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1

Magnetic field calculation on CDF detector (I)  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field and flux distribution for the CDF detector is calculated using a TRIM program. The flux distribution in the system is calculated at several different excitation levels with an expected B-H curve.

Yamada, R.

1983-01-20

2

Calculations on Uniform-Field Bending Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focal properties of some uniform-field bending magnets have been calculated. This report gives tables and graphs of the image distance and magnification for deflection angles of 20, 22-1/2, 35, 40, and 45 degrees, as a function of the object distance ...

P. Shapiro S. Podgor R. B. Theus

1965-01-01

3

Transmission line magnetic fields; Measurements and calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent controversy over 60 Hz magnetic fields has heightened public awareness of overhead transmission lines. As a result, there is increasing motivation to study the magnetic fields form transmission lines. The most cost effective means to conduct research into transmission line magnetic fields is with computer or reduced-scale line models. However, from the standpoint of public perception and acceptance, it

B. A. Clairmont; G. B. Johnson; J. H. Dunlap

1992-01-01

4

Calculation of Magnetic Fields for Engineering Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology of magnet technology and its application to various engineering devices are discussed. Magnet technology has experienced a rigid growth in the past few years as a result of the advances made in superconductivity, numerical methods and comp...

J. S. Colonias

1976-01-01

5

A self-consistent calculation of rotating magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A self-consistent method is described for determining the static magnetic-field reduction in a magnetized plasma with a specified density profile by radio-frequency (rf)-driven rotating magnetic fields (RMFs). Electron-ion collisions and transport losses are included in the analysis. Application of RMF current drive to tandem mirrors and rotomak reactors is considered. The results of the calculations show that magnetic wells can be produced in mirror configurations, and reversal of applied static magnetic fields can be generated in rotomark geometrics by RMF for modest investments of rf power at frequencies for which the rf technology is economically attractive.

Sperling, J.L.; Glassman, A.J.; Moses, K.G.; Quon, B.H.

1986-07-01

6

Fast dose calculation in magnetic fields with GPUMCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hybrid imaging-treatment modality, the MRI-Linac, involves the irradiation of the patient in the presence of a strong magnetic field. This field acts on the charged particles, responsible for depositing dose, through the Lorentz force. These conditions require a dose calculation engine capable of taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the dose distribution during the planning stage. Also in the case of a change in anatomy at the time of treatment, a fast online replanning tool is desirable. It is improbable that analytical solutions such as pencil beam calculations can be efficiently adapted for dose calculations within a magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations have therefore been used for the computations but the calculation speed is generally too slow to allow online replanning. In this work, GPUMCD, a fast graphics processing unit (GPU)-based Monte Carlo dose calculation platform, was benchmarked with a new feature that allows dose calculations within a magnetic field. As a proof of concept, this new feature is validated against experimental measurements. GPUMCD was found to accurately reproduce experimental dose distributions according to a 2%-2 mm gamma analysis in two cases with large magnetic field-induced dose effects: a depth-dose phantom with an air cavity and a lateral-dose phantom surrounded by air. Furthermore, execution times of less than 15 s were achieved for one beam in a prostate case phantom for a 2% statistical uncertainty while less than 20 s were required for a seven-beam plan. These results indicate that GPUMCD is an interesting candidate, being fast and accurate, for dose calculations for the hybrid MRI-Linac modality.

Hissoiny, S.; Raaijmakers, A. J. E.; Ozell, B.; Després, P.; Raaymakers, B. W.

2011-08-01

7

Magnetic fields with photon beams: Monte Carlo calculations for a model magnetic field.  

PubMed

Strong transverse magnetic fields can produce very large dose enhancements and reductions in localized regions of a patient under irradiation by a photon beam. We have suggested a model magnetic field which can be expected to produce such large dose enhancements and reductions, and we have carried out EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations to examine this effect for a 6x6 cm2 photon beam of energy 15, 30, or 45 MV penetrating a water phantom. Our model magnetic field has a nominal (center) strength B0 ranging between 1 and 5 T, and a maximum strength within the geometric beam which is 2.2xB0. For all three beam energies, there is significant dose enhancement for B0 = 2 T which increases greatly for B0 = 3 T, but stronger magnetic fields increase the enhancement further only for the 45-MV beam. Correspondingly, there is major reduction in the dose just distal to this region of large dose enhancement, resulting from secondary electrons and positrons originating upstream which are depositing energy in the dose-enhancement region rather than continuing further into the patient. The dose peak region is fairly narrow (in depth), but the magnetic field can be shifted along the longitudinal axis to produce a flat peak region of medium width (approximately 2 cm) or of large width (approximately 4 cm), with rapid dose dropoffs on either side. For the 30-MV beam with B0 = 3 T, we found a dose enhancement of 55% for the narrow-width configuration, 32% for the medium-width configuration, and 23% for the large-width configuration; for the 45-MV beam with B0 = 3 T, the enhancements were quite similar, but for the 15-MV beam they were considerably less. For all of these 30-MV configurations, the dose reductions were approximately 30%, and they were approximately 40% for the 45-MV configurations. PMID:11190956

Jette, D

2000-12-01

8

Numerical calculation of transient field effects in quenching superconducting magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum obtainable magnetic induction of accelerator magnets, relying on normal conducting cables and iron poles, is limited to around 2 T because of ohmic losses and iron saturation. Using superconducting cables, and employing permeable materials merely to reduce the fringe field, this limit can be exceeded and fields of more than 10 T can be obtained. A quench denotes

Nikolai Schwerg; Heino Henke; Stephan Russenschuck

2009-01-01

9

Thermopower switching by magnetic field: First-principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first-principles studies of the thermopower of the organometallic V4Bz5 molecule attached between Co electrodes with noncollinear magnetization directions. Different regimes in the formation of the noncollinear magnetic state of the molecule lead to a remarkable nonmonotonous dependence of the thermopower on the angle between the magnetizations of the electrodes. This complex behavior is explained by the resonant properties of the electron transmission. Consequently, the nanocontacts can be utilized for local heating or cooling controlled by the external magnetic field.

Maslyuk, Volodymyr V.; Achilles, Steven; Sandratskii, Leonid; Brandbyge, Mads; Mertig, Ingrid

2013-08-01

10

Motion of observed structures calculated from multi-point magnetic field measurements: Application to Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is described which calculates the velocity of observed, quasi-stationary structures at every moment in time from multi-point magnetic field measurements. Once the magnetic gradient tensor G = $\\\

Q. Q. Shi; C. Shen; M. W. Dunlop; Z. Y. Pu; Q.-G. Zong; Z. X. Liu; E. Lucek; A. Balogh

2006-01-01

11

A calculation of the magnetic field of a nerve action potential.  

PubMed Central

The magnetic field outside an isolated axon is calculated using transmembrane potential data to specify the boundary conditions to a solution of Laplace's equation. It is shown that the contribution to the magnetic field from the current inside the membrane is two orders of magnitude larger than that from the external current. The contribution from current within the membrane is negligible. Comparisons are made between waveforms calculated for a crayfish lateral axon and those measured for a frog sciatic nerve. This calculation suggests that the magnetic field measured outside nerves can be used to determine their internal current without puncturing the nerve membrane.

Swinney, K R; Wikswo, J P

1980-01-01

12

Calculation of the Magnetic Field in Air Produced by the Underground Conductor Using Pollaczek Integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast approach for evaluating the magnetic field in air generated by an underground conductor is proposed in this paper. By means of the asymptotic extraction technique, the magnetic field can be decomposed into two parts. One is the contribution from the asymptotic integrand, which can be calculated analytically; and the other can be expressed by a sum of the

Jun Zou; Mo Li; Jaebok Lee; Sughun Chang

2012-01-01

13

Magnetic Declination Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool calculates magnetic declination for a variety of locations across Canada and elsewhere. Users select a city (Canada only) from a drop-down menu or enter latitude and longitude values (works for any location), and the tool calculates the proper magnetic declination (the angular difference between observed magnetic North on a compass and geographic or 'true' North). There are also links to information on how to use magnetic declination with a compass, and how to use the calculator to determine values of all seven magnetic components. For locations in Canada, the Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field (CGRF) is used; for other locations, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is used.

14

Magnetic field calculation for a 10 MeV positron emission tomography cyclotron.  

PubMed

The magnetic field calculation and correction for a 10 MeV positron emission tomography cyclotron is presented. 3D TOSCA analysis results are compared with the measured data, and the calculation error is used to calibrate the B-H curve to obtain a very precise finite element method estimator, which is used to predict the correction of the magnet pole for achieving the isochronous field. The isochronous field error is approximated with the effects of a set of standard patches. On the assumption that the effect of each small patch is proportional to its surface, the correction of the magnet pole is found by solving a system of equations using the least square scheme. The magnet shimming is performed and the measured magnetic field is found in good agreement with the prediction, with an error less than 2 G. PMID:23742544

Chen, Dezhi; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Kaifeng; Yang, Jun; Li, Dong; Qin, Bin; Xiong, Yongqian

2013-05-01

15

Calculating the electric field in real human head by transcranial magnetic stimulation with shield plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system by incorporating a conductive shield plate. The magnetic field, induced current density, and electric field in a real human head were calculated by impedance method and the results were compared with TMS without shielding. Our results show that the field localization can be improved by introducing a conductive shield plate; the stimulation magnitude (depth) in the brain is reduced comparing with the TMS without shielding. The strong magnetic field near the TMS coil is difficult to be efficiently shielded by a thinner conductive shield plate.

Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

2009-04-01

16

Calculation of critical current in DC HTS cable using longitudinal magnetic field effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known from experimental data that the critical current of superconducting wires in a longitudinal magnetic field is higher than that in a transverse magnetic field. This property was proposed to apply to DC superconducting cables in our previous paper. Here, we propose a new calculation method of the current-carrying capacity for a new DC superconducting cable. An iteration method is used to calculate the magnetic field and critical current density in each layer and the current-carrying capacity of the cable. This enables us to calculate these quantities even for the cable with a different structure from the force-free one. When the critical current density increases with a longitudinal magnetic field, the optimal structure is found to be close to that of the force free cable. The optimal structure is obtained also when the critical current density decreases slightly with the longitudinal magnetic field. The reason for the enhanced current-carrying capacity even for such a case is a sufficiently larger critical current density in the longitudinal magnetic field than that in the transverse magnetic field.

Vyatkin, V. S.; Tanabe, K.; Wada, J.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Matsushita, T.

2013-11-01

17

Defining and Calculating Self-Helicity in Coronal Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce two different generalizations of relative helicity which may be applied to a portion of the coronal volume. Such a quantity is generally referred to as the self-helicity of the field occupying the subvolume. Each definition is a natural application of the traditional relative helicity but relative to a different reference field. One of the generalizations, which we term

D. W. Longcope; A. Malanushenko

2008-01-01

18

MFP (Magnetic Field Package): A Flexible System of Computer Programs for Theoretical Magnetic Field Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a description of three separate computer routines which are used to calculate various parameters utilized in the analysis of data transmitted from probes flown on research rockets and satellites. The majority of the parameters calculat...

A. Abelowitz R. E. McInerney

1973-01-01

19

Calculation of the interplanetary magnetic field based on its value in the solar photosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulties associated with calculating the parameters of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) from solar magnetic\\u000a data have been considered. All conventional calculation patterns and available input databases have been analyzed from a unified\\u000a standpoint. It has been shown that these assumptions and limitations cannot affect the general structure and dependence on\\u000a cycle of solar and interplanetary data. At the

V. N. Obridko; B. D. Shelting; A. F. Kharshiladze

2006-01-01

20

Boundary-Integral method for calculating poloidal axisymmetric AC magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a boundary-integral equation (BIE) method for the calculation of poloidal axisymmetric magnetic fields applicable in a wide range of ac frequencies. The method is based on the vector potential formulation, and it uses the Green's functions of Laplace and Helmholtz equations for the exterior and interior of conductors, respectively. The paper focuses on a calculation of axisymmetric

J. Priede; G. Gerbeth

2006-01-01

21

Perturbative versus Schwinger-propagator method for the calculation of amplitudes in a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We consider the calculation of amplitudes for processes that take place in a constant background magnetic field, first using the standard method for the calculation of an amplitude in an external field, and second utilizing the Schwinger propagator for charged particles in a magnetic field. We show that there are processes for which the Schwinger-propagator method does not yield the total amplitude. We explain why the two methods yield equivalent results in some cases and indicate when we can expect the equivalence to hold. We show these results in fairly general terms and illustrate them with specific examples as well.

Nieves, Jose F.; Pal, Palash B. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 23343, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, 00931-3343 (Puerto Rico); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Calcutta 700064 (India)

2006-05-15

22

The Evolution of Magnetic Binaries with Mass Loss. I. Calculations with Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensions of magnetic field in the stream which connects the primary component with the gas disc rotating around the secondary produces a force moment decelerating the disc. Two situations are considered: (1) the limiting case of a \\

E. M. Drobyshevskii; B. I. Reznikov

1974-01-01

23

Rapid calculations of susceptibility-induced magnetostatic field perturbations for in vivo magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Static magnetic field perturbations generated by variations of magnetic susceptibility within samples reduce the quality and integrity of magnetic resonance measurements. These perturbations are difficult to predict in vivo where wide variations of internal magnetic susceptibility distributions are common. Recent developments have provided rapid computational means of estimating static field inhomogeneity within the small susceptibility limits of materials typically studied using magnetic resonance. Such a predictive mechanism could be a valuable tool for sequence simulation, field shimming and post-acquisition image correction. Here, we explore this calculation protocol and demonstrate its predictive power in estimating in vivo inhomogeneity within the human brain. Furthermore, we quantitatively explore the predictive limits of the computation. For in vivo comparison, a method of magnetic susceptibility registration using MRI and CT data is presented and utilized to carry out subject-specific inhomogeneity estimation. Using this algorithm, direct comparisons in human brain and phantoms are made between field map acquisitions and calculated inhomogeneity. Distortion correction in echo-planar images due to static field inhomogeneity is also demonstrated using the computed field maps. PMID:17148824

Koch, Kevin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A

2006-11-27

24

Full 3D MHD calculations of accretion flow structure in magnetic cataclysmic variables with strong, complex magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical calculations of stream accretion in cataclysmic variable stars for which the white dwarf primary possesses a strong, complex magnetic field. These calculations were motivated by observations of polars: cataclysmic variables containing white dwarfs with magnetic fields sufficiently strong to prevent the formation of an accretion disk. In this case, an accretion stream flows from the L1 point and impacts directly onto one or more spots on the surface of the white dwarf. Observations indicate that the white dwarfs in some binaries possess complex (non-dipolar) magnetic fields. We performed simulations of ten polars, with the only variable being the azimuthal angle of the secondary with respect to the white dwarf. These calculations are also applicable to asynchronous polars, where the spin period of the white dwarf differs by a few percent from the orbital period. Our results are equivalent to calculating the structure of one asynchronous polar at ten different spin-orbit beat phases. Our models have an aligned dipolar plus quadrupolar magnetic field centered on the whitedwarf primary. We find that, with a sufficiently strong quadrupolar component, an accretion spot arises near the magnetic equator for slightly less than half our simulations, while a polar accretion zone is active for most of the remaining simulations. For two configurations, accretion at a dominant polar region and in an equatorial zone occurs simultaneously. Most polar studies assume that the magnetic field is dipolar, especially for single-pole accretors. We demonstrate that, with the orbital parameters and magnetic-field strengths typical of polars, the accretion flow patterns can vary widely in the case of a complex magnetic field. This may make it difficult formany polars to determine observationally whether the field is pure dipolar or is more complex, but there shoulid be indications for some systems. In particular, a complex magnetic field should be suspected if there is an accretion zone near the white dwarf's equator (assumed to be in the orbital plane) or if there are two or more accretion regions that cannot be fitted by dipolar magnetic field. Magnetic-field constraints are expected to be substantially stronger for asynchronous polars, with clearer signs of complex field geometry due to changes in the accretion flow structure as a function of azimuthal angle. These indications become clearer in asynchronous polars because each azimuthal angle corresponds to a different spin-orbit beat phase.

Zhilkin, A. G.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mason, P. A.

2012-04-01

25

Forward electric field calculation using BEM for time-varying magnetic field gradients and motion in strong static fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boundary element method for evaluating the electric fields induced in conducting bodies exposed to magnetic fields varying at low frequency has been developed and applied to sources of magnetic field variation that are of relevance in magnetic resonance imaging. An integral formulation based on constant boundary elements which can be used to study the effects of both temporally varying

Clemente Cobos Sanchez; Richard W. Bowtell; Henry Power; Paul Glover; Liviu Marin; Adib A. Becker; Arthur Jones

2009-01-01

26

A semi-3D method of calculating the magnetic field in a conventional sector-focused cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semi-3D method to calculate the median plane magnetic field in a conventional sector-focused cyclotron was developed in order to avoid the need of model magnet studies in the design of the Jyväskylä K130 cyclotron. The method gives reasonably good results especially at high fields. At low fields where the relative permeability of iron is high the field can be calculated assuming constant magnetic scalar potential on the iron surfaces and solving a three-dimensional Laplace equation. The field calculation methods will be described and the comparison of calculated and measured fields will be given.

Heikkinen, Pauli

1991-03-01

27

Proposed design of SAMUS (small angle muon spectrometer) toroid and its magnetic field calculation  

SciTech Connect

Presently the D/null/ detector has three big toroidal magnets; one Central Toroid (CF) and two End Wall Toroids (EF). The EF toroids have central openings 72'' x 72''. Originally, this opening was meant for possible future end-plug calorimeters. Instead we are now designing Small Angle Muon Spectrometer (SAMUS) for the opening. The major component will be built at Serpukhov. The design of the toroid magnets and its magnetic field calculations is being done by exchanging information between Serpukhov and Fermilab. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Yamada, R.

1988-06-09

28

Some properties of solar magnetic fields as deduced from NSO/KP data and from calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we carry out a correlative analysis of the measurements of the photospheric magnetic field B d (the magnetic component along the line of sight) from NSO/KP, and of the calculations of the field components on the visible solar disk from these measurements using Rudenko's (2001) potential field approximation method. The analysis revealed the following features: (1) near the equator the character of variation of langle|B d| rangle(?) varies with the range of the values of |B d| used in the analysis (here the brackets langle rangle denote an averaging over time and over the area of the portion of the size 10°×10°, and ? is the angle between this portion and the central meridian (CM)); (2) generally near the equator there is a relatively small field `radiality': the value of langle|B R| rangle/ langle|B F| rangle near the CM varies over the range 1.25 0.9 and increases from the CM to the limb (here B R and B F are the calculated radial and toroidal field components); (3) the magnetic field measurements near the equator are different for different longitudes; (4) in the region of coronal holes (He i ?10 830 Å) and at the calculated bases of open magnetic tubes (OMT) there is an increased `radiality' of the magnetic field in comparison with solar disk areas near the equator. The largest recorded values of the ratios of area-averaged coronal holes (CH) and OMT of the moduli of the radial and transverse field components were 9.2 in CH, and 4 in OMT.

Fainshtein, V. G.; Khotilovich, A. V.; Rudenko, G. V.

2003-09-01

29

Magnetic fields of 3-D anisotropic bodies: Theory and practice of calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general theory of the distribution of the volume and surface magnetic mass within 3-D anisotropic bodies and solving the forward problem is given in this paper. An algorithm for calculating the magnetic fields of monoclines of complex shape and folded structures with uniform anisotropy is constructed. The algorithm is based on the regularities in the relationship between the magnetic susceptibility of anisotropy, tectonic structure, and the anomalous magnetic field established experimentally by Zavoisky. These regularities not only simplify the solution of the problem, but significantly facilitate the preparation of original field data necessary for solving it. The latter circumstance is of especial importance. The algorithm is designed for wide practical application in the construction of 3-D magnetic models of local and regional geological structures. We draw attention to the fact that the use of a curvilinear coordinate system is reasonable in cases when the distribution of the magnetic mass density in anisotropic geological formations is studied. The features of the relationship between the intensity and induction of a magnetic field in different unit systems are pointed out in their application to magnetology problems.

Starostenko, V. I.; Shuman, V. N.; Ivashchenko, I. N.; Legostaeva, O. V.; Savchenko, A. S.; Skrinik, O. Ya.

2009-08-01

30

Analytical calculation of air-gap magnetic field distribution and instantaneous characteristics of brushless DC motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives the relative air-gap-specific permeance distribution function by Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, considering the effect of slotting. Neglecting the iron saturation, and employing the analytical algorithm for partial differential equations, efficient and effective analytical calculations of no-load air-gap magnetic field distribution, armature field distribution, and phase electromotive force (EMF), are demonstrated, considering the stator slots. Subsequently, based on the main

Xinghua Wang; Qingfu Li; Shuhong Wang; Qunfeng Li

2003-01-01

31

Efficient method for quantum calculations of molecule-molecule scattering properties in a magnetic field.  

PubMed

We show that the cross sections for molecule-molecule collisions in the presence of an external field can be computed efficiently using a total angular momentum basis, defined either in the body-fixed frame or in the space-fixed coordinate system. This method allows for computations with much larger basis sets than previously possible. We present calculations for (15)NH-(15)NH collisions in a magnetic field. Our results support the conclusion of the previous study that the evaporative cooling of rotationally ground (15)NH molecules in a magnetic trap has a prospect of success. PMID:22803524

Suleimanov, Yu V; Tscherbul, T V; Krems, R V

2012-07-14

32

Parametric calculation of pulse transformer with open magnetic cores based on magnetostatic-field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for calculating the magnetostatic field of a pulse transformer with open magnetic cores is put forward in this paper, and formulas for calculating inductances of a small aspect-ratio transformer are derived. In comparison to results calculated by finite element magnetostatic-field simulations, the calculated values of inductance of primary winding L1 and the inductance of secondary winding L2 have a relative error of about 5%, while the error of the coupling coefficient (k) is less than 2%. Meanwhile, the effect of current nonuniformity in the primary winding on magnetizing inductance is studied. According to the calculated results, this effect reduces the magnetizing inductance and the coupling coefficient of the transformer, and can lead to an overvoltage phenomenon on the secondary winding. A small aspect-ratio pulse transformer with open magnetic cores is developed, which has a small size of 250mm×150mm in length and diameter, respectively. Inductances of the transformer are measured. The measured results conform to the law obtained in this work. Tests of the pulsed transformer are carried out. Experimental results show that the transformer can export a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 310 kV and full width at half maximum of 1?s.

Yu, Bin-xiong; Liu, Jin-liang

2013-01-01

33

Calculation of the magnetic field due to a bioelectric current dipole in an ellipsoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioelectric current dipole model is important both theoretically and computationally in the study of electrical activity\\u000a in the brain and stomach due to the resemblance of the shape of these two organs to an ellipsoid. To calculate the magnetic\\u000a field B due to a dipole in an ellipsoid, one must evaluate truncated series expansions involving ellipsoidal harmonics $$\\u000a\\\\mathbb{E}_n^m

Andrei Irimia

2008-01-01

34

Comparison of observed and calculated magnetic field structures for a potential model for two active regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of observations of longitudinal magnetic fields in two active regions on the sun. The observations were carried out in the lines Fe I 525.3 nm and H-beta by means of the double magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. In our analysis, we compare the observed magnetic field with the potential field. The strong magnetic fields in the

S. I. Gopasyuk; S. I. Gandzha; O. S. Gopasyuk; T. N. Tarasova; A. N. Shakhovskaya

1997-01-01

35

Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

2001-11-01

36

Comparison of observed and calculated magnetic field structures for a potential model for two active regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of observations of longitudinal magnetic fields in two active regions on the sun. The observations were carried out in the lines Fe I 525.3 nm and H-beta by means of the double magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. In our analysis, we compare the observed magnetic field with the potential field. The strong magnetic fields in the chromosphere have a smaller inclination to the vertical line than those fields in the photosphere. The difference of this inclination decreases with magnetic intensity. The observed magnetic field structure in the chromosphere differs from the potential one at the same height.

Gopasyuk, S. I.; Gandzha, S. I.; Gopasyuk, O. S.; Tarasova, T. N.; Shakhovskaya, A. N.

1997-02-01

37

Calculated E-I characteristics of HTS pancakes and coils exposed to inhomogeneous magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper limit of the operating current of LTS solenoids can be estimated as the coordinate of the crossing point of its load line with IC (B) line of the superconductor. For HTS coils this approach seems to underestimate the allowable operating current of the coil. A better approach is to obtain a full electric field distribution over the coil and to use it as the base for a more sophisticated coil design criteria. We developed an algorithm and a Matlab program for calculating distributions of the current density, magnetic field and electric field in HTS solenoids made of pancakes, considering the inhomogeneous current density distribution inside the anisotropic tape. I-V curves of several Bi-2223 coils are calculated and good agreeement of the calculated and measured critical currents, IC, and indexes, n, are attained. One can utilize the program in the coil design choosing his own criteria of coil's critical current, e.g., 1) The average electric field 10-4 V/m over the coil, 2) The electric field 10-4 V/m at the weak point of the coil, 3) The energy dissipation in the entire coil, 4) Distribution of local energy dissipation.

Adanny, Y.; Wolfus, Y.; Friedman, A.; Kopansky, F.; Yeshurun, Y.; Bar-Haim, Z.; Ron, Z.; Pundak, N.

2006-06-01

38

Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a three-field period compact stellarator presently in the construction phase at Princeton, NJ. The design parameters of the device are major radius R=1.4m, average minor radius = 0.32m, 1.2 {le} toroidal field (B{sub t}) {le} 1.7 T, and auxiliary input power up to 12 MW with neutral beams and radio-frequency heating. The NCSX average aspect ratio of 4.4 lies well below present stellarator experiments and designs, enabling the investigation of high {beta} physics in a compact stellarator geometry. Also the NCSX design choice for a quasi-axisymmetric configuration aims toward the achievement of tokamak-like transport. In this paper, we report on the magnetic field line tracing calculations used to evaluate conceptual plasma facing component (PFC) designs. In contrast to tokamaks, axisymmetric target plates are not required to intercept the majority of the heat flux in stellarators, owing to the nature of the 3-D magnetic field footprint. The divertor plate design investigated in this study covers approximately one half of the toroidal extent in each period. Typical Poincare plots in Figure 1 illustrate the plasma cross-section at several toroidal angles for a computed NCSX high-beta equilibrium. The plates used for these calculations are centered in each period about the elongated cross-section shown in Figure 1a, extending to +/- {pi}/6 in each direction. Two methods for tracing the edge field line topology were used in this study. The first entails use of the VMEC/MFBE-2001 packages, whereas the second entails use of the PIES code with a post-processor by Michael Drevlak; the same field line integration routine was used to evaluate the equilibria for this comparison. Both inputs were generated based on the {beta}=4%, =iota=0.5 equilibrium computed from the final NCSX coil set. We first compare these two methods for a specific plate geometry, and conclude with a comparison of the strike characteristics for two different target plate poloidal lengths using the latter method. The details of the magnetic topology differ when computed with VMEC/MFBE as compared with an iterated PIES solution. This difference is illustrated in Figure 2. The presence of islands in the PIES solution effectively reduces the radius of the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) by about 8 cm. As expected, this difference in the edge topology translates to a difference in field line terminations.

Maingi, R; Kaiser, T; Hill, D N; Lyon, J F; Monticello, D; Zarnstorff, M C

2006-06-12

39

Symplectic approach to calculation of magnetic field line trajectories in physical space with realistic magnetic geometry in divertor tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates (?,?) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. ? is the toroidal magnetic flux and ? is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates (?,?,?) can be transformed to physical position (R,Z,?) using a canonical transformation. (R,Z,?) are cylindrical coordinates. Another canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic map for integration of magnetic field lines. Trajectories of field lines calculated from this symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can be transformed to trajectories in real physical space. Unlike in magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)], the symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can integrate trajectories across the separatrix surface, and at the same time, give trajectories in physical space. Unlike symplectic maps in physical coordinates (x,y) or (R,Z), the continuous analog of a symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates does not distort trajectories in toroidal planes intervening the discrete map. This approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The EGF for the DIII-D gives quite an accurate representation of equilibrium magnetic surfaces close to the separatrix surface. This new approach is applied to demonstrate the sensitivity of stochastic broadening using a set of perturbations that generically approximate the size of the field errors and statistical topological noise expected in a poloidally diverted tokamak. Plans for future application of this approach are discussed.

Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

2008-12-01

40

Symplectic approach to calculation of magnetic field line trajectories in physical space with realistic magnetic geometry in divertor tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates ({psi},{theta}) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. {psi} is the toroidal magnetic flux and {theta} is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates ({psi},{theta},{phi}) can be transformed to physical position (R,Z,{phi}) using a canonical transformation. (R,Z,{phi}) are cylindrical coordinates. Another canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic map for integration of magnetic field lines. Trajectories of field lines calculated from this symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can be transformed to trajectories in real physical space. Unlike in magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)], the symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can integrate trajectories across the separatrix surface, and at the same time, give trajectories in physical space. Unlike symplectic maps in physical coordinates (x,y) or (R,Z), the continuous analog of a symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates does not distort trajectories in toroidal planes intervening the discrete map. This approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The EGF for the DIII-D gives quite an accurate representation of equilibrium magnetic surfaces close to the separatrix surface. This new approach is applied to demonstrate the sensitivity of stochastic broadening using a set of perturbations that generically approximate the size of the field errors and statistical topological noise expected in a poloidally diverted tokamak. Plans for future application of this approach are discussed.

Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima [Department of Mathematics, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States)

2008-12-15

41

Test Particle Calculation of Electric Currents In Magnetic Field-Reversed Regions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide range of important plasma phenomena can take place in boundary layers between regions of oppositely directed magnetic fields where collisionless particles can execute magnetized and unmagnetized motion sequentially. We present in this paper an algo...

J. Chen D. L. Holland

1996-01-01

42

Revised time-of-flight calculations for high-latitude geomagnetic pulsations using a realistic magnetospheric magnetic field model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple time-of-flight analysis of Alfvén pulsations standing on closed terrestrial magnetic field lines. The technique employed in this study in order to calculate the characteristic period of such oscillations builds upon earlier time-of-flight estimates via the implementation of a more recent magnetospheric magnetic field model. In this case the model employed is the Tsyganenko (1996) field model,

J. A. Wild; T. K. Yeoman; C. L. Waters

2005-01-01

43

Calculation of the even harmonics of emf in the winding of a ring core magnetized by an external constant field, with magnetic hysteresis taken into account  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of the even harmonics of electromotive force in the secondary winding of a ferromagnetic ring core or a core extended in one direction, having a closed magnetic circuit in relation to the magnetic excitation flux and being magnetized in the plane of the core (ring) by a weak magnetic field, is carried out taking into account magnetic hysteresis and using the criterion of physical similarity.

Ponomarev, Yu.V.

1988-09-01

44

A comparison of calculations and measurements of the field harmonics as a function of current in the SSC dipole magnets  

SciTech Connect

A large number of short and long superconducting dipole magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) have been constructed and measured for their magnetic field properties at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper we compare the calculations and measurements for the variation of field harmonics as a function of current in 40 mm aperture and 50 mm aperture dipole magnets. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the iron saturation effects on the field harmonics. The field harmonics also change due to the persistent current in the superconducting wires and due to the deformation of the coil shape because of Lorentz forces. We discuss the variation in the sextupole harmonics (b{sub 2}) with current and explain the differences between the calculations and measurements. We also discuss the skew quadrupole harmonic at high field in the long dipole magnets. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Gupta, R.C.; Cottingham, J.G.; Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.

1991-01-01

45

A General Method for Calculating the External Magnetic Field from a Cylindrical Magnetic Source using Toroidal Functions  

SciTech Connect

An alternative method is developed to compute the magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. Specifically, a Fourier series expansion whose coefficients are toroidal functions is introduced which yields an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic solution or the Elliptic integral solution. This alternate formulation coupled with a method called charge simulation allows one to compute the external magnetic field from an arbitrary magnetic source in terms of a toroidal expansion. This expansion is valid on any finite hypothetical external observation cylinder. In other words, the magnetic scalar potential or the magnetic field intensity is computed on a exterior cylinder which encloses the magnetic source. This method can be used to accurately compute the far field where a finite element formulation is known to be inaccurate.

J Selvaggi; S Salon; O Kwon CVK Chari

2006-02-14

46

Ferroelectricity in Mn0.9Fe0.1WO4 induced by magnetic fields: A simple model calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Replacing Mn^2+ by Fe^2+ in multiferroic MnWO4 results in the complete loss of ferroelectricity at zero magnetic field. However, it was shown that in Mn0.9Fe0.1WO4 an external magnetic field restores the ferroelectric state. We present a simple mean field calculation of the Heisenberg model with ferromagnetic nearest and antiferromagnetic next nearest neighbor interactions and uniaxial anisotropy in an external magnetic field. The various commensurate and incommensurate magnetic phases in Mn1-xFexWO4 are well described by the model. The loss of the non collinear helical spin structure (which is associated with the ferroelectric order) with increasing Fe substitution is explained by the enhancement of the anisotropy. We show that the external field does indeed restore the helical spin structure in Mn0.9Fe0.1WO4 and that the observed field-induced ferroelectricity can be explained.

Lorenz, B.; Chaudhury, R. P.; Chu, C. W.

2008-03-01

47

Technique for calculating the field aligned conductance and ionospheric Pedersen conductivity from high altitude electric and magnetic field data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model of auroral arcs is developed for use with high altitude electric and magnetic field satellite data. The model incorporates a magnetic field aligned Ohm's law as an approximation to the linear part of the Fridman-Lemaire equation. Also included is ...

M. Shapshak L. P. Block J. Woch R. Elphinstone L. Zanetti

1994-01-01

48

Methods of calculation of magnetic fields and static characteristics of linear step motors for control rod drives of nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of linear step motors (LSMs) which are being developed for control rod drives in nuclear reactors is governed by their static characteristics. The reliability of control rod drive mechanisms and the safety of the reactor depend on reliable performance of these motors. The authors describe methods of calculation of magnetic fields and static characteristics of LSMs. Two methods

S. H. Khan; A. A. Ivanov

1992-01-01

49

Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, so...

D. J. Mayhall J. B. Gronberg W. Stein

2006-01-01

50

Assessment of magnetic field exposure of humans based on calculation of the resulting electric field parameters in body tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-frequency high-intense magnetic field exposure is caused by high-amperage currents of special power electronic equipment. Exposure of operators has to be determined, evaluated and compared with limit values which have been established for the quantities characterising the field. Field simulation provides the possibility to determine resulting values from interaction of incident and induced field inside the human tissues which are

Stefan Forster; Reinhard Dobbelin; Andreas Lindemann

2012-01-01

51

MAGFOR: a magnetics code to calculate field and forces in twisted helical coils of constant cross section  

SciTech Connect

The machine-independent computer program MAGFOR calculates electromagnetic fields and forces in coil systems of arbitrary geometry. The coils may be modeled by using 20-node isoparametric hexahedrons; 8-node rectangular cross-sectional straight segments; rectangular cross-sectional circular arcs; and/or filamenting circular loops. A combination of analytical and numerical integration of the Biot-Savart law for a volume distribution of current is used for calculating magnetic fields. Volumetric body forces are calculated for the 20-node isoparametric brick by numerically integrating the vector product J x B over its volume, where the magnetic field at each Gauss point is obtained by interpolating the magnetic field at the node points by using shape functions. The force is distributed to the node points of the element, again using the shape functions in a consistent manner that maintains inter-element torsion. Body forces obtained from MAGFOR are compared with body forces from the computer code EFFI for several coil configurations considered in the design of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF).

Cain, W.D.

1983-01-01

52

Electric field gradient in FeTiO3 by nuclear magnetic resonance and ab initio calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 47Ti and 49Ti in polycrystalline ilmenite FeTiO3 was measured in the range from 5 to 300 K under an external magnetic field of 9.401 T. NMR spectra collected between 300 and 77 K exhibit a resolved quadrupole splitting. The electric field gradient (EFG) tensor was evaluated for Ti nuclei and the ratio of 47Ti and 49Ti nuclear quadrupole moments was refined during the fitting procedure. Below 77 K, the fine structure of quadrupole splitting disappears due to the enormous increase of anisotropy. As a counterpart, ab initio calculations were performed using full potential augmented plane waves + local orbitals. The calculated EFG tensors for Ti and Fe were compared to the experimental ones evaluated from NMR and the Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments.

Procházka, V.; Št?pánková, H.; Chlan, V.; Tu?ek, J.; ?uda, J.; Kou?il, K.; Filip, J.; Zbo?il, R.

2011-05-01

53

On the calculation of magnetic fields based on multipole modeling of focal biological current sources.  

PubMed

Spatially restricted biological current distributions, like the primary neuronal response in the human somatosensory cortex evoked by electric nerve stimulation, can be described adequately by a current multipole expansion. Here analytic formulas are derived for computing magnetic fields induced by current multipoles in terms of an nth-order derivative of the dipole field. The required differential operators are given in closed form for arbitrary order. The concept is realized in different forms for an expansion of the scalar as well as the dyadic Green's function, the latter allowing for separation of those multipolar source components that are electrically silent but magnetically detectable. The resulting formulas are generally applicable for current sources embedded in arbitrarily shaped volume conductors. By using neurophysiologically relevant source parameters, examples are provided for a spherical volume conductor with an analytically given dipole field. An analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio for multipole coefficients up to the octapolar term indicates that the lateral extent of cortical current sources can be detected by magnetoencephalographic recordings. PMID:9284293

Nolte, G; Curio, G

1997-09-01

54

Selection of magnetic screens by numerical calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To choose the parameters of magnetic screens, a technique for numerically calculating the 3D magnetic field distribution is developed for the case when field sources are locates in open regions. The problem is solved in vector magnetic potential by the finite integration method. A modification of the method of perfectly matched absorbing boundary layers for the case of magnetic field allows calculation of the field in real 3D screens. The numerical solutions are tested using absorbing layers by comparing with the known analytical solutions. The parameters of finite-size screens effectively decreasing the magnetic field intensity are found.

Rezinkina, M. M.

2007-11-01

55

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: High Accuracy Calculation for Excited-State Energies of H Atoms in a Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the recently developed finite-basis-set method with B splines, excited states of H atoms in a magnetic field have been calculated. Energy levels are presented for the ten excited states, 2s0, 3d'0, 3p0, 3p-1, 3d-1, 4d-1, 3d-2, 4d-2, 4f-2, and 5f-2 as a function of magnetic field strengths with a range from zero up to 2.35 × 106 T. The obtained results are compared with available high accuracy theoretical data reported in the literature and found to be in excellent agreement. The comparison also shows that the current method can produce energy levels with an accuracy higher than the existing high accuracy method [Phys. Rev. A 54 (1996) 287]. Here high accuracy energy levels are for the first time reported for the 3d'0, 4d-1, 4d-2, 4f-2, and 5f-2 states.

Zhao, Li-Bo; Du, Meng-Li

2009-08-01

56

ICRF wave propagation and absorption in tokamak and mirror magnetic fields: a full-wave calculation  

SciTech Connect

Global solutions for the ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) wave fields in a straight tokamak with rotational transform and a poloidally symmetric mirror are calculated in the cold plasma limit. The component of the wave electric field parallel to vector Bis assumed zero. Symmetry in each problem allows Fourier decomposition in one ignorable coordinate, and the remaining set of two coupled, two-dimensional partial differential equations is solved by finite differencing. Energy absorption and antenna impedance are calculated using a simple collisional absorption model. When large gradients in vertical barBvertical bar along vectorB are present in either geometry, ICRF heating at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance is observed. For the mirror, such gradients are always present. But for the tokamak, the rotational transform must be large enough that vectorB . delB greater than or equal to 0(1). For smaller transforms more typical of real tokamaks, only heating at the two-ion hybird resonance is observed. This suggests that direct resonant absorption at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance may be possible in stellarators where vectorB . delB approx. 0(1) + 11.

Jaeger, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.; Weitzner, H.; Whealton, J.H.

1985-01-01

57

Fast focus field calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field on the objective. We present two case studies by calculating the focus fields of a 40 × 1.20 NA water immersion objective for different amplitude distributions of the input field, and a 100 × 1.45 NA oil immersion objective containing evanescent field contributions for both linearly and radially polarized input fields.

Leutenegger, Marcel; Rao, Ramachandra; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

2006-11-01

58

Fast focus field calculations.  

PubMed

We present a fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field on the objective. We present two case studies by calculating the focus fields of a 40 x 1.20 NA water immersion objective for different amplitude distributions of the input field, and a 100 x 1.45 NA oil immersion objective containing evanescent field contributions for both linearly and radially polarized input fields. PMID:19529543

Leutenegger, Marcel; Rao, Ramachandra; Leitgeb, Rainer A; Lasser, Theo

2006-11-13

59

Benchmark calculations of nonconservative charged-particle swarms in dc electric and magnetic fields crossed at arbitrary angles.  

PubMed

A multiterm solution of the Boltzmann equation has been developed and used to calculate transport coefficients of charged-particle swarms in gases under the influence of electric and magnetic fields crossed at arbitrary angles when nonconservative collisions are present. The hierarchy resulting from a spherical-harmonic decomposition of the Boltzmann equation in the hydrodynamic regime is solved numerically by representing the speed dependence of the phase-space distribution function in terms of an expansion in Sonine polynomials about a Maxwellian velocity distribution at an internally determined temperature. Results are given for electron swarms in certain collisional models for ionization and attachment over a range of angles between the fields and field strengths. The implicit and explicit effects of ionization and attachment on the electron-transport coefficients are considered using physical arguments. It is found that the difference between the two sets of transport coefficients, bulk and flux, resulting from the explicit effects of nonconservative collisions, can be controlled either by the variation in the magnetic field strengths or by the angles between the fields. In addition, it is shown that the phenomena of ionization cooling and/or attachment cooling/heating previously reported for dc electric fields carry over directly to the crossed electric and magnetic fields. The results of the Boltzmann equation analysis are compared with those obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The comparison confirms the theoretical basis and numerical integrity of the moment method for solving the Boltzmann equation and gives a set of well-established data that can be used to test future codes and plasma models. PMID:20481843

Dujko, S; White, R D; Petrovi?, Z Lj; Robson, R E

2010-04-22

60

Fast focus field calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.

Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Märki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

2008-02-01

61

Numerical calculation of dynamical friction in electron cooling systems, including magnetic field perturbations and finite time effects  

SciTech Connect

The orders-of-magnitude higher luminosities required by future electron-ion collider concepts require a dissipative force to counteract the numerous factors acting to gradually increase the phase space volume of relativistic ion beams. High-energy electron cooling systems could provide the necessary dissipation via dynamical friction, but will have to be designed for new parameter regimes. It is expected that magnetic field errors, finite interaction time and other effects will reduce the dynamical friction and hence increase the cooling time, so improved understanding of the underlying dynamics is important. We present a generalized form of the classical field-free friction force equation, which conveniently captures some of these effects. Previous work (Bell et al 2008 J. Comput. Phys. 227 8714) shows both numerical and conceptual subtleties associated with undersampling of strong collisions, and we present a rigorous mathematical treatment of such difficulties, based on the use of a modified Pareto distribution for the electron-ion impact parameters. We also present a very efficient numerical algorithm for calculating the dynamical friction on a single ion in the field free case. For the case of arbitrary magnetic field errors, we present numerical simulation results, showing agreement with our generalized friction force formula.

Sobol, A.V.; Fedotov, A.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Bell, G.I.; Litvinenko, V.

2010-09-24

62

The use of a relaxation method to calculate the 3D magnetic field contribution of an iron yoke  

SciTech Connect

A computational procedure has been developed for calculating the three-dimensional field produced by an axisymmetric iron yoke of high permeability in the presence of a system of conductors. The procedure is particularly applicable to the end regions of multipole magnets of the sort used in particle accelerators. The field produced by the conductors is calculated using the Biot-Savart law. We speak of the field contribution of the yoke as an image field'' although it is associated with a distinctly diffuse distribution of image currents or magnetic moments. At every point on the boundary of the yoke the total scalar potential is constant, so V{sup i} = -V{sup d} where i=image and d=direct contribution from the conductors. If we describe both potentials as a series of harmonic components'' with respect to azimuthal dependence, then the nature of the boundary condition is such that a de-coupling of one harmonic component from another is preserved and therefore it is also true that V{sup i}(n)=-V{sup d}(n) at the iron interface, where n is a harmonic number. If we solve the appropriate individual differential equations for the scalar potential functions V{sup i}(n) throughout the iron-free region, with the proper applied boundary condition for the scalar potential of each harmonic number, we shall achieve upon summation the appropriate potential function to describe the field contribution of the surrounding high-permeability iron. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

1991-07-01

63

Numerical calculation of q and d axis reactance for permanent magnet generator based on coupled field  

Microsoft Academic Search

m Abstract- Accurate calculation of the armature reaction reactance parameters has a great impact on the performance of the generator, but the existing methods are difficult to consider the interactive influence of the d axis and q axis. So the calculation is not more accurate. In this paper, reactance parameters were calculated by modifying the relative permeability. The obtained data

Wen Jiabin; Ren Yanping

2011-01-01

64

Interactive calculations of electric fields  

SciTech Connect

In many experimental design situations it is valuable to know what the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields are likely to be so that such things as electric breakdown and ohmic heating as a result of magnetic field penetration canb e estimated. Because of the advent of extensions in the speed and memory of large electronic computers it has become easier to extend the scope of these calculations. Even so, it is necessary to use advanced sparse matrix techniques and to take as much advantage as possible of vectorization of code loops. In developing these codes extensive use has been made of the 2-D counterparts to test various aspects of the algorithms and of the code architecture. In addition, attempts have been made to make the user interface to these codes as simple and easy as possible. This paper addresses the problem of implementing this system for the 2-D calculation of electric fields. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Weiss, D.L.; Oliphant, T.A.

1986-07-01

65

Calculation of Magnetic Fields to Correct Charged Particle Trajectories in the JINR Synchrophastron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of calculating correcting currents in the conductors positioned in the straight sections to correct vertical beam position is presented. The algorithm of computer analog of the Newton method is presented. The results obtained demonstrate the p...

E. P. Zhidkov I. B. Issinskii T. P. Kochkina E. M. Kulakova L. A. Smirnova

1979-01-01

66

Fixed-phase correlation-function quantum Monte Carlo calculations for ground and excited states of helium in neutron-star magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the correlation-function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) method to the calculation of the energies of ground and excited states for helium in neutron-star magnetic fields. The method has been successfully applied by Jones, Ortiz, and Ceperley to the calculation of helium in white dwarf magnetic fields [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.55.6202 55, 6202 (1997)]. We extend the accessible range of magnetic field strengths by introducing a fixed-phase variant of the CFQMC method. We find that with growing magnetic field strength the variances increase significantly and put a limit to the applicability of the method for atoms in strong magnetic fields. The behavior of the variances is traced back to the logarithmic divergence of the energy of the bosonic ground state with increasing magnetic field strength. We use basis sets, which account for the growing dominance of the cylindrical symmetry as the magnetic field is increased and incorporate them into the CFQMC algorithm. These basis sets are taken from Hartree-Fock calculations, performed using a B-Spline and Landau expansion beyond the adiabatic approximation.

Meyer, Dirk; Boblest, Sebastian; Wunner, Günter

2013-03-01

67

Calculation and Measurement of Helmholtz Coil Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Helmholtz coils are used to develop uniform magnetic fields for a variety of research applications. Helmholtz coils can be easily constructed, and the fields easily calculated. This makes them especially useful in calibrating sensors and numerous other lo...

D. J. DeTroye R. J. Chase

1994-01-01

68

Evolution of twisted magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

69

Calculation of the structural properties of a strange quark star in the presence of a strong magnetic field using a density dependent bag constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field. To this end, we use the MIT bag model with a density dependent bag constant. To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant, we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter. By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter, we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field. Finally, we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.

Bordbar, Gholam Hossein; Bahri, Hajar; Kayanikhoo, Fatemeh

2012-09-01

70

Magnetic fields in astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

71

Spherical polar co-ordinate calculations of induced fields in the retina and head for applied magnetic fields at 50 Hz.  

PubMed

This paper sets out to explore the effects of voxel resolution, from 2 mm down to 0.1 mm for Cartesian co-ordinates and the differences between Cartesian and spherical polar co-ordinates for a standardized test-bed model of the eye. This model was taken from the work of Yoriyaz et al (2005 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 115 316-9) who have developed a detailed geometric description of the eye including choroid, retina, sclera, lens, cornea, anterior chamber, vitreous humour and optic nerve for ophthalmic brachytherapy. The spherical co-ordinate model has radial and angular steplengths of 0.1 mm and 0.25°, respectively. The current density averaged over 1 cm(2) and the 99th percentile value of the induced electric field have been calculated in the retina and central nervous system for uniform magnetic fields. The Cartesian co-ordinate calculations proceed in a sequence of grids at 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 mm resolution with the potentials from the previous calculation at a coarser grid providing the boundary conditions on the finer grid. The 0.2 mm grid provides the boundary conditions for the spherical polar calculations. Comparisons are made with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. PMID:21725142

Dimbylow, Peter

2011-07-01

72

Spherical polar co-ordinate calculations of induced fields in the retina and head for applied magnetic fields at 50 Hz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper sets out to explore the effects of voxel resolution, from 2 mm down to 0.1 mm for Cartesian co-ordinates and the differences between Cartesian and spherical polar co-ordinates for a standardized test-bed model of the eye. This model was taken from the work of Yoriyaz et al (2005 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 115 316-9) who have developed a detailed geometric description of the eye including choroid, retina, sclera, lens, cornea, anterior chamber, vitreous humour and optic nerve for ophthalmic brachytherapy. The spherical co-ordinate model has radial and angular steplengths of 0.1 mm and 0.25°, respectively. The current density averaged over 1 cm2 and the 99th percentile value of the induced electric field have been calculated in the retina and central nervous system for uniform magnetic fields. The Cartesian co-ordinate calculations proceed in a sequence of grids at 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 mm resolution with the potentials from the previous calculation at a coarser grid providing the boundary conditions on the finer grid. The 0.2 mm grid provides the boundary conditions for the spherical polar calculations. Comparisons are made with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels.

Dimbylow, Peter

2011-07-01

73

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21

74

Calculations for Explosive Magnetic Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a translation of a Soviet paper which develops generalized criteria for optimum design of an explosive magnetic generator. Studies on techniques for pulsed compression of magnetic fields, with the resultant high pulse power generation, were active...

S. G. Hibben

1976-01-01

75

Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the Rb87 D1 line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a theoretical study on the transmission spectra of an arbitrarily polarized laser beam through a rubidium cell with or without a buffer gas in Hanle-type coherent population trapping (CPT). This study examined how laser polarization, transverse magnetic field, and collisions with buffer gas affects the spectrum. The transmission spectrum due to CPT and the absorption spectrum due to the level crossing absorption (LCA) were calculated according to the laser polarization. The results show that the LCA is strongly dependent on the transverse magnetic field and interaction time of the atoms with a laser light via collisions with the buffer gas. In addition, the spectral shape of the calculated Hanle spectrum is closely related to the direction between the (stray) transverse magnetic field and polarization of the laser.

Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Moon, Han Seb

2010-09-01

76

Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a theoretical study on the transmission spectra of an arbitrarily polarized laser beam through a rubidium cell with or without a buffer gas in Hanle-type coherent population trapping (CPT). This study examined how laser polarization, transverse magnetic field, and collisions with buffer gas affects the spectrum. The transmission spectrum due to CPT and the absorption spectrum due to the level crossing absorption (LCA) were calculated according to the laser polarization. The results show that the LCA is strongly dependent on the transverse magnetic field and interaction time of the atoms with a laser light via collisions with the buffer gas. In addition, the spectral shape of the calculated Hanle spectrum is closely related to the direction between the (stray) transverse magnetic field and polarization of the laser.

Noh, Heung-Ryoul [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Han Seb [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15

77

RESEARCH PAPERS : The complex-image method for calculating the magnetic and electric fields produced at the surface of the Earth by the auroral electrojet  

Microsoft Academic Search

For studying the auroral electrojet and for examining the effects it can produce in power systems on the ground, it is useful to be able to calculate the magnetic and electric fields that the electrojet produces at the surface of the Earth. Including the effects of currents induced in the Earth leads to a set of integral expressions, the numerical

D. H. Boteler; R. J. Pirjola

1998-01-01

78

Magnetic Fields Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

79

Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question.

Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

2000-08-01

80

A 3-D impedance method to calculate power deposition in biological bodies subjected to time varying magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have extended the previously described impedance method for modeling the response of biological bodies exposed to time-varying electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. This method is useful at those frequencies where the quasi-static approximation is valid and calculates the fields, current densities, and power depositions in the biological bodies. We present solutions for homogeneous spheres in plane waves using this

N. Orcutt; O. P. Gandhi

1988-01-01

81

The induced magnetic field.  

PubMed

Aromaticity is indispensable for explaining a variety of chemical behaviors, including reactivity, structural features, relative energetic stabilities, and spectroscopic properties. When interpreted as the spatial delocalization of ?-electrons, it represents the driving force for the stabilization of many planar molecular structures. A delocalized electron system is sensitive to an external magnetic field; it responds with an induced magnetic field having a particularly long range. The shape of the induced magnetic field reflects the size and strength of the system of delocalized electrons and can have a large influence on neighboring molecules. In 2004, we proposed using the induced magnetic field as a means of estimating the degree of electron delocalization and aromaticity in planar as well as in nonplanar molecules. We have since tested the method on aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic compounds, and a refinement now allows the individual treatment of core-, ?-, and ?-electrons. In this Account, we describe the use of the induced magnetic field as an analytical probe for electron delocalization and its application to a large series of uncommon molecules. The compounds include borazine; all-metal aromatic systems Al(4)(n-); molecular stars Si(5)Li(n)(6-n); electronically stabilized planar tetracoordinate carbon; planar hypercoordinate atoms inside boron wheels; and planar boron wheels with fluxional internal boron cluster moieties. In all cases, we have observed that planar structures show a high degree of electron delocalization in the ?-electrons and, in some examples, also in the ?-framework. Quantitatively, the induced magnetic field has contributions from the entire electronic system of a molecule, but at long range the contributions arising from the delocalized electronic ?-system dominate. The induced magnetic field can only indirectly be confirmed by experiment, for example, through intermolecular contributions to NMR chemical shifts. We show that calculating the induced field is a useful method for understanding any planar organic or inorganic system, as it corresponds to the intuitive Pople model for explaining the anomalous proton chemical shifts in aromatic molecules. Indeed, aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic molecules show differing responses to an external field; that is, they reduce, augment, or do not affect the external field at long range. The induced field can be dissected into different orbital contributions, in the same way that the nucleus-independent chemical shift or the shielding function can be separated into component contributions. The result is a versatile tool that is particularly useful in the analysis of planar, densely packed systems with strong orbital contributions directly atop individual atoms. PMID:21848282

Islas, Rafael; Heine, Thomas; Merino, Gabriel

2011-08-17

82

Calculation of Acceleration and Transport of High Current Laminar Electron Beam in Nonlinear Axial Symmetrical Electric and Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-consisting problem is considered for the description of a process of acceleration and transportation of a high current laminar flow of electrons in nonlinear axially symmmetric electric and magnetic fields. It is shown that the redistribution of a ...

L. A. Merkulov

1981-01-01

83

Magnetic field line Hamiltonian  

SciTech Connect

The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined.

Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

84

An accurate symplectic calculation of the inboard magnetic footprint from statistical topological noise and field errors in the DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Any canonical transformation of Hamiltonian equations is symplectic, and any area-preserving transformation in 2D is a symplectomorphism. Based on these, a discrete symplectic map and its continuous symplectic analog are derived for forward magnetic field line trajectories in natural canonical coordinates. The unperturbed axisymmetric Hamiltonian for magnetic field lines is constructed from the experimental data in the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The equilibrium Hamiltonian is a highly accurate, analytic, and realistic representation of the magnetic geometry of the DIII-D. These symplectic mathematical maps are used to calculate the magnetic footprint on the inboard collector plate in the DIII-D. Internal statistical topological noise and field errors are irreducible and ubiquitous in magnetic confinement schemes for fusion. It is important to know the stochasticity and magnetic footprint from noise and error fields. The estimates of the spectrum and mode amplitudes of the spatial topological noise and magnetic errors in the DIII-D are used as magnetic perturbation. The discrete and continuous symplectic maps are used to calculate the magnetic footprint on the inboard collector plate of the DIII-D by inverting the natural coordinates to physical coordinates. The combination of highly accurate equilibrium generating function, natural canonical coordinates, symplecticity, and small step-size together gives a very accurate calculation of magnetic footprint. Radial variation of magnetic perturbation and the response of plasma to perturbation are not included. The inboard footprint from noise and errors are dominated by m=3, n=1 mode. The footprint is in the form of a toroidally winding helical strip. The width of stochastic layer scales as (1/2) power of amplitude. The area of footprint scales as first power of amplitude. The physical parameters such as toroidal angle, length, and poloidal angle covered before striking, and the safety factor all have fractal structure. The average field diffusion near the X-point for lines that strike and that do not strike differs by about three to four orders of magnitude. The magnetic footprint gives the maximal bounds on size and heat flux density on collector plate.

Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States)

2011-02-15

85

Complex image method for calculating electric and magnetic fields produced by an auroral electrojet of finite length  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic field due to ionospheric currents has to be known when evaluating space weather eÄects at the earth's surface. Forecasting methods of these eÄects, which include geomagnetically induced currents in technological systems, are being developed. Such applications are time-critical, so the calculation techniques of the electromagnetic field have to be fast but still accurate. The contribution of secondary sources

R. Pirjola; A. Viljanen

1998-01-01

86

Solar Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical currents flowing in the solar plasma generate a magnetic field, which is detected in the SOLAR ATMOSPHERE by spectroscopic and polarization measurements (SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: INFERENCE BY POLARIMETRY). The SOLAR WIND carries the magnetic field into interplanetary space where it can be measured directly by instruments on space probes....

Schüssler, M.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

87

Calculation of the energy levels of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field of arbitrary strength by using {ital B} splines  

SciTech Connect

{ital B} splines with carefully adjusted knot sequences are used as basis functions in cylindrical coordinates to calculate the energy levels of the low-lying ({ital m}=0) states of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength by using the variational method. The strength of the field calculated covers a range from {gamma}=0 to {gamma}=100 000 for the ground state and up to {gamma}=2000 for the 2{ital s} and 2{ital p} states. A precision of up to ten digits in the region of 0{le}{gamma}{le}200 and up to eight digits for {gamma}{gt}200 has been maintained for all the results presented. In order to test the applicability of the {ital B} splines for the higher excited states, the energy levels of 3{ital s}, 3{ital p}, 3{ital d}, and 4{ital f} states with {ital m}=0 in the field region of 0{le}{gamma}{le}10 have also been calculated. Even though the number of basis sets was kept constant, the accuracy of the results was maintained in the intermediate field regions and also in the very strong field regions, which are known to be difficult for achieving high accuracy. The flexibility of the {ital B} splines is demonstrated here by the uniformly accurate results in the transition from spherical symmetry to Landau symmetry as the field strength of the magnetic field is increased. The energy levels of all the low-lying states with various ranges of magnetic field strength have been compared with published values. They are in good agreement with the most updated values and compare favorably with all other published results.

Wang, J.; Hsue, C. [Institute of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-12-01

88

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-06

89

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

90

Electric-field-gradient tensor and charge densities in LaB6: 11B nuclear-magnetic-resonance single-crystal investigations and first-principles calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

11B nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements on a 11B enriched single crystal of LaB6 have been performed at room temperature at a frequency of 128.4 MHz. The electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor components have been determined from the angle dependence of the quadrupole splittings associated with (-3\\/2-1\\/2) and (3\\/21\\/2) satellite transitions. These EFG components have been calculated using first-principles methods. Very satisfactory agreement with the

P. Herzig; Z. Fojud; O. J. Zogal; A. Pietraszko; A. Dukhnenko; S. Jurga; N. Shitsevalova

2008-01-01

91

The induced magnetic field calculation of three phase overhead transmission lines above a lossy ground as a frequency-dependent complex function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a calculation of the induced magnetic field which is generated by high voltage, super-high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. The frequency-dependent model considers self and mutual impedances of transmission lines, taking into account the influence of bundled conductors using a sag in one span, ground-return path with earth resistivity which is as a frequency-dependent complex

Vu Phan Tu; J. Tlusty

2003-01-01

92

Magnetic Field Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You may drag either magnet and double-click anywhere inside the animation to add a magnetic field line, and mouse-down to read the magnitude of the magnetic field at that point.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

93

Magnetic field effects on the vestibular system: calculation of the pressure on the cupula due to ionic current-induced Lorentz force.  

PubMed

Large static magnetic fields may be employed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At high magnetic field strengths (usually from about 3 T and above) it is possible for humans to perceive a number of effects. One such effect is mild vertigo. Recently, Roberts et al (2011 Current Biology 21 1635-40) proposed a Lorentz-force mechanism resulting from the ionic currents occurring naturally in the endolymph of the vestibular system. In the present work a more detailed calculation of the forces and resulting pressures in the vestibular system is carried out using a numerical model. Firstly, realistic 3D finite element conductivity and fluid maps of the utricle and a single semi-circular canal containing the current sources (dark cells) and sinks (hair cells) of the utricle and ampulla were constructed. Secondly, the electrical current densities in the fluid are calculated. Thirdly, the developed Lorentz force is used directly in the Navier-Stokes equation and the trans-cupular pressure is computed. Since the driving force field is relatively large in comparison with the advective acceleration, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform an approximation in the Navier-Stokes equations that reduces the problem to solving a simpler Poisson equation. This simplification allows rapid and easy calculation for many different directions of applied magnetic field. At 7 T a maximum cupula pressure difference of 1.6 mPa was calculated for the combined ampullar (0.7 µA) and utricular (3.31 µA) distributed current sources, assuming a hair-cell resting current of 100 pA per unit. These pressure values are up to an order of magnitude lower than those proposed by Roberts et al using a simplistic model and calculation, and are in good agreement with the estimated pressure values for nystagmus velocities in caloric experiments. This modeling work supports the hypothesis that the Lorentz force mechanism is a significant contributor to the perception of magnetic field induced vertigo. PMID:22722424

Antunes, A; Glover, P M; Li, Y; Mian, O S; Day, B L

2012-06-22

94

Magnetic Fields in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and, due to the lack of magnetic monopoles, hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas, or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars, and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic field is still under debate. The available data for external galaxies can well be explained by field amplification and ordering via the dynamo mechanism. The measured field strengths and the similarity of field patterns and flow patterns of the diffuse ionized gas give strong indication that galactic magnetic fields are dynamically important. They may affect the formation of spiral arms, outflows, and the general evolution of galaxies. In spite of our increasing knowledge on magnetic fields, many important questions on the origin and evolution of magnetic fields, their first occurrence in young galaxies, or the existence of large-scale intergalactic fields remained unanswered. The present upgrades of existing instruments and several planned radio astronomy projects have defined cosmic magnetism as one of their key science projects.

Beck, Rainer; Wielebinski, Richard

95

Intergalactic magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no observational support to the hypothesis of the most large-scale homogeneous magnetic field in the Universe. The best upper limit is given by interpretation of the Faraday rotation from the extragalactic radio sources. However the magnetic fields can be generated in the clusters of galaxies by a turbulence in the wakes of moving galaxies. These fields have an

A. A. Ruzmajkin

1991-01-01

96

Magnetic Field Example 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clicking on the different links below will produce different magnetic fields in the box above. The wires (perpendicular to the screen) or coils (in and out of the screen) are not visible, but you can determine what they are from the field. You can also click on a point to read off the magnetic field at that place.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

97

Pitfalls in the calculation of the field distribution of magnetic electron lenses by the finite-element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In principle, a finite-element calculation of a magnetic or electrostatic structure has now achieved an accuracy that is difficult to check experimentally. However, incidental errors may occur in practice due to shortcomings in the computer itself, in the program or in the initial setting up of the data. Some common errors, culled from the literature, are reviewed; ways of recognising their presence are suggested. Some test structures and computing procedures are also put forward for estimating the accuracy of a particular calculation. A software ``B-H Tester'' has been devised that is intended to help the operator to check default B-H curves that may be stored in the computer. This can also be used to exercise a given program at its limits and hence reveal any weaknesses. Finally, a series of tests has been carried out to assess the relative merits, in speed and accuracy, of the Gaussian elimination method of solving the matrix equations and that of the imcomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method.

Tahir, Khadija; Mulvey, Tom

1990-12-01

98

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Universe, Windows T.

1997-12-03

99

Magnetic field generation in Galactic molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetic field which is generated by turbulent motions of a weakly ionized gas. Galactic molecular clouds give us an example of such a medium. As in the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model we assume a medium to be homogeneous and a neutral gas velocity field to be isotropic and ? correlated in time. We take into consideration the presence of a mean magnetic field, which defines a preferred direction in space and eliminates isotropy of magnetic field correlators. Evolution equations for the anisotropic correlation function are derived. Isotropic cases with zero mean magnetic field as well as with small mean magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that stationary bounded solutions exist only in the presence of the mean magnetic field for the Kolmogorov neutral gas turbulence. The dependence of the magnetic field fluctuations amplitude on the mean field is calculated. The stationary anisotropic solution for the magnetic turbulence is also obtained for large values of the mean magnetic field.

Istomin, Ya. N.; Kiselev, A.

2013-10-01

100

Melatonin and magnetic fields.  

PubMed

There is public health concern raised by epidemiological studies indicating that extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by electric power distribution systems in the environment may be hazardous. Possible carcinogenic effects of magnetic field in combination with suggested oncostatic action of melatonin lead to the hypothesis that the primary effects of electric and magnetic fields exposure is a reduction of melatonin synthesis which, in turn, may promote cancer growth. In this review the data on the influence of magnetic fields on melatonin synthesis, both in the animals and humans, are briefly presented and discussed. PMID:12019358

Karasek, Michal; Lerchl, Alexander

2002-04-01

101

Magnetic field generator  

DOEpatents

A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

1990-01-01

102

On Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are present in all astrophysical media. However, many models and interpretations of observations often ignore them, because magnetic fields are difficult to handle and because they produce complicated morphological features. Here we will comment on the basic intuitive properties, which even if not completely true, provide a first guiding insight on the physics of a particular astrophysical problem. These magnetic properties are not mathematically demonstrated here. How magnetic fields evolve and how they introduce dynamical effects are considered, also including a short comment on General Relativity Magnetohydrodynamics. In a second part we consider some audacious and speculative matters. They are answers to three questions: a) How draw a cube without lifting the pencil from the paper so that when the pen passes through the same side do in the same direction? B) Are MILAGRO anisotropies miraculous? C) Do cosmic magnetic lenses exist?. The last two questions deal with issues related with the interplay between magnetic fields and cosmic ray propagation.

Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

2010-12-01

103

Magnetic fields at Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusions drawn regarding the structure, behavior and composition of the Uranian magnetic field and magnetosphere as revealed by Voyager 2 data are summarized. The planet had a bipolar magnetotail and a bow shock wave which was observed 23.7 Uranus radii (UR) upstream and a magnetopause at 18.0 UR. The magnetic field observed can be represented by a dipole offset

N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; K. W. Behannon; L. F. Burlaga; J. E. P. Connerney; R. P. Lepping

1986-01-01

104

THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analysis of magnetic and concurrent plasma data collected from the ; space probes Pionecr 5, Explorer 10, and Mariner 2 yields a new model of the ; interplanetary magnetic field. It is hypothesized that the observed ; interplanetary field F\\/sub i\\/ is due to motion of the magnetometer relative to a ; negatively charged rotating sun from which

V. A. BAILEY

1963-01-01

105

Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources

Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Dal Pino

2006-01-01

106

The Earth's Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnetic field of the Earth is contained in a region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth. This site, produced by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), uses text, scientific illustrations,and remote imagery to explain the occurrence and nature of planetary magnetic fields and magnetospheres, how these fields interact with the solar wind to produce phenomena like auroras, and how magnetic fields of the earth and other planets can be detected and measured by satellite-borne magnetometers.

107

Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z~3,

Steven R. Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2001-01-01

108

Cosmic Rays in the Earth'S Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies are presented of the behavior of cosmic rays in the earth's magnetic field. It discusses the theory of motion of charged particles in an idealized field model and presents results of trajectory calculations of asymptotic directions and cutoff rigi...

L. I. Dorman V. S. Smirnov M. I. Tyasto

1973-01-01

109

The First Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars are discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early generation of stars or active galactic nuclei can be dispersed into the intergalactic medium.

Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ryu, Dongsu; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G.; Treumann, Rudolf A.

2012-05-01

110

Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will introduce students to the idea of magnetic field lines--a concept they have probably encountered but may not fully grasp. Completing this activity and reading the corresponding background information should enable students to understand

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

111

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations indicate that jets (i.e., charged particle beams) are emitted from the central black hole sources of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Magnetic fields are produced in e(-)-p or e(-)-e(+)-p jets when electrons (and positrons) are slowed with respect to protons in the jets. Interaction with an ambient interstellar gas or external radiation field can cause such drift velocities. Calculations

William K. Rose

1987-01-01

112

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations indicate that jets are emitted from the central black hole sources of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Magnetic fields are produced in e--p or e--e+-p jets when electrons and positrons are slowed with respect to protons in the jets. Interaction with an ambient interstellar gas or external radiation field can cause such drift velocities. In this paper calculations for

William K. Rose

1987-01-01

113

Magnetic field dosimeter development  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1980-09-01

114

Magnetic field confinement for magnetically levitated vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically levitated vehicle adapted for movement along a guide way, comprising: a passenger compartment; first and second primary magnet means secured on the vehicle to produce a magnetic field having a magnetic flux density extending outward from the primary magnet means, to support the vehicle above and spaced from the guide way; and a plurality of confining magnets disposed on the vehicle to confine the magnetic flux extending outward from the primary magnet means and to reduce the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment; wherein the primary magnet means has a capacity to produce a primary magnetic field having a maximum strength of at least 200 gauss in the passenger compartment, and the confining magnets maintain the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment below 5 gauss.

Proise, M.

1993-05-25

115

Planetary magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large

David J. Stevenson

2003-01-01

116

Magnetic Multipole Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Multipole Field Model shows the field of a magnetic dipole or quadrupole with little compasses that indicate direction and relative field strength. A slider changes the angular orientation of the dipole and a movable compass shows the magnetic field direction and magnitude. Compass values can be recorded into a data table and analyzed using a built-in data analysis tool. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Multipole Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticMultipoleField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne; Franciscouembre

2010-02-14

117

Magnetic Field Measurement System  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic field measurement system was designed, built and installed at MAX Lab, Sweden for the purpose of characterizing the magnetic field produced by Insertion Devices (see Figure 1). The measurement system consists of a large granite beam roughly 2 feet square and 14 feet long that has been polished beyond laboratory grade for flatness and straightness. The granite precision coupled with the design of the carriage yielded minimum position deviations as measured at the probe tip. The Hall probe data collection and compensation technique allows exceptional resolution and range while taking data on the fly to programmable sample spacing. Additional flip coil provides field integral data.

Kulesza, Joe; Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Waterman, Dave; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Dunn, Jonathan Hunter [MAX-lab, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-19

118

Magnetic Field Problem: Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of a circular wire loop carrying an unknown current is shown above. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You can double-click in the animation to add magnetic field lines, click-drag the center of the loop to reposition it, and click-drag the top or bottom of the loop to change its size.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

119

Crustal magnetic field of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equivalent source dipole technique is used to model the three components of the Martian lithospheric magnetic field. We use magnetic field measurements made on board the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Different input dipole meshes are presented and evaluated. Because there is no global, Earth-like, inducing magnetic field, the magnetization directions are solved for together with the magnetization intensity. A

B. Langlais; M. E. Purucker; M. Mandea

2004-01-01

120

Alternating current loss calculation in a high-TC superconducting transmission cable considering the magnetic field distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated the alternating current (ac) losses of a 114 MVA high-TC superconducting (HTS) transmission cable using an electric-circuit (EC) model. The HTS cable is fabricated by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. The EC model is comprised of a resistive part and an inductive part. The resistive part is obtained by the approximated Norris equation

H. Noji; K. Haji; T. Hamada

2003-01-01

121

Evolution of normal pulsar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results and new progress of the origin and evolution of pulsar magnetic fields are reviewed. Lots of models about how such strong magnetic fields were generated, mainly two kinds of structures were proposed for initial magnetic fields: fields confined in the cores and fields confined in the crusts of neutron stars. No consensus has been reached on whether the magnetic fields decay or not, despite some observational evidence for the evolution of magnetic fields. The discrepancy between characteristic ages and kinematic ages indicates that the magnetic fields decay exponentially. On the other hand, the braking indices of several young pulsars and the comparison between pulsar characteristic ages and the ages of associated supernova remnants suggest that the magnetic fields of young pulsars grow like a power-law. Pulsar population synthesis is one of the most important methods to investigate the evolution of magnetic fields. Many simulations show that if magnetic fields do decay exponentially, the e-folding decay time should be 100 Myr or longer. The numerical calculations of the Ohmic decay in the crust indicate that the scenario of exponential decay is oversimple, and the evolution could be divided into four possible phases approximately: exponential decay, no decay, power-law decay and exponential decay again. The model of magnetic fields expulsion induced by spin-down suggests that the magnetic fields decay only in a period between 107yr and 108yr.

Sun, Xiaohui; Han, Jinlin

2002-06-01

122

Calculation of rf fields in axisymmetric cavities  

SciTech Connect

A new code, PISCES, has been developed for calculating a complete set of rf electromagnetic modes in an axisymmetric cavity. The finite-element method is used with up to third-order shape functions. Although two components are enough to express these modes, three components are used as unknown variables to take advantage of the symmetry of the element matrix. The unknowns are taken to be either the electric field components or the magnetic field components. The zero-divergence condition will be satisfied by the shape function within each element.

Iwashita, Y.

1985-01-01

123

Power-Factor and Torque Calculation under Consideration of Cross Saturation of the Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new method for calculating the power factor and output torque by considering the cross saturation between direct-axis (d-axis) and quadrature-axis (q-axis) of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The conventional two-axis IPMSM model is modified to include the cross saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms. This paper also contains the new method of calculating the cross-coupled inductance values as well as self-inductance values in d- and q-axes. The analyzed motor is a high-speed brushless field excitation machine that offers high torque per ampere per core length at low speed and weakened flux at high speed, which was developed for the traction motor of a hybrid electric vehicle. The conventional two-axis IPMSM model was modified to include the cross-saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms Ldq and Lqd. By the advantage of the excited structure of the experimental IPMSM, the analyzing works were performed under two conditions, the highest and lowest excited conditions. Therefore, it is possible to investigate the cross-saturation effect when a machine has higher magnetic flux from its rotor. The following is a summary of conclusions that may be drawn from this work: (1) Considering cross saturation of an IPMSM offers more accurate expected values of motor parameters in output torque calculation, especially when negative d-axis current is high; (2) A less saturated synchronous machine could be more affected by the cross-coupled saturation effect; (3) Both cross-coupled inductances, L{sub qd} and L{sub dq}, are mainly governed by d-axis current rather than q-axis current; (4) The modified torque equation, can be used for the dynamic model of an IPMSM for developing a better control model or control strategy; and (5) It is possible that the brushless field excitation structure has a common magnetic flux path on both d- and q-axis, and as a result, the reluctance torque of the machine could be reduced.

Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

2009-01-01

124

Magnetic Fields in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized emission traces turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important, e.g. they can drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic random, generated from isotropic random fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several spiral galaxies reveal large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field dynamo. However, in most spiral galaxies observed so far the field structure is more complicated. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. Future observations of polarized emission at high frequencies, with the EVLA, the SKA and its precursors, will trace galactic magnetic fields in unprecedented detail. Low-frequency telescopes (e.g. LOFAR and MWA) are ideal to search for diffuse emission and small RMs from weak interstellar and intergalactic fields.

Beck, Rainer

2012-05-01

125

HMI Magnetic Field Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft will begin observing the solar photospheric magnetic field continuously after commissioning in early 2009. This paper describes the HMI magnetic processing pipeline and the expected data products that will be available. The full disk line-of-sight magnetic field will be available every minute with 1" resolution. Comparable vector measurements collected over a three-minute time interval will ordinarily be averaged for at least 10 minutes before inversion. Useful Quick Look products for forecasting purposes will be available a few minutes after observation. Final products will be computed within 36 hours and made available through the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). Three kinds of magnetic data products have been defined - standard, on-demand, and on-request. Standard products, such as frequently updated synoptic charts, are made all the time on a fixed cadence. On-demand products, such as high cadence full-disk disambiguated vector magnetograms, will be generated whenever a user asks for them. On-request products, such as high-resolution time series of MHD model solutions, will be generated as resources allow. This paper describes the observations, magnetograms, synoptic and synchronic products, and field model calculations that will be produced by the HMI magnetic pipeline.

Hoeksema, J.; Hmi, M. T.

2008-05-01

126

Magnetic field annihilators: invisible magnetization at the magnetic equator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some distributions of magnetization give rise to magnetic fields that vanish everywhere above the surface, rendering these distributions of magnetization completely invisible. They are the annihilators of the magnetic inverse problem. Known examples are the infinite sheet with constant magnetization and the spherical shell of constant susceptibility magnetized by an arbitrary internal field. Here, we show that remarkably more interesting

S. Maus; V. Haak

2003-01-01

127

Magnetic fields and the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronal magnetic fields calculated by the methods developed in Paper I (Altschuler and Newkirk, 1969) and the empirical description of the solar corona of November 1966 derived in Paper II (Newkirket al., 1970) are combined in order to investigate what connection exists between the magnetic fields and the density structure of the corona.

Gordon Newkirk; Martin D. Altschuler

1970-01-01

128

Space Quantization in a Gyrating Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonadiabatic transitions which a system with angular momentum J makes in a magnetic field which is rotating about an axis inclined with respect to the field are calculated. It is shown that the effects depend on the sign of the magnetic moment of the system. We therefore have an absolute method for measuring the sign and magnitude of the

I. I. Rabi

1937-01-01

129

Distortion of magnetic field and magnetic force of a brushless dc motor due to deformed rubber magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the distortion of magnetic field of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor due to deformed rubber magnet. Global or local deformation of rubber magnet in the BLDC motor is mathematically modeled by using the Fourier series. Distorted magnetic field is calculated by using the finite element method, and unbalanced magnetic force is calculated by using the Maxwell stress

C. J. Lee; G. H. Jang

2008-01-01

130

Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as

K. N. Henrichsen

1998-01-01

131

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

2013-06-01

132

Numerical calculation and measurement of transient fields from electrostatic discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares measured and numerically calculated results of currents and transient fields caused by electrostatic discharges (ESDs). An algorithm based on the magnetic field integral equation was combined with an arc model. It takes the nonlinearity of the arc and the dependence of the breakdown process on the arc length into account. It can calculate the discharge currents and

R. Zaridze; D. Karkashadze; R. G. Djobava; David Pommerenke; Martin Aidam

1996-01-01

133

Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of\\u000a a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and\\u000a calculate their distribution as a function magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We find that by a redshift \\u000a z ~ <\\/font\\u000a>3z \\\\sim

Steven Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2002-01-01

134

Magnetic Instabilities in High Field Superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of magnetizing cylindrical specimens of a typical high field superconductor Nb-50 at.%Ti, flux jumps were induced by magnetic disturbances. The stability limit field Hfj increased steadily with increasing temperature, and no magnetic instability occurred for temperatures in excess of about 6.5 K. The calculation of Hfj was performed taking into account the cylindrical sample geometry and the

Tatsuo Akachi; Takeshi Ogasawara; Ko Yasukochi

1981-01-01

135

Theoretical calculation of the dielectric tensor and field equations in columns with elliptical cross-sections including inhomogeneous magnetized cold collisionless drift and rotating plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effects of the inhomogeneity of the density of charged particles and the initial axial, rotating and radial motion on the dielectric permittivity tensor and the field equations in a long column of multi-layer magnetized plasmas with confocal elliptical cross-sections are investigated. The elements of the dielectric permittivity tensor and the generalized field equations of each region

A. Abdoli-Arani

2011-01-01

136

Magnetic fields and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

Jones, T.L.

1993-10-01

137

A Fast Current-Field Iteration Method for Calculating Nonlinear Force-Free Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing methods for calculating nonlinear force-free magnetic fields are slow, and are likely to be inadequate for reconstructing\\u000a coronal magnetic fields based on high-resolution vector magnetic field data from a new generation of spectro-polarimetric\\u000a instruments. In this paper a new implementation of the current-field iteration method is presented, which is simple, fast,\\u000a and accurate. The time taken by the method

M. S. Wheatland

2006-01-01

138

A Fast Current-Field Iteration Method for Calculating Nonlinear Force-Free Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing methods for calculating nonlinear force-free magnetic fields are slow, and are likely to be inadequate for reconstructing coronal magnetic fields based on high-resolution vector magnetic field data from a new generation of spectro-polarimetric instruments. In this paper a new implementation of the current-field iteration method is presented, which is simple, fast, and accurate. The time taken by the method

M. S. Wheatland

2006-01-01

139

Calculations of magnetic susceptibility of magnetotactic bacteria culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of magnetic susceptibility of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) culture are reported. The model was elaborated with regard to the effect of chemotaxis for two different geometrical compositions of the experiment. The results obtained allow one to determine concentration of MTB from magnetic measurements. It was shown that the characteristic parameters of chemotaxis can be extracted from the dependencies of the susceptibility on magnetic field strength.

Zablotskii, V.; Yurchenko, V.; Kamysa, Y.; Chelombetskaya, M.

2001-09-01

140

Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body-centered-cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic-field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields B?1014G ). The effect of the magnetic field on ion displacements in a strongly magnetized neutron star crust can suppress the nuclear reaction rates and make them extremely sensitive to the magnetic-field direction.

Baiko, D. A.

2009-10-01

141

Five years of magnetic field management  

SciTech Connect

The extensive publicity of epidemiological studies inferring correlation between 60 Hz magnetic fields and childhood leukemia prompted world wide research programs that have as a goal to determine if low frequency magnetic fields represent any risk for the general population, children or utility workers. While supporting this research effort through EPRI, Con Edison embarked on a technical research program aimed to: characterize magnetic fields as to intensity and variation in time; and investigate practical means to manage these magnetic fields through currently known methods. The final goal of these research projects is to establish viable methods to reduce magnetic field intensity to desired values at reasonable distances from the sources. This goal was pursued step by step, starting with an inventory of the main sources of magnetic fields in substations, distribution and transmission facilities and generating plants. The characterization of the sources helped to identify typical cases and select specific cases, far practical applications. The next step was to analyze the specific cases and develop design criteria for managing the magnetic fields in new installations. These criteria included physical arrangement of equipment based oil calculation of magnetic fields, cancellation effect, desired maximum field intensity at specific points and shielding with high magnetic permeability metals (mu-metal and steel). This paper summarizes the authors` experiences and shows the results of the specific projects completed in recent years.

Durkin, C.J.; Fogarty, R.P.; Halleran, T.M.; Mark, Dr. D.A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

1995-01-01

142

Magnetic Field Problem: Current and Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. A wire is placed between the magnets and a current that comes out of the page can be turned on.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

143

Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil

Labros Spiridon Petropoulos

1993-01-01

144

Design Calculations for Permanent-Magnet Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simplified method for calculating the performance of permanent-magnet generators using equations, concepts, and units familiar to the designer of conventional a-c generators. The equations and curves permit the calculation of open-circuit voltage, transient performance, short-circuit current, synchronous impedance, and voltage regulation for various power factors. Leakage equations are presented for the most common type of permanent-magnet

David Ginsberg; Leo J. Misenheimer

1953-01-01

145

Integrated semiconductor magnetic field sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in integrated silicon magnetic devices are reviewed, with particular attention given to integrated Hall plates, magnetic field-effect transistors, vertical and lateral bipolar magnetotransistors, magnetodiodes, and current-domain magnetometers. Also described are current developments in integrated magnetic field sensors based on III-V semiconductors and bulk Hall-effect devices. The discussion also covers magnetic device modeling and the incorporation of magnetic devices

H. P. Baltes; R. S. Popovic

1986-01-01

146

Magnetic field analysis of air-core superconducting transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the applications of the superconducting wires to the AC power field, the magnetic field analysis is very important in order to investigate their power loss and stability. In this paper, a calculation method of magnetic field in the air-core transformer, which is one type of the superconducting transformer, is introduced. Then, based on this method, the magnetic field acting

Hiroshi Yamaguchi; H. Moriomoto; Yukihiko Sato; Teruo Kataoka

1995-01-01

147

Planetary magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large radial extent. The relevant electrical conductivities range from metallic values to values that may be only about 1% or less that of a typical metal, appropriate to ionic fluids and semiconductors. In all planets, the Coriolis force is dynamically important, but slow rotation may be more favorable for a dynamo than fast rotation. The maintenance and persistence of convection appears to be easy in gas giants and ice-rich giants, but is not assured in terrestrial planets because the quite high electrical conductivity of iron-rich cores guarantees a high thermal conductivity (through the Wiedemann-Franz law), which allows for a large core heat flow by conduction alone. In this sense, high electrical conductivity is unfavorable for a dynamo in a metallic core. Planetary dynamos mostly appear to operate with an internal field ~(2??/?)1/2 where ? is the fluid density, ? is the planetary rotation rate and ? is the conductivity (SI units). Earth, Ganymede, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and maybe Mercury have dynamos, Mars has large remanent magnetism from an ancient dynamo, and the Moon might also require an ancient dynamo. Venus is devoid of a detectable global field but may have had a dynamo in the past. The presence or absence of a dynamo in a terrestrial body (including Ganymede) appears to depend mainly on the thermal histories and energy sources of these bodies, especially the convective state of the silicate mantle and the existence and history of a growing inner solid core. Induced fields observed in Europa and Callisto indicate the strong likelihood of water oceans in these bodies.

Stevenson, David J.

2003-03-01

148

BRIEF COMMUNICATION: Calculation of a magnetic field effect on emission spectra of light diatomic molecules for diagnostic application to fusion edge plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme for computation of emission spectra of light diatomic molecules under external magnetic and electric fields is presented. As model species in fusion edge plasmas, the scheme is applied to polarization-resolved emission spectra of H2, CH, C2, BH and BeH molecules. The possibility of performing spatially resolved measurements of these spectra is examined.

Shikama, T.; Fujii, K.; Mizushiri, K.; Hasuo, M.; Kado, S.; Zushi, H.

2009-12-01

149

Hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field is considered in a wide region of magnitudes of magnetic field and atom momentum. We solve the Schroedinger equation of the system numerically using an imaginary time method and find wave functions of the lowest states of atom. We calculate the energy and the mean electron-nucleus separation as a function of atom momentum and magnetic field. All the results obtained could be summarized as a phase diagram on the 'atom-momentum - magnetic-field' plane. There are transformations of wave-function structure at critical values of atom momentum and magnetic field that result in a specific behavior of dependencies of energy and mean interparticle separation on the atom momentum P. We discuss a transition from the Zeeman regime to the high magnetic field regime. A qualitative analysis of the complicated behavior of wave functions vs P based on the effective potential examination is given. We analyze a sharp transition at the critical momentum from a Coulomb-type state polarized due to atom motion to a strongly decentered (Landau-type) state at low magnetic fields. A crossover occurring at intermediate magnetic fields is also studied.

Lozovik, Yu.E.; Volkov, S.Yu. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Troitsk, Moscow region, 142190 (Russian Federation)

2004-08-01

150

An Intergalactic Magnetic Field from Quasar Outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with\\u000amagnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an\\u000aexpanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant\\u000aquasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function magnetic field\\u000astrength at different redshifts. We find that by a redshift z ~ 3, about 5-80%

Steven R. Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2001-01-01

151

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1996-08-06

152

Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

Miller, G.

1987-12-01

153

Ionospheric electric fields, currents, and resulting magnetic fields variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis uses an equivalent circuit model to calculate ionospheric electric fields, current densities and introduced magnetic fields variations on the ground. The role of the field aligned current is examined. Using different wind models, we studied the electric field variations with altitude, season and solar activity. The ionospheric eastward electric field changes very little within the whole ionosphere. The southward (equatorward) electric field is large and changes quickly with height in the E region although it is nearly constant in the F region. The prereversal enhancement of the eastward electric field is produced by the F region dynamo. We conclude that the Forbes and Gillette tidal wind can reproduce most features of the Jicamarca experiment and the AE-E and DE-2 satellite observations of the electric fields. The HWM90 empirical wind model failed to produce the observed electric field and it seems the semidiurnal wind in HWM90 is too strong. The field aligned current is located mainly in the E and low F region. The non-coincidence of the geomagnetic and geographic equators has a strong effect on the field aligned current in the equatorial zone. The field aligned currents driven by Forbes' winds for March equinox and December solstice flow mainly from the southern to northern hemisphere in the morning and vice versa in the afternoon at F region heights. The observed magnetic field variations on the ground are well reproduced in our simulations. The field aligned current is the main contributor to the eastward magnetic field component in the equatorial zone. The longitudinal inequality of the northward magnetic field is introduced mainly by the variations of the local magnetic field intensity. The electric field variations have only a minor effect. The northward magnetic field variations with the solar activity are introduced by changes of the E region equatorward electric field and the Hall conductivity.

Du, Junhu

154

Stellar atmospheres with magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the most probable configuration of the magnetic field in the atmosphere of an Ap star is an almost force-free, poloidal field, close to a low-order multipole. Such a magnetic field can not change the structure of the atmosphere to any great extent, but the vertical component of the Lorentz force can decrease the effective gravity by

K. Stepien

1980-01-01

155

Microprobe for Measuring Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hall effect has been widely utilized to measure magnetic fields. The relatively simple geometry of a Hall element suggested the use of such a device on a microscale as a probe to examine magnetic fields of small structures. Hall probes are described which were constructed with a sensitive area about 10×10 ?. Fields of less than 0.01 gauss were

D. D. Roshon Jr.

1962-01-01

156

Magnetic fields in galactic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jet region of M87 is discussed to illustrate the astrophysical observations of radio sources, with note made of magnetic field phenomena contributing to radio frequency emissions. The jet appearing in M87 has been modelled as a continuous supersonic flow of plasma embedded in a self-consistent, ordered magnetic field. The field has both parallel and helical components, and may work

A. Ferrari

1982-01-01

157

Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields ($\\\\ge 1 \\\\mu$G) in high\\u000aredshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving\\u000aprotogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic\\u000aseed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and\\u000aincorporated into a spherical \\

Harald Lesch; Masashi Chiba

1994-01-01

158

Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields (>=1muG) in high redshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving protogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic seed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and incorporated into a spherical \\

H. Lesch; M. Chiba

1995-01-01

159

Negativity in the Extended Hubbard Model under External Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exactly calculate the negativity, a measurement of entanglement, in the two-site extended Hubbard model with external magnetic field. Its behaviour at different temperatures is presented. The negativity reduces with the increasing temperature or with the increasing uniform external magnetic field. It is also found that a non-uniform external magnetic field can be used to modulate or to increase the

Zhen Yang; Wen-Qiang Ning

2008-01-01

160

Equilibrium magnetization states in magnetic nanotubes and their evolution in external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium magnetization states existing in soft magnetic nanotubes and their behavior in external magnetic field are investigated by means of micromagnetic simulation. In the ground state the middle part of a sufficiently long tube is uniformly magnetized along the tube axis, however there are curling states of various circular polarities near the tube ends. The characteristic length of ending curling states, as well as switching field Hs in the external magnetic field parallel to the tube axis, have been calculated as a function of outer tube radius and tube thickness.

Chen, A. P.; Usov, N. A.; Blanco, J. M.; Gonzalez, J.

2007-09-01

161

New Systems of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Generation of Extrahigh Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various systems, which are composed of rare-earth permanent magnets and generate strong magnetic fields, are calculated. Strong fields are taken to mean the fields with the strength, which exceeds the magnet induction. Calculated values of the strength of strong fields can mount to 20–150 kOe. Depending on form of domains where this fields are localized they can be classified as

Dmitriy BELOZOROV; Anatoliy RAVLIK; Vladimir SAMOFALOV

2006-01-01

162

The Sun's global magnetic field.  

PubMed

Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

Mackay, Duncan H

2012-07-13

163

Calculation of frequency responses of electro-magnetic levitation magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As all EMS-vehicle magnets of the Transrapid family have heretofore been equipped with massive iron cores acting on massive armature rails eddy currents due to varying coil currents and air gaps must be taken into account if force (F) and current (J) have to be calculated correctly. A method is presented which allows their calculation for infinitely small harmonic voltage

G. H. Bohn

1977-01-01

164

Microwave Measurements of Coronal Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements of the solar corona using microwave observation are reviewed. The solar corona is filled with highly ionised plasma and magnetic field. Moving charged particles interact with magnetic field due to Lorentz force. This results in gyration motion perpendicular to the magnetic field and free motion along the magnetic field. Circularly polarized electro-magnetic waves interact with gyrating electrons

K. Shibasaki

2006-01-01

165

Magnetic Field of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An internal potential function was created using the averaged MGS vector data released by Mario Acuna for altitudes from 95 to 209 km above the Martian geoid, all longitudes, and latitudes from 87 degrees south to 78 degrees north. Even with some gaps in coverage it is found that a consistent internal potential function can be derived up to spherical harmonic terms of n = 65 using all three components of the data. Weighting the data according to the standard errors given, the model fits to 7-8 nT rms. The energy density spectrum of the harmonics is seen to peak near n = 39 with a value of 7 J/cu km and fall off to less than 0.5 J/cu km below n = 15 and above n = 55. Contour maps of the X (north) component drawn for 100 km altitude show the strongly anomalous region centered at 60 degrees S latitude and 180 degrees longitude, as well as the alternating east-west trends already observed by other groups. Maps of the other components show the anomalous region, but not the east-west trends. The dichotomy is also maintained with much weaker anomalies bounding the northern plains. The results herein as as well as those of others is limited by the sparse low-altitude data coverage as well as the accuracy of the observations in the face of significant spacecraft fields. Work by Connerney and Acuna have mitigated these sources somewhat, but the design of the spacecraft did not lend itself to accurate observations. Recent results reported by David Mitchell of the ER group have shown that the field observations are significantly influenced by the solar wind with the possibility that the present results may only reflect that portion of the internal field visible above 95 km altitude. Depending on the solar wind, the anomaly field may be shielded or distorted to produce spurious results. The spectrum we have obtained so far may only see the stronger portion of the signal with a significant weaker component hidden. Measurements of crustal anomalies versus relative ages of source bodies combined with later absolute dating of Martian geologic units could lead to a quantitative constraint on the thermal history of the planet, i.e. the time when convective dynamo generation ceased in the core. Determination of directions of magnetization of anomaly sources as a function of age combined with the expectation that the Martian dynamo field was roughly aligned with the rotation axis would lead to a means of investigating polar wandering for Mars. Preliminary analysis of two magnetic anomalies in the northern polar region has yielded paleomagnetic pole positions near 50 N, 135 W, about 30 degrees north of Olympus Mons. This location is roughly consistent with the orientation of the planet expected theoretically prior to the formation of the Tharsis region. In the future, more accurate observations of the vector field at the lowest possible altitudes would significantly improve our understanding of Martian thermal history, polar wandering, and upper crustal evolution. Mapping potential resources (e.g., iron-rich source bodies) for future practical use would also be a side benefit. Additional information is contained in the original abstract.

Cain, J. C.; Ferguson, B.; Mozzoni, D.; Hood, L.

2000-07-01

166

Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the effect of accretion on the evolution of the magnetic field of a neutron star and highlight the main unresolved issues. Charged, accreted matter is funneled towards the magnetic poles where it heats the stellar surface and alters its magnetic structure resulting in an overall reduction of the magnetic dipole moment. Mechanisms for accretion-induced field reduction include accelerated Ohmic decay, vortex-fluxoid interactions, and magnetic burial or screening. We discuss how these can be integrated into a global model and detail recent self-consistent, three-dimensional, magneto-hydrodynamic, calculations (using analytic Grad-Shafranov methods and the numerical solver ZEUS-MP) which incorporate global resistive instabilities. These models can explain why neutron stars in binaries have systematically lower magnetic dipole moments than isolated neutron stars. Finally we discuss applications including the evolution of accreting millisecond pulsars and type-I X-ray bursts, magnetars, and gravitational waves.

Payne, D. J. B.; Vigelius, M.; Melatos, A.

2008-10-01

167

Magnetic Instabilities in High Field Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of magnetizing cylindrical specimens of a typical high field superconductor Nb-50 at.%Ti, flux jumps were induced by magnetic disturbances. The stability limit field Hfj increased steadily with increasing temperature, and no magnetic instability occurred for temperatures in excess of about 6.5 K. The calculation of Hfj was performed taking into account the cylindrical sample geometry and the critical state equation JcB1-?{=}?. According to the relative magnitudes of the magnetic diffusivity Dm and the thermal diffusivity Dt, the expression of Hfj was derived for two cases; (1) Dm>Dt, and (2) Dm?Dt. Good agreement between experiment and theory was obtained on the stability limit field Hfj and the temperature above which magnetic instabilities do not take place.

Akachi, Tatsuo; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Yasuk?chi, K?

1981-08-01

168

Evolution of primordial magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we briefly summarise the main phases which determine the dynamical evolution of primordial magnetic fields in the early universe. On the one hand, strong fields undergo damping due to excitations of plasma fluctuations, and, on the other hand, weak magnetic fields will be strongly amplified by the small-scale dynamo in a turbulent environment. We find that, under reasonable assumptions concerning the efficiency of a putative magnetogenesis era during cosmic phase transitions, surprisingly strong magnetic fields 10-13-10-11 G on comparatively small scales 100 pc -10 kpc may survive to prior to structure formation. Additionally, any weak magnetic field will be exponentially amplified during the collapse of the first minihalos until they reach equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy. Hence, we argue that it seems possible for cluster magnetic fields to be entirely of primordial origin.

Banerjee, R.

2013-06-01

169

Magnetic Field Analysis of a Permanent-Magnet Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) is a new type of induction machine that has a permanent-magnet rotor inside a squirrel-cage rotor. In this paper, a new technique for the magnetic field analysis of the PMIG is proposed. The proposed technique is based on the PMIG's equivalent circuit and the two-dimensional finite-element analysis (2D-FEA). To execute the 2D-FEA, the phasors of primary and secondary currents are calculated from the equivalent circuit, and the input data for the 2D-FEA is found by converting these phasors into the space vectors. As a result, the internal magnetic fields of the PMIG can be easily analyzed without complicated calculations.

Tsuda, Toshihiro; Fukami, Tadashi; Kanamaru, Yasunori; Miyamoto, Toshio

170

Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

171

Measurements of magnetic field alignment  

SciTech Connect

The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

1987-11-06

172

Magnetic Field Problem: Measuring Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of two circular wire loops carrying the exact same current is shown above (position given in centimeters and magnetic field given in milli-Tesla). You can click-drag to read the magnitude of the magnetic field.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

173

Self-consistent calculation of spin transport and magnetization dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spin-polarized current transfers its spin-angular momentum to a local magnetization, exciting various types of current-induced magnetization dynamics. So far, most studies in this field have focused on the direct effect of spin transport on magnetization dynamics, but ignored the feedback from the magnetization dynamics to the spin transport and back to the magnetization dynamics. Although the feedback is usually weak, there are situations when it can play an important role in the dynamics. In such situations, simultaneous, self-consistent calculations of the magnetization dynamics and the spin transport can accurately describe the feedback. This review describes in detail the feedback mechanisms, and presents recent progress in self-consistent calculations of the coupled dynamics. We pay special attention to three representative examples, where the feedback generates non-local effective interactions for the magnetization after the spin accumulation has been integrated out. Possibly the most dramatic feedback example is the dynamic instability in magnetic nanopillars with a single magnetic layer. This instability does not occur without non-local feedback. We demonstrate that full self-consistent calculations generate simulation results in much better agreement with experiments than previous calculations that addressed the feedback effect approximately. The next example is for more typical spin valve nanopillars. Although the effect of feedback is less dramatic because even without feedback the current can make stationary states unstable and induce magnetization oscillation, the feedback can still have important consequences. For instance, we show that the feedback can reduce the linewidth of oscillations, in agreement with experimental observations. A key aspect of this reduction is the suppression of the excitation of short wavelength spin waves by the non-local feedback. Finally, we consider nonadiabatic electron transport in narrow domain walls. The non-local feedback in these systems leads to a significant renormalization of the effective nonadiabatic spin transfer torque. These examples show that the self-consistent treatment of spin transport and magnetization dynamics is important for understanding the physics of the coupled dynamics and for providing a bridge between the ongoing research fields of current-induced magnetization dynamics and the newly emerging fields of magnetization-dynamics-induced generation of charge and spin currents.

Lee, Kyung-Jin; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Seo-Won

2013-10-01

174

Distortion of magnetic field and magnetic force of a brushless dc motor due to deformed rubber magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the distortion of magnetic field of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor due to deformed rubber magnet. Global or local deformation of rubber magnet in the BLDC motor is mathematically modeled by using the Fourier series. Distorted magnetic field is calculated by using the finite element method, and unbalanced magnetic force is calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor. When the rubber magnet is globally or locally deformed, the unbalanced magnetic force has the frequencies with the first harmonic and the harmonics of slot number +/-1. However, the harmonic deformation with multiple of common divisor of pole and slot does not generate unbalanced magnetic force due to the rotational symmetry.

Lee, C. J.; Jang, G. H.

2008-04-01

175

Magnetic field in a finite toroidal domain  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field structure in a domain surrounded by a closed toroidal magnetic surface is analyzed. It is shown that ergodization of magnetic field lines is possible even in a regular field configuration (with nonvanishing toroidal component). A unified approach is used to describe magnetic fields with nested toroidal (possibly asymmetric) flux surfaces, magnetic islands, and ergodic field lines.

Ilgisonis, V. I.; Skovoroda, A. A., E-mail: skovorod@nfi.kiae.r [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

176

Primordial magnetic seed fields from extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical extra dimensions break the conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations in four dimensions. A higher-dimensional background with n contracting extra dimensions and four expanding dimensions is matched to an effectively four-dimensional standard radiation dominated universe. The resulting spectrum for the magnetic field is calculated taking into account also the momenta along the extra dimensions. Imposing constraints from observations an upper

Kerstin E. Kunze

2005-01-01

177

Magnetic fields generated by power lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors compute the magnetic fields generated by a lot of typical power line configurations and compare these values with the results given both by analytical models and by measurements. The computations have been made by means of a flexible calculation code developed by the authors. This code overcomes some simplifying assumptions introduced in previous analytical studies.

A. Geri; A. Locatelli; G. M. Veca

1995-01-01

178

Atoms in crossed fields: calculations for barium and hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method previously developed by Halley et al for non-hydrogenic atoms in laboratory strength static electric and magnetic fields (treated separately, and in a parallel geometry combination) has been extended to also handle crossed fields. Stimulated by results from recent experiments by Connerade et al at Imperial College, London, we have used the method to calculate the crossed field 0953-4075/30/16/004/img6 and 0953-4075/30/16/004/img7 barium photoabsorption spectra measured in these experiments. The calculated results are found to be in excellent agreement with those from experiment. Moreover, calculation complementing experiment has allowed the experimental magnetic field strength to be identified to better than 0.3% and barium field-free quantum defects to be determined to better than 0.01% (modulo unity). The corresponding photoabsorption spectra have also been calculated for hydrogen. Comparing calculated spectra and wavefunctions for the two atoms has identified the non-hydrogenic behaviour of barium, especially at longer wavelengths, to be due to the anomalous spectral locations, at near-zero electric field, of a small number of `seed' states. These `seed' states remain in their anomalous locations but grow in oscillator strength as the electric field strength is increased, thus giving rise to significant, localized, non-hydrogenic photoabsorption features. For progressively shorter wavelengths we reach a point where `seed' states can no longer be identified, and a much more uniform distribution of oscillator strength in the spectrum results.

Rao, Jianguo; Taylor, K. T.

1997-08-01

179

Magnetic fields and scintillator performance  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data have shown that the light output of a scintillator depends on the magnitude of the externally applied magnetic fields, and that this variation can affect the calorimeter calibration and possibly resolution. The goal of the measurements presented here is to study the light yield of scintillators in high magnetic fields in conditions that are similar to those anticipated for the LHC CMS detector. Two independent measurements were performed, the first at Fermilab and the second at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

Green, D.; Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Hagopian, V. [Florida State Univ., Tallahasse, FL (United States)

1995-06-01

180

Effects of Magnetic Field on Classical Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical equations of motion are solved numerically for one electron atoms in an intense laser pulse. The study investigates the influence of the laser magnetic field on ionization and rescattering. Many models of electron ionization have ignored the magnetic field of the laser pulse, but recent work has looked at the magnetic field's role in stabilization [1]. Work has been done to show that in the ultra-strong regime (intensities of ˜10^18 W/cm^2) the laser magnetic field has an influence on rescattering [2]. Specifically, drift of the ionized electron along the laser propagation direction. We use a classical model of the atom, atomic number Z, with one electron and numerically integrate two sets of equations of motion, those with and those without the laser magnetic field. Observable quantities, such as electron radius and energy, are calculated and compared. The data shows that the laser magnetic field does have some influence on ionization, specifically on electron dynamics before ionization and the time required for ionization.[4pt] [1] L. N. Gaier and C. H. Keitel, PRA 65, 023406 (2002).[0pt] [2] S. Palaniyappan, I. Ghebregziabher, A. Dichiara, J. MacDonald, and B. C. Walker, PRA 74, 033403 (2006).

Grugan, Patrick; Videtto, Michael; Mancuso, Christopher; Luo, Sui; Walker, Barry

2011-06-01

181

Magnetic field structure of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently planet Mercury—an unexplored territory in our solar system—has been of much interest to the scientific community due to recent flybys of the spacecraft MESSENGER that discovered its intrinsic stationary and large-scale dipole like magnetic field structure with an intensity of ˜300nT confirming Mariner 10 observations. In the present study, with the observed constraint of Mercury's atmospheric magnetic field structure, internal magnetic field structure is modeled as a solution of magnetic diffusion equation. In this study, Mercury's internal structure mainly consists of a stable stratified fluid core and the convective mantle. For simplicity, magnetic diffusivity in both parts of the structure is considered to be uniform and constant with a value represented by a suitable averages. It is further assumed that vigorous convection in the mantle disposes of the electric currents leading to a very high diffusivity in that region. Thus, in order to satisfy observed atmospheric magnetic field structure, Mercury's most likely magnetic field structure consists of a solution of MHD diffusion equation in the core and a combined multipolar (dipole and quadrupole like magnetic field structures embedded in the uniform field) solution of a current free like magnetic field structure in the mantle and in the atmosphere. With imposition of appropriate boundary conditions at the core-mantle boundary for the first two diffusion eigen modes, in order to satisfy the observed field structure, present study puts the constraint on Mercury's core radius to be ˜2000km.From the estimated magnetic diffusivity and the core radius, it is also possible to estimate the two diffusion eigen modes with their diffusion time scales of ˜8.6 and 3.7 billion years respectively suggesting that the planet inherits its present-day magnetic field structure from the solar Nebula. It is proposed that permanency of such a large-scale magnetic field structure of the planet is attained during Mercury's early evolutionary history of heavy bombardments by the asteroids and comets supporting the giant impact hypothesis for the formation of Mercury.

Hiremath, K. M.

2012-04-01

182

Calculation of ferromagnetic resonance spectra for chains of magnetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria are a taxonomically diverse group of bacteria that have chains of ferromagnetic crystals inside. These bacteria mostly live in the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) of aquatic environments. The magnetic chains orient the bacteria parallel to the Earth's magnetic field and help them to maintain their position near the OAI. These chains show the fingerprint of natural selection acting to optimize the magnetic moment per unit iron. This is achieved in a number of ways: the alignment in chains, a narrow size range, crystallographic perfection and chemical purity. Because of these distinctive characteristics, the particles can still be identified after the bacteria have died. Such magnetofossils are useful both as records of bacterial evolution and environmental markers. They can most reliably be identified by microscopy, but that is very labor-intensive. A number of magnetic measurements have been developed to identify magnetofossils quickly and non-invasively. However, the only test that can specifically identify the chain structure is ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), which measures the response to a magnetic field oscillating at microwave frequencies. Although the experimental side of ferromagnetic resonance is well developed, the theoretical models for interpreting them have been limited. A new method is presented for calculating resonance frequencies as well as complete power spectra for chains of interacting magnetic particles. Spectra are calculated and compared with data for magnetotactic bacteria.

Newell, A. J.

2010-12-01

183

Cosmic Magnetic Fields – An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion\\u000a on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys\\u000a of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds’ staffs get at times

Richard Wielebinski; Rainer Beck

2010-01-01

184

Magnetic Pumping in Spatially Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic pumping by major-radius oscillation of a toroidal plasma can be made more practical by introducing a major-radius range within which the vertical-field gradient is sufficiently great so that major-radius perturbations are marginally stable or, be...

H. P. Furth R. A. Ellis

1972-01-01

185

Simulations of Photospheric Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have run plots of artificial data, which mimic solar magnetograms, through standard algorithms to critique several results reported in the literature. In studying correlation algorithms, we show that the differences in the profiles for the differential rotation of the photospheric magnetic field stem from different methods of averaging. We verify that the lifetimes of small magnetic features, or of

A. A. Smith; H. B. Snodgrass

1999-01-01

186

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)|

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

187

Magnetic Field Waves at Uranus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (Sw...

C. W. Smith M. L. Goldstein R. P. Lepping W. H. Mish H. K. Wong

1991-01-01

188

Thermometers in Low Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the effect of low amplitude DC magnetic fields on different types of thermometers is discussed. By means of\\u000a a precision water-cooled electromagnet, the effect of a magnetic field on platinum resistance thermometers, thermistors, and\\u000a type T, J, and K thermocouples was investigated, while thermometers were thermally stabilized in thermostatic baths. Four\\u000a different baths were used for temperatures

G. Gersak; S. Begus

2010-01-01

189

Theorem on magnet fringe field  

SciTech Connect

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b{sub n}) and skew (a{sub n}) multipoles, B{sub y} + iB{sub x} = {summation}(b{sub n} + ia{sub n})(x + iy){sup n}, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ``field integrals`` such as {bar B}L {equivalent_to} {integral} B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For {bar a}{sub n}, {bar b}{sub n}, {bar B}{sub x}, and {bar B}{sub y} defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ``standard`` approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell`s equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub {proportional_to}}{vert_bar}, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub 0}{vert_bar}, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B{sub x} from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Talman, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

1995-12-31

190

Micromagnetic calculation of magnetization reversal in magnetic rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of using patterned magnetic nanoelements in Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM) depends entirely on our ability to control accurately their switching fields. In a recent study1, we showed that micron-sized narrow rings present well defined stable states and nucleation-free switching between them. In the first part of the talk we review our experimental studies on ring magnets. Pre-patterned Si(100) substrates were used to grow free-standing epitaxial ring magnets of Cu(100)/Co(100)/Cu(100)/Si(100) with 1.8 mm outer diameter, 1.2 mm inner diameter and 34 nm thickness. The samples were magnetically characterised using specially adapted magneto-optic Kerr effect. The measurements show that a two step switching process occurs at high fields, indicating the existence of two different stable states. In addition to the vortex state, which occurs at intermediate fields, we have identified a second state which is also stable at remanence and undergoes a simple and well characterised nucleation free domain wall propagation switching process. Moreover, it is confirmed that the rings reverse by falling into vortex states with different circulation when the field is applied in opposite directions. This means a particular vortex state (clockwise or counter-clockwise) can be prepared using a uniform field only, which can be important for technological applications. In the second part of the talk we use micromagnetic simulations to further explore the potential performance of narrow rings as memory cells in MRAM devices in terms of scalability and switching speed. We introduce two artificial notches at the outer surface of the rings in order to control accurately the depinning fields for the domain walls. According to our simulations, well defined onion states1 and switching by domain wall motion can be achieved for ring diameters down 180 nm. In order to speed up the switching process, two different approaches are considered. In the first one, a field pulse is applied in the plane of the ring and perpendicular to the walls. In this case the walls are depinned effectively and magnetization reversal can be achieved in a few ns. In the second approach, the field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the ring. This field drives the system out of equilibrium and precessional motion causes the walls move around the ring. With this approach, switching times can be lowered down to 220 ps, which is very promising for implementation in MRAM devices. 1. J. Rothman, M. Kläui, L. Lopez-Diaz, C.A.F. Vaz, A. Bleloch, J.A.C. Bland, Z. Cui and R. Speaks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1098 (2001).

Lopez-Diaz, Luis

2002-03-01

191

Nonlinear Dynamics of Magnetic Buoyancy Instabilities in a Magnetic Shear Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reveal the emerging mechanism of the solar coronal magnetic loops, we investigated the influence of the magnetic shear on the magnetic buoyancy instabilities using two dimensional MHD simulations. The TVD scheme is used to calculate the MHD equations. The linear stability analysis reveals that the angle between the wavevector and the magnetic field vector at the top

K. Kusano; K. Moriyama; T. Miyoshi

1997-01-01

192

Magnetic Field Noise from High Permeability Magnetic Shields for Precision Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

High permeability magnetic shields often generate magnetic field noise that can limit the sensitivity of precision measurements. We show that calculations based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem allow evaluation of magnetic field noise, either by current or spin fluctuations, from high permeability metals and ferrites over a broad frequency range. For example, the noise spectrum of a mu-metal shield generally exhibits

S.-K. Lee; S. J. Smullin; T. W. Kornack; M. V. Romalis

2007-01-01

193

Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

2012-12-01

194

High field magnetic resonance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A magnetic resonance system is disclosed. The system includes a transceiver having a multichannel receiver and a multichannel transmitter, where each channel of the transmitter is configured for independent selection of frequency, phase, time, space, and magnitude, and each channel of the receiver is configured for independent selection of space, time, frequency, phase and gain. The system also includes a magnetic resonance coil having a plurality of current elements, with each element coupled in one to one relation with a channel of the receiver and a channel of the transmitter. The system further includes a processor coupled to the transceiver, such that the processor is configured to execute instructions to control a current in each element and to perform a non-linear algorithm to shim the coil.

2010-09-21

195

MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.  

SciTech Connect

Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

2004-10-03

196

Equivalent source mapping of lunar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) shall launch the SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) spacecraft this autumn. Amongst many instruments, it has a magnetometer (LMAG: Lunar MAGnetomter) which will measure the magnetic field on the orbit around the Moon. The nominal orbit of the SELENE is about 100km in altitudes for 1 year observation. Although the extended mission is still not determined, LMAG team is requesting a low altitude (less than 50km) observation, if the remaining fuel allows. We are preparing data processing software for the mission. Here, we report an objective scheme for mapping the lunar crustal magnetic field from the orbital measurement data of unequal altitudes. In this study, the magnetic field is restored by solving a linear inverse-problem determining the sources distributed on the lunar surface to satisfy the observational data, which is known as the equivalent source method. Our scheme has three features improving the method: First, the source calculation is performed simultaneously with detrending. Second, magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) are used as the equivalent sources. It reduces the density of the sources for the same smoothness in produced field, comparing to the dipole sauces. Third, the number of sources is taken large enough to avoid the problem of configuration of the sources, instead the damped least square assuming the strength of each charge is similar to the next one, and the smoothness factor is determined by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). It guarantees the objectivity of the calculation, in other words, there is no adjustable parameter which may depend of the researcher dealing the data analyses. For testing the scheme, we apply this method to the Lunar Prospector magnetometer data, and provide magnetic field map in the region centered at several regions of strong crustal field including the Reiner Gamma anomaly. The stability of the method and the resolution of the anomaly map are found to be satisfactory.

Toyoshima, M.; Shibuya, H.

2007-12-01

197

Surface structure of neutron stars with high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equation of state of cold dense matter in strong magnetic fields is calculated in the Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations. For use in the latter calculation, a new expression is derived for the exchange energy of the uniform electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Detailed calculations of the density profile in the surface region of a neutron star are described for a variety of equations of state, and these show that the surface density profile is strongly affected by the magnetic field, irrespective of whether or not matter in a magnetic field has a condensed state bound with respect to isolated atoms. It is also shown that, as a consequence of the field dependence of the screening potential, magnetic fields can significantly increase nuclear reaction rates.

Fushiki, I.; Gudmundsson, E. H.; Pethick, C. J.

1989-07-01

198

Surface structure of neutron stars with high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The equation of state of cold dense matter in strong magnetic fields is calculated in the Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations. For use in the latter calculation, a new expression is derived for the exchange energy of the uniform electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Detailed calculations of the density profile in the surface region of a neutron star are described for a variety of equations of state, and these show that the surface density profile is strongly affected by the magnetic field, irrespective of whether or not matter in a magnetic field has a condensed state bound with respect to isolated atoms. It is also shown that, as a consequence of the field dependence of the screening potential, magnetic fields can significantly increase nuclear reaction rates. 38 refs.

Fushiki, I.; Gudmundsson, E.H.; Pethick, C.J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA); Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik; Nordisk Institut for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark))

1989-07-01

199

Magnetic fields in neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

Viganò, Daniele

2013-09-01

200

Black holes and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact mechanism of formation of highly relativistic jets from galactic nuclei and microquasars remains unknown but most accepted models involve a central black hole and a strong external magnetic field. This idea is based on assumption that the black hole rotates and the magnetic field threads its horizon. Magnetic torques provide a link between the hole and the surrounding plasma which then becomes accelerated. We first review our work on black holes immersed in external stationary vacuum (electro)magnetic fields in both test-field approximation and within exact general-relativistic solutions. A special attention will be paid to the Meissner-type effect of the expulsion of the flux of external axisymmetric stationary fields across rotating (or charged) black holes when they approach extremal states. This is a potential threat to any electromagnetic mechanism launching the jets at the account of black-hole rotation because it inhibits the extraction of black-hole rotational energy. We show that the otherwise very useful "membrane viewpoint of black holes" advocated by Thorne, Price and Macdonald does not represent an adequate formalism in the context of the field expulsion from extreme black holes. After briefly summarizing the results for black holes in magnetic fields in higher dimensions - the expulsion of stationary axisymmetric fields was demonstrated to occur also for extremal black-hole solutions in string theory and Kaluza-Klein theory - we shall review astrophysically relevant axisymmetric numerical simulations reported recently by Gammie, Komissarov, Krolik and others. Although the field expulsion has not yet been observed in these time-dependent simulations, they may still be too far away from the extreme limit at which the black-hole Meissner effect should show up. We mention some open problems which, according to our view, deserve further investigation.

Bi?ák, Ji?í; Karas, Vladimír; Ledvinka, Tomáš

2007-04-01

201

Simulations of magnetic fields in the cosmos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of large-scale magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies remains controversial. The intergalactic magnetic field within filaments should be less polluted by magnetised outflows from active galaxies than magnetic fields in clusters. Therefore, filaments may be a better laboratory to study magnetic field amplification by structure formation than galaxy clusters, which typically host many more active galaxies. We present

M. Brüggen; M. Hoeft

2006-01-01

202

Indoor localization using magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

203

A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested an association between exposure to 50–60 Hz magnetic fields (EMF) and childhood leukaemia. We conducted a pooled analysis based on individual records from nine studies, including the most recent ones. Studies with 24\\/48-hour magnetic field measurements or calculated magnetic fields were included. We specified which data analyses we planned to do and how to do them

A Ahlbom; N Day; M Feychting; E Roman; J Skinner; J Dockerty; M Linet; M McBride; J Michaelis; J H Olsen; T Tynes; P K Verkasalo

2000-01-01

204

MAGNETIC FIELDS IN POPULATION III STAR FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32, and 64 zones per Jeans length, and study the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomenon that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

Turk, Matthew J.; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom, E-mail: matthewturk@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-02-01

205

Turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor for time-dependent mean fields.  

PubMed

We reexamine the nature of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor of mean field electrodynamics and show that the predicted growth rate of the mean field is, in general, incorrect if the tensor is calculated via consideration of time-independent mean magnetic fields. We describe how the traditional expansion procedure for the mean electromotive force should be extended to include time derivatives of the mean magnetic field, and illustrate the consistency of this approach by means of a perturbation analysis for a mean field varying on long spatial scales. Finally, we examine the magnitude of this new contribution to the magnetic diffusion for a particular flow. PMID:20366600

Hughes, David W; Proctor, Michael R E

2010-01-14

206

Tunneling in a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Quantum tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field is very sensitive to an analytical form of the potential barrier. Depending on that, the oscillatory structure of the modulus of the wave function can be formed in the direction of tunneling. Due to an underbarrier interference, the probability of tunneling through a higher barrier can be larger than through a lower one. For some barriers the quantum interference of underbarrier cyclotron paths results in a strong enhancement of tunneling. This occurs in the vicinity of the certain magnetic field and is referred to as Euclidean resonance. This strongly contrasts to the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin type tunneling which occurs with no magnetic field.

Ivlev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NanoCenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78000 Mexico

2006-05-15

207

Thermalization in external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the AdS/CFT framework meson thermalization in the presence of a constant external magnetic field in a strongly coupled gauge theory has been studied. In the gravitational description the thermalization of mesons corresponds to the horizon formation on the flavour D7-brane which is embedded in the AdS 5 × S 5 background in the probe limit. The apparent horizon forms due to the time-dependent change in the baryon number chemical potential, the injection of baryons in the gauge theory. We will numerically show that the thermalization happens even faster in the presence of the magnetic field on the probe brane. We observe that this reduction in the thermalization time sustains up to a specific value of the magnetic field.

Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Ebrahim, Hajar

2013-03-01

208

CMB anisotropies in the presence of a stochastic magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Primordial magnetic fields present since before the epoch of matter-radiation equality have an effect on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The CMB anisotropies due to scalar perturbations are calculated in the gauge-invariant formalism for magnetized adiabatic initial conditions. Furthermore, the linear matter power spectrum is calculated. Numerical solutions are complemented by a qualitative analysis.

Kunze, Kerstin E. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

2011-01-15

209

Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields and Forces in Coil Systems of Arbitrary Geometry .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program, EFFI, is described which calculates the electric and magnetic fields due to an arbitrary spatial distribution of current-carrying circular loops, circular arcs, and straight lines. The electric field is assumed to arise solely from the...

S. J. Sackett

1975-01-01

210

EFFI: A Code for Calculating the Electromagnetic Field, Force, and Inductance in Coil Systems of Arbitrary Geometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EFFI calculates the electromagnetic field and vector potential in coil systems of arbitrary geometry. The coils are made from circular arc and/or straight segments of rectangular cross-section conductor. EFFI can also calculate magnetic flux lines, magnet...

S. J. Sackett

1978-01-01

211

Complex polarization propagator calculations of magnetic circular dichroism spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that the employment of the nonlinear complex polarization propagator enables the calculation of the complete magnetic circular dichroism spectra of closed-shell molecules, including at the same time both the so-called Faraday and terms. In this approach, the differential absorption of right and left circularly polarized light in the presence of a static magnetic field is determined from the real part of the magnetic field-perturbed electric dipole polarizability. The introduction of the finite lifetimes of the electronically excited states into the theory results in response functions that are well behaved in the entire spectral region, i.e., the divergencies that are found in conventional response theory approaches at the transition energies of the system are not present. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by calculations of the ultraviolet magnetic circular dichroism spectra of para-benzoquinone, tetrachloro-para-benzoquinone, and cyclopropane. The present results are obtained with the complex polarization propagator approach in conjunction with Kohn-Sham density functional theory and the standard adiabatic density functionals B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, and BHLYP.

Solheim, Harald; Ruud, Kenneth; Coriani, Sonia; Norman, Patrick

2008-03-01

212

Photospheric Magnetic Field: Quiet Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar photosphere is the layer in which the magnetic field has been most reliably and most often measured. Zeeman- and Hanle-effect based probes have revealed many details of a rich variety of structures and dynamic processes, but the number of open and debated questions has remained large. The magnetic field in the quiet Sun has maintained a particularly large number of secrets and has been a topic of a particularly lively debate as new observations and analysis techniques have revealed new and often unexpected aspects of its organization, physical structure and origin.

Solanki, S. K.

2009-06-01

213

Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

2010-12-15

214

Hubbard U Calculations for Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on constrained density functional theory, we present ab initio calculations for the Hubbard U parameter of transition metal impurities in dilute magnetic semiconductors, by choosing Mn in GaN as an example. The calculations are performed by two methods: (i) the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function method for a single Mn impurity in GaN and (ii) the Full-potentian Linear Augmented Plane-Wave (FLAPW) method for large supercell of GaN with a single Mn impurity in each cell. By changing the occupancy of the majority t2 gap state of Mn, we determine the U parameter either from the total energy differences E(N+1) and E(N-1) of the N+1 and N-1 excited states with respect to the ground state E(n), or by using the single particle energies for N+1/2 and N-1/2 occupancies (Janak's transition state model). Both methods give nearly identical results. Moreover the values calculated by the Green function technique and the supercell method agree quite well.

Fukushima, Tetsuya

2013-03-01

215

Height variation of the magnetic field in sunspot umbrae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of investigations of the magnetic field structure in four regularly shaped sunspots. The longitudinal magnetic fields and brightness were measured in the line Fe I lambda 525.3 nm by means of the double magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. All three components of the magnetic field vector were reconstructed from the line-of-sight component. The vertical gradient of the magnetic field and beam angle of the magnetic field lines were calculated. Their values were 0.03 mT/km and 29(0) , respectively. The inference was derived that the beam angle of the magnetic lines and the vertical gradient of the magnetic field must always correspond to each other. Conclusions which follow from this result are briefly discussed.

Gopasyuk, O. S.

2001-12-01

216

Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

Sheeley, N.R., Jr. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

217

Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic

R. Cech; N. Leitgeb; M. Pediaditis

2007-01-01

218

Large-scale coronal magnetic field and density structures.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have modelled the large-scale magnetic field and density structures in the corona using the magnetostatic model of Bogdan and Low (1986) and white light images from both NASA's SMM and the High Altitude Observatory Mark III. They calculated the magnetic field, density, pressure, and temperature distribution in the corona.

Gibson, S.; Bagenal, F.

219

Effects of Magnetic Fields on the Propagation of Nuclear Flames in Magnetic White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs with masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as v ~ B -1. In media with densities of 107, 108, and 109 g cm-3, the critical magnetic fields are orders of ~1010, 1011, and 1012 G, respectively.

Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

2012-04-01

220

EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE PROPAGATION OF NUCLEAR FLAMES IN MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs with masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as v {approx} B{sup -1}. In media with densities of 10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} g cm{sup -3}, the critical magnetic fields are orders of {approx}10{sup 10}, 10{sup 11}, and 10{sup 12} G, respectively.

Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2012-04-10

221

Magnetic Field from Loops Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJSMagnetic Field from Loops model computes the B-field created by an electric current through a straight wire, a closed loop, and a solenoid. Users can adjust the vertical position of the slice through the 3D field. The Magnetic Field from Loops model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ntnu_MagneticFielfFromLoops.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for classical mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-11-17

222

FIELD CHARACTERIZATION OF XFEL QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotating coil setup for magnetic field characterization and fiducialization of XFEL quadrupole magnets is pre- sented. The instrument allows measurement of the rel- ative position of the magnetic axis with accuracy better than 1 ?m and measurement of weak magnetic error field components. Tests and evaluation based on a FLASH quadrupole magnet are presented together with a discus- sion

A. Hedqvist; H. Danared; F. Hellberg; J. Pfluger

223

EXPLORER 10 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements made by means of Explorer 10 over geocentric ; distances of 1.8 to 42.6R\\/sub e\\/ on March 25experiment on the same satellite are ; referenced in interpretations. The close-in data are consistent with the ; existence of a very weak ring current below 3R\\/sub e\\/ along the trajectory, but ; alternative explanations for the field deviations are

J. P. Heppner; N. F. Ness; C. S. Scearce; T. L. Skillman

1963-01-01

224

The somatosensory evoked magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaged magnetoencephalography (MEG) following somatosensory stimulation, somatosensory evoked magnetic field(s) (SEF), in humans are reviewed. The equivalent current dipole(s) (ECD) of the primary and the following middle-latency components of SEF following electrical stimulation within 80–100 ms are estimated in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), the posterior bank of the central sulcus, in the hemisphere contralateral to the

Ryusuke Kakigi; Minoru Hoshiyama; Motoko Shimojo; Daisuke Naka; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Shoko Watanabe; Jing Xiang; Kazuaki Maeda; Khanh Lam; Kazuya Itomi; Akinori Nakamura

2000-01-01

225

Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil have been presented. Also, the design of a self-shielded cylindrical gradient coil with a restricted length has been presented. In order to generate gradient coils adequate for head imaging without including the human shoulders in the design, asymmetric cylindrical coils in which the gradient center is shifted axially towards the end of a finite cylinder have been introduced and theoretical as well as experimental results have been presented. In order to eliminate eddy current effects in the design of the non-shielded asymmetric gradient coils, the self-shielded asymmetric cylindrical gradient coil geometry has been introduced. Continuing the development of novel geometries for the gradient coils, the complete set of self-shielded cylindrical gradient coils, which are designed such that the x component of the magnetic field varies linearly along the three traditional gradient axes, has been presented. In order to understand the behavior of the rf field inside a dielectric object, a mathematical model is briefly presented. Although specific methods can provide an indication of the rf behavior inside a loosely dielectric object, finite element methodology is the ultimate approach for modeling the human torso and generating an accurate picture for the shape of the rf field inside this dielectric object. For this purpose we have developed a 3D finite element model, using the Coulomb gauge condition as a constraint. Agreement with the heterogeneous multilayer planar model has been established, while agreement with theoretical results from the spherical model and experimental results from the cylindrical model at 170 M H z is very good and provides an encouraging sign for using this finite element approach for modeling the rf inside the human body. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Petropoulos, Labros Spiridon

226

Advances in Magnetic Field Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important milestone in the field of magnetic sensors was when AMR sensors started to replace Hall sensors in many applications where the greater sensitivity of AMRs was an advantage. GMR and SDT sensors finally found applications. We also review the development of miniaturization of fluxgate sensors and refer briefly to SQUIDs, resonant sensors, GMIs, and magnetomechanical sensors.

Pavel Ripka; Michal Janosek

2010-01-01

227

Random Field Effect in Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to explore the consequences of random field effects we have carried out a series of neutron scattering experiments on three prototypical diluted Ising magnets. The systems studied are Rb sub 2 Co sub 7 Mg sub 3 F sub 4 which is a model two dimens...

R. J. Birgeneau

1982-01-01

228

Magnetic Field Waves at Uranus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the phy...

C. W. Smith M. L. Goldstein R. P. Lepping W. H. Mish H. K. Wong

1994-01-01

229

NMR imaging in the earth's magnetic field.  

PubMed

The most important and very expensive part of a magnetic resonance imaging set-up is the magnet, which is capable of generating a constant and highly homogeneous magnetic field. Here a new MR imaging technique without the magnet is introduced. This technique uses the earth's magnetic field instead of a magnetic field created by a magnet. This new method has not yet reached the stage of medical application, but the first images obtained by MRIE (magnetic resonance imaging in the earth's field) show that the resolution is close to that expected based on sensitivity estimations. PMID:2233218

Stepisnik, J; Erzen, V; Kos, M

1990-09-01

230

Separation of magnetic field lines  

SciTech Connect

The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-11-15

231

Active Region Magnetic Fields. I. Plage Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations taken with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) in active-region plages and study the frequency distribution of the magnetic field strength (B), inclination with respect to vertical ( gamma ), azimuthal orientation ( chi ), and filling factor (f). The most common values at disk center are B = 1400 G, gamma < 10 deg, no preferred east-west orientation, and f = 15%. At disk center, there is a component of weak (<1000 G), more horizontal fields that corresponds to arching field lines connecting footpoints of different polarities. The center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the field strength shows that, close to the limb ( mu = 0.3), the field strength is reduced to 800 G from its disk-center value. This can be interpreted as a gradient of B with height in solar plages of around -3 G km-1. From this CLV study, we also deduce that magnetic field lines remain vertical for the entire range of heights involved. A similar analysis is performed for structures found in active regions that show a continuous distribution of azimuths (resembling sunspots) but that do not have a darkening in continuum. These "azimuth centers" show slightly larger values of B than normal plages, in particular at their magnetic center. Filling factors are also larger on average for these structures. The velocities in the magnetic component of active regions have been studied for both averaged Stokes profiles over the entire active region and for the spatially resolved data. The averaged profiles (more representative of high filling factor regions) do not show any significant mean velocities. However, the spatial average of Doppler velocities derived from the spatially resolved profiles (i.e., unweighted by filling factor) show a net redshift at disk center of 200 m s-1. The spatially resolved velocities show a strong dependence on filling factor. Both mean velocities and standard deviations are reduced when the filling factor increases. This is interpreted as a reduction of the p-mode amplitude within the magnetic component. Strong evidence for velocities transverse to the magnetic field lines has been found. Typical rms values are between 200 and 300 m s-1, depending on the filling factor. The possible importance of these transverse motions for the dynamics of the upper atmospheric layers is discussed. The asymmetries of the Stokes profiles and their CLV have been studied. The averaged Stokes V profiles show amplitude and area asymmetries that are positive at disk center and become negative at the limb. Both asymmetries, and for the two Fe I lines, are maximized away from disk center. The spatially resolved amplitude asymmetries show a clear dependence on filling factor: the larger the filling factor, the smaller the amplitude asymmetry. On the other hand, the area asymmetry is almost independent of the filling factor. The only observed dependence is the existence of negative area-asymmetry profiles at disk center for filling factors smaller than 0.2. Around 20% of the observed points in a given plage have negative area asymmetry. The amplitude asymmetry of Stokes V is, on the other hand, always positive. The amplitude asymmetries of the linear polarization profiles are observed to have the same sign as the Stokes V profiles. Similarly, the same CLV variation of the linear polarization amplitude asymmetries as for Stokes V has been found. The scenarios in which this similarity can exist are studied in some detail.

Martinez Pillet, V.; Lites, B. W.; Skumanich, A.

1997-01-01

232

Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.  

PubMed

This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. PMID:21393794

Nogaret, Alain

2010-06-04

233

Magnetic fields in the cosmos  

SciTech Connect

Although only a small part of available energy in the universe is invested in magnetic fields, they are responsible for most of the continual violent activity in the cosmos. There is a single, generic explanation for the ability of bodies as different as a dense, cold planet and a tenuous hot galactic disk to generate a magnetic field. The explanation, first worked out for the earth, comes from the discipline of magnetohydrodynamics. The cosmos is filled with fluids capable of carrying electric currents. The magnetic fields entrained in these fluids are stretched and folded by the fluid motion, gaining energy in the process. In other words, the turbulent fluids function as dynamos. However, the dynamo mechanism by itself cannot account for the exceptionally strong field of some stars. Because of such gaps in information, the rival hypothesis that there are primordial fields cannot be disproved. The balance of evidence, however, indicates that the planets, sun, most stars and the galaxy function as colossal dynamos. (SC)

Parker, E.N.

1983-08-01

234

Behavior of magnetic liquids in an inhomogeneous magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The authors present experimental results from the investigation of the behavior of certain magnetic liquids differeing in the degree of stability in inhomogenous magnetic fields. The growth of holding presure of sealing step at rest is reviewed and the increase of effective viscosity in inhomogeneous magnetic fields is studied. The behaviors of magnetic liquids in an inhomogeneous magnetic field are sensitive to structural changes caused by the field. Significant differences are demonstrated between magnetic liquids with the same saturation magnetization but different particle size distribution.

Anton, I.; Bika, D.; Potents, I.; Vekash, L.

1986-01-01

235

Calculating the external magnetic force on the Earth's dipole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The force exerted by the external perturbation magnetic field on the magnetic moment of a planet is related to various aspects of stress balance in the magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind. The total force applied by the solar wind must ultimately be exerted on the planet itself, which contains essentially all the mass of the entire system (the mass fraction in the Earth's magnetosphere is less than ~ 10-20 of the total). The force is transmitted through the magnetosphere primarily (and near the planet almost exclusively) by the magnetic field. In the simplest approximation (Siscoe, 1966), the force is applied directly as the gradient of the external perturbation field at the dipole. More recently (Siscoe and Siebert, 2006; Vasyliunas, 2007), it has been recognized that coupling by Birkeland currents between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere allows the external force to be transmitted also as a J × B-c force in the ionosphere; further transmission to the planet itself then has to proceed as a mechanical stress. Because of the converging dipole field, the force in the ionosphere is greatly amplified and much stronger than the initially imposed force from the magnetosphere or solar wind, an effect sometimes described as the mechanical advantage of the magnetosphere (Vasyliunas, 2007). Empirical estimates of the force thus provide a sensitive (albeit indirect and imprecise) indicator of stresses in the outer magnetosphere, as well as a direct measure of the global input of linear momentum into the atmosphere. The total magnetic force on the planet can be calculated from measurements of magnetic perturbations by integrating the Maxwell stress tensor over the surface. I derive the formula for the three vector components of the force in terms of the conventional geomagnetic quantities, integrated over latitude and longitude with appropriate weighting factors (which are not always intuitively obvious and in some cases reverse sign between low and high latitudes).

Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.

2010-05-01

236

Three-dimensional computation of magnetic fields and Lorentz forces of an LHC dipole magnet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic fields and Lorentz forces of an LHC dipole magnet are calculated using the method of image currents to represent the effect of the iron shield. The calculation is performed for coils of finite length using a parametrization for coil heads of cons...

C. Daum D. Avest

1989-01-01

237

Cryogenic magnet case and distributed structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting magnets of the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II) will generate high magnetic fields over large bores. The resulting electromagnetic forces require the use of large volumes of distributed steel and thick magnet case for structural support. Here we review the design allowables, calculated loads and forces, and structural materials selection for TIBER II. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.; Myall, J.O.

1987-10-09

238

A magnetic field model for wigglers and undulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in applications of wiggler magnets in storage rings has motivated efforts to incorporate their effects in calculations of beam dynamics. This paper presents an analytic model of wiggler fields that can be used with symplectic integration to evaluate such effects. Coefficients needed by the model are generated by fitting to the results of a finite-element field calculation. The

D. Sagan; J. A. Crittenden; D. Rubin; E. Forest

2003-01-01

239

SQUID-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Microtesla Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe studies of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liquid samples at room temperature in microtesla magnetic fields. The nuclear spins are prepolarized in a strong transient field. The magnetic signals generated by the precessing spins, which range in frequency from tens of Hz to several kHz, are detected by a low-transition temperature dc

R. McDermott; N. Kelso; S. K. Lee; M. MöBetale; M. Mück; W. Myers; B. ten Haken; H. C. Seton; A. H. Trabesinger; A. Pines; J. Clarke

2004-01-01

240

Two dimensional frustrated magnets in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frustrated magnets in high magnetic field have a long history of offering beautiful surprises to the patient investigator. Here we present the results of extensive classical Monte Carlo simulations of a variety of models of two dimensional magnets in magnetic field, together with complementary spin wave analysis. Striking results include (i) a massively enhanced magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnets bordering on

L. Seabra; N. Shannon; P. Sindzingre; T. Momoi; B. Schmidt; P. Thalmeier

2009-01-01

241

Fluctuation conductivity of disordered superconductors in magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate fluctuation corrections to the longitudinal conductivity of disordered superconductors subject to an external magnetic field. We derive analytic expressions that are valid in the entire metallic part of the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram as long as the effect of the magnetic field on the spin degrees of freedom of the electrons may be neglected. Our calculations are based on a kinetic equation approach. For the special case of superconducting films and wires in parallel magnetic fields, we perform a detailed comparison with results that were previously obtained with diagrammatic perturbation theory in the imaginary-time formalism. As an application, we study the fluctuation conductivity of films in tilted magnetic fields with a special focus on the low-temperature regime. We present a detailed discussion of the phenomenon of the nonmonotonic magnetoresistance and find that it displays a pronounced dependence on the tilting angle.

Tarasinski, Brian; Schwiete, Georg

2013-07-01

242

The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

2009-05-01

243

Modeling of magnetic field driven simultaneous assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnetic Field Driven Simultaneous Assembly (MFDSA) is a method that offers a non-statistical and deterministic solution to the problem of assembly via batch processing; a hybrid of serial and parallel processing. The technique requires the use of electromagnets as well as soft and hard magnetic materials that are applied to devices and recesses respectively. The MFDSA approach offers the ability to check and correct errors in real-time and is capable of scalable, versatile, and high-yield integration. Devices, coated with a layer of soft magnetic material, are moved from initial to final positions along predetermined pathways through the action of an array of electromagnets. Various devices, of arbitrary geometries, with different physical and functional properties, are manipulated simultaneously toward specific desired locations and then dropped onto a template under the influence of gravity by weakening the local applied field. Locations on the template correspond to sites on a substrate that contain recesses. When a number of devices have been dropped onto the template, a substrate is pressed onto it and the soft magnetic layers on the devices adhere to the hard magnetic strips in the recesses, completing integration in a single step. The objectives of this dissertation are the following: to present the MFDSA method; comparing and contrasting it with other extant techniques employed by the semiconductor industry; to discuss key aspects of this solution with respect to the problem of assembly, and to model the calculations involved with determining both device pathways and field interactions that are required to implement the approach. The Fourier Series technique will be used to describe the force of attraction between the device's soft magnetic layer and the recess's hard magnetic strips. Methodology from finite element analysis will be employed to calculate the force exerted on a device by an array of electromagnets. The Swarm Algorithm, which was developed in this work to calculate device pathways, will be presented as a stable, well-defined solution. Other concepts, such as the magnetic retention factor and the collision cross-section area, will be presented and developed. The solution to the problem of assembly, via the Swarm Algorithm, will be compared and contrasted with other analogous problems found in the literature. The results of these models, including software implementation, will be presented.

Rivero, Rene David

244

Self-Diffusion Imaging by Spin Echo in Earth's Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NMR of the Earth's magnetic field is used for diffusion-weighted imaging of phantoms. Due to a weak Larmor field, care needs to be taken regarding the use of the usual high field assumption in calculating the effect of the applied inhomogeneous magnetic field. The usual definition of the magnetic field gradient must be replaced by a generalized formula valid

Aleš Mohori?; Janez Stepisnik; Miha Kos; Gorazd Planinsic

1999-01-01

245

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets. II. Specific models and radiative processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors previously calculated magnetic fields produced in axisymmetric charged particle beams (jets) in which electrons (electrons and positrons) have drift velocities with respect to protons. In the present paper numerical solutions are compared with Bessel function and helical magnetic field solutions. Magnetic fields are calculated within mildly relativistic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic jets interacting with the 2.7 K background radiation.

William K. Rose

1989-01-01

246

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets. II - Specific models and radiative processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors previously calculated magnetic fields produced in axisymmetric charged particle beams (jets) in which electrons (electrons and positrons) have drift velocities with respect to protons. In the present paper numerical solutions are compared with Bessel function and helical magnetic field solutions. Magnetic fields are calculated within mildly relativistic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic jets interacting with the 2.7 K background radiation.

William K. Rose

1989-01-01

247

Radiative transfer in very strong magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the cooling of neutron stars has been undertaken by many researchers in the past twenty-five years, but this study has been made difficult by the inherent theoretical and observational uncertainties; most observations of their thermal X-ray flux have yielded only upper limits. More sensitive satellites such as ROSAT and AXAF may provide more positive flux information, and it is important to know how to interpret these data in terms of surface temperature. One of the most important factors in this interpretation is the effect of the surface magnetic field.Young neutron stars are believed to have extremely strong magnetic fields, on the order of 10(12)G. These fields dominate the physics of the atmosphere. In particular, atoms in the atmospheres of neutron stars have much greater binding energies than in the zero-field case, and they are constrained to move along the field lines. We use a multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock code, modified for very strong magnetic fields, to calculate wavefunctions, energies and oscillator strengths for several atoms in representative values of the magnetic field.We then use these simulations to construct model atmospheres for neutron stars. Because of the low mass necessary for optical depth unity in the soft X-rays (typically [...]) and because of the short time scale for gravitational separation (~ 1 - 100s), the photosphere is likely to consist of a pure element. Numerous processes could cause many elements to be important, so we investigate atmospheres consisting of pure hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen and silicon in magnetic fields of 9.4 x 10(11)G, 2.35 x 10(12)G, and 4.7 x 10(12)G.We also use the high-field energies to investigate soft X-ray lines in gamma-ray bursts. Highly ionized elements could create absorption lines in the 1-15keV range, and the identification of such lines in conjunction with cyclotron lines would determine the magnetic field and gravitational redshift on the surface of the star, which would provide clues to the equation of state on the interior. We conclude with a discussion of the prospect of identifying these lines with future satellites.

Miller, Michael Coleman

248

Calculation of electromagnetic forces for magnet wheels  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of magnet wheels for magnetic levitation and linear drives are investigated by using a three-dimensional computer simulation. Magnet wheels levitate by revolving permanent magnets over a conducting plate, in which the eddy currents are induced. The thrust is also produced by making the torque unbalance. This paper deals with the ``partial overlap type`` magnet wheels, producing the lift force and the thrust. The magnetic flux density and eddy currents are examined for the 4-pole and the 2-pole structures.

Ogawa, Kokichi; Horiuchi, Yoko [Oita Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Production Systems Engineering; Fujii, Nobuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Systems Engineering

1997-03-01

249

Magnetic Anisotropy and the Orientation of Retinal Rods in a Homogeneous Magnetic Field  

PubMed Central

The reported orientation of retinal rods in a homogeneous magnetic field can be explained by the magnetic anisotropy of oriented molecules in the disc membranes of the rods. The energy of a single rod as a function of orientation in the magnetic field, the time required for alingment of the rod in a viscous medium, and the fluctuations of orientation are calculated. Arguments that rhodopsin is the constituent responsible for the effect are given. The possibility of orientation due to inhomogeneity of the magnetic field is ruled out. The application of magnetic anisotropy as an experimental tool in biology is indicated.

Hong, Felix T.; Mauzerall, David; Mauro, Alexander

1971-01-01

250

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes both the setup and the use of a system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Earth's magnetic field. Phase instability caused by temporal fluctuations of Earth's field can be successfully improved by using a reference signal from a separate Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer\\/magnetometer. In imaging, it is important to correctly determine the phase

Ales Mohoric; Gorazd Planinsic; Miha Kos; Andrej Duh; Janez Stepisnik

2004-01-01

251

Thermal origin of neutron star magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors summarize and extend the analysis of thermoelectric phenomena in degenerate stars due to Urpin and Yakovlev (1980) and calculate necessary conditions for field generation. A linearized calculation of the growth of the field in the solid crust is given, which demonstrates that small seed fields can grow exponentially for sufficiently large heat fluxes. Non-linear growth of the field in the liquid is described. If the field strength can grow to ?1011 G, the electron gyrofrequency will exceed the collision frequency and the field growth in the solid will enter the non-linear phase. The Hall effect will lead to rapid convection of magnetic flux and the creation of progressively larger scale structure, perhaps resulting in the establishment of an axisymmetric field geometry. In the absence of external heat sources, the interior of the star will cool and the field will decay. The authors outline some of the observational consequences of this theory for pulsars, binary X-ray sources, X- and ?-ray bursters and white dwarfs.

Blandford, R. D.; Applegate, J. H.; Hernquist, L.

1983-09-01

252

Magnetic field of atrial depolarization.  

PubMed

The isomagnetic maps of normal subjects and patients with right and left atrial overloading were recorded to determine the characteristic features of the magnetic field of atrial depolarization. The isomagnetic maps examined in this study indicated the instantaneous current source, which specifically localizes the current sources due to the right and left atria, respectively. The magnetic field recorded with a second derivative gradiometer clearly detected the cardiac current source from the right atrium, which is located close to the anterior chest wall, thus this method improved the diagnostic sensitivity for right atrial overloading. In patients with left atrial overloading, the isomagnetic map showed multiple dipoles due to the right and left atria, respectively, which are difficult to be detected by the electrocardiogram or isopotential map. These results suggest that the magnetocardiogram provides useful information on the current source to supplement information obtained by the conventional electrocardiogram. PMID:2978585

Takeuchi, A; Watanabe, K; Katayama, M; Nomura, M; Nakaya, Y; Mori, H

253

Low-frequency fluctuations in plasma magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that even a non-magnetized plasma with temperature T sustains zero-frequency magnetic fluctuations in thermal equilibrium. Fluctuations in electric and magnetic fields, as well as in densities, are computed. Four cases are studied: a cold, gaseous, isotropic, non-magnetized plasma; a cold, gaseous plasma in a uniform magnetic field; a warm, gaseous plasma described by kinetic theory; and a degenerate electron plasma. For the simple gaseous plasma, the fluctuation strength of the magnetic field as a function of frequency and wavenumber is calculated with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This calculation is done for both collisional and collisionless plasmas. The magnetic field fluctuation spectrum of each plasma has a large zero-frequency peak. The peak is a Dirac {delta}-function in the collisionless plasma; it is broadened into a Lorentzian curve in the collisional plasma. The plasma causes a low frequency cutoff in the typical black-body radiation spectrum, and the energy under the discovered peak approximates the energy lost in this cutoff. When the imposed magnetic field is weak, the magnetic field were vector fluctuation spectra of the two lowest modes are independent of the strength of the imposed field. Further, these modes contain finite energy even when the imposed field is zero. It is the energy of these modes which forms the non-magnetized zero-frequency peak of the isotropic plasma. In deriving these results, a simple relationship between the dispersion relation and the fluctuation power spectrum of electromagnetic waves if found. The warm plasma is shown, by kinetic theory, to exhibit a zero-frequency peak in its magnetic field fluctuation spectrum as well. For the degenerate plasma, we find that electric field fluctuations and number density fluctuations vanish at zero frequency; however, the magnetic field power spectrum diverges at zero frequency.

Cable, S.; Tajima, T.

1992-02-01

254

Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to Magnetic Molecules  

SciTech Connect

We have calculated the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg spin systems using a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. We have used some of these systems as models to describe recently synthesized magnetic molecules, and-upon comparing the results of these calculations with experimental data-have obtained accurate estimates for the basic parameters of these models. We have also performed calculations for other systems that are of more general interest, being relevant both for existing experimental data and for future experiments. Utilizing the concept of importance sampling, these calculations can be carried out in an arbitrarily large quantum Hilbert space, while still avoiding any approximations that would introduce systematic errors. The only errors are statistical in nature, and as such, their magnitudes are accurately estimated during the course of a simulation. Frustrated spin systems present a major challenge to the QMC method, nevertheless, in many instances progress can be made. In this chapter, the field of magnetic molecules is introduced, paying particular attention to the characteristics that distinguish magnetic molecules from other systems that are studied in condensed matter physics. We briefly outline the typical path by which we learn about magnetic molecules, which requires a close relationship between experiments and theoretical calculations. The typical experiments are introduced here, while the theoretical methods are discussed in the next chapter. Each of these theoretical methods has a considerable limitation, also described in Chapter 2, which together serve to motivate the present work. As is shown throughout the later chapters, the present QMC method is often able to provide useful information where other methods fail. In Chapter 3, the use of Monte Carlo methods in statistical physics is reviewed, building up the fundamental ideas that are necessary in order to understand the method that has been used in this work. With these ideas in hand, we then provide a detailed explanation of the current QMC method in Chapter 4. The remainder of the thesis is devoted to presenting specific results: Chapters 5 and 6 contain articles in which this method has been used to answer general questions that are relevant to broad classes of systems. Then, in Chapter 7, we provide an analysis of four different species of magnetic molecules that have recently been synthesized and studied. In all cases, comparisons between QMC calculations and experimental data allow us to distinguish a viable microscopic model and make predictions for future experiments. In Chapter 8, the infamous ''negative sign problem'' is described in detail, and we clearly indicate the limitations on QMC that are imposed by this obstacle. Finally, Chapter 9 contains a summary of the present work and the expected directions for future research.

Larry Engelhardt

2006-08-09

255

Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

1999-06-24

256

Studies on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spatiotemporal patterns of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields to stimulation of upper and lower limb nerves were examined in healthy humans. The studies summarized here provide the first magnetic field maps over the primary foot projection area after li...

J. Huttunen

1987-01-01

257

Luminescence in applied magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal complexes and solids were synthesized and subjected to photoexcitation measurements under the influence of externally applied magnetic fields. The photoluminescence of complexes of rhodium (I) and iridium (I) displayed both field induced emission bands and a many fold shortening of the excited state lifetime. Both the decay rates and the induced emission band intensities showed a quadratic dependence on the applied field. A several fold shortening of the phosphorescence from the octaphosphitoplatinum (II) anion under an applied field (50 T) was also observed. Spectroscopic studies of several bis (N-heterocyclic) complexes of copper (I) were also concluded and complete group theoretic assignments of the charge transfer excited states were made. The technique of Thermal Modulation was perfected and applied to the study of the exited states of transition metal complexes with near degenerate emitting states.

Crosby, G. A.

1989-08-01

258

Magnetic-Field-Induced Electric Polarization in Multiferroic Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic-field-induced electric polarization in nanostructured multiferroic composite films was studied by using the Green’s function approach. The calculations showed that large magnetic-field-induced polarization could be produced in multiferroic nanostructures due to enhanced elastic coupling interaction. Especially, the 1-3 type films with ferromagnetic nanopillars embedded in a ferroelectric matrix exhibited large magnetic-field-induced polarization responses, while the 2-2 type films with ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanolaminates showed much weaker magnetoelectric coupling and lower magnetic induced polarization due to large in-plane constraint effect, which was in agreement with the recent observations.

Nan, Ce-Wen; Liu, Gang; Lin, Yuanhua; Chen, Haydn

2005-05-01

259

Simulations of Photospheric Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have run plots of artificial data, which mimic solar magnetograms, through standard algorithms to critique several results reported in the literature. In studying correlation algorithms, we show that the differences in the profiles for the differential rotation of the photospheric magnetic field stem from different methods of averaging. We verify that the lifetimes of small magnetic features, or of small patterns of these features in the large-scale background field, are on the order of months, rather than a few days. We also show that a meridional flow which is cycle dependent creates an artifact in the correlation-determined magnetic rotation which looks like a torsional oscillation; and we compare this artifact to the torsional patterns that have been reported. Finally, we simulate the time development of a large-scale background field created solely from an input of artifical, finite-lifetime 'sunspot' bipoles. In this simulation, we separately examine the effects of differential rotation, meridional flow and Brownian motion (random walk, which we use rather than diffusion), and the inclination angles of the sunspot bipoles (Joy's law). We find, concurring with surface transport equation models, that a critical factor for producing the patterns seen on the Sun is the inclination angle of the bipolar active regions. This work was supported by NSF grant 9416999.

Smith, A. A.; Snodgrass, H. B.

1999-05-01

260

Diffusion of Magnetic Field Lines in Astrophysically-Relevant Stochastic Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple analytic model in which the KS-entropy for the exponential divergence of two neighboring field lines of an astrophysically-relevant stochastic magnetic field can be estimated. We treat the problem as a diffusive (random-walk) process describable by a Fokker-Planck equation and approximated by the standard nonlinear map. For Kolmogorov-like turbulence, we find that the field lines exhibit a non-Gaussian (or anomalous) diffusion for weak to moderate turbulence strength, consistent with a recent MHD numerical calculation(Zimbardo, G., et al. (1995), Phys. Plasmas 2), 2653., but in sharp contrast with simple quasilinear predictions. For moderate to strong turbulence, however, both our model and the numerical MHD study support such predictions in that the field lines appear to follow a Gaussian-like diffusion. Brief description of the model as well as implications to transport mechanisms of charged particles across turbulent magnetic fields will be presented.

Barghouty, A. F.; Jokipii, J. R.

1996-05-01

261

Field Concentrator Based Resonant Magnetic Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel resonant magnetic sensor based on the combination of a mechanical resonator and a magnetic field concentrator with two gaps is reported. In contrast to previous Lorentz force based resonant magnetic sensors, a high sensitivity is achieved without modulated driving current and complex feedback electronics. Furthermore, compared to magnetic moment based resonant magnetic sensors, the new concept requires no

S. Brugger; P. Simon; O. Paul

2006-01-01

262

Estimation of ionospheric electric fields, ionospheric currents, and field-aligned currents from ground magnetic records  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate method of separating the effects of ionospheric currents from those of field-aligned currents in ground magnetic perturbations observed in high latitudes is developed. The distribution of ionospheric electric fields can also be estimated. The procedure includes the following steps: (1) the calculation of the equivalent ionospheric current function on the basis of magnetic H and D component records

Y. Kamide; A. D. Richmond; S. Matsushita

1981-01-01

263

Color Superconducting Matter in a Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on cold dense quark matter using an effective model with four-Fermi interactions. We find that the gap parameters representing the predominant pairing between the different quark flavors show oscillatory behavior as a function of the magnetic field. We point out that due to electric and color neutrality constraints the magnetic fields as strong as presumably existing inside magnetars might induce significant deviations from the gap structure at a zero magnetic field.

Fukushima, Kenji [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Warringa, Harmen J. [Department of Physics, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2008-01-25

264

Opposed coil magnet calculations for large sample and unilateral nuclear-magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

A magnet configuration has been devised, consisting of two nested coaxial coils with the current in the inner coil circulating in an opposite sense from that in the outer coil. The magnetic field generated by such an opposed pair exhibits a small region of homogeneity outside of the magnet itself, creating the possibility of constructing a unilateral nuclear-magnetic-resonance device capable of examining an object from only one side. Calculations on one special case, the inside-out Helmholtz configuration, indicate a volume of 10 cm/sup 3/ with homogeneity of +- 1% for a coil of outer radius 10 cm, and 0.1 cm/sup 3/ with 100-ppm homogeneity. A second special case, consisting of two sets of opposed solenoids arranged in a quasi-Helmholtz manner, offers homogeneity comparable to a conventional Helmholtz pair of similar diameter but with an increase in separation of as much as a factor of 2.

Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.; Fukushima, E.

1985-03-01

265

Absolute negative conductivity of graphene with impurities in magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Current-voltage and current-field characteristics for graphene with Anderson interaction of conduction and impurity electrons are calculated by the 'average electron' method in the case of low temperatures. These characteristics are analyzed depending on the frequency of an external ac electric field and a magnetic field. A portion with absolute negative conductivity is detected.

Belonenko, M. B. [Volgograd Institute of Business, Laboratory of Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Lebedev, N. G.; Yanyushkina, N. N., E-mail: yana@inbox.ru [Volgograd State University (Russian Federation); Shakirzyanov, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Zavoisky Physicotechnical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

266

Influence of nonuniform magnetic field on a ferrite junction circulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analytically formulated the problem that a ferrite circulator junction is biased by a nonuniform magnetic field. Interport impedances of the junction can, therefore, be solved numerically. Nonuniform-bias field will reduce the transmission bandwidth, and the circulation condition is apt to be altered if the bias field shows nonuniformity near the center of the junction. Our calculation compares very

H. How; S. A. Oliver; S. W. McKnight; P. M. Zavracky; N. E. McGruer; C. Vittoria; R. Schmidt

1999-01-01

267

Numerical Simulation In Magnetic Drug Targeting. Magnetic Field Source Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents numerical simulation model and results on magnetic drug targeting therapy. The study aims at investigating\\u000a the aggregate blood - magnetic carrier flow interaction with an external magnetic field. Another objective was finding the\\u000a optimal magnetic field source configuration that provides for flows that best assist in magnetic drug targeting. In order\\u000a to evaluate the effects we used

A. Dobre; A. M. Morega

268

Magnetic field gradient measurement on magnetic cards using magnetic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field gradients of magnetic stripe cards, which are developed for classifying magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspections, have been measured using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The magnetic force exerted on a MFM probe by the stray field emanating from the card was measured to determine the field gradients. The results are in good agreement with the field gradients estimated from the magnetizing field strengths used in the encoding process. .

Lo, C. C. H.; Leib, J.; Jiles, D. C.; Chedister, W. C.

2002-05-01

269

Magnetic fields in the early Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review concerns the origin and the possible effects of magnetic fields in the early Universe. We start by providing the reader with a short overview of the current state of the art of observations of cosmic magnetic fields. We then illustrate the arguments in favor of a primordial origin of magnetic fields in the galaxies and in the clusters

Dario Grasso; Hector R. Rubinstein

2001-01-01

270

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data  

SciTech Connect

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2010-10-15

271

Penetration of plasma across a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility to investigate the plasma penetration across an externally applied magnetic field. In experiment, a short-pulse laser ablates a polyethylene laser target, producing a plasma which interacts with an external magnetic field. The mechanism which allows the plasma to penetrate the applied magnetic field in experiment will be discussed.

Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Neff, S.; Haboub, A.

2009-08-01

272

Magnetic field reversals in the Milky Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies have tremendously enhanced our knowledge of their global magnetic field distributions. Recent theoretical developments in the area of dynamos have also helped in the interpretation of magnetic field data in spiral galaxies. When it comes to the magnetic field in the Milky Way galaxy, our position in the Milky Way's galactic disk hinders our

J. P. Vallee

1996-01-01

273

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina; Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Ratra, Bharat

2010-10-01

274

TUBE88 - A code which computes magnetic field lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TUBE88 computes magnetic field lines in cylindrical or toroidal geometry (using cylindrical coordinates (r, ?, z)) and calculates the intersections of those field lines with specified planes. It is an outgrowth of a code first written in 1967. A fourth-order predictor-corrector method is used to integrate the field line coordinates. The magnetic field may be computed in several ways: (a) through specification of currents flowing in very specific helical and circular elements together with a ``1/r'' field and a vertical field, (b) as a Fourier series in the angular variale or (c) in a specific coordinate system suited to a toroidally helical domain. Extensive graphics are provided for users of the Cray Time-Sharing System (CTSS). Applications of the code have included analysis of vacuum magnetic field configurations and post processing magnetic field data produced by MHD codes, for example. Current address: Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA.

Mirin, A. A.; Martin, D. R.; O'Neill, N. J.

1989-04-01

275

A variable-field permanent-magnet dipole for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole has been developed and fabricated at Los Alamos. The application requires an extremely uniform dipole field in the magnet aperture and precision variability over a large operating range. An iron-core permanent- magnet design using a shunt that was specially shaped to vary the field in a precise and reproducible fashion with shunt position. The key to this design is in the shape of the shunt. The field as a function of shunt position is very linear from 90% of the maximum field to 20% of the minimum field. The shaped shunt also results in a small maximum magnetic force attracting the shunt to the yoke allowing a simple mechanical design. Calculated and measured results agree well for the magnet.

Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Barlow, D.B.; Meyer, R.

1992-01-01

276

A variable-field permanent-magnet dipole for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole has been developed and fabricated at Los Alamos. The application requires an extremely uniform dipole field in the magnet aperture and precision variability over a large operating range. An iron-core permanent- magnet design using a shunt that was specially shaped to vary the field in a precise and reproducible fashion with shunt position. The key to this design is in the shape of the shunt. The field as a function of shunt position is very linear from 90% of the maximum field to 20% of the minimum field. The shaped shunt also results in a small maximum magnetic force attracting the shunt to the yoke allowing a simple mechanical design. Calculated and measured results agree well for the magnet.

Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Barlow, D.B.; Meyer, R.

1992-09-01

277

Magnetic monopoles in 4D: a perturbative calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the question of defining the second quantised monopole creation operator in the 3+1 dimensional Georgi-Glashow model, and calculating its expectation value in the confining phase. Our calculation is performed directly in the continuum theory within the framework of perturbation theory. We find that, although it is possible to define the \\lq\\lq coherent state" operator M(x) that creates the Coulomb magnetic field, the dependence of this operator on the Dirac string does not disappear even in the nonabelian theory. This is due to the presence of the charged fields (W±). We also set up the calculation of the expectation value of this operator in the confining phase and show that it is not singular along the Dirac string. We find that in the leading order of the perturbation theory the VEV vanishes as a power of the volume of the system. This is in accordance with our naive expectation. We expect that nonperturbative effects will introduce an effective infrared cutoff on the calculation making the VEV finite.

Khvedelidze, Arsen; McMullan, David; Kovner, Alex

2006-01-01

278

Model of a magnetic field in poloidal divertor tokamaks affected by resonant magnetic perturbations  

SciTech Connect

A generic analytical model for the description of magnetic field lines in poloidal divertor tokamaks in the presence of external resonant magnetic perturbations is proposed. It is based on the Hamiltonian description of magnetic field lines in tokamaks. The safety factor and the spectra of magnetic perturbations are chosen by the requirement to satisfy their generic behavior near the magnetic separatrix and at the magnetic axis. The field line equations of the model are integrated using symplectic efficient mappings of field lines. The analytical formulas for the quasilinear diffusion and convection coefficients of field lines are obtained. The latter describes the outwardly directed transport of field lines at the plasma edge. It was shown that they are in a good agreement with the corresponding numerically calculated coefficients.

Abdullaev, S. S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute of Energy Research IEF-4: Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2009-03-15

279

Analysis of Electric Field Induced by ELF Magnetic Field Utilizing Generalized Equivalent Multipole-Moment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a generalized equivalent multipole-moment method for calculating three-dimensional Laplacian fields in multi-spherical system. The Greengard & Rokhlin's M2M, M2L, and L2L formulae enable the multipole-moment method to calculate the fields in general arrangement of multi-spheres, which involve exclusive and multi-layered spherical arrangement. We applied this method to electric field calculation in biological structures induced by ELF magnetic fields. The induced electric fields in a three eccentric and exclusive spheres system, which models human head with two eyeballs, are calculated under the application of homogeneous and magnetic-dipole fields. The validity of this method is successfully confirmed by comparing the calculated fields with those by the fast-multipole surface-charge-simulation method.

Hamada, Shoji; Yamamoto, Osamu; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

280

High-Energy Electromagnetic Conversion Processes in Intense Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

General characteristics of magnetic bremsstrahlung (synchrotron radiation) are derived on the basis of calculations utilizing exact relativistic matrix elements. The spectral and total energy losses may be described by compact expressions incorporating radiative and quantum corrections. Comparisons of the relative efficacy of matter and magnetic fields as bremsstrahlung radiators indicate that even under relatively conservative conditions the natural conversion rates

Thomas Erber

1966-01-01

281

Analysis of Electric Field Induced by ELF Magnetic Field Utilizing Generalized Equivalent Multipole-Moment Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized equivalent multipole-moment method for calculating three-dimensional Laplacian fields in multi-spherical system. The Greengard & Rokhlin's M2M, M2L, and L2L formulae enable the multipole-moment method to calculate the fields in general arrangement of multi-spheres, which involve exclusive and multi-layered spherical arrangement. We applied this method to electric field calculation in biological structures induced by ELF magnetic

Shoji Hamada; Osamu Yamamoto; Tetsuo Kobayashi

2005-01-01

282

Crustal Magnetic Fields of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field measurements are very valuable, as they provide constraints on the interior of the telluric planets and Moon. The Earth possesses a planetary scale magnetic field, generated in the conductive and convective outer core. This global magnetic field is superimposed on the magnetic field generated by the rocks of the crust, of induced (i.e. aligned on the current main field) or remanent (i.e. aligned on the past magnetic field). The crustal magnetic field on the Earth is very small scale, reflecting the processes (internal or external) that shaped the Earth. At spacecraft altitude, it reaches an amplitude of about 20 nT. Mars, on the contrary, lacks today a magnetic field of core origin. Instead, there is only a remanent magnetic field, which is one to two orders of magnitude larger than the terrestrial one at spacecraft altitude. The heterogeneous distribution of the Martian magnetic anomalies reflects the processes that built the Martian crust, dominated by igneous and cratering processes. These latter processes seem to be the driving ones in building the lunar magnetic field. As Mars, the Moon has no core-generated magnetic field. Crustal magnetic features are very weak, reaching only 30 nT at 30-km altitude. Their distribution is heterogeneous too, but the most intense anomalies are located at the antipodes of the largest impact basins. The picture is completed with Mercury, which seems to possess an Earth-like, global magnetic field, which however is weaker than expected. Magnetic exploration of Mercury is underway, and will possibly allow the Hermean crustal field to be characterized. This paper presents recent advances in our understanding and interpretation of the crustal magnetic field of the telluric planets and Moon.

Langlais, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Purucker, Michael E.; Connerney, Jack E. P.; Mandea, Mioara

2010-05-01

283

Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for pulsed high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields is described. The magnetic field pulses created together with various magnet coils determine the requirements such an apparatus has to fulfill to be operated successfully in pulsed fields. Independent of the chosen coil it is desirable to operate the entire experiment at the highest possible bandwidth such that a correspondingly large temporal fraction of the magnetic field pulse can be used to probe a given sample. Our apparatus offers a bandwidth of up to 20 MHz and has been tested successfully at the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden, even in a very fast dual coil magnet that has produced a peak field of 94.2 T. Using a medium-sized single coil with a significantly slower dependence, it is possible to perform advanced multi-pulse nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. As an example we discuss a Carr-Purcell spin echo sequence at a field of 62 T.

Meier, Benno; Kohlrautz, Jonas; Haase, Jürgen; Braun, Marco; Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Kampert, Erik; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Wosnitza, Joachim

2012-08-01

284

Calculation Method of Permanent-Magnet Pickups for Electric Guitars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first presents the structures of permanent-magnet pickups for electric guitar and the considered device: string, magnet, coil. It then describes a method to calculate the induced electromotive force (EMF) in the pickup coil when the string moves. The method of calculation links the EMF in the pickup coil with the flux cut by the string when it moves.

G.. Lemarquand; V.. Lemarquand

2007-01-01

285

Nucleation field of a soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed both one-dimensional variational and two-dimensional numerical calculations of the magnetic curling structure near the ends of soft magnetic nanotubes whose axes are magnetically favored, and compared the two. The variational calculation is based on the observation that the numerical simulation results for ending curling structure are similar to those for head-to-head domain walls. Except for magnetic fields opposing the average magnetization and larger than a critical value, the wall centers are outside the tube, and there is an appreciable energy barrier against penetration of the tube by the wall. The two calculations are in reasonable agreement for a range of tube dimensions and material parameters. Both predict critical fields lower than those for infinite tubes.

Usov, N. A.; Chen, A. P.; Zhukov, A.; González, J.

2008-10-01

286

The Influence of Pulsed Magnet Heating on Maximal Value of Generated Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of pulsed magnet heating on the maximal value of the generated magnetic field is described. The operation of pulsed generator consisting of a capacitor bank, thyristor switch and wire wound pulsed inductor was analysed. The maximum value of the generated magnetic field and pulse duration of pulsed magnet was limited by Joule heating and mechanical stresses. Using Matlab® Simulink® software, a flexible model for simulation of thermodynamic processes in pulsed magnet was developed. The calculated results of the maximal value and distribution of magnetic field were verified experimentally and acceptable compliance was achieved using calibrated array of four pick up inductive coils for measurements of axial magnetic field and a current shunt for pulsed current measurements.

Bartkevi?ius, S.; Novickij, J.

2008-01-01

287

Methods for calculating the electromagnetic fields from a known source distribution - Application to lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different techniques (monopole and dipole) for calculating the electric and magnetic fields from a distribution of currents and charges are discussed. Both techniques have been used for calculating the fields from lightning. A simple return-stroke current model, consisting of a square current pulse traveling up a vertical antenna above a ground plane, is used to compare the two techniques.

Marcos Rubinstein; Martin A. Uman

1989-01-01

288

Near Field Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots Under Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the basic steps for the study of the linear near field absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots under magnetic field of variable orientation. We show that the application of the magnetic field alone is sufficient to induce -increasing the spot illuminated by the near field probe- interesting features to the absorption spectra.

Anna Zora; Constantinos Simserides; Georgios Triberis

2005-01-01

289

Near Field Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots Under Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the basic steps for the study of the linear near field absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots under magnetic field of variable orientation. We show that the application of the magnetic field alone is sufficient to induce -increasing the spot illuminated by the near field probe- interesting features to the absorption spectra.

Anna Zora; Constantinos Simserides; Georgios Triberis

2004-01-01

290

First-principles calculations of magnetic circular dichroism spectra.  

PubMed

An elaborate approach for the prediction of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the framework of highly correlated multiconfigurational ab initio methods is presented. The MCD transitions are computed by the explicit treatment of spin-orbit coupled (SOC) and spin-spin coupled (SSC) N-electron states. These states are obtained from the diagonalization of the SOC and SSC operators along with the spin and orbital Zeeman operators in the basis of a preselected number of roots of the spin-free Hamiltonian. Therefore, zero-field splittings due to the SOC and SSC interactions along with the magnetic field splittings are explicitly accounted for in the ground as well as the excited states. This makes it possible to calculate simultaneously all MCD A, B, and C terms even beyond the linear response limit. The SOC is computed using a multicenter mean-field approximation to the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Two-electron SSC terms are included in the treatment without further approximations. The MCD transition intensities are subjected to numerical orientational averaging in order to treat the most commonly encountered case of randomly oriented molecules. The simulated MCD spectra for the OH, NH, and CH radicals as well as for [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. In the former case, the significant effects of the inert gas matrices in which the experimental spectra were obtained were modeled in a phenomenological way. PMID:18361564

Ganyushin, Dmitry; Neese, Frank

2008-03-21

291

The origins of lunar crustal magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to understanding the origins of lunar crustal magnetism. We wish to understand the processes which have created and modified the crustal magnetic field distribution that we observe today, and to determine whether the Moon ever had an active magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Previously, our only measurements of lunar magnetic fields came from the Explorer 35 and Apollo missions. Data coverage was incomplete, but sufficient to establish some systematics of the crustal field distribution. With new data from the Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instrument on Lunar Prospector, we have generated the first completely global maps of the lunar crustal fields. We use measurements of electrons magnetically reflected above the lunar surface, which we then correct for the effects of electrostatic fields (which also reflect electrons), and convert to estimates of surface magnetic fields. The resulting global map shows that impact basins and craters (especially the youngest) generally have low magnetic fields, suggesting impact demagnetization, primarily by shock effects. A secondary signature of some large lunar basins (especially older ones) is the presence of a more localized central magnetic anomaly. Meanwhile, the largest regions of strong crustal fields lie antipodal to young large impact basins, suggesting shock remanent magnetization due to a combination of antipodal focussing of seismic energy and/or ejecta and plasma compression of ambient magnetic fields. Smaller regions of strong magnetic fields are sometimes associated with basin ejecta, and basin and crater ejecta terranes have the strongest average fields outside of the antipodal regions. This implies that impact-generated magnetization may extend beyond the antipodal regions. The antipodal, non-antipodal, and central basin magnetic fields, as well as returned samples, can all be used to estimate the lunar magnetic field history and place constraints on a possible lunar dynamo. All of these quantities provide evidence for stronger magnetic fields early in the Moon's history, and thereby suggest the existence of an ancient core dynamo.

Halekas, Jasper S.

292

Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

1986-05-01

293

Magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands II: Ising spin model with out-of-plane magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ising effective field theory model is presented to calculate the magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands on a nonmagnetic substrate, subject to an externally out-of-plane applied magnetic field. The system Hamiltonian contains nearest neighbor exchange interactions, single-atom magnetic anisotropies, and the Zeeman term. The calculations yield, in particular, the single site spin correlations, the magnetizations, and the isothermal susceptibilities, for

M. Abou Ghantous; A. Khater

2011-01-01

294

Electrical field control of interface magnetic anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic metals comes from the spin-orbit interaction. By explicitly taking into account the interaction between the symmetry-broken interface potential and the spin-dependent electric dipoles of the Bloch states, we find that the interface spin-orbit coupling can be modeled by the Rashba spin-orbit Hamiltonian (RSOH). Due to the presence of the RSOH, the spin up and down states of the ferromagnet are spin mixed at the interface. Among other consequences, the RSOH induces a perpendicular surface magnetic anisotropy whose magnitude is comparable to the observed values in transition metals. When an external electric field is applied across the interface, the induced screening potential modifies the RSOH and thus the perpendicular anisotropy can be manipulated. Our calculated results are in agreement with the experiments [1]. [4pt] [1] Endo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 212503 (2010); T. Nozaki et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022506 (2010).

Xu, Lei; Zhang, Shufeng

2011-03-01

295

Magnetic field seeding by galactic winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of intergalactic magnetic fields is still a mystery and several scenarios have been proposed so far: among them, primordial phase transitions, structure-formation shocks and galactic outflows. In this work, we investigate how efficiently galactic winds can provide an intense and widespread `seed' magnetization. This may be used to explain the magnetic fields observed today in clusters of galaxies

Serena Bertone; Corina Vogt; Torsten Enßlin

2006-01-01

296

Invited Safety of Strong, Static Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues associated with the exposure of patients to strong, static magnetic fields during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed and discussed. The history of human exposure to magnetic fields is reviewed, and the contra- dictory nature of the literature regarding effects on human health is described. In the absence of ferromagnetic for- eign bodies, there is no replicated scientific study

John F. Schenck

2000-01-01

297

Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m

K. T. Chyzy; M. Wezgowiec; R. Beck; D. J. Bomans

2011-01-01

298

Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

2011-01-01

299

Baking a magnetic-field display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copy machine developer powder is an alternative for creating permanent displays of magnetic fields. A thin layer of developer powder on a sheet of paper placed over a magnet can be baked in the oven, producing a lasting image of a magnetic field.

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1998-02-01

300

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In…

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

301

Cluster magnetic fields from galactic outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed cosmological, magnetohydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields is galactic outflows during the starburst phase of galactic evolution. To do this, we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by Bertone, Vogt & Enßlin to our cosmological simulation. We

J. Donnert; K. Dolag; H. Lesch; E. Müller

2009-01-01

302

Sub arcsec evolution of solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: .The evolution of the concentrated magnetic field in flux tubes is one challenge of the nowadays Solar physics which requires time sequence with high spatial resolution. Aims: .Our objective is to follow the properties of the magnetic concentrations during their life, in intensity (continuum and line core), magnetic field and Doppler velocity. Methods: .We have observed solar region NOAA

Th. Roudier; J. M. Malherbe; J. Moity; S. Rondi; P. Mein; Ch. Coutard

2006-01-01

303

An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new global map of the magnetic field of Mars, with an order of magnitude improved sensitivity to crustal magnetization, is derived from Mars Global Surveyor mapping orbit magnetic field data. With this comes greatly improved spatial resolution and geologic intrpretation.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.

2004-03-01

304

Neutrino self-energy in an external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Using the exact propagators in a constant magnetic field, the neutrino self-energy has been calculated to all orders in the field strength B within the minimal extension of the Weinberg-Salam model with massive Dirac neutrinos. A simple and very accurate formula for the self-energy is obtained, that is valid for 0{<=}B<magnetic field p{sub perpendicular}<magnetic field induced resonance transitions of massive neutrinos inside supernovae and magnetars, and calculate the neutrino magnetic moment.

Erdas, Andrea [Department of Physics, Loyola University Maryland, 4501 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21210 (United States)

2009-12-01

305

Measuring the off axis magnetic field within a Helmholtz Coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helmholtz coils are used because they produce nearly uniform magnetic fields on-axis. Prior research, namely Graf's thin coil experiment [The Physics Teacher, pp. 360 (2012)], has accurately measured the axial magnetic field produced by a thin coil; however, the magnetic field off-axis is known to be significantly more complicated and cannot be calculated analytically. In this research, I have numerically determined the magnetic field off-axis in the region between the two coils and compared those calculations with measured values. I then determined the effect the deviation from uniformity has on the behavior of a charged particle moving through this region, such as in the well-known electron charge-to-mass ratio experiment.

Pluhar, Edward; Martell, Eric

2013-03-01

306

Spin flip probability of electron in a uniform magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The probability that an electromagnetic wave can flip the spin of an electron is calculated. It is assumed that the electron resides in a uniform magnetic field and interacts with an incoming electromagnetic pulse. The scattering matrix is constructed and the time needed to flip the spin is calculated.

Hammond, Richard T. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27703 (United States)

2012-03-19

307

Rotating magnetic beacons magnetic field strength size in SAGD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotation magnetic beacons magnetic field strength is very important to drill parallel horizontal twin wells in steam assisted\\u000a gravity drainage (SAGD). This paper analyzes a small magnet with a diameter of 25.4 mm. At each end, there is a length of\\u000a 12.6 mm with permanent magnet, and in the middle, there is a length of 78mm with magnetic materials. The

Bing Tu; Desheng Li; Enhuai Lin; Bin Luo; Jian He; Lezhi Ye; Jiliang Liu; Yuezhong Wang

2010-01-01

308

Calculation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and their effects in MRI of human subjects.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency magnetic fields are critical to nuclear excitation and signal reception in magnetic resonance imaging. The interactions between these fields and human tissues in anatomical geometries results in a variety of effects regarding image integrity and safety of the human subject. In recent decades, numerical methods of calculation have been used increasingly to understand the effects of these interactions and aid in engineering better, faster, and safer equipment and methods. As magnetic resonance imaging techniques and technology have evolved through the years, so to have the requirements for meaningful interpretation of calculation results. Here, we review the basic physics of radiofrequency electromagnetics in magnetic resonance imaging and discuss a variety of ways radiofrequency field calculations are used in magnetic resonance imaging in engineering and safety assurance from simple systems and sequences through advanced methods of development for the future. PMID:21381106

Collins, Christopher M; Wang, Zhangwei

2011-03-04

309

Vibrating H3+ in a Uniform Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy surfaces are obtained for singlet H3+ in magnetic fields of up to 2350 T. The magnetic interaction was treated by first-order perturbation theory and the interaction terms computed ab initio. They were then fitted to a functional form and added to a recent, highly accurate adiabatic potential energy surface. In its most stable orientation, the molecule is arranged such that the magnetic field vector is in the molecular plane. The most stable configuration is no longer D3h as in the field-free case, but C2v, though the stabilization energy is extremely small, of the order of 0.01 cm-1 for a 2350 T field. Finally, we have calculated, for a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations, all the vibrational eigenvalues that are below the barrier to linearity in the field-free case.

Medel Cobaxin, Héctor; Alijah, Alexander

2013-10-01

310

Field-aligned accelerations by plasma shocks propagating through interstellar magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model of particle acceleration by plasma shocks is analyzed theoretically and with numerical calculations. The shocks are propagating through weakly magnetized background plasmas, namely interstellar magnetic fields (IMFs). Particles located at the shock front are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field of the shock; this is defined as the field-aligned acceleration (FAA). The cross angle between IMF and the magnetic field of the shock plays an important role in creating the magnetic neutral sheet at the shock front. A test particle trapped by the neutral sheet obtains enormous energy due to the FAA. A reasonable formula for the highest energy gain is derived from theoretical analysis of the relativistic equations of motion. A possible configuration of the electric and magnetic fields in supernova remnants is also proposed by way of example.

Takeuchi, Satoshi [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

2012-07-15

311

Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.

I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax

2001-12-12

312

Improved magnetic field analysis of induction motor models  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an improved magnetic field analysis for induction motor models. In the analysis with the conventional numerical modeling of magnetic materials, the vector relations between the flux density and the field intensity under a rotating field cannot be expressed exactly. In this paper, the authors derived the tensor magnetic reluctivity from the data measured with two-dimensional measurement method. This expression is applied to analyze a three-phase induction motor model core. The examples show that the calculated results obtained by the new method are different from those of the conventional modeling.

Enokizono, Masato; Sadanaga, Yuichiro [Oita Univ. (Japan)

1998-09-01

313

Is the solar chromospheric magnetic field force-free?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use observations of the Na I lambda 5896 spectral line, made with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, to measure the chromospheric vector magnetic field in NOAA active region 7216. We compute the magnetic field from observations of the Stokes parameters at six wavelengths within this spectral line using a derivative method and calculate the height dependence of the net Lorentz force in the photosphere and low chromosphere. We conclude that the magnetic field is not force-free in the photosphere, but becomes force-free roughly 400 km above the photosphere.

Metcalf, Thomas R.; Jiao, Litao; McClymont, Alexander N.; Canfield, Richard C.; Uitenbroek, Han

1995-01-01

314

Casimir momentum of a chiral molecule in a magnetic field.  

PubMed

In a classical description, a neutral, polarizable object acquires a kinetic momentum when exposed to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In the presence of only a magnetic field no such momentum exists classically, although it is symmetry allowed for an object lacking mirror symmetry. We perform a full QED calculation to show that the quantum vacuum coupled to a chiral molecule provides it with a kinetic "Casimir" momentum directed along the magnetic field, and proportional to its molecular rotatory power and to the fine structure constant. PMID:24138239

Donaire, M; van Tiggelen, B A; Rikken, G L J A

2013-10-04

315

Approximating planetary magnetic fields by simplified models using linear regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we attempt to approach the problem of building a non-calculation-intensive model of a planetary magnetic field by fitting the IGRF results with custom parameter values of a simplified multi-variable model, as opposed to the traditional method of solving this problem analytically. We discuss this approach and the results that it produces on the example of approximating the Earth's magnetic field with a shifted dipole's magnetic field. We also discuss the possibilities of using our software to brute-force through an automatically generated set of candidate models in order to find an approximation that satisfies a precondition on either performance or accuracy.

Parunakian, David; Alexeev, Igor

2013-04-01

316

Casimir Momentum of a Chiral Molecule in a Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a classical description, a neutral, polarizable object acquires a kinetic momentum when exposed to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In the presence of only a magnetic field no such momentum exists classically, although it is symmetry allowed for an object lacking mirror symmetry. We perform a full QED calculation to show that the quantum vacuum coupled to a chiral molecule provides it with a kinetic “Casimir” momentum directed along the magnetic field, and proportional to its molecular rotatory power and to the fine structure constant.

Donaire, M.; van Tiggelen, B. A.; Rikken, G. L. J. A.

2013-10-01

317

Magnetic-field-enhanced carbon solution in proeutectoid ferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of phase solubility of Fe–C system by magnetic field has been recognized by thermodynamic calculations and indirectly by microstructural examinations. However, there has been no direct experimental verification and the underlying physical mechanism is not fully uncovered. In this work, the enhanced carbon content in proeutectoid ferrite under a 12 T magnetic field is evidenced through wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy using a Shimadzu 1610 electron probe microanalyser measurements. The magnetic-field-enhanced carbon solution reduces the demagnetization energy of the system and makes it energetically more stable.

Zhang, X. X.; Xu, N.; Wang, S. J.; Zhang, Y. D.; Raulot, J.-M.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

2013-09-01

318

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

2013-01-01

319

Magnetic field, closed orbit, and energy measurement in the Bevatron  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the information necessary for a better evaluation of particle energy in the Bevatron. Previously, the nominal magnetic field value and radius were used to calculate the value for the kinetic energy of the particle. This value was good to a few percent. Today, more and more experimenters would like to know the energy to a more precise value. To this end, corrections to the measured magnetic field values and the radial closed orbit are provided.

Crebbin, K.C.

1981-11-01

320

Mars: a magnetic field due to thermoremanence?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently available magnetic field data suggest a dipole moment of Mars of less than 10 -4 times the Earth's dipole moment. Presumably, Mars does not have an active dynamo at present which could give rise to a significant magnetic field. Nevertheless, the presently available data do not rule out a minor intrinsic field which may originate from a magnetized lithosphere. The objective of this study is to examine how much magnetization the Martian lithosphere could have acquired in the presence of an internal dynamo in early Martian history. Two models are presented: the first one assumes a laterally homogeneous lithosphere with a globally uniform thickness; the second model takes a possible dichotomy of the Martian lithosphere into account, which is assumed to be two to three times thicker in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. The gradual cooling of the lithosphere below the Curie temperature is reproduced by a multilayer model. Curie isotherm motion with time and the dipole moment of the dynamo field are calculated from a thermal evolution model. For simplicity, the magnetic properties of the lithosphere are parameterized by its iron content. In the homogeneous case, the magnetostatic boundary value problem is solved exactly; in addition, an approximate solution is presented which is applicable with the dichotomy model. Using either method, the demagnetizing field in the separate layers mainly leads to the resulting remanent dipole moment. The remanent dipole moment is found to depend approximately linearly on the Curie isotherm depth and approximately quadratically on the iron content of the lithosphere. To reproduce the upper limit of the dipole moment derived from the Phobos mission (˜10 18 Am 2), a mean depth of 150 to 200 km for the Curie isotherm and a free iron content ranging from 5 to 6 vol.% are needed. The mean surface field may be less than 10 nT for both the homogeneous and the dichotomy model. The latter model yields a marked difference between the northern and southern hemisphere, with a pronounced anomaly at the dichotomy boundary.

Leweling, Martin; Spohn, Tilman

1997-11-01

321

Boston University Physics Applets: Magnetic Field Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics simulation that explores magnetic fields. The user can add currents coming into or out of a simulated grid, and see the fields created. There is also a selection of pre-created fields, including bar magnets, loops, opposing magnets, and coils in uniform fields. Double-clicking on any point displays the full loop created by the magnetic field. This item is part of a larger collection of introductory physics simulations developed by the author. This is part of a collection of similar simulation-based student activities.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-23

322

The influence of magnetic field on the thermal properties of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of a solid to an applied magnetic field can be determined several ways: by direct measurements and by calculating it from magnetization and from the heat capacities as functions of temperature and magnetic field. The magnetocaloric properties of various types of solids are reviewed: normal ferromagnets, materials with multiple magnetic transitions, materials which undergo a first-order transition, and

Karl A Gschneidner; Vitalij K Pecharsky

2000-01-01

323

Type-II-superconductor strip with current in a perpendicular magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current density, magnetic field, penetrated magnetic flux, and magnetic moment are calculated analytically for a thin strip of a type-II superconductor carrying a transport current I in a perpendicular magnetic field Ha. Constant critical current density jc is assumed. The exact solutions reveal interesting features of this often realized perpendicular geometry that qualitatively differs from the widely used Bean critical

Ernst Helmut Brandt; Mikhail Indenbom

1993-01-01

324

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOEpatents

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

325

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOEpatents

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25

326

Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective...

P. K. Harris

2003-01-01

327

Constant Current Source for Stable Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electronic control system for stabilization of currents in magnetic fields is described. Three superimposed control stages with different characteristics provide optimum elimination of all interfering factors. The use of electrostatic and magnetic shie...

K. Weyand

1976-01-01

328

Magnetic Fields above the Surface of aSuperconductor with Internal Magnetism  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a method for calculating the magnetic fields near a planar surface of a superconductor with a given intrinsic magnetization in the London limit. He computes solutions for various magnetic domain boundary configurations and derives relations between the spectral densities of the magnetization and the resulting field in the vacuum half space, which are useful if the magnetization can be considered as a statistical quantity and its features are too small to be resolved individually. The results are useful for analyzing and designing magnetic scanning experiments. Application to existing data from such experiments on Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} show that a domain wall would have been detectable, but the magnetic field of randomly oriented small domains and small defects may have been smaller than the experimental noise level.

Bluhm, Hendrik; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRl

2007-06-26

329

Basic Properties of Magnetic Shape-Memory Materials from First-Principles Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual influence of phase transformations, magnetism, and electronic properties of magnetic-shape memory Heusler materials is a basic issue of electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. In this article, we show that these calculations can be pursued to finite temperatures, which allows to derive on a first-principles basis the temperature versus composition phase diagram of the pseudo-binary Ni-Mn-(Ga, In, Sn, Sb) system. The free energy calculations show that the phonon contribution stabilizes the body-centered-cubic (bcc)-like austenite structure at elevated temperatures, whereas magnetism favors the low-temperature martensite phase with body-centered-tetragonal (bct) or rather face-centered-tetragonal (fct) structure. The calculations also allow to make predictions of magnetostructural and magnetic field induced properties of other (new) magnetic Heusler alloys not based on NiMn such as Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) and Fe-Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) intermetallic compounds.

Entel, Peter; Dannenberg, Antje; Siewert, Mario; Herper, Heike C.; Gruner, Markus E.; Comtesse, Denis; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Kallmayer, Michael

2012-08-01

330

Edge effects on forces and magnetic fields produced by a conductor moving past a magnet  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to further understand the forces acting on magnets moving along and over the edge of a continuous conducting sheet and to produce a comprehensive data set for the validation of analysis methods. Mapping the magnetic field gives information about the eddy currents induced in the conductor, which agrees with numerical calculations.

Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Almer, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rossing, T.D. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

331

Edge effects on forces and magnetic fields produced by a conductor moving past a magnet  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to further understand the forces acting on magnets moving along and over the edge of a continuous conducting sheet and to produce a comprehensive data set for the validation of analysis methods. Mapping the magnetic field gives information about the eddy currents induced in the conductor, which agrees with numerical calculations.

Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Almer, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rossing, T.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)

1992-04-01

332

THE EARTH'S YOUNG MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invisible lines of magnetic force enclose our planet in what scientists call adipolarmagneticfield. Today these lines go from magnetic south to magnetic north, which are offset a few degrees from the geographic poles. Some minerals, like magnetite, can \\

Trevor Major

333

The Magnetic Field of a Plane Circular Loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial and radial components of the magnetic field of a plane circular loop are expressed in terms of cylindrical coordinates. The expressions involve two integrals which are related to certain of the complete elliptic integrals. Tables of values of these integrals are presented. Interpolation in these tables facilitates rapid calculation of the field components.

C. L. Bartberger

1950-01-01

334

Electromagnetic field of a rotating closed singular magnetic flux line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The electromagnetic field due to the rotation of a circular singular magnetic flux line is calculated. By averaging the resulting\\u000a electric field over the period of rotation it is shown that by this procedure neither a static Coulomb charge nor an electric\\u000a dipole moment can be generated.

H. Rupertsberger

1982-01-01

335

HK distributions and HC calculations for magnetic recording particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetization vs applied magnetic field data for several different classes of particulate magnetic recording media have been analyzed by fitting the first quadrants to log-normal distributions in anisotropy fields using the Stoner–Wohlfarth assumptions. Materials examined included small and large particle ?-Fe2O3 and partially reduced ?-Fe2O3 (precursor), Co-adsorbed precursor, CrO2, Fe metal, pure Ba ferrite, and Co–Ti substituted Ba ferrite. Measurement

F. T. Parker; A. E. Berkowitz; S. B. Slade

1994-01-01

336

Arc Discharges in a Curved Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment on arc discharges in hydrogen in a curved magnetic field is described. For a few milliseconds the discharge current flowed between two electrodes along the field lines of a toroidal magnetic field over an angle of 258 deg. The plasma was not...

F. C. Schueller

1974-01-01

337

Is the intergalactic magnetic field primordial?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the various methods used to constrain the possible field strength of the present day intergalactic field and findB0(G)-10 as a probable upper bound. It is suggested that the observed intergalactic magnetic field might not be primordial in origin but rather the result of magnetic flux leakage from galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Martin Beech

1985-01-01

338

Intergalactic magnetic field and galactic WARPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative explanation of galactic warps is proposed, in which the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is responsible for these structures. The model predicts that, to be efficient, the magnetic field must have a direction not much different from 45 deg with the galactic plane. The required values of the field strength are uncertain, of about 10 nG, higher values being

E. Battaner; E. Florido; M. L. Sanchez-Saavedra

1990-01-01

339

Fiber Bragg Grating Magnetic Field Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate experimentally a magnetic field sensor using a fiber Bragg grating. The shift in the Bragg condition as a result of strain applied on the fiber mounted on a nickel base by the magnetic field gives an indirect measure of the field. The proposed method overcomes the need for long fiber lengths required in methods such

K. V. Madhav; K. Ravi Kumar; T. Srinivas; S. Asokan

2006-01-01

340

Is the intergalactic magnetic field primordial?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various methods used to constrain the possible field strength of the present day intergalactic field are considered, and Bzero (G) less than 10 to the -10th is found as a probable upper bound. It is suggested that the observed intergalactic magnetic field might not be primordial in origin but rather the result of magnetic flux leakage from galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Beech, M.

1985-11-01

341

The use of harmonics in 3-D magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the need for new means for specification and determination of 3-D fields that are produced by electromagnetic lens elements in the region interior to coil windings and seeking to obtain techniques that will be convenient for accurate conductor placement and dynamical study of particle motion, the authors have generalized the representation of a 2-D magnetic field to 3-D. They have shown that the 3-D magnetic field components of a multipole magnet in the curl-free divergence-free region near the axis r = 0 can be derived from one dimensional functions A{sub n}(z) and their derivatives. In this report they apply both methods to the ``end`` region of a 40 mm bore SSC quadrupole, calculating first the field harmonics and then reconstructing the field comparing both results with direct Biot-Savart calculation.

Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

1993-09-01

342

Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae  

SciTech Connect

Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

343

Simple models for dynamic hysteresis loop calculations of magnetic single-domain nanoparticles: Application to magnetic hyperthermia optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To optimize the heating properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in magnetic hyperthermia applications, it is necessary to calculate the area of their hysteresis loops in an alternating magnetic field. The separation between ``relaxation losses'' and ``hysteresis losses'' presented in several articles is artificial and criticized here. The three types of theories suitable for describing hysteresis loops of MNPs are presented and compared to numerical simulations: equilibrium functions, Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories (SWMBTs), and a linear response theory (LRT) using the Néel-Brown relaxation time. The configuration where the easy axis of the MNPs is aligned with respect to the magnetic field and the configuration of a random orientation of the easy axis are both studied. Suitable formulas to calculate the hysteresis areas of major cycles are deduced from SWMBTs and from numerical simulations; the domain of validity of the analytical formula is explicitly studied. In the case of minor cycles, the hysteresis area calculations are based on the LRT. A perfect agreement between the LRT and numerical simulations of hysteresis loops is obtained. The domain of validity of the LRT is explicitly studied. Formulas are proposed to calculate the hysteresis area at low field that are valid for any anisotropy of the MNP. The magnetic field dependence of the area is studied using numerical simulations: it follows power laws with a large range of exponents. Then analytical expressions derived from the LRT and SWMBTs are used in their domains of validity for a theoretical study of magnetic hyperthermia. It is shown that LRT is only pertinent for MNPs with strong anisotropy and that SWMBTs should be used for weakly anisotropic MNPs. The optimum volume of MNPs for magnetic hyperthermia is derived as a function of material and experimental parameters. Formulas are proposed to allow to the calculation of the optimum volume for any anisotropy. The maximum achievable specific absorption rate (SAR) is calculated as a function of the MNP anisotropy. It is shown that an optimum anisotropy increases the SAR and reduces the detrimental effects of the size distribution of the MNPs. The optimum anisotropy is simple to calculate; it depends only on the magnetic field used in the hyperthermia experiments and the MNP magnetization. The theoretical optimum parameters are compared to those of several magnetic materials. A brief review of experimental results as well as a method to analyze them is proposed. This study helps in the determination of suitable and unsuitable materials for magnetic hyperthermia and provides accurate formulas to analyze experimental data. It is also aimed at providing a better understanding of magnetic hyperthermia to researchers working on this subject.

Carrey, J.; Mehdaoui, B.; Respaud, M.

2011-04-01

344

The generation of magnetic fields by the polarization electric field in the ionosphere of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements by the magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter have established that during conditions of low solar wind dynamic pressure, large-scale magnetic fields are not present in the ionosphere of Venus but that during conditions of high solar wind dynamic pressure the ionosphere of Venus is magnetized. The source of the magnetic field is thought to be currents induced in the ionosphere by the solar wind. We will show that ionospheric polarization electric field can act as a source, or 'battery', producing a small magnetic field, even without any initial magnetic field. We have calculated this polarization source as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The magnetic field was then determined using a 2D kinematic dynamo model of the ionosphere of Venus. The magnetic field attains a maximum strength of about 5 nT at a solar zenith angle of about 120 deg. This magnetic field might act as a 'seed' field for magnetic flux ropes and terminator waves.

Shinagawa, H.; Cravens, T. E.; Wu, D.

1993-01-01

345

Electromagnetic field calculations for microlens optical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlenses are becoming more widely used in modern optical equipment. When the microlens diameter is comparable with the incident electromagnetic illumination wavelength, diffraction effects through the microlens aperture dominate and significantly affect the microlens optical properties leading to differences from that predicted by ordinary geometrical optics theory. In this work, the continuous-profile symmetrical biconvex microlens is selected for investigation. Its optical properties, with both monochromatic plane wave and TEM00 mode Gaussian beam illumination, are studied using the full-field Separation-of-Variables method (SVM) in the oblate spheroidal coordinate system by calculating the electromagnetic field distributions inside of and adjacent to the microlens. The microlens optical properties are also compared with the corresponding geometrical optics theory. The investigations and discussions include the focusing properties of a single microlens with monochromatic plane wave illumination, the beam transformation properties of a single microlens with monochromatic TEM00 mode Gaussian beam illumination, the axial combination properties of dual microlenses with monochromatic plane wave and TEM00 mode Gaussian beam illumination, the interference properties between dual parallel-arranged microlenses with monochromatic plane wave illumination, and the imaging properties of a single microlens with monochromatic plane wave and TEM00 mode Gaussian beam illumination. The optical properties of microlens optical systems are found to be similar to that given by the geometrical optics theory. The microlens actual focal length is measured for different profile and diameter microlenses and is compared with its corresponding geometrical focal length. It is shown that the microlens actual focal length is an important parameter and can be used to describe and approximately formulate the microlens optical properties. The transmitted beam waist position through a microlens calculated using the Rayleigh Range method (RRM) with the microlens actual focal length closely matches the exact value determined using the Separation-of-Variables method in the oblate spheroidal coordinate system. The axial combination properties of dual microlenses with monochromatic plane wave illumination and the imaging properties of a single microlens can also be described using the geometrical imaging formula with the microlens actual focal length.

Wang, Jian

346

Extraterrestrial Magnetic Fields: Achievements and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major scientific achievements associated with the measurement of magnetic fields in space over the past decade and a half are reviewed. Aspects of space technology relevant to magnetic-field observations are discussed, including the different types of magnetometers used and how they operate, problems arising from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields and the appropriate countermeasures that have been developed and on-board processing

EDWARD J. SMITHAND; Charles Sonett

1976-01-01

347

Modeling solar force-free magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields is presented, described in terms of the solutions to a second-order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation. These magnetic fields are three-dimensional, filling the infinite half-space above a plane where the lines of force are anchored. They model the magnetic fields of the sun over active regions with a striking geometric realism. The total energy

B. C. Low; Y. Q. Lou

1990-01-01

348

Fiber Optic Magnetic Field Sensors Using Metallic Glass Coatings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we have investigated the use of a magnetostrictive material with a single-mode optical fiber for detecting weak magnetic fields. The amorphous alloy Metglas^circler 2605SC (Fe_{81}B_ {13.5}Si_{3.5} C_2) was chosen as the magnetostrictive material because of the combination of its large magnetostriction and small magnetic anisotropy field among all available metals. For efficient coupling between the magnetostrictive material and the optical fiber, the magnetostrictive material was directly deposited onto the single-mode optical fiber. The coated fibers were used as the sensing element in the fiber optic magnetic field sensor (FOMS). Very high quality thick metallic glass films of the Metglas 2605 SC have been deposited using triode-magneton sputtering. This is the first time such material has been successfully deposited onto an optical fiber or onto any other substrate. The films were also deposited onto glass slides to allow the study of the magnetic properties of the film. The thicknesses of these films were 5-15 mum. The magnetic property of primary interest for our sensor application is the induced longitudinal magnetostrictive strain. However, the other magnetic properties such as magnetic anisotropy, surface and bulk coercivities, magnetic homogeneity and magnetization all affect the magnetostrictive response of the material. We have used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at microwave frequencies to study the magnetic anisotropy and homogeneity; vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) to study the bulk magnetic hysteresis responses and coercivity; and the longitudinal magneto-optic kerr effect (LMOKE) to study the surface magnetic hysteresis responses and coercivity. The isothermalmagnetic annealing effect on these properties has also been studied in detail. The fiber optic magnetic field sensor constructed using the metallic-glass-coated fiber was tested. An electronic feedback control loop using a PZT cylinder was constructed for stabilizing the sensor operation. Magnetic field detection at different dither frequencies was studied in detail. The estimated minimum detectable magnetic field was about 3 times 10^{-7 } Oe. A simplified elastic model was used for the theoretical calculation of the phase shift induced in a metallic-glass -coated optical fiber with a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The phase shift as a function of coating thickness was calculated, and the experimental results at certain thicknesses were compared with the calculation. The frequency response of the FOMS was also studied in some detail. Three different configurations were used for the study of the frequency response. The results indicate that the resonances observed in the FOMS are most likely related to the mechanical resonance of the optical fiber.

Wang, Yu.

1990-01-01

349

Treatment of the magnetic field for geodynamo simulations using the finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a scheme for calculating the magnetic field in a spherical shell, based on Earth's outer core, using the finite element method (FEM). The two most difficult problems for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations in a rotating spherical shell with FEM are solving the magnetic field outside the fluid shell, and connecting the magnetic field in the fluid shell to the

H. Matsui; H. Okuda

2004-01-01

350

Induced Magnetic Anisotropy of Ferrofluid Frozen in Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetization process of a ferrofluid whose carrier fluid is paraffin was investigated in the temperature range from 77 K to 300 K, as a function of the cooling field intensity and freezing rate. Phase transitions between the liquid and solid states can be simulated by using the ferrofluids as a magnetic probe. A uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was induced by

N. Inaba; H. Miyajima; S. Taketomi; S. Chikazumi

1989-01-01

351

Calculation of unbalanced magnetic pull in a salient-pole synchronous generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unbalanced magnetic forces which act upon the rotor of a salient-pole synchronous generator due to eccentric motion of the rotor shaft in the presence of magnetic field originating from the field current in no-load operation have been calculated using finite-element method. The displacement of the rotor has been modeled using the actual shaft orbit recorded on a 5 MVA

D. Zarko; D. Ban; I. Vazdar; V. Jaric

2010-01-01

352

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

2013-04-01

353

Quark matter in a strong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a strong magnetic field on the stability and gross properties of bulk as well as quasibulk quark matter is investigated using the conventional MIT bag model. Both the Landau diamagnetism and the paramagnetism of quark matter are studied. How the quark hadron phase transition is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field is also investigated. The equation of state of strange quark matter changes significantly in a strong magnetic field. It is also shown that the thermal nucleation of quark bubbles in a compact metastable state of neutron matter is completely forbidden in the presence of a strong magnetic field. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Chakrabarty, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, District: Nadia, West Bengal 741 235 (India)]|[Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

1996-07-01

354

Numerical Simulation of a Magnetic Field in Superconducting Quadrupoles for Nuclotron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A magnetic field in superconducting quadrupoles of relativistic nuclei has been numerically modelled. The spatial field has been calculated by the method of volume integral equations using the system of MAGSYS programs and the central field by the conjuga...

Z. V. Borisovskaya E. P. Zhidkov A. A. Smirnov L. A. Smirnova I. A. Shelaev

1988-01-01

355

Numerical analyses of trapped field magnet and stable levitation region of HTSC  

SciTech Connect

Stable levitation with a permanent magnet and a bulk high {Tc} superconductor (HTSC) is examined numerically by using the critical state model and the frozen field model. Differences between a permanent magnet and a trapped field magnet are first discussed from property of levitation force. Stable levitation region of the HTSC on a ring magnet and on a solenoid coil are calculated with the numerical methods. Obtained results are discussed from difference of the magnetic field configuration.

Tsuchimoto, M.; Kojima, T.; Waki, H.; Honma, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

1995-05-01

356

Two dimensional frustrated magnets in high magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustrated magnets in high magnetic field have a long history of offering beautiful surprises to the patient investigator. Here we present the results of extensive classical Monte Carlo simulations of a variety of models of two dimensional magnets in magnetic field, together with complementary spin wave analysis. Striking results include (i) a massively enhanced magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnets bordering on ferromagnetic order, (ii) a route to an m = 1/3 magnetization plateau on a square lattice, and (iii) a cascade of phase transitions in a simple model of AgNiO2.

Seabra, L.; Shannon, N.; Sindzingre, P.; Momoi, T.; Schmidt, B.; Thalmeier, P.

2009-01-01

357

The Magnetic Fields of the Quiet Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reviews our understanding of the magnetic fields observed in the quiet Sun. The subject has undergone a major change during the last decade (quiet revolution), and it will remain changing since the techniques of diagnostic employed so far are known to be severely biased. Keeping these caveats in mind, our work covers the main observational properties of the quiet Sun magnetic fields: magnetic field strengths, unsigned magnetic flux densities, magnetic field inclinations, as well as the temporal evolution on short time-scales (loop emergence), and long time-scales (solar cycle). We also summarize the main theoretical ideas put forward to explain the origin of the quiet Sun magnetism. A final prospective section points out various areas of solar physics where the quiet Sun magnetism may have an important physical role to play (chromospheric and coronal structure, solar wind acceleration, and solar elemental abundances).

Sánchez Almeida, J.; Martínez González, M.

2011-04-01

358

PRINCIPLE OF CORRECTION OF ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC FIELDS IN BENDING MAGNETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of a high quality electron beam by a race- track microtron (RTM) requires highly precise magnetic fields in the two reversing magnets. At the RTM cascade MAMI (Mainz Microtron), a precision of 10 ?4 for the ver- tical field component By was achieved by symmetrical sur- face coils placed at the upper and lower pole surface in each

F. Hagenbuck; P. Jennewein; K.-H. Kaiser; H.-J. Kreidel; U. Ludwig-Mertin; M. Seidl

2002-01-01

359

Radio Frequency Field Calculations for Plasma Heating Simulations in VASIMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(VASIMR)1 is plasma heating by ion-cyclotron RF heating (ICRF). Mathematical simulation helps to design an ICRF antenna, i.e. make maximal absorption of RF power into the plasma in the resonance area. Another goal of a particle simulation is design of a magnetic nozzle and optimize the performance of VASIMR2. field in the plasma, 2) ion density and velocity, 3) ion-cyclotron radio-frequency electromagnetic field. The assumptions of quasineutral and collisionless plasma are based on the range of operating VASIMR parameters. Carlo simulations for systems of million of particles in a reasonable time and without the need for a powerful supercomputer. The particle to grid weighting method is used for calculating the ion density, which is used for recalculation of the electric potential and RF field. dimensional problem to a weighted sum over two-dimensional solutions. Absorption is introduced in the cold plasma model by adding an imaginary collision frequency to the RF driven frequency, which is equivalent to adding an imaginary particle mass in the dielectric tensor elements. static and RF fields using the VASIMR code2. The VASIMR and EMIR codes are then iterated to estimate the ICRF effects on the plasma density. The iteration is performed by calculating the RF fields with the EMIR code, and using these fields to follow nonlinear ion trajectories with the VASIMR code on the gyro-frequency time scale. The ion trajectories are used to generate RF power absorption values and a density input for the next EMIR calculation. The codes are iterated until the density profile becomes reasonably stable, then the collisional absorption parameter in the EMIR code is adjusted and the iteration is continued until the power deposited by the RF system matches the power absorbed by the ion trajectories in a global sense. electric field. The solved algebraic system of equations is represented by ill-conditioned 18-diagonal matrix with complex elements. Since early development of the EMIR code, the frontal method direct solver was used. That solver requires large CPU time and RAM, which both are proportional to Nr Nz2, for a grid of the size Nr x Nz. These requirements make almost impossible to use existent EMIR solver on PC to obtain RF fields with good accuracy. system. The suggested iterative method is Modified Incomplete Cholesky Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Squared solver4. The solver involves a couple of the control parameters, which let a user tune the code to make iterations converge as fast as possible for a particular grid. Since the iterative solver does not require large RAM, and works much faster than the direct solver, the new algorithm lets us resolve RF fields on a PC with required accuracy. REFERENCES 1. Chang Díaz F.R., "Research Status of The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket", Proc. 39th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics (Pittsburgh, PA, 1997), Bulletin of APS, 42 2057. 2. Ilin A.V., Chang Díaz F.R., Squire J.P. and Carter M.D. "Monte Carlo Particle Dynamics in a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket", (Proceedings of Open Systems' 98), Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 330 - 334 (1999). 3. Jaeger E.F., Batchelor D.B., Weitzner H. and Whealton J.H. "ICRF Wave Propagation And Absorption in Tokamak And Mirror Magnetic Fields - A Full-wave Calculation", Computer Physics Com., 40 33 - 64 (1986). 4. Ilin, A. V., Bagheri, B., Scott, L. R., Briggs, J. M., and McCammon, J. A. "Parallelization of Poisson-Boltzmann and Brownian Dynamics calculation", Parallel Computing in Computational Chemistry, ACB Books, Washington D.C., (1995) 170-185.

Ilin, A. V.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Squire, J. P.; Carter, M. D.

2002-01-01

360

Polarized neutron reflectometry in high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A simple method is described to maintain the polarization of a neutron beam on its way through the large magnetic stray fields produced by a vertical field of a cryomagnet with a split-coil geometry. The two key issues are the proper shielding of the neutron spin flippers and an additional radial field component in order to guide the neutron spin through the region of the null point (i.e., point of reversal for the vertical field component). Calculations of the neutron's spin rotation as well as polarized neutron reflectometry experiments on an ErFe{sub 2}/DyFe{sub 2} multilayer show the perfect performance of the used setup. The recently commissioned cryomagnet M5 with a maximum vertical field of up to 7.2 T in asymmetric mode for polarized neutrons and 9 T in symmetric mode for unpolarized neutrons was used on the C5 spectrometer in reflectometry mode, at the NRU reactor in Chalk River, Canada.

Fritzsche, H. [National Research Council Canada, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2005-11-15

361

MRI magnetic field stimulates rotational sensors of the brain.  

PubMed

Vertigo in and around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines has been noted for years [1, 2]. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain these sensations [3, 4], yet without direct, objective measures, the cause is unknown. We found that all of our healthy human subjects developed a robust nystagmus while simply lying in the static magnetic field of an MRI machine. Patients lacking labyrinthine function did not. We use the pattern of eye movements as a measure of vestibular stimulation to show that the stimulation is static (continuous, proportional to static magnetic field strength, requiring neither head movement nor dynamic change in magnetic field strength) and directional (sensitive to magnetic field polarity and head orientation). Our calculations and geometric model suggest that magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) derives from a Lorentz force resulting from interaction between the magnetic field and naturally occurring ionic currents in the labyrinthine endolymph fluid. This force pushes on the semicircular canal cupula, leading to nystagmus. We emphasize that the unique, dual role of endolymph in the delivery of both ionic current and fluid pressure, coupled with the cupula's function as a pressure sensor, makes magnetic-field-induced nystagmus and vertigo possible. Such effects could confound functional MRI studies of brain behavior, including resting-state brain activity. PMID:21945276

Roberts, Dale C; Marcelli, Vincenzo; Gillen, Joseph S; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Zee, David S

2011-09-22

362

Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it was found that the multi-component glass a-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 exhibits unusual magnetic properties at very low temperatures. Thus the question arises whether this is a specialty of that particular glass or a more general phenomenon. We report here on our studies of the magnetic-field dependence of the dielectric properties of the borosilicate glass BK7 which contains only a negligible amount of magnetic impurities. Since this glass also responds sensitively to magnetic fields, our investigations demonstrate that the reaction of glasses to magnetic fields is not caused by magnetic impurities but reflects a more general phenomenon. In addition, we have observed that the variation of the dielectric constant and the loss angle with magnetic field depend on the amplitude of the electric field that is used to measure the glass capacitance. We present the data and discuss possible origins of the magnetic-field phenomena in non-magnetic glasses.

Wohlfahrt, M.; Strehlow, P.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

2001-12-01

363

Magnetohydrodynamics of the Earth'S Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of observational and theoretical work pertaining to the origin of planetary magnetic fields is given with special emphasis on the dynamo theory which attempts to explain these fields as arising from magnetohydrodynamic regenerative action. Some p...

G. Venezian

1967-01-01

364

The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)|

Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

1989-01-01

365

Tracing magnetic fields with ground state alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational studies of magnetic fields are vital as magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g. transport of heat), and cosmic rays. The existing ways of magnetic field studies have their limitations. Therefore, it is important to explore new effects that can bring information about magnetic field. We identified a process “ground state alignment” as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion, while the magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1G?B?10-15G). Compared to the upper level Hanle effect, atomic realignment is most suitable for the studies of magnetic field in the diffuse medium, where magnetic field is relatively weak. The corresponding physics of alignment is based on solid foundations of quantum electrodynamics and in a different physical regime the alignment has become a part of solar spectroscopy. In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment, including the realignment in magnetic field, were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. It is very encouraging that a variety of atoms with fine or hyperfine splitting of the ground or metastable states exhibit the alignment and the resulting polarization degree in some cases exceeds 20%. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this paper, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields, including those in the early universe.

Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.

2012-08-01

366

Simulation of magnetic field effect on a seed embryo cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plant seed embryo tissue cell, including the cell membrane and the intracellular and extracellular regions, was modelled as a spherical body. Equations for the three components in spherical coordinates were developed to calculate potassiumions flux in the presence of a stationary magnetic field. Simultaneous mathematical simulations of radial flux for potassium, calcium and chloride ions as well as membrane potential and osmotic pressure were calculated. Results obtained by computerized simulation showed that a magnetic field of 200 mT provoked some changes in cellular ionic concentration with respect to exposure time during first 30 s, which also impacted on the membrane potential and osmotic pressure values.

Socorro, A.; García, F.

2012-04-01

367

Magnetic Field Investigations During ROSETTA's Steins Flyby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent Steins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft magnetic field measurements have been made with both, the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Steins different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing our measurements with simulation results show that Steins does not possess a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 1 mAm2/kg. This is significantly different from results at Braille and Gaspra.

Glassmeier, K.; Auster, H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; RPC/ROMAP Teams

2009-05-01

368

Calculation of properties of the ozone molecule by the multiconfigurational self-consistent field method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the ground state of the ozone molecule, by using the multiconfigurational self-consistent field method, we calculated\\u000a the electric and magnetic properties — quadrupole moment, polarizability, tensor of magnetic susceptibility, nuclear quadrupole\\u000a interaction constant, and the rotational g-factor. Qualitative agreement between the calculated parameters and experimental\\u000a values was obtained. The tensors of chemical shielding in the spectrum of the nuclear

B. F. Minaev; E. M. Khomenko

2005-01-01

369

Modeling Magnetic Field Topology at Jupiter with the Khurana Magnetic Field Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the degree of coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and Jupiter's magnetosphere, we traced magnetic field lines from the polar region of the planet using the Khurana [1997, 2005] magnetic field model. We used a parameterized definition of the Jovian magnetopause created by Joy et al. [2002] that varies with the value of the solar wind dynamic pressure. We searched for field lines that cross the magnetopause and that potentially connect to the interplanetary magnetic field. We further explored the variation on magnetic field structure with local time orientation of Jupiter's dipole (i.e. Central Meridian Longitude) as well as upstream solar wind and IMF conditions.

Cohen, I.; Bagenal, F.

2008-12-01

370

Constrained superfields and supersymmetric magnetic field systems  

SciTech Connect

After Lancaster the authors examine chiral constraints in N = 2 superspace formulation for supersymmetric magnetic field systems. Such odd constraints are connected with the so-called spin-orbit coupling procedure of supersymmetrization. They propose new even constraints for magnetic supersymmetric systems and relate them to the standard procedure enhanced by Witten. These models describing spin-one half particles moving in a plane with a transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed. The cases of a constant magnetic field and of the harmonic oscillator are connected through different correspondences.

Dehin, D.; Hussin, V. (Universite de Liege, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Institut de Physique au Sart Tilman, Batiment B.5, B-4000 Liege (BE))

1988-01-01

371

Massive neutrinos and magnetic fields in the early universe  

SciTech Connect

Primordial magnetic fields and massive neutrinos can leave an interesting signal in the CMB temperature and polarization. We perform a systematic analysis of general perturbations in the radiation-dominated universe, accounting for any primordial magnetic field and including leading-order effects of the neutrino mass. We show that massive neutrinos qualitatively change the large-scale perturbations sourced by magnetic fields, but that the effect is much smaller than previously claimed. We calculate the CMB power spectra sourced by inhomogeneous primordial magnetic fields, from before and after neutrino decoupling, including scalar, vector and tensor modes, and consistently modeling the correlation between the density and anisotropic stress sources. In an appendix we present general series solutions for the possible regular primordial perturbations.

Shaw, J. Richard; Lewis, Antony [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

372

Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation: A novel technique for the characterization of magnetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades, the development and use of nanotechnology has become of increasing importance. Magnetic nanoparticles, because of their unique properties, have been employed in many different areas of application. They are generally made of a core of magnetic material coated with some other material to stabilize them and to help disperse them in suspension. The unique feature of magnetic nanoparticles is their response to a magnetic field. They are generally superparamagnetic, in which case they become magnetized only in a magnetic field and lose their magnetization when the field is removed. It is this feature that makes them so useful for drug targeting, hyperthermia and bioseparation. For many of these applications, the synthesis of uniformly sized magnetic nanoparticles is of key importance because their magnetic properties depend strongly on their dimensions. Because of the difficulty of synthesizing monodisperse particulate materials, a technique capable of characterizing the magnetic properties of polydisperse samples is of great importance. Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF) is a technique capable of fractionating magnetic particles based on their content of magnetite or other magnetic material. In MgFFF, the interplay of hydrodynamic and magnetic forces separates the particles as they are carried along a separation channel. Since the magnetic field and the gradient in magnetic field acting on the particles during their migration are known, it is possible to calculate the quantity of magnetic material in the particles according to their time of emergence at the channel outlet. Knowing the magnetic properties of the core material, MgFFF can be used to determine both the size distribution and the mean size of the magnetic cores of polydisperse samples. When magnetic material is distributed throughout the volume of the particles, the derived data corresponds to a distribution in equivalent spherical diameters of magnetic material in the particles. MgFFF is unique in its ability to characterize the distribution in magnetic properties of a particulate sample. This knowledge is not only of importance to the optimization and quality control of particle preparation. It is also of great importance in modeling magnetic cell separation, drug targeting, hyperthermia, and other areas of application.

Carpino, Francesca

373

Magnetic field associated with active electrochemical corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the underlying sources of the magnetic field associated with ongoing electrochemical corrosion, to investigate the spatio-temporal information content of the corrosion magnetic field, and to evaluate its potential utility in non-invasive quantification of hidden corrosion. The importance of this work lies in the fact that conventional electrochemical instruments

Afshin Abedi

2000-01-01

374

Coronal Heating and the Photospheric Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since magnetic field typically plays a role (either active or passive) in coronal heating theories, it may be possible to evaluate these theories by investigating the relationship between the coronal energy budget (the total power requirement of the corona) and measurable properties of the photospheric magnetic field. The X-ray flux is a useful proxy for the total power required to

C. E. Parnell; P. A. Sturrock

1997-01-01

375

Variability and topology of solar magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the large scale magnetic field in the photosphere taken at the Wilcox Solar Observatory since 1976 up to 2005 have been analyzed to deduce its latitudinal and longitudinal structures, its differential rotation, and their variability in time. The main results are the following: - The latitudinal structure of the solar magnetic field with a period of polarity change

E. A. Gavryuseva

2006-01-01

376

Astrophysical magnetic fields and nonlinear dynamo theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current understanding of astrophysical magnetic fields is reviewed, focusing on their generation and maintenance by turbulence. In the astrophysical context this generation is usually explained by a self-excited dynamo, which involves flows that can amplify a weak ‘seed’ magnetic field exponentially fast. Particular emphasis is placed on the nonlinear saturation of the dynamo. Analytic and numerical results are discussed

Axel Brandenburg; Kandaswamy Subramanian

2005-01-01

377

Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in

W. S. Gilbert; R. F. Althaus; P. J. Barale; R. W. Benjegerdes; M. A. Green; M. I. Green; R. M. Scanlan

1989-01-01

378

Biological effects of high DC magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal focus of the program is the analysis of magnetic field effects on physiological functions in experimental animals and selected organ and tissue systems. A major research effort has involved the use of electrical recording techniques to detect functional alterations in the cardiovascular, neural, and visual systems during the application of DC magnetic fields. These systems involve ionic conduction

Tenforde

1981-01-01

379

Pure phase encode magnetic field gradient monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous methods have been developed to measure MRI gradient waveforms and k-space trajectories. The most promising new strategy appears to be magnetic field monitoring with RF microprobes. Multiple RF microprobes may record the magnetic field evolution associated with a wide variety of imaging pulse sequences. The method involves exciting one or more test samples and measuring the time evolution of

Hui Han; Rodney P. MacGregor; Bruce J. Balcom

2009-01-01

380

Efficient Characterization of Magnetic Field Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the estimation of the magnetic field intensity emitted by industrial installations is presented. The method is best-suited for investigation of environmental magnetic field for health purposes. Simulation and measurement case-studies supporting the provided theoretical results are discussed

M. Bertocco; F. Dughiero; C. Greggio; E. Sieni; A. Sona

2006-01-01

381

Magnetic fields, branes, and noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a simple physical model of a particle moving on the infinite noncommutative 2-plane. The model consists of a pair of opposite charges moving in a strong magnetic field. In addition, the charges are connected by a spring. In the limit of large magnetic field, the charges are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. Interactions of such particles include

Daniela Bigatti; Leonard Susskind

2000-01-01

382

Directional discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the interplanetary magnetic field has different characteristics on different scales, and it is noted that a given physical theory may not be applicable or relevant on all scales. Four scales are defined in terms of time intervals on which the data may be viewed. Many discontinuities in the magnetic-field direction are seen on the mesoscale (˜

Leonard F. Burlaga

1969-01-01

383

Magnetic Fields, Ball Lightning and Campanology  

Microsoft Academic Search

WOODING suggests1 that ball lightning is a plasma vortex ring structure produced by a process similar to the ablation of a solid surface by a high power laser pulse. A plasma vortex ring structure requires a magnetic field; here I present two pieces of evidence to show that a magnetic field is associated with ball lightning, and which may help

A. J. F. Blair

1973-01-01

384

Magnetic field propagation in a stellar dynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations of stellar dynamos are reviewed. Dynamic dynamo models solve the nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic equations for the convective velocity, the thermodynamic variables, and the generated magnetic field in a rotating, spherical shell of ionized gas. When the dynamo operates in the convection zone, the simulated magnetic fields propagate away from the equator in the opposite direction inferred from

Gary A. Glatzmaier

1985-01-01

385

Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.

Shockley, Jeremiah A.

386

Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

At low beta it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order beta{sup 2}. This is only true if effects of order beta are canceled by a term in the nablaB drift also of order beta[H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2[Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B{sub ||} is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low beta for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B{sub ||} are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with eta{sub e}. The effect of B{sub ||} on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient beta{sup '} at constant beta.

Joiner, N.; Hirose, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Dorland, W. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-07-15

387

On the use of effective core potentials in the calculation of magnetic properties, such as magnetizabilites and magnetic shieldings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the art effective core potentials (ECPs) that replace electrons of inner atomic cores involve non-local potentials. If such an effective core potential is added to the Hamiltonian of a system in a magnetic field, the resulting Hamiltonian is not gauge invariant. This means, magnetic properties such as magnetisabilities and magnetic shieldings (or magnetic susceptibilities and nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts) calculated with different gauge origins are different even for exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation. It is possible to restore gauge invariance of the Hamiltonian by adding magnetic field dependent terms arising from the effective core potential. Numerical calculations on atomic and diatomic model systems (potassium mono-cation and potassium dimer) clearly demonstrate that the standard effective core potential Hamiltonian violates gauge invariance, and this affects the calculation of magnetisabilities more strongly than the calculation of magnetic shieldings. The modified magnetic field dependent effective core potential Hamiltonian is gauge invariant, and therefore it is the correct starting point for distributed gauge origin methods. The formalism for gauge including atomic orbitals (GIAO) and individual gauge for localized orbitals methods is worked out. ECP GIAO results for the potassium dimer are presented. The new method performs much better than a previous ECP GIAO implementation that did not account for the non-locality of the potential. For magnetic shieldings, deviations are clearly seen, but they amount to few ppm only. For magnetisabilities, our new ECP GIAO implementation is a major improvement, as demonstrated by the comparison of all-electron and ECP results.

van Wüllen, Christoph

2012-03-01

388

On the use of effective core potentials in the calculation of magnetic properties, such as magnetizabilites and magnetic shieldings.  

PubMed

State-of-the art effective core potentials (ECPs) that replace electrons of inner atomic cores involve non-local potentials. If such an effective core potential is added to the Hamiltonian of a system in a magnetic field, the resulting Hamiltonian is not gauge invariant. This means, magnetic properties such as magnetisabilities and magnetic shieldings (or magnetic susceptibilities and nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts) calculated with different gauge origins are different even for exact solutions of the Schro?dinger equation. It is possible to restore gauge invariance of the Hamiltonian by adding magnetic field dependent terms arising from the effective core potential. Numerical calculations on atomic and diatomic model systems (potassium mono-cation and potassium dimer) clearly demonstrate that the standard effective core potential Hamiltonian violates gauge invariance, and this affects the calculation of magnetisabilities more strongly than the calculation of magnetic shieldings. The modified magnetic field dependent effective core potential Hamiltonian is gauge invariant, and therefore it is the correct starting point for distributed gauge origin methods. The formalism for gauge including atomic orbitals (GIAO) and individual gauge for localized orbitals methods is worked out. ECP GIAO results for the potassium dimer are presented. The new method performs much better than a previous ECP GIAO implementation that did not account for the non-locality of the potential. For magnetic shieldings, deviations are clearly seen, but they amount to few ppm only. For magnetisabilities, our new ECP GIAO implementation is a major improvement, as demonstrated by the comparison of all-electron and ECP results. PMID:22443751

van Wüllen, Christoph

2012-03-21

389

Variations of the magnetic field at CNSC, VA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current work had the goal to map the magnetic field at Claytor Nature Study Center (CNSC) near Bedford, VA. Magnetic ground measurements of the total intensity of the magnetic field were conducted over a period of two years. The data were obtained using a Geometrics G-856 proton precession magnetometer and were interpreted using the Mag2dc algorithm. The magnetometer provides a repeatable absolute total field magnetic reading. It has resolution of 0.1 nanotesla (nT), and accuracy of 0.5 nT. Readings were taken along several survey lines. Magnetic anomalies due to metal fences, buried pipes, well casings, and power lines were eliminated. The Mag2dc algorithm calculates the magnetic anomaly over 2.5 dimensional bodies. Each body can be represented by a polygon with up to 50 sides. The magnetic susceptibility for each body is assumed to be constant. Magnetic anomalies on the order of a few hundred to over a thousand nT were observed. The results were interpolated to obtain a continuous map of the magnetic field at CNSC. )

Gilstrap, Tatiana; Keane, James

2010-02-01

390

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the DNA synthesis.  

PubMed

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the rate of DNA synthesis catalysed by polymerases ? with isotopic ions (24)Mg(2+), (25)Mg(2+) and (26)Mg(2+) in the catalytic sites were detected. No difference in enzymatic activity was found between polymerases ? carrying (24)Mg(2+) and (26)Mg(2+) ions with spinless, non-magnetic nuclei (24)Mg and (26)Mg. However, (25)Mg(2+) ions with magnetic nucleus (25)Mg were shown to suppress enzymatic activity by two to three times with respect to the enzymatic activity of polymerases ? with (24)Mg(2+) and (26)Mg(2+) ions. Such an isotopic dependence directly indicates that in the DNA synthesis magnetic mass-independent isotope effect functions. Similar effect is exhibited by polymerases ? with Zn(2+) ions carrying magnetic (67)Zn and non-magnetic (64)Zn nuclei, respectively. A new, ion-radical mechanism of the DNA synthesis is suggested to explain these effects. Magnetic field dependence of the magnesium-catalysed DNA synthesis is in a perfect agreement with the proposed ion-radical mechanism. It is pointed out that the magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects may be used for medicinal purposes (trans-cranial magnetic treatment of cognitive deceases, cell proliferation, control of the cancer cells, etc). PMID:23851636

Buchachenko, Anatoly L; Orlov, Alexei P; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A; Breslavskaya, Natalia N

2013-07-13

391

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the DNA synthesis  

PubMed Central

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the rate of DNA synthesis catalysed by polymerases ? with isotopic ions 24Mg2+, 25Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ in the catalytic sites were detected. No difference in enzymatic activity was found between polymerases ? carrying 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions with spinless, non-magnetic nuclei 24Mg and 26Mg. However, 25Mg2+ ions with magnetic nucleus 25Mg were shown to suppress enzymatic activity by two to three times with respect to the enzymatic activity of polymerases ? with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions. Such an isotopic dependence directly indicates that in the DNA synthesis magnetic mass-independent isotope effect functions. Similar effect is exhibited by polymerases ? with Zn2+ ions carrying magnetic 67Zn and non-magnetic 64Zn nuclei, respectively. A new, ion–radical mechanism of the DNA synthesis is suggested to explain these effects. Magnetic field dependence of the magnesium-catalysed DNA synthesis is in a perfect agreement with the proposed ion–radical mechanism. It is pointed out that the magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects may be used for medicinal purposes (trans-cranial magnetic treatment of cognitive deceases, cell proliferation, control of the cancer cells, etc).

Buchachenko, Anatoly L.; Orlov, Alexei P.; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A.; Breslavskaya, Natalia N.

2013-01-01

392

{psi}{psi} condensate in constant magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We solve the Dirac equation in the presence of a constant magnetic field in (3+1) and (2+1) dimensions. Quantizing the fermion field, we calculate the {psi}{psi} condensate from first principles for parity conserving and violating Lagrangians for arbitrary field strength. We make a comparison with the results already known in the literature for some particular cases and point out the relevance of our work for possible physical applications.

Anguiano-Galicia, M. de J; Bashir, A.; Raya, A. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacan 58040 (Mexico)

2007-12-15

393

Vehicle detection using a magnetic field sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of vehicle magnetic moments and the results from use of a fluxgate magnetic sensor to actuate a lighting system from the magnetic fields of passing vehicles is reported. A typical U.S. automobile has a magnetic moment of about 200 A-m2(Ampere-meters2), while for a school bus it is about 2000 A-m2. When the vehicle is modeled as an ideal

S. V. Marshall

1978-01-01

394

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole  

DOEpatents

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

Tatchyn, R.O.

1997-01-21

395

High Field Magnets With HTS Conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of high-field magnets using high temperature superconductors (HTS) is a core activity at the NHMFL. Magnet technology based on both YBCO-coated tape conductors and Bi-2212 round wires is being pursued. Two specific projects are underway. The first is a user magnet with a 17 T YBCO coil set which, inside an LTS outsert, will generate a combined field of

H. W. Weijers; U. P. Trociewitz; W. D. Markiewicz; J. Jiang; D. Myers; E. E. Hellstrom; A. Xu; J. Jaroszynski; P. Noyes; Y. Viouchkov; D. C. Larbalestier

2010-01-01

396

Manipulation of Magnetic Nanowire Suspending in Half Space Nematic Liquid Crystal by External Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the elasticity energy, a magnetic nanowire suspended in a half-space twisted nematic liquid crystal (TNLC) was studied. Using equivalent capacitance, the equilibrium position of the nanowire, the deflexion of its axis from the anchoring direction and the eigenfrequency of the nanowire around its equilibrium position were calculated. The results show that the height of the nanowire increases slowly with increasing H in small magnetic field regime less than 0.01 Gs, and picks up quickly if H is larger than about 0.02 Gs. A calculation of the eigenfrequency of the nanowire shows that it decreases quickly with the increase of H at small magnetic field regime and then levels off towards a lower limit, which is about 170 Hz based on the present parameters under larger field. Moreover, the eigenfrequency also depends on mass with a maximum value which is found to be field-independent when the external field is large enough.

Lai, Guo-Zhong; Su, Chan-Fei

2012-12-01

397

ON THE EFFECT OF A WEAK INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SOLAR WIND AND THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

the presence of a weak interplanetary magnetic field may lead to the ; formation of a collision-free shock wave upstream from the boundary of the ; geomagnetic field and to a transition region characterized by an irregular ; magnetic field in the intervening space. Previous calculations of the ; coordinates of the shock wave are improved upon by application of

John R. Spreiter; Wm. Prichard Jones

1963-01-01

398

Graphical interactive generation of gravity and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and magnetic observation surveys aimed to the exploration of Earth subsurface are nowadays increasingly growing, due to their superior cost-effectiveness. They can be applied to a great variety of applications, ranging in scale from archaeological and engineering site investigations up to regional and global crust studies of Earth. In potential fields analysis, many algorithms, designed to extract quantitative subsurface information, do exist. Before using these methods on real data and in order to verify their effectiveness, they are usually tested on synthetic data. However, due to synthetic calculation complexity, magnetic and gravimetric sources are often replaced with simple geometrical primitives (spheres, cylinders or prisms) very far from being representative of real geological sources. A suite of MATLABs procedures called GamField is presented that greatly simplifies the graphical windows interactive construction of complex 3-D distributions of Cartesian prisms for gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling. The package can be used to compute a large variety of synthetic fields aimed at testing the quality of several interpretation techniques. Unlike already published PC-based codes, that compute either a magnetic or gravity field, GamField permits the combined calculation of both fields, their gradients and the magnetic vector components, through a graphical interactive 3-D approach in the construction of generic sources. GamField is maintained by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and can be freely downloaded.

Pignatelli, A.; Nicolosi, I.; Carluccio, R.; Chiappini, M.; von Frese, R. R.

2011-12-01

399

Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

2004-03-01

400

Materials Processing in Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest in lattice QCD -- Quark-gluon plasma physics -- String theory and exact results in quantum field theory -- The status of local supersymmetry.Supersymmetry in nuclei -- Inflation, dark matter, dark energy -- How many dimensions are really compactified? -- Horizons -- Neutrino oscillations physics -- Fundamental constants and their possible time dependence.Highlights from BNL. new phenomena at RHIC -- Highlights from BABAR -- Diffraction studied with a hard scale at HERA -- The large hadron collider: a status report -- Status of non-LHC experiments at CERN -- Highlights from Gran Sass.Fast automatic systems for nuclear emulsion scanning: technique and experiments -- Probing the QGP with charm at ALICE-LHC -- magnetic screening length in hot QCD -- Non-supersymmetric deformation of the Klebanov-Strassler model and the related plane wave theory -- Holographic renormalization made simple: an example -- The kamLAND impact on neutrino oscillations -- Particle identification with the ALIC TOF detector at very high multiplicity -- Superpotentials of N = 1 SUSY gauge theories -- Measurement of the proton structure function F2 in QED compton scattering at HERA -- Yang-Mills effective action at high temperature -- The time of flight (TOF) system of the ALICE experiment -- Almost product manifolds as the low energy geometry of Dirichlet Brane.

Schneider-Muntau, Hans J.; Wada, Hitoshi

401

MRI Magnetic Field Stimulates Rotational Sensors of the Brain  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Vertigo in and around MRI machines has been noted for years [1, 2]. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain these sensations [3, 4], yet without direct, objective measures, the cause is unknown. We found that all healthy human subjects lying in the static magnetic field of an MRI machine develop a robust nystagmus. Patients lacking labyrinthine function do not. Here we use the pattern of eye movements as a measure of vestibular stimulation to show that the stimulation is static (continuous, proportional to static magnetic field strength, requiring neither head movement nor dynamic change in magnetic field strength) and directional (sensitive to magnetic field polarity and head orientation). Our calculations and geometric model suggest that magnetic vestibular stimulation derives from a Lorentz force due to interaction between the magnetic field and naturally-occurring ionic currents in the labyrinthine endolymph fluid. This force pushes on the semicircular canal cupula, leading to nystagmus. We emphasize that the unique, dual role of endolymph in the delivery of both ionic current and fluid pressure, coupled with the cupula’s function as a pressure sensor, makes magnetic field induced nystagmus and vertigo possible. Such effects could confound fMRI studies of brain behavior, including resting-state brain activity.

Roberts, Dale C.; Marcelli, Vincenzo; Gillen, Joseph S.; Carey, John P.; Santina, Charles C. Della; Zee, David S.

2012-01-01

402

MESOGRANULATION AND THE SOLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION  

SciTech Connect

The relation of the solar surface magnetic field with mesogranular cells is studied using high spatial ({approx}100 km) and temporal ({approx}30 s) resolution data obtained with the IMaX instrument on board SUNRISE. First, mesogranular cells are identified using Lagrange tracers (corks) based on horizontal velocity fields obtained through local correlation tracking. After {approx}20 minutes of integration, the tracers delineate a sharp mesogranular network with lanes of width below about 280 km. The preferential location of magnetic elements in mesogranular cells is tested quantitatively. Roughly 85% of pixels with magnetic field higher than 100 G are located in the near neighborhood of mesogranular lanes. Magnetic flux is therefore concentrated in mesogranular lanes rather than intergranular ones. Second, magnetic field extrapolations are performed to obtain field lines anchored in the observed flux elements. This analysis, therefore, is independent of the horizontal flows determined in the first part. A probability density function (PDF) is calculated for the distribution of distances between the footpoints of individual magnetic field lines. The PDF has an exponential shape at scales between 1 and 10 Mm, with a constant characteristic decay distance, indicating the absence of preferred convection scales in the mesogranular range. Our results support the view that mesogranulation is not an intrinsic convective scale (in the sense that it is not a primary energy-injection scale of solar convection), but also give quantitative confirmation that, nevertheless, the magnetic elements are preferentially found along mesogranular lanes.

Yelles Chaouche, L.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea, s/n, 38205 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Wiegelmann, T.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Knoelker, M. [High Altitude Observatory (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia, s/n 18008 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2011-02-01

403

Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

Piccinelli, Gabriella; Sánchez, Ángel; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

2013-07-01

404

Measurement and analysis of static magnetic fields that block action potentials in cultured neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the properties of static magnetic fields on firing of action potentials (AP) by sensory neurons in cell culture, the authors developed a mathematical formalism based on the expression for the magnetic field of a single circular current loop. The calculated fields fit closely the field measurements taken with a Hall effect gaussmeter. The biological effect induced by different

A. V. Cavopol; A. W. Wamil; M. J. McLean

1995-01-01

405

THE TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS. II. THE RECLOSING OF AN OPENED FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of the spontaneous formation of current sheets responding to the closing of an opened magnetic field by resistive reconnection in an electrically, highly conducting atmosphere outside a unit sphere. Pairs of initial-final equilibrium states are calculated explicitly, taking the field to be composed of three systems of untwisted flux in both states. In the initial state,

B. C. Low; A. M. Janse

2009-01-01

406

The Topological Changes of Solar Coronal Magnetic Fields. II. The Reclosing of an Opened Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of the spontaneous formation of current sheets responding to the closing of an opened magnetic field by resistive reconnection in an electrically, highly conducting atmosphere outside a unit sphere. Pairs of initial-final equilibrium states are calculated explicitly, taking the field to be composed of three systems of untwisted flux in both states. In the initial state,

B. C. Low; Å. M. Janse

2009-01-01

407

Magnetic field fluctuations arising from thermal motion of electric charge in conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed for the source of magnetic field fluctuations emanating from thermal agitation of electric charge in conductors. The calculation of the thermal magnetic noise with the model involves the solution of a general volume conductor forward problem. Frequency-dependent equations for this problem are derived from Maxwell’s equations. The model is applied to calculate the magnetic noise generated

T. Varpula; T. Poutanen

1984-01-01

408

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Spatially complicated magnetic fields are frequently treated as the sum of a large, slowly varying, mean field and a small, rapidly varying, field. The primary effect of the small field is to modify the Ohm's law of the mean field. A set of plausible assumptions leads to a form of the mean field Ohm's law which is fundamentally different from the conventional alpha effect of dynamo theory.

Boozer, A.H.

1984-11-01

409

Effects of Filament Magnetization in Superconducting Magnets as Calculated by POISSON.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetization of superconducting material can be introduced into POISSON through a field dependent permeability table (in the same way that iron characteristics are introduced). This can be done by representing measured magnetization data of the increasin...

S. Caspi W. S. Gilbert M. Helm L. J. Laslett

1986-01-01

410

Proton Wave Functions in a Uniform Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The wave function of the d-quark in the ground state of the proton, and how it is affected in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field is calculated in lattice QCD. We focus on the wave functions in the Landau and Coulomb gauges. When the quarks are annihilated at different lattice sites, we observe the formation of a scalar u-d diquark pair within the proton in the Landau gauge, which is not present in the Coulomb gauge. The overall distortion of the wave function under a very large magnetic field, as demanded by the quantisation conditions on the field, is quite small.

Roberts, Dale S.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics, University of Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Bowman, Patrick O. [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University (Albany), Private Bag 102904, North Shore City 0745 (New Zealand)

2011-05-24

411

Shape of the proton in a uniform magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a uniform background magnetic field on the wave function of the d-quark in the ground state of the proton is calculated in Lattice QCD. We focus on the wave functions in the Landau and Coulomb gauges. When the quarks are annihilated at different lattice sites, we observe the formation of a scalar u-d diquark pair within the proton in the Landau gauge, which is not present in the Coulomb gauge. The overall distortion of the wave function under a very large magnetic field, as demanded by the quantisation conditions on the field, is quite small.

Roberts, Dale S.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics, University of Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Bowman, Patrick O. [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University (Albany), Private Bag 102904, North Shore City 0745 (New Zealand)

2010-07-27

412

Photoionisation of hydrogen in a strong magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computed cross sections are presented for the photoionization of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field of 2000 T, which show the same qualitative features as such spectra observed at lower fields. The quantum-mechanical ansatz used yields a system of coupled differential equations in the coordinate parallel to the magnetic field, which is solved numerically with a new, very stable integration procedure based on the logarithmic derivative method. Matching to MQDT functions in the asymptotic region, the photoionization spectrum can be calculated most efficiently.

Alijah, Alexander; Hinze, Juergen; Broad, John T.

1990-01-01

413

Schwinger pair production in electric and magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Charged particles in static electric and magnetic fields have Landau levels and tunneling states from the vacuum. Using the instanton method of Phys. Rev. D 65, 105002 (2002), we obtain the formulas for the pair-production rate in spinor and scalar QED, which sum over all Landau levels and recover exactly the well-known results. The pair-production rates are calculated for an electric field of finite extent, and for the Sauter potential, both with a constant magnetic field also present, and are shown to have finite-size effects.

Kim, Sang Pyo; Page, Don N. [Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 573-701, Korea and Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada)

2006-03-15

414

Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields Using Ly? Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From previous studies of the effect of primordial magnetic fields on early structure formation, we know that the presence of primordial magnetic fields during early structure formation could induce more perturbations at small scales (at present 1-10 h -1 Mpc) as compared to the usual ?CDM theory. Matter power spectra over these scales are effectively probed by cosmological observables such as shear correlation and Ly? clouds. In this paper we discuss the implications of primordial magnetic fields on the distribution of Ly? clouds. We simulate the line-of-sight density fluctuation including the contribution coming from the primordial magnetic fields. We compute the evolution of Ly? opacity for this case and compare our theoretical estimates of Ly? opacity with the existing data to constrain the parameters of the primordial magnetic fields. We also discuss the case when the two density fields are correlated. Our analysis yields an upper bound of roughly 0.3-0.6 nG on the magnetic field strength for a range of nearly scale-invariant models, corresponding to a magnetic field power spectrum index n ~= -3.

Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Sethi, Shiv K.

2013-01-01

415

Mercury's internal magnetic field: Constraints on fields of crustal origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of Mercury's internal magnetic field during MESSENGER's first flyby (M1) and the first and third flybys of Mariner 10 (M10-I, M10-III) suggest that small-scale crustal magnetic fields, if they exist, are at the limit of resolution. Small-scale crustal fields are most easily identified near closest approach (CA) as features with wavelengths comparable to, or larger than, the spacecraft altitude. One small feature (< 4 nT in magnitude) encountered near CA during MESSENGER's first flyby may be either a crustal magnetic field or a plasma pressure effect. By means of Parker's constrained optimization approach, with no assumptions on the direction of magnetization, we can place constraints on the product of magnetization and magnetized layer thickness from such observations. The second flyby (M2) will allow additional constraints to be placed on the presence of small-scale fields, and correlations will be possible among topographic profiles measured by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), features seen on MESSENGER and Mariner 10 images, and any variations in the internal field. This flyby will acquire the first images of the CA region of M10-III, which has been pivotal in establishing the dipolar character of Mercury's magnetic field. Our ability to isolate small-scale crustal magnetic fields has been hindered by the limited coverage to date, as well as the difficulty in isolating the internal field. Across the terrestrial planets and the Moon, minimum magnetization contrast and iron abundance in the crust show a positive correlation. This correlation suggests that crustal iron content plays a determining role in the strength of crustal magnetization.

Purucker, M. E.; Sabaka, T. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Head, J. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Uno, H.

2008-12-01

416

Day-to-Day Variation of the Angular Distribution of Lightning Activity Calculated from ELF Magnetic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the ``local'' distribution of lightning activity on the Earth calculated from Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic field variations. Lightning generates strong electromagnetic impulses recorded in the ELF band as short signal spikes. Using two perpendicular magnetic antennas at our Hylaty station, we calculate the azimuths of the sources of such spikes. These ELF data are compared with selected

Zenon Nieckarz; Andrzej Kulak; Stanislaw Zieba; Adam Michalec

2009-01-01

417

Day-to-Day Variation of the Angular Distribution of Lightning Activity Calculated from ELF Magnetic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the “local” distribution of lightning activity on the Earth calculated from Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic field variations. Lightning generates strong electromagnetic impulses recorded in the ELF band as short signal spikes. Using two perpendicular magnetic antennas at our Hylaty station, we calculate the azimuths of the sources of such spikes. These ELF data are compared with selected

Zenon Nieckarz; Adam Michalec

2009-01-01

418

Equivalent Circuit Parameter Calculation of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor Involving Iron Loss Resistance Using Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the equivalent circuit parameters of interior permanent magnet motors including iron loss resistance using the finite element method. First, the finite element analysis considering harmonics and magnetic saturation is carried out to obtain time variations of magnetic fields in the stator and the rotor core. Second, the iron losses of the

Katsumi Yamazaki

2004-01-01

419

Magnetic field induced lattice ground states from holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the holographic field theory dual of a probe SU(2) Yang-Mills field in a background (4 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space. We find a new ground state when a magnetic component of the gauge field is larger than a critical value. The ground state forms a triangular Abrikosov lattice in the spatial directions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The lattice is composed of superconducting vortices induced by the condensation of a charged vector operator. We perform this calculation both at finite temperature and at zero temperature with a hard wall cutoff dual to a confining gauge theory. The study of this state may be of relevance to both holographic condensed matter models as well as to heavy ion physics. The results shown here provide support for the proposal that such a ground state may be found in the QCD vacuum when a large magnetic field is present.

Bu, Yan-Yan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Shock, Jonathan P.; Strydom, Migael

2013-03-01

420

Why Does the Sun Have Kilogauss Magnetic Fields?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields in the solar photosphere are concentrated in flux tubes with kilogauss field strength surrounded by nearly field-free plasma. Observations show that the flux tubes are located in convective downdrafts where the temperature is lower than average. We assume that the convective downdrafts extend to large depths in the convection zone, and that flux tubes follow the downdrafts to these depths. We develop a model for the magnetic field strength B(z) in the flux tubes as a function of depth z below the surface. Our calculations reveal that epsilon, the ratio of magnetic pressure to gas pressure, has a large depth variation: at the base of the convection zone where epsilon ~10^{-5} (B ~10^5 G), while at the top epsilon ~1, in broad agreement with solar observations. Thus the model can explain why the field strength at the photosphere is around 1 kG.

Hasan, S. S.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.

421

The Protogalactic Origin for Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that strong magnetic fields are produced from a zero\\u000ainitial magnetic field during the pregalactic era, when galaxies are first\\u000aforming. Their development proceeds in three phases. In the first phase, weak\\u000amagnetic fields are created by the Biermann battery mechanism, acting in\\u000ashocked parts of the intergalactic medium where caustics form and intersect. In\\u000athe second

Russell M. Kulsrud; Renyue Cen; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Dongsu Ryu

1996-01-01

422

Turbulence and Magnetic Fields in Astrophysical Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields permeate the Universe. They are found in planets, stars, accretion discs, galaxies, clusters of galaxies,\\u000a and the intergalactic medium. While there is often a component of the field that is spatially coherent at the scale of the\\u000a astrophysical object, the field lines are tangled chaotically and there are magnetic fluctuations at scales that range over\\u000a orders of magnitude.

Alexander A. Schekochihin; Steven C Cowley

2007-01-01

423

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

Boozer, A.H.

1986-05-01

424

Emittance measurement in a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Emittance can be measured by intercepting an electron beam on a range thick plate and then observing the expansion of beamlets transmitted through small holes. The hole size is selected to minimize space charge effects. In the presence of a magnetic field the beamlets have a spiral trajectory and the usual field free formulation must be modified. To interpret emittance in the presence of a magnetic field an envelope equation is derived in the appropriate rotating frame. 1 ref.

Boyd, J.K.

1991-04-15

425

Manipulating Cells with Static Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our investigations of the use of static magnetic fields, B, for manipulating cells and cellular processes. We describe how B fields modify the cell division pattern of frog embryos and consequently can be used to probe the pattern determinants. We also observe that magnetic fields modify the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. We describe these modifications and their potential application to investigations of their swimming behavior.

Valles, J. M.; Guevorkian, K.

2005-07-01

426

Magnetic field effects on dielectrophoresis in manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite-type manganese oxides (manganites) are of interest for many of the different properties they possess, including colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and ferroelectric behavior. With the application of an electric field, large resistance decreases have been noted near the insulator-to-metal transition temperature in samples of (La1-yPry)1-xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO). Two proposed models have emerged to explain the behavior, dielectric breakdown and dielectrophoresis, with experimental evidence showing some aspects of the dielectrophoresis model to be correct. However, neither model accounts for magnetic interactions among the ferromagnetic metallic regions and the effects of a magnetic field applied in conjunction with an electric field. We have performed measurements on LPCMO samples by varying the strength and orientation of the magnetic field and the applied voltage. Cross-shaped microstructures have been made on LPCMO samples to allow us to investigate the effects of sample size on dielectrophoresis. We will present resistance and magnetization data obtained on LPCMO samples at various magnetic field strengths, magnetic field orientations, and sample sizes to elucidate the effect of magnetic interactions on dielectrophoresis induced transport and magnetic properties.

Grant, Daniel; Dragiev, Galin; Biswas, Amlan

2013-03-01

427

Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

428

Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic

H. B. Liemohn; D. L. Lessor; B. H. Duane

1976-01-01

429

Magnetic Field Extrapolations And Current Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) --- phenomena which impact our society, but are scientifically interesting in themselves --- are driven by free magnetic energy in the coronal magnetic field. Since the coronal magnetic field cannot be directly measured, modelers often extrapolate the coronal field from the photospheric magnetograms --- the only field measurements routinely available. The best extrapolation techniques assume that the field is force free (coronal currents parallel the magnetic field), but that currents are not simply a linear function of the magnetic field. Recent tests, however, suggest that such non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation techniques often underestimate free magnetic energy. We hypothesize that, since relaxation-based NLFFF techniques tend to smooth field discontinuities, such approaches will fail when current sheets are present. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying the Optimization NLFFF method to two configurations from an MHD simulation --- one with strong current concentrations, and one with weak concentrations. This work is supported by a NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory grant to UC-Berkeley.

Welsch, Brian; De Moortel, I.; McTiernan, J. M.

2007-05-01

430

Neutron Star Crust in Strong Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the effects of strong magnetic fields through Landau quantization of electrons on the structure and stability of nuclei in neutron star crust. In strong magnetic fields, this leads to the enhancement of the electron number density with respect to the zero field case. We obtain the sequence of equilibrium nuclei of the outer crust in the presence of strong magnetic fields adopting most recent versions of the experimental and theoretical nuclear mass tables. For B ~ 1016G, it is found that some new nuclei appear in the sequence and some nuclei disappear from the sequence compared with the zero field case. Further we investigate the stability of nuclei in the inner crust in the presence of strong magnetic fields using the Thomas-Fermi model. The coexistence of two phases of nuclear matter - liquid and gas, is considered in this case. The proton number density is significantly enhanced in strong magnetic fields B ~ 1017G through the charge neutrality. We find nuclei with larger mass number in the presence of strong magnetic fields than those of the zero field. These results might have important implications for the transport properties of the crust in magnetars.

Nandi, Rana; Bandyopadhyay, Debades

2011-09-01

431

Global magnetic fields: variation of solar minima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topology of the large-scale magnetic field of the Sun and its role in the development of magnetic activity were investigated using H ? charts of the Sun in the period 1887-2011. We have considered the indices characterizing the minimum activity epoch, according to the data of large-scale magnetic fields. Such indices include: dipole-octopole index, area and average latitude of the field with dominant polarity in each hemisphere and others. We studied the correlation between these indices and the amplitude of the following sunspot cycle, and the relation between the duration of the cycle of large-scale magnetic fields and the duration of the sunspot cycle. The comparative analysis of the solar corona during the minimum epochs in activity cycles 12 to 24 shows that the large-scale magnetic field has been slow and steadily changing during the past 130 years. The reasons for the variations in the solar coronal structure and its relation with long-term variations in the geomagnetic indices, solar wind and Gleissberg cycle are discussed. We also discuss the origin of the large-scale magnetic field. Perhaps the large-scale field leads to the generation of small-scale bipolar ephemeral regions, which in turn support the large-scale field. The existence of two dynamos: a dynamo of sunspots and a surface dynamo can explain phenomena such as long periods of sunspot minima, permanent dynamo in stars and the geomagnetic field.

Tlatov, Andrey G.; Obridko, Vladimir N.

2012-07-01

432

Ultrafast heating and magnetic switching with weak external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TbFeCo magneto-optical media with the coercivity of bigger than 1.0 kOe are used for the investigation of ultrafast heating and magnetic switching with the weak external magnetic field. It has been found that the laser-induced active region becomes larger with an external magnetic field because the boundary of the active region is magnetized with the assistance of the external field during the ultrafast heating. According to this physical phenomenon, the so called ``mark expansion method'' has been proposed for visual observation of ultrafast switching marks. Using this method, the ultrafast magnetic switching in TbFeCo media has been studied using 40 fs laser pulse with linear polarization. The result shows that the ultrafast magnetic switching can be implemented by the laser pulse with assistance of the weak external field of about 0.7 kOe. Further studies show that the area percentage of the magnetic mark expansion relative to its thermal mark decreases with the increasing of the laser pulse energy. There exists the threshold pulse energy that the active region is fully magnetized. The theoretical analysis of electron, spin, and lattice temperatures has been conducted to the active region of the media where the maximum spin temperature is close to the Curie temperature of the media. The result indicates that the media become active at 4.137 ps and the ultrafast heating plays a key role for the ultrafast magnetic switching. The weak external magnetic field provides sufficient driving force to control the magnetization direction in the media.

Li, J. M.; Xu, B. X.; Zhang, J.; Ye, K. D.

2013-01-01

433

Optimal design of eddy current testing probe using fluxset magnetic field sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method is presented for the calculation of the signal picked up by eddy current testing (ECT) probes made of an exciting coil and fluxset type magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field generated by the interaction of the exciting coil and the non-ferromagnetic metal plate specimen is calculated by the solution of a boundary integral equation with singular kernel.

J. Pavo; K. Miya

1996-01-01

434

Butterfly-like spectra and collective modes of antidot superlattices in magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the energy band structure for electrons in an external periodic potential combined with a perpendicular magnetic field. Electron-electron interactions are included within a Hartree approximation. The calculated energy spectra display a considerable degree of self-similarity, just as the ``Hofstadter butterfly.'' However, screening affects the butterfly, most importantly the bandwidths oscillate with magnetic field in a characteristic way. We

Egidijus Anisimovas; Peter Johansson

1999-01-01

435

Magnetic Field Dependence of Many-Body Enhanced Electron Tunnelling Through a Quantum Dot  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider many-body enhanced electron tunnelling through an InAs quantum dot in magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tunneling direction. Critical exponent of Fermi edge singularity in tunneling current is calculated as a function of magnetic field. We use lowest Landau level approximation for electrons in emitter and perform scattering matrix calculation in Born approximation. Results are compared with recent

Ivan A. Larkin; E. E. Vdovin; Yu. N. Khanin; M. Henini

2009-01-01

436

Polarization Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar atmosphere is a highly ionized medium which is the playground of magnetic fields. In the deepest layer (the photosphere), magnetic fields disturb the 'normal' fluid motions forcing the plasma to behave incounterintuitive ways; in the outer layers (the chromosphere and the corona) magnetic fields rule, making the plasma levitate or even ejecting it out of the gravitational well of the Sun, with important consequences for us here on Earth. However, magnetic fields are elusive. The only quantitative evidence of their presence is through the polarization state of the light emitted by the plasma they are playing with. Remote sensing of magnetic fields from 150 million km away through spectropolarimetry is a challenge on applied physics as well as an art. It requires the application of quantum mechanics, radiative transfer theory, and advanced optics to the interpretation and analysis of spectropolarimetric observations. I will review standard diagnostic techniques and recent developments on this field. I will discuss their limitations and how to overcome them through the complementary aspects of different diagnostic techniques, spectral regions, and statistical analysis. Finally, I will review what are the main areas for progress in this regard: most notably, the 'measurement' of magnetic fields in the extremely dilute and weakly magnetized outer layers of the sun.

Manso Sainz, R.

2011-12-01

437

Chiral asymmetry in QED matter in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the electron self-energy in a magnetized QED plasma to the leading perturbative order in the coupling constant and to the linear order in an external magnetic field. We find that the chiral asymmetry of the normal ground state of the system is characterized by two new Dirac structures. One of them is the familiar chiral shift previously discussed in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The other structure is new. It formally looks like that of the chiral chemical potential but is an odd function of the longitudinal component of the momentum, directed along the magnetic field. The origin of this new parity-even chiral structure is directly connected with the long-range character of the QED interaction. The form of the Fermi surface in the weak magnetic field is determined.

Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Wang, Xinyang

2013-07-01

438

Stability of accretion discs threaded by a strong magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stability of poloidal magnetic fields anchored in a thin accretion disc. The two-dimensional hydrodynamics in the disc plane is followed by a grid-based numerical simulation including the vertically integrated magnetic forces. The three-dimensional magnetic field outside the disc is calculated in a potential field approximation from the magnetic flux density distribution in the disc. For uniformly rotating discs we confirm numerically the existence of the interchange instability as predicted by Spruit, Stehle & Papaloizou. In agreement with predictions from the shearing sheet model, discs with Keplerian rotation are found to be stabilized by the shear, as long as the contribution of magnetic forces to support against gravity is small.