an aiding system mechanized using a tri-axis accelerometer and a tri-axis magnetometer. The suggested applications are for studies in the field of human movement. In the proposed EKF, the quaternion associated with the body rotation is included in the state vector together with the bias of the aiding system sensors. Moreover, in addition to the in-line procedure of sensor bias compensation, the measurement noise covariance matrix is adapted, to guard against the effects which body motion and temporary magnetic disturbance may have on the reliability of measurements of gravity and earth's magnetic field, respectively. By computer simulations and experimental validation with human hand orientation motion signals, improvements in the accuracy of orientation estimates are demonstrated for the proposed EKF, as compared with filter implementations where either the in-line calibration procedure, the adaptive mechanism for weighting the measurements of the aiding system sensors, or both are not implemented. PMID:16830938

Sabatini, Angelo M

2006-07-01

235

An object-oriented framework for magnetic-fusion modeling and analysis codes  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic-fusion energy (MFE) program, like many other scientific and engineering activities, has a need to efficiently develop complex modeling codes which combine detailed models of components to make an integrated model of a device, as well as a rich supply of legacy code that could provide the component models. There is also growing recognition in many technical fields of the desirability of steerable software: computer programs whose functionality can be changed by the user as it is run. This project had as its goals the development of two key pieces of infrastructure that are needed to combine existing code modules, written mainly in Fortran, into flexible, steerable, object-oriented integrated modeling codes for magnetic- fusion applications. These two pieces are (1) a set of tools to facilitate the interfacing of Fortran code with a steerable object-oriented framework (which we have chosen to be based on PythonlW3, an object-oriented interpreted language), and (2) a skeleton for the integrated modeling code which defines the relationships between the modules. The first of these activities obviously has immediate applicability to a spectrum of projects; the second is more focussed on the MFE application, but may be of value as an example for other applications.

Cohen, R H; Yang, T Y Brian

1999-03-04

236

Self-compassion in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Self-compassion is conceptualized as containing 3 core components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus overidentification, when relating to painful experiences. Research evidence demonstrates that self-compassion is related to psychological flourishing and reduced psychopathology. Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) is an 8-week training program, meeting 2.5 hours each week, designed to help participants cultivate self-compassion. MSC contains a variety of meditations (e.g., loving-kindness, affectionate breathing) as well as informal practices for use in daily life (e.g., soothing touch, self-compassionate letter writing). A detailed clinical case illustrates the journey of a client through the 8 weeks of MSC training, describing the key features of each session and the client's response. PMID:23775511

Germer, Christopher K; Neff, Kristin D

2013-06-17

237

Compass Preview Design Study. Volume II. Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume consists of a system specification, five module specifications, and one zoom lens specification. These specifications reflect the Compass Preview design as of January 1974; however, the specifications will require further refinement, modificat...

L. C. Toops R. Redwitz W. G. Baker

1975-01-01

238

The compass rose andrand om walk tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of the compass rose pattern (Crack and Ledoit J. Finance 51(2) (1996) 751) has sparkedconsid erable interest among researchers. This paper explores the signi1cance of the e2ect of the compass rose pattern on random walk tests and measures to what extent its in3uence may limit the performance of test statistics. We show that in general, the asymptotic

Yue Fang

2002-01-01

239

Self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neff 's (2003a, 2003b) notion of self-compassion emphasizes kindness towards one's self, a feeling of connectedness with others, and mindful awareness of distressing experiences. Because exposure to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) may be associated with self-criticism and avoidance of internal experiences, the authors examined the relationship between self-compassion and PSS. Out of a sample of 210 university

Brian L. Thompson; Jennifer Waltz

2008-01-01

240

Possible influence of sulfur content on magnetic aging behaviors of non-oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six non-oriented steel sheets of similar grade produced by different steel companies were used to analyze the magnetic aging behaviors after aging at 200°C for 48 h. It was observed that tiny S atoms, besides C and N, could also induce certain increase of core loss during aging. Thermodynamic calculation indicated that the nucleation driving force of FeS is much higher than those of Fe3C and Fe4N at low temperature, while S atoms, which tend to segregated around dislocations and boundaries, would diffuse rapidly along the crystalline defects while FeS particles would form. Therefore, higher content of tiny S atoms could increase core loss during service time of non-oriented steel sheets.

Mao, Wei-Min; Yang, Ping; Li, Chang-Rong

2013-10-01

241

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors  

PubMed Central

In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately.

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2012-01-01

242

Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-based Filter for orientation determination using inertial and magnetic sensors.  

PubMed

In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2012-06-25

243

Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider practice patterns. Female gender was associated with higher levels of

Ginny Sprang; James J. Clark; Adrienne Whitt-Woosley

2007-01-01

244

Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider…

Sprang, Ginny; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Clark, James J.

2007-01-01

245

Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction among Residential Child Care Workers: The Role of Personality Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential…

Zerach, Gadi

2013-01-01

246

Coupling of magneto-optical waveguides with arbitrary orientation of magnetization  

SciTech Connect

Features of the transfer of modes of various polarizations between two coupled magnetogyrotropic waveguides are studied. The transfer of modes with unchanged polarization is shown to be efficient. The waveguide thickness in this case should be close to the cutoff thickness. Coupling of orthogonally polarized modes in a separate waveguide near the cutoff thickness is small and may be neglected. The possibility of controlling interwaveguide TM {r_arrow} TM and TE {r_arrow} TE transitions by varying orientation of magnetization in waveguides is revealed. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Sementsov, D.I.; Shutyi, A.M. [Moscow State Univ., Ul`yanovsk (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

247

Magnetization reversal in a preferred oriented (111) L10 FePt grown on a soft magnetic metallic glass for tilted magnetic recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L10 FePt is an important material for the fabrication of high density perpendicular recording media, but the ultrahigh coercivity of L10 FePt restricts its use. Tilting of the magnetic easy axis and the introduction of a soft magnetic underlayer can solve this problem. However, high temperature processing and the requirement of epitaxial growth conditions for obtaining an L10 FePt phase are the main hurdles to be overcome. Here, we introduce a bilayered magnetic structure ((111) L10 FePt/glassy Fe71Nb4Hf3Y2B20/SiO2/Si) in which the magnetic easy axis of L10 FePt is tilted by ˜36° from the film plane and epitaxial growth conditions are not required. The soft magnetic underlayer not only promotes the growth of L10 FePt with the preferred orientation but also provides an easy cost-effective micro/nanopatterning of recording bits. A detailed magnetic characterization of the bilayered structure in which the thickness of (111) L10 FePt with the soft magnetic Fe71Nb4Hf3Y2B20 glassy underlayer varied from 5 to 60 nm is carried out in an effort to understand the magnetization switching mechanism. The magnetization switching behavior is almost the same for bilayered structures in which FePt layer thickness is >10 nm (greater than the domain wall thickness of FePt). For FePt film ˜10 nm thick, magnetization reversal takes place in a very narrow field range. Magnetization reversal first takes place in the soft magnetic underlayer. On further increase in the reverse magnetic field, the domain wall in the soft magnetic layer compresses at the interface of the hard and soft layers. Once the domain wall energy becomes sufficiently large to overcome the nucleation energy of the domain wall in L10 FePt, the magnetization of the whole bilayer is reversed. This process takes place quickly because the domain walls in the hard layer do not need to move, and the formation of a narrower domain wall may not be favorable energetically. Our results showed that the present bilayered structure is very promising for the fabrication of tilted bit-patterned magnetic recording media.

Wang, Yaocen; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

2012-02-01

248

Oriented immobilization of galactose oxidase to bead and magnetic bead cellulose and poly(HEMA-co-EDMA) and magnetic poly(HEMA-co-EDMA) microspheres.  

PubMed

In order to obtain an active and stable oxidation reactor for daily use in biochemical laboratory we decided to immobilize galactose oxidase orientedly through a carbohydrate chain to the magnetic carriers. We used hydrazide derivatives of non-magnetic and magnetic bead cellulose and of magnetic and non-magnetic poly(HEMA-co-EDMA) microspheres. Activation of the enzyme molecules was done by sodium periodate in the presence of supplements (fucose, CuSO4, catalase). Orientedly immobilized galactose oxidase presents high storage stability and lower susceptibility to inappropriate microenvironmental conditions. Reactor reactivated by three pulses of D-galactose retained practically 100% of its native activity after 6 months. The positive properties of both magnetic carriers were entirely confirmed. PMID:12013233

Bílková, Zuzana; Slováková, Marcela; Lycka, Antonín; Horák, Daniel; Lenfeld, Jirí; Turková, Jaroslava; Churácek, Jaroslav

2002-04-25

249

Kalman-filter-based orientation determination using inertial/magnetic sensors: observability analysis and performance evaluation.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical. PMID:22163689

Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2011-09-27

250

Auditory orienting and inhibition of return in schizophrenia: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia (SP) exhibit deficits in both attentional reorienting and inhibition of return (IOR) during visual tasks. However, it is currently unknown whether these deficits are supramodal in nature and how these deficits relate to other domains of cognitive dysfunction. In addition, the neuronal correlates of this pathological orienting response have not been investigated in either the visual or auditory modality. Therefore, thirty SP and 30 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated with an extensive clinical protocol and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an auditory cuing paradigm. SP exhibited both increased costs and delayed IOR during auditory orienting, suggesting a prolonged interval for attentional disengagement from cued locations. Moreover, a delay in the development of IOR was associated with cognitive deficits on formal neuropsychological testing in the domains of attention/inhibition and working memory. Event-related fMRI showed the characteristic activation of a frontoparietal network (invalid trials > valid trials), but there were no differences in functional activation between patients and HC during either attentional reorienting or IOR. Current results suggest that orienting deficits are supramodal in nature in SP, and are related to higher-order cognitive deficits that directly interfere with day-to-day functioning.

Abbott, Christopher C.; Merideth, Flannery; Ruhl, David; Yang, Zhen; Clark, Vincent P.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hanlon, Faith M.; Mayer, Andrew R.

2011-01-01

251

Magnetic-field-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of hard colloidal platelets  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic-field-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of colloidal gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}] platelets is studied by means of optical birefringence and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The suspensions display field-induced ordering at moderate field strengths (a few Tesla), which increases with increasing particle concentration. The gibbsite particles align their normals perpendicular to the magnetic field and hence possess a negative anisotropy of their diamagnetic susceptibility {delta}{chi}. The results can be described following a simple, Onsager-like approach. A simplified model is derived that allows one to obtain the orientational distribution function directly from the scattering data. However, it leads to an underestimate of the diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy {delta}{chi}. This accounts for the difference between the {delta}{chi} values provided by the two experimental techniques (SAXS and magneto-optics). The order of magnitude {delta}{chi}{approx}10{sup -22} J/T{sup 2} lies in between that of goethite suspensions and that of suspensions of organic particles.

Beek, D. van der; Petukhov, A.V.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W. [Van't Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Davidson, P.; Ferre, J.; Jamet, J.P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 510, 91405 Orsay (France); Wensink, H.H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, Gebaeude 25.32, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2006-04-15

252

Magnetic-field-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of hard colloidal platelets.  

PubMed

The magnetic-field-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of colloidal gibbsite [Al(OH)3] platelets is studied by means of optical birefringence and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The suspensions display field-induced ordering at moderate field strengths (a few Tesla), which increases with increasing particle concentration. The gibbsite particles align their normals perpendicular to the magnetic field and hence possess a negative anisotropy of their diamagnetic susceptibility Delta(chi). The results can be described following a simple, Onsager-like approach. A simplified model is derived that allows one to obtain the orientational distribution function directly from the scattering data. However, it leads to an underestimate of the diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy Delta(chi). This accounts for the difference between the Delta(chi) values provided by the two experimental techniques (SAXS and magneto-optics). The order of magnitude Delta(chi) approximately 10(-22) J/T(2) lies in between that of goethite suspensions and that of suspensions of organic particles. PMID:16711795

van der Beek, D; Petukhov, A V; Davidson, P; Ferré, J; Jamet, J P; Wensink, H H; Vroege, G J; Bras, W; Lekkerkerker, H N W

2006-04-05

253

Molecular rectifiers based on donor/acceptor assemblies: effect of orientation of the components' magnetic moments.  

PubMed

In forming donor/acceptor assemblies that act as molecular rectifiers, we have introduced magnetic organic molecules as electron-donating and electron-accepting moieties. We have oriented the magnetic moment of the donor and acceptor components separately and immobilized them (and their moments) so that the molecular assemblies that act as rectifiers could be formed with moments mutually parallel or anti-parallel to each other. We have characterized the molecular assemblies formed on an electrode with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Such donor/acceptor assemblies with a control over the orientation of moments of the components provided unique systems to study the effect of the nature of alignment on molecular rectifiers. We have observed that the rectification ratio increased in junctions with moments of the components being parallel to each other. The improvement in the rectification ratio has been explained in terms of an efficient electron-transfer process in a moment-aligned junction between the donor and acceptor moieties. PMID:23760260

Bera, Abhijit; Pal, Amlan J

2013-06-11

254

Magnetically aligned single wall carbon nanotube films: Preferred orientation and anisotropic transport properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick films of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) exhibiting in-plane preferred orientation have been produced by filter deposition from suspension in strong magnetic fields. We characterize the field-induced alignment with x-ray fiber diagrams and polarized Raman scattering, using a model which includes a completely unaligned fraction. We correlate the texture parameters with resistivity and thermal conductivity measured parallel and perpendicular to the alignment direction. Results obtained with 7 and 26 T fields are compared. We find no significant field dependence of the distribution width, while the aligned fraction is slightly greater at the higher field. Anisotropy in both transport properties is modest, with ratios in the range 5-9, consistent with the measured texture parameters assuming a simple model of rigid rod conductors. We suggest that further enhancements in anisotropic properties will require optimizing the filter deposition process rather than larger magnetic fields. We show that both x-ray and Raman data are required for a complete texture analysis of oriented SWNT materials.

Fischer, J. E.; Zhou, W.; Vavro, J.; Llaguno, M. C.; Guthy, C.; Haggenmueller, R.; Casavant, M. J.; Walters, D. E.; Smalley, R. E.

2003-02-01

255

Improving the International Currency Management System of Compassion International.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increasing global participation in Compassion International funding (both in total amounts and in number of contributing countries) presses us to evaluate whether its current international currency management system best serves Compassion's mission. C...

J. C. Rice

1996-01-01

256

Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: potential for psychological interventions.  

PubMed

Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and CM are associated with an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect. Preliminary findings from neuroendocrine studies indicate that CM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune response. Neuroimaging studies suggest that LKM and CM may enhance activation of brain areas that are involved in emotional processing and empathy. Finally, preliminary intervention studies support application of these strategies in clinical populations. It is concluded that, when combined with empirically supported treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, LKM and CM may provide potentially useful strategies for targeting a variety of different psychological problems that involve interpersonal processes, such as depression, social anxiety, marital conflict, anger, and coping with the strains of long-term caregiving. PMID:21840289

Hofmann, Stefan G; Grossman, Paul; Hinton, Devon E

2011-07-26

257

Connecting the navigational clock to sun compass input in monarch butterfly brain.  

PubMed

Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Although polarized light is one of the celestial cues used for orientation, the spectral content (color) of that light has not been fully explored. We cloned the cDNAs of three visual pigment-encoding opsins (ultraviolet [UV], blue, and long wavelength) and found that all three are expressed uniformly in main retina. The photoreceptors of the polarization-specialized dorsal rim area, on the other hand, are monochromatic for the UV opsin. Behavioral studies support the importance of polarized UV light for flight orientation. Next, we used clock protein expression patterns to identify the location of a circadian clock in the dorsolateral protocerebrum of butterfly brain. To provide a link between the clock and the sun compass, we identified a CRYPTOCHROME-staining neural pathway that likely connects the circadian clock to polarized light input entering brain. PMID:15882645

Sauman, Ivo; Briscoe, Adriana D; Zhu, Haisun; Shi, Dingding; Froy, Oren; Stalleicken, Julia; Yuan, Quan; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M

2005-05-01

258

Listening for Geographies: Music as Sonic Compass Pointing Towards African and Christian Diasporic Horizons in the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can musical sounds reveal history, or collective identity, or new notions of geography, in different ways than texts or migrating people themselves? This essay offers the idea that the sounds of music, with their capacity to index memories and associations, become sonic points on a cognitive compass that orients diasporic people in time and space. Whereas researchers often focus on

Elizabeth McAlister

2011-01-01

259

Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS - Newest Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS investigates the structure and spectrum of hadrons by scattering high energetic hadrons and polarised muons off various fixed targets. During the years 2002-2007, COMPASS focused on nucleon spin physics using 160 GeV/c polarised µ+ beams on polarised deuteron and proton targets, including measurements of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin using longitudinal target polarisation as well as studies of transverse spin effects in the nucleon on a transversely polarised target. One major goal of the physics programme using hadron beams is the search for new states, in particular the search for JPC exotic states and glue-balls. COMPASS measures not only charged but also neutral final-state particles, allowing for investigation of new objects in different reactions and decay channels. In addition COMPASS can measure low-energy QCD constants like, e.g. the electromagnetic polarisability of the pion. Apart from a few days pilot run data taken in 2004 with a 190 GeV/c ?- beam on a Pb target, showing a significant spin-exotic JPC = 1-+ resonance at around 1660 MeV/c2, COMPASS collected high statistics with negative and positive 190 GeV/c hadron beams on a proton (H2) and nuclear (Ni, Pb) targets in 2008 and 2009. We give a selected overview of the newest results and discuss the status of various ongoing analyses.

Nerling, Frank

2012-12-01

260

Chromophore Orientation in Bacteriorhodopsin Determined from the Angular Dependence of Deuterium Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Oriented Purple Membranes †  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orientation of prosthetic groups in membrane proteins is of considerable importance in understanding their functional role in energy conversion, signal transduction, and ion transport. In this work, the orientation of the retinylidene chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) was investigated using 2 H NMR spectroscopy. Bacteriorhodopsin was regenerated with all-trans-retinal stereospecifically deuterated in one of the geminal methyl groups on C1

Stephan Moltke; Alexander A. Nevzorov; Naomi Sakai; Ingrid Wallat; Constantin Job; Koji Nakanishi; Maarten P. Heyn; Michael F. Brown

1998-01-01

261

Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in a national sample of trauma treatment therapists.  

PubMed

For behavioral health professionals working with traumatized clients, continuous and prolonged exposure to the stress of working with the myriad of trauma-related stressors experienced by their clients can lead to various responses including burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. The present study investigates the impact of using evidence-based practices on compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in a random, national sample of self-identified trauma specialists (N=532). The 30-item Professional Quality of Life Scale (Stamm, 2005) and the 19-item Trauma Practices Questionnaire (Craig & Sprang, 2009) were included in a survey to licensed social workers and psychologists from professional membership rosters. Age and years of experience proved to be powerful predictors of only two of the three criterion variables, with younger professionals reporting higher levels of burnout and more experienced providers endorsing higher levels of compassion satisfaction. The utilization of evidence-based practices predicted statistically significant decreases in compassion fatigue and burnout, and increases in compassion satisfaction. The utility of these findings in understanding the process of trauma transmission between therapist and client as well as directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19590994

Craig, C D; Sprang, G

2010-05-01

262

On the metallurgical control of texture sharpness and related magnetic properties in grain-oriented silicon-iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final Goss texture sharpness and the related magnetic behaviour of a grain-oriented silicon-iron sheet is, in the end, controlled by its primary recrystallization texture at final thickness. In spite of the general idea that attributes the final Goss texture sharpness control to the precision of the Goss nuclei present at that stage, it is becoming clear that the main metallurgical role is played instead by the Goss nuclei surrounding texture. This texture selects the secondary recrystallization (SR) grains in a specific Goss-oriented spread range by a mechanism comparable, in principle, to the `lock-and-key' enzymatic selective catalysis mechanism, well known in biochemistry. The microstructure and magnetic behaviour differences between conventional grain-oriented (CGO) and super-oriented (HiB) sheets, as well as between various final sheet thickness products, are explained in this framework.

Fortunati, S.

1994-05-01

263

Compassion, Pride, and Social Intuitions of Self-Other Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion and pride serve contrasting social functions: Compassion motivates care-taking behavior, whereas pride enables the signaling and negotiation of rank within social hierarchies. Across 3 studies, compassion was associated with increased perceived self-other similarity, particularly to weak or vulnerable others. In contrast, pride was associated with an enhanced sense of similarity to strong others, and a decreased sense of similarity

Christopher Oveis; E. J. Horberg; Dacher Keltner

2010-01-01

264

Compassion Fatigue and the Adult Protective Services Social Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects

Dara Bergel Bourassa

2009-01-01

265

Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

2011-01-01

266

Compassion Fatigue: Communication and Burnout toward Social Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study establishes the construct of “compassion fatigue,” encompassing desensitization and emotional burnout, as a phenomenon associated with pervasive communication about social problems. The study marks the first-known empirical investigation of compassion fatigue as it relates to media coverage and interpersonal communication about social problems. A telephone survey methodology was used to measure compassion fatigue among a general, adult population

Katherine N. Kinnick; Dean M. Krugman; Glen T. Cameron

1996-01-01

267

Cryptochromes Define a Novel Circadian Clock Mechanism in Monarch Butterflies That May Underlie Sun Compass Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry), designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in

Haisun Zhu; Ivo Sauman; Quan Yuan; Amy Casselman; Myai Emery-Le; Patrick Emery; Steven M. Reppert

2008-01-01

268

Orientation control of a synthetic columnar perfluorinated supramolecular dendrimer: Surface anchoring and magnetic-field induced alignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orientation ordering of a synthetic perfluorinated supramolecule containing a hydrophilic core group and perfluorinated tails is strongly affected by the functionality, molecular shape, surface anchoring and magnetic field. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), synchrotron X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that the molecule exhibits hexagonal columnar mesophase upon cooling from isotropic phase. The orientation of the columns was controlled by surface anchoring; the columnar axes were perpendicular to the hydrophobic carbon substrates, while planar alignment is favored on hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, the columnar domains align with the magnetic field lines, which is due to diamagnetism of these fan-shaped molecules containing aromatic rings. We show that the magnetic-induced alignment is much effective for the large-scale control of the orientation of the perfluorinated columnar mesophase.

Ki Yoon, Dong; Rim Lee, Su; Ho Kim, Yun; Seong, Baek-Seok; Soo Han, Young; Jung, Hee-Tae

2006-11-01

269

Magnetic properties of grain oriented ultra-thin silicon steel sheets processed by conventional rolling and cross shear rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure consisting of the cross shear rolling (CSR) and the subsequent tertiary recrystallization annealing under dry hydrogen atmosphere was developed to produce the grain oriented ultra-thin silicon sheets less than 0.1mm with high magnetic property performance. For comparison, the conventional rolling (CR) was also used to process the grain oriented ultra-thin silicon steel sheets. The effect of processing

Gao Xiuhua; Qi Kemin; Qiu Chunlin

2006-01-01

270

A Study of the Relationship Between Self-Care, Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout Among Hospice Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice care professionals (HCPs) experience a large number of stressors in their work settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-care, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among HCPs. Thirty-seven HCPs were surveyed regarding their levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Respondents also reported the types of self-care activities in which they took

Karen Alkema; Jeremy M. Linton; Randall Davies

2008-01-01

271

The calm before the storm? Burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

Studies have consistently highlighted the deleterious impact of burnout and compassion fatigue on professional nurses' well-being and willingness to remain in the profession. Yet, as to what extent these noxious conditions are suffered among nursing students is still unclear. In this study 436 undergraduate nursing students completed surveys assessing their experiences of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction (factors of burnout and compassion fatigue). There were no significant differences found between 3rd and 4th year students' reports of detrimental conditions and those of the 1st or 2nd year students. Furthermore, 4th year students reported significantly higher levels of personal accomplishment compared to 1st and 2nd year students. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 3rd and 4th year students revealed that their clinical exposure during these years (especially during the 4th year) may enhance their other-orientation as well as promote role actualization, which may serve as protective features. Students did, however, express concern regarding an inevitable onset of burnout at some point during their professional careers. It is suggested that a key to understanding the onset and experience of burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses is to continue to examine the transition from student to professional nurse and the cultural atmosphere of nursing education compared to professional practice. PMID:23434192

Michalec, Barret; Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Mahoney, Margaret

2013-02-19

272

The neurobiological link between compassion and love  

PubMed Central

Summary Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general ‘positive state’, even ‘spiritual’ at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain’s limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly ‘amazing’.

Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

2011-01-01

273

First results from EBW emission diagnostics on COMPASS.  

PubMed

COMPASS tokamak shots at low magnetic field feature overdense plasmas during the extended current flat-top phase. The first harmonic of the electron cyclotron emission is completely cutoff for O and X modes and so the emission caused by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field and undergoing so called EBW-X-O conversion process can be observed. We perform an angular scan of the EBW emission during a set of comparable shots in order to determine the optimum antenna direction. A weak dependence of the radiative temperature on the antenna angles indicates an influence of multiple reflections from the vessel wall. The low temperature at the mode conversion region is responsible for the collisional damping of EBW, which can explain several times lower measured radiative temperature than the electron temperature measured by the Thomson scattering system. PMID:23126985

Zajac, J; Preinhaelter, J; Urban, J; Aftanas, M; Bílková, P; Böhm, P; Fuchs, V; Nanobashvili, S; Weinzettl, V; Zácek, F

2012-10-01

274

First results from EBW emission diagnostics on COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COMPASS tokamak shots at low magnetic field feature overdense plasmas during the extended current flat-top phase. The first harmonic of the electron cyclotron emission is completely cutoff for O and X modes and so the emission caused by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field and undergoing so called EBW-X-O conversion process can be observed. We perform an angular scan of the EBW emission during a set of comparable shots in order to determine the optimum antenna direction. A weak dependence of the radiative temperature on the antenna angles indicates an influence of multiple reflections from the vessel wall. The low temperature at the mode conversion region is responsible for the collisional damping of EBW, which can explain several times lower measured radiative temperature than the electron temperature measured by the Thomson scattering system.

Zajac, J.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Aftanas, M.; Bílková, P.; Böhm, P.; Fuchs, V.; Nanobashvili, S.; Weinzettl, V.; Žá?ek, F.

2012-10-01

275

Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO3 nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO3 slurry, BaTiO3 nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO3 grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

Kita, T.; Kondo, S.; Takei, T.; Kumada, N.; Nakashima, K.; Fujii, I.; Wada, S.; Suzuki, T. S.; Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kawada, S.; Kimura, M.

2011-10-01

276

Synthesis of orientedly bioconjugated core\\/shell Fe 3O 4@Au magnetic nanoparticles for cell separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orientedly bioconjugated core\\/shell Fe3O4@Au magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized for cell separation. The Fe3O4@Au magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing HAuCl4 on the surfaces of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which were further characterized in detail by TEM, XRD and UV–vis spectra. Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody was orientedly bioconjugated to the surface of Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles through affinity binding between the Fc portion of the antibody

Yi-Ran Cui; Chao Hong; Ying-Lin Zhou; Yue Li; Xiao-Ming Gao; Xin-Xiang Zhang

277

Beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics with controlled crystal orientation fabricated by application of external magnetic field during the slip casting process.  

PubMed

Beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) is a resorbable bioceramic that has hitherto been utilized in the medical field. Since it crystallizes in the anisotropic hexagonal system, properties such as chemical and physical ones are expected to depend on its crystal axis direction and/or on its crystal plane (anisotropy). Control of crystal orientation is thus important when used in polycrystalline form. Meanwhile, application of a strong magnetic field has been found to be a promising technique to control crystal orientation of anisotropic shape or structured crystals. In this work, we attempted to fabricate ?-TCP ceramics with controlled crystal orientation by applying an external magnetic field during the slip casting process and subsequently sintering them at 1050°C, below the ?-? transition temperature. Application of a vertical magnetic field increased intensities of planes perpendicular to c-plane on the top surface, while a horizontal one with simultaneous mechanical mold rotation decreased it. These results indicated that crystal orientation of ?-TCP ceramics were successfully controlled by the external magnetic field and together that the magnetic susceptibility of ?-TCP is ?(c[perpendicular])>?(c//). PMID:23623120

Hagio, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazushige; Kohama, Takenori; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwai, Kazuhiko

2013-03-23

278

Magnetic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Everywhere on the Earth there is a natural magnetic field which moves a horizontally free-moving magnetic needle (magnetic\\u000a compass) to magnetic north. The magnetic field is a vector field, i.e., it is described by its magnitude and direction. The\\u000a magnetic field consists of three parts: the main field, a fluctuating field, and a local anomaly field.

Klaus Knödel; FRANZ KÖNIG; GERHARD LANGE; HARALD LINDNER; REINIE MEYER; KLAUS-HENRIK MITTENZWEY; ANDREAS SCHUCK; KNUT SEIDEL; PETER WEIDELT; THOMAS WONIK; DIETER EISENBURGER; RICARDO A. OLEA; HELLFRIED PETZOLD; THOMAS RICHTER

279

Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind and the orientation of the underlying heliospheric magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their purest form, Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are transverse fluctuations displaying coupled variations in velocity, V, and magnetic field, B, in which |B| remains nearly constant. Consequently, the fluctuations in the component of V and B corresponding to the direction of the underlying magnetic field vector, Bo, upon which the fluctuations are superimposed are always one-sided relative to base values rather than being equitably distributed about average values. Average values of the direction of B in the presence of large-amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind thus generally do not correspond to the direction of Bo, the quantity needed for comparisons with global models of the heliospheric magnetic field and for determining the parallel and perpendicular components of the fluctuation k-vectors. Here we illustrate the one-sided aspect of the fluctuations in Helios 1 data obtained at 0.36 AU at a time when Bo was directed nearly radially outward from the Sun. Using the Helios data and simulated data sets containing large amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations in which the direction of Bo is known precisely we demonstrate that the orientation of the average magnetic field vector, Bav, does not, in general, correspond to the direction of Bo. Minimum variance analysis of our simulated sets of Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind demonstrates that the minimum variance direction corresponds roughly to the direction of Bav, consistent with many previous observational studies, but does not correspond to the direction of propagation of the fluctuations, the group velocity of which is directed along Bo.

Gosling, J. T.; Teh, W.

2009-12-01

280

The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The sky polarized light pattern is visible underwater within the critical angle of refraction and can be used to position the sun in the sky. The present study determined whether the shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris could use this polarization pattern for sun compass orientation.2.In the laboratory, Palaemonetes oriented parallel to the e-vector of downwelling polarized light regardless of their phototactic state.

Sydnee M. Goddard; Richard B. Forward

1991-01-01

281

Magnetic behaviour versus tensile deformation mechanisms in a non-oriented Fe–(3 wt.%)Si steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an extended in situ magnetic characterisation of a non-oriented (NO) Fe–(3 wt.%)Si steel. An appropriate experimental device was created and magnetic measurements were performed under uniaxial tensile stresses approaching and exceeding the macroscopic elastic limit ?e and in the corresponding unloaded states. Both Barkhausen noise and B–H hysteresis loops were measured. The sensitivity to stress was found

V. E. Iordache; E. Hug; N. Buiron

2003-01-01

282

Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering.  

PubMed

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing. PMID:23696200

Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J

2013-05-21

283

Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering  

PubMed Central

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals’ capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (i) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior, and (ii) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy young adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, greater altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training, where greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement in neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of others, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.

Weng, Helen Y.; Fox, Andrew S.; Shackman, Alexander J.; Stodola, Diane E.; Caldwell, Jessica Z. K.; Olson, Matthew C.; Rogers, Gregory M.; Davidson, Richard J.

2013-01-01

284

The horizontal magnetic dance of the honeybee is compatible with a single-domain ferromagnetic magnetoreceptor.  

PubMed

Although honeybees are able to sense the geomagnetic field, very little is known about the method in which they are able to detect it. The recent discovery of biochemically precipitated magnetite (Fe3O4) in bees, however, suggests the possibility that they might use a simple compass organelle for magnetoreception. If so, their orientation accuracy ought to be related to the accuracy of the compass, e.g. it should be poor in a weak background fields and enhanced in strong fields. When dancing to the magnetic directions on a horizontal honeycomb, bees clearly show this type of alignment behavior. A least-squares fit between the expected alignment of a compass and this horizontal dance data is consistent with this hypothesis, and implies that the receptors have magnetic moments of 5 x 10(-13) emu, or magnetite volumes near 10(-15) cm3. Additional considerations suggest that these crystals are slightly sub-spherical and single-domain in size, held symmetrically in their receptors, and have a magnetic orientation energy of approximately to 6 kT in the geomagnetic field. A model of a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor consistent with these constraints is discussed. PMID:7295911

Kirschvink, J L

1981-01-01

285

Changes in the composition and content of lipids in the leaves of radish plants of different magnetic orientation induced by weak permanent magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of weak permanent horizontal magnetic field (PMF) with the intensity of 403 A\\/m on the composition and content\\u000a of polar and neutral lipids and their constituent FAs was investigated in the leaves of radish plants (Raphanus sativus L., var. radicula D.C.), cv. Rozovo-krasnyi s belym konchikom, which belong to two major types of magnetic orientation (TMO): North-South (NS)

G. V. Novitskaya; T. V. Feofilaktova; T. K. Kocheshkova; I. U. Yusupova; Yu. I. Novitskii

2008-01-01

286

Pore network geometry in low permeability argillites from magnetic fabric data and oriented mercury injections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between mineral fabric and pore network geometry anisotropy is studied for representative clay-rich lithologies from the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of the Andra Laboratory (Paris Basin, France), sampled from the oblique borehole-core #EST211. Comparisons between standard magnetic fabric measurements (AMS) that give the mineral fabric, high pressure mercury injections parallel to the AMS axes, that reflect the pore structure parameter and AMS measurement after impregnation with a ferrofluid at different pressures, giving the shape of the pore networks, allow us to propose three pore models. (1) In the silt-enriched specimens the transfer pathway is found to be controlled by vertical pathways. (2) In the carbonate-enriched specimens the best transfer pathway is parallel to bedding, and in this plane is almost isotropic in spite of an anisotropic pore structure. (3) In the clay-enriched specimens, at the site of the Andra Laboratory, the transfer pathway is also parallel to bedding and ~20% higher parallel to both the magnetic lineation and the pore shape preferred orientation.

Esteban, Lionel; Géraud, Yves; Bouchez, Jean Luc

2006-09-01

287

Utilization of gyroscopic compass with borehole television camera in Devonian shale wells, Appalachian basin  

SciTech Connect

The color Borehole Television Camera has, in the three short years since its introduction in the Appalachian basin, become an extremely valuable tool in evaluating wells in Devonian shale. This has been due to the camera's ability to detect fracturing and small hydrocarbon entries that are below the resolution threshold of conventional geophysical logging. This potential of the camera has been greatly enhanced by the addition of a gyroscopic compass to the basic tool. This compass gives the added value of orientation to observed phenomena in both open and cased holes. In the open hole, the camera can be used to determine the orientation of fracturing. This feature is extremely important because fracture orientation can vary with depth, which may be the reason that some previously observed fractures make gas, whereas others within the same well bore do not. The productive fracture orientation can also be tied back to regional lineation studies. Within the open hole, the gyroscope can also be used to orient sidewall coring operations so that cores can, in addition to regular analyses, be evaluated for directional properties, such as permeability and direction of the source beds. Induced fractures, created by open-hole stress testing, can also be observed and their orientation determined.

Walbe, K.

1988-08-01

288

A Moral Compass. For Parents Particularly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses parents' responsibility to provide their children with a moral compass that comprises respect for others, kindness and caring, honesty and honor, and reverence for life. Recognizes that children experience difficulty in achieving goodness and that good behavior sometimes encounters painful consequences. Suggests that parents model…

Klein, Helen Altman

2002-01-01

289

Compassion Fatigue in the Military Caregiver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compassion Fatigue (CF) is a critical problem with caregivers throughout the Military who work with combat survivors and their families. There is an urgent need for caregivers at all levels to recognize and receive proper education and/or intervention. Th...

M. J. Hayes

2009-01-01

290

Sensorless Field Oriented Control utilizing a Sliding Mode Observer for control of an actively-rectified permanent magnet synchronous generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of sensorless control for permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) has progressed rapidly over the past decade. This is contributed to the increased reliability and reduced cost obtained by removal of the traditional mechanical feedback devices that were needed to accurately report rotor position in applications requiring a Field Oriented Control (FOC) scheme. In these type applications, accurate electrical

Justin Owen; Jeff Strouse; Michael J. Marcel

2011-01-01

291

The Effect of Spark Ablation on High Permeability Grain-Oriented 3% Silicon Iron under Two-Dimensional Magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spark ablation method is one of the techniques used to improve performance in rolling direction of grain oriented 3% silicon iron sheets. In some parts of electrical devices such as the cores of electrical motors, and the transformers, notably joints, the magnetization vector has a two-dimensional as well as a one-dimensional (rolling direction), components. The former caused an increase in total core losses. In this paper, a study on magnetic properties of the spark ablated material under two-dimensional magnetization is presented.

Mahadi, W. N. L.

2007-05-01

292

Tunneling magnetoresistance in (001)-oriented FeCo/MgO/FeCo magnetic tunneling junctions grown by sputtering deposition  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) with MgO tunnel barrier have been fabricated on both oriented and nonoriented buffer layers on Si(001) substrate by magnetron sputtering. FeCo/MgO/FeCo MTJs fabricated on oriented buffer layers show larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) value up to 84% without high temperature postannealing, whereas those MTJs on nonoriented buffer layers show 45% of TMR. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal an excellent morphology and very coherent crystal structure with FeCo(001)[110]/MgO(001)[100]/FeCo(001)[110] orientation. The results indicate that high TMR can be achieved without high temperature postannealing by sputtering deposition on appropriate oriented buffer layers.

Moriyama, T.; Ni, C.; Wang, W.G.; Zhang, X.; Xiao, John Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2006-05-29

293

Spin-Galvanic Effect and Spin Orientation by Current in Non-Magnetic Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lately, there is much interest in the use of the spin of carriers in semiconductor quantum well (QW) structures together with their charge to realize novel concepts like spintronics. The necessary conditions to develop spintronic devices are high spin polarizations in QWs and a large spin-splitting of subbands in k-space. The latter is important for the ability to control spins with an external electric field by the Rashba effect. Significant progress has been achieved recently in generating large spin polarizations, in demonstrating the Rashba splitting and also in using the splitting for manipulating the spins. At the same time as these conditions are fulfilled and spins are polarized in-plane of QW, it has been shown that the spin polarization itself drives a current resulting in the spin galvanic effect [1,2]. The spin-galvanic effect is due to asymmetric spin-flip scattering of spin polarized carriers and it is determined by the process of spin relaxation. In some optical experiments, where circularly polarized radiation is used to orient spins, the photocurrent may represent a sum of spin-galvanic and circular photogalvanic effects effects.2,3 Both effects provide methods to determine spin relaxation times and the relative strength of the Rashba/Dresselhaus spin-splitting in semiconductor quantum wells.2 The inverse spin-galvanic effect4 has also been detected demonstrating that electric current in non-magnetic but gyrotropic QWs results in a non-equilibrium spin orientation. Just recently a first direct experimental proof of this effect was obtained in semiconductor QWs5,6 as well as in strained bulk material.7 Microscopically the effect is a consequence of spin-orbit coupling which lifts the spin-egeneracy in k-space of charge carriers together with spin dependent relaxation. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Ganichev, S. D.

294

Sustained quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.  

PubMed

In artificial systems, quantum superposition and entanglement typically decay rapidly unless cryogenic temperatures are used. Could life have evolved to exploit such delicate phenomena? Certain migratory birds have the ability to sense very subtle variations in Earth's magnetic field. Here we apply quantum information theory and the widely accepted "radical pair" model to analyze recent experimental observations of the avian compass. We find that superposition and entanglement are sustained in this living system for at least tens of microseconds, exceeding the durations achieved in the best comparable man-made molecular systems. This conclusion is starkly at variance with the view that life is too "warm and wet" for such quantum phenomena to endure. PMID:21405313

Gauger, Erik M; Rieper, Elisabeth; Morton, John J L; Benjamin, Simon C; Vedral, Vlatko

2011-01-25

295

Progress in rapid tomography for the COMPASS tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After its reinstallation in Prague, the COMPASS tokamak has completed its first year of operation. In this period, among others the first set of Soft X-ray, bolometric and visible light profile cameras has been installed and commissioned. Three more sets (under construction) shall be installed at different ports of the same toroidal sector allowing for plasma tomography with a prospective of real-time processing. A dedicated tomography algorithm for the planned setup was developed, including set-up of the contribution matrix and speed optimization. The proposed code is based on robust and validated post-processing tomography algorithm with a potential to ensue and refine a simplified real-time version. The code implements rapid Minimum Fisher Regularization with optional unisotropic smoothing constrained by magnetic flux surfaces. Reconstruction on simulated data (phantom plasma emissivity models) provided quantitative evaluation of the tomography performance in the designed diagnostic set-up.

Mlynar, Jan; Weinzettl, Vladimir; Odstrcil, Michal

2010-11-01

296

Artifacts in the Wake: Leadership via an Oriented Compass Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although inextricable, the act of leading, the leader, and outcome of leadership are unique entities. Lack of such differentiation may ensnare novice leaders in broad suppositions. This conceptual article introduces a tool for analyzing leadership. Leaders can leverage the model to evaluate the act of leading, in route, via a measurable…

Fallon, Paul D.

2013-01-01

297

How dim is dim? Precision of the celestial compass in moonlight and sunlight  

PubMed Central

Prominent in the sky, but not visible to humans, is a pattern of polarized skylight formed around both the Sun and the Moon. Dung beetles are, at present, the only animal group known to use the much dimmer polarization pattern formed around the Moon as a compass cue for maintaining travel direction. However, the Moon is not visible every night and the intensity of the celestial polarization pattern gradually declines as the Moon wanes. Therefore, for nocturnal orientation on all moonlit nights, the absolute sensitivity of the dung beetle's polarization detector may limit the precision of this behaviour. To test this, we studied the straight-line foraging behaviour of the nocturnal ball-rolling dung beetle Scarabaeus satyrus to establish when the Moon is too dim—and the polarization pattern too weak—to provide a reliable cue for orientation. Our results show that celestial orientation is as accurate during crescent Moon as it is during full Moon. Moreover, this orientation accuracy is equal to that measured for diurnal species that orient under the 100 million times brighter polarization pattern formed around the Sun. This indicates that, in nocturnal species, the sensitivity of the optical polarization compass can be greatly increased without any loss of precision.

Dacke, M.; Byrne, M. J.; Baird, E.; Scholtz, C. H.; Warrant, E. J.

2011-01-01

298

Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self-other similarity.  

PubMed

Compassion and pride serve contrasting social functions: Compassion motivates care-taking behavior, whereas pride enables the signaling and negotiation of rank within social hierarchies. Across 3 studies, compassion was associated with increased perceived self-other similarity, particularly to weak or vulnerable others. In contrast, pride was associated with an enhanced sense of similarity to strong others, and a decreased sense of similarity to weak others. These findings were obtained using trait measures (Study 1) and experimental inductions (Studies 2 and 3) of compassion and pride, examining the sense of similarity to strong or weak groups (Studies 1 and 2) and unfamiliar individuals (Study 3). The influences of compassion and pride on perceived self-other similarity could not be accounted for by positive mood, nor was this effect constrained by the ingroup status of the target group or individual. Discussion focuses on the contributions these findings make to an understanding of compassion and pride. PMID:20307133

Oveis, Christopher; Horberg, E J; Keltner, Dacher

2010-04-01

299

Magnetic monitoring of earth and space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For centuries, navigators of the world's oceans have been familiar with an effect of Earth's magnetic field: It imparts a directional preference to the needle of a compass. Although in some settings magnetic orientation remains important, the modern science of geomagnetism has emerged from its romantic nautical origins and developed into a subject of great depth and diversity. The geomagnetic field is used to explore the dynamics of Earth's interior and its surrounding space environment, and geomagnetic data are used for geophysical mapping, mineral exploration, risk mitigation, and other practical applications. A global distribution of ground-based magnetic observatories supports those pursuits by providing accurate records of the magnetic-field direction and intensity at fixed locations and over long periods of time.

Love, J. J.

2008-01-01

300

Magnetic gold nanoparticles in SERS-based sandwich immunoassay for antigen detection by well oriented antibodies.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop an indirect, robust and simple in application method for the detection of bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was applied as detection method. Magnetic gold nanoparticles (MNP-Au) modified by antibodies in oriented or random manner were used for the binding of gp51. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the best antibody immobilization and antigen capturing efficiency was achieved using fragmented antibodies obtained after reduction of intact antibodies with dithiothreitol. In order to increase efficiency and sensitivity of immunoassay Raman labels consisting of gold nanorods coated by 5-thio-nitrobenzoic acid layer with covalently bounded antibodies have been constructed. The LOD and LOQ of the proposed immunoassay for antigen gp51 detection were found to be 0.95?gmL(-1) and 3.14?gmL(-1), respectively. This immunoassay was successfully applied for the detection of gp51 in milk samples in a rapid, reliable and selective manner. We believe that the proposed SERS-based immunoassay format can be applied for the detection of other proteins. PMID:23334004

Baniukevic, Julija; Hakki Boyaci, Ismail; Goktug Bozkurt, Akif; Tamer, Ugur; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ramanaviciene, Almira

2012-12-14

301

ComPaSS: efficient communication services for scalable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In massively parallel computers (MPCS), efictent communicat~on among processors is critzcal to performance. This paper describes the znzt~al implementation of the ComPaSS communication library to support scalable software development in MPCS. ComPaSS provides hxgh-level global commun~cation operations for both data manipulation and process control, many of which are based upon a small set of low-level communication prim$ttves. The ComPaSS ltbrary

Philip K. McKinley; Hong Xu; Edgar T. Kalns; Lionel M. Ni

1992-01-01

302

Micromegas, a microstrip detector for Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results obtained with a gaseous microstrip detector Micromegas developed for the tracking in the high-rate environment of the COMPASS experiment at CERN are presented. A 26×36cm2 prototype equipped with the low-noise preamplifier SFE16 was tested in a high-energy hadron beam at CERN. With a gas mixture based on neon, the full efficiency of the Micromegas prototype is obtained at a gain of 6400; the spatial resolution is 50/?m and the time jitter 8.5ns. We have studied the problem of discharges that affect this kind of microstrip detector, and found that, at fixed gain, the probability of discharge is higher for heavier gas mixtures in the detector. In the conditions of the COMPASS experiment, discharges are kept at a low rate.

Abbon, P.; Ball, J.; Bedfer, Y.; Carasco, C.; Delagnes, E.; Durand, D.; Faivre, J.-C.; Fonvieille, H.; Giganon, A.; Kunne, F.; Goff, J.-M. J.; Lehar, F.; Magnon, A.; Neyret, D.; Pasquetto, E.; Pereira, H.; Platchkov, S.; Poisson, E.; Rebourgeard, P.; Thers, D.

2001-04-01

303

Compassion Fatigue and Countertransference: Two Different Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable conceptual confusion about the differences between compassion fatigue and countertransference.\\u000a This often results in them being treated as the same phenomena, both in the literature and clinically. This paper maintains\\u000a that these are, in fact, two different concepts that derive from different sources and serve different functions. Each of\\u000a these two concepts requires different kinds of

Joan Berzoff; Elizabeth Kita

2010-01-01

304

Recent results from COMPASS muon scattering measurements  

SciTech Connect

A sample of recent results in muon scattering measurements from the COMPASS experiment at CERN will be reviewed. These include high energy processes with longitudinally polarised proton and deuteron targets. High energy polarised measurements provide important constraints for studying the nucleon spin structure and thus permit to test the applicability of the theoretical framework of factorisation theorems and perturbative QCD. Specifically, latest results on longitudinal quark polarisation, quark helicity densities and gluon polarisation will be reviewed.

Capozza, Luigi [Irfu/SPhN - CEA Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

2012-10-23

305

Self-Compassion and Well-being among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67–90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with poorer physical health, self-compassion was associated with greater subjective well-being. In Study 2, 71 participants between the ages of 63 and 97 completed a questionnaire assessing self-compassion, well-being, and their willingness to use assistance for walking, hearing, and memory. Self-compassionate participants reported being less bothered by the use of assistance than those low in self-compassion, although the relationship between self-compassion and willingness to use assistive devices was mixed. These findings suggest that self-compassion is associated with well-being in later life and that interventions to promote self-compassion may improve quality of life among older adults.

Allen, Ashley Batts; Goldwasser, Eleanor R.; Leary, Mark R.

2012-01-01

306

Police trauma encounters: precursors of compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

Given frequent assignments of responding to critical situations, police officers are a high-risk population for exposure to traumatic stress. It was hypothesized that types and increased frequencies of certain traumas lead to increased risk for PTSD symptoms and eventually to a state of compassion fatigue through secondary processes. Compassion fatigue was conceptualized as the cost of caring without reward or result. Results indicated that the homicide of another officer in the line of duty and dealing with victims of serious crime resulted in the greatest increased risk of trauma symptoms. Gender differences were found in trauma risk, with women officers experiencing higher risk from dealing with abused children. and male officers experiencing higher risk due to shooting incidents where officers were involved. It was concluded that increased frequency and type of traumas, especially those occurring to other co-workers and those associated with gender, may eventually lead to a secondary process of emotional compassion fatigue. Available strategies for prevention are discussed PMID:15298078

Violanti, John M; Gehrke, Anne

2004-01-01

307

Microwave complex permeability of Fe3O4 nanoflake composites with and without magnetic field-induced rotational orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoflakes with widths of 100-200 nm and thicknesses of 10-80 nm were prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method. Fe3O4 nanoflake composites with and without magnetic field-induced rotational orientation of flake planes of Fe3O4 nanoflakes in paraffin binder were fabricated using 35 wt. % Fe3O4 nanoflakes. The rotationally oriented composite showed higher permeability and resonance frequency than the nonoriented one, and its value of (?0-1)fr reached 214.8 GHz and exceeded the Snoek's limit. Considering a uniform and a random distribution of flake planes of Fe3O4 nanoflakes in the oriented and nonoriented composites, respectively, the complex permeability of both composites was calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman's effective medium theory in the 2-18 GHz microwave frequency range.

Liu, Xianguo; Wing Or, Siu; Ming Leung, Chung; Ho, S. L.

2013-05-01

308

Orientation of superconducting crystalline MgB(sub 2) in magnetic field determined by x-ray diffraction.  

SciTech Connect

It is well established experimentally and theoretically that MgB{sub 2} exhibits unique and intriguing anisotropic properties. These are manifested in the ratios of the upper critical fields {gamma}{sub H} = H{sub c2}, {sup ab}/H{sub cw}{sup c} and of the London penetration depth {gamma}{sub {lambda}} = {lambda}{sub c}/{lambda}{sub ab}. Experimental evidence shows that {gamma}{sub H} = {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {approx} 2 near T{sub c}, and at low temperatures {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {approx} 1 and {gamma}{sub H} {approx} 6. For a crystal with {gamma}{sub H} = {gamma}{sub {lambda}} in a field along the c-axis, superconducting free single crystal grains experience a torque that tends to orient their ab plane parallel to the field. However, for {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {ne} {gamma}{sub H}, recent theoretical predictions suggest that a crystal will orient with its c-axis along the magnetic field. Thus, the temperature dependencies of {gamma}{sub {lambda}} and {gamma}{sub H} suggest that near T{sub c}, where {gamma}{sub H} = {gamma}{sub {lambda}} an MgB{sub 2} crystal will orient with its ab-axis parallel to magnetic field, and at low temperatures where {gamma}{sub {lambda}} {ne} {gamma}{sub H} it will orient with its c-axis along the field. Herein, we present synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies to determine the preferred orientation of crystalline powdered samples under applied magnetic fields at various temperatures.

Li, J.; Vaknin, D.; Bud'ko, S.; Canfield, P. C.; Pal, D.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Islam, Z.; Kogan, V. G.; Iowa State; Univ. of Notre Dame

2006-01-01

309

Growth temperature dependence of the crystal orientation and the magnetic properties of CoMn2O4 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We successfully grew epitaxial CoMn2O4 thin films on Nb(0.1wt)-doped SrTiO3(001) single crystal substrates for the first time using the pulsed laser deposition technique and studied growth temperature dependencies of their structural and magnetic properties. Interestingly, the crystal orientation of the films depends on the growth temperature. At temperature below 870 °C, the surface normal direction of the film is the (400) direction with strained or relaxed domains whereas it changes to the direction (004) at 920 °C. M-T curves show features of ferrimagnetic spin order for all samples while the shapes of the M-T curves and M-H loops strongly depend on the growth temperature. These alterations of the magnetic properties with changing growth temperature are attributed to the changes in the crystal orientation of the CoMn2O4 thin films.

Koo, T. Y.; Kim, J.-Y.; Kang, S. H.; Kim, I. W.; Jeong, Y. H.; Jung, M. W.; Song, J. H.

2013-08-01

310

Nuclear magnetic resonance of 198Au and 199Au oriented in a hcp cobalt single crystal at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observation of quadrupole-interaction-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei in a hexagonal Co host. The radioactive isotopes 198Au and 199Au were mass separator implanted into a hcp Co single crystal and nuclear magnetic resonance was detected via the anisotropy of the ? radiation at temperatures of ~10 mK. These experiments have shown that hcp Co might be the best host matrix for the determination of the electric quadrupole moments of heavy radioactive nuclei with resonance precision.

Eder, R.; Hagn, E.; Zech, E.; Deicher, M.

1988-09-01

311

Domain wall assisted magnetization switching in (111) oriented L1{sub 0} FePt grown on a soft magnetic metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

We report on growth and magnetic properties of exchange-coupled (111)-L1{sub 0} FePt hard/CoFeTaB soft magnetic metallic glass bilayered structure processed at lower temperature ({approx}400 deg. C). Single phaselike hysteresis loops with tailorable coercivity (<8.2 kOe) in out of plane direction are obtained. The magnetization switching mechanism is identified as domain wall assisted. In views of excellent nanofabrication abilities of metallic glass thin film and the ability to grow preferred oriented L1{sub 0} FePt, the present bilayered structure is very promising for the fabrication of high density bit--patterned magnetic recording media and other spintronic devices.

Kaushik, Neelam [World Premier Initiative (WPI) Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sharma, Parmanand; Yubuta, Kunio; Makino, Akihiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-08-16

312

Nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented rare-earth nuclei in rare-earth hosts: Application to 160Tb  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the application of nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei to rare-earth impurities implanted in ferromagnetic crystals of heavy rare-earth hosts. The experimental aspects are treated in some detail; we present results obtained on 160Tb, and give a formal description of the experiments. A discussion of extension to other, similar systems with applications in nuclear, solid-state, and low-temperature physics

W. D. Brewer; P. Roman; M. Boettcher; B. Illerhaus; H. Marshak; K. Freitag; P. Herzog

1988-01-01

313

Effect of Choline Chloride on the Lipid Content and Composition in the Leaves of Principal Magnetically-Oriented Radish Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of radish seed treatment with choline chloride on the number and weight of leaves, the weight of roots, as well as the content and composition of polar and neutral lipids and their component fatty acids in the leaves of principal magnetically-oriented types (MOTs) of radish (cv. Rosovo-krasnyi s belym konchikom), that is, North–South (NS) and West–East (WE) ones,

G. V. Novitskaya; T. K. Kocheshkova; T. V. Feofilaktova; Yu. I. Novitskii

2004-01-01

314

Orientation dependent resistive transition broadening in magnetic field of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the orientation dependent resistive transition broadening in magnetic field of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films on MgO(100) sustrate grown in situ by off-axis single target sputtering. There is less broadening for H//J than for H?J for H parallel to ab planes. We conclude that in these films the resistive transition broadening for H?J is in large part due to Lorentz force assited flux motion.

Eom, C. B.; Sun, J. Z.; Ryu, S.; Laderman, S. S.; Yamamoto, K.; Kapitulnik, A.; Geballe, T. H.

1989-12-01

315

Nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented rare-earth nuclei in rare-earth hosts: Application to /sup 160/Tb  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the application of nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei to rare-earth impurities implanted in ferromagnetic crystals of heavy rare-earth hosts. The experimental aspects are treated in some detail; we present results obtained on /sup 160/TbTb, and give a formal description of the experiments. A discussion of extension to other, similar systems with applications in nuclear, solid-state, and low-temperature physics is given.

Brewer, W.D.; Roman, P.; Boettcher, M.; Illerhaus, B.; Marshak, H.; Freitag, K.; Herzog, P.

1988-12-01

316

Compass roses on the Book of Navigation ( Kitab-? Bahriye): Declination data source for geomagnetic field models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is surrounded by a geomagnetic field that is generated by dynamo processes in the core like a gigantic magnet. The Earth's geomagnetic field shifts with time and location. There has been a comprehensive effort for modelling the geomagnetic field of the Earth at regional and global scales by several researchers in the recent decades. The magnetic data from historical sources have a great importance in geomagnetic field modelling. The declination was the first measured geomagnetic field element with the early use of compasses for navigation. In this study the declination values estimated from compass roses drawn on the Book of Navigation ( Kitab-? Bahriye) that are georeferenced by an artificial neural network are compared to the declination values based on the geomagnetic field models CALS3K.3 and SCHA.DIF.3K. The results show that the compass roses drawn on the portolan charts of Kitab-? Bahriye can be used as declination data sources for regional or global geomagnetic field models.

Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Gullu, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Dereli, Mehmet A.

2010-10-01

317

Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Team, University C.

2007-12-12

318

Seed orientation and magnetic field strength have more influence on tomato seed performance than relative humidity and duration of exposure to non-uniform static magnetic fields.  

PubMed

Different factors (e.g., light, humidity, and temperature) including exposure to static magnetic fields (SMFs), referred here as critical factors, can significantly affect horticultural seed performance. However, the link between magnetic field parameters and other interdependent factors affecting seed viability is unclear. The importance of these critical factors affecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) var. MST/32 seed performance was assessed after performing several treatments based on a L9 (3(4)) (four factors at three levels) orthogonal array (OA) design. The variable factors in the design were magnetic flux density (R1=332.1±37.8mT; R2=108.7±26.9mT; and R3=50.6±10.5mT), exposure time (1, 2, and 24h), seed orientation (North polarity, South polarity, and control - no magnetic field), and relative humidity (RH) (7.0, 25.5, and 75.5%). After seed moisture content stabilisation at the different chosen RH, seeds were exposed in dark under laboratory conditions to several treatments based on the OA design before performance evaluation. Treatments not employing magnetic field exposure were used as controls. Results indicate that electrolyte leakage rate was reduced by a factor of 1.62 times during seed imbibition when non-uniform SMFs were employed. Higher germination (?11.0%) was observed in magnetically-exposed seeds than in non-exposed ones, although seedlings emerging from SMF treatments did not show a consistent increase in biomass accumulation. The respective influence of the four critical factors tested on seed performance was ranked (in decreasing order) as seed orientation to external magnetic fields, magnetic field strength, RH, and exposure time. This study suggests a significant effect of non-uniform SMFs on seed performance with respect to RH, and more pronounced effects are observed during seed imbibition rather than during later developmental stages. PMID:23759543

Poinapen, Danny; Brown, Daniel C W; Beeharry, Girish K

2013-06-10

319

Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei in an insulating magnetic material: 54 Mn?MnCl 2 .4H 2 O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first observation of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei in an insulating magnetic material is reported.\\u000a The system studied was the ordered antiferromagnet54Mn?MnCl2.4H2O. The response of the54Mn spins to a single pulse of variable length, the free induction decay, and Hahn spin-echo have all been observed. A discussion\\u000a of the transverse decoherent relaxation timeT\\u000a 2 in MnCl2.4H2O is

M. Le Gros; A. Kotlicki; B. G. Turrell

1987-01-01

320

Hematological parameters' changes in mice subchronically exposed to static magnetic fields of different orientations.  

PubMed

Static magnetic fields (SMFs) are time independent fields whose intensity can be spatially dependent. This study investigates influence of subchronic continuous exposure to upward and downward directed SMF on hematological parameters and spleen cellularity in mice. The experiment is performed on the Northern hemisphere; consequently, the vertical component of geomagnetic field is directed downward. Male, Swiss-Webster, 6 weeks old mice were exposed to the vertically declining SMF. Mice were divided in three groups and continuously exposed or not exposed for 28 days to the SMF characterized by the averaged field of 16 mT and averaged field gradient of 10 mT/cm. Differently oriented SMF did not alter hemoglobin and hematocrit content among the groups. However, the groups exposed to the upward and downward fields had statistically significant higher levels of serum transferrin compared to the control. Moreover, spleen cellularity in animals in the downward group was significantly higher compared to the upward and control group. In addition, spleen lymphocytes in both of the exposed groups were significantly higher than in the control group. In contrast, spleen granulocytes in the exposed groups were significantly lower than in the control group. Significant decrease was also observed in brain and liver iron content with concomitant increase of iron in serum and spleen in exposed animals. Subchronic continuous exposure to 16 mT SMF caused lymphocyte and granulocyte redistribution between spleen and blood. This distribution is typical for stress induced hematological changes. These results suggest that observed changes were not due to an unspecific stress response, but that they were rather caused by specific adaptation to subchronic SMF exposure. PMID:22627015

Djordjevich, Drago M; De Luka, Silvio R; Milovanovich, Ivan D; Jankovi?, Saša; Stefanovi?, Srdjan; Veskovi?-Mora?anin, Slavica; Cirkovi?, Saša; Ili?, Andjelija Ž; Risti?-Djurovi?, Jasna L; Trbovich, Alexander M

2012-05-23

321

Second-harmonic generation in magnetic colloids by orientation of the nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that an optical second harmonic (SH) is generated in a magnetic colloid if a static magnetic field which breaks the fluid isotropy is applied. We propose a statistical model in which all the magnetic nanoparticles are supposed to be identical with a nonzero complex second-order polarizability tensor bound to their magnetic moment. These grains align under a static

J. Lenglet; A. Bourdon; J.-C. Bacri; R. Perzynski; G. Demouchy

1996-01-01

322

Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co2FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrathin films of Co2FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films.

Wen, F. S.; Xiang, J. Y.; Hao, C. X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y. F.; Wang, W. H.; Hu, W. T.; Liu, Z. Y.

2013-12-01

323

Magnetic Declination Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool calculates magnetic declination for a variety of locations across Canada and elsewhere. Users select a city (Canada only) from a drop-down menu or enter latitude and longitude values (works for any location), and the tool calculates the proper magnetic declination (the angular difference between observed magnetic North on a compass and geographic or 'true' North). There are also links to information on how to use magnetic declination with a compass, and how to use the calculator to determine values of all seven magnetic components. For locations in Canada, the Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field (CGRF) is used; for other locations, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is used.

324

Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

2011-01-01

325

Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

2011-01-01

326

An Autonomous Agent Navigating with a Polarized Light Compass  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental abilities required in autonomous agents is homing. Natural agents—for instance, desert ants—solve the homing problem mainly by using path integration within an egocentric frame of reference. When employing such a mechanism, compass information for determining direction is necessary, and the precision of the compass will have a crucial effect on the precision of homing. For deriving

Dimitrios Lambrinos; Hiroshi Kobayashi; Rolf Pfeifer; Marinus Maris; Thomas Labhart; Rüdiger Wehner

1997-01-01

327

The Influence of Anger and Compassion on Negotiation Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the discrete, other-directed emotions of anger and compassion exert a greater influence on negotiations than mood. Drawing on cognitive appraisal theories of emotion, we specifically tested whether negotiators who felt high anger and low compassion for each other would (1) have less desire to work with each other in the future, (2) achieve fewer joint gains, and

Keith G. Allred; John S. Mallozzi; Fusako Matsui; Christopher P. Raia

1997-01-01

328

Passivity Based Control Of The Compass Gait Biped  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In this paper we discuss the passivity based control of the two-link robotknown as the Compass Gait Biped. Starting from a narrow region of initial conditions,the compass gait biped is capable of locomotion down shallow inclines without actuationor feedback control of any kind. We will discuss some feedback control strategiesthat can exploit these passive dynamics by shaping the energy

Mark W. Spong

1999-01-01

329

Calibration procedures and measurements for the COMPASS hyperspectral imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COMPact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS) hyperspectral imager (HSI) developed at the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) operates in the solar reflective region. The fundamental advance of the COMPASS instrument is the ability to capture 400nm to 2350nm on a single focal plane, eliminating boresighting and co-registration issues characteristic of dual FPA instruments for visible and SWIR

Jerome Zadnik; Daniel Guerin; Robert Moss; Alan Orbeta; Roberta Dixon; Christopher G. Simi; Susannah Dunbar; Anthony Hill

2004-01-01

330

Dynamic Simulation of Radially Oriented Permanent Magnet-Type Electronically Operated Synchronous Machines with Parameters Obtained from Finite Element Field Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model for simulation of the transient interaction between radially oriented permanent magnet-type synchronous machines and their corresponding transistorized current source power conditioners is presented. Some key machine parameters used in this dynamic model were obtained from finite element field solutions. This dynamic model was used to obtain the transient interaction between a 15-hp samarium cobalt radially oriented permanent

Thomas W. Nehl; Fakhry A. Fouad; Nabeel A. Demerdash; Edward A. Maslowski

1982-01-01

331

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of HIV and influenza fusion peptide orientations in membrane bilayers using stacked glass plate samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza virus fusion peptides are ?20-residue sequences which catalyze the fusion of viral and host cell membranes. The orientations of these peptides in lipid bilayers have been probed with 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of samples containing membranes oriented between stacked glass plates. Each of the peptides adopts at least two distinct

Christopher M. Wasniewski; Paul D. Parkanzky; Michele L. Bodner; David P. Weliky

2004-01-01

332

Self-compassion: a novel link with symptoms in schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Self-compassion has been linked to both positive aspects of well-being and less psychopathology in nonclinical samples. Although this construct has begun to be investigated in case studies, the clinical correlates of self-compassion for those with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have yet to be explored. This study aimed to explore the relationship between self-compassion, symptoms, and insight in individuals with schizophrenia. A total of 88 participants with either schizophrenia (n = 51) or schizoaffective disorder (n = 37) who were enrolled in a study of metacognition at a Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center completed measures of self-compassion and insight, along with a symptom interview. Higher self-compassion scores were associated with lower scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive, excitement, and emotional discomfort symptom scales in addition to poorer insight. Implications for treatment and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:23588223

Eicher, Amanda C; Davis, Louanne W; Lysaker, Paul H

2013-05-01

333

Advances in the neural bases of orientation and navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The ability to locomote in one direction (oriented movement), and the ability to navigate toward a distant goal are related behaviors that are phylogenetically widespread. Orientation behaviors include finding the source of an odor or acoustic signal, using a sun-compass for guidance, and moving relative to fluid-dynamic cues. Such abilities might require little more than directionally selective sensors coupled

James A. Murray; Jessica Estepp; Shaun D. Cain

2006-01-01

334

Effects of Perturbing B-Field Orientation on Magnetic Priming of a Relativistic Magnetron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments have been performed testing magnetic-priming at the cathode of a relativistic magnetron to study the effects on high-power microwave performance. Magnetic perturbations were imposed utilizing three, high-permeability nickel-iron wires embedded...

B. W. Hoff E. Cruz N. M. Jordan R. M. Gilgenbach Y. Y. Lau

2008-01-01

335

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)|

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

336

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

337

An Improved Engineering Model of Vector Magnetic Properties of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved magnetic reluctivity model for vector magnetic properties of anisotropic electrical steel sheet based on Chua-type model using Fourier series expansion of measured B and H waveforms in the viewpoint of engineering application. In the modeling, B-spline surface interpolation is adopted to obtain smooth approximation of measured data. The accuracy of the proposed magnetic reluctivity model

Yanli Zhang; Young Hwan Eum; Dexin Xie; Chang Seop Koh

2008-01-01

338

A Floating Microcompass for Measuring Millioersted Magnetic Fields in Millimeter-Cube Sampling Volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic compass is described which permits the measurement of small magnetic fields with relatively high accuracy and in sample volumes of small linear dimensions. In a particular model, 300 mOe were measured with better than ±2% accuracy and at a distance of less than 1 mm from the source of the magnetic field. Novel features in this compass are

G. E. Helmke; E. O. Schultz-DuBois

1969-01-01

339

Molecular orientation of electrochemically synthesized polythiophene: Effects of temperature, solvent and magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions for molecular orientation of electrochemically synthesized polythiophene have been investigated. The polymer chains are preferentially oriented along the film surface direction, i.e. parallel to the electrode surface, under conditions of (a) polymerization around the freezing point of the solvent used in the electrolyte, and (b) polymerization at low current density (below 1 mA\\/cm2) around the oxidation potential of

Satoshi Osawa; Toshio Ogawa; Masayoshi Ito

1997-01-01

340

Magnetic domain structure and rotational hysteresis energy in Alnico magnets with different crystallographic orientation of the sample surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was found that changes in the magnetization of the Alnico magnet occur by the curling mechanism for the samples with easy axis direction parallel to the surface sample, while for the samples with easy axis direction perpendicular to the sample surface coherent rotations take place.

Wysllocki, J. J.; Wysllocki, B.

1990-01-01

341

Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the same way for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. The range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.

Clem, John R.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

2013-09-01

342

Science and compassion: vacillation in nursing ideas 1940s-1960.  

PubMed

The author's thesis is that during the mid-20th century, an intellectual shift toward scientific notions of care challenged the nursing profession's oldest practice values grounded in religious ideas of suffering and compassion. The author uncovers the vacillation between the expression of dominant scientific and rival compassionate ideas in the published and unpublished nursing literature of the 1950s. The evidence is first placed in a historical context of 20th century nursing history, explaining why the profession emphasized scientific approaches to care following World War II. The evidence is then placed into two larger contexts: (a) that of the greater body of scientific and humanistic writing during the period showing concern about the applications of science and technology and its moral implications, and (b) the context of early to mid-20th century notions of "positivism," highlighting the relationship between empirical knowledge and moral ideas that orient human actions. The article concludes with an analysis of implications for nursing practice. PMID:10983487

Aita, V A

2000-01-01

343

Diffractive Dissociation into ?-?-?+ Final States at COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QCD predicts gluonic excitations like hybrids to contribute to the meson spectrum in addition to qq pair configurations. The most promising way to identify such states is the search for JPC quantum number combinations which are forbidden in the constituent quark model. The fixed target COMPASS experiment at CERN offers the opportunity to search for such states in the light quark sector with an unprecedented statistics. Diffractive reactions of 190 GeV/c pions on a lead target were studied by COMPASS during a pilot run in 2004. A Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) of the ?-?-?+ final state with 42 waves including acceptance corrections through a phase-space Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrometer was performed. The exotic ?1(1600) meson with quantum numbers JPC = 1-+ has been clearly established in the rho-pi decay channel with a mass of 1660+/-10(stat) MeV/c2 and a width of 269+/-21(stat) MeV/c2. The improved detector performance in 2008 allows us to study this channel with significantly higher statistics. First results of the ongoing analysis of the 2008 data taking period, using a 190 GeV/c pion beam on a liquid hydrogen target are presented in this paper.

Haas, Florian

2010-08-01

344

Study of SAR imaging with COMPASS signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of space-surface bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SS-BSAR) passive imaging system is proposed, which is parasitic on the signal of COMPASS Navigation Satellite System (CNSS). The feasibility is demonstrated by analyzing the signal ambiguity function and the range resolution as well as the system topology. Due to the multiple peaks of signal in the auto-correlation function, a new correlation is used to remove the side-peaks. A double-channel receiver is employed to receive the direct satellite signal and the ground reflected signal. The direct signal is a reference signal in range compression, and may also be used for transmitter-receiver signal synchronization. The reflected signal is raw data collected for imaging. Then, a modified range-Doppler imaging algorithm is derived based on the system geometric models and BSAR imaging principle. The proposed algorithm is verified via signal simulation. The work in this paper is of great value to the further use of COMPASS signal, as well as other global navigation satellite signals in passive imaging.

Ye, JiHai; Jiang, YueSong; Zhao, JiZhi; Guo, JingPing

2011-06-01

345

Diffractive Dissociation into ?-?-?+ Final States at COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QCD predicts gluonic excitations like hybrids to contribute to the meson spectrum in addition to qq pair configurations. The most promising way to identify such states is the search for JPC quantum number combinations which are forbidden in the constituent quark model. The fixed target COMPASS experiment at CERN offers the opportunity to search for such states in the light quark sector with an unprecedented statistics. Diffractive reactions of 190 GeV/c pions on a lead target were studied by COMPASS during a pilot run in 2004. A Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) of the ?-?-?+ final state with 42 waves including acceptance corrections through a phase-space Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrometer was performed. The exotic ?1(1600) meson with quantum numbers JPC = 1-+ has been clearly established in the rho-pi decay channel with a mass of 1660+/-10(stat) MeV/c2 and a width of 269+/-21(stat) MeV/c2. The improved detector performance in 2008 allows us to study this channel with significantly higher statistics. First results of the ongoing analysis of the 2008 data taking period, using a 190 GeV/c pion beam on a liquid hydrogen target are presented in this paper.

Haas, Florian

2011-10-01

346

Developing a systemic program for compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

The effort in hospitals to improve the patient experience has yielded a new impetus to address compassion fatigue (CF), a combination of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Over the last 3 years, Barnes-Jewish Hospital has developed a systemic program for CF resiliency. An initial evaluation of the extent to which CF was affecting the hospital's oncology staff led to the formal implementation of a resiliency program for oncology registered nurses. The success of that program ultimately led to the implementation of a hospital-wide resiliency program, designed to help professional caregivers understand CF, recognize the physical, mental, and emotional effects of stress, and adopt resiliency strategies. The voluntary program has been very well received by participants, and a formal evaluation shows promising results with a decline in secondary traumatic stress and burnout among participants. Developing an institutional culture of recognition and support for CF is critical for health care organizations. Establishing such a culture may help managers proactively create work environments that provide opportunities for connection and support among staff. Compassion fatigue training allows professional caregivers to reconnect to their personal mission and then truly begin to connect with an organization's values and mission. PMID:24022286

Potter, Patricia; Deshields, Teresa; Rodriguez, Sean

347

The orientation of night-migrating passerines without the directional influence of the starry sky and/or the earth magnetic field.  

PubMed

During four seasons in 1972-73 a total of 598 orientation experiments -- including 157 displacements -- was carried out. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the orientation under an overcast sky and/or when the earth magnetic field was screened by a strong artificial magnetic field. These experiments were compared with experiments carried out under the presumed maximum condition, i.e. under a starry sky and without magnetic disturbances. In general, little or no "reduction" of the sample mean vector, was observed under the "deprived" conditions. However, the concentration of the individual mean vectors and the activity were lowered. Clear compensation for a displacement was found in the absence of the stars and in a disturbed magnetic field. This means that directing cues from other sources than the stars and the earth magnetic field were involved. It is guessed that inertial orientation plays an important role. Reverse orientation -- including reverse compensation -- was found fairly frequently. It is supposed to be correlated with overcast, and perhaps in general stress conditions. In conclusion, simple one-direction orientation models are not thought to be sufficient to "explain" the observed orientations. PMID:1210810

Rabol, J

1975-10-01

348

Effects of Instructional Technology Integration Strategies in Orientation Programs on Nurse Retention in Magnet and Non-Magnet Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This applied dissertation study was designed to learn if the increased use of instructional technology integration strategies in nursing orientation programs resulted in an increased retention of new nurses. The study attempted to uncover the current retention rate and use of technology at the participating hospitals. The data obtained from…

Hancharik, Sharon D.

2008-01-01

349

Personal factors related to compassion fatigue in health professionals.  

PubMed

This study examines the role of some personal and professional factors in compassion fatigue among health-care professionals. Research participants included 182 (89 mental and 93 medical) health-care professionals who completed an assessment battery measuring compassion fatigue, emotion management, trait emotional intelligence, situation-specific coping strategies, and negative affect. Major findings indicate that both self-report "trait" emotional intelligence and ability-based emotion management are inversely associated with compassion fatigue; adaptive coping is inversely related to compassion fatigue; and differences exist between mental and medical professions in emotional intelligence, coping strategies, and negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping appears to mediate the association between trait emotional intelligence and compassion fatigue. These findings shed light on the role of emotional factors in compassion fatigue among health-care professionals. Beyond enhancing our knowledge of practitioners' professional quality of life, the current study serves as a basis for the early identification of groups of practitioners at risk for compassion fatigue. PMID:23614527

Zeidner, Moshe; Hadar, Dafna; Matthews, Gerald; Roberts, Richard D

2013-04-24

350

Electrophoretic and electro-optical studies on the conformation and susceptibility to psoralen crosslinking of magnetically oriented DNA  

SciTech Connect

Gel electrophoresis and electro-optical birefringence measurements were performed on the replicative form of bacteriophage phi X-174 DNA subjected to orientation in a homogeneous stationary magnetic field. The conformation of this superhelical double-stranded form of DNA, and its sensitivity to intercalation and crosslinking by a psoralen derivative, were found to be unaffected by a 1 h exposure to a 2.15 Tesla field. In addition, no alteration was detected in the infectivity of the exposed phi X-174 DNA in E. coli bacterial hosts.

Roots, R.J.; Kraft, G.H.; Farinato, R.S.; Tenforde, T.S.

1982-08-01

351

Control of magnetic rock fabrics by mica preferred orientation: a quantitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic anisotropy analysis represents a well-established and frequently used method in structural geology. Several attempts were made to relate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to rock fabrics and to discover the sources of the AMS. In gneissic rocks, paramagnetic phyllosilicates with lattice-dependent magnetic properties are assumed to control the whole rock AMS i.e. it is dominated by mica lattice

M. Dahms; K. Ullemeyer

1995-01-01

352

Influence of foot orientation on the appearance and quantification of 1H magnetic resonance muscle spectra obtained from the soleus and the vastus lateralis.  

PubMed

Muscle (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy noninvasively measures intramyocellular lipid levels, which correlate with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The appearance of muscle magnetic resonance spectra is influenced by bulk magnetic susceptibility and residual dipolar couplings which depend on the angle between the muscle fibers and the main magnetic field. This study used a 4 T magnet to examine the influence of foot orientation on the appearance and quantification of muscle magnetic resonance spectra from the soleus and the vastus lateralis. For each individual, intramyocellular lipid, extramyocellular lipid, and creatine concentrations were quantified in the soleus and the vastus lateralis during one session. Foot orientation was found to influence the appearance of muscle spectra from the soleus but not from the vastus lateralis. It was concluded that quantifying intramyocellular lipid by the standard LCModel using a water reference may be more appropriate than using a creatine reference in the presence of residual dipolar couplings. PMID:22298295

Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Eberly, Lynn E; Adriany, Gregor; Verdoliva, Sarah N; Garwood, Michael; Chow, Lisa

2012-02-01

353

Study of the Multiplexing Schemes for COMPASS B1 Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of COMPASS system, finding suitable and efficient multiplexing solutions have become important for the system signal design. In this paper, based on the alternative BOC (AltBOC) modulation technique, the multiplexing scheme for COMPASS Phase II B1 signals is proposed. Then, to combine all COMPASS Phase III (CP III) B1 components into a composite signal with constant envelope, the generalized majority voting (GMV) technique is employed based on the characteristics of CP III B1 signals. The proposed multiplexing schemes also provide potential opportunities for GNSS modernization and construction, such as GPS, Galileo, etc.

Liu, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Zhan, Xingqun

354

The degrees of tri-axial orientation in RE-doped Bi2212 powders aligned in a modulated rotation magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report relationship between the degrees of tri-axial orientation and doping level of rare earth (RE) ions in Bi2Sr2(Ca1-xREx)Cu2Oy (RE-doped Bi2212; RE = Dy, Ho, Er and Tm) powder samples aligned under a modulated rotation magnetic field (MRF) of 10 T. Tri-axial magnetic alignment of the RE-doped Bi2212 with x = 0-0.5 was achieved by single-ion magnetic anisotropy of RE3+ and tri-axial magnetic anisotropy induced by modulation microstructure in a grain level. The degrees of in-plane and c-axis orientation with ˜3° were achieved for the case of the Tm-doped Bi2212 with x = 0.5. The findings in the present study give us important information for the fabrication of triaxially oriented Bi-based cuprate superconductor materials by the magneto-scientific process.

Nagai, R.; Horii, S.; Maeda, T.; Haruta, M.; Shimoyama, J.

2013-11-01

355

Magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As grown on vicinal GaAs: Effects of the orientation of microwave magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) study of the magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As grown on vicinal GaAs is presented. The data collected in the growth plane reveal very limited dependence on the miscut angle {eta}, with a negligible effect of {eta} on the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy. In the out-of-plane configuration, the substrate misorientation has a pronounced influence on FMR, which features are partially explained with a phenomenological treatment of the atomic step-induced anisotropy. This simple model, however, does not account for the miscut-induced dependence of FMR on the orientation of microwave magnetic field, that is observed with the static field applied invariably along the growth direction.

Dziatkowski, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Twardowski, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-04-01

356

Biophysics of magnetic orientation: strengthening the interface between theory and experimental design  

PubMed Central

The first demonstrations of magnetic effects on the behaviour of migratory birds and homing pigeons in laboratory and field experiments, respectively, provided evidence for the longstanding hypothesis that animals such as birds that migrate and home over long distances would benefit from possession of a magnetic sense. Subsequent identification of at least two plausible biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, led to major efforts over recent decades to test predictions of the two models, as well as efforts to understand the ultrastructure and function of the possible magnetoreceptor cells. Unfortunately, progress in understanding the magnetic sense has been challenged by: (i) the availability of a relatively small number of techniques for analysing behavioural responses to magnetic fields by animals; (ii) difficulty in achieving reproducible results using the techniques; and (iii) difficulty in development and implementation of new techniques that might bring greater experimental power. As a consequence, laboratory and field techniques used to study the magnetic sense today remain substantially unchanged, despite the huge developments in technology and instrumentation since the techniques were developed in the 1950s. New methods developed for behavioural study of the magnetic sense over the last 30 years include the use of laboratory conditioning techniques and tracking devices based on transmission of radio signals to and from satellites. Here we consider methodological developments in the study of the magnetic sense and present suggestions for increasing the reproducibility and ease of interpretation of experimental studies. We recommend that future experiments invest more effort in automating control of experiments and data capture, control of stimulation and full blinding of experiments in the rare cases where automation is impossible. We also propose new experiments to confirm whether or not animals can detect magnetic fields using the radical-pair effect together with an alternate hypothesis that may explain the dependence on light of responses by animals to magnetic field stimuli.

Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Winklhofer, Michael; Walker, Michael M.

2010-01-01

357

The Strange Quark Polarisation from COMPASS data  

SciTech Connect

The strange quark helicity distribution {delta}s(x) was derived at LO from the inclusive asymmetry A{sub a,d} and the semi-inclusive asymmetries A{sub 1,d}{sup {pi}}{sup +}, A{sub 1,d}{sup {pi}}{sup -}, A{sub 1,d}{sup K+}, A{sub 1,d}{sup K-}, measured by COMPASS in polarised deep inelastic muon-deuteron scattering. The distribution of {delta}s(x) is compatible with zero in the whole measured range. The value of the first moment of {delta}s and its error are very sensitive to the assumed value of the ratio of the s-bar-quark to u-quark fragmentation functions into positive kaons {integral}D(K+/s)(z)dz/{integral}D{sub u}{sup K+}(z)dz.

Kouznetsov, O. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Joliot Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation) and Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

2009-12-17

358

The compass rose pattern in electricity prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``compass rose pattern'' is known to appear in the phase portraits, or scatter diagrams, of the high-frequency returns of financial series. We first show that this pattern is also present in the returns of spot electricity prices. Early researchers investigating these phenomena hoped that these patterns signaled the presence of rich dynamics, possibly chaotic or fractal in nature. Although there is a definite autoregressive and conditional heteroscedasticity structure in electricity returns, we find that after simple filtering no pattern remains. While the series is non-normal in terms of their distribution and statistical tests fail to identify significant chaos, there is evidence of fractal structures in periodic price returns when measured over the trading day. The phase diagram of the filtered returns provides a useful visual check on independence, a property necessary for pricing and trading derivatives and portfolio construction, as well as providing useful insights into the market dynamics.

Batten, Jonathan A.; Hamada, Mahmoud

2009-12-01

359

FDA's compassion for desperate drug companies.  

PubMed

Annas is critical of recent Food and Drug Administration actions that have made experimental drugs available to critically and terminally ill patients, such as those with AIDS, outside of organized clinical trials. He chronicles shifts since 1979 in the government's position on the use of unproven drugs and devices in clinical settings. The FDA has explained its actions on the grounds of expediency and compassion for the desperately ill. Annas believes that the FDA's drive to modify or reverse its safety and efficacy standards for some drugs results from the deregulation lobbying of the pharmaceutical industry and the presence of free market advocates within the FDA. He insists that the agency is responsible for protecting the public, including the desperately ill, from harm and exploitation by upholding strict standards for drug testing. PMID:2179165

Annas, G J

360

52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view from starboard looking aft. Photograph by Jet Lowe, April 1988. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

361

Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.  

PubMed

Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response. PMID:21262471

Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

2011-01-27

362

COMPASS: A computerized payload operations support system for Columbus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities relating to the prototype development of a Computerized Payload Operations Support System (COMPASS) for the Columbus Space Station are described. The differences between Spacelab and Columbus space segments experimentation capabilities and payload operations are outlined and the steps of the requirements analysis for setting up a payload diagnosis, integration/reconfiguration support, and reactive science support are described. The BLUME/BIOMAUS facility turned out to be the best COMPASS test candidate. Blume is a biology payload designed to fly as part of the NASA Get Away Special program. Software technologies and the architectural concept for COMPASS are shown. The COMPASS prototype was installed in the environment of the ESTEC crew workstation testbed and can be demonstrated there.

Heyland, D.; Kellner, A.; Timm, R.

1992-07-01

363

31. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, DETAIL OF COMPASS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, DETAIL OF COMPASS AND ITS WOODEN HOUSING (DATED 1941) AND HELM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

364

Influence of crystallographic orientation on the magnetic properties of NiFe, Co, and Ni epitaxial fcc films grown on single-crystal substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni80Fe20 (at. %), Co, and Ni epitaxial thin films of fcc(100) and fcc(111) orientations are prepared on single-crystal substrates by using an ultra-high-vacuum radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The influence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy on the magnetostriction behavior under in-plane rotating magnetic fields is investigated. Triangular waveforms are observed in the magnetostriction measurements under low rotating fields for films that show four-fold symmetry in the in-plane magnetic anisotropies. The magnetostriction behavior is related to the motion of ninety-degree magnetic domain walls in magnetically unsaturated films. The waveform changes from a triangular to a sinusoidal shape when magnetization saturation is approached under increasing magnetic field. On the other hand, films having almost isotropic in-plane magnetic properties show sinusoidal waveforms even when the films are not magnetically saturated.

Ohtani, Taiki; Kawai, Tetsuroh; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

2013-08-01

365

3D position and orientation measurements with a magnetic sensor for use in vascular interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In minimal-invasive intravascular procedures high ionising-radiation doses are employed to monitor the medical instruments during an intervention, creating an important health risk to the medical staff. To reduce the high doses, a magnetic-based navigation system to guide the medical tools to the intervention place without the use of X-rays is being developed. The system consists of a 3D magnetic source

D. Tanase; J. F. L. Goosen; P. J. Trimp; J. A. Reekers; P. J. French

2003-01-01

366

Use of the earth's magnetic field by orienting cave salamanders ( Eurycea lucifuga )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups ofEurycea lucifuga were trained to move bidirectionally within separate training corridors by alternately supplying moisture to limestone-filled compartments located at each end. Both corridors were aligned horizontally along the magnetic North-South axis of the earth. One corridor was enclosed within a cube coil which rotated the magnetic field horizontally 90° clockwise, so that the group contained in this

John B. Phillips

1977-01-01

367

Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared region. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing

Joseph F. Kordas; Isabella T. Lewis; Bruce A. Wilson; Darron P. Nielsen; Hye-Sook Park; Robert E. Priest; Robert F. Hills; Michael J. Shannon; Arno G. Ledebuhr; Lyn D. Pleasance

1995-01-01

368

Self-compassion and Well-being among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67 to 90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective

Ashley Batts Allen; Eleanor R. Goldwasser; Mark R. Leary

2012-01-01

369

Self-compassion and well-being among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67 to 90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective

Ashley Batts Allen; Eleanor R. Goldwasser; Mark R. Leary

2011-01-01

370

Further results on control of the compass gait biped  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper continues our investigations into the passivity-based control of the compass gait biped. It was shown in [Spong, M.W., 1999] for the compass gait biped, and in [Spong, M.W., and Bullo, F., 2002] for the general case, that a passive limit cycle for a given constant slope can be made slope invariant via potential energy shaping control. In this

Mark W. Spong; Gagandeep Bhatia

2003-01-01

371

Compassion Fatigue and Burnout Amongst Clinicians: A Medical Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Compassion fatigue is a broad term comprising of two components – burnout and secondary traumatic stress. The current study is aimed at identifying ‘burnout’ and ‘compassion fatigue’ among clinicians involved in care of individuals suffering from medical illness. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 clinicians were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to gather information related to personal, professional, anthropometric, and metabolic profile of the study participants. Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL Version V) was used to assess burnout, compassion satisfaction and secondary traumatic stress. Analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 19.0. Results: The mean age of clinicians was 46.68±11.06 (range 26-67 years). Burnout score was significantly higher in those involved in diabetology practice. Similarly, compassion satisfaction score was greater among those with greater years of practice as well as among those in private practice. Clinicians who reported a poor working condition, as opposed to good, had more burnout and less compassion satisfaction. Conclusion: The current study suggests that it is important to find out ways of decreasing burnout and compassion fatigue among clinicians.

Bhutani, Jaikrit; Bhutani, Sukriti; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Kalra, Sanjay

2012-01-01

372

Self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses.  

PubMed

Nurses often provide care for patients and families who are suffering and where emotions are heightened. Compassion is an essential component of the care that nurses provide. Emotions play an important role in the relationship and communication between nurses, patients and families. Self-compassion is the ability to be compassionate to oneself, without this ability nurses might not be prepared to be compassionate to patients. Emotionally intelligent persons perceive themselves as confident, better able to understand, control and manage their emotions. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationship between self-compassion and emotional intelligence. Participants were 135 nurses. The setting for this study was a health system with hospitals located in Queens, Nassau and Suffolk counties of New York, USA. Three of the hospitals in the study are located in Queens and/or the Queens/Nassau border. Queens is the most culturally diverse community in the USA. The patients served, as well as the nursing staff, are reflective of this cultural and religious diversity. Results indicated a positive correlation between self-compassion and emotional intelligence (r = 0.55). Recommendations for future research include: exploration of self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses, and identification of the benefits of enhancing self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses. PMID:20649668

Heffernan, Mary; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Sister Rita McNulty; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

2010-08-01

373

Quaternion-based extended Kalman filter for determining orientation by inertial and magnetic sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a quaternion based extended Kalman filter (EKF) is developed for determining the orientation of a rigid body from the outputs of a sensor which is configured as the integration of a tri-axis gyro and an aiding system mechanized using a tri-axis accelerometer and a tri-axis magnetometer. The suggested applications are for studies in the field of human

Angelo M. Sabatini

2006-01-01

374

Manifestations in the magnetization of the hcp-Co nanowires due to interdependence of aspect ratio and c-axis orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of interdependence of aspect ratio (AR) and c-axis orientation of the hcp-cobalt nanowires (NWs) on their magnetization behavior is reported in 40 and 100 nm diameter NWs. Experimental evidence of periodically modulated magnetic state viz. large transverse-susceptibility arising due to orientation of c-axis normal to NW-axis in 40 nm NWs and magnetic domain imaging is demonstrated, which disappears at low AR owing to randomly oriented c-axes. The 100 nm NWs exhibit a crossover in the easy-axis direction from longitudinal at high AR to transverse at low AR and are explained on the basis of competition between different anisotropic contributions.

Kaur, Daljit; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

2013-07-01

375

Magnetic-field-induced orientation of photosynthetic reaction centers as revealed by time-resolved W-band EPR of spin-correlated radical pairs  

SciTech Connect

The spin-polarized W-band EPR spectra of the secondary radical pair in plant photosystem 1 indicate a magnetic-field-induced orientation of the photosynthetic reaction centers in the field of the EPR spectrometer. This orientation arises due to the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the reaction center protein. Analysis of the angular-dependent EPR spectra on the basis of the spin-correlated radical pair concept provides new information on the cofactor arrangement in plant photosystem 1.

Berthold, T.; Bechtold, M.; Heinen, U.; Link, G.; Poluektov, O.; Utschig, L.; Tang, J.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Kothe, G.

1999-12-09

376

Culture, Ethnic Conflict and Moral Orientation in Bosnian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has identified two moral orientations in people's reasoning about moral dilemmas: an orientation to rights, fairness, and justice and another based on care, compassion and concern for others and the self. To investigate the association of political violence and ethnic conflict with children's preferred moral orientation, two studies were conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the first with 10-12-year-olds

Andrew Garrod; Carole R. Beal; William Jaeger; Joshua Thomas; Jay Davis; Nicole Leiser; Almin Hodzic

2003-01-01

377

Preferential orientation of magnetization and interfacial disorder in Co/Au multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two families of Co/Au multilayer films with different interlayer magnetostatic coupling were grown by the DC magnetron sputtering technique. The structure of these films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. All these techniques give complementary information about the structure of the multilayers and the magnetization direction as a function of thickness of the Co layers. The structural analysis shows a decrease of the interfacial disorder for increasing Co layer thickness in both groups of samples. This behavior has been correlated with a transition of the magnetization direction from perpendicular to parallel to the films plane. Thin Co layer samples gave high remnant magnetization with very low saturation field while thick Co layer samples showed low remnant magnetization with high value of saturation field. In the FMR study, the spectra showed two resonance modes, which were associated to the internal and interfacial Co atoms. Volume (Kv) and surface (Ks) anisotropy constants were deduced from the FMR experiments and are in good agreement with the reported values for Co/Au multilayers.

Quispe-Marcatoma, J.; Pandey, B.; Alayo, W.; de Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

2013-10-01

378

Reversible magnetic properties of c-axis-oriented superconducting Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization measurements on c-axis-oriented bulk superconducting Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 have been carried out with the magnetic field applied parallel to the c axis. Fitting the results to the variation model for magnetization suggested by Hao and Clem shows that the Ginzburg-Landau parameter ? is nearly constant for 74<=T<=86 K, with the value of 170 at 74 K, and slowly increases with temperature from ~86 to ~100 K. ? diverges in the vicinity of Tc. This unusual temperature dependence of ?(T) could come from extended fluctuation effects and a limitation of the Hao-Clem theory, which may fail to describe this extremely anisotropic Bi-based superconductor. By fitting the data with the value of ? equal to 170, the deduced values of some of the superconducting parameters are Hc(0)=10 600 Oe, ?(0)ab=10.5+/-0.6 Å, ?(0)ab=1940+/-13 Å, dHc2/dT~=-3.68 T/K near Tc.

Li, Qiang; Suenaga, M.; Gohng, Junho; Finnemore, D. K.; Hikata, T.; Sato, K.

1992-08-01

379

Peptide backbone orientation and dynamics in spider dragline silk and two-photon excitation in nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the dissertation, spider dragline silk is studied by solid state NMR techniques. The dependence of NMR frequency on molecular orientation is exploited using the DECODER experiment to determine the orientation of the protein backbone within the silk fibre. Practical experimental considerations require that the silk fibres be wound about a cylindrical axis perpendicular to the external magnetic field, complicating the reconstruction of the underlying orientation distribution and necess-itating the development of numerical techniques for this purpose. A two-component model of silk incorporating static b-sheets and polyglycine II helices adequately fits the NMR data and suggests that the b-sheets are well aligned along the silk axis (20 FWHM) while the helices are poorly aligned (68 FWHM). The effects of fibre strain, draw rate and hydration on orientation are measured. Measurements of the time-scale for peptide backbone motion indicate that when wet, a strain-dependent frac-tion of the poorly aligned component becomes mobile. This suggests a mechanism for the supercontraction of silk involving latent entropic springs that undergo a local strain-dependent phase transition, driving supercontraction. In the second part of this dissertation a novel method is developed for exciting NMR and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) by rf irradiation at multiple frequencies that sum to (or differ by) the resonance frequency. This is fundamentally different than traditional NMR experiments where irradiation is applied on-resonance. With excitation outside the detection bandwidth, two-photon excitation allows for detection of free induction signals during excitation, completely eliminating receiver dead-time. A theoretical approach to describing two-photon excitation is developed based on average Hamiltonian theory. An intuition for two-photon excitation is gained by analogy to the coherent absorption of multiple photons requiring conservation of total energy and momentum. It is shown that two-photon excitation efficiency impro-ves when the two applied rf frequencies deviate from half-resonance. For two-photon NQR, it is shown that observable magnetization appears perpendicular to the excita-tion coil, requiring a second coil for detection, and that double quantum coherences are also generated. Several model systems and experimental geometries are used to demonstrate the peculiarities of two-photon excitation in NMR and NQR.

Eles, Philip Thomas

380

Object-oriented analysis and database design for the SSC magnets  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting Super Collider will be the world`s largest particle accelerator, and will answer many fundamental particle physics questions. It will be 87 km (54 mi) in circumference running through a tunnel 15 to 75 meters underground. Two proton beams accelerated to 20 TeV will produce 100 million proton collisions per second. These protons will be guided by a series of superconducting magnets. We are developing a central magnet database accessible by scientists via network connections. This information will help scientists study magnet production and performance. We are using an object-based development approach. Through a combination of tools, we are transforming object diagrams into entity-relationship models and uploading SQL objects into a Sybase database on a Sun/Unix platform.

Robinson, S.L.

1992-06-01

381

Object-oriented analysis and database design for the SSC magnets  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting Super Collider will be the world's largest particle accelerator, and will answer many fundamental particle physics questions. It will be 87 km (54 mi) in circumference running through a tunnel 15 to 75 meters underground. Two proton beams accelerated to 20 TeV will produce 100 million proton collisions per second. These protons will be guided by a series of superconducting magnets. We are developing a central magnet database accessible by scientists via network connections. This information will help scientists study magnet production and performance. We are using an object-based development approach. Through a combination of tools, we are transforming object diagrams into entity-relationship models and uploading SQL objects into a Sybase database on a Sun/Unix platform.

Robinson, S.L.

1992-06-01

382

Manipulation of Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Structures by Orientation of Small External Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of an external magnetic field on the electron spin lifetime in narrow gap semiconductors (NGS). In zero field, we show that the D'yakonov-Perel process dominates even at low temperatures. In the Faraday configuration it is suppressed and the spin lifetime increases with field, whereas in Voigt configuration, the additional Margulis-Margulis process, which is particularly effective in NGS, shortens the spin lifetime considerably. The spin dynamics are found to be very sensitive to both the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field.

Litvinenko, K. L.; Leontiadou, M. A.; Li, Juerong; Bowyer, E. T.; Clowes, S. K.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Murdin, B. N.

2011-12-01

383

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains four lessons that provide a way for teachers to introduce students to and elaborate on Earth's changing magnetic field. It covers learning to navigate using Earth's magnetic field and compass, Earth's magnetic pole and its motion across Earth's surface, magnetic reversals on Earth, and Earth's currently declining magnetic field. These lessons have been taught primarily in math, geology, and astronomy classes.

2005-01-01

384

Three-dimensional orientation of cellulose crystals under dynamic elliptic magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose microparticles prepared by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of cotton cellulose were mixed with UV-curable resin precursor and subjected to a frequency modulated magnetic field. The obtained alignment was fixed by photopolymerization of the matrix resin precursor. The observation of the obtained sample from three different orthogonal directions exhibited optical anisotropy, indicating that the three-dimensional alignment is achieved.

Kimura, F.; Kimura, T.

2009-03-01

385

Short low-current vacuum arc in magnetic fields of different orientations. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations, carried out in recent years, of such characteristics of short low-current vacuum arcs as the average current, passed by the cathode spot; velocity and direction of motion of the spot; and arc voltage as a function of magnitude of the magnetic field vector and the angle of its inclination to the arc axis are discussed. Also are discussed recent

A. M. Chaly; S. M. Shkol'nik

2010-01-01

386

Distant Goal Orientation in Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unsuccessful efforts were made to register orientation in non-flying pigeons. Transportation of anesthetized birds had no effect on ititial orientation or homing. No relation was found between initial orientation and magnetic anomalies. There is no interm...

L. C. Graue

1969-01-01

387

Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.

Pauls, James A.; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

2013-06-01

388

Orientational order and rotational diffusion of the head group in the bilayer membrane. A nuclear magnetic resonance study.  

PubMed Central

An order parameter-based interpretation is applied to the temperature dependence of the deuterium magnetic resonance splittings and the anisotropic contribution to the chemical shift for 31P from the head groups of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). It is shown that the rotational motion of the molecule about its long axis is not a free rotational motion as normally assumed, but instead a biased one. Changes in the degree of biasing appear to be primarily responsible for the variation of the NMR spectra with temperature. The degree of biasing is described by orientational order parameters. With the use of these order parameters, it is shown that the temperature dependence of the anisotropic contribution to the chemical shift for 31P can be predicted from that of the deuterium quadrupole splittings.

Vaz, M J; Vaz, N A; Doane, J W; Westerman, P W

1979-01-01

389

Infrared synchrotron radiation from bending magnet and edge radiation sources for the study of orientation and conformation in anisotropic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade the use of synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy to spatially discriminate chemical and structural features in many different types of materials has grown considerably and has made significant impact in numerous research areas, in particular, in biological sciences and medicine. Although the brightness advantage of the synchrotron infrared (IR) source is well accepted as the key to high spatial discrimination, little attention has been given to measure the polarization properties of the synchrotron light at the sample stage in IR microscopy. In this work the intrinsic polarization of the IR source and its consequences for the study of anisotropic materials are discussed. The polarization characteristics of predominantly bending magnet radiation and predominantly edge radiation sources were measured at the microscope focus and compared. To illustrate the direct use of the intrinsic polarization of these sources in microscopy, the orientation and conformational details of a drawn polymer sample are considered.

Santoro, Gonzalo; Yousef, Ibraheem; Jamme, Frederic; Dumas, Paul; Ellis, Gary

2011-03-01

390

Characteristics of the statistical distribution of the current transmitted by a cathode spot of a vacuum arc in variously oriented magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of variously oriented uniform magnetic fields on the cathodic attachment of a low-current vacuum arc with electrodes\\u000a made of oxygen-free copper and CuCr30 composition is studied. It is found that, if the current is fixed, cathode spots in\\u000a the arc attachment are distributed by the normal law in the entire range of variation of the amplitude of magnetic

K. K. Zabello; A. A. Logatchev; A. M. Chaly; S. M. Shkol’nik

2009-01-01

391

Electrical Transport through Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Perpendicular Oriented Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual thin Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes bundles were connected to noble metal leads with low contact resistance between tube and metal. Electrical transport measurements on these devices are presented, performed at temperatures of about 50 mK in a magnetic field perpendicular to the Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes symmetry axis. In these measurements we have investigated the dependence of the electrical transport on

V. Krstic; J. Weis; S. Roth

2002-01-01

392

Introducing minimum Fisher regularisation tomography to AXUV and soft x-ray diagnostic systems of the COMPASS tokamak.  

PubMed

The contribution focuses on plasma tomography via the minimum Fisher regularisation (MFR) algorithm applied on data from the recently commissioned tomographic diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak. The MFR expertise is based on previous applications at Joint European Torus (JET), as exemplified in a new case study of the plasma position analyses based on JET soft x-ray (SXR) tomographic reconstruction. Subsequent application of the MFR algorithm on COMPASS data from cameras with absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiodes disclosed a peaked radiating region near the limiter. Moreover, its time evolution indicates transient plasma edge cooling following a radial plasma shift. In the SXR data, MFR demonstrated that a high resolution plasma positioning independent of the magnetic diagnostics would be possible provided that a proper calibration of the cameras on an x-ray source is undertaken. PMID:23130804

Mlynar, J; Imrisek, M; Weinzettl, V; Odstrcil, M; Havlicek, J; Janky, F; Alper, B; Murari, A

2012-10-01

393

Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue.

Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.

2011-01-01

394

Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?  

PubMed

To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the polarized light patterns as a compass cue, nor did they exhibit a specific alignment response towards the axis of polarized light. When given direct view of the sun, migratory monarchs with their polarized light detectors painted out were still able to use their time-compensated compass: non-clockshifted butterflies, with their dorsal rim area occluded, oriented in their typical south-southwesterly migratory direction. Furthermore, they shifted their flight course clockwise by the predicted approximately 90 degrees after being advance clockshifted 6 h. We conclude that in migratory monarch butterflies, polarized light cues are not necessary for a time-compensated celestial compass to work and that the azimuthal position of the sun disc and/or the associated light-intensity and spectral gradients seem to be the migrants' major compass cue. PMID:15939779

Stalleicken, Julia; Mukhida, Maya; Labhart, Thomas; Wehner, Rüdiger; Frost, Barrie; Mouritsen, Henrik

2005-06-01

395

Migrating songbirds tested in computer-controlled Emlen funnels use stellar cues for a time-independent compass.  

PubMed

This paper investigates how young pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, and blackcaps, Sylvia atricapilla, interpret and use celestial cues. In order to record these data, we developed a computer-controlled version of the Emlen funnel, which enabled us to make detailed temporal analyses. First, we showed that the birds use a star compass. Then, we tested the birds under a stationary planetarium sky, which simulated the star pattern of the local sky at 02:35 h for 11 consecutive hours of the night, and compared the birds' directional choices as a function of time with the predictions from five alternative stellar orientation hypotheses. The results supported the hypothesis suggesting that birds use a time-independent star compass based on learned geometrical star configurations to pinpoint the rotational point of the starry sky (north). In contrast, neither hypotheses suggesting that birds use the stars for establishing their global position and then perform true star navigation nor those suggesting the use of a time-compensated star compass were supported. PMID:11807103

Mouritsen, H; Larsen, O N

2001-11-01

396

Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.  

PubMed

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional. PMID:11648417

1996-03-01

397

The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.  

PubMed

Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral attitude of the physician more completely. The reconstruction of the desired professional attitude in terms of "empathic compassionate care" is certainly not the only possible description, but it is a detailed proposal in order to give an impulse for the discussion about the inner tacit values and the meaning of medicine and clinical healthcare professions. PMID:22160990

Gelhaus, Petra

2012-11-01

398

Effect of annealing prior to cold rolling on magnetic and mechanical properties of low carbon non-oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of annealing prior to cold rolling on the microstructure, magnetic and mechanical properties of low-C grain non-oriented (GNO) electrical steels have been investigated. The grain structure of hot-rolled electrical steel strips is modified by annealing at temperatures between 700 and 1050 °C. Annealing at temperatures less than the ferrite to austenite+ferrite transformation temperature on heating (Ac1) causes a marginal effect on the grain size. However, annealing in the intercritical region at temperatures between Ac1 and Ac3 (the ferrite+austenite to austenite transformation temperature on heating) causes rapid decarburization and development of large columnar ferrite grains free of carbide particles. This microstructure leads, after cold rolling and a fast annealing treatment, to carbide free, large ferrite grain microstructures with magnetic and mechanical properties superior to those observed typically in the same steel in the industrially fully processed condition. These results are attributed to the increment in grain size and to the {1 0 0} fiber texture developed during the final annealing at temperatures up to 850 °C. Annealing at higher temperatures, T>Ac3, results in a strong {1 1 1} fiber texture and an increase of the quantity of second phase particles present in the microstructure, which lead to a negative effect on the final properties. The results suggest that annealing prior to cold rolling offers an attractive alternative processing route for the manufacture of fully processed low C GNO electrical steels strips.

Gutiérrez-Castañeda, E. J.; Salinas-Rodríguez, A.

2011-10-01

399

Compassion fatigue and burnout: prevalence among oncology nurses.  

PubMed

This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in inpatient nursing units and outpatient clinics in a cancer center in the midwestern United States. The sample of 153 healthcare providers included RNs, medical assistants, and radiology technicians. The fourth revision of the 30-item Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL R-IV) scale was used for measuring compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. A series of cross tab analyses examined the relationship between participant demographics and three ProQOL R-IV subscales. The study sample scored similarly on compassion satisfaction and burnout when compared with participants who used the ProQOL R-IV in previous studies. Value exists in analyzing the prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue among oncology healthcare providers. Understanding the needs of distinct demographic groups offers valuable direction for intervention program development. Applying internal evidence in the design of a relevant stress-reduction program will better equip healthcare providers to recognize and manage compassion fatigue and burnout. PMID:20880809

Potter, Patricia; Deshields, Teresa; Divanbeigi, Joyce; Berger, Julie; Cipriano, Doreen; Norris, Lori; Olsen, Sarah

2010-10-01

400

The development and evaluation of a compassion scale.  

PubMed

Compassion is the capacity for being moved by suffering of others and wanting to help alleviate it. Compassion may mediate health benefits and hazards of social networks/relationships. The monitoring/management of level of compassion across social networks/relationships may be critical to health benefits' preservation and social networks/relationships' health hazards prevention. We developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of 10-item self-report measure of compassion among 310 respondents from the University and surrounding communities. The mean total score was 3.62 (SD=1.09). The item-to-total correlations ranged from 0.50-0.71. The mean inter-item correlation was 0.33. The internal consistency was 0.82. The scale correlated well with Sprecher and Fehr's Compassionate Love Scale (r=0.66; p=.000). Two factors measuring same construct explained 57% of sample variance. The scale is user-friendly, easy to score, and characterized by good psychometric properties. It can be used to foster understanding of the impact of compassion on disease and outcomes across social networks/relationships. PMID:23974394

Martins, David; Nicholas, Nichole A; Shaheen, Magda; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith

2013-01-01

401

Evolution of Recrystallization by Changes in Magnetic Hysteresis Loop in a Non-Oriented Electric Steel Cold Rolled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-oriented steels, with low carbon, are widely used in the fabrication of electrical motor nucleus. The performance of these motors is affected by the level of recrystallization. These steels can come from the steel plant in two different conditions: totally processed or semi-processed. The semi-processed steels have a partially deformed structure and are submitted to the final annealing process after reaching the end shape. An adequate annealing heat treatment is important to get an appropriate magnetic property. In the present study, samples of an electric steel, with the composition (0.05 wt% C, 1.28wt% Si, 0.29wt% Mn), cold rolled 50% in thickness, were withdrawn during the industrial heat treatment at temperatures of 575, 580, 600, 620 and 730 °C with the objective of evaluating the evolution of recrystalization with temperature. Magnetic properties were measured at room temperature in a vibrating sample magnetometer. Although the changes in magnetic hysteresis loop with temperature are difficult to observe, they have been identified by using pattern classification techniques, such as principal-component analysis and Karhunen-Loève expansion. These tools have been applied to vectors which are built from each hysteresis loop, properly renormalized, whose components correspond to amplitude of the loop at given equally spaced values of the renormalized field. The samples have been classified in four sets, namely, set A corresponding to temperatures 575/580, set B corresponding to temperatures 600/620, set C corresponding to the samples without annealing heat treatment, and set D corresponding to recrystallized samples. The results for the classification of the different microstructures have been obtained by using both techniques, and in particular a 100% success rate has been reached by using Karhunen-Loève expansion.

da Silva, F. E.; Freitas, F. N. C.; Abreu, H. F. G.; Gonçalves, L. L.; Moura, E. P.; Silva, M. R.

2011-06-01

402

COMPASS: A Parent-Teacher Collaborative Model for Students with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A consultation framework with strong theoretical and conceptual support is presented, called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS). The overall goal of COMPASS is to provide indirect intervention to help students with autism achieve competence. COMPASS was also designed to provide collaboration among educators and…

Ruble, Lisa A.; Dalrymple, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

403

Robustness of the filamentation instability as shock mediator in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The filamentation instability (sometimes also referred to as ''Weibel'') is a key process in many astrophysical scenario. In the Fireball model for gamma ray bursts, this instability is believed to mediate collisionless shock formation from the collision of two plasma shells. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely cancel this instability. We show here that in the general case where there is an angle between the field and the flow, the filamentation instability can never be stabilized, regardless of the field strength. The presented model analyzes the stability of two symmetric counter-streaming cold electron/proton plasma shells. Relativistic effects are accounted for, and various exact analytical results are derived. This result guarantees the occurrence of the instability in realistic settings fulfilling the cold approximation.

Bret, A.; Alvaro, E. Perez [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain) and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2011-08-15

404

Concept analysis: compassion fatigue and effects upon critical care nurses.  

PubMed

Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to delve into the initial understanding of compassion fatigue, a relatively new concept being explored with critical care nurses and other health care professionals. The term was originally used in 1992 involving research exploring burnout experienced by critical care nurses when a trend emerged where nurses appeared to have lost their "ability to nurture." The term has since been used synonymously with secondary traumatic stress disorder. Two important goals exist for this article: First, theoretically to conduct a concept analysis of compassion fatigue, thereby providing information for critical care nurses to understand the concept as a universal human experience. Second, from a caring perspective, identifying the effects related to critical care nurses provides an opportunity to address physical and somatic consequences of compassion fatigue that will ultimately become important to nursing practice, education, and research. PMID:22948373

Jenkins, Belinda; Warren, Nancy A

405

How Schwartz rounds can be used to combat compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

Hospice nurses were the first to have some of their experiences described as 'compassion fatigue' but this term can now be applied to all nursing staff in clinical environments. Compassion fatigue can suddenly render nurses unable to distinguish between their own emotions and those of their patients. This fatigue can result in staff becoming emotionally drained and therefore unable to provide high quality care. While nurses have to regain public trust in the wake of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust inquiry, this article considers whether or not Schwartz rounds, an initiative introduced from the US, can help maintain the wellbeing of staff and so protect the quality of patient care. PMID:23923178

Thompson, Alison

2013-07-01

406

Evidence of the unspeakable: biopower, compassion, and nursing.  

PubMed

This philosophical article utilizes the concept of "the Unspeakable," referring to the creation of biopolitical spaces for nursing in which compassion is rendered severely diminished to impossible. The effect of the Unspeakable in shaping nursing practice is explored in contemporary health care. Local, autobiographical narratives are used to illustrate the effect of the Unspeakable on nursing in both the academic and clinical settings. Alternative strategies for resisting the Unspeakable and promoting compassion as an essential element of effective nursing practice are proposed. PMID:21572260

Georges, Jane M

407

Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: longitudinal relaxation dispersion for spin I = 1.  

PubMed

The frequency dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate, known as the magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD), can provide a frequency-resolved characterization of molecular motions in complex biological and colloidal systems on time scales ranging from 1 ns to 100 ?s. The conformational dynamics of immobilized proteins and other biopolymers can thus be probed in vitro or in vivo by exploiting internal water molecules or labile hydrogens that exchange with a dominant bulk water pool. Numerous water (1)H and (2)H MRD studies of such systems have been reported, but the widely different theoretical models currently used to analyze the MRD data have resulted in divergent views of the underlying molecular motions. We have argued that the essential mechanism responsible for the main dispersion is the exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings when internal water molecules or labile hydrogens escape from orientationally confining macromolecular sites. In the EMOR model, the exchange process is thus not just a means of mixing spin populations but it is also the direct cause of spin relaxation. Although the EMOR theory has been used in several studies to analyze water (2)H MRD data from immobilized biopolymers, the fully developed theory has not been described. Here, we present a comprehensive account of a generalized version of the EMOR theory for spin I = 1 nuclides like (2)H. As compared to a previously described version of the EMOR theory, the present version incorporates three generalizations that are all essential in applications to experimental data: (i) a biaxial (residual) electric field gradient tensor, (ii) direct and indirect effects of internal motions, and (iii) multiple sites with different exchange rates. In addition, we describe and assess different approximations to the exact EMOR theory that are useful in various regimes. In particular, we consider the experimentally important dilute regime, for which approximate analytical results are derived. As shown by the analytical expressions, and confirmed by exact numerical calculations, the dispersion is governed by the pure nuclear quadrupole resonance frequencies in the ultraslow-motion regime, where the relaxation rate also exhibits a much stronger dependence on the electric field gradient asymmetry than in the motional-narrowing regime. PMID:22894360

Nilsson, Tomas; Halle, Bertil

2012-08-01

408

In-flight quality and accuracy of attitude measurements from the CHAMP advanced stellar compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German geo-observations satellite CHAMP carries highly accurate vector instruments. The orientation of these relative to the inertial reference frame is obtained using star trackers. These advanced stellar compasses (ASC) are fully autonomous units, which provide, in real time, the absolute attitude with accuracy in the arc second range. In order to investigate the in-flight accuracy of the ASC, the terminology to characterize noise and biases is introduced. Relative instrument accuracy (RIA) and absolute instrument accuracy (AIA) can in principle be determined in-flight. However problems with modeling external noise sources often arise. The special CHAMP configuration with two star tracker cameras mounted fixed together provides an excellent opportunity to determine the AIA in-flight using the inter boresight angle.

Jørgensen, Peter S.; Jørgensen, John L.; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

2005-01-01

409

Storm sudden commencements at Indian stations and associated changes in interplanetary magnetic field orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden impulse (SI) is one of the important aspects of solar terrestrial relationships involving solar wind, IMF, magnetosphere, ionosphere and EEJ. The SSCs observed globally everywhere at ground, the amplitude of each SSC and waveform will different and depends on the latitude and also the local time. The understanding of the SCs in general involves the complex current systems that develop in the magnetosphereionosphere domain as a result of sudden magnetospheric compression. In recent years, the statistical studies showed the local time (LT) pattern of occurrence of preliminary impulse at middle and low latitudes and associated mechanisms of field aligned currents and ionospheric currents. The objective of this work focuses is on the SSCs chacteristics of severe magnetic storms which occurred during solar cycle 23 and associated IMF parameters and solar wind dynamic pressure will be investigated using digital geomagnetic data from Indian sector and also satellite data. This study will also aim to understand the aspects of preliminary impulse and main impulse characteristics at low latitudes from Indian sector and the associated ionospheric current systems which will be the tool to investigate the coupling between magnetosphere and Ionosphere.

Bhaskara, Veenadhari; Alex, S.; Singh, R.

410

Position-orientation adaptive smoothing of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance data (POAS).  

PubMed

We introduce an algorithm for diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data enhancement based on structural adaptive smoothing in both voxel space and diffusion-gradient space. The method, called POAS, does not refer to a specific model for the data, like the diffusion tensor or higher order models. It works by embedding the measurement space into a space with defined metric, in this case the Lie group of three-dimensional Euclidean motion SE(3). Subsequently, pairwise comparisons of the values of the diffusion weighted signal are used for adaptation. POAS preserves the edges of the observed fine and anisotropic structures. It is designed to reduce noise directly in the diffusion weighted images and consequently also to reduce bias and variability of quantities derived from the data for specific models. We evaluate the algorithm on simulated and experimental data and demonstrate that it can be used to reduce the number of applied diffusion gradients and hence acquisition time while achieving a similar quality of data, or to improve the quality of data acquired in a clinically feasible scan time setting. PMID:22677817

Becker, S M A; Tabelow, K; Voss, H U; Anwander, A; Heidemann, R M; Polzehl, J

2012-05-24

411

Accelerating Fibre Orientation Estimation from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using GPUs  

PubMed Central

With the performance of central processing units (CPUs) having effectively reached a limit, parallel processing offers an alternative for applications with high computational demands. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) are massively parallel processors that can execute simultaneously thousands of light-weight processes. In this study, we propose and implement a parallel GPU-based design of a popular method that is used for the analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). More specifically, we are concerned with a model-based approach for extracting tissue structural information from diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI data. DW-MRI offers, through tractography approaches, the only way to study brain structural connectivity, non-invasively and in-vivo. We parallelise the Bayesian inference framework for the ball & stick model, as it is implemented in the tractography toolbox of the popular FSL software package (University of Oxford). For our implementation, we utilise the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming model. We show that the parameter estimation, performed through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), is accelerated by at least two orders of magnitude, when comparing a single GPU with the respective sequential single-core CPU version. We also illustrate similar speed-up factors (up to 120x) when comparing a multi-GPU with a multi-CPU implementation.

Hernandez, Moises; Guerrero, Gines D.; Cecilia, Jose M.; Garcia, Jose M.; Inuggi, Alberto; Jbabdi, Saad; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.

2013-01-01

412

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

413

Penny Trading on the NYSE and the Compass Rose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although price discreteness was originally though to be a sufficient condition for the existence of the compass rose, recent research based on simulated data suggests that the tick\\/volatility ratio must also exceed some critical threshold value. The introduction of decimal price quotes by the NYSE provides an ideal opportunity to test the impact of a change in the tick\\/volatility ratio

Michael D. McKenzie; Alex Frino B

414

Compassion and Caring: Missing Concepts in Social Studies Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current social studies programs do not include the study of prosocial behaviors such as altruism, generosity, and compassion. This omission legitimizes the view that human behaviors are self-serving. Curriculum developers should fashion programs which provide prosocial models and opportunities for students to conceptualize such behaviors and…

Oliner, Pearl

1979-01-01

415

Virtual Compass: Relative Positioning to Sense Mobile Social Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are endless possibilities for the next generation of mo- bile social applications that automatically determine your social context. A key element of such applications is ubiquitous and precise sensing of the people you interact with. Existing techniques that rely on deployed infrastructure to determine proximity are limited in availability and ac- curacy. Virtual Compass is a peer-based relative positioning

Nilanjan Banerjee; Sharad Agarwal; Paramvir Bahl; Ranveer Chandra; Alec Wolman; Mark D. Corner

2010-01-01

416

An odor compass for localizing an odor source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An odor-source localization system has been developed that mimics animal behavior. The directional probe is called an active sampling probe, and was modeled on the behavior of the silkworm moth. It was extended to an odor compass which continuously points towards the direction of the odor source, using a small fan and two semiconductor gas sensors. The probe was rotated,

T Nakamoto; H Ishida; T Moriizumi

1996-01-01

417

Context-Aware Recommendations in the Mobile Tourist Application COMPASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the context- aware mobile tourist application COMPASS that adapts its services to the user's needs based on both the user's interests and his current context. In order to provide context-aware recommendations, a recommender system has been integrated with a context- aware application platform. We describe how this integration has been accomplished and how users feel about such

Mark Van Setten; Stanislav Pokraev; Johan Koolwaaij

2004-01-01

418

Grid References and Compass Points: 3.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These 5 activities, part of the Mathematics Developmental Continuum of the State of Victoria, Australia, are intended to introduce young learners to compasses, the cardinal directions, left and right turns, and the use of map coordinates. Supporting documents and materials, teaching strategies, and progress indicators are included. Note that in Australia the noontime Sun is to the north.

2009-09-24

419

46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the gyrocompass required under paragraph (b) of this section that is at the main steering stand unless the gyrocompass is illuminated and is at the main steering stand. [CFD 75-074, 42 FR 5964, Jan. 31,...

2009-10-01

420

Biomagnetism and Magnetotaxis in Bacteria: What Bacteria Know About Magnetic Materials and Permanent Magnet Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria (mtb) migrate along geomagnetic field lines, i.e., they behave like self-propelled magnetic compass needles. Mtb make single-magnetic-domain crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and greigite (Fe3S4) in intracellular structures called magnetosomes. The magnetosomes are arranged in linear chains that comprise permanent magnetic dipoles with remanent moments approaching the saturation moment, causing the mtb to be oriented in the geomagnetic field as they swim. This allows them to keep their heading and efficiently migrate to, and remain in, a preferred, microaerobic, aquatic habitat. The mtb have solved the difficult problem of designing a permanent magnet that is sufficiently robust to cause the cell to be oriented in the geomagnetic field at ambient temperature, yet fit inside a micron-sized object, and be assembled in situ from potentially toxic materials scavenged from the environment. I will describe some recent advances in mtb genetics that illuminate the process by which they make and arrange their magnetosomes.

Frankel, Richard

2011-03-01

421

A Visual Compass based on SLAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, Accurate full 3 axis orientation is computed using a low cost calibrated camera. We present a simultaneous sensor location and mapping method that uses a purely rotating camera as sensor and distant points, ideally at in nity, as features. A smooth constant angular velocity pure rotation motion model codi es the camera location. Because of the sequential EKF approach

J. M. M. Montiel; Andrew J. Davison

2006-01-01

422

Nuclear orientation measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the 11\\/2 ? Isomeric states in 129 Xe, 131 Xe and 133 Xe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-temperature nuclear orientation technique was used to measure the magnetic moments of129mXe,131mXe and133mXe implanted in iron by isotope separator. The magnitudes of the magnetic dipole moments, extracted from the gamma-ray anisotropy measurements areµ=-0.80(10)µNfor129mXe,µ=-0.80(10)µN for131Xe andµ=-0.87(12)% for133Xe. The results for these 11\\/2- isomers agree with theoretical calculations by the spin polarization procedure using wave functions from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model.

R. E. Silverans; R. Coussement; H. Pattyn; E. Schoeters; L. Vanneste

1974-01-01

423

Innovations in Compassion. The Faith-Based and Community Initiative: A Final Report to the Armies of Compassion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report to the Armies of Compassion prepared by the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives offers an account of President Bush's Faith-Based and Community Initiative (FBCI or Initiative) to the dedicated faith-based and othe...

2008-01-01

424

Rare earth permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent magnets were discovered centuries ago from what was known as {open_quotes}lodestone{close_quotes}, a rock containing large quantities of the iron-bearing mineral magnetite (FeâOâ). The compass was the first technological use for permanent magnetic materials; it was used extensively for navigational purposes by the fifteenth century. During the twentieth century, as new applications for permanent magnets were developed, interest and research

Major-Sosias

1993-01-01

425

Control of fault shearing on the fabric of a syn-tectonic granite : magnetic fabric and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late-Miocene monzogranitic pluton of Porto Azzurro (PA) on Elba Island (Italy), was emplaced in the footwall of the N-S striking Zuccale Fault (ZF), a Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF). In the Barbarossa outcrop, this poorly exposed pluton shows few NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE striking shear bands, respectively moderately dipping eastward and steeply dipping northward, which appear to be associated to the brittle fracturation, and no clear relationship between all these structures and the ZF is described. In order to get information about possible relationship between these shear bands, brittle structures and prior fabric of this igneous stock, and about the timing of formation of these ductile deformations relative to the pluton emplacement, rock fabrics were studied on samples taken both inside and outside of one of these shear bands. The magnetic fabric was analyzed with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements (AMS), and the crystallographic preferred orientations of dynamically recrystallized quartz were measured with the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) method. Quartz CPOs are directly compared, after EBSD data processing, with the macroscopic ductile structures orientation, according to the geographical North. The pooling of data of these two methods reveals two distinct petrofabrics within the Barbarossa monzogranite. The first fabric, with a low dip angle, is identified only on samples taken outside of the influence of the shear bands. Orientation of paramagnetic minerals, with biotite as the main magnetic mineral carrier, and quartz CPOs are consistent, pervasive within the whole outcrop and are linked to the eastward extension produced by the LANF Zuccale Fault. This fabric suggests that the dynamic of the magmatic supplies during emplacement of the pluton of PA was controlled by the LANF's extension, and confirms this magmatic intrusion to be likely syn-tectonic. The second fabric is identified close or within the studied shear bands with a similar orientation to them. Our data show that these ductile structures impose a local new tectonic fabric overprinting the pre-existing one. The common re-orientation of the magnetic minerals, of the recrystallized quartz and of the brittle structures suggest a strain localization and a continuous strain process localized along stain bands from late-magmatic flowing, highlighted by biotite orientation, then during shear bands activation, at temperature around 350-400° C. Finally, these structures would have remained active through the ductile-brittle transition, leading to the localized intense fracturation of the Barbarossa outcrop.

Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Oliot, Emilien

2013-04-01

426

Bird Orientation: Displacement Experiments with Young Autumn Migrating Wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe, along the Arctic Coast of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory naive birds are thought to find the migration route from their natal site to a specific wintering area by either clock-and-compass orientation or goal area navigation. These two alternative hypotheses were tested by extensive longitudinal displacements of juvenile wheatears, hatched in northeastern Siberia, on their first autumn migration towards the wintering area in East Africa. Orientation of individual birds

Susanne Akesson; Ulf Ottosson; Roland Sandberg

1995-01-01

427

Dung beetles ignore landmarks for straight-line orientation.  

PubMed

Upon locating a suitable dung pile, ball-rolling dung beetles shape a piece of dung into a ball and roll it away in a straight line. This guarantees that they will not return to the dung pile, where they risk having their ball stolen by other beetles. Dung beetles are known to use celestial compass cues such as the sun, the moon and the pattern of polarised light formed around these light sources to roll their balls of dung along straight paths. Here, we investigate whether terrestrial landmarks have any influence on straight-line orientation in dung beetles. We find that the removal or re-arrangement of landmarks has no effect on the beetle's orientation precision. Celestial compass cues dominate straight-line orientation in dung beetles so strongly that, under heavily overcast conditions or when prevented from seeing the sky, the beetles can no longer orient along straight paths. To our knowledge, this is the only animal with a visual compass system that ignores the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer. PMID:23076443

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

2012-10-18

428

Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation.  

PubMed

The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry), designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other relevant clock genes in vivo. We found that similar temporal patterns of clock gene expression and protein levels occur in the heads, as occur in DpN1 cells, of a monarch cell line that contains a light-driven clock. CRY1 mediates TIMELESS degradation by light in DpN1 cells, and a light-induced TIMELESS decrease occurs in putative clock cells in the pars lateralis (PL) in the brain. Moreover, monarch cry1 transgenes partially rescue both biochemical and behavioral light-input defects in cry(b) mutant Drosophila. CRY2 is the major transcriptional repressor of CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription in DpN1 cells, and endogenous CRY2 potently inhibits transcription without involvement of PERIOD. CRY2 is co-localized with clock proteins in the PL, and there it translocates to the nucleus at the appropriate time for transcriptional repression. We also discovered CRY2-positive neural projections that oscillate in the central complex. The results define a novel, CRY-centric clock mechanism in the monarch in which CRY1 likely functions as a blue-light photoreceptor for entrainment, whereas CRY2 functions within the clockwork as the transcriptional repressor of a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Our data further suggest that CRY2 may have a dual role in the monarch butterfly's brain-as a core clock element and as an output that regulates circadian activity in the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass. PMID:18184036

Zhu, Haisun; Sauman, Ivo; Yuan, Quan; Casselman, Amy; Emery-Le, Myai; Emery, Patrick; Reppert, Steven M

2008-01-01

429

Cryptochromes Define a Novel Circadian Clock Mechanism in Monarch Butterflies That May Underlie Sun Compass Navigation  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry), designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other relevant clock genes in vivo. We found that similar temporal patterns of clock gene expression and protein levels occur in the heads, as occur in DpN1 cells, of a monarch cell line that contains a light-driven clock. CRY1 mediates TIMELESS degradation by light in DpN1 cells, and a light-induced TIMELESS decrease occurs in putative clock cells in the pars lateralis (PL) in the brain. Moreover, monarch cry1 transgenes partially rescue both biochemical and behavioral light-input defects in cryb mutant Drosophila. CRY2 is the major transcriptional repressor of CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription in DpN1 cells, and endogenous CRY2 potently inhibits transcription without involvement of PERIOD. CRY2 is co-localized with clock proteins in the PL, and there it translocates to the nucleus at the appropriate time for transcriptional repression. We also discovered CRY2-positive neural projections that oscillate in the central complex. The results define a novel, CRY-centric clock mechanism in the monarch in which CRY1 likely functions as a blue-light photoreceptor for entrainment, whereas CRY2 functions within the clockwork as the transcriptional repressor of a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Our data further suggest that CRY2 may have a dual role in the monarch butterfly's brain—as a core clock element and as an output that regulates circadian activity in the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass.

Zhu, Haisun; Sauman, Ivo; Yuan, Quan; Casselman, Amy; Emery-Le, Myai; Emery, Patrick; Reppert, Steven M

2008-01-01

430

Influence of bileaflet prosthetic mitral valve orientation on left ventricular flow—an experimental in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Orientation-related bileaflet mechanical valve flow and velocity studies in the downstream area are limited in mitral valve replacement studies. Methods: In five sheep, ventricular blood flow was visualized prior to the implantation of a mitral Edwards Mira Bileaflet Mechanical Valve Model 9600. The implant orientation was either anatomic, with a 45° rotation, or anti-anatomic, with a 90° rotation. Sheep

H. Mächler; M. Perthel; G. Reiter; U. Reiter; M. Zink; P. Bergmann; A. Waltensdorfer; J. Laas

2004-01-01

431

Magnetization-orientation dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in the ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet system: CuNi/Nb/CuNi.  

PubMed

The superconducting critical temperature (T(c)) of ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet systems has been predicted to exhibit a dependence on the magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic layers such that T(AP)(c)>T(P)(c) for parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) configurations of the two ferromagnetic layers. We have grown CuNi/Nb/CuNi films via magnetron sputtering and confirmed the theoretical prediction by measuring the resistance of the system as a function of temperature and magnetic field. We find an approximately 25% resistance drop occurs near T(c) in Cu0.47Ni0.53(5 nm)/Nb(18)/CuNi(5) when the two CuNi layers change their magnetization directions from parallel to antiparallel, whereas there is no corresponding resistance change in the normal state. PMID:12484851

Gu, J Y; You, C-Y; Jiang, J S; Pearson, J; Bazaliy, Ya B; Bader, S D

2002-12-09

432

Electroreception and the compass sense of sharks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elasmobranchs have an electric sense that is sensitive enough to detect electric fields as weak as those induced through their bodies as they swim through the earth’s magnetic field. Because the intensity and direction of these fields are related to the speed and direction of the movements that cause them, elasmobranchs could use their electric sense in navigation. There is

Michael G. Paulin

1995-01-01

433

The Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Self-Compassion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather

KRISTIN D. NEFF

2003-01-01

434

Self-Compassion and Self-Construal in the United States, Thailand, and Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-compassion is a self-attitude construct derived from Buddhist psychology (Neff, 2003a). It entails being kind rather than harshly critical toward oneself, perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience, and holding painful feelings in mindful awareness. Given that self-compassion is an Asian construct, this study compares self-compassion levels in the United States, Thailand, and Taiwan. Results indicate that

Kristin D. Neff; Kullaya Pisitsungkagarn; Ya-Ping Hsieh

2008-01-01

435

Curricular Options in Mathematics Programs for All Secondary Students (COMPASS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curricular Options in Mathematics Programs for All Secondary Students (COMPASS), funded partly by the National Science Foundation, assists "schools, teachers, administrators, parent groups, and other community members and constituencies interested in improving secondary school mathematics opportunities and experiences for their students." Specifically, they serve as a clearinghouse for five curricular programs, which are designed to meet the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) 1989 publication Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, and the updated Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000). Through workshops and this website they offer advice on developing curriculum-specific implementation strategies, and opportunities for professional development. For each curriculum project the website includes a Project Description, an Outline of Curriculum, Examples of Curriculum, Evaluation Data, Implementation Data, Teacher Support & Resources, and Publisher Information. Articles in the media and an FAQ section provides additional background on the projects and the support services that COMPASS offers.

436

GPD physics with polarized muon beams at COMPASS-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major part of the future COMPASS program is dedicated to the investigation of the nucleon structure through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). COMPASS will measure DVCS and DVMP reactions with a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV and a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target surrounded by a new TOF system. The availability of muon beams with high energy and opposite charge and polarization will allow to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H and to study the xB-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. Projections on the achievable accuracies and preliminary results of pilot measurements will be presented.

Ferrero, Andrea; COMPASS Collaboration

2013-04-01

437

The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation.  

PubMed

King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home. PMID:23307799

Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco

2013-01-10

438

Practicing Compassion Increases Happiness and Self-Esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the effect of practicing compassion towards others over a 1 week period. Participants (N = 719) were recruited online, and were assigned to a compassionate action condition or a control condition which involved\\u000a writing about an early memory. Multilevel modeling revealed that those in the compassionate action condition showed sustained\\u000a gains in happiness (SHI; Seligman et al. in Am

Myriam MongrainJacqueline; Jacqueline M. Chin; Leah B. Shapira

2011-01-01

439

The COMPASS RICH1 read-out system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reconfigurable read-out system for the 82944 RICH-1 channels of the COMPASS experiment (NA58) at CERN. The system is based on 192 identical large front-end boards (BORA board). BORA was designed for acquiring, digitizing, threshold subtracting and transmitting event data. The overall operation of the board is controlled and supervised by a DSP tightly interacting with an

G. Baum; R. Birsa; F. Bradamante; A. Bressan; A. Chapiro; A. Cicuttin; P. Ciliberti; A. Colavita; S. Costa; M. Crespo; P. Cristaudo; S. Dalla Torre; V. Diaz; P. Fauland; F. Fratnik; M. Giorgi; B. Gobbo; R. Ijaduola; V. Kalinnikov; M. Lamanna; A. Martin; G. Menon; P. Pagano; P. Schiavon; F. Tessarotto; A. Zanetti

2003-01-01

440

Awareness and Compassion for the Education of Enlightenment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter explores awareness and compassion as essential elements in spiritual cultivation. Of the education of awareness,\\u000a it describes the ideas of Aldous Huxley and J. Krishnamurti as well as the Buddha’s teachings on mindfulness. The practice\\u000a of awareness would reveal a holistic experience and multiple dimensions of reality. This chapter briefly describes the author’s\\u000a view of ‘the five dimensions

Yoshiharu Nakagawa

441

Does compassion mediate the intrinsic religion-health relationship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Religiosity has been related to positive health outcomes. Although this relationship is primarily based on studies of church\\u000a attendance and health, more recent work has focused on the potential mechanisms that may mediate the religion-health findings.\\u000a One principle that is taught by all of the world’s major religions is compassion.Purpose: It was hypothesized that one pathway through which religiosity

Patrick R. Steffen; Kevin S. Masters

2005-01-01

442

The universal sampling ADC readout system of the COMPASS experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COMPASS experiment (COmpact Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) is a fixed target experiment located at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The physics program is focused on the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy with high intensity muon and hadron beams, up to 160 GeV\\/c for muons and 190 GeV\\/c for hadrons respectively. To allow the tracking

Alexander B. Mann; Igor Konorov; Heinz Angerer; M. Kramer; S. Huber; B. Grube; J. Friedrich; B. Ketzer; S. Uhl; F. Haas; A.-M. Dinkelbach; S. Grabmuller; S. Paul

2009-01-01

443

Exploring compassion: implications for contemporary nursing. Part 2.  

PubMed

A range of contemporary political and professional literature endorse the principle of compassion in nursing as a core and underpinning philosophy fundamental to the profession. However, despite pledges to ensure that compassion lies at the heart of nursing, the concept has not been clearly defined. It is evident that uncovering the true meaning is complex and challenging owing to its subjective nature. In light of this, several implications must be considered. Effective student nurse recruitment is essential to ensure that the most appropriate individuals are selected. Contemporary marketing campaigns must be implemented, and recruitment strategies developed, which consider specific values and attitudes. Service user involvement in recruitment and selection, curriculum planning and learning and teaching strategies, and post-qualification education, can enhance nurses' understanding of the patient perspective and make headway in embedding compassion as a core nursing value. Additionally, effective role modelling in practice which demonstrates high-quality compassionate nursing care is essential. Nurses must be adequately supported in the clinical environment to facilitate compassionate behaviours and clinical leadership at all levels must uphold political and professional pledges to achieve this. Consideration of these implications for practice is essential to ensure that nurses are able to respond to patients with humanity and kindness, and deliver high-quality, compassionate care to all. PMID:22398938

Straughair, Collette

444

COMPASS experiment at CERN: hadron spectroscopy and open charm results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a fixed target experiment at CERN dedicated to studies of the spin structure of the nucleon and of the spectroscopy of hadrons. During the years 2002-2004 and 2006-2007, the COMPASS collaboration has collected a large amount of data by scattering polarized 160 GeV/c muons on polarized 6LiD and NH targets. These data were used to evaluate the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin. The gluon polarization ?gg was directly measured from the cross-section helicity asymmetry of D0 mesons production in the photon-gluon fusion reaction.During 2008 and 2009, the world leading data sets were collected with hadron beams which are currently being analyzed using Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) technique. COMPASS is performing a search for J-exotic mesons, glueballs and hybrids, through light hadron spectroscopy in high energy 190 GeV/c hadron-proton reactions using both centrally produced and diffractive events. Preliminary results from these searches are discussed.

COMPASS Collaboration; Kouznetsov, O.

2012-12-01

445

TD-AltBOC: A new COMPASS B2 modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AltBOC(15,10) is the baseline of COMPASS B2 signal modulation. It is a BOC-like signal having different PN codes in the lower and the upper main split lobes, which allow one signal service per lobe. The two lobes can be received and processed separately like two BPSK(10) signals, or coherently processed to achieve better performance. Interoperability among COMPASS B2, Galileo E5 and GPS L5 is also achievable using AltBOC modulation. However, Galileo's 4-code AltBOC has drawbacks such as low efficiency and great receiver complexity. This paper presents a new modulation type named TD-AltBOC (Time Division AltBOC). The signal generation scheme and receiving method are presented, and are compared with AltBOC in the areas of power spectrum, ranging accuracy, anti-multipath performance, anti-interference performance, processing flexibility and complexity. Analysis results show TD-AltBOC has similar spectrum characteristics, interoperability, flexibility and anti-interference performance with AltBOC. When the frontend bandwidth is more than 50 MHz, TD-AltBOC can achieve better ranging accuracy and anti-multipath performance. It also has such advantages as high efficiency and low receiver complexity. TD-AltBOC could be a good solution to COMPASS B2 navigation signal.

Tang, Zuping; Zhou, Hongwei; Wei, Jiaolong; Yan, Tao; Liu, Yuqi; Ran, Yihang; Zhou, Yanling

2011-06-01

446

'Have a nice day': consumerism, compassion and health care.  

PubMed

Plans to implement a quality measurement framework that will rate nurses according to the level of care and compassion they demonstrate have been proposed and discussed in a number of Department of Health documents. From September 2010 degree-level nursing students in Wales will receive regular feedback on their communication skills and whether they are exhibiting sufficient levels of compassion. This article examines the reasons why there have been such moves by both politicians and health professionals to demonstrate, in quantifiable terms, that they are able to measure something that is frequently contextual and subject to individual interpretation. It explores how these moves have been influenced by the disclosure of unacceptable standards of care by the Patients Association report and the enquiry into Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust. It also discusses how the adoption of targets to evaluate care and compassion seems to reflect a market-driven and bureaucratic approach to health care that has resulted in a system in which measurability and outcome are considered the most important indicator of quality. PMID:20852468

Sturgeon, David

447

Evaluation of COMPASS ionospheric model in GNSS positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As important products of GNSS navigation message, ionospheric delay model parameters are broadcasted for single-frequency users to improve their positioning accuracy. GPS provides daily Klobuchar ionospheric model parameters based on geomagnetic reference frame, while the regional satellite navigation system of China's COMPASS broadcasts an eight-parameter ionospheric model, COMPASS Ionospheric Model(CIM), which was generated by processing data from continuous monitoring stations, with updating the parameters every 2 h. To evaluate its performance, CIM predictions are compared to ionospheric delay measurements, along with GPS positioning accuracy comparisons. Real observed data analysis indicates that CIM provides higher correction precision in middle-latitude regions, but relatively lower correction precision for low-latitude regions where the ionosphere has much higher variability. CIM errors for some users show a common bias for in-coming COMPASS signals from different satellites, and hence ionospheric model errors are somehow translated into the receivers' clock error estimation. In addition, the CIM from the China regional monitoring network are further evaluated for global ionospheric corrections. Results show that in the Northern Hemisphere areas including Asia, Europe and North America, the three-dimensional positioning accuracy using the CIM for ionospheric delay corrections is improved by 7.8%-35.3% when compared to GPS single-frequency positioning ionospheric delay corrections using the Klobuchar model. However, the positioning accuracy in the Southern Hemisphere is degraded due apparently to the lack of monitoring stations there.

Wu, Xiaoli; Hu, Xiaogong; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Huijuan; Tang, Chengpan

2013-03-01

448

Electronic compass and vertical-angle measurement sensor: applications and benefits to the soldier system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of an electronic Compass and Vertical Angle Measurement (CVAM) sensor is to measure the attitude/orientation (i.e., azimuth, elevation, and cant; in terms of true North and local vertical) of the object to which it is attached. This measurement of orientation enables the addition of valuable functionality to the soldier system. Currently the Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) program is funding the development of a CVAM and its integration onto the Integrated Helmet Assembly Subassembly (IHAS) of the Land Warrior system. The primary intent of the FXXI LW effort is to produce a Head Orientation Sensor (HOS) that, when combined with data from a corresponding Weapon Orientation Sensor, enables a new function for the Land Warrior system known as Rapid Target Acquisition (RTA). The RTA functionality is only one of a set of soldier functions enabled by the CVAM. It is the objective of this paper to describe the CVAM/HOS and its various applications within the soldier systems. The introduction of the paper provides the history and background of the CVAM and its operation. The body of the paper is first focused on an overview of CVAM operation and the means by which it is to be integrated into various systems (to include helmets, advanced weapon sights, chemical sensing platforms, etc.). This will include the unique needs of the sensor such as calibration and parameter adjustment, and its key features that make it excel in its operational environment. The remainder of the paper focuses on the application of the CVAM to soldier systems; the benefits that CVAM offers to existing functions and the new functionality it enables. Various soldier functions and capabilities (new and pre-existing) are described. The paper concludes with a description of the status of the effort. This includes the developmental status of the CVAM/HOS, the validation of its design, and its integration into the IHAS and other weapon and sensing platforms.

Roberts, Barry A.; Johnson, Angela; Belt, Ronald A.; Platt, Bill

1998-08-01

449

NMR determination of the orientation of the magnetic susceptibility tensor in cyanometmyoglobin: A new probe of steric tilt of bound ligand  

SciTech Connect

The experimentally determined paramagnetic dipolar shifts for noncoordinated amino acid side-chain protons in the heme pocket of sperm whale cyanometmyoglobin were used to determine in solution the orientation of the principal axes for the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor relative to the heme iron molecular coordinates. The determination was made by a least-squares search for the unique Euler rotation angles which convert the geometric factors in the molecular (crystal) coordinates to ones that correctly predict each of 41 known dipolar shifts by using the magnetic anisotropies computed previously. An excellent fit to experimental shifts was obtained, which also provided predictions that allowed subsequent new assignments to be made. The magnetic axes are oriented so that the z axis is tipped {approximately}15{degree} from the heme normal toward the heme {delta}-meso-H and coincides approximately with the characterized FeCO tilt axis in the isostructural MbCO complex. Since the FeCO and FeCN units are isostructural, the authors propose that the dominant protein constraint that tips the magnetic z axis from the heme normal is the tilt of the FeCN by steric interactions with the distal residues. It is shown that the proximal His ring nonlabile proton hyperfine shifts provide direct and exquisitely sensitive indicators of the degree of the z axis tilt that may serve as a valuable probe for characterizing variable steric interactions in the distal pocket of both point mutants and natural genetic variants of myoglobin.

Emerson, S.D.; La Mar, G.N. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-02-13

450

Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise.  

PubMed

Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion meditation state. To probe affective reactivity, we presented emotional and neutral sounds during the meditation and comparison periods. Our main hypothesis was that the concern for others cultivated during this form of meditation enhances affective processing, in particular in response to sounds of distress, and that this response to emotional sounds is modulated by the degree of meditation training. The presentation of the emotional sounds was associated with increased pupil diameter and activation of limbic regions (insula and cingulate cortices) during meditation (versus rest). During meditation, activation in insula was greater during presentation of negative sounds than positive or neutral sounds in expert than it was in novice meditators. The strength of activation in insula was also associated with self-reported intensity of the meditation for both groups. These results support the role of the limbic circuitry in emotion sharing. The comparison between meditation vs. rest states between experts and novices also showed increased activation in amygdala, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in response to all sounds, suggesting, greater detection of the emotional sounds, and enhanced mentation in response to emotional human vocalizations for experts than novices during meditation. Together these data indicate that the mental expertise to cultivate positive emotion alters the activation of circuitries previously linked to empathy and theory of mind in response to emotional stimuli. PMID:18365029

Lutz, Antoine; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Johnstone, Tom; Davidson, Richard J

2008-03-26

451

Personality traits associated with genetic counselor compassion fatigue: the roles of dispositional optimism and locus of control.  

PubMed

Compassion fatigue (CMF) arises as a consequence of secondary exposure to distress and can be elevated in some health practitioners. Locus of control and dispositional optimism are aspects of personality known to influence coping style. To investigate whether these personality traits influence CMF risk, we surveyed 355 genetic counselors about their CMF, locus of control orientation, and degree of dispositional optimism. Approximately half of respondents reported they experience CMF; 26.6% had considered leaving their job due to CMF symptoms. Mixed-method analyses revealed that genetic counselors having an external locus of control and low optimism were at highest risk for CMF. Those at highest risk experienced moderate-to-high burnout, low-to-moderate compassion satisfaction, and tended to rely on religion/spirituality when coping with stress. CMF risk was not influenced by years in practice, number of genetic counselor colleagues in the workplace, or completion of graduate training in this area. Recommendations for practice and education are outlined. PMID:21701957

Injeyan, Marie C; Shuman, Cheryl; Shugar, Andrea; Chitayat, David; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Kaiser, Amy

2011-06-24

452

Modification of magnetic properties through the control of growth orientation and epitaxial strain in SrRuO3 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the correlation between the magnetic properties and the structural modifications in SrRuO3 thin films. Previous results on the control of growth orientation in SrRuO3 thin film have been rather limited. For example, only orthorhombic a-axis growth could be obtained for SrRuO3 film on SrTiO3 (110) substrates. Here we were able to obtain various SrRuO3 films with (100)o, (010)o,

B. W. Lee; C. U. Jung

2010-01-01