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1

Calculation of magnetic fields for engineering devices

This paper deals with the methodology of magnet technology and its application to various engineering devices. Magnet technology has experienced a rapid growth in the past few years as a result of the advances made in superconductivity, numerical methods and computational techniques. Specifically, this paper concerns itself with: (a) Mathematical models for solving magnetic field problems; (b) The applicability, usefulness,

John S. Colonias

1976-01-01

2

This paper mainly studies the driving system of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation, with the core being disc magnetic coupling. Structure parameters of disc magnetic coupling are related to the ability of transferring magnetic torque. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out disc magnetic coupling permanent magnet pole number (n), air gap length (L(g)), permanent magnet thickness (L(m)), permanent magnet body inside diameter (R(i)) and outside diameter (R(o)), etc. thoroughly. This paper adopts the three-dimensional static magnetic field edge element method of Ansys for numerical calculation, and analyses the relations of magnetic coupling each parameter to transmission magnetic torque. It provides a good theory basis and calculation method for further optimization of the disc magnetic coupling. PMID:24645605

Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Lijun; Zhang, Tianyi; Chen, Zhenglong; Zhang, Tao

2013-12-01

3

Magnetic field calculation and dynamic behavior analyses of the permanent magnetic actuator

Due to its great advantages, the permanent magnetic actuator for a vacuum circuit breaker drew great attention from engineers all over the world. We present the magnetic field and dynamic behavior analyses for the permanent magnetic actuator using finite element method associated with parametrization, for calculating the displacement of the moving parts and the supply current when the actuator is

Lin Xin; Gao Huijun; Cai Zhiyuan

2000-01-01

4

Efficient Magnetic Field Calculation Method for Pancake Coil Using Biot-Savart Law

In this paper the efficient magnetic field calculation method for pancake coil using Biot-Savart law is presented. When the magnetic scalar potential (MSP) is used for electro-magnetic problems, the magnetic field arising from the source current has to be analytically evaluated. Because the denominator goes zero inside the conductor where field point and source point coincide, the field evaluation has

Hyang-Beom Lee; Ho-jun Song

2006-01-01

5

evaluation of magnetic field noise, either from current or magnetization fluctuations, inside enclosures made is obtained from calculation of power loss incurred in the material by a driving magnetic field. Sidles et al., for ex- ample, presented a comprehensive analysis of the spectrum of magnetic field noise from magnetic

Romalis, Mike

6

Calculation of the magnetic field in the active zone of a hysteresis clutch

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial distribution of magnetic induction in the armature stationary was calculated relative to the polar system of a hysteresis clutch. Using several assumptions, the problem is reduced to calculating the static magnetic field in the ferromagnetic plate with finite and continuous magnetic permeability placed in the air gap between two identical, parallel semiconductors with rack fixed relative to the tooth or slot position.

Ermilov, M. A.; Glukhov, O. M.

1977-01-01

7

Calculations of magnetic field for the end design of the RHIC arc dipole

This paper describes the results of a 3D calculation of the magnetic field in the end region of the RHIC arc dipole magnet. Multipole harmonics are obtained in the end regions of the magnet. Comparisons of these harmonics are made to the measurements of harmonics on the actual magnets.

Kahn, S.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Jain, A.K.; Morgan, G.H.; Thompson, P.A.

1993-09-01

8

Parallel computation of automatic differentiation applied to magnetic field calculations

The author presents a parallelization of an accelerator physics application to simulate magnetic field in three dimensions. The problem involves the evaluation of high order derivatives with respect to two variables of a multivariate function. Automatic differentiation software had been used with some success, but the computation time was prohibitive. The implementation runs on several platforms, including a network of workstations using PVM, a MasPar using MPFortran, and a CM-5 using CMFortran. A careful examination of the code led to several optimizations that improved its serial performance by a factor of 8.7. The parallelization produced further improvements, especially on the MasPar with a speedup factor of 620. As a result a problem that took six days on a SPARC 10/41 now runs in minutes on the MasPar, making it feasible for physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to simulate larger magnets.

Hinkins, R.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.

1994-09-01

9

An analytical technique has been developed to predict the instantaneous magnetic field distribution in the air gap of a permanent magnet motor. The effect of the stator slotting and rotor eccentricity on the magnetic field has been considered. The slotting effect is explained by a newly redefined boundary value problem in polar coordinates in the annular air gap\\/magnet region of

Ungtae Kim; Dennis K. Lieu

1998-01-01

10

Classical calculation of radiative lifetimes of atomic hydrogen in a homogeneous magnetic field

Radiative lifetimes of hydrogenic atoms in a homogeneous magnetic field of moderate strength are calculated on the basis of classical radiation. The modifications of the Keplerian orbits due to the magnetic field are incorporated by classical perturbation theory. The model is complemented by a classical radiative decay calculation using the radiated Larmor power. A recently derived highly accurate formula for the transition rate of a field-free hydrogenic state is averaged over the angular momentum oscillations caused by the magnetic field. The resulting radiative lifetimes for diamagnetic eigenstates classified by n,m and the diamagnetic energy shift C compare well with quantum results.

Horbatsch, M.W.; Hessels, E.A.; Horbatsch, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)

2005-09-15

11

METHOD FOR CALCULATING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN TEM CELLS AT ELF (JOURNAL VERSION)

A method is presented whereby the electric and magnetic field distributions within rectangular strip transmission lines (TEM cells) can be calculated. Quasi-static approximations are employed, thereby restricting the validity of the results to operational frequencies well below t...

12

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ab initio electronic structure calculations in the presence of magnetic fields have been mainly performed for isolated systems, or, in the case of periodic systems, by adopting perturbative approaches. Building on a recent formulation of electronic structure calculations in the presence of magnetic fields [1,2], we will discuss calculations for periodic systems under arbitrary conditions, which include arbitrary (finite) magnetic field, arbitrary periodic cell shapes, and magnetic field spatial variations. Preliminary results based on a planewave numerical approach and local approximations to Density Functional Theory will be presented.[1] W.Cai, G.Galli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 186402 (2004).[2] E. Lee, W. Cai, G. Galli, J. Comput. Phys. 226, 1310 (2007)

Correa, Alfredo; Galli, Giulia; Cai, Wei

2010-03-01

13

Magnetic field calculation for a 10 MeV positron emission tomography cyclotron

The magnetic field calculation and correction for a 10 MeV positron emission tomography cyclotron is presented. 3D TOSCA analysis results are compared with the measured data, and the calculation error is used to calibrate the B-H curve to obtain a very precise finite element method estimator, which is used to predict the correction of the magnet pole for achieving the isochronous field. The isochronous field error is approximated with the effects of a set of standard patches. On the assumption that the effect of each small patch is proportional to its surface, the correction of the magnet pole is found by solving a system of equations using the least square scheme. The magnet shimming is performed and the measured magnetic field is found in good agreement with the prediction, with an error less than 2 G.

Chen Dezhi; Liu Kaifeng; Yang Jun; Li Dong; Qin Bin; Xiong Yongqian [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Zihao [Central Southern Electrical Power Design Institute, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2013-05-15

14

Calculation of critical current in DC HTS cable using longitudinal magnetic field effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known from experimental data that the critical current of superconducting wires in a longitudinal magnetic field is higher than that in a transverse magnetic field. This property was proposed to apply to DC superconducting cables in our previous paper. Here, we propose a new calculation method of the current-carrying capacity for a new DC superconducting cable. An iteration method is used to calculate the magnetic field and critical current density in each layer and the current-carrying capacity of the cable. This enables us to calculate these quantities even for the cable with a different structure from the force-free one. When the critical current density increases with a longitudinal magnetic field, the optimal structure is found to be close to that of the force free cable. The optimal structure is obtained also when the critical current density decreases slightly with the longitudinal magnetic field. The reason for the enhanced current-carrying capacity even for such a case is a sufficiently larger critical current density in the longitudinal magnetic field than that in the transverse magnetic field.

Vyatkin, V. S.; Tanabe, K.; Wada, J.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Matsushita, T.

2013-11-01

15

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system by incorporating a conductive shield plate. The magnetic field, induced current density, and electric field in a real human head were calculated by impedance method and the results were compared with TMS without shielding. Our results show that the field localization can be improved by introducing a conductive shield plate; the stimulation magnitude (depth) in the brain is reduced comparing with the TMS without shielding. The strong magnetic field near the TMS coil is difficult to be efficiently shielded by a thinner conductive shield plate.

Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

2009-04-01

16

Calculations of magnetoactive elastomer reactions in a uniform external magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The model of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) based on a system of single-domain fine particles distributed in an elastically deformable matrix is considered. The dependence of a deformation of samples with different concentrations of an ultra-dispersed magnetic material with a given value of a uniformly applied external magnetic field has been calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the presence of inflection points is connected to the intrinsic characteristics of the magnetic filler. Changing the strength of the external magnetic field leads to an alteration of the total energy, and as a consequence promotes the restructuring of the particle distribution, which results in a non-uniform internal magnetic field. The theoretical analysis is found to agree with the experimental data. Contribution to the Topical Issue "New Trends in Magnetism and Magnetic Materials", edited by Francesca Casoli, Massimo Solzi and Paola Tiberto.

Andriushchenko, Petr; Nefedev, Konstantin; Stepanov, Gennady

2014-01-01

17

Magnetic Field Finite-Element Calculations for the SNS Neutron EDM Experiment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nEDM experiment is a new search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron with a sensitivity of 10-28 e-cm at the recently constructed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The measurement requires a static magnetic field surrounding two target cells that contain superfluid ^4He, polarized neutrons and polarized ^3He atoms. The latter are used as a co-magnetometer and ultracold neutron spin precession frequency analyzer. The applied static magnetic field, B0, is chosen to be about 10 mG resulting in a precession of the magnetic moments for both neutrons and ^3He nuclei of ˜30 Hz. To maintain the polarization of the neutrons and ^3He atoms, the magnetic field should be very uniform with gradients of the order of 0.1 ?G/cm averaged over each cell volume. A separate requirement on the volume-averaged magnetic field gradient

Balascuta, S.; Alarcon, R.; Filippone, B.; Plaster, B.; Schmid, R.

2007-10-01

18

An analytical technique for predicting the instantaneous magnetic field distribution in the air gap region of permanent magnet motors with rotor eccentricity is developed. The governing equations and associated boundary conditions are formulated and solved by a perturbation method. The predicted solutions are verified by the results of a corresponding finite element analysis. The results show the effectiveness of using

Ungtae Kim; Dennis K. Lieu

1998-01-01

19

Nonlinear force-free magnetic fields: Calculation and applicatin to astrophysics. Ph.D. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem concerned in this work is that of calculating magnetic field configurations in which the Lorentz force (vector)j x (vector)B is everywhere zero, subject to specified boundary conditions. The magnetic field is represented in terms of Clebsch variables in the form (vector)B = del alpha x del beta. These variables are constant on any field line. The most appropriate choice of boundary conditions is to specify the values of alpha and beta on the bounding surface. It is proposed that the field lines move in the direction of local Lorentz force and relax towards a force-free field configuration. This concept leads to an iteration procedure for modifying the variables alpha and beta that tends asymptotically towards the force-free state. This method is first applied to a simple problem in two rectangular dimensions; the calculation shows that the convergence of magnetic field energy to a minimum state (force-free) is close to exponential. This method is then applied to study some astrophysical force-free magnetic fields, such as the structures and evolution of magnetic fields of rotating sunspots and accretion disks. The implication of the results, as related to the mechanisms of solar flares, extragalactic radio sources and radio jets, are discussed.

Yang, Wei-Hong

1987-01-01

20

Calculations of lightning return stroke electric and magnetic fields above ground

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightning return stroke model with which the two station electric and magnetic fields measured at ground level can be reproduced is used to compute fields at altitudes up to 10 km and at ranges from 20 m to 10 km. These calculations provide the first detailed estimates of the return strokes fields that are encountered by aircraft in flight. With the advent of modern aircraft utilizing low voltage digital electronics and reduced electromagnetic shielding by way of structures containing advanced composite materials, these calculations are of considerable practical interest. Further, since airborne electric and magnetic field measurements are presently being attempted, a comparison of the calculations presented with appropriate experimental data, when they are available, will constitute a test of the return stroke model.

Uman, M. A.; Lin, Y. T.; Standler, R. B.; Master, M. J.; Fisher, R. J.

1980-01-01

21

Calculated non-linear magnetic field penetration of plasma opening switches

We examine magnetic field penetration in the Plasma Opening Switch, exploring, in particular, advective field penetration arising in conjunction with radial density gradients across the cathode anode gap. Our calculations have been completed with the implicit multi-fluid, ANTHEM code. We show favored penetration along a radial density jump, unstable plain wave penetration for a 1/(y {minus} y{sub {alpha}+{epsilon}}) density dependence (with y measured from cathode to anode at Y{sub {alpha}}) in planar switches, and the penetration of finger-like magnetic field perturbations, when the fill plasmas bears initial sinusoidal disturbances on its generator interface. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.; Wilson, D.C.; Bergman, C.; Thiem, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Grossmann, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA))

1990-06-15

22

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bit patterned media (BPM) is a promising candidate to achieve ultrahigh recording density in magnetic data storage. One of the critical issues for BPM in high-density recording is that the switching field distribution (SFD) needs to be narrow enough to secure exact addressability of individual predefined bits without overwriting adjacent bits. In our work, we observed magnetic reversal of individual islands through magnetic force microscopy and calculated the demagnetization and SFD using the obtained intrinsic SFD to verify if dipole-dipole interactions contribute to the SFD broadening. In simulation, we used the formula in the calculation of critical magnetic field for the reversal of individual islands: Hc = Hc,int - ?MsVbit/r3, where Hc is the critical field, Hc,int is the initial critical field without dipole-dipole interactions, and ? represents the dipole-dipole interactions from neighboring islands. Hc,int was generated from the obtained initial SFD (2? = 1.2 kOe), dipole-dipole interactions cause a significant SFD broadening. The width of 2? = 1.7 kOe after the calculation with the consideration of the dipole-dipole distribution is in a relatively good agreement with our experimental data (2? = 2.0 kOe). The calculated demagnetization loop also agrees well with our experimental result.

Li, W. M.; Chen, Y. J.; Huang, T. L.; Xue, J. M.; Ding, J.

2011-04-01

23

Accurate 2d finite element calculations for hydrogen in magnetic fields of arbitrary strength

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations of hundreds of hydrogen-rich magnetic white dwarf stars with magnetic fields up to 105 T (103 MG) have called for more comprehensive and accurate databases for wavelengths and oscillator strengths of the H atom in strong magnetic fields for all states evolving from the field-free levels with principal quantum numbers n?10. We present a code to calculate the energy eigenvalues and wave functions of such states which is capable of covering the entire regime of field strengths B=0 T to B˜109 T. We achieve this high flexibility by using a two-dimensional finite element expansion of the wave functions in terms of B-splines in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, instead of using asymptotically valid basis expansions in terms of spherical harmonics or Landau orbitals. We have paid special attention to the automation of the program such that the data points for the magnetic field strengths at which the energy of a given state are calculated can be selected automatically. Furthermore, an elaborate method for varying the basis parameters is applied to ensure that the results reach a pre-selected precision, which also can be adjusted freely. Energies and wave functions are stored in a convenient format for further analysis, e.g. for the calculation of transition energies and oscillator strengths. The code has been tested to work for 300 states with an accuracy of better than 10-6 Rydberg across several symmetry subspaces over the entire regime of magnetic field strengths.

Schimeczek, C.; Wunner, G.

2014-02-01

24

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for calculating the magnetostatic field of a pulse transformer with open magnetic cores is put forward in this paper, and formulas for calculating inductances of a small aspect-ratio transformer are derived. In comparison to results calculated by finite element magnetostatic-field simulations, the calculated values of inductance of primary winding L1 and the inductance of secondary winding L2 have a relative error of about 5%, while the error of the coupling coefficient (k) is less than 2%. Meanwhile, the effect of current nonuniformity in the primary winding on magnetizing inductance is studied. According to the calculated results, this effect reduces the magnetizing inductance and the coupling coefficient of the transformer, and can lead to an overvoltage phenomenon on the secondary winding. A small aspect-ratio pulse transformer with open magnetic cores is developed, which has a small size of 250mm×150mm in length and diameter, respectively. Inductances of the transformer are measured. The measured results conform to the law obtained in this work. Tests of the pulsed transformer are carried out. Experimental results show that the transformer can export a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 310 kV and full width at half maximum of 1?s.

Yu, Bin-xiong; Liu, Jin-liang

2013-01-01

25

Calculating Coronal Mass Ejection Magnetic Field at 1 AU Using Solar Observables

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-established that most major nonrecurrent geomagnetic storms are caused by solar wind structures with long durations of strong southward (Bz < 0) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Such geoeffective IMF structures are associated with CME events at the Sun. Unfortunately, neither the duration nor the internal magnetic field vector of the ejecta--the key determinants of geoeffectiveness--is measurable until the observer (e.g., Earth) passes through the ejecta. In this paper, we discuss the quantitative relationships between the ejecta magnetic field at 1 AU and remotely observable solar quantities associated with the eruption of a given CME. In particular, we show that observed CME trajectories (position-time data) within, say, 1/3 AU of the Sun, contain sufficient information to allow the calculation of the ejecta magnetic field (magnitude and components) at 1 AU using the Erupting Flux Rope (EFR) model of CMEs. Furthermore, in order to accurately determine the size and arrival time of the ejecta as seen by a fixed observer at 1 AU (e.g., ACE), it is essential to accurately calculate the three-dimensional geometry of the underlying magnetic structure. Accordingly, we have extended the physics-based EFR model to include a self-consistent calculation of the transverse expansion taking into account the non-symmetric drag coupling between an expanding CME flux rope and the ambient solar wind. The dependence of the minor radius of the flux rope at 1 AU that determines the perceived size of the ejecta on solar quantities is discussed. Work supported by the NRL Base Program.

Chen, J.; Kunkel, V.

2013-12-01

26

Density-Functional-Theory Calculations of Matter in Strong Magnetic Fields: I. Atoms and Molecules

We present new ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of various atoms and molecules in strong magnetic fields ranging from B=10^12 G to 2x10^15 G, appropriate for radio pulsars and magnetars. For these field strengths, the magnetic forces on the electrons dominate over the Coulomb forces, and to a good approximation the electrons are confined to the ground Landau level. Our calculations are based on the density functional theory, and use a local magnetic exchange-correlation function which is tested to be reliable in the strong field regime. Numerical results of the ground-state energies are given for H_N (up to N=10), He_N (up to N=8), C_N (up to N=5) and Fe_N (up to N=3), as well as for various ionized atoms. Fitting formulae for the B-dependence of the energies are also given. In general, as N increases, the binding energy per atom in a molecule, |E_N|/N, increases and approaches a constant value. For all the field strengths considered in this paper, hydrogen, helium, and carbon molecules are found to be bound relative to individual atoms (although for B less than a few x 10^12 G, the relative binding between C and C_2 is small). Iron molecules are not bound at Batoms at larger field strengths.

Zach Medin; Dong Lai

2006-07-10

27

Calculation of electric transport close to a Lifshitz transition in a high magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the Landau quantization and interactions on a Lifshitz transition are studied. The Landau quantization leads to a quasi-one-dimensional behavior for the direction parallel to the field. The repulsive Coulomb interactions give rise to a gas of strongly correlated carriers. Consequently, in the ground state, an electron pocket is emptied in a discontinuous fashion as a function of the chemical potential or magnetic field. This discontinuity is gradually smeared by temperature, in agreement with experiments for CeIn3. We further calculate the conductivity and the Hall conductivity in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities, the Landau quantization and interactions.

Schlottmann, Pedro

2013-03-01

28

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady magnetic field measurements of magnitude 30 to 100 gamma on the lunar surface impose problems of interpretation when coupled with the nondetectability of a lunar field at 0.4 lunar radius altitude and the limb induced perturbations of the solar wind at the Explorer orbit. The lunar time-varying magnetic field clearly indicates the presence of eddy currents in the lunar interior and permits calculation of an electrical conductivity profile. The problem is complicated by the day-night asymmetry of the moon's electromagnetic environment, the possible presence of the transverse magnetic mode, and the variable wave directions of the driving function. The electrical conductivity is calculated to be low near the surface, rising to a peak of .006/ohm meter at 250 km, dropping steeply inwards to a value of about .00005/ohm meter, and then rising toward the interior. A transition at 250 km depth from a high conductivity to a low conductivity material is inferred, suggesting an olivine-like core at approximately 800 C, although other models are possible.

Colburn, D. S.

1971-01-01

29

Analytical Calculation on Critical Magnetic Field in Holographic Superconductors with Backreaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of spacetime backreaction on the upper critical magnetic field for s-wave holographic superconductors by using the matching method. The backreaction of the constant external magnetic field and the electric field to the background geometry leads to a dyonic black hole solution. The magnetic fields as well as the electric fields acting as gravitational sources tend to depress the critical temperature of the superconductor. We derive the analytical expression for the upper critical magnetic field up to {O}(?^2) order and find that backreaction makes the upper critical magnetic field stronger. The result is consistent with the previous numerical and analytical results.

Ge, X.; Leng, H.

2012-12-01

30

Calculation of electric fields in a multiple cylindrical volume conductor induced by magnetic coils.

A method is presented for calculating the electric field, that is induced in a cylindrical volume conductor by an alternating electrical current through a magnetic coil of arbitrary shape and position. The volume conductor is modeled as a set of concentric, infinitely long, homogeneous cylinders embedded in an outer space that extends to infinity. An analytic expression of the primary electric field induced by the magnetic coil, assuming quasi-static conditions, is combined with the analytic solution of the induced electric scalar potential due to the inhomogeneities of the volume conductor at the cylindrical interfaces. The latter is obtained by the method of separation of variables based on expansion with modified Bessel functions. Numerical results are presented for the case of two cylinders representing a nerve bundle with perineurium. An active cable model of a myelinated nerve fiber is included, and the effect of the nerve fiber's undulation is shown. PMID:11235594

Schnabel, V; Struijk, J J

2001-01-01

31

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

2001-11-01

32

Calculated E-I characteristics of HTS pancakes and coils exposed to inhomogeneous magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper limit of the operating current of LTS solenoids can be estimated as the coordinate of the crossing point of its load line with IC (B) line of the superconductor. For HTS coils this approach seems to underestimate the allowable operating current of the coil. A better approach is to obtain a full electric field distribution over the coil and to use it as the base for a more sophisticated coil design criteria. We developed an algorithm and a Matlab program for calculating distributions of the current density, magnetic field and electric field in HTS solenoids made of pancakes, considering the inhomogeneous current density distribution inside the anisotropic tape. I-V curves of several Bi-2223 coils are calculated and good agreeement of the calculated and measured critical currents, IC, and indexes, n, are attained. One can utilize the program in the coil design choosing his own criteria of coil's critical current, e.g., 1) The average electric field 10-4 V/m over the coil, 2) The electric field 10-4 V/m at the weak point of the coil, 3) The energy dissipation in the entire coil, 4) Distribution of local energy dissipation.

Adanny, Y.; Wolfus, Y.; Friedman, A.; Kopansky, F.; Yeshurun, Y.; Bar-Haim, Z.; Ron, Z.; Pundak, N.

2006-06-01

33

Hartree-Fock-Roothaan calculations for many-electron atoms and ions in neutron-star magnetic fields

The quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic spectra of isolated neutron stars by means of model atmosphere calculations requires extensive data sets of atomic energy values and transition probabilities in intense magnetic fields. We present a method for the fast computation of wave functions, energies, and oscillator strengths of medium- Z atoms and ions at neutron star magnetic field strengths B≳107T

Dirk Engel; Günter Wunner

2008-01-01

34

]. It is noticeable that in some applications, such as permanent-magnet motors [18] or magnetic couplings [19], tiles to many permanent-magnet motor topologies, has al- ready been considered. Furlani [24] proposed of the Magnetic Field Created by Permanent-Magnet Rings R. Ravaud, G. Lemarquand, V. Lemarquand, and C. Depollier

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

35

Magnetic Field in the Winding of an YBCO Pancake Coil: Experiments and Calculations

The AC loss is an important issue for many applications containing coils of ReBCO coated conductors, specially transformers. In order to reduce the AC loss, it is necessary to understand the loss mechanisms. We measured and computed the radial magnetic field component in a pancake coil with a net transport current, as this component of the magnetic field plays a

M. Polak; E. Pardo; P. Mozola; J. Souc

2012-01-01

36

We present an analytical method for calculation of no-load magnetic field distribution in the slotted air gap of a surface permanent-magnet (PM) motor with radial or parallel magnetization. The method introduces the notion of complex relative air-gap permeance, calculated from the conformal transformation of the slot geometry, to take into account the effect of slotting. As a result, an accurate

D. Zarko; D. Ban; T.A. Lipo

2006-01-01

37

An alternative method is developed to compute the magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. Specifically, a Fourier series expansion whose coefficients are toroidal functions is introduced which yields an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic solution or the Elliptic integral solution. This alternate formulation coupled with a method called charge simulation allows one to compute the external magnetic field from an arbitrary magnetic source in terms of a toroidal expansion. This expansion is valid on any finite hypothetical external observation cylinder. In other words, the magnetic scalar potential or the magnetic field intensity is computed on a exterior cylinder which encloses the magnetic source. This method can be used to accurately compute the far field where a finite element formulation is known to be inaccurate.

J Selvaggi; S Salon; O Kwon CVK Chari

2006-02-14

38

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neurons generate magnetic fields which can be recorded with macroscopic techniques such as magnetoencephalography. The theory that accounts for the genesis of neuronal magnetic fields involves dendritic cable structures in homogeneous resistive extracellular media. Here we generalize this model by considering dendritic cables in extracellular media with arbitrarily complex electric properties. This method is based on a multiscale mean-field theory where the neuron is considered in interaction with a "mean" extracellular medium (characterized by a specific impedance). We first show that, as expected, the generalized cable equation and the standard cable generate magnetic fields that mostly depend on the axial current in the cable, with a moderate contribution of extracellular currents. Less expected, we also show that the nature of the extracellular and intracellular media influence the axial current, and thus also influence neuronal magnetic fields. We illustrate these properties by numerical simulations and suggest experiments to test these findings.

Bedard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

2014-10-01

39

Force-Free Magnetic Fields Calculated from Automated Tracing of Coronal Loops with AIA/SDO

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most realistic magnetic field models of the solar corona is a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) solution. There exist about a dozen numeric codes that compute NLFFF solutions based on extrapolations of photospheric vector magnetograph data. However, since the photosphere and lower chromosphere is not force-free, a suitable correction has to be applied to the lower boundary condition. Despite of such "pre-processing" corrections, the resulting theoretical magnetic field lines deviate substantially from observed coronal loop geometries. - Here we developed an alternative method that fits an analytical NLFFF approximation to the observed geometry of coronal loops. The 2D coordinates of the geometry of coronal loop structures observed with AIA/SDO are traced with the "Oriented Coronal CUrved Loop Tracing" (OCCULT-2) code, an automated pattern recognition algorithm that has demonstrated the fidelity in loop tracing matching visual perception. A potential magnetic field solution is then derived from a line-of-sight magnetogram observed with HMI/SDO, and an analytical NLFFF approximation is then forward-fitted to the twisted geometry of coronal loops. We demonstrate the performance of this magnetic field modeling method for a number of solar active regions, before and after major flares observed with SDO. The difference of the NLFFF and the potential field energies allows us then to compute the free magnetic energy, which is an upper limit of the energy that is released during a solar flare.

Aschwanden, M. J.

2013-12-01

40

A new method to calculate magnetic moments in relativistic mean field theories

We show that the magnetic moment problem in relativistic mean field theories can be solved entirely within the relativistic Hartree approximation if it is used in the proper way: the wave functions of odd-mass nuclei are no longer time reversal invariant and therefore baryonic currents cannot be neglected in the mean field approximation. If they are taken into account they

Ulrich Hofmann; P. Ring

1988-01-01

41

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page and its annex describes, in trivial terms, the physics of magnetic fields and the history of its discovery. Included is the work of Halley, Oersted, Ampere and Maxwell. It also describes a way of demonstrating it in the classroom, using a vu-graph projector. Later sections #5, #5a and #6 extend this to magnetic field lines and electromagnetism.

Stern, David

2005-01-04

42

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work investigates analytically the effect of an intermediate or intense magnetic field, such as probably exist in white dwarfs and near pulsars, on the binding energy of the hydrogen ground state. A wave-function 'prescription' is given for an analytic variational calculation of the binding energy. The calculation still gives a smooth transition between intermediate and intense fields. An explicit calculation of the ground-state binding energy as B goes to infinity is provided for the Yafet et al. (1956) trial function.

Wilson, L. W.

1974-01-01

43

A circuit model and an ad hoc computer program were set up to evaluate electromagnetic interference in the vicinity of protective structures struck by lightning. This program permits the evaluation of the impulsive magnetic fields by calculating the impulse current distribution in different parts of such structures. It also allows the evaluation of the electromagnetic interference induced on susceptible victim

R. Cortina; A. Porrino

1992-01-01

44

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research is the elaboration of a method allowing simple simulation of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) of complex electric systems. The method presented in this paper allows the replacement of the electromagnetic active objects by simple closed surfaces that surround each source. The flux density components are calculated on these surfaces using standard 3D finite element software separately for each object. The magnetic flux density in every point of the free space around the system is calculated with an analytical formula. The main topic of the paper is the definition of the limits of the discussed method.

Napieralska, E.; Roger, D.; Komeza, K.; Schulz, C. A.

2007-08-01

45

Quantum calculation of cold-atom diffraction using periodic magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When cold atoms approach a periodically magnetized surface, they are scattered by the effective repulsive potential U(x,y)=?BmFgB(x,y) . If the period a of the magnetized surface is larger than the de Broglie wavelength ? of the atoms, the atoms are diffracted. We have developed a method for calculating the location and intensity of the diffraction peaks using formal scattering theory. We solve the exact two-dimensional Schrödinger equation with the finite element method and calculate the scattering amplitude f(?) using the integral formula; a plot of ?f(?)?2 provides a visualization of the diffraction pattern. By varying the experimental parameters within a realistic range, we predict the optimal conditions for observing atom diffraction.

Hung, Yin; Schuller, Bradley; Giblin, John; Shertzer, Janine

2006-06-01

46

A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates (psi,theta) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. psi is the toroidal magnetic flux and theta is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates (psi,theta,phi) can be transformed

Alkesh Punjabi; Halima Ali

2008-01-01

47

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence on the structure of the magnetic field of a tokamak produced by small helical currents flowing near the plasma in TORE SUPRA was investigated numerically by drawing Poincare plots. The current in the helical conductors, the pitch of the wind...

G. Fuchs, B. Steffen, T. Blenski, A. Grosman, A. Samain

1985-01-01

48

Magnetic Field Safety Magnetic Field Safety

Magnetic Field Safety Training #12;Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain medical conditions such as pacemakers, magnetic implants, or embedded shrapnel. In addition, high magnetic

McQuade, D. Tyler

49

Advanced magnetic calculations for high magnetic field compact ion source T. Thuillier, J.-C. Curdy magnetic fields for next generation compact ECRIS. Moreover, the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) wires allow designing reliable and compact axial field coils (30 K cooled) at a very effective cost

Boyer, Edmond

50

(version 6/26/06) Magnetic Fields

where the magnetic fields of the Earth and the bar magnet sum to zero. INTRODUCTION A magnetic field(version 6/26/06) Magnetic Fields GOALS (1) To visualize the magnetic fields produced by several to trace out the magnetic field lines of a single bar magnet on a large sheet of paper. (3) To calculate

Collins, Gary S.

51

The orders-of-magnitude higher luminosities required by future electron-ion collider concepts require a dissipative force to counteract the numerous factors acting to gradually increase the phase space volume of relativistic ion beams. High-energy electron cooling systems could provide the necessary dissipation via dynamical friction, but will have to be designed for new parameter regimes. It is expected that magnetic field errors, finite interaction time and other effects will reduce the dynamical friction and hence increase the cooling time, so improved understanding of the underlying dynamics is important. We present a generalized form of the classical field-free friction force equation, which conveniently captures some of these effects. Previous work (Bell et al 2008 J. Comput. Phys. 227 8714) shows both numerical and conceptual subtleties associated with undersampling of strong collisions, and we present a rigorous mathematical treatment of such difficulties, based on the use of a modified Pareto distribution for the electron-ion impact parameters. We also present a very efficient numerical algorithm for calculating the dynamical friction on a single ion in the field free case. For the case of arbitrary magnetic field errors, we present numerical simulation results, showing agreement with our generalized friction force formula.

Sobol, A.V.; Fedotov, A.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Bell, G.I.; Litvinenko, V.

2010-09-24

52

This paper introduces a new method for calculating the power factor with consideration of the cross saturation between the direct-axis (d-axis) and the quadrature-axis (q-axis) of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The conventional two-axis IPMSM model is modified to include the cross-saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms. This paper also contains the new method of calculating the cross-coupled inductance values as well as self-inductance values in d- and q-axes. The analyzed motor is a high-speed brushless field excitation machine that offers high torque per ampere per core length at low speed and weakened flux at high speed, which was developed for the traction motor of a hybrid electric vehicle.

Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL

2009-01-01

53

Hartree-Fock-Roothaan calculations for many-electron atoms and ions in neutron-star magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic spectra of isolated neutron stars by means of model atmosphere calculations requires extensive data sets of atomic energy values and transition probabilities in intense magnetic fields. We present a method for the fast computation of wave functions, energies, and oscillator strengths of medium- Z atoms and ions at neutron star magnetic field strengths B?107T which strikes a balance between numerical accuracy and computing times. We use a Hartree-Fock ansatz in which each single-electron orbital is expanded in terms of Landau states with one longitudinal expansion function, and each Landau level contributes with a different weight to the orbital. Both the longitudinal expansion functions and the Landau weights are determined in a doubly self-consistent way. Hartree-Fock equations are solved by decomposing the z axis in finite elements and expanding the longitudinal wave functions in terms of sixth-order B -splines. The contributions of the eight lowest Landau levels are taken into account. The procedure can be efficiently parallelized. Results are presented for the ground states and different excited states of atoms and ions for nuclear charges Z=2,…,26 and N=2,…,26 electrons, and for oscillator strengths. Wherever possible, a comparison with the results of previous calculations is made.

Engel, Dirk; Wunner, Günter

2008-09-01

54

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on the DFT (Density Functional Theory) approach and using the FLAPW (Full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave) method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the FeSn compounds. Polarized spin and spin-orbit coupling are included in calculations within the framework of the antiferromagnetic state between two adjacent Fe planes. The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic energies of FeSn systems are estimated. Magnetic moments considered to lie along (010) axes are computed. Obtained data from ab initio calculations are used as input for the high temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters.

Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Mounkachi, O.; El Moussaoui, H.

2014-11-01

55

We demonstrate that the Biermann battery mechanism for the creation of large scale magnetic fields can arise in a simple model protogalaxy. Analytic calculations and numerical simulations follow explicitly the generation of vorticity (and hence magnetic field) at the outward-moving shock that develops as the protogalactic perturbation collapses. Shear angular momentum then distorts this field into a dipole-like configuration. The magnitude of the field created in the fully formed disk galaxy is estimated to be 10^(-17) Gauss, approximately what is needed as a seed for the galactic dynamo.

George Davies; Lawrence M. Widrow

1999-12-14

56

Calculated EI characteristics of HTS pancakes and coils exposed to inhomogeneous magnetic fields

The upper limit of the operating current of LTS solenoids can be estimated as the coordinate of the crossing point of its load line with IC (B) line of the superconductor. For HTS coils this approach seems to underestimate the allowable operating current of the coil. A better approach is to obtain a full electric field distribution over the coil

Y Adanny; Y Wolfus; A Friedman; F Kopansky; Y Yeshurun; Z Bar-Haim; Z Ron; N Pundak

2006-01-01

57

Calculations on the 'Dynamo' Problem oI the Earth's Magnetic Field

We have attempted to obtain a solution of the 'dsmamo' problem as related to the mag- netic field of the earth, i.e., to obtain a solution of the equations which determine both the fluid motion and the magnetifield, when applied to the earth's liquid core. We have supposed, in accordance with the ideas of Bullard (1949), that the 'driving force'

A. F. STEVENSON

1966-01-01

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on DFT (Density Functional Theory) approach and using FLAPW (Full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave) method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnSe lattice. Polarized spin and spin-orbit coupling are included in calculations within the framework of the antiferromagnetic state between two adjacent Mn lattices. Magnetic moments considered to lie along (001) axes are computed. Obtained data from ab initio calculations are used as input for the high temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters. The zero-field high temperature static susceptibility series of the spin -4.28 nearest-neighbor Ising model on face centered cubic (fcc) and lattices is thoroughly analyzed by means of a power series coherent anomaly method (CAM). The exchange interaction between the magnetic atoms and the Néel temperature are deduced using the mean filed and HTSEs theories.

Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Mounkachi, O.; El Moussaoui, H.

2014-06-01

59

The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method is extended to solve the old theoretical physics problem of many-electron atoms and ions in intense magnetic fields. The feature of our approach is the use of adiabatic approximation wave functions augmented by a Jastrow factor as guiding functions to initialize the quantum Monte Carlo prodecure. We calcula te the ground state energies of atoms and ions with nuclear charges from Z= 2, 3, 4, ..., 26 for magnetic field strengths relevant for neutron stars.

S. Bucheler; D. Engel; J. Main; G. Wunner

2007-11-30

60

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper sets out to explore the effects of voxel resolution, from 2 mm down to 0.1 mm for Cartesian co-ordinates and the differences between Cartesian and spherical polar co-ordinates for a standardized test-bed model of the eye. This model was taken from the work of Yoriyaz et al (2005 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 115 316-9) who have developed a detailed geometric description of the eye including choroid, retina, sclera, lens, cornea, anterior chamber, vitreous humour and optic nerve for ophthalmic brachytherapy. The spherical co-ordinate model has radial and angular steplengths of 0.1 mm and 0.25°, respectively. The current density averaged over 1 cm2 and the 99th percentile value of the induced electric field have been calculated in the retina and central nervous system for uniform magnetic fields. The Cartesian co-ordinate calculations proceed in a sequence of grids at 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 mm resolution with the potentials from the previous calculation at a coarser grid providing the boundary conditions on the finer grid. The 0.2 mm grid provides the boundary conditions for the spherical polar calculations. Comparisons are made with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels.

Dimbylow, Peter

2011-07-01

61

Magnetic fields in astrophysics

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

62

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21

63

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directional solidification of large multi-crystalline silicon ingots is a distinctly unsteady process with a complex interaction between melt flow, crystallization interface, and species transport. Both the different time-scales and the three-dimensional character make numerical simulations of this process a challenging task. The complexity of such simulations increases further if external magnetic fields are used to enhance the melt flow. In this contribution, several three-dimensional coupled unsteady calculations are carried out for a 22×22×11 cm3 silicon melt directionally solidified in a traveling magnetic field. The justification of various approximations in the numerical models is discussed with an emphasis on the frequently used quasi steady-state models for the calculation of the interface shape. It is shown that an upward traveling magnetic field leads to a symmetric concave interface shape while a downward field results in a convex interface with a distinct asymmetry at the current supplies. These results agree in both unsteady and quasi steady-state calculations, but only unsteady calculations reveal the flow-induced local oscillations of the interface. The unsteady segregation process of carbon and oxygen impurities exhibits a non-uniform concentration along the crystallization interface although the bulk concentration is near to the complete mixing limit in the cases with a traveling magnetic field.

Dadzis, K.; Vizman, D.; Friedrich, J.

2013-03-01

64

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

Silva, Nicolas

2012-09-01

65

This paper proposes a simple innovative formula for the calculation of the magnetic field generated by a single and a double circuit twisted three-phase power cable line. The formula results a good approximation of the rigorous analytical one and at the same time is much more accurate than the approximated formula found in literature, as demonstrated by the case of

G. Mazzanti; M. Landini; E. Kandia; L. Sandrolini

2011-01-01

66

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expressions for dichroic signals in terms of electron multipoles have been used to analyse optical data gathered on a crystal of copper metaborate in the presence of a magnetic field. Calculated signals comply with the established crystal and magnetic structures of CuB2O4, and respect the global symmetries of parity-even and parity-odd dichroic signals in full. We have success in describing five different experiments in total. The claim by Saito et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 117402) that they observe magnetic control of crystal chirality in one of their five experiments is challenged.

Lovesey, Stephen W.; Staub, Urs

2009-04-01

67

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

68

The current state of the understanding of the magnetic fields of galaxies is reviewed. A simple model of the turbulent dynamo is developed which explains the main observational features of the global magnetic fields of spiral galaxies. The generation of small-scale chaotic magnetic fields in the interstellar medium is also examined. Attention is also given to the role of magnetic

Aleksandr A. Ruzmaikin; Dmitrii D. Sokolov; Anvar M. Shukurov

1988-01-01

69

Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

1991-01-01

70

Recent studies of the Paleosecular Variation of lavas (PSVL) by the authors and others, shows that the variability of Earth's magnetic field over the last several million years is less than the variability of the present Earth's magnetic field. The present magnetic field is asymmetric between the northern and southern hemispheres. The dispersion in the southern hemisphere being much greater

N. Opdyke; V. Mejia

2003-01-01

71

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-01

72

Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet

Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet produces a magnetic field, B Set up a B field two ways: Moving electrically charged particles Current in a wire Intrinsic magnetic field Basic characteristic of elementary particles such as an electron #12;Magnetic Fields Magnetic field lines Direction

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

73

Magnetic Field Line Simulation Using a Microcomputer.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of a computer simulation of magnetic field lines. Discusses properties of magnetic fields and the calculation of magnetic fields at points. Provides a program listing (additional programs and teaching notes available from the author) and gives examples of several field plots. (JM)

Kirkup, L.

1986-01-01

74

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variational calculations of the binding energies of iron atoms and condensed matter in strong magnetic fields (greater than 10 to the 12th gauss). These calculations include the electron exchange energy. The cohesive energy of the condensed matter, which is the difference between these two binding energies, is of interest in pulsar theories and in the description of the surfaces of neutron stars. It is found that the cohesive energy ranges from 2.6 keV to 8.0 keV.

Flowers, E. G.; Ruderman, M. A.; Lee, J.-F.; Sutherland, P. G.; Hillebrandt, W.; Mueller, E.

1977-01-01

75

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

76

A new MHD simulation scheme is developed on an unstructured grid system using the finite volume total variation diminishing scheme and applied to the problem of solar wind-planet interaction, assuming a perfect-conducting ionosphere around the planet. It is shown that the scheme presented here enables one to calculate effectively the configuration of three-dimensional MHD flow near planets, together with the

T. Tanaka

1993-01-01

77

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

78

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) "Windows to the Universe" program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

79

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong magnetic field applied along the growth direction of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) active region gives rise to a spectrum of discrete energy states, the Landau levels. By combining quantum engineering of a QCL with a static magnetic field, we can selectively inhibit/enhance non-radiative electron relaxation process between the relevant Landau levels of a triple quantum well and realize a tunable surface emitting device. An efficient numerical algorithm implementation is presented of optimization of GaAs/AlGaAs QCL region parameters and calculation of output properties in the magnetic field. Both theoretical analysis and MATLAB implementation are given for LO-phonon and interface roughness scattering mechanisms on the operation of QCL. At elevated temperatures, electrons in the relevant laser states absorb/emit more LO-phonons which results in reduction of the optical gain. The decrease in the optical gain is moderated by the occurrence of interface roughness scattering, which remains unchanged with increasing temperature. Using the calculated scattering rates as input data, rate equations can be solved and population inversion and the optical gain obtained. Incorporation of the interface roughness scattering mechanism into the model did not create new resonant peaks of the optical gain. However, it resulted in shifting the existing peaks positions and overall reduction of the optical gain. Catalogue identifier: AERL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37763 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2757956 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB. Computer: Any capable of running MATLAB version R2010a or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting MATLAB version R2010a or higher. RAM: Minimum required is 1 GB. Memory usage increases for less intense magnetic fields. Classification: 15. Nature of problem: The nature of the problem is to provide an efficient numerical algorithm implementation for optimization of GaAs/AlGaAs QCL active region parameters and calculation of output properties in the magnetic field. Solution method: The optimization of the QCL laser performance at selected wavelength is performed at entire free-parameters space using simulated annealing algorithm. The scattering rates are calculated in the presence and without magnetic field and used as coefficients in rate equations. The standard MATLAB procedures were used to solve iteratively this system of equations and obtain distribution of electron densities over electronic states. Restrictions: The machine must provide the necessary main memory which decreases roughly quadratically with the increase of the magnetic field intensity. Running time: Optimization time on Intel 3 GHz processor is about 2×104 s. The calculation time of laser output properties for values set automatically in GUI is 5×104 s.

Smiljani?, J.; Žeželj, M.; Milanovi?, V.; Radovanovi?, J.; Stankovi?, I.

2014-03-01

80

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clicking on the different links below will produce different magnetic fields in the box above. The wires (perpendicular to the screen) or coils (in and out of the screen) are not visible, but you can determine what they are from the field. You can also click on a point to read off the magnetic field at that place.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

81

Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

1986-01-01

82

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigahertz frequency characteristics were appraised by theoretical calculation based on a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in order to examine the effect of electromagnetic induction and artificially controlled shape anisotropy in micropatterned magnetic films. Electromagnetic loss behaviors and magnetic fields of semiconducting soft magnetic films on a coplanar transmission line were numerically analyzed using a finite-element based electromagnetic solver. The combined relative permeability due to the electromagnetic induction and demagnetizing effect showed to be highly dependent on electrical resistivity and film thickness. Higher resistivity films at the same thickness of 2 ?m showed higher loss in power and lower reflection because of the reduced electromagnetic induction. Thinner magnetic films at the same resistivity of 100 ?? cm exhibited lower reflection due to the reduced electromagnetic induction and maxima of the reflection shifted to higher frequencies because of demagnetization associated with the structure of magnetic flux path. A severe increment of the radiated electromagnetic noise with decreasing resistivity was caused by the reflection of the radiated noise from the surface of the low resistivity films on the coplanar line in gigahertz frequency bands. A slight increase in the radiation noise with increasing thickness at the same resistivity confirmed to be caused by the increased reflection.

Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jung Hwan

2009-04-01

83

Demagnetized rare earth magnets (Nd-Fe-B) can be fully magnetized by scanning them in the intense static fields over 3 T of a HTS bulk magnet which was cooled to the temperature range lower than 77K with use of cryo-coolers and activated by the field of 5 T. We precisely examined the magnetic field distributions of magnetized permanent magnets. The magnetic

Tetsuo Oka; Nobutaka Kawasaki; Satoshi Fukui; Jun Ogawa; Takao Sato; Toshihisa Terasawa; Yoshitaka Itoh; Ryohei Yabuno

2012-01-01

84

Neutron in Strong Magnetic Fields

Relativistic world-line Hamiltonian for strongly interacting 3q systems in magnetic field is derived from the path integral for the corresponding Green's function. The neutral baryon Hamiltonian in magnetic field obeys the pseudomomentum conservation and allows a factorization of the c.m. and internal motion. The resulting expression for the baryon mass in magnetic field is written explicitly with the account of hyperfine, OPE and OGE (color Coulomb) interaction. The neutron mass is fast decreasing with magnetic field, losing 1/2 of its value at eB~0.25 GeV^2 and is nearly zero at eB~0.5 GeV^2. Possible physical consequences of the calculated mass trajectory of the neutron, M_n(B), are presented and discussed.

M. A. Andreichikov; B. O. Kerbikov; V. D. Orlovsky; Yu. A. Simonov

2013-12-08

85

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources

Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Dal Pino

2006-01-01

86

Abstract: Quasistatic magnetic fields

A prototype switching system has been developed which can switch 20 kA at 230 V for short periods of time through inductive loads. High power silicon controlled rectifiers are used to switch the National Magnet Laboratory dc generators on and off into a liquid N2 cooled, low impedance high field magnet so that high fields can be generated for a

H. C. Praddaude; S. Foner

1979-01-01

87

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are a major agent in the interstellar medium. They contribute significantly to the total pressure which balances the gas disk against gravitation. They affect the gas flows in spiral arms (Gómez and Cox, 2002). The effective sound speed of the gas is increased by the presence of strong fields which reduce the shock strength. The interstellar fields are closely connected to gas clouds. They affect the dynamics of the gas clouds (Elmegreen, 1981; de Avillez and Breitschwerdt, 2004). The stability and evolution of gas clouds are also influenced by magnetic fields, but it is not understood how (Crutcher, 1999; see Chap. 7). Magnetic fields are essential for the onset of star formation as they enable the removal of angular momentum from the protostellar cloud during its collapse (magnetic braking, Mouschovias, 1990). Strong fields may shift the stellar mass spectrum towards the more massive stars (Mestel, 1990). MHD turbulence distributes energy from supernova explosions within the ISM (Subramanian, 1998) and regenerates the field via the dynamo process (Wielebinski, R., Krause, 1993, Beck et al., 1996; Sect. 6). Magnetic reconnection is a possible heating source for the ISM and halo gas (Birk et al., 1998). Magnetic fields also control the density and distribution of cosmic rays in the ISM. A realistic model for any process in the ISM needs basic information about the magnetic field which has to be provided by observations.

Beck, Rainer

88

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides information and a graphical exercise for students regarding the interaction between magnetic field lines and a plasma. The activity involves tracing a typical interplanetary magnetic field line, dragged out of a location on the Sun by the radial flow of the solar wind. This illustrates the way magnetic field lines are "frozen to the plasma" and the wrapping of field lines due to the rotation of the sun. This is part of the work "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

89

Optical sensor of magnetic fields

An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

1986-03-25

90

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet modelÂ is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

91

This paper introduces a polarization surface current approach to the computation of the equivalent circuit self and mutual inductances required to predict the surge response of transformer windings. The effect of the magnetic core is accounted for by means of polarization currents circulating on the core surface. The application of the proposed method can be easily extended to solve axially-symmetric

S. R. Sagardia; P. D. Smith

1978-01-01

92

of a voltmeter between inductor turns or between sectors of cold crucibles, or when the capacitive effectsHz), the skin depth is small and the inductors and sectors must be described by the surface impedance by surface impedance with magnetic scalar potential as state variable. They can be coupled with an external

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

93

Magnetic Fields, Flares & Forecasts

A 2D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method is used to characterise the complexity of the distribution of the photospheric magnetic field of active regions. The WTMM method offers increased accuracy and reliability over previous fractal and multifractal methods. The multifractal spectrum of both quiet Sun and active region magnetic features are presented. It is shown that the multifractal nature

Paul A. Conlon; P. Kestener; R. McAteer; P. Gallagher

2009-01-01

94

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

Smith, E. J.

1995-01-01

95

Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks

Magnetic fields likely play a key role in the dynamics and evolution of protoplanetary discs. They have the potential to efficiently transport angular momentum by MHD turbulence or via the magnetocentrifugal acceleration of outflows from the disk surface, and magnetically-driven mixing has implications for disk chemistry and evolution of the grain population. However, the weak ionisation of protoplanetary discs means that magnetic fields may not be able to effectively couple to the matter. I present calculations of the ionisation equilibrium and magnetic diffusivity as a function of height from the disk midplane at radii of 1 and 5 AU. Dust grains tend to suppress magnetic coupling by soaking up electrons and ions from the gas phase and reducing the conductivity of the gas by many orders of magnitude. However, once grains have grown to a few microns in size their effect starts to wane and magnetic fields can begin to couple to the gas even at the disk midplane. Because ions are generally decoupled from the magnetic field by neutral collisions while electrons are not, the Hall effect tends to dominate the diffusion of the magnetic field when it is able to partially couple to the gas. For a standard population of 0.1 micron grains the active surface layers have a combined column of about 2 g/cm^2 at 1 AU; by the time grains have aggregated to 3 microns the active surface density is 80 g/cm^2. In the absence of grains, x-rays maintain magnetic coupling to 10% of the disk material at 1 AU (150 g/cm^2). At 5 AU the entire disk thickness becomes active once grains have aggregated to 1 micron in size.

Mark Wardle

2007-04-07

96

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method for the fast computation of wavelengths and oscillator strengths for medium-Z atoms and ions, up to iron, at neutron star magnetic field strengths. The method is a parallelized Hartree-Fock approach in adiabatic approximation based on finite-element and B-spline techniques. It turns out that typically 15-20 finite elements are sufficient to calculate energies to within a relative accuracy of 10-5 in 4 or 5 iteration steps using B-splines of 6th order, with parallelization speed-ups of 20 on a 26-processor machine. Results have been obtained for the energies of the ground states and excited levels and for the transition strengths of astrophysically relevant atoms and ions in the range Z=2…26 in different ionization stages. Catalogue identifier: AECC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3845 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27?989 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MPI/Fortran 95 and Python Computer: Cluster of 1-26 HP Compaq dc5750 Operating system: Fedora 7 Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 1 GByte Classification: 2.1 External routines: MPI/GFortran, LAPACK, PyLab/Matplotlib Nature of problem: Calculations of synthetic spectra [1] of strongly magnetized neutron stars are bedevilled by the lack of data for atoms in intense magnetic fields. While the behaviour of hydrogen and helium has been investigated in detail (see, e.g., [2]), complete and reliable data for heavier elements, in particular iron, are still missing. Since neutron stars are formed by the collapse of the iron cores of massive stars, it may be assumed that their atmospheres contain an iron plasma. Our objective is to fill the gap and to provide a program which allows users to calculate as comprehensively as possible energies, wavelengths, and oscillator strengths of medium-Z atoms and ions up to Z=26 in neutron star magnetic field strengths. Obviously, the method for achieving this goal must be highly efficient since for the calculation of synthetic spectra data of many thousands or even millions of atomic transitions may be required. Solution method: As in previous work on the problem (cf. [3,7]) we exploit the fact that a strong magnetic field results in an approximate decoupling of the dynamics of the electrons parallel and perpendicular to the field. In this adiabatic approximation the single-particle wave functions take the form: ?(?,?,z)=?(?,?)?P(z), where ?(?,?) are Landau wave functions, describing the (fast) motion perpendicular to the field, and the P(z) are the longitudinal wave functions, describing the (slow) bound motion along the direction of the field. The spins of the electrons are all aligned antiparallel to the magnetic field and need not be accounted for explicitly. The total N-electron wave function is constructed as a Slater determinant of the single-particle wave functions, and the unknown longitudinal wave functions are determined from the Hartree-Fock equations, which follow from inserting the total N-electron wave function into Schrödinger's variational principle for the total energy. The novel feature of our approach [8] is to use finite-element and B-spline techniques to solve the Hartree-Fock equations for atoms in strong magnetic fields. This is accomplished through the following steps: 1) decomposition of the z-axis into finite elements with quadratically widening element borders; 2) sixth-order B-spline expansion of the single-particle wave functions on the individual finite elements; 3) formulation of the variational principle equivalent to the Hartree-Fock equations in terms of the expansion coefficients. This leads to a simple system of linear equations for the expansion coefficients, which is solved numerically, and, since the direct and

Engel, D.; Klews, M.; Wunner, G.

2009-02-01

97

This paper introduces a new method for calculating the power factor and output torque by considering the cross saturation between direct-axis (d-axis) and quadrature-axis (q-axis) of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The conventional two-axis IPMSM model is modified to include the cross saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms. This paper also contains the new method of calculating the cross-coupled inductance values as well as self-inductance values in d- and q-axes. The analyzed motor is a high-speed brushless field excitation machine that offers high torque per ampere per core length at low speed and weakened flux at high speed, which was developed for the traction motor of a hybrid electric vehicle. The conventional two-axis IPMSM model was modified to include the cross-saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms Ldq and Lqd. By the advantage of the excited structure of the experimental IPMSM, the analyzing works were performed under two conditions, the highest and lowest excited conditions. Therefore, it is possible to investigate the cross-saturation effect when a machine has higher magnetic flux from its rotor. The following is a summary of conclusions that may be drawn from this work: (1) Considering cross saturation of an IPMSM offers more accurate expected values of motor parameters in output torque calculation, especially when negative d-axis current is high; (2) A less saturated synchronous machine could be more affected by the cross-coupled saturation effect; (3) Both cross-coupled inductances, L{sub qd} and L{sub dq}, are mainly governed by d-axis current rather than q-axis current; (4) The modified torque equation, can be used for the dynamic model of an IPMSM for developing a better control model or control strategy; and (5) It is possible that the brushless field excitation structure has a common magnetic flux path on both d- and q-axis, and as a result, the reluctance torque of the machine could be reduced.

Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

2009-01-01

98

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large

David J. Stevenson

2003-01-01

99

Magnetic Field and Critical Current of a BSCCO HTS Magnet at Various Aspect Ratios

When the length of wire used to make an HTS magnet is fixed, the magnetic properties of the HTS magnet including the central magnetic field and stored energy mostly depend on the as- pect ratio of the HTS magnet. This paper presents calculations of the magnetic properties of a BSCCO HTS magnet at various as- pect ratios. The HTS magnet

Myunghun Kang; Youngmin Kim; Heejoon Lee; Gueesoo Cha; Kyungwoo Ryu

2011-01-01

100

Graphene Magnetic Field Sensors

Graphene extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) devices have been fabricated and characterized in varying magnetic fields at room temperature. The atomic thickness, high carrier mobility and high current carrying capabilities of graphene are ideally suited for the detection of nanoscale sized magnetic domains. The device sensitivity can reach 10 mV\\/Oe, larger than state of the art InAs 2DEG devices of comparable size

Simone Pisana; Patrick M. Braganca; Ernesto E. Marinero; Bruce A. Gurney

2010-01-01

101

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement of the spin-lattice relaxation rate for nuclear spins in a ligand bound to a paramagnetic metal ion [known as the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)] arises primarily through the dipole-dipole (DD) interaction between the nuclear spins and the electron spins. In solution, the DD interaction is modulated mostly by reorientation of the nuclear spin-electron spin axis and by electron spin relaxation. Calculations of the PRE are in general complicated, mainly because the electron spin interacts so strongly with the other degrees of freedom that its relaxation cannot be described by second-order perturbation theory or the Redfield theory. Three approaches to resolve this problem exist in the literature: The so-called slow-motion theory, originating from Swedish groups [Benetis et al., Mol. Phys. 48, 329 (1983); Kowalewski et al., Adv. Inorg. Chem. 57, (2005); Larsson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1116 (1994); T. Nilsson et al., J. Magn. Reson. 154, 269 (2002)] and two different methods based on simulations of the dynamics of electron spin in time domain, developed in Grenoble [Fries and Belorizky, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 204503 (2007); Rast et al., ibid. 115, 7554 (2001)] and Ann Arbor [Abernathy and Sharp, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 9032 (1997); Schaefle and Sharp, ibid. 121, 5387 (2004); Schaefle and Sharp, J. Magn. Reson. 176, 160 (2005)], respectively. In this paper, we report a numerical comparison of the three methods for a large variety of parameter sets, meant to correspond to large and small complexes of gadolinium(III) and of nickel(II). It is found that the agreement between the Swedish and the Grenoble approaches is very good for practically all parameter sets, while the predictions of the Ann Arbor model are similar in a number of the calculations but deviate significantly in others, reflecting in part differences in the treatment of electron spin relaxation. The origins of the discrepancies are discussed briefly.

Belorizky, Elie; Fries, Pascal H.; Helm, Lothar; Kowalewski, Jozef; Kruk, Danuta; Sharp, Robert R.; Westlund, Per-Olof

2008-02-01

102

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners explore magnetic forces, fields, and the relationship between electricity. Learners will use this information to infer how the Earth generates a protective magnetic field. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson seven in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

103

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to a claim by Lovesey and Staub (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 142201), a careful treatment of symmetry shows that the application of a magnetic field along a twofold axis can induce the crystallographic chirality in a tetragonal system with the point group \\bar {4}2m like CuB2O4. The chirality is reversed by a 90° rotation of the magnetic field around the c axis.

Arima, T.; Saito, M.

2009-12-01

104

Coronal magnetic fields and the solar wind

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current information is presented on coronal magnetic fields as they bear on problems of the solar wind. Both steady state fields and coronal transient events are considered. A brief critique is given of the methods of calculating coronal magnetic fields including the potential (current free) models, exact solutions for the solar wind and field interaction, and source surface models. These solutions are compared with the meager quantitative observations which are available at this time. Qualitative comparisons between the shapes of calculated magnetic field lines and the forms visible in the solar corona at several recent eclipses are displayed. These suggest that: (1) coronal streamers develop above extended magnetic arcades which connect unipolar regions of opposite polarity; and (2) loops, arches, and rays in the corona correspond to preferentially filled magnetic tubes in the approximately potential field.

Newkirk, G., Jr.

1972-01-01

105

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previously published code for calculating energies and bound-bound transitions of medium-Z elements at neutron star magnetic field strengths [D. Engel, M. Klews, G. Wunner, Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 302-311] was based on the adiabatic approximation. It assumes a complete decoupling of the (fast) gyration of the electrons under the action of the magnetic field and the (slow) bound motion along the field under the action of the Coulomb forces. For the single-particle orbitals this implied that each is a product of a Landau state and an (unknown) longitudinal wave function whose B-spline coefficients were determined self-consistently by solving the Hartree-Fock equations for the many-electron problem on a finite-element grid. In the present code we go beyond the adiabatic approximation, by allowing the transverse part of each orbital to be a superposition of Landau states, while assuming that the longitudinal part can be approximated by the same wave function in each Landau level. Inserting this ansatz into the energy variational principle leads to a system of coupled equations in which the B-spline coefficients depend on the weights of the individual Landau states, and vice versa, and which therefore has to be solved in a doubly self-consistent manner. The extended ansatz takes into account the back-reaction of the Coulomb motion of the electrons along the field direction on their motion in the plane perpendicular to the field, an effect which cannot be captured by the adiabatic approximation. The new code allows for the inclusion of up to 8 Landau levels. This reduces the relative error of energy values as compared to the adiabatic approximation results by typically a factor of three (1/3 of the original error), and yields accurate results also in regions of lower neutron star magnetic field strengths where the adiabatic approximation fails. Further improvements in the code are a more sophisticated choice of the initial wave functions, which takes into account the shielding of the core potential for outer electrons by inner electrons, and an optimal finite-element decomposition of each individual longitudinal wave function. These measures largely enhance the convergence properties compared to the previous code, and lead to speed-ups by factors up to two orders of magnitude compared with the implementation of the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method used by Engel and Wunner in [D. Engel, G. Wunner, Phys. Rev. A 78 (2008) 032515]. New version program summaryProgram title: HFFER II Catalogue identifier: AECC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: v 55 130 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 293 700 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: Cluster of 1-13 HP Compaq dc5750 Operating system: Linux Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI directives. RAM: 1 GByte per node Classification: 2.1 External routines: MPI/GFortran, LAPACK, BLAS, FMlib (included in the package) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 302 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Quantitative modellings of features observed in the X-ray spectra of isolated magnetic neutron stars are hampered by the lack of sufficiently large and accurate databases for atoms and ions up to the last fusion product, iron, at strong magnetic field strengths. Our code is intended to provide a powerful tool for calculating energies and oscillator strengths of medium-Z atoms and ions at neutron star magnetic field strengths with sufficient accuracy in a routine way to create such databases. Solution method: The Slater determinants of the atomic wave functions are constructed from single-particle orbitals

Schimeczek, C.; Engel, D.; Wunner, G.

2012-07-01

106

High field superconducting magnets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

107

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Field Measurements

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory is designed for students to become familiar with the principles and detection techniques of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), examine the relationship between current and magnetic field in an electromagnet, and gain experience in the use of magnetic field measurement techniques.

2012-01-04

108

On magnetic field ``reconstruction''

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Solanki and colleagues have presented intriguing 3D “reconstructions” of magnetic fields from the vector polarimetry of the He I 1083 nm multiplet. Aims: In this Research Note I re-examine the reconstruction technique used. Methods: Using a simple dipole field, I examine the reconstruction technique as applied to the theoretical fields. I assume that the He line forms in two locations, (1) along the magnetic loops and (2) in a horizontal plane. Results: The planar interpretation can account for all aspects of the data, but the loop interpretation has geometrical and physical problems. Conclusions: The data by themselves are not sufficient to determine which picture is more applicable. Nevertheless I argue that the planar interpretation makes more physical sense and that the early reconstructions lead to spurious results. I suggest additional tests that might help constrain the problem further.

Judge, P. G.

2009-01-01

109

Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

1974-01-01

110

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere), including detailed information about the aurora borealis, magnets, and solar wind. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

111

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

2013-06-01

112

The DC magnetic field pattern of three pancake windings consisting of 150, 180 and 850 m of Bi-2223\\/Ag tape, was mapped within each winding volume. The analysis revealed a very non-uniform field distribution across the pancake width within each turn of the pancake. The effect of this non-uniform field across the tape width on the critical current of the pancake

F. Darmann; R. Zhao; G. McCaughey; M. Apperley; T. P Beales

1999-01-01

113

Measurement of AC magnetic field distribution using magnetic resonance imaging.

Electric currents are applied to body in numerous applications in medicine such as electrical impedance tomography, cardiac defibrillation, electrocautery, and physiotherapy. If the magnetic field within a region is measured, the currents generating these fields can be calculated using the curl operator. In this study, magnetic fields generated within a phantom by currents passing through an external wire is measured using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. A pulse sequence that is originally designed for mapping static magnetic field inhomogeneity is adapted. AC current in the form of a burst sine wave is applied synchronously with the pulse sequence. The frequency of the applied current is in the audio range with an amplitude of 175-mA rms. It is shown that each voxel value of sequential images obtained by the proposed pulse sequence is modulated similar to a single tone broadband frequency modulated (FM) waveform with the ac magnetic field strength determining the modulation index. An algorithm is developed to calculate the ac magnetic field intensity at each voxel using the frequency spectrum of the voxel signal. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be used to calculate ac magnetic field distribution within a conducting sample that is placed in an MRI system. PMID:9368117

Ider, Y Z; Muftuler, L T

1997-10-01

114

Magnetic Fields, Flares & Forecasts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method is used to characterise the complexity of the distribution of the photospheric magnetic field of active regions. The WTMM method offers increased accuracy and reliability over previous fractal and multifractal methods. The multifractal spectrum of both quiet Sun and active region magnetic features are presented. It is shown that the multifractal nature of the quiet Sun is significantly different from that of an active region. As such, a method is proposed to seperate the information corresponding to the multifractal spectrum of an active region from the surrounding quite Sun texture. The WTMM method and segmentation procedure are shown to detect the internal restructuring of active region magnetic features prior to flaring. We detect two thresholds (Haussdorf dimension > 1.2 and Holder Exponent > -0.7) as possible indicators for conditions favourable to flaring.

Conlon, Paul A.; Kestener, P.; McAteer, R.; Gallagher, P.

2009-05-01

115

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can learn about how the magnetic field of the earth is similar to magnets. Go to the following link: Magnetic Field of the Earth 1. What makes the earth like a magnet? 2. How do we measure magnetism? Be sure to check out the fun games and activities on this web site too!! Now click on the following link and listen to a 2 minute presentation about magnetism: Pulse Planet Next go to ...

Merritt, Mrs.

2005-10-18

116

Calculations on the STAR conventional magnet design

A thin superconducting solenoid magnet was originally planned for the STAR detector, as described in the Conceptual Design Report. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) was to be mounted outside the magnet coil and inside the magnet flux return in the form of iron bars. This design had relatively little coupling of the requirements for the magnet and the EMC. After the CDR was written, it was decided to use a conventional solenoidal magnet with copper or aluminum coils instead, primarily on the basis of construction costs. The large thickness of coil material was expected to seriously degrade the calorimeter performance, so the coil was moved outside the EMC. In the process, the magnet and EMC designs became much more closely coupled. This note documents a variety of calculations related to this coupling, as well as some of the reasons for certain design parameters of both the electromagnetic calorimeter and the conventional solenoidal magnet.

Fornek, T.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

1993-06-01

117

Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method.

Kanamaru, Y. (Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921 (JP)); Amemiya, Y. (Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan))

1991-09-01

118

This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

Jones, T.L.

1993-10-01

119

Magnetic Fields and Rotations of Protostars

The evolution of the magnetic field and angular momentum in the collapsing cloud core is studied using three-dimensional resistive MHD nested grid simulations. Starting with a Bonnor-Ebert isothermal cloud rotating in a uniform magnetic field, we calculate the cloud evolution from the molecular cloud core (n=10^4 cm^-3) to the stellar core (n \\simeq 10^22 cm^-3). The magnetic field strengths at the center of the clouds converge to a certain value as the clouds collapse, when the clouds have the same angular momenta but different strengths of the magnetic fields at the initial state. For 10^12 cm^-3 magnetic field from the collapsing cloud core, and the magnetic field lines, which are strongly twisted for n magnetic field lines are twisted and amplified again for nc > 10^16 cm^-3, because the magnetic field is recoupled with the warm gas. Finally, protostars at their formation epoch have 0.1-1kG of the magnetic fields, which are comparable to observations. The magnetic field strength of protostar slightly depends on the angular momentum of the host cloud. The protostar formed from the slowly rotating cloud core has a stronger magnetic field. The evolution of the angular momentum is closely related to the evolution of the magnetic field. The angular momentum in the collapsing cloud is removed by the magnetic effect. The formed protostars have 0.1-2 days of the rotation period at their formation epoch, which are slightly shorter than the observation. This indicates that the further removal mechanism of the angular momentum such as interaction between the protostar and disk, wind gas or jet is important in further evolution of the protostar.

Masahiro N. Machida; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka; Tomoaki Matsumoto

2007-02-07

120

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the dawn of modern electromagnetism it has been known that a magnetic field is not handed (chiral). Arima and Saito (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 498001) persist with unwisdom in their repeated claim to have observed control of chirality using a magnetic field by and in itself. In our reply to their claim, we demonstrate damning errors in all challenges in the comment levelled at our analysis of the observation reported by Saito et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 117402) and made on a crystal of copper metaborate.

Lovesey, Stephen W.; Staub, Urs

2009-12-01

121

Magnetic field and gradient analysis around matrix for HGMS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A High Gradient Magnetic Separator (HGMS) uses matrix to make high magnetic field gradient so that ferro- or para-magnetic particles can be attracted to them by high magnetic force. These matrixes are usually composed of stainless wires having high magnetization characteristics. This paper deals with superconducting HGMS which is aimed for purifying wastewater by using stainless steel matrix. Background magnetic field up to 6 T is generated by a superconducting solenoid and the stainless steel matrix are arranged inside of the solenoid. In order to calculate magnetic forces exerting on magnetic particles in wastewater, it is important to calculate magnetic field and magnetic field gradient those are proportional to the magnetic force acting on the particle. So we presents magnetic field distribution analysis result and estimates how many times of magnetic force will act on a particle when the matrix are arranged or not.

Baik, S. K.; Ha, D. W.; Ko, R. K.; Kwon, J. M.

2010-11-01

122

The WIND magnetic field investigation

The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and

R. P. Lepping; M. H. Ac?na; L. F. Burlaga; W. M. Farrell; J. A. Slavin; K. H. Schatten; F. Mariani; N. F. Ness; F. M. Neubauer; Y. C. Whang; J. B. Byrnes; R. S. Kennon; P. V. Panetta; J. Scheifele; E. M. Worley

1995-01-01

123

Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

2000-01-01

124

AC Magnetic Field Survey Report

AC Magnetic Field Survey Report of Literature Building - 3000 University of California San Diego:..........................................................................................................2 ELF OR AC MAGNETIC FIELD CHARACTERISTICS:...............................................2 UNITS of California San Diego La Jolla, California PROJECT: AC Magnetic Field Survey SCOPE: The scope of this project

Krstic, Miroslav

125

Low field magnetic resonance imaging

A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2010-07-13

126

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR provides outstanding information in chemistry and in medicine. But the equipment is expensive as high-field magnets are employed. Low-field NMR works with inexpensive permanent magnets. Until recently these did not provide fields sufficiently homogeneous for spectroscopy and were mostly used for relaxation measurements. Relaxation can also be measured outside the magnet, and small mobile NMR devices have been developed for non-destructive testing of large objects. Today small stray-field magnets and small magnets with homogeneous fields are available for relaxation analysis, imaging, and spectroscopy. Their availability is believed to be essential for shifting NMR analysis from a specialist's tool to a convenience tool.

Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico; Appelt, Stephan

2009-08-01

127

Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies

Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium, especially in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be significant. However, few irregular galaxies have observed magnetic field structures. Using the VLA, the GBT, and the ATCA, we have observed several irregular galaxies in the radio continuum to determine their magnetic field structures. Here we report on our results for the galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 1569.

Amanda A. Kepley; Stefanie Muehle; Eric M. Wilcots; John Everett; Ellen Zweibel; Timothy Robishaw; Carl Heiles

2007-08-24

128

Alignment of magnetic uniaxial particles in a magnetic field: Simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical investigations of the process of alignment of magnetically uniaxial Nd-Fe-B powders in an applied magnetic field were carried out using the discrete element method (DEM). It is shown that magnetic alignment of ensemble of spherical particles provides extremely high degree of alignment, which is achieved in low magnetic fields. A model of formation of anisotropic particles as a combination of spherical particles is suggested. The influence of the shape anisotropy and friction coefficient on the alignment degree was analyzed. The increase in the friction coefficient leads to a decrease in the alignment degree; the simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental dependences. It is shown that in magnetic fields higher than 5 T, the calculated field dependences of the alignment degree quantitatively render the experimental data. The increase of about 6% in the alignment degree in the experiments with addition of internal lubricant can be explained by the decrease of 14% in friction coefficient.

Golovnia, O. A.; Popov, A. G.; Sobolev, A. N.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

2014-09-01

129

Magnetic Fields in Protostellar Disks

Â· Shear in disc may wind up field or drive MRI Â· Equipartition field in the minimum solar nebula to the shear in the disc? Â which form of diffusion is dominant? logn/nH (s-1) M+ C+ m+ e He+ H+ H3 instability (MRI) Â disc-driven winds Magnetic fields Â· Magnetic fields play an important role during star

Wardle, Mark

130

Photoneutrino energy loss rates under magnetic field

The neutrino energy loss rate is calculated due to the photoneutrino process in a hot plasma, under magnetic field.\\u000a \\u000a The calculations done for low densities and relatively low temperatures may be used for astrophysical estimations in neutron\\u000a stars.

M. El-Khishen; A. El-Gowhari; M. Toubia

1975-01-01

131

Electron-positron annihilation under magnetic field

The radiation loss due to the annihilation of electron-positron pair into two ?-quanta in neutron stars is calculated. The\\u000a dependence of radiation loss on the magnetic field, density, temperature, and chemical potentials is explicitly shown for\\u000a relativistic and non-relativistic cases. The reaction cross section is also calculated.

M. El Khishen; M. Toubia

1976-01-01

132

Electro-magnetically induced transparency in a static magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the electro- magnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon of atomic 87Rb at the room temperature with a static magnetic field lifting the degeneracy of all three involved hyperfine levels. Two collinearly propagating and linearly polarized laser fields (a probe field and a coupling field) are used to couple one hyperfine level (the upper level) of the 5P 1/2 state to two hyperfine levels (the lower levels) of the 5S 1/2 state, respectively. In the case of zero magnetic fields, we observed a deep EIT window with the contrast of about 66%. Here, the EIT window width is limited by both the spontaneous decay rate of the upper level and the coupling field intensity. When a magnetic field parallel to both laser beams is applied, the EIT window is split into three much narrower sub-windows with contrasts of about 32%. If the magnetic field is perpendicular to the laser beams, however, the EIT window is split into four much narrower sub-windows whose contrasts are 32% or 16%. This is because the decomposition of the linearly polarized optical fields strongly depends on the orientation of the used magnetic field. The underlying physics is that, in the limit of a weak probe field, an ideal degenerate three-level system can be split into three or four sets of independent three-level systems by a magnetic field due to the lifting of magnetic sublevels of the involved hyperfine levels. In this paper the absorption spectra corresponding to different magnetic field directions are clearly shown and compared. And a straightforward but effective theoretical method for analyzing the experimental results is put forward. Our theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Wei, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Jin-Yue; Wu, Jin-Hui; Sun, Gui-Xia; Wang, Hai-Hua; Kang, Zhi-Hui; Shao, Zhuang; Jiang, Yun

2006-02-01

133

Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

1983-01-01

134

The CMS Magnetic Field Map Performance

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive featuresinclude a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. During two major tests of the CMS magnet the magnetic flux density was measured inside the coil in a cylinder of 3.448 m diameter and 7 m length with a specially designed field-mapping pneumatic machine as well as in 140 discrete regions of the CMS yoke with NMR probes, 3-D Hall sensors and flux-loops. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet has been developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. A volume based representation of the magnetic field is used to provide the CMS simulation and reconstruction software with the magnetic field values. The value of the field at a given point of a volume is obtained by interpolation from a regular grid of values resulting from a TOSCA calculation or, when available, from a parameterization. The results of the measurements and calculations are presented, compared and discussed.

V. I. Klyukhin; N. Amapane; V. Andreev; A. Ball; B. Curé; A. Hervé; A. Gaddi; H. Gerwig; V. Karimaki; R. Loveless; M. Mulders; S. Popescu; L. I. Sarycheva; T. Virdee

2011-10-04

135

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

2013-11-01

136

Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

Wyntjes, Geert

2002-02-01

137

Joule heating in high magnetic field pulsars

We study the efficiency of Joule heating in the crustal layers of young neutron stars. It is shown that dissipation of the magnetic field is highly inhomogeneous in the crust with much faster dissipation in relatively low density layers. In young neutron stars, the rate of Joule heating in the crust can exceed the standard luminosity of non-magnetic star and can even be comparable to the luminosity of magnetars. The results of calculations are compared with the available observational data. We argue that the crustal field model can well account for the data on the surface temperature and magnetic field of young neutron stars.

Urpin, V

2008-01-01

138

Joule heating in high magnetic field pulsars

We study the efficiency of Joule heating in the crustal layers of young neutron stars. It is shown that dissipation of the magnetic field is highly inhomogeneous in the crust with much faster dissipation in relatively low density layers. In young neutron stars, the rate of Joule heating in the crust can exceed the standard luminosity of non-magnetic star and can even be comparable to the luminosity of magnetars. The results of calculations are compared with the available observational data. We argue that the crustal field model can well account for the data on the surface temperature and magnetic field of young neutron stars.

V. Urpin; D. Konenkov

2008-04-01

139

Quantum Electrodynamics in a Uniform Magnetic Field

A systematic formalism for quantum electrodynamics in a classical uniform magnetic field is discussed. The first order radiative correction to the ground state energy of an electron is calculated. This then leads to the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron without divergent integrals. Thorough analyses of this problem are given for the weak magnetic field limit. A new expression for the radiative correction to the ground state energy is obtained. This contains only one integral with an additional summation with respect to each Landau level. The importance of this formalism is also addressed in order to deal with quantum electrodynamics in an intense external field.

Jun Suzuki

2005-12-28

140

Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

Magnetic monopoles have provided a rich field of study, leading to a wide area of research in particle physics, solid state physics, ultra-cold gases, superconductors, cosmology, and gauge theory. So far, no true magnetic monopoles were found experimentally. Using the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the central results of quantum physics, shows however, that an effective monopole field can be produced. Understanding the effects of such a monopole field on its surroundings is crucial to its observation and provides a better grasp of fundamental physical theory. We realize the diffraction of fast electrons at a magnetic monopole field generated by a nanoscopic magnetized ferromagnetic needle. Previous studies have been limited to theoretical semiclassical optical calculations of the motion of electrons in such a monopole field. Solid state systems like the recently studied 'spin ice' provide a constrained system to study similar fields, but make it impossible to separate the monopole from the material. Free space ...

Béché, A; Van Tendeloo, G; Verbeeck, J

2013-01-01

141

Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field Levitation

Three new approaches to generating thrust in uniform magnetic fields are proposed. The first direction is based on employing Lorentz force acting on partial magnetically shielded 8-shaped loop with current in external magnetic field, whereby a net force rather than a torque origins. Another approach, called a Virtual Wire System, is based on creating a magnetic field having an energetic symmetry (a virtual wire), with further superposition of external field. The external field breaks the symmetry causing origination of a net force. Unlike a wire with current, having radial energetic symmetry, the symmetry of the Virtual Wire System is closer to an axial wire. The third approach refers to the first two. It is based on creation of developed surface system, comprising the elements of the first two types. The developed surface approach is a way to drastically increase a thrust-to-weight ratio. The conducted experiments have confirmed feasibility of the proposed approaches.

Mark Krinker; Alexander Bolonkin

2008-07-12

142

NATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD LABORATORY

and testing areas, magnet experiment cells, and laser laboratory areas. The laboratory is used 24 hours perNATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD LABORATORY NHMFL FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY SAFETY PROCEDURE SP-3 TITLE Dalton ______________________________________________________ ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH

Weston, Ken

143

Cosmic rays in the earth's magnetic field

It is shown that the values of cosmic ray cut-off moments in the earth's magnetic field, observed at many different places, are generally close to the values calculated from Störmer's theory for the motion of charged particles in a dipole field, if the usual centre dipole of the earth is replaced in the Störmer equation by a dipole whose magnitude

P. Rothwell

1958-01-01

144

Understanding the Chromospheric Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chromospheric magnetic field is an important and essential component for understanding solar atmospheric fields. Due to the problems of polarization radiation transfer in the chromosphere and the low detective sensitivity of chromospheric spectrum lines, observations of chromospheric magnetic fields are very difficult, so studies of chromospheric fields are infrequent. However, the understanding of chromospheric fields is evolving. In this report, we summarize our current empirical knowledge and basic physical understanding of chromospheric fields. We concentrate on the comparison of magnetic fields in the photosphere and chromosphere, and then display their difference.

Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A.

2014-10-01

145

Single conductor transmission cable magnetic fields

Generally accepted methods for calculating magnetic fields in the vicinity of overhead transmission lines are currently available. These calculation procedures have received general acceptance because they are well documented and field measurements have verified their accuracy. Similar data and calculation procedures, however, are lacking for underground transmission cables. This report describes a research project which was designed to investigate the magnetic fields produced by single conductor underground transmission cables, specifically self-contained fluid filled and extruded dielectric types. A test bay was designed and constructed at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility to obtain measurements for a range of commonly used installation configurations, sheath grounding practices, load current magnitudes, and cable sheath constructions. The results of these tests showed that the magnetic field varies over a wide range depending on the cable installation configuration, sheath resistance and bonding, and the relationship of cable phases for double circuit installations. Magnetic field measurements were also conducted on an in-service single conductor transmission cable to substantiate and supplement the Waltz Mill test results. An analysis of the measured magnetic field values for both the Waltz Mill tests and the in-service transmission cable showed good agreement with currently existing calculation procedures. The calculation procedure which was used is similar to that for overhead transmission lines except that induced sheath/shield currents for multipoint sheath/shield grounding must be calculated and taken into account. The measurements showed that the earth has little or no effect on the above ground magnetic field. 7 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Cooper, J.H. (Power Technologies, Inc., Wilmerding, PA (United States))

1991-08-01

146

Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

Miller, G.

1987-12-01

147

Magnetic fields in massive stars

Although indirect evidence for the presence of magnetic fields in high-mass stars is regularly reported in the literature, the detection of these fields remains an extremely challenging observational problem. We review the recent discoveries of magnetic fields in different types of massive stars and briefly discuss strategies for spectropolarimetric observations to be carried out in the future.

S. Hubrig

2007-03-09

148

The Galileo magnetic field investigation

The Galileo Orbiter carries a complement of fields and particles instruments designed to provide data needed to shed light on the structure and dynamical variations of the Jovian magnetosphere. Many questions remain regarding the temporal and spatial properties of the magnetospheric magnetic field, how the magnetic field maintains corotation of the embedded plasma and the circumstances under which corotation breaks

M. G. Kivelson; K. K. Khurana; J. D. Means; C. T. Russell; R. C. Snare

1992-01-01

149

Reconnection of Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1.1 The Sun E. R. Priest; 1.2 Earth's magnetosphere J. Birn; Part II. Basic Theory of MHD Reconnection: 2.1 Classical theory of two-dimensional reconnection T. G. Forbes; 2.2 Fundamental concepts G. Hornig; 2.3 Three-dimensional reconnection in the absence of magnetic null points G. Hornig; 2.4 Three-dimensional reconnection at magnetic null points D. Pontin; 2.5 Three-dimensional flux tube reconnection M. Linton; Part III. Basic Theory of Collisionless Reconnection: 3.1 Fundamentals of collisionless reconnection J. Drake; 3.2 Diffusion region physics M. Hesse; 3.3 Onset of magnetic reconnection P. Pritchett; 3.4 Hall-MHD reconnection A. Bhattacharjee and J. Dorelli; 3.5 Role of current-aligned instabilities J. Büchner and W. Daughton; 3.6 Nonthermal particle acceleration M. Hoshino; Part IV. Reconnection in the Magnetosphere: 4.1 Reconnection at the magnetopause: concepts and models J. G. Dorelli and A. Bhattacharjee; 4.2 Observations of magnetopause reconnection K.-H. Trattner; 4.3 On the stability of the magnetotail K. Schindler; 4.4 Simulations of reconnection in the magnetotail J. Birn; 4.5 Observations of tail reconnection W. Baumjohann and R. Nakamura; 4.6 Remote sensing of reconnection M. Freeman; Part V. Reconnection in the Sun's Atmosphere: 5.1 Coronal heating E. R. Priest; 5.2 Separator reconnection D. Longcope; 5.3 Pinching of coronal fields V. Titov; 5.4 Numerical experiments on coronal heating K. Galsgaard; 5.5 Solar flares K. Kusano; 5.6 Particle acceleration in flares: theory T. Neukirch; 5.7 Fast particles in flares: observations L. Fletcher; 6. Open problems J. Birn and E. R. Priest; Bibliography; Index.

Birn, J.; Priest, E. R.

2007-01-01

150

Velocity-Magnetic Field Correlation of Pulsars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulations of the evolution of pulsars are carried out in order to compare with the recent measurement of the pulsar transverse velocity by Lyne & Lorimer (1994). The new electron density distribution model of Taylor & Cordes (1993) is adopted in the simulation. Accurate pulsar o rbits in the Galactic gravitational field are calculated. It is found that the constant magnetic field model of pulsars can account for the new measurement of the pulsar transverse velocity, and the apparent correlat ion between the strength of the magnetic field and the transverse velocity of the pulsars. The present finding confirms the validity of the constant magnetic field model of pulsars, and consolidates the idea that the app arent correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the transverse velocity of the pulsars is cau sed by observational selection effects.

Itoh, N.; Kotouda, T.

151

Calculating Electromagnetic Fields Of A Loop Antenna

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate field values computed rapidly. MODEL computer program developed to calculate electromagnetic field values of large loop antenna at all distances to observation point. Antenna assumed to be in x-y plane with center at origin of coordinate system. Calculates field values in both rectangular and spherical components. Also solves for wave impedance. Written in MicroSoft FORTRAN 77.

Schieffer, Mitchell B.

1987-01-01

152

(Revised December 30, 2013) Magnetic Fields

of the points where the magnetic fields of the Earth and the bar magnet sum to zero. INTRODUCTION A magnetic(Revised December 30, 2013) Magnetic Fields GOALS (1) To visualize the magnetic fields produced compasses to trace out the magnetic field lines of a single bar magnet on a large sheet of paper. (3

Collins, Gary S.

153

Modeling solar force-free magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields is presented, described in terms of the solutions to a second-order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation. These magnetic fields are three-dimensional, filling the infinite half-space above a plane where the lines of force are anchored. They model the magnetic fields of the sun over active regions with a striking geometric realism. The total energy and the free energy associated with the electric current are finite and can be calculated directly from the magnetic field at the plane boundary using the virial theorem. In the study of solar magnetic fields with data from vector magnetographs, there is a long-standing interest in devising algorithms to extrapolate for the force-free magnetic field in a given domain from prescribed field values at the boundary. The closed-form magnetic fields of this paper open up an opportunity for testing the reliability and accuracy of algorithms that claim the capability of performing this extrapolation. The extrapolation procedure as an ill-posed mathematical problem is discussed.

Low, B. C.; Lou, Y. Q.

1990-03-01

154

Mars Observer magnetic fields investigation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic fields experiment designed for the Mars Observer mission will provide definitive measurements of the Martian magnetic field from the transition and mapping orbits planned for the Mars Observer. The paper describes the instruments (which include a classical magnetometer and an electron reflection magnetometer) and techniques designed to investigate the nature of the Martian magnetic field and the Mars-solar wind interaction, the mapping of crustal magnetic fields, and studies of the Martian ionosphere, which are activities included in the Mars Observer mission objectives. Attention is also given to the flight software incorporated in the on-board data processor, and the procedures of data processing and analysis.

Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Wasilewski, P.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J.; Curtis, D. W.; Reme, H.; Cros, A.

1992-01-01

155

Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.

2014-04-01

156

Theory of fossil magnetic field

Theory of fossil magnetic field is based on the observations, analytical estimations and numerical simulations of magnetic flux evolution during star formation in the magnetized cores of molecular clouds. Basic goals, main features of the theory and manifestations of MHD effects in young stellar objects are discussed.

Dudorov, Alexander E

2014-01-01

157

CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Structure of Magnetic

CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Chapter 3 Structure of Magnetic Fields Many of the most interesting plasmas are permeated by or imbedded in magnetic fields.1 As shown in Fig. 3.1, the magnetic field properties of magnetic fields in plasmas can be discussed without specifying a model for the plasma

Callen, James D.

158

Magnetic Field Problem: Measuring Current

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of two circular wire loops carrying the exact same current is shown above (position given in centimeters and magnetic field given in milli-Tesla). You can click-drag to read the magnitude of the magnetic field.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

159

NATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD LABORATORY

NATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD LABORATORY SUPPORTED BY: THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION and THE STATE OF FLORIDA OPERATED BY: FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Â· UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Â· LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY Page 15 2005 ANNUAL REPORT #12;2005 ANNUAL REPORT National High magnetic Field Laboratory 2005 NHMFL

Weston, Ken

160

Magnetic field analysis of high gradient magnetic separator via finite element analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Gradient Magnetic Separator (HGMS) uses matrix to make high magnetic field gradient so that ferro- or para-magnetic particles can be attracted to them by high magnetic force. The magnetic force generated by the field gradient is several thousand times larger than that by the magnetic flux density alone. So the HGMS shows excellent performance compared with other magnetic separators. These matrices are usually composed of stainless wires having high magnetization characteristics. This paper deals with superconducting HGMS which is aimed for purifying wastewater by using stainless steel matrix. Background magnetic field up to 6 T is generated by a superconducting solenoid and the stainless steel matrices are arranged inside of the solenoid. In order to calculate magnetic forces exerting on magnetic particles in wastewater, it is important to calculate magnetic field and magnetic field gradient those are proportional to the magnetic force acting on the particle. So we presents magnetic field distribution analysis result and estimates how many times of magnetic force will act on a particle when the matrix are arranged or not. Magnetic field is calculated in 3 dimensions by using Finite Element Method (FEM) and also compared with results obtained from 2 dimensional analysis.

Baik, S. K.; Ha, D. W.; Ko, R. K.; Kwon, J. M.

2012-10-01

161

Numerical Object Oriented Quantum Field Theory Calculations

The qft++ package is a library of C++ classes that facilitate numerical (not algebraic) quantum field theory calculations. Mathematical objects such as matrices, tensors, Dirac spinors, polarization and orbital angular momentum tensors, etc. are represented as C++ objects in qft++. The package permits construction of code which closely resembles quantum field theory expressions, allowing for quick and reliable calculations.

M. Williams

2008-05-19

162

Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

Henrichsen, K N

1998-01-01

163

CMB polarization induced by stochastic magnetic fields

The complete calculation of the CMB polarization observables (i.e. E- and B-modes) is reported within the conventional $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm supplemented by a stochastic magnetic field. Intriguing perspectives for present and forthcoming CMB polarization experiments are outlined.

Massimo Giovannini; Kerstin E. Kunze

2008-04-14

164

Micromagnetic calculation of magnetization reversal in magnetic rings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of using patterned magnetic nanoelements in Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM) depends entirely on our ability to control accurately their switching fields. In a recent study1, we showed that micron-sized narrow rings present well defined stable states and nucleation-free switching between them. In the first part of the talk we review our experimental studies on ring magnets. Pre-patterned Si(100) substrates were used to grow free-standing epitaxial ring magnets of Cu(100)/Co(100)/Cu(100)/Si(100) with 1.8 mm outer diameter, 1.2 mm inner diameter and 34 nm thickness. The samples were magnetically characterised using specially adapted magneto-optic Kerr effect. The measurements show that a two step switching process occurs at high fields, indicating the existence of two different stable states. In addition to the vortex state, which occurs at intermediate fields, we have identified a second state which is also stable at remanence and undergoes a simple and well characterised nucleation free domain wall propagation switching process. Moreover, it is confirmed that the rings reverse by falling into vortex states with different circulation when the field is applied in opposite directions. This means a particular vortex state (clockwise or counter-clockwise) can be prepared using a uniform field only, which can be important for technological applications. In the second part of the talk we use micromagnetic simulations to further explore the potential performance of narrow rings as memory cells in MRAM devices in terms of scalability and switching speed. We introduce two artificial notches at the outer surface of the rings in order to control accurately the depinning fields for the domain walls. According to our simulations, well defined onion states1 and switching by domain wall motion can be achieved for ring diameters down 180 nm. In order to speed up the switching process, two different approaches are considered. In the first one, a field pulse is applied in the plane of the ring and perpendicular to the walls. In this case the walls are depinned effectively and magnetization reversal can be achieved in a few ns. In the second approach, the field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the ring. This field drives the system out of equilibrium and precessional motion causes the walls move around the ring. With this approach, switching times can be lowered down to 220 ps, which is very promising for implementation in MRAM devices. 1. J. Rothman, M. Kläui, L. Lopez-Diaz, C.A.F. Vaz, A. Bleloch, J.A.C. Bland, Z. Cui and R. Speaks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1098 (2001).

Lopez-Diaz, Luis

2002-03-01

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earlier works we introduced and tested a nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method designed to self-consistently calculate the coronal free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets of observed solar magnetic structures. In principle, the method requires only a single, photospheric or low-chromospheric, vector magnetogram of a quiet-Sun patch or an active region and performs calculations without three-dimensional magnetic and velocity-field information. In this work we strictly validate this method using three-dimensional coronal magnetic fields. Benchmarking employs both synthetic, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and nonlinear force-free field extrapolations of the active-region solar corona. Our time-efficient NLFF method provides budgets that differ from those of more demanding semi-analytical methods by a factor of approximately three, at most. This difference is expected to come from the physical concept and the construction of the method. Temporal correlations show more discrepancies that are, however, soundly improved for more complex, massive active regions, reaching correlation coefficients on the order of, or exceeding, 0.9. In conclusion, we argue that our NLFF method can be reliably used for a routine and fast calculation of the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in targeted parts of the solar magnetized corona. As explained in this article and in previous works, this is an asset that can lead to valuable insight into the physics and triggering of solar eruptions.

Moraitis, K.; Tziotziou, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Archontis, V.

2014-12-01

166

Streamer propagation in magnetic field

The propagation of a streamer near an insulating surface under the influence of a transverse magnetic field is theoretically investigated. In the weak magnetic field limit it is shown that the trajectory of the streamer has a circular form with a radius that is much larger than the cyclotron radius of an electron. The charge distribution within the streamer head is strongly polarized by the Lorentz force exerted perpendicualr to the streamer velocity. A critical magnetic field for the branching of a streamer is estimated. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Zhuravlev, V N; Vagner, I D; Wyder, P

1997-01-01

167

AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

168

Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures.

In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts. PMID:18407972

Leitgeb, N; Cech, R; Schröttner, J

2008-01-01

169

Neutron scattering in magnetic fields

The use of magnetic fields in neutron scattering experimentation is reviewed briefly. Two general areas of application can be distinguished. In one the field acts to change the properties of the scattering sample; in the second the field acts on the neutron itself. Several examples are discussed. Precautions necessary for high precision polarized beam measurements are reviewed. 33 references.

Koehler, W.C.

1984-01-01

170

Investigating Magnetic Force Fields

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, the students will investigate the magnetic pull of a bar magnet at varying distances with the use of paper clips. Students will hypothesize, conduct the experiment, collect the data, and draw conclusions that support their data. Each student will record the experiment and their findings in their science journals. As a class, students will compare each groups' data and their interpretation of the results.

Daryl ("Tish") Monjeau, Bancroft Elementary School, Minneapolis, MN

2012-03-18

171

Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.

Crowther, L. J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Jiles, D. C.

2012-04-01

172

Field of the Magnetic Monopole

This paper shows that based upon the Helmholtz decomposition theorem the field of a stationary magnetic monopole, assuming it exists, cannot be represented by a vector potential. Persisting to use vector potential in monopole representation violates fundamentals of mathematics. The importance of this finding is that the vector potential representation was crucial to the original prediction of the quantized value for a magnetic charge.

A. R. Hadjesfandiari

2007-01-19

173

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in the role played by pseudo Nambu Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) in the construction of string-inspired models of inflation. In these models the inflaton is expected to be coupled to gauge fields, and will lead to the generation of magnetic fields that can be of cosmological interest. We study the production of such fields mainly focusing on the model of N-flation, where the collective effect of several pNGBs drives inflation. Because the fields produced are maximally helical, inverse cascade processes in the primordial plasma significantly increase their coherence length. We discuss under what conditions inflation driven by pNGBs can account for the cosmological magnetic fields observed. A constraint on the parameters of this class of inflationary scenarios is also derived by requiring that the magnetic field does not backreact on the inflating background.

Anber, Mohamed M.; Sorbo, Lorenzo

2006-10-01

174

Review of magnetic field observations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations of magnetic fields in the magnetosphere are reviewed, and critical experiments and data are identified for theoretical analysis and interpretation. Quantitative studies of the solar wind interaction with the earth's magnetic field, regional measurements near the earth's equator at R = 2-8 R sub E, the polar cusp region of the geomagnetosphere, and structural models of the neutral sheet region in the geomagnetic tail are considered.

Ness, N. F.

1971-01-01

175

Gauss-Bonnet holographic superconductors with magnetic field

We study the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) holographic superconductors in the presence of an external magnetic field. We describe the phenomena away from the probe limit. We derive the critical magnetic field of the GB holographic superconductors with backreaction. Our analytical approach matches the numerical calculations. We calculate the backreaction corrections up to first order of $O(\\kappa^2=8\\pi G)$ to the critical temperature $T_C$ and the critical magnetic field $B_C$ for a GB superconductor. We show that the GB coupling $\\alpha$ makes the condensation weaker but the backreaction corrections $O(\\kappa^2)$ make the critical magnetic field stronger.

M. R. Setare; D. Momeni

2011-06-06

176

Magnetic Field Created by Tile Permanent R. Ravaud, G. Lemarquand, V. Lemarquand

1 Magnetic Field Created by Tile Permanent Magnets R. Ravaud, G. Lemarquand, V. Lemarquand Abstract1 This paper presents the analytical calculation of the three components of the magnetic field created by2 tile permanent magnets whose magnetization is either radial or axial. The calculations

Boyer, Edmond

177

Chiral transition with magnetic fields

We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses, taken as functions of the order parameter, can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling constants and the number of fermions. We show that the critical temperature for the restoration of chiral symmetry monotonically increases from small to intermediate values of the magnetic fields and that this temperature is always above the critical temperature for the case when the magnetic field is absent.

Alejandro Ayala; Luis Alberto Hernandez; Ana Julia Mizher; Juan Cristobal Rojas; Cristian Villavicencio

2014-04-25

178

Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra, E-mail: bidhanchandra.bag@visva-bharati.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)

2013-12-15

179

Magnetization and rotation of MTG HTSC ring in magnetic field

The magnetization of a melt-texture growth (MTG) HTSC ring has been studied. It is shown that the magnetic field inside the ring is larger than the external field under a certain range of external magnetic fields. We have also investigated the magnetic field dependence of the response of a detective coil near a rotating superconducting ring. The responses of the

E. V. Postrekhin; L. W. Zhou; K. J. Huang; C. B. Cai; S. M. Gong; Y. X. Fu

1996-01-01

180

Fossil magnetic field of accretion disks of young stars

We elaborate the model of accretion disks of young stars with the fossil large-scale magnetic field in the frame of Shakura and Sunyaev approximation. Equations of the MHD model include Shakura and Sunyaev equations, induction equation and equations of ionization balance. Magnetic field is determined taking into account ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion and buoyancy. Ionization fraction is calculated considering ionization by cosmic rays and X-rays, thermal ionization, radiative recombinations and recombinations on the dust grains. Analytical solution and numerical investigations show that the magnetic field is coupled to the gas in the case of radiative recombinations. Magnetic field is quasi-azimuthal close to accretion disk inner boundary and quasi-radial in the outer regions. Magnetic field is quasi-poloidal in the dusty "dead" zones with low ionization degree, where ohmic diffusion is efficient. Magnetic ambipolar diffusion reduces vertical magnetic field in 10 times comparing to the frozen-i...

Dudorov, A E

2014-01-01

181

Surface structure of neutron stars with high magnetic fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equation of state of cold dense matter in strong magnetic fields is calculated in the Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations. For use in the latter calculation, a new expression is derived for the exchange energy of the uniform electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Detailed calculations of the density profile in the surface region of a neutron star are described for a variety of equations of state, and these show that the surface density profile is strongly affected by the magnetic field, irrespective of whether or not matter in a magnetic field has a condensed state bound with respect to isolated atoms. It is also shown that, as a consequence of the field dependence of the screening potential, magnetic fields can significantly increase nuclear reaction rates.

Fushiki, I.; Gudmundsson, E. H.; Pethick, C. J.

1989-01-01

182

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, large-scale, organized (generally dipolar) magnetic fields with strengths between 0.1 and 20 kG have been detected in dozens of OB stars. This contribution reviews the impact of such fields on the stellar winds of O-type stars, with emphasis on variability and X-ray emission.

Nazé, Y.

2014-11-01

183

Active Region Magnetic Fields. I. Plage Fields

We present observations taken with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) in active-region plages and study the frequency distribution of the magnetic field strength (B), inclination with respect to vertical ( gamma ), azimuthal orientation ( chi ), and filling factor (f). The most common values at disk center are B = 1400 G, gamma < 10 deg, no preferred east-west

V. Martinez Pillet; B. W. Lites; A. Skumanich

1997-01-01

184

Magnetic field investigations on low cost missions

Magnetic fields pervade all of space and provide important diagnostic information on the nature of processes occurring within and around solar system objects. Thus magnetic investigations are frequently included on planetary missions. Since spacecraft subsystems can generate magnetic fields that may interfere with the measurement of the ambient field, magnetic cleanliness programs are usually instituted to minimize such extraneous magnetic

R. C. Snare; C.T. Russell

1995-01-01

185

Measurement of the CMS Magnetic Field

The measurement of the magnetic field in the tracking volume inside the superconducting coil of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector under construction at CERN is done with a fieldmapper designed and produced at Fermilab. The fieldmapper uses 10 3-D B-sensors (Hall probes) developed at NIKHEF and calibrated at CERN to precision 0.05% for a nominal 4 T field. The precise fieldmapper measurements are done in 33840 points inside a cylinder of 1.724 m radius and 7 m long at central fields of 2, 3, 3.5, 3.8, and 4 T. Three components of the magnetic flux density at the CMS coil maximum excitation and the remanent fields on the steel-air interface after discharge of the coil are measured in check-points with 95 3-D B-sensors located near the magnetic flux return yoke elements. Voltages induced in 22 flux-loops made of 405-turn installed on selected segments of the yoke are sampled online during the entire fast discharge (190 s time-constant) of the CMS coil and integrated offline to provide a measurement of the initial magnetic flux density in steel at the maximum field to an accuracy of a few percent. The results of the measurements made at 4 T are reported and compared with a three-dimensional model of the CMS magnet system calculated with TOSCA.

V. I. Klyukhin; A. Ball; F. Bergsma; D. Campi; B. Curé; A. Gaddi; H. Gerwig; A. Hervé; J. Korienek; F. Linde; C. Lindenmeyer; R. Loveless; M. Mulders; T. Nebel; R. P. Smith; D. Stickland; G. Teafoe; L. Veillet; J. K. Zimmerman

2011-10-03

186

Magnetic properties of the nucleon in a uniform background field

We present results for the magnetic moment and magnetic polarisability of the neutron and the magnetic moment of the proton. These results are calculated using the uniform background field method on 32^3 x 64 dynamical QCD lattices provided by the PACS-CS collaboration as part of the ILDG. We use a uniform background magnetic field quantised by the periodic spatial volume. We investigate ways to improve the effective energy plots used to calculate magnetic polarisabilities, including the use of correlation matrix techniques with various source smearings.

Thomas Primer; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Matthias Burkardt

2013-07-05

187

Magnetic-Field-Induced Electric Polarization in Multiferroic Nanostructures

Magnetic-field-induced electric polarization in nanostructured multiferroic composite films was studied by using the Green's function approach. The calculations showed that large magnetic-field-induced polarization could be produced in multiferroic nanostructures due to enhanced elastic coupling interaction. Especially, the 1-3 type films with ferromagnetic nanopillars embedded in a ferroelectric matrix exhibited large magnetic-field-induced polarization responses, while the 2-2 type films with ferroelectric

Ce-Wen Nan; Gang Liu; Yuanhua Lin; Haydn Chen

2005-01-01

188

A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia

Previous studies have suggested an association between exposure to 50–60 Hz magnetic fields (EMF) and childhood leukaemia. We conducted a pooled analysis based on individual records from nine studies, including the most recent ones. Studies with 24\\/48-hour magnetic field measurements or calculated magnetic fields were included. We specified which data analyses we planned to do and how to do them

A Ahlbom; N Day; M Feychting; E Roman; J Skinner; J Dockerty; M Linet; M McBride; J Michaelis; J H Olsen; T Tynes; P K Verkasalo

2000-01-01

189

Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

2012-02-22

190

MAGNETIC FIELDS IN POPULATION III STAR FORMATION

We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32, and 64 zones per Jeans length, and study the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomenon that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

Turk, Matthew J.; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom, E-mail: matthewturk@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-02-01

191

Turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor for time-dependent mean fields.

We reexamine the nature of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor of mean field electrodynamics and show that the predicted growth rate of the mean field is, in general, incorrect if the tensor is calculated via consideration of time-independent mean magnetic fields. We describe how the traditional expansion procedure for the mean electromotive force should be extended to include time derivatives of the mean magnetic field, and illustrate the consistency of this approach by means of a perturbation analysis for a mean field varying on long spatial scales. Finally, we examine the magnitude of this new contribution to the magnetic diffusion for a particular flow. PMID:20366600

Hughes, David W; Proctor, Michael R E

2010-01-15

192

Indoor localization using magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

193

Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

2010-12-15

194

Mars Crustal Magnetic Field Remnants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radial magnetic field measured is color coded on a global perspective view that shows measurements derived from spacecraft tracks below 200 km overlain on a monochrome shaded relief map of the topography.

This image shows especially strong Martian magnetic fields in the southern highlands near the Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum regions, centered around 180 degrees longitude from the equator to the pole. It is where magnetic stripes possibly resulting from crustal movement are most prominent. The bands are oriented approximately east - west and are about 100 miles wide and 600 miles long, although the longest band stretches more than 1200 miles.

The false blue and red colors represent invisible magnetic fields in the Martian crust that point in opposite directions. The magnetic fields appear to be organized in bands, with adjacent bands pointing in opposite directions, giving these stripes a striking similarity to patterns seen in the Earth's crust at the mid-oceanic ridges.

These data were compiled by the MGS Magnetometer Team led by Mario Acuna at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

2001-01-01

195

EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE PROPAGATION OF NUCLEAR FLAMES IN MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs with masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as v {approx} B{sup -1}. In media with densities of 10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} g cm{sup -3}, the critical magnetic fields are orders of {approx}10{sup 10}, 10{sup 11}, and 10{sup 12} G, respectively.

Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2012-04-10

196

Effects of magnetic fields on the propagation of nuclear flames in magnetic white dwarfs

We investigate effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs (WDs) with the mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as $v \\sim B^{-1}$. In media with densities of $10^{7}, 10^{8}, \\,\\mathrm{and}\\,10^{9} \\unit{g\\,cm^{-3}}$, the critical magnetic fields are orders of $\\sim 10^{10}, 10^{11}, \\,\\mathrm{and}\\,10^{12} \\unit{G}$, respectively.

Kutsuna, Masamichi

2012-01-01

197

Neutrino propagation in a random magnetic field

The active-sterile neutrino conversion probability is calculated for a neutrino propagating in a medium in the presence of random magnetic field fluctuations. A necessary condition for the probability to be positive definite is obtained for active-sterile electron neutrino conversion in the early universe hot plasma and in a supernova. The neutrino magnetic moment obtained from the positive definiteness of the conversion probability defines the range of validity of our approximation, rather than putting any physical bound on it. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Sahu, S. [Theory Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380 009 (India)] [Theory Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380 009 (India)

1997-10-01

198

Origin of primordial magnetic fields

Magnetic fields of intensities similar to those in our galaxy are also observed in high redshift galaxies, where a mean field dynamo would not have had time to produce them. Therefore, a primordial origin is indicated. It has been suggested that magnetic fields were created at various primordial eras: during inflation, the electroweak phase transition, the quark-hadron phase transition (QHPT), during the formation of the first objects, and during reionization. We suggest here that the large-scale fields {approx}{mu}G, observed in galaxies at both high and low redshifts by Faraday rotation measurements (FRMs), have their origin in the electromagnetic fluctuations that naturally occurred in the dense hot plasma that existed just after the QHPT. We evolve the predicted fields to the present time. The size of the region containing a coherent magnetic field increased due to the fusion of smaller regions. Magnetic fields (MFs) {approx}10 {mu}G over a comoving {approx}1 pc region are predicted at redshift z{approx}10. These fields are orders of magnitude greater than those predicted in previous scenarios for creating primordial magnetic fields. Line-of-sight average MFs {approx}10{sup -2} {mu}G, valid for FRMs, are obtained over a 1 Mpc comoving region at the redshift z{approx}10. In the collapse to a galaxy (comoving size {approx}30 kpc) at z{approx}10, the fields are amplified to {approx}10 {mu}G. This indicates that the MFs created immediately after the QHPT (10{sup -4} s), predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, could be the origin of the {approx}{mu}G fields observed by FRMs in galaxies at both high and low redshifts. Our predicted MFs are shown to be consistent with present observations. We discuss the possibility that the predicted MFs could cause non-negligible deflections of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and help create the observed isotropic distribution of their incoming directions. We also discuss the importance of the volume average magnetic field predicted by our model in producing the first stars and in reionizing the Universe.

Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2008-02-15

199

Magnetic field tomography, helical magnetic fields and Faraday depolarization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-band radio polarization observations offer the possibility to recover information about the magnetic fields in synchrotron sources, such as details of their three-dimensional configuration, that has previously been inaccessible. The key physical process involved is the Faraday rotation of the polarized emission in the source (and elsewhere along the wave's propagation path to the observer). In order to proceed, reliable methods are required for inverting the signals observed in wavelength space into useful data in Faraday space, with robust estimates of their uncertainty. In this paper, we examine how variations of the intrinsic angle of polarized emission ?0 with the Faraday depth ? within a source affect the observable quantities. Using simple models for the Faraday dispersion F(?) and ?0(?), along with the current and planned properties of the main radio interferometers, we demonstrate how degeneracies among the parameters describing the magneto-ionic medium can be minimized by combining observations in different wavebands. We also discuss how depolarization by Faraday dispersion due to a random component of the magnetic field attenuates the variations in the spectral energy distribution of the polarization and shifts its peak towards shorter wavelengths. This additional effect reduces the prospect of recovering the characteristics of the magnetic field helicity in magneto-ionic media dominated by the turbulent component of the magnetic field.

Horellou, C.; Fletcher, A.

2014-07-01

200

Quark gap equation in an external magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonperturbative quark gap equation under the rainbow truncation and with two versions of a phenomenological one-gluon exchange interaction is studied in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field, with emphasis on the small field limit. The chiral quark condensate, magnetic moment, and susceptibility are calculated and compared to recent lattice data.

Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

2014-02-01

201

Magnetic-field generation and electron acceleration in relativistic laser channel

Magnetic-field generation and electron acceleration in relativistic laser channel I. Yu. Kostyukov itself as a strong axial magnetic field inverse Faraday effect . The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field

202

Magnetic fields around black holes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our Newtonian results are excellent approximations for slowly spinning black holes. We proceed to address the issue of the spin dependence of the Blandford & Znajek power. The result we choose to highlight is our finding that given the validity of our assumption for the dynamical behavior of the so-called plunge region in black hole accretors, rotating black holes produce maximum Poynting flux via the Blandford & Znajek process for a black hole spin parameter of about a [approximate] 0.8. This is contrary to the conventional claim that the maximum electromagnetic flux is achieved for highest black hole spin.

Garofalo, David A. G.

203

EXPLORER 10 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS

Magnetic field measurements made by means of Explorer 10 over geocentric ; distances of 1.8 to 42.6R\\/sub e\\/ on March 25experiment on the same satellite are ; referenced in interpretations. The close-in data are consistent with the ; existence of a very weak ring current below 3R\\/sub e\\/ along the trajectory, but ; alternative explanations for the field deviations are

J. P. Heppner; N. F. Ness; C. S. Scearce; T. L. Skillman

1963-01-01

204

Electromagnetic radiation by quark-gluon plasma in magnetic field

The electromagnetic radiation by quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic field is calculated. The contributing processes are synchrotron radiation and one--photon annihilation. It is shown that in relativistic heavy--ion collisions at RHIC and LHC synchrotron radiation dominates over the annihilation. Moreover, it constitutes a significant part of all photons produced by the plasma at low transverse momenta; its magnitude depends on the plasma temperature and the magnetic field strength. Electromagnetic radiation in magnetic field is probably the missing piece that resolves a discrepancy between the theoretical models and the experimental data. It is argued that electromagnetic radiation increases with the magnetic field strength and plasma temperature.

Kirill Tuchin

2012-06-03

205

Cryogenic magnet case and distributed structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets

The superconducting magnets of the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II) will generate high magnetic fields over large bores. The resulting electromagnetic forces require the use of large volumes of distributed steel and thick magnet case for structural support. Here we review the design allowables, calculated loads and forces, and structural materials selection for TIBER II. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.; Myall, J.O.

1987-10-09

206

Diffusion of magnetic field via turbulent reconnection

The diffusion of astrophysical magnetic fields in conducting fluids in the presence of turbulence depends on whether magnetic fields can change their topology via reconnection in highly conducting media. Recent progress in understanding fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence is reassuring that the magnetic field behavior in computer simulations and turbulent astrophysical environments is similar, as far as

Reinaldo Santos de Lima; Alexander Lazarian; Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Jungyeon Cho

2010-01-01

207

Crystal field and magnetic properties

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

Flood, D. J.

1977-01-01

208

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

209

Separation of magnetic field lines

The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-11-15

210

CALCULATIONS FOR A MERCURY JET TARGET IN A SOLENOID MAGNET CAPTURE SYSTEM.

A mercury jet is being considered as the production target for a muon storage ring facility to produce an intense neutrino beam. A 20 T solenoid magnet that captures pions for muon production surrounds the mercury target. As the liquid metal jet enters or exits the field eddy currents are induced. We calculate the effects that a liquid metal jet experiences in entering and exiting the magnetic field for the magnetic configuration considered in the Neutrino Factory Feasibility Study II.

GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; PALMER, R.B.; THIEBERGER, P.; WEGGEL, R.J.; MCDONALD, K.

2001-06-18

211

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

Mullan, D. J.

1974-01-01

212

Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields with the 21cm Fluctuations

Primordial magnetic fields possibly generated in the very early universe are one of the candidates for the origin of magnetic fields observed in many galaxies and galaxy clusters. After recombination, the dissipation process of the primordial magnetic fields increases the baryon temperature. The Lorentz force acts on the residual ions and electrons to generate density fluctuations. These effects are imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) brightness temperature fluctuations produced by the neutral hydrogen 21cm line. We calculate the angular power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations for the model with the primordial magnetic fields of a several nano Gauss strength and a power-law spectrum. It is found that the overall amplitude and the shape of the brightness temperature fluctuations depend on the strength and the spectral index of the primordial magnetic fields. Therefore, it is expected that the observations of the CMB brightness temperature fluctuations give us a strong constraint on the primordial magnetic fields.

Hiroyuki Tashiro; Naoshi Sugiyama

2006-07-10

213

Giga-Gauss scale quasistatic magnetic field generation with laser

A simple setup for the generation of ultra-intense quasistatic magnetic fields is proposed and analysed. Estimations and numerical Particle-In-Cell calculations show that magnetic fields of gigagauss scale may be generated with conventional powerful relativistic lasers interacting with the appropriate targets of a special geometry. The setup may be useful for a wide range of applications, from laboratory astrophysics to magnetized ICF schemes.

Korneev, Philipp; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir

2014-01-01

214

Magnetism of a relativistic degenerate electron gas in a strong magnetic field

The magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a degenerate electron gas in a strong magnetic field in which electrons are located on the ground Landau level and the electron gas has the properties of a nonlinear paramagnet have been calculated. The paradoxical properties of the electron gas under these conditions-a decrease in the magnetization with the field and an increase in the magnetization with the temperature-have been revealed. It has been shown that matter under the corresponding conditions of neutron stars is a paramagnet with a magnetic susceptibility of {chi} {approx} 0.001.

Skobelev, V. V., E-mail: v.skobelev@inbox.ru [Moscow State Industrial University (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

215

Radiation from Relativistic Shocks with Turbulent Magnetic Fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked region. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. New recent calculation of spectra with various different Lorentz factors of jets (two electrons) and initial magnetic fields. New spectra based on small simulations will be presented.

Nishkawa, K.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Mizuno, A.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Oka, M.; Fishman, J.

2009-01-01

216

Neutrino dispersion properties in an external magnetic field

The neutrino self-energy operator {sigma}(p) in a magnetic field is calculated for the case of high-energy neutrinos, this corresponding to the crossed field approximation. The probability of the neutrino decay {nu} {sup {yields}} e{sup -}W{sup +} is found by using the imaginary part of the operator {sigma}(p). A simple analytic result is obtained in the parameter region that is the most interesting from the physical point of view and which was not considered earlier. The contribution of an external magnetic field to the neutrino magnetic moment is calculated. The result obtained here for this contribution corrects formulas available previously.

Kuznetsov, A. V., E-mail: avkuzn@uniyar.ac.ru; Mikheev, N. V. [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)], E-mail: mikheev@uniyar.ac.ru

2007-07-15

217

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alignment behavior of a crystal with a magnetic anisotropy of ?c < ?a under the imposition of a rotating magnetic field has been investigated by numerical calculation. The promotion of the crystal alignment when the projection of the magnetically hard axis on the magnetic field rotating plane is parallel to the magnetic field direction and its suppression when the magnetically hard axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field direction can be explained by the fact that the direction of the driving torque acting on the crystal minimizes the magnetic energy. Non dimensional alignment time normalized by the alignment time under the imposition of a static field is constant in the out-of-step region where the crystal cannot follow the magnetic field rotation during its alignment. The initial phase difference between the projection of the magnetically hard axis on the magnetic field rotating plane and its direction hardly affects the alignment time in the out-of-step region but strongly affects that in the synchronous region where the crystal rotation synchronous with the magnetic field rotation. A crystal aligns quickly if the initial phase difference is between 0 and 90° in the synchronous region. The minimum alignment time is the same as that under the imposition of a static field.

Iwai, Kazuhiko

2010-12-01

218

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field

This article describes both the setup and the use of a system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Earth's magnetic field. Phase instability caused by temporal fluctuations of Earth's field can be successfully improved by using a reference signal from a separate Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer\\/magnetometer. In imaging, it is important to correctly determine the phase

Ales Mohoric; Gorazd Planinsic; Miha Kos; Andrej Duh; Janez Stepisnik

2004-01-01

219

Large magnetic field instabilities induced by magnetic dipole transitions

We present a new mechanism that will limit very high magnetic fields which have been conjectured to exist in connection with some astrophysical phenomena. Low lying strongly interacting particles and resonances mixing with each other via magnetic dipole QED couplings force a vacuum instability for large external magnetic fields. These mixings limit fields to a few GeV2.

Myron Bander; H. R. Rubinstein

1992-01-01

220

In earlier works we introduced and tested a nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method designed to self-consistently calculate the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets of the corona of observed solar magnetic structures. The method requires, in principle, only a single, photospheric or low-chromospheric, vector magnetogram of a quiet-Sun patch or an active region and performs calculations in the absence of three-dimensional magnetic and velocity-field information. In this work we strictly validate this method using three-dimensional coronal magnetic fields. Benchmarking employs both synthetic, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and nonlinear force-free field extrapolations of the active-region solar corona. We find that our time-efficient NLFF method provides budgets that differ from those of more demanding semi-analytical methods by a factor of ~3, at most. This difference is expected from the physical concept and the construction of the method. Temporal correlations show mo...

Moraitis, K; Georgoulis, M K; Archontis, V

2014-01-01

221

The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

2009-05-01

222

Entanglement of two-qubit photon beam by magnetic field

We have studied the possibility of affecting the entanglement measure of 2-qubit system consisting of two photons with different fixed frequencies but with two arbitrary linear polarizations, moving in the same direction, by the help of an applied external magnetic field. The interaction between the magnetic field and the photons in our model is achieved through intermediate electrons that interact with both the photons and the magnetic field. The possibility of exact theoretical analysis of this scheme is based on known exact solutions that describe the interaction of an electron subjected to an external magnetic field (or a medium of electrons not interacting with each other) with a quantized field of two photons. We adapt these exact solutions to the case under consideration. Using explicit wave functions for the resulting electromagnetic field, we calculate the entanglement measure of the photon beam as a function of the applied magnetic field and parameters of the electron medium.

A. D. Levin; D. M. Gitman; R. C. Castro

2014-05-15

223

Entanglement of two-qubit photon beam by magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the possibility of affecting the entanglement measure of 2-qubit system consisting of two photons with different fixed frequencies but with two arbitrary linear polarizations, moving in the same direction, by the help of an applied external magnetic field. The interaction between the magnetic field and the photons in our model is achieved through intermediate electrons that interact with both the photons and the magnetic field. The possibility of exact theoretical analysis of this scheme is based on known exact solutions that describe the interaction of an electron subjected to an external magnetic field (or a medium of electrons not interacting with each other) with a quantized field of two photons. We adapt these exact solutions to the case under consideration. Using explicit wave functions for the resulting electromagnetic field, we calculate the entanglement measure of the photon beam as a function of the applied magnetic field and parameters of the electron medium.

Levin, A. D.; Gitman, D. M.; Castro, R. A.

2014-09-01

224

Low-frequency fluctuations in plasma magnetic fields

It is shown that even a non-magnetized plasma with temperature T sustains zero-frequency magnetic fluctuations in thermal equilibrium. Fluctuations in electric and magnetic fields, as well as in densities, are computed. Four cases are studied: a cold, gaseous, isotropic, non-magnetized plasma; a cold, gaseous plasma in a uniform magnetic field; a warm, gaseous plasma described by kinetic theory; and a degenerate electron plasma. For the simple gaseous plasma, the fluctuation strength of the magnetic field as a function of frequency and wavenumber is calculated with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This calculation is done for both collisional and collisionless plasmas. The magnetic field fluctuation spectrum of each plasma has a large zero-frequency peak. The peak is a Dirac {delta}-function in the collisionless plasma; it is broadened into a Lorentzian curve in the collisional plasma. The plasma causes a low frequency cutoff in the typical black-body radiation spectrum, and the energy under the discovered peak approximates the energy lost in this cutoff. When the imposed magnetic field is weak, the magnetic field were vector fluctuation spectra of the two lowest modes are independent of the strength of the imposed field. Further, these modes contain finite energy even when the imposed field is zero. It is the energy of these modes which forms the non-magnetized zero-frequency peak of the isotropic plasma. In deriving these results, a simple relationship between the dispersion relation and the fluctuation power spectrum of electromagnetic waves if found. The warm plasma is shown, by kinetic theory, to exhibit a zero-frequency peak in its magnetic field fluctuation spectrum as well. For the degenerate plasma, we find that electric field fluctuations and number density fluctuations vanish at zero frequency; however, the magnetic field power spectrum diverges at zero frequency.

Cable, S.; Tajima, T.

1992-02-01

225

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS B. Fornberg,2

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS N. Flyer,1 B Axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields external to a unit sphere are studied as solutions to boundary value to the formation of an azimuthal rope of twisted magnetic field embedded within the global field, and to the energy

Fornberg, Bengt

226

Development Trends in High Field Magnet Technology

The production of high magnetic fields using low temperature superconductors (LTS) has become common place. However, large magnet sizes and associated high cooling costs have often precluded the full utilization of these research capabilities. Recent advances in internal Sn superconductors and cryogen free technology have opened up a new era in superconducting magnet development. Ultra-compact, laboratory sized magnets producing fields

R. Harrison; R. Bateman; J. Brown; F. Domptail; C. M. Friend; P. Ghoshal; C. King; A. Van der Linden; Z. Melhem; P. Noonan; A. Twin; M. Field; S. Hong; J. Parrell; Y. Zhang

2008-01-01

227

Harmonic Torque Calculation of Induction Motors Using Electromagnetic Field Analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate effects of harmonic electromagnetic field to torque characteristics of induction motors from both side of experiment and electromagnetic field analysis. The characteristics of two kinds of the aluminum cage three-phase induction motors are measured and calculated. One is with the closed rotor slots. The other is semi-closed. In the experiment, the negative torque at synchronous speed is measured by driving the induction motor by the synchronous permanent magnet motor. The total torque at load condition is also measured by the torque detector. In the analysis, the harmonic magnetic fields, the harmonic losses and the harmonic torques at each time and space harmonic order are calculated using the nonlinear time-stepping finite element method to clarify the mechanism of the harmonic torque generation. The measured and the calculated results agree well. It is clarified that the negative torque caused by the slot harmonics at the rated load condition is not negligible and that the negative torque is mainly generated by the harmonic core losses.

Yamazaki, Katsumi; Haruishi, Yoshihisa; Ara, Takahiro

228

The Giotto magnetic field investigation

The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28\\/sec during close encounter,

F. M. Neubauer; G. Musmann; M. H. Acuna; L. F. Burlaga; N. F. Ness; F. Mariani; M. Wallis; E. Ungstrup; H. Schmidt

1983-01-01

229

Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

Hagyard, M. J. (editor)

1985-01-01

230

What Are Electric and Magnetic Fields? (EMF)

What are Electric and Magnetic Fields? (EMF) Electric and Magnetic Fields Electricity is an essential part of our lives. Electricity powers all sorts of things around us, from computers to refrigerators ...

231

Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars

This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...

232

Plasma stability in a dipole magnetic field

The MHD and kinetic stability of an axially symmetric plasma, confined by a poloidal magnetic field with closed lines, is considered. In such a system the stabilizing effects of plasma compression and magnetic field ...

Simakov, Andrei N., 1974-

2001-01-01

233

Absolute negative conductivity of graphene with impurities in magnetic field

Current-voltage and current-field characteristics for graphene with Anderson interaction of conduction and impurity electrons are calculated by the 'average electron' method in the case of low temperatures. These characteristics are analyzed depending on the frequency of an external ac electric field and a magnetic field. A portion with absolute negative conductivity is detected.

Belonenko, M. B. [Volgograd Institute of Business, Laboratory of Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Lebedev, N. G.; Yanyushkina, N. N., E-mail: yana@inbox.ru [Volgograd State University (Russian Federation); Shakirzyanov, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Zavoisky Physicotechnical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

234

Aggregation of magnetic holes in a rotating magnetic field

We have experimentally investigated field induced aggregation of nonmagnetic particles confined in a magnetic fluid layer when rotating magnetic fields were applied. After application of a magnetic field rotating in the plane of the fluid layer, the single particles start to form two-dimensional (2D) clusters, like doublets, triangels, and more complex structures. These clusters aggregated again and again to form bigger clusters. During this nonequilibrium process, a broad range of cluster sizes was formed, and the scaling exponents, $z$ and $z'$, of the number of clusters $N(t)\\sim t^{z'}$and average cluster size $S(t)\\sim t^{z}$ were calculated. The process could be characterized as diffusion limited cluster-cluster aggregation. We have found that all sizes of clusters that occured during an experiment, fall on a single curve as the dynamic scaling theory predicts. Hovewer, the characteristic scaling exponents $z',\\: z$ and crossover exponents $\\Delta$ were not universal. A particle tracking method was used to find the dependence of the diffusion coefficients $D_{s}$ on cluster size $s$. The cluster motions show features of \\textit{\\emph{Brownian}} motion. The average diffusion coefficients $$ depend on the cluster sizes $s$ as a power law $\\propto s^{\\gamma}$ where values of $\\gamma$ as different as $\\gamma=-0.62\\pm0.19$ and $\\gamma=-2.08\\pm0. were found in two of the experiments.

Jozef ?ernák; Geir Helgesen

2008-06-20

235

Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice placed in magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in Faraday geometry with taking into account dissipation processes. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such superlattice have been calculated for different numbers of periods of the structure and different sizes of the periods with using a transfer matrix method. The possibility of efficient control of electrodynamic properties of graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice has been shown.

Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G

2014-01-01

236

Source Galerkin Calculations in Scalar Field Theory

In this paper, we extend previous work on scalar $\\phi^4$ theory using the Source Galerkin method. This approach is based on finding solutions $Z[J]$ to the lattice functional equations for field theories in the presence of an external source $J$. Using polynomial expansions for the generating functional $Z$, we calculate propagators and mass-gaps for a number of systems. These calculations are straightforward to perform and are executed rapidly compared to Monte Carlo. The bulk of the computation involves a single matrix inversion. The use of polynomial expansions illustrates in a clear and simple way the ideas of the Source Galerkin method. But at the same time, this choice has serious limitations. Even after exploiting symmetries, the size of calculations become prohibitive except for small systems. The calculations in this paper were made on a workstation of modest power using a fourth order polynomial expansion for lattices of size $8^2$,$4^3$,$2^4$ in $2D$, $3D$, and $4D$. In addition, we present an alternative to the Galerkin procedure that results in sparse matrices to invert.

John W. Lawson; G. S. Guralnik

1995-07-25

237

Applied Magnetic Field Enhances Arc Vapor Deposition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applied magnetic field enhances performance of vaporization part of arc vapor deposition apparatus. When no magnetic field applied by external means, arc wonders semirandomly over cathode, with net motion toward electrical feedthrough. When magnetic field applied arc moves circumferentially around cathode, and downward motion suppressed.

Miller, T. A.; Loutfy, R. O.; Withers, J. C.

1993-01-01

238

CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION

Chapter 5 CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION Stephen M. White This article reviews the use of gyroresonance emission at radio wavelengths to measure coronal magnetic fields probes of the magnetic field strength above active regions, and this unique capability is one

White, Stephen

239

Appendix E: Software MEASURING CONSTANT MAGNETIC FIELD

E - 1 Appendix E: Software MEASURING CONSTANT MAGNETIC FIELD (THE HALL PROBE APPLICATION) Basics yourself with the equipment. The software package that works in tandem with your magnetic field sensor is written in LabVIEWTM. It allows you to measure and record magnetic field strength as a function

Minnesota, University of

240

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2010-10-15

241

Magnetic field navigation in an indoor environment

This paper describes a method that has been developed to aid an inertial navigation system when GNSS signals are not available, by taking advantage of the uniqueness of magnetic field variations. Most indoor environments have many different features (ferrous structural materials or contents, electrical currents, etc.) which perturb the Earths natural magnetic field. The variations in the magnetic field in

William Storms; Jeremiah Shockley; John Raquet

2010-01-01

242

Quenching of flames by magnetic fields (abstract)

The effects of magnetic fields on combustion of alcohol with the aid of platinum catalysis have been studied to simulate in part the oxidation of organic matter in the living body, and it has been found that the combustion reactions are influenced by magnetic fields. It has also been observed that candle flames are pressed down by magnetic fields of

S. Ueno

1988-01-01

243

Magnetic-Field Processing of Industrial Effluents

• the field acts on pollutants in the colloidal state; and • the field influences the structure of the water. Magnetic treatment is simple, safe, and very inexpensive, but a patent search under the topic “Magnetic treatment of water and aqueous solutions” has shown that the existing devices and methods for using magnetic fields to process effluents containing heavy-metal ions

V. P. Malkin

2002-01-01

244

Graphene transparency in weak magnetic fields

We carry out an explicit calculation of the vacuum polarization tensor for an effective low-energy model of monolayer graphene in the presence of a weak magnetic field of intensity $B$ perpendicularly aligned to the membrane. By expanding the quasiparticle propagator in the Schwinger proper time representation up to order $(eB)^2$, where $e$ is the unit charge, we find an explicitly transverse tensor, consistent with gauge invariance. Furthermore, assuming that graphene is radiated with monochromatic light of frequency $\\omega$ along the external field direction, from the modified Maxwell's equations we derive the intensity of transmitted light and the angle of polarization rotation in terms of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_{xx}$) and transverse ($\\sigma_{xy}$) conductivities. Corrections to these quantities, both calculated and measured, are of order $(eB)^2/\\omega^4$. Our findings generalize and complement previously known results reported in literature regarding the light absorption problem in graphene from th...

Valenzuela, David; Loewe, Marcelo; Raya, Alfredo

2014-01-01

245

Magnetic Moment of Vector Mesons in the Background Field Method

We report some results for the magnetic moments of vector mesons extracted from mass shifts in the presence of static external magnetic fields. The calculations are done on $24^4$ quenched lattices using standard Wilson actions, with $\\beta$=6.0 and pion mass down to 500 MeV. The results are compared to those from the form factor method.

Frank X. Lee; Scott Moerschbacher; Walter Wilcox

2007-10-11

246

The near earth magnetic field of the magnetotail current

In the forward part of the magnetosphere the distant tail current system approximates a magnetic quadrupole composed of two distorted adjacent solenoids. The current in the neutral sheet at this distance is accurately approximated as an infinitesimally thin current sheet. We have calculated the magnetic field near the Earth by integrating over the entire tail current system assuming the magnetotail

J. Y. Choe; D. B. Beard

1974-01-01

247

Magnetic dipole moment determination by near-field analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for determining the magnetic moment of a spacecraft from magnetic field data taken in a limited region of space close to the spacecraft. The spacecraft's magnetic field equations are derived from first principles. With measurements of this field restricted to certain points in space, the near-field equations for the spacecraft are derived. These equations are solved for the dipole moment by a least squares procedure. A method by which one can estimate the magnitude of the error in the calculations is also presented. This technique was thoroughly tested on a computer. The test program is described and evaluated, and partial results are presented.

Eichhorn, W. L.

1972-01-01

248

Magnetic monopole and the nature of the static magnetic field

We investigate the factuality of the hypothetical magnetic monopole and the nature of the static magnetic field. It is shown from many aspects that the concept of the massive magnetic monopoles clearly is physically untrue. We argue that the static magnetic field of a bar magnet, in fact, is the static electric field of the periodically quasi-one-dimensional electric-dipole superlattice, which can be well established in some transition metals with the localized d-electron. This research may shed light on the perfect unification of magnetic and electrical phenomena.

Xiuqing Huang

2008-12-10

249

Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. H...

Blackman, Eric G

2014-01-01

250

Effects of magnetic fields on fibrinolysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the possible effects of magnetic fields on the fibrinolytic process. Fibrin dissolution was observed and the fibrinolytic activities were evaluated. First, fibrinolytic processes in magnetic fields were investigated by the fibrin plate method. We gathered solutions from the dissolved fibrin, and measured mean levels of fibrin degradation products (FDPs) in solutions. Mean levels of FDPs exposed to 8 T magnetic fields were higher than those not exposed to fields. Second, we carried out an experiment to understand how fibrin oriented in a magnetic field dissolves. FDPs in solutions of dissolved fibrins in fibrin plates were assayed. The result was that fibrin gels formed in a magnetic field at 8 T were more soluble than those not formed in a magnetic field. A model based on the diamagnetic properties of macromolecules was explained, and changes of protein concentrations in a solution in gradient magnetic fields were predicted.

Iwasaka, M.; Ueno, S.; Tsuda, H.

1994-05-01

251

Magnetic Fields1 Increasingly, instruments that generate large static magnetic fields (e.g., NMR spectrometers, MRI) are present in research laboratories. Such magnets typically have fields of 14,000 to 235,000 G (1.4 to 23.5 T), far above that of Earth's magnetic field, which is approximately 0.5 G

Shull, Kenneth R.

252

The magnetic field over the Southern African continent: from core to crustal magnetic fields

Secular magnetic field evolutions do not proceed in a regular way all over the Earth. In some regions like Southern Africa, the field has been changing more rapidly than elsewhere. During the last five decades, the Earth's magnetic field has been represented in spherical harmonics from a series of measurements that were generally obtained at magnetic field observatories. Unfortunately, magnetic

Erwan Thébault; Pieter Kotze; Arnaud Chulliat; Fotini Vervelidou

2010-01-01

253

Magnetic field perturbations in the systems where only poloidal magnetic field is present*

1 Magnetic field perturbations in the systems where only poloidal magnetic field is present* D In some plasma confinement systems the confinement is provided by a poloidal magnetic field (no toroidal magnetic field is present). Examples include FRC, levitated dipoles, and long diffuse pinches. We consider

254

Absorbed dose calculations for the Ignitor tokamak magnet coils insulator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ignitor experiment is an advanced compact high magnetic field tokamak with cryogenically cooled (30 K) normal conductor magnets. Its main purpose is to produce deuterium-tritium plasma regimes where ignition can take place. From the neutronics point of view, the routine operations with 50% of tritium will lead to a very short (4 s) but intense emission of 14 MeV neutrons (up to 3×10 19 n/s). The capability of the boron-free glass reinforced epoxy resin presently adopted for the insulation of the coils conductor to withstand the severe irradiation condition could be a key issue in the performance, reliability and lifespan of Ignitor. In order to better know the radiation environment in which the insulators will operate, calculations of the absorbed dose are performed using the parallelized version of MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code. A detailed 3D geometry description of the tokamak, an accurate representation of the neutron source distribution together with the more recent version of transport cross-section libraries EFF (European Fusion File) are used in this work. The variation of calculated dose depending on the insulator position inside the device, on the neutron energy spectra and on the total number of neutrons produced over the scheduled machine lifetime are discussed in the present paper.

Rollet, S.; Angelone, M.; Batistoni, P.

2000-05-01

255

Magnetic properties of the neutron in a uniform background field

We present calculations of the magnetic moment and magnetic polarisability of the neutron from the background field method. The calculations are performed on $32^3\\times64$ dynamical lattices generated by the PACS-CS collaboration and made available via the ILDG. We consider uniform fields quantised by the periodic spatial volume. We explore different approaches for improving the quality of the fits used in the results. Also included are initial results for the magnetic moment of the lowest lying negative parity nucleon states.

Thomas Primer; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Matthias Burkardt

2012-12-10

256

Fast nonparaxial scalar focal field calculations.

An efficient algorithm for calculating nonparaxial scalar field distributions in the focal region of a lens is discussed. The algorithm is based on fast Fourier transform implementations of the first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and assumes that the input field at the pupil plane has a larger extent than the field in the focal region. A sampling grid is defined over a finite region in the output plane and referred to as a tile. The input field is divided into multiple separate spatial regions of the size of the output tile. Finally, the input tiles are added coherently to form a summed tile, which is propagated to the output plane. Since only a single tile is propagated, there are significant reductions of computational load and memory requirements. This method is combined either with a subpixel sampling technique or with a chirp z-transform to realize smaller sampling intervals in the output plane than in the input plane. For a given example the resulting methods enable a speedup of approximately 800× in comparison to the normal angular spectrum method, while the memory requirements are reduced by more than 99%. PMID:24977358

Hillenbrand, Matthias; Hoffmann, Armin; Kelly, Damien P; Sinzinger, Stefan

2014-06-01

257

Two different techniques (monopole and dipole) for calculating the electric and magnetic fields from a distribution of currents and charges are discussed. Both techniques have been used for calculating the fields from lightning. A simple return-stroke current model, consisting of a square current pulse traveling up a vertical antenna above a ground plane, is used to compare the two techniques.

Marcos Rubinstein; Martin A. Uman

1989-01-01

258

The Giotto magnetic field investigation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.

Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.

1983-01-01

259

Heliospheric magnetic fields and plasmas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the existing literature on heliospheric physics, covering the period 1972-1982, is presented. Attention is given to observations and theories germane to the examination of the heliosphere as a large-scale astrophysical system that is part of the earth's environment. The literature includes data and models for magnetic sectors and the large-scale magnetic field, the large-scale plasma structure, and models and observed variations in the solar wind. Consideration is also devoted to the transient and corotating streams and shocks, the composition of the solar wind, and to MHD turbulence, waves, and discontinuities. More intensive investigations of the region near 1 AU are recommended, particularly to characterize the coronal source of the solar wind. The solar polar mission will be the first to provide radial measurements for comparisons with previous exclusively ecliptic measurements of solar activities.

Burlaga, L. F.

1983-01-01

260

Meson spectrum in strong magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the relativistic quark-antiquark system embedded in a magnetic field (MF). The Hamiltonian containing confinement, one gluon exchange, and spin-spin interaction is derived. We analytically follow the evolution of the lowest meson states as a function of MF strength. Calculating the one gluon exchange interaction energy ?VOGE? and spin-spin contribution ?aSS? we have observed that these corrections remain finite at large MF, preventing the vanishing of the total ? meson mass at some Bcrit, as previously thought. We display the ? masses as functions of the MF in comparison with recent lattice data.

Andreichikov, M. A.; Kerbikov, B. O.; Orlovsky, V. D.; Simonov, Yu. A.

2013-05-01

261

Graphene transparency in weak magnetic fields

We carry out an explicit calculation of the vacuum polarization tensor for an effective low-energy model of monolayer graphene in the presence of a weak magnetic field of intensity $B$ perpendicularly aligned to the membrane. By expanding the quasiparticle propagator in the Schwinger proper time representation up to order $(eB)^2$, where $e$ is the unit charge, we find an explicitly transverse tensor, consistent with gauge invariance. Furthermore, assuming that graphene is radiated with monochromatic light of frequency $\\omega$ along the external field direction, from the modified Maxwell's equations we derive the intensity of transmitted light and the angle of polarization rotation in terms of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_{xx}$) and transverse ($\\sigma_{xy}$) conductivities. Corrections to these quantities, both calculated and measured, are of order $(eB)^2/\\omega^4$. Our findings generalize and complement previously known results reported in literature regarding the light absorption problem in graphene from the experimental and theoretical points of view, with and without external magnetic fields.

David Valenzuela; Saúl Hernández-Ortiz; Marcelo Loewe; Alfredo Raya

2014-10-20

262

Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

Doughty, Frank C. (Plano, TX); Spencer, John E. (Plano, TX)

2000-12-19

263

Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.

Saeed-ur-Rehman; Marchand, Richard

2014-09-01

264

Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields with the 21cm Fluctuations

Primordial magnetic fields possibly generated in the very early universe are one of the candidates for the origin of magnetic fields observed in many galaxies and galaxy clusters. After recombination, the dissipation process of the primordial magnetic fields increases the baryon temperature. The Lorentz force acts on the residual ions and electrons to generate density fluctuations. These effects are imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) brightness temperature fluctuations produced by the neutral hydrogen 21cm line. We calculate the angular power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations for the model with the primordial magnetic fields of a several nano Gauss strength and a power-law spectrum. It is found that the overall amplitude and the shape of the brightness temperature fluctuations depend on the strength and the spectral index of the primordial magnetic fields. Therefore, it is expected that the observations of the CMB brightness temperature fluctuations give us a strong constraint on...

Tashiro, H; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi

2006-01-01

265

Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to all orders in the magnetic field and the Chiral Magnetic Effect

In high energy heavy ion collisions as well as in astrophysical objects like magnetars extreme magnetic field strengths are reached. Thus, there exists a need to calculate divers QED processes to all orders in the magnetic field. We calculate the vacuum polarization graph in second order of the electric field and all orders of the magnetic field resulting in a generalization of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. We perform the calculation in the effective Lagrangian approach of J. Schwinger as well as using modified Feynman rules. We find that both approaches give the same results provided that the different finite renormalization terms are taken into account. Our results imply that any quantitative explanation of the recently proposed Chiral Magnetic Effect has to take 'Strong QED' effects into account, because these corrections are huge.

Simon Wolfgang Mages; Matthias Aicher; Andreas Schäfer

2010-09-08

266

Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to all orders in the magnetic field and the Chiral Magnetic Effect

In high energy heavy ion collisions as well as in astrophysical objects like magnetars extreme magnetic field strengths are reached. Thus, there exists a need to calculate divers QED processes to all orders in the magnetic field. We calculate the vacuum polarization graph in second order of the electric field and all orders of the magnetic field resulting in a generalization of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. We perform the calculation in the effective Lagrangian approach of J. Schwinger as well as using modified Feynman rules. We find that both approaches give the same results provided that the different finite renormalization terms are taken into account. Our results imply that any quantitative explanation of the recently proposed Chiral Magnetic Effect has to take 'Strong QED' effects into account, because these corrections are huge.

Mages, Simon Wolfgang; Schäfer, Andreas

2010-01-01

267

Spatiotemporal magnetic field monitoring for MR.

MR experiments frequently rely on signal encoding by the application of magnetic fields that vary in both space and time. The accurate interpretation of the resulting signals often requires knowledge of the exact spatiotemporal field evolution during the experiment. To better fulfill this need, a new approach is presented that enables measuring the field evolution concurrently with any MR sequence. Miniature NMR probes are used to monitor the MR phase evolution around the object under investigation. Based on these data, a global phase model is calculated that can then be used as a basis for processing the actual image or spectroscopic data. The new method is demonstrated by MRI of a phantom, using spin-warp, spiral, and EPI trajectories. Throughout, the monitoring results enabled highly accurate image reconstruction, even in the presence of massive gradient imperfections. PMID:18581361

Barmet, Christoph; De Zanche, Nicola; Pruessmann, Klaas P

2008-07-01

268

Magnetic fluid flow phenomena in DC and rotating magnetic fields

An investigation of magnetic fluid experiments and analysis is presented in three parts: a study of magnetic field induced torques in magnetorheological fluids, a characterization and quantitative measurement of properties ...

Rhodes, Scott E. (Scott Edward), 1981-

2004-01-01

269

Magnetic field driven instability of a charged center in graphene

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a magnetic field dramatically affects the problem of supercritical charge in graphene, making any charge in gapless theory supercritical. The cases of a radially symmetric potential well and a Coulomb center in a homogeneous magnetic field are considered. The local density of states and polarization charge density are calculated in the first order of perturbation theory. It is argued that the magnetically induced instability of the supercritical Coulomb center can be considered as a quantum-mechanical counterpart of the magnetic catalysis phenomenon in graphene.

Gamayun, O. V.; Gorbar, E. V.; Gusynin, V. P.

2011-06-01

270

Magnetization of the QCD vacuum at large fields

The response of the QCD vacuum to very large static external magnetic fields (q B >> Lambda_QCD^2) is studied. In this regime, the magnetization of the QCD vacuum is naturally described via perturbative QCD. Combining pQCD and the Schwinger proper time formalism, we calculate the magnetization of the QCD vacuum due to a strong magnetic field at leading order (one-loop) to be proportional to B log B. We show that the leading perturbative correction (two-loop) vanishes.

Thomas D. Cohen; Elizabeth S. Werbos

2008-10-28

271

Spin flip probability of electron in a uniform magnetic field

The probability that an electromagnetic wave can flip the spin of an electron is calculated. It is assumed that the electron resides in a uniform magnetic field and interacts with an incoming electromagnetic pulse. The scattering matrix is constructed and the time needed to flip the spin is calculated.

Hammond, Richard T. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27703 (United States)

2012-03-19

272

Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

1991-01-01

273

Neutrino self-energy in external magnetic field

Using the exact propagators in a constant magnetic field, the neutrino self-energy has been calculated to all orders in the field strength B within the minimal extension of the Weinberg-Salam model with massive Dirac neutrinos. A simple and very accurate formula for the self-energy is obtained, that is valid for 0 < B << m^2_W/e and for and for neutrino transverse momentum to the magnetic field p_{\\perp} << m_W. I discuss the implications of this finding to the dispersion of massless neutrinos in vacuum and in a charge-symmetric medium, and to the magnetic field induced resonance transitions of massive neutrinos inside supernovae and magnetars, and calculate the neutrino magnetic moment.

Andrea Erdas

2009-08-28

274

Given the anomalous magnetic moments of electrons and positrons in the\\u000aone-loop approximation, we calculate the exact Lagrangian of an intense\\u000aconstant magnetic field that replaces the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian in\\u000atraditional quantum electrodynamics (QED). We have established that the derived\\u000ageneralization of the Lagrangian is real for arbitrary magnetic fields. In a\\u000aweak field, the calculated Lagrangian matches the standard

V. N. Rodionov

2004-01-01

275

Electric and magnetic fields at power frequencies.

Exposures to electric and magnetic fields are among the most ubiquitous exposures that the Canadian population experiences. Sources of electric and magnetic field exposures may be occupational or residential and include proximity to certain types of electrical equipment, transmission and distribution power lines as well as appliance use. The early studies of children tended toward a consistent association between risks for leukemia and brain cancer and residential proximity to power lines having high wire configuration. More recent studies-and studies which have attempted to improve upon the measurement of exposure by using calculated fields, point-in-time or personal monitoring-have been inconsistent, with some suggesting increased risk and others not. Occupational exposures have suggested an increase in risk for leukemia, and to a lesser extent brain cancer and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, studies of residential exposures and cancer in adults generally have suggested no effect. Laboratory work has been unable to demonstrate a biological mechanism which might explain the epidemiological findings. In spite of extensive efforts over the past 20 years and many expert reviews, it has been difficult to reach consensus regarding the carcinogenic effects of electric and magnetic fields. Exposure assessment has proven to be complex, and agreement on the relevant exposure metric has not yet been obtained. There is justification to question whether point-in-time measures in homes are appropriate indices of the relevant etiological exposure, as they fail to account for changes over time, peak exposures or time-varying fields. Nevertheless, it is probably desirable to err on the side of caution in not placing too much weight on the inconsistencies. The IARC has classified EMF as a "possible carcinogen" which refers to the circumstances where there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate evidence in experimental animals. The IARC review indicated limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in relation to childhood leukemia at high level exposure in the residential environment (average residential magnetic field strength >0.4 ?T). Even higher levels of exposure in the occupational environment may increase the risk of leukemia in adults. PMID:21199600

Miller, Anthony B; Green, Lois M

2010-01-01

276

Magnetic fields of the solar system: A comparative planetology toolkit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields within the solar system provide a strong organizing force for processes active both within a planet or moon, and outside of it. In the interest of stimulating research and education in the field of comparative planetology, we present documented Fortran and MATLAB source codes and benchmarks to the latest models for planets and satellites that host internal magnetic fields. This presentation is made in the context of an interactive website: http://planetary-mag.net. Models are included for Earth (Comprehensive model CM4 of Sabaka et al., 2004, Geophysics J. Int.), Mercury (Anderson et al, 2011, Science), the Moon (Purucker and Nicholas, 2010, JGR), Mars (Lillis et al., 2010, JGR), and the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (Russell and Dougherty, 2010, Space Science Reviews). All models include magnetic fields of internal origin, and fields of external origin are included in the models for Mercury, the Earth, and the Moon. As models evolve, we intend to include magnetic fields of external origin for the other planets and moons. The website allows the user to select a coordinate system, such as planet-centered, heliocentric, or boundary normal, and the location within that coordinate system, and the vector magnetic field due to each of the component source fields at that location is then calculated and presented. Alternatively, the user can input a range as well as a grid spacing, and the vector magnetic field will be calculated for all points on that grid and be made available as a file for downloading.

Nicholas, J. B.; Purucker, M. E.; Johnson, C. L.; Sabaka, T. J.; Olsen, N.; Sun, Z.; Al Asad, M.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Lillis, R. J.; Langlais, B.; Winslow, R. M.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Zuber, M. T.

2011-12-01

277

Problems with magnetic field measurements on spacecrafts

The paper summarizes the difficulties and possible solutions to design and evaluate accurate vector magnetic field measurements on spacecrafts in the interplanetary magnetic field. Problems are discussed like calibration, boom mounted sensors and misalignment angles determination in flight. The application of a detailed magnetic cleanliness program as an example the comet Halley-Giotto spacecraft is demonstrated in detail. The use of

Günter Musmann

1988-01-01

278

Neutrinos with Mixing in Twisting Magnetic Fields

Transitions in a system of neutrinos with vacuum mixing and magnetic moments, propagating in matter and transverse magnetic field, are considered. It is shown that in the realistic case of magnetic field direction varying along the neutrino path qualitatively new phenomena become possible: permutation of neutrino conversion resonances, appearance of resonances in the neutrino-antineutrino ($\

E. Kh. Akhmedov; S. T. Petcov; A. Yu. Smirnov

1993-01-06

279

Discovery of magnetic fields in CPNs

For the first time we have directly detected magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae by means of spectro-polarimetry with FORS1 at the VLT. In all four objects of our sample we found kilogauss magnetic fields, in NGC 1360 and LSS1362 with very high significance, while in Abell36 and EGB5 the existence of a magnetic field is probable but with less certainty. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the non-spherical symmetry of most planetary nebulae is caused by magnetic fields in AGB stars. Our high discovery rate demands mechanisms to prevent full conservation of magnetic flux during the transition to white dwarfs.

S. Jordan; K. Werner; S. J. O'Toole

2004-10-21

280

Type-II-superconductor strip with current in a perpendicular magnetic field

Current density, magnetic field, penetrated magnetic flux, and magnetic moment are calculated analytically for a thin strip of a type-II superconductor carrying a transport current I in a perpendicular magnetic field Ha. Constant critical current density jc is assumed. The exact solutions reveal interesting features of this often realized perpendicular geometry that qualitatively differs from the widely used Bean critical

Ernst Helmut Brandt; Mikhail Indenbom

1993-01-01

281

Edge effects on forces and magnetic fields produced by a conductor moving past a magnet

Experiments have been performed to further understand the forces acting on magnets moving along and over the edge of a continuous conducting sheet and to produce a comprehensive data set for the validation of analysis methods. Mapping the magnetic field gives information about the eddy currents induced in the conductor, which agrees with numerical calculations.

Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Almer, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rossing, T.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)

1992-04-01

282

Edge effects on forces and magnetic fields produced by a conductor moving past a magnet

Experiments have been performed to further understand the forces acting on magnets moving along and over the edge of a continuous conducting sheet and to produce a comprehensive data set for the validation of analysis methods. Mapping the magnetic field gives information about the eddy currents induced in the conductor, which agrees with numerical calculations.

Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Almer, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rossing, T.D. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

283

Universality of critical magnetic field in holographic superconductor

Holographic superconductors with constant external magnetic field have been investigated by analytical matching method. It has been shown that the critical temperature and critical magnetic field can be calculated in non-zero temperature. Meissner effect has been observed in such superconductors. The relationship between normal entropy mode and superconductor with Bekenstein upper bound has been studied. Universal relation between black hole mass $ M$ and critical magnetic field $H_c$ has been proposed as $\\frac{H_c}{M^{2/3}}\\leq 0.60045$.

Davood Momeni; Ratbay Myrzakulov

2014-01-13

284

Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel

The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.

I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax

2001-12-12

285

Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

2007-02-01

286

Computation approach for CMB bispectrum from primordial magnetic fields

We present a detailed calculation of our previous short paper [1] in which we have investigated a constraint on the magnetic field strength through comic microwave background (CMB) temperature bispectrum of vector modes induced from primordial magnetic fields. By taking into account full angular dependence of the bispectrum with spin spherical harmonics and Wigner symbols, we explicitly show that the CMB bispectrum induced from the statistical-isotropic primordial vector fluctuations can be also described as an angle averaged form in the rotationally invariant way. We also study the cases with different spectral indices of the power spectrum of the primordial magnetic fields.

Shiraishi, Maresuke; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro

2011-01-01

287

Casimir momentum of a chiral molecule in a magnetic field.

In a classical description, a neutral, polarizable object acquires a kinetic momentum when exposed to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In the presence of only a magnetic field no such momentum exists classically, although it is symmetry allowed for an object lacking mirror symmetry. We perform a full QED calculation to show that the quantum vacuum coupled to a chiral molecule provides it with a kinetic "Casimir" momentum directed along the magnetic field, and proportional to its molecular rotatory power and to the fine structure constant. PMID:24138239

Donaire, M; van Tiggelen, B A; Rikken, G L J A

2013-10-01

288

Computation approach for CMB bispectrum from primordial magnetic fields

We present a detailed calculation of our previous short paper [M. Shiraishi, D. Nitta, S. Yokoyama, K. Ichiki, and K. Takahashi, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 82, 121302 (2010).10.1103\\/PhysRevD.82.121302] in which we have investigated a constraint on the magnetic field strength through comic microwave background temperature bispectrum of vector modes induced from primordial magnetic fields. By taking into account full angular dependence

Maresuke Shiraishi; Daisuke Nitta; Shuichiro Yokoyama; Kiyotomo Ichiki; Keitaro Takahashi

2011-01-01

289

The Radiation from an Electron Moving in a Uniform Magnetic Field

The radiation from an electron moving in a uniform magnetic field is investigated quantum mechanically. Reasons are given for expecting deviations from the classical calculations at electron energies of about 100 Mev in the presence of a magnetic field of 104 gauss. The quantum-mechanical calculation is carried through and is compared with the classical calculation. Although the deviations are considerable,

G. Parzen

1951-01-01

290

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hornig, G. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2013-01-15

291

Molecular Lines as Diagnostics of Solar and Stellar Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to recent advances in theory we can now calculate molecular line profiles in the presence of magnetic fields with high accuracy, both in the Zeeman and Paschen-Back regimes (Berdyugina et al. 2000; Berdyugina & Solanki 2001a). The synthetic Stokes profiles of various molecular species (e.g. TiO, OH, MgH, CN, FeH) have been compared with profiles observed in sunspots. The agreement between the theory and observations is remarkable. For example, the mutually opposite polarities of different OH lines are reproduced without invoking any free parameters, except the magnetic field strength and sunspot temperature. Introducing molecular lines into the inversion of sunspot spectra leads to significant improvements in the deduced magnetic field vector. Here we investigate how molecular lines can be used to deduce magnetic parameters of cool stars. We find that such lines are of great interest for measuring magnetic fields on cooler stars and in starspots.

Berdyugina, S. V.; Solanki, S. K.; Lagg, A.

2003-10-01

292

Magnetic Field Restructuring Associated with Two Successive Solar Eruptions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine two successive flare eruptions (X5.4 and X1.3) on 2012 March 7 in the NOAA active region 11429 and investigate the magnetic field reconfiguration associated with the two eruptions. Using an advanced non-linear force-free field extrapolation method based on the SDO/HMI vector magnetograms, we obtain a stepwise decrease in the magnetic free energy during the eruptions, which is roughly 20%-30% of the energy of the pre-flare phase. We also calculate the magnetic helicity and suggest that the changes of the sign of the helicity injection rate might be associated with the eruptions. Through the investigation of the magnetic field evolution, we find that the appearance of the "implosion" phenomenon has a strong relationship with the occurrence of the first X-class flare. Meanwhile, the magnetic field changes of the successive eruptions with implosion and without implosion were well observed.

Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Hu, Huidong

2014-08-01

293

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25

294

Advances in Remote Sensing of Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sharp contrast to stellar magnetic fields, geomagnetic fields have never been remotely sensed. If geomagnetic fields could be measured remotely at the nanotesla (nT) level or better, our understanding of the processes that produce these fields would advance markedly. Unlike characteristics such as topography and temperature, measurements of the magnetic field are determined almost exclusively in situ. The inability to remotely sense these fields has hindered their utility. The Remote Atmospheric Magnetics Workshop highlighted advances in this frontier area, focusing on lab- and field-based studies.

Purucker, Michael

2014-09-01

295

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable nitroxide radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) has been applied as a sensor to study magnetite nanoparticles both in water suspension and in dried gelatin films. g-values and line widths of ESR spectra of the probe were found to be sensitive to the local magnetic fields of magnetic nanoparticles. Calculated on the basis of the sensor ESR spectra, local magnetic fields are stipulated by linear aggregates of magnetite nanoparticles formed in applied outer magnetic fields and are significantly lower than local magnetic fields estimated from the static magnetic measurements data.

Kovarski, Alexander L.; Sorokina, Olga N.

2007-04-01

296

Franck-Hertz experiment in magnetic field

The paper studies the impact of applied magnetic field on the inelastic collisions of electrons with argon atoms. In the electron-argon Franck-Hertz experiment, the influence of applied magnetic field emerges complicated features, and is equivalent to that of the temperature. In case the accelerating electric intensity becomes strong enough, enlarging magnetic flux density will be equivalent to the increasing of oven temperature. When the accelerating electric intensity is very weak and the applied magnetic field occupies a dominant position, enhancing magnetic flux density is identical with the decreasing of oven temperature. And the non-uniform distribution of applied magnetic field has an influence on the inelastic collision as well. The study claims that the influence of magnetic field variation is equivalent to that of temperature variety, and that it leads the electron energy to transfer obviously in the experiment.

Ying Weng; Zi-Hua Weng

2010-10-07

297

The magnetic fields of accreting T Tauri stars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of magnetospheric accretion on to classical T Tauri stars often assume that the stellar magnetic field is a simple dipole. Recent Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies of V2129 Oph and BP Tau have shown however that their magnetic fields are more complex. V2129 Oph is a high mass T Tauri star and despite its young age is believed to have already developed a radiative core. In contrast to this, the lower mass BP Tau is likely to be completely convective. As the internal structure and therefore the magnetic field generation process is different in both stars, it is of particular interest to compare the structure of their magnetic fields obtained by field extrapolation from magnetic surface maps. We compare both field structures to mulitpole magnetic fields, and calculate the disk truncation radius for both systems. We find that by considering magnetic fields with a realistic degree of complexity, the disk is truncated at, or within, the radius obtained for dipole fields.

Gregory, S. G.; Matt, S. P.; Donati, J.-F.; Jardine, M.

2009-02-01

298

The magnetic fields of accreting T Tauri stars

Models of magnetospheric accretion on to classical T Tauri stars often assume that the stellar magnetic field is a simple dipole. Recent Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies of V2129 Oph and BP Tau have shown however that their magnetic fields are more complex. V2129 Oph is a high mass T Tauri star and despite its young age is believed to have already developed a radiative core. In contrast to this, the lower mass BP Tau is likely to be completely convective. As the internal structure and therefore the magnetic field generation process is different in both stars, it is of particular interest to compare the structure of their magnetic fields obtained by field extrapolation from magnetic surface maps. We compare both field structures to mulitpole magnetic fields, and calculate the disk truncation radius for both systems. We find that by considering magnetic fields with a realistic degree of complexity, the disk is truncated at, or within, the radius obtained for dipole fields.

S. G. Gregory; S. P. Matt; J. -F. Donati; M. Jardine

2008-09-24

299

DC-based magnetic field controller

A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID); Morgan, John P,. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

300

Measuring T Tauri star magnetic fields

Stellar magnetic fields including a strong dipole component are believed to play a critical role in the early evolution of newly formed stars and their circumstellar accretion disks. It is currently believed that the stellar magnetic field truncates the accretion disk several stellar radii above the star. This action forces accreting material to flow along the field lines and accrete

Christopher M. Johns-Krull

2009-01-01

301

Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

Hou, Yumin, E-mail: ymhou@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-12-15

302

Numerical analyses of trapped field magnet and stable levitation region of HTSC

Stable levitation with a permanent magnet and a bulk high {Tc} superconductor (HTSC) is examined numerically by using the critical state model and the frozen field model. Differences between a permanent magnet and a trapped field magnet are first discussed from property of levitation force. Stable levitation region of the HTSC on a ring magnet and on a solenoid coil are calculated with the numerical methods. Obtained results are discussed from difference of the magnetic field configuration.

Tsuchimoto, M.; Kojima, T.; Waki, H.; Honma, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)] [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

1995-05-01

303

Comparing magnetic field extrapolations with measurements of magnetic loops

We compare magnetic field extrapolations from a photospheric magnetogram with the observationally inferred structure of magnetic loops in a newly developed active region. This is the first time that the reconstructed 3D-topology of the magnetic field is available to test the extrapolations. We compare the observations with potential fields, linear force-free fields and non-linear force-free fields. This comparison reveals that a potential field extrapolation is not suitable for a reconstruction of the magnetic field in this young, developing active region. The inclusion of field-line-parallel electric currents, the so called force-free approach, gives much better results. Furthermore, a non-linear force-free computation reproduces the observations better than the linear force-free approximation, although no free parameters are available in the former case.

T. Wiegelmann; A. Lagg; S. K. Solanki; B. Inhester; J. Woch

2008-01-29

304

Given the anomalous magnetic moments of electrons and positrons in the one-loop approximation, we calculate the exact Lagrangian of an intense constant magnetic field that replaces the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian in traditional quantum electrodynamics (QED). We have established that the derived generalization of the Lagrangian is real for arbitrary magnetic fields. In a weak field, the calculated Lagrangian matches the standard

V. N. Rodionov

2004-01-01

305

The generation of magnetic fields by the polarization electric field in the ionosphere of Venus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements by the magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter have established that during conditions of low solar wind dynamic pressure, large-scale magnetic fields are not present in the ionosphere of Venus but that during conditions of high solar wind dynamic pressure the ionosphere of Venus is magnetized. The source of the magnetic field is thought to be currents induced in the ionosphere by the solar wind. We will show that ionospheric polarization electric field can act as a source, or 'battery', producing a small magnetic field, even without any initial magnetic field. We have calculated this polarization source as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The magnetic field was then determined using a 2D kinematic dynamo model of the ionosphere of Venus. The magnetic field attains a maximum strength of about 5 nT at a solar zenith angle of about 120 deg. This magnetic field might act as a 'seed' field for magnetic flux ropes and terminator waves.

Shinagawa, H.; Cravens, T. E.; Wu, D.

1993-01-01

306

Neutrino emissivity, strong magnetic fields and cooling of neutron stars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct Urca process is an extremely efficient mechanism for cooling a proto neutron star after its formation. It is believed to be the process responsible for the cooling of proto-neutron stars after the first 100 years of life. One of the most interesting kind of neutron stars are the pulsars, which are highly magnetized neutron stars with fields up to 1014 G at the surface. In this work we investigate the influence of strong magnetic fields on the cooling of pulsars due to the neutrino emissivity coming from the direct Urca process. The matter is described using a relativistic mean-field model at zero temperature. We calculate numerically the emissivity of neutrinos for different magnetic fields as a function of the baryon density and compare the results for the case without a magnetic field.

Coelho, E. L.; Chiapparini, M.; Bracco, M. E.; Negreiros, R. P.

2014-09-01

307

Influence of stochastic magnetic fields on relativistic electrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relativistic motion of test particles in stochastic magnetic fields is investigated. Guiding-centre motion is analysed in relativistic invariant form for toroidal geometry. Including stochastic magnetic field components, a symmetric Hamiltonian mapping technique, leading to a 4-dimensional iteration procedure, is developed. In general, an external electric field and a time-dependence of the magnetic field perturbations are allowed for. Break-up of drift surfaces is demonstrated via Poincaré plots. The latter are analysed in detail for increasing (relativistic) kinetic energies of the particles. The dependence of the escape rates on the kinetic energy is calculated and compared with the escape rates for field lines. The non-relativistic limit of the model is derived. Quantitative results for the magnetic perturbations in a dynamic ergodic divertor of the TEXTOR experiment are shown, and predictions for runaway electrons are compared with experiments.

Wingen, A.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Finken, K. H.; Jakubowski, M.; Spatschek, K. H.

2006-11-01

308

Influence of primordial magnetic fields on 21 cm emission

Magnetic fields in the early universe can significantly alter the thermal evolution and the ionization history during the dark ages. This is reflected in the 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen, which is coupled to the gas temperature through collisions at high redshifts, and through the Wouthuysen-Field effect at low redshifts. We present a semi-analytic model for star formation and the build-up of a Lyman alpha background in the presence of magnetic fields, and calculate the evolution of the mean 21 cm brightness temperature and its frequency gradient as a function of redshift. We further discuss the evolution of linear fluctuations in temperature and ionization in the presence of magnetic fields and calculate the effect on the 21 cm power spectrum. At high redshifts, the signal is increased compared to the non-magnetic case due to the additional heat input into the IGM from ambipolar diffusion and the decay of MHD turbulence. At lower redshifts, the formation of luminous objects and the build-up of a Lyman alpha background can be delayed by a redshift interval of 10 due to the strong increase of the filtering mass scale in the presence of magnetic fields. This tends to decrease the 21 cm signal compared to the zero-field case. In summary, we find that 21 cm observations may become a promising tool to constrain primordial magnetic fields.

Dominik R. G. Schleicher; Robi Banerjee; Ralf S. Klessen

2008-08-11

309

Longitudinal field-induced polarized light transmittance of magnetic fluids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete optical transmittance for a polarized light passing through the magnetic fluids is investigated theoretically and experimentally, when the externally magnetic field is applied along the propagation direction of the incident light. Hybrid effects due to the geometric shadowing and Faraday rotation are considered simultaneously. The Langevin-like functions are employed to describe the magnetic-field-dependent volume concentration of the particle-aggregation ( ?') and the approximate number of magnetic nanoparticles in the particle-aggregation ( ?N0). Based on the experiments on the geometric shadowing effect of our magnetic fluid sample, the analytical expression for the total transmitted power with externally magnetic field after an analyzer is derived. Theoretical simulations disclose the influence of certain critical parameters of the magnetic fluids on the field-dependent optical transmittance. For the entire polarized light transmittance, qualitative agreement between the calculations and the experiments is achieved. Applications of magnetic fluids to several polarized devices operating in longitudinal field arrangement are proposed and discussed. The results presented in this work may be useful for designing the corresponding magnetic-fluid-based optical devices.

Pu, Shengli; Dai, Min; Sun, Guoqing

2010-10-01

310

Magnetic Fields in Clusters of Galaxies

A brief overview about our knowledge on galaxy cluster magnetic fields is provided. Emphasize is given to the mutual dependence of our knowledge on relativistic particles in galaxy clusters and the magnetic field strength. Furthermore, we describe efforts to measure magnetic field strengths, characteristic length-scales, and power-spectra with reliable accuracy. An interpretation of these results in terms of non-helical dynamo theory is given. If this interpretation turns out to be correct, the understanding of cluster magnetic fields is directly connected to our understanding of intra-cluster turbulence.

Torsten A. Ensslin; Corina Vogt; Christoph Pfrommer

2005-01-17

311

Statistics of magnetic fields on OBA stars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from recent measurements, we studied the statistical properties of the magnetic fields of OBA stars. As one of the statistically significant characteristics of the magnetic field we use the average effective magnetic field of the star, < B>. We then investigated the distribution function f() of the magnetic fields of OBA stars. This function has a power-law dependence on , with an index of 2-3 and a fast decrease for ? 300 G for B-A stars and ? 80 G for O stars.

Kholtygin, A. F.; Hubrig, S.; Drake, N. A.; Sudnik, N. P.; Dushin, V. V.

2014-11-01

312

Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

2002-07-29

313

Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model

It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of that phenomenon is conditioned by features of the electro-weak interaction, namely, there is mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected in experiment.

Bakry, A; Zhang, P M; Zou, L P

2014-01-01

314

Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental search for magnetic monopole particles has, so far, been in vain. Nevertheless, these elusive particles of magnetic charge have fuelled a rich field of theoretical study. Here, we created an approximation of a magnetic monopole in free space at the end of a long, nanoscopically thin magnetic needle. We experimentally demonstrate that the interaction of this approximate magnetic monopole field with a beam of electrons produces an electron vortex state, as theoretically predicted for a true magnetic monopole. This fundamental quantum mechanical scattering experiment is independent of the speed of the electrons and has consequences for all situations where electrons meet such monopole magnetic fields, as, for example, in solids. The set-up not only shows an attractive way to produce electron vortex states but also provides a unique insight into monopole fields and shows that electron vortices might well occur in unexplored solid-state physics situations.

Béché, Armand; van Boxem, Ruben; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo

2014-01-01

315

Concentrator of magnetic field of light

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent decade metamaterials with magnetic permeability different than unity and unusual response to the magnetic field of incident light have been intensively explored. Existence of magnetic artificial materials created an interest in a scanning near-field magnetic microscope for studies of magnetic responses of subwavelength elementary cells of those metamaterials. We present a method of measuring magnetic responses of such elementary cells within a wide range of optical frequencies with single probes of two types. The first type probe is made of a tapered silica fiber with radial metal stripes separated by equidistant slits of constant angular width. The second type probe is similar to metal coated, corrugated, tapered fiber apertured SNOM probe, but in this case corrugations are radially oriented. Both types of probes have internal illumination with azimuthally polarized light. In the near-field they concentrate into a subwavelength spot the longitudinal magnetic field component which is much stronger than the perpendicular electric one.

Wróbel, Piotr; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Szoplik, Tomasz

2012-05-01

316

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

2013-12-01

317

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

2013-04-01

318

Destruction of magnetic surfaces by magnetic field irregularities: Part II

The present work is a continuation of the paper by Rosenbluth et al. (Nucl. Fusion 6 (1966) 297) and concerns the investigation of problems associated with the condition for the existence of magnetic surfaces in closed systems of the stellarator type. The unperturbed geometry of the magnetic field is produced by a straight helical field. Exact equations for the motion

N. N. Filonenko; R. Z. Sagdeev; G. M. Zaslavskii

1967-01-01

319

The generation of magnetic fields in the sun

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper results of a preliminary investigation into the existence of large scale magnetic fields in the sun are given. Using a kinematic model with prescribed internal rotation and a standard solar model, the poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic field are calculated. The basic decay time is of the order of the age of the sun. In addition the fields are quite sensitive to slight variations in the internal rotation. The boundary condition at the solar surface also does not seem to influence the inner regions where large scale fields seem possible.

Fox, Peter A.; Bernstein, Ira B.

1987-01-01

320

Using mean polarization profiles to study stellar magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 10-20% of moderate mass main sequence stars show marked chemical peculiarities. Characteristic chemical over- and underabundance patterns are well correlated with several physical attributes; most notably the existence or non-existence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields. The details of the origins of both the fields and abundance patterns are topics of continuing study, as are detailed descriptions of field structures in magnetic stars and the possible existence of magnetic fields in the canonically "non-magnetic" stars. We expect that mean spectral line profiles, calculated from entire stellar spectra in polarized and unpolarized light, will be useful in studying these topics. Circular spectropolarimetric observations of 74 survey stars were obtained using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter in an attempt to detect magnetic fields. The sample observed includes normal B, A and F stars, emission-line B and A stars, Am stars, HgMn stars, l Boo stars and magnetic Ap stars. Using the multi-line analysis technique known as "Least-Squares Deconvolution" (LSD) to extract mean unpolarized (Stokes I ) and circularly polarized (Stokes V ) signatures from each spectrum, we find absolutely no evidence for magnetic fields in the normal, Am and HgMn stars, with considerably smaller upper limits on longitudinal field measurements than previously obtained for these objects. We conclude that if any magnetic fields exist in the photospheres of these stars, these fields are not ordered as in the magnetic Ap stars, nor do they resemble the fields of active late-type stars. We also detect for the first time a field in the A2pSr star HD 108945 and make new precise measurements of longitudinal fields in five previously known magnetic Ap stars, but do not detect fields in five other stars classified as Ap SrCrEu. Also presented is the first ever exploratory investigation into both the applicability of the LSD technique in analyzing stellar spectra, as well as an examination of how LSD implements the scaling in amplitude of both circularly and linearly polarized line profiles with line depth, Landé factor and magnetic field. The influence of rotation velocity on profile amplitude was also explored. This study shows that circularly polarized spectra are well suited to analysis by the LSD technique over a wide range of rotation velocities and magnetic fields and the scaling relations assumed in LSD theory are approximately correct. For linearly polarized profiles, the assumptions inherent in the LSD averaging procedures are only a good approximation for stars within limited regimes of rotation velocity and magnetic field and the scalings which arise from the LSD theory do not apply over much of parameter space.

Shorlin, Stephen L. S.

2004-12-01

321

Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field.

Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain--that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations. PMID:24500329

Sallen, G; Kunz, S; Amand, T; Bouet, L; Kuroda, T; Mano, T; Paget, D; Krebs, O; Marie, X; Sakoda, K; Urbaszek, B

2014-01-01

322

Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

2010-01-01

323

The QCD equation of state in background magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the equation of state of 2+1-flavor QCD with physical quark masses, in the presence of a constant (electro)magnetic background field on the lattice. To determine the free energy at nonzero magnetic fields we develop a new method, which is based on an integral over the quark masses up to asymptotically large values where the effect of the magnetic field can be neglected. The method is compared to other approaches in the literature and found to be advantageous for the determination of the equation of state up to large magnetic fields. Thermodynamic observables including the longitudinal and transverse pressure, magnetization, energy density, entropy density and interaction measure are presented for a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields, and provided in ancillary files. The behavior of these observables confirms our previous result that the transition temperature is reduced by the magnetic field. We calculate the magnetic susceptibility and permeability, verifying that the thermal QCD medium is paramagnetic around and above the transition temperature, while we also find evidence for weak diamagnetism at low temperatures.

Bali, G. S.; Bruckmann, F.; Endr?di, G.; Katz, S. D.; Schäfer, A.

2014-08-01

324

The QCD equation of state in background magnetic fields

We determine the equation of state of 2+1-flavor QCD with physical quark masses, in the presence of a constant (electro)magnetic background field on the lattice. To determine the free energy at nonzero magnetic fields we develop a new method, which is based on an integral over the quark masses up to asymptotically large values where the effect of the magnetic field can be neglected. The method is compared to other approaches in the literature and found to be advantageous for the determination of the equation of state up to large magnetic fields. Thermodynamic observables including the longitudinal and transverse pressure, magnetization, energy density, entropy density and interaction measure are presented for a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields, and provided in ancillary files. The behavior of these observables confirms our previous result that the transition temperature is reduced by the magnetic field. We calculate the magnetic susceptibility and permeability, verifying that the thermal QCD medium is paramagnetic around and above the transition temperature, while we also find evidence for weak diamagnetism at low temperatures.

G. S. Bali; F. Bruckmann; G. Endrodi; S. D. Katz; A. Schafer

2014-06-02

325

Cosmic Magnetic Fields (IAU S259)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface K. G. Strassmeier, A. G. Kosovichev and J. E. Beckman; Organising committee; Conference photograph; Conference participants; Session 1. Interstellar magnetic fields, star-forming regions and the Death Valley Takahiro Kudoh and Elisabeta de Gouveia Dal Pino; Session 2. Multi-scale magnetic fields of the Sun; their generation in the interior, and magnetic energy release Nigel O. Weiss; Session 3. Planetary magnetic fields and the formation and evolution of planetary systems and planets; exoplanets Karl-Heinz Glassmeier; Session 4. Stellar magnetic fields: cool and hot stars Swetlana Hubrig; Session 5. From stars to galaxies and the intergalactic space Dimitry Sokoloff and Bryan Gaensler; Session 6. Advances in methods and instrumentation for measuring magnetic fields across all wavelengths and targets Tom Landecker and Klaus G. Strassmeier; Author index; Object index; Subject index.

Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Beckman, John E.

2009-06-01

326

SIMULATING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

We present self-consistent high-resolution simulations of NGC 4038/4039 (the 'Antennae galaxies') including star formation, supernova feedback, and magnetic fields performed with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code GADGET, in which magnetohydrodynamics are followed with the SPH method. We vary the initial magnetic field in the progenitor disks from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -4} G. At the time of the best match with the central region of the Antennae system, the magnetic field has been amplified by compression and shear flows to an equilibrium field value of {approx}10 {mu}G, independent of the initial seed field. These simulations are a proof of the principle that galaxy mergers are efficient drivers for the cosmic evolution of magnetic fields. We present a detailed analysis of the magnetic field structure in the central overlap region. Simulated radio and polarization maps are in good morphological and quantitative agreement with the observations. In particular, the two cores with the highest synchrotron intensity and ridges of regular magnetic fields between the cores and at the root of the southern tidal arm develop naturally in our simulations. This indicates that the simulations are capable of realistically following the evolution of the magnetic fields in a highly nonlinear environment. We also discuss the relevance of the amplification effect for present-day magnetic fields in the context of hierarchical structure formation.

Kotarba, H.; Karl, S. J.; Naab, T.; Johansson, P. H.; Lesch, H. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Dolag, K.; Stasyszyn, F. A., E-mail: kotarba@usm.lmu.d [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

2010-06-20

327

Radio Frequency Field Calculations for Plasma Heating Simulations in VASIMR

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(VASIMR)1 is plasma heating by ion-cyclotron RF heating (ICRF). Mathematical simulation helps to design an ICRF antenna, i.e. make maximal absorption of RF power into the plasma in the resonance area. Another goal of a particle simulation is design of a magnetic nozzle and optimize the performance of VASIMR2. field in the plasma, 2) ion density and velocity, 3) ion-cyclotron radio-frequency electromagnetic field. The assumptions of quasineutral and collisionless plasma are based on the range of operating VASIMR parameters. Carlo simulations for systems of million of particles in a reasonable time and without the need for a powerful supercomputer. The particle to grid weighting method is used for calculating the ion density, which is used for recalculation of the electric potential and RF field. dimensional problem to a weighted sum over two-dimensional solutions. Absorption is introduced in the cold plasma model by adding an imaginary collision frequency to the RF driven frequency, which is equivalent to adding an imaginary particle mass in the dielectric tensor elements. static and RF fields using the VASIMR code2. The VASIMR and EMIR codes are then iterated to estimate the ICRF effects on the plasma density. The iteration is performed by calculating the RF fields with the EMIR code, and using these fields to follow nonlinear ion trajectories with the VASIMR code on the gyro-frequency time scale. The ion trajectories are used to generate RF power absorption values and a density input for the next EMIR calculation. The codes are iterated until the density profile becomes reasonably stable, then the collisional absorption parameter in the EMIR code is adjusted and the iteration is continued until the power deposited by the RF system matches the power absorbed by the ion trajectories in a global sense. electric field. The solved algebraic system of equations is represented by ill-conditioned 18-diagonal matrix with complex elements. Since early development of the EMIR code, the frontal method direct solver was used. That solver requires large CPU time and RAM, which both are proportional to Nr Nz2, for a grid of the size Nr x Nz. These requirements make almost impossible to use existent EMIR solver on PC to obtain RF fields with good accuracy. system. The suggested iterative method is Modified Incomplete Cholesky Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Squared solver4. The solver involves a couple of the control parameters, which let a user tune the code to make iterations converge as fast as possible for a particular grid. Since the iterative solver does not require large RAM, and works much faster than the direct solver, the new algorithm lets us resolve RF fields on a PC with required accuracy. REFERENCES 1. Chang Díaz F.R., "Research Status of The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket", Proc. 39th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics (Pittsburgh, PA, 1997), Bulletin of APS, 42 2057. 2. Ilin A.V., Chang Díaz F.R., Squire J.P. and Carter M.D. "Monte Carlo Particle Dynamics in a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket", (Proceedings of Open Systems' 98), Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 330 - 334 (1999). 3. Jaeger E.F., Batchelor D.B., Weitzner H. and Whealton J.H. "ICRF Wave Propagation And Absorption in Tokamak And Mirror Magnetic Fields - A Full-wave Calculation", Computer Physics Com., 40 33 - 64 (1986). 4. Ilin, A. V., Bagheri, B., Scott, L. R., Briggs, J. M., and McCammon, J. A. "Parallelization of Poisson-Boltzmann and Brownian Dynamics calculation", Parallel Computing in Computational Chemistry, ACB Books, Washington D.C., (1995) 170-185.

Ilin, A. V.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Squire, J. P.; Carter, M. D.

2002-01-01

328

Transport properties of high-temperature air in a magnetic field

Transport properties of equilibrium air plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the temperature is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.

Bruno, D. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, 70126 Bari (Italy); Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Giordano, D. [Aerothermodynamics Section, ESA-ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

329

Atoms in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, extensive experimental and theoretical work pertaining to three interesting aspects of the interaction of atoms with crossed electric and magnetic fields is presented. The first experiment discussed deals with the effects of weak crossed fields on sodium atoms. A fluorescence spectrum of laser excited sodium n = 11 states in an electric field of 2560 V/cm perpendicular to a magnetic field of 4.4 kG is presented, along with a comparison to theory. The data show the important effects of m-mixing and residual degeneracies which remain in the crossed fields. The next topic presented is the theoretical prediction of novel resonances, termed "quasi-Penning resonances," corresponding to electron states localized away from the nucleus at the Stark saddlepoint in strong crossed electric and magnetic fields. The stability and possibility for observation of these resonances is explored. Finally, extensive experimental maps of data are presented which compare laser induced ionization spectra of sodium atoms in crossed electric and magnetic fields to spectra in an electric field atone. The experiment explores the energy region of the electric field saddlepoint, where quasi-Penning resonances are predicted to occur. The magnetic field is too weak for the observation of these resonances, but the experiment provides important groundwork for the understanding of future experiments in strong crossed fields. The magnetic field is seen to cause splitting of some transitions due to the interaction of the electron spin with the magnetic field. Also, magnetic field induced state mixing causes a redistribution of oscillator strengths leading to changes in peak heights and auto-ionizing line widths. On the whole, however, the effect of the weak crossed magnetic field on the sodium Stark spectra remains small.

Korevaar, Eric John

1987-09-01

330

Classical analysis of antihydrogen recombination in a strong magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence ofthe strong magnetic field on the spontaneous recombination ofthe antihydrogen in cold positron-antiproton plasma is studied. The consideration is based on the analysis of the classical trajectories. The calculation of the relative cross section ofthe positron capture is carried out using the Monte-Carlo method and then the result is compared with the one in the situation when the magnetic field is absent. It is expected that since the trajectory of the positron in the magnetic and Coulomb fields is rather complicated, and the free positron passes the nucleus many times, the probability of the radiative capture will be greater than in the zero magnetic field, when the positron having the positive energy passes the nucleus only once. However, our calculations showed that the magnetic field does not affect significantly the radiative recombination rate within the approximations used. The comparison with the experimental study of the recombination of matched beams of electrons and filly ionized carbon nuclei in the magnetic field revealed fourfold underestimation of the relative recombination cross section, which is probably a manifestation ofessentially quantum effects.

Serov, Vladislav V.; Kadjaeva, Victoria P.; Derbov, Vladimir L.; Vinitsky, Sergue I.

2005-06-01

331

Protecting SQUID metamaterials against stray magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as the basic, low-loss elements of thin-film metamaterials has one main advantage: their resonance frequency is easily tunable by applying a weak magnetic field. The downside, however, is a strong sensitivity to stray and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this work, we demonstrate that even small magnetic fields from electronic components destroy the collective, resonant behaviour of the SQUID metamaterial. We also show how the effect of these fields can be minimized. As a first step, magnetic shielding decreases any initially present fields, including the earth’s magnetic field. However, further measures such as improvements in the sample geometry have to be taken to avoid the trapping of Abrikosov vortices.

Butz, S.; Jung, P.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Ustinov, A. V.

2013-09-01

332

Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

1988-08-01

333

The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

1989-01-01

334

Graphene Nanoribbon in Sharply Localized Magnetic Fields

We study the effect of a sharply localized magnetic field on the electron transport in a strip (ribbon) of graphene sheet, which allows to give results for the transmission and reflection probability through magnetic barriers. The magnetic field is taken as a single and double delta type localized functions, which are treated later as the zero width limit of gaussian fields. For both field configurations, we evaluate analytically and numerically their transmission and reflection coefficients. The possibility of spacial confinement due to the inhomogeneous field configuration is also investigated.

Abdulaziz D. Alhaidari; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

2011-03-21

335

The Physics of Attraction and Repulsion: Magnetism and Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new materials with improved magnetic properties completely changed the modern world in the past decades. Recent progress is predominantly due to a better understanding of magnetism that has gone far beyond compass needles rotating in a magnetic field and bar magnets attracting or repelling each other. New magnetic materials are used to build smaller and smaller read/write heads and hard disks with increased storage capacity, developments that are responsible the revolution in the computer industry. Another example is the field of magnetic levitation that became feasible for commercial applications with the discovery of new superconducting materials, and a prototype train is under development in Japan. In medicine, the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an alternative to other (destructive) radiation techniques.

Nakotte, Heinz

2001-11-01

336

Extended Magnetization of Superconducting Pellets in Highly Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetization of superconducting pellets is a worth point in the development of trapped flux superconducting motors. Experimental and simulated data have been reported extensively according to the framework of one or several pulses of a homogeneous magnetizing field applied to a pellet or a set of pellets. In case of cylindrical rotors of low power motors with radial excitation, however, the use of the copper coils to produce the starting magnetization of the pellets produces a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field which cannot be reduced to a 2D standard model. In this work we present an analysis of the magnetization of the superconducting cylindrical rotor of a small motor by using a commercial FEM program, being the rotor magnetized by the working copper coils of the motor. The aim of the study is a report of the magnetization obtained and theheat generated in the HTSC pellets.

Maynou, R.; López, J.; Granados, X.; Torres, R.; Bosch, R.

337

Trembling motion of relativistic electrons in a magnetic field

Zitterbewegung (ZB, the trembling motion) of free relativistic electrons in a vacuum in the presence of an external magnetic field is calculated. It is shown that the motion of an electron wave packet has intraband frequency components, corresponding to the classical cyclotron motion, and several interband frequency components corresponding to the Zitterbewegung. For a two-dimensional situation, the presence of a magnetic field makes the ZB motion stationary, i.e. not decaying in time. We show how to simulate the ZB in a magnetic field using trapped ions and laser excitations in the spirit of recently observed proof-of-principle ZB simulation by Gerritsma {\\it et al.} Nature {\\bf 463}, 68 (2010). It is demonstrated that, for the parameters of the Dirac equation simulated by the above experiment, the effect of a magnetic field on the Zitterbewegung is considerable.

Tomasz. M. Rusin; Wlodek Zawadzki

2010-03-29

338

Long-term evolution of crustal neutron star magnetic fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have derived an analytic solution to the asymptotic behavior of dipolar magnetic fields that are generated in the crusts of neutron stars. We show that if the conductivity is due to impurity scattering, as expected for late stages of evolution, the surface field strength at the magnetic pole declines with the power law B(sub p) approximately = (t/t(sub 0))(exp -2/3). The results are shown to be qualitatively consistent with detailed numerical calculations. These latter results are consistent with some recent analyses of pulsar statistics and the magnetic fields of several binary pulsars with white dwarf companions whose ages have been determined. The dependence of the surface magnetic field on spin period of the pulsar is derived.

Urpin, V. A.; Chanmugam, G.; Sang, Yeming

1994-01-01

339

Status of lattice field theory calculations

This report briefly discusses the following topics: overview of all present calculation; reliability criteria for quenched calculation; quenched versus full QCD, and difficulties facing full QCD; results for the quenched pion wavefunction''; results for the quenched hadron spectrum; results for quenched B{sub K}; A new method for calculating the surface tension; the non-pertubative upper bound on the Higgs mass; and toward the TERAFLOP machine.

Sharpe, S.R.

1990-01-01

340

QED calculation of the nuclear magnetic shielding for hydrogenlike ions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an ab initio calculation of the shielding of the nuclear magnetic moment by the bound electron in hydrogenlike ions. This investigation takes into account several effects that have not been calculated before to our knowledge (electron self-energy, vacuum polarization, nuclear-magnetization distribution), thus bringing the theory to the point where further progress is impeded by the uncertainty due to nuclear-structure effects. The QED corrections are calculated to all orders in the nuclear binding strength parameter and, independently, to the leading order in the expansion in this parameter. The results obtained lay the groundwork for the high-precision determination of nuclear magnetic dipole moments from measurements of the g factor of hydrogenlike ions.

Yerokhin, V. A.; Pachucki, K.; Harman, Z.; Keitel, C. H.

2012-02-01

341

Calculation of Rotor Critical Speeds from Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

This paper presents a calculation method of damped critical speeds of anisotropic supporting rotor-bearing system from 1120kW Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM). Transfer matrix adding time factor in shifted QR algorithm is founded. As the whirling of the rotor of PMSM in 1500rpm directly results in dynamic off-center of itself, it produces unbalancing magnetic traction, which makes the critical speeds

Shenbo Yu; Shi Jiao; Jing Yuan; Yonghui Zhao

2010-01-01

342

High concentration ferronematics in low magnetic fields

We investigated experimentally the magneto-optical and dielectric properties of magnetic-nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals (ferronematics). Our studies focus on the effect of the very small orienting bias magnetic field $B_{bias}$, and that of the nematic director pretilt at the boundary surfaces in our systems sensitive to low magnetic fields. Based on the results we assert that $B_{bias}$ is not necessarily required for a detectable response to low magnetic fields, and that the initial pretilt, as well as the aggregation of the nanoparticles play an important (though not yet explored enough) role.

T. Tóth-Katona; P. Salamon; N. Éber; N. Tomašovi?ová; Z. Mitróová; P. Kop?anský

2014-09-05

343

High concentration ferronematics in low magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated experimentally the magneto-optical and dielectric properties of magnetic-nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals (ferronematics). Our studies focus on the effect of the very small orienting bias magnetic field Bbias, and that of the nematic director pretilt at the boundary surfaces in our systems sensitive to low magnetic fields. Based on the results we assert that Bbias is not necessarily required for a detectable response to low magnetic fields, and that the initial pretilt, as well as the aggregation of the nanoparticles play an important (though not yet explored enough) role.

Tóth-Katona, T.; Salamon, P.; Éber, N.; Tomašovi?ová, N.; Mitróová, Z.; Kop?anský, P.

2014-12-01

344

Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations

At low beta it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order beta{sup 2}. This is only true if effects of order beta are canceled by a term in the nablaB drift also of order beta[H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2[Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B{sub ||} is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low beta for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B{sub ||} are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with eta{sub e}. The effect of B{sub ||} on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient beta{sup '} at constant beta.

Joiner, N.; Hirose, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Dorland, W. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-07-15

345

Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low ? it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order ?2. This is only true if effects of order ? are canceled by a term in the ?B drift also of order ? [H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2 [Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B? is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low ? for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B? are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with ?e. The effect of B? on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient ?' at constant ?.

Joiner, N.; Hirose, A.; Dorland, W.

2010-07-01

346

Spherical harmonic decomposition of solar magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the temporal evolution of large-scale magnetic fields in the solar photosphere during the time interval 1966-2004 by means of spherical harmonic decomposition and subsequent time series analysis. Two data sets of daily magnetograms recorded at the Mt. Wilson and Kitt Peak observatories were used to calculate the spherical harmonic coefficients of the radial magnetic field for axisymmetric (m=0) and non-axisymmetric (m? 0) modes. Time series analysis was then applied to deduce their temporal variations. A third data set of synoptic Carrington rotation maps from Kitt Peak was also analyzed for completeness. Besides the obvious 22 yr magnetic cycle, we have found evidence for intermittent oscillations with periods of 2.1{-}2.5 yr, 1.5{-}1.8 yr and 1.2{-}1.4 yr. The biennial oscillation occurred during the solar maxima of cycles 20-22 (and likely also during the current cycle 23) and was most pronounced for modes that resemble non-linear dynamo waves (Stix 1972, A&A, 20, 9). The 1.5{-}1.8 yr period was stronger during the odd cycles 21 and 23 than during the even cycles 20 and 22, whereas the opposite was the case for the 1.2{-}1.4 yr period. Similar variations of 1.5{-}1.8 yr have recently been detected in the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic flux (Knaack et al. 2004, A&A, 418, L17), while quasi-periodicities of 1.3 yr have been observed in the rotation rate near the base of the convection zone (Howe et al. 2000, Science, 287, 2456), in the heliosphere and geomagnetic activity (Lockwood 2001, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 16 021) in sunspot areas (Krivova & Solanki 2002, A&A, 394, 701), and in the large-scale photospheric magnetic field (Knaack et al. 2005, A&A, in press). In agreement with the latter study, we have found additional quasi-periodicities in the range 320{-}100 d and rotational periods of 29.0±0.1d, 28.2±0.1d, and 26.8±0.1d. Compared to earlier decompositions by Stenflo & Vogel (1986, Nature, 319, 285) and Stenflo & Güdel (1988, A&A, 191, 137), we can confirm the main features of their results, although several modifications need to be considered.

Knaack, R.; Stenflo, J. O.

2005-07-01

347

Comparison of the mean photospheric magnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field

The mean photospheric magnetic field of the sun seen as a star has been compared with the interplanetary magnetic field observed with spacecraft near the earth. Each change in polarity of the mean solar field is followed about 4 1\\/2 days later by a change in polarity of the interplanetary field (sector boundary). The scaling of the field magnitude from

A. Severny; J. M. Wilcox; P. H. Scherrer; D. S. Colburn

1970-01-01

348

In vivo heating of magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic field.

We have evaluated heating capabilities of new magnetic nanoparticles. In in vitro experiments they were exposed to an alternating magnetic field with frequency 3.5 MHz and induction 1.5 mT produced in three turn pancake coil. In in vivo experiments rats with injected magnetic nanoparticles were also exposed to an ac field. An optimal increase of temperature of the tumor to 44 degrees C was achieved after 10 minutes of exposure. Obtained results showed that magnetic nanoparticles may be easily heated in vitro as well as in vivo, and may be therefore useful for hyperthermic therapy of cancer. PMID:15377087

Babincová, M; Altanerová, V; Altaner, C; Cicmanec, P; Babinec, P

2004-08-01

349

Fall in Earth's magnetic field is erratic

Earth's magnetic field has decayed by about 5\\\\% per century since measurements began in 1840. Directional measurements predate those of intensity by more than 250 years, and we combined the global model of directions with paleomagnetic intensity measurements to estimate the fall in strength for this earlier period (1590 to 1840 A.D.). We found that magnetic field strength was nearly

David Gubbins; Adrian L. Jones; Christopher C. Finlay

2006-01-01

350

Superconductor based sensor for monitoring magnetic field

The authors propose a method for measurement of magnetic fields with the help of a HTSC (high temperature superconductor) based sensor in conjunction with a microcomputer. The same sensor may be used for monitoring current in a circuit under the influence of a controlled magnetic field acting perpendicular to the direction of the current flow. The theoretical basis is discussed.

S. C. Kar; S. P. Basu

1992-01-01

351

Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

Cea, P.; Cosmai, L.; Giudice, P.; Papa, A.

352

Magnetic fields, branes, and noncommutative geometry

We construct a simple physical model of a particle moving on the infinite noncommutative 2-plane. The model consists of a pair of opposite charges moving in a strong magnetic field. In addition, the charges are connected by a spring. In the limit of large magnetic field, the charges are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. Interactions of such particles include

Daniela Bigatti; Leonard Susskind

2000-01-01

353

Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Pietro Giudice; Alessandro Papa

2011-09-29

354

Directional discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field

It is shown that the interplanetary magnetic field has different characteristics on different scales, and it is noted that a given physical theory may not be applicable or relevant on all scales. Four scales are defined in terms of time intervals on which the data may be viewed. Many discontinuities in the magnetic-field direction are seen on the mesoscale (˜

Leonard F. Burlaga

1969-01-01

355

Correlation properties of magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations

The magnetosheath is characterized by a variety of low-frequency fluctuations, but their features and sources are different. Taking advantage of multipoint magnetic field measurements of the Cluster spacecraft, we present a statistical study to reveal properties of waves. We compute cross-correlation coefficients of magnetic field strengths as measured by pairs of the Cluster spacecraft and determine the correlation length of

O. Gutynska; J. Šafránková; Z. N?me?ek

2009-01-01

356

Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.

Shockley, Jeremiah A.

357

Astrophysical magnetic fields and nonlinear dynamo theory

The current understanding of astrophysical magnetic fields is reviewed, focusing on their generation and maintenance by turbulence. In the astrophysical context this generation is usually explained by a self-excited dynamo, which involves flows that can amplify a weak ‘seed’ magnetic field exponentially fast. Particular emphasis is placed on the nonlinear saturation of the dynamo. Analytic and numerical results are discussed

Axel Brandenburg; Kandaswamy Subramanian

2005-01-01

358

Alignment Behavior of Crystal with Magnetic Anisotropy of ?c < ?a under Rotating Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alignment behavior of a crystal has been investigated by numerical calculation and an in situ observation experiment with a process combining magnetic field imposition and sample rotation to form unidirectionally aligned crystals with a magnetic anisotropy of ?c < ?a. The experimentally observed alignment behavior of a polymeric fiber and its alignment time agreed with the numerically calculated ones. Crystal alignment under the out-of-step condition alternately repeats the alignment duration and the keeping of a constant duration, and finally the crystal aligns in a specific direction. The alignment time under the synchronous condition is longer than that under the out-of-step condition if the magnetic field intensity is constant. To reduce the alignment time, a strong magnetic field under the out-of-step condition is desirable in this process.

Iwai, Kazuhiko; Niimi, Masahiro; Kohama, Takenori

2009-10-01

359

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate calculation of perturbed distribution function ?f and perturbed magnetic field ?B is essential to achieve prediction of non-ambipolar transport and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) in perturbed tokamaks. This paper reports a study of the NTV with a ?f particle code (POCA) and improved understanding of magnetic braking in tokamak experiments. POCA calculates the NTV by computing ?f with guiding-centre orbit motion and using ?B from the ideal perturbed equilibrium code (IPEC). Theories of NTV for magnetic field resonance, collisionality dependency, and toroidal mode coupling are tested in the simple configurations using the particle simulations. The POCA simulations are also compared with experimental estimations for NTV, which are measured from angular momentum balance (DIII-D) and toroidal rotational damping rate (NSTX). The calculation shows reasonable agreement in total NTV torque for the DIII-D discharge with weak rotational resonances in the \

Kim, K.; Park, J.-K.; Boozer, A. H.; Menard, J. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Logan, N. C.; Wang, Z. R.; Kramer, G. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.

2014-07-01

360

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

Tatchyn, Roman O. (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01

361

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

Tatchyn, R.O.

1997-01-21

362

Quenching of flames by magnetic fields

An experiment has been demonstrated to show a phenomenon involving quenching of candle flames using magnetic fields. An electromagnet with a pair of columnar magnetic poles in which inner sidepieces were hollowed out was used. Magnetic fields of 1.5 T at the brim gave a gradient of 50–300 T\\/m in the direction perpendicular to the pole axis when the distance

S. Ueno

1989-01-01

363

the presence of a weak interplanetary magnetic field may lead to the ; formation of a collision-free shock wave upstream from the boundary of the ; geomagnetic field and to a transition region characterized by an irregular ; magnetic field in the intervening space. Previous calculations of the ; coordinates of the shock wave are improved upon by application of

John R. Spreiter; Wm. Prichard Jones

1963-01-01

364

Ab initio calculations of CuAlO2-based dilute magnetic semiconductor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose materials design of CuAlO2-based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). The electronic structures and the magnetic properties of CuAlO2-based DMSs are calculated by using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation within the local density approximation. We take into account Cu and Al sites for substitution. Curie temperatures are estimated by the mean-field approximation from the total energy difference between ferromagnetic states and paramagnetic states.

Kizaki, H.; Sato, K.; Yanase, A.; Katayama-Yoshida, H.

2006-04-01

365

MESOGRANULATION AND THE SOLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION

The relation of the solar surface magnetic field with mesogranular cells is studied using high spatial ({approx}100 km) and temporal ({approx}30 s) resolution data obtained with the IMaX instrument on board SUNRISE. First, mesogranular cells are identified using Lagrange tracers (corks) based on horizontal velocity fields obtained through local correlation tracking. After {approx}20 minutes of integration, the tracers delineate a sharp mesogranular network with lanes of width below about 280 km. The preferential location of magnetic elements in mesogranular cells is tested quantitatively. Roughly 85% of pixels with magnetic field higher than 100 G are located in the near neighborhood of mesogranular lanes. Magnetic flux is therefore concentrated in mesogranular lanes rather than intergranular ones. Second, magnetic field extrapolations are performed to obtain field lines anchored in the observed flux elements. This analysis, therefore, is independent of the horizontal flows determined in the first part. A probability density function (PDF) is calculated for the distribution of distances between the footpoints of individual magnetic field lines. The PDF has an exponential shape at scales between 1 and 10 Mm, with a constant characteristic decay distance, indicating the absence of preferred convection scales in the mesogranular range. Our results support the view that mesogranulation is not an intrinsic convective scale (in the sense that it is not a primary energy-injection scale of solar convection), but also give quantitative confirmation that, nevertheless, the magnetic elements are preferentially found along mesogranular lanes.

Yelles Chaouche, L.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea, s/n, 38205 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Wiegelmann, T.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Knoelker, M. [High Altitude Observatory (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia, s/n 18008 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2011-02-01

366

Reionization constraints on primordial magnetic fields

We study the impact of the extra density fluctuations induced by primordial magnetic fields on the reionization history in the redshift range: $6 magnetic fields (strength, $B_0$, and power-spectrum index $n_{\\scriptscriptstyle \\rm B}$), reionization, and $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. We find that magnetic field strengths in the range: $B_0 \\simeq 0.05{-}0.3$ nG (for nearly scale-free power spectra) can significantly alter the reionization history in the above redshift range and can relieve the tension between the WMAP and quasar absorption spectra data. Our analysis puts upper-limits on the magnetic field strength $B_0 magnetic field constraints among those available from other cosmological observables.

Pandey, Kanhaiya L; Sethi, Shiv K; Ferrara, Andrea

2014-01-01

367

Processing of polymers in high magnetic fields

Many organic molecules and polymers have an anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility, and thus can be aligned in high magnetic fields. The presence of liquid crystallinity allows cooperative motions of the individual molecules, and thus the magnetic energy becomes greater than the thermal energy at experimentally obtainable field strengths. This work has determined the effect of magnetic field alignment on the thermal expansion and mechanical properties of liquid crystalline thermosets in the laboratory. Further advances in magnet design are needed to make magnetic field alignment a commercially viable approach to polymer processing. The liquid crystal thermoset chosen for this study is the diglycidyl ether of dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene cured with the diamine sulfamilamide. This thermoset has been cured at field strengths up to 18 Tesla.

Douglas, E.P.; Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Earls, J.D.; Priester, R.D. Jr. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

368

Dynamic equations for three different qudits in a magnetic field

A closed system of equations for the local Bloch vectors and spin correlation functions of three magnetic qudits, which are in an arbitrary, time-dependent, external magnetic field, is obtained using decomplexification of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. The algorithm of the derivation of the dynamic equations is presented. In the basis convenient for the important physical applications structure constants of algebra su(2S+1) are calculated.

E. A. Ivanchenko

2009-04-22

369

‘Clean’ observations of magnetic field fluctuations on planetary surfaces

Magnetic field measurements on planetary surfaces are disturbed by various internal and external sources. We discuss methods to reduce their influence on the quality of magnetic field experiments aboard surface stations. Our major emphasis is on terrestrial seismo-magnetic measurements, but magnetic cleanliness procedures for the ROSETTA lander magnetic field experiment is discussed too. We consider not only disturbing magnetic field

K. Schwingenschuh; G. Prattes; M. Delva; H. U. Eichelberger; G. Berghofer; W. Magnes; M. Vellante; P. Nenovski; V. Wesztergom; H. U. Auster; K.-H. Fornacon

2012-01-01

370

Bending of magnetic filaments under a magnetic field.

Magnetic beads and superparamagnetic (SP) colloid particles have successfully been employed for micromechanical manipulation of soft material, in situ probing of elastic properties, and design of smart materials (ferrogels). Here we derive analytical expressions for the equilibrium shape of magnetic fibers, considering two end-member cases, (a) SP or single-domain particles concentrated at the free end of cantilevered rods or tubes, and (b) filaments consisting of SP particles, with this case being mathematically equivalent to tubes containing SP particles. Our analysis yields also metastable equilibrium states (MES's), which only exist above a critical filament length, but become more stable with increasing magnetic field. The MES's for case (a) are, like the ground state, circular arcs, but more strongly bent. The multiform MES's in case (b), which comprise hairpin, sinuous, or even closed shapes, have recently been observed in experiments, too. We also study the effect of gravity on the balance between bending and magnetic energy, which leads to curves with inflection point if the influence of gravity is stronger than that of the magnetic field. Because of their simple experimental realization, case (a) magnetic filaments are deemed highly suitable for micromechanical experiments on long chains of polymer molecules. Another potential application of cantilevered magnetic filaments with magnetic material attached to the free end is in scanning probe microscopes. Because the magnetic field due to the magnetic tip is comparatively weak, the magnetization structure of the sample to be investigated would not be affected by the probe. Thus, for the examination of magnetically soft materials, probes in the form of magnetic filaments may hold advantages over tips usually employed in magnetic force microscopy. PMID:15697393

Shcherbakov, Valera P; Winklhofer, Michael

2004-12-01

371

The Magnetic Field in the Solar Atmosphere

This publication provides an overview of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere with the focus lying on the corona. The solar magnetic field couples the solar interior with the visible surface of the Sun and with its atmosphere. It is also responsible for all solar activity in its numerous manifestations. Thus, dynamic phenomena such as coronal mass ejections and flares are magnetically driven. In addition, the field also plays a crucial role in heating the solar chromosphere and corona as well as in accelerating the solar wind. Our main emphasis is the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere so that photospheric and chromospheric magnetic structures are mainly discussed where relevant for higher solar layers. Also, the discussion of the solar atmosphere and activity is limited to those topics of direct relevance to the magnetic field. After giving a brief overview about the solar magnetic field in general and its global structure, we discuss in more detail the magnetic field in active regions, the quie...

Wiegelmann, Thomas; Solanki, Sami K

2014-01-01

372

Shape of the proton in a uniform magnetic field

The effect of a uniform background magnetic field on the wave function of the d-quark in the ground state of the proton is calculated in Lattice QCD. We focus on the wave functions in the Landau and Coulomb gauges. When the quarks are annihilated at different lattice sites, we observe the formation of a scalar u-d diquark pair within the proton in the Landau gauge, which is not present in the Coulomb gauge. The overall distortion of the wave function under a very large magnetic field, as demanded by the quantisation conditions on the field, is quite small.

Roberts, Dale S.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics, University of Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Bowman, Patrick O. [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University (Albany), Private Bag 102904, North Shore City 0745 (New Zealand)

2010-07-27

373

Schwinger pair production in electric and magnetic fields

Charged particles in static electric and magnetic fields have Landau levels and tunneling states from the vacuum. Using the instanton method of Phys. Rev. D 65, 105002 (2002), we obtain the formulas for the pair-production rate in spinor and scalar QED, which sum over all Landau levels and recover exactly the well-known results. The pair-production rates are calculated for an electric field of finite extent, and for the Sauter potential, both with a constant magnetic field also present, and are shown to have finite-size effects.

Kim, Sang Pyo; Page, Don N. [Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 573-701, Korea and Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada)

2006-03-15

374

Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales, which rises the possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger proper time method.

Gabriella Piccinelli; Angel Sanchez; Alejandro Ayala; Ana Julia Mizher

2013-11-03

375

Analysis of magnetic electron lens with secant hyperbolic field distribution

Electron-optical imaging instruments like Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) use specially designed solenoid electromagnets for focusing of electron beam probe. Indicators of imaging performance of these instruments, like spatial resolution, have strong correlation with focal characteristics of the magnetic lenses which in turn have been shown to be functions of the spatial distribution of axial magnetic field generated by them. Owing to complicated design of practical lenses, empirical mathematical expressions are deemed convenient for use in physics based calculations of their focal properties. So, degree of closeness of such models to the actual field distribution determines accuracy of the calculations. Mathematical models proposed by Glaser[1] and Ramberg[1] have historically been put into extensive use. In this paper the authors discuss one such model with secant-hyperbolic type magnetic field distribution function, and present a comparison among these models, ...

Pany, S S; Dubey, B P

2014-01-01

376

Deriving the Coronal Magnetic Field Using Parametric Transformation Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When plasma-beta greater than 1 then the gas pressure dominates over the magnetic pressure. This ratio as a function along the coronal magnetic field lines varies from beta greater than 1 in the photosphere at the base of the field lines, to beta much less than 1 in the mid-corona, to beta greater than 1 in the upper corona. Almost all magnetic field extrapolations do not or cannot take into account the full range of beta. They essentially assume beta much less than 1, since the full boundary conditions do not exist in the beta greater than 1 regions. We use a basic parametric representation of the magnetic field lines such that the field lines can be manipulated to match linear features in the EUV and SXR coronal images in a least squares sense. This research employs free-form deformation mathematics to generate the associated coronal magnetic field. In our research program, the complex magnetic field topology uses Parametric Transformation Analysis (PTA) which is a new and innovative method to describe the coronal fields that we are developing. In this technique the field lines can be viewed as being embedded in a plastic medium, the frozen-in-field-line concept. As the medium is deformed the field lines are similarly deformed. However the advantage of the PTA method is that the field line movement represents a transformation of one magnetic field solution into another magnetic field solution. When fully implemented, this method will allow the resulting magnetic field solution to fully match the magnetic field lines with EUV/SXR coronal loops by minimizing the differences in direction and dispersion of a collection of PTA magnetic field lines and observed field lines. The derived magnetic field will then allow beta greater than 1 regions to be included, the electric currents to be calculated, and the Lorentz force to be determined. The advantage of this technique is that the solution is: (1) independent of the upper and side boundary conditions, (2) allows non-vanishing magnetic forces, and (3) provides a global magnetic field solution, which contains high- and low-beta regimes and maximizes the similarity between the field lines structure and all the coronal images of the region. The coronal image analysis is crucial to the investigation and for the first time these images can be exploited to derive the coronal magnetic field in a well-posed mathematical formulation. This program is an outgrowth of an investigation in which an extrapolated potential field was required to be "inflated" in order to have the field lines match the Yohkoh/SXT images. The field lines were radially stretched resulting in a better match to the coronal loops of an active region. The PTA method of radial and non-radial deformations of field lines to provide a match to the EUV/SXR images will be presented.

Gary, G. Allen; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

377

Particle acceleration and transport in a chaotic magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent chaotic magnetic field can arise from a simple asymmetric current wire-loop system (CWLS). Such simple CWLSs exist, for example, in solar flares. Indeed one can use an ensemble of such systems to model solar active region magnetic field [1,2]. Here we use test particle simulation to investigate particle transport and energization in such a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field, and through induction, a chaotic electric field. We first construct an ensemble of simple systems based on the estimated size and field strength of solar active region. By following the trajectories of single charged particles, we will examine how particle energy is changed. Diffusion coefficients in both real space and momentum space can be calculated as well as the average trapped time of the particles within chaotic field region. Particle energy spectrum as a function of time will be examined. [1] Dasgupta, B. and Abhay K. Ram, (2007) Chaotic magnetic fields due to asymmetric current configurations -application to cross field diffusion of particles in cosmic rays, (Presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the DPP, APS, Abstract # BP8.00102) [2] G. Li, B. Dasgupta, G. Webb, and A. K. Ram, (2009) Particle Motion and Energization in a Chaotic Magnetic Field, AIP Conf. Proc. 1183, pp. 201-211; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3266777

Li, X.; Li, G.; Dasgupta, B.

2012-12-01

378

Correlation of inflation-produced magnetic fields with scalar fluctuations

If the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is broken during inflation, then primordial magnetic fields may be produced. If this symmetry breaking is generated by the coupling between electromagnetism and a scalar field---e.g. the inflaton, curvaton, or the Ricci scalar---then these magnetic fields may be correlated with primordial density perturbations, opening a new window to the study of non-gaussianity in cosmology. In order to illustrate, we couple electromagnetism to an auxiliary scalar field in a de Sitter background. We calculate the power spectra for scalar-field perturbations and magnetic fields, showing how a scale-free magnetic field spectrum with rms amplitude of ~nG at Mpc scales may be achieved. We explore the Fourier-space dependence of the cross-correlation between the scalar field and magnetic fields, showing that the dimensionless amplitude, measured in units of the power spectra, can grow as large as ~500 H_I/M, where H_I is the inflationary Hubble constant and M is the effective mass ...

Caldwell, Robert R; Kamionkowski, Marc

2011-01-01

379

Accounting for crustal magnetization in models of the core magnetic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of determining the magnetic field originating in the earth's core in the presence of remanent and induced magnetization is considered. The effect of remanent magnetization in the crust on satellite measurements of the core magnetic field is investigated. The crust as a zero-mean stationary Gaussian random process is modelled using an idea proposed by Parker (1988). It is shown that the matrix of second-order statistics is proportional to the Gram matrix, which depends only on the inner-products of the appropriate Green's functions, and that at a typical satellite altitude of 400 km the data are correlated out to an angular separation of approximately 15 deg. Accurate and efficient means of calculating the matrix elements are given. It is shown that the variance of measurements of the radial component of a magnetic field due to the crust is expected to be approximately twice that in horizontal components.

Jackson, Andrew

1990-01-01

380

Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985. PMID:23787954

Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

2014-04-01

381

Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices. PMID:23364687

Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

2013-02-01

382

Casimir effect in external magnetic field

In this paper we examine the Casimir effect for charged fields in presence of external magnetic field. We consider scalar field (connected with spinless particles) and the Dirac field (connected with 1/2-spin particles). In both cases we describe quantum field using the canonical formalism. We obtain vacuum energy by direct solving field equations and using the mode summation method. In order to compute the renormalized vacuum energy we use the Abel-Plana formula.

Marcin Ostrowski

2005-04-13

383

Origin of magnetic fields in galaxies

Microgauss magnetic fields are observed in all galaxies at low and high redshifts. The origin of these intense magnetic fields is a challenging question in astrophysics. We show here that the natural plasma fluctuations in the primordial Universe (assumed to be random), predicted by the fluctuation -dissipation theorem, predicts {approx}0.034 {mu}G fields over {approx}0.3 kpc regions in galaxies. If the dipole magnetic fields predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem are not completely random, microgauss fields over regions > or approx. 0.34 kpc are easily obtained. The model is thus a strong candidate for resolving the problem of the origin of magnetic fields in < or approx. 10{sup 9} years in high redshift galaxies.

Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2010-03-15

384

Ultrafast heating and magnetic switching with weak external magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TbFeCo magneto-optical media with the coercivity of bigger than 1.0 kOe are used for the investigation of ultrafast heating and magnetic switching with the weak external magnetic field. It has been found that the laser-induced active region becomes larger with an external magnetic field because the boundary of the active region is magnetized with the assistance of the external field during the ultrafast heating. According to this physical phenomenon, the so called "mark expansion method" has been proposed for visual observation of ultrafast switching marks. Using this method, the ultrafast magnetic switching in TbFeCo media has been studied using 40 fs laser pulse with linear polarization. The result shows that the ultrafast magnetic switching can be implemented by the laser pulse with assistance of the weak external field of about 0.7 kOe. Further studies show that the area percentage of the magnetic mark expansion relative to its thermal mark decreases with the increasing of the laser pulse energy. There exists the threshold pulse energy that the active region is fully magnetized. The theoretical analysis of electron, spin, and lattice temperatures has been conducted to the active region of the media where the maximum spin temperature is close to the Curie temperature of the media. The result indicates that the media become active at 4.137 ps and the ultrafast heating plays a key role for the ultrafast magnetic switching. The weak external magnetic field provides sufficient driving force to control the magnetization direction in the media.

Li, J. M.; Xu, B. X.; Zhang, J.; Ye, K. D.

2013-01-01

385

Calculation and Analysis of magnetic gradient tensor components of global magnetic models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic mapping missions like SWARM and its predecessors, e.g. the CHAMP and MAGSAT programs, offer high resolution Earth's magnetic field data. These datasets are usually combined with magnetic observatory and survey data, and subject to harmonic analysis. The derived spherical harmonic coefficients enable magnetic field modelling using a potential series expansion. Recently, new instruments like the JeSSY STAR Full Tensor Magnetic Gradiometry system equipped with very high sensitive sensors can directly measure the magnetic field gradient tensor components. The full understanding of the quality of the measured data requires the extension of magnetic field models to gradient tensor components. In this study, we focus on the extension of the derivation of the magnetic field out of the potential series magnetic field gradient tensor components and apply the new theoretical framework to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the High Definition Magnetic Model (HDGM). The gradient tensor component maps for entire Earth's surface produced for the IGRF show low values and smooth variations reflecting the core and mantle contributions whereas those for the HDGM gives a novel tool to unravel crustal structure and deep-situated ore bodies. For example, the Thor Suture and the Sorgenfrei-Thornquist Zone in Europe are delineated by a strong northward gradient. Derived from Eigenvalue decomposition of the magnetic gradient tensor, the scaled magnetic moment, normalized source strength (NSS) and the bearing of the lithospheric sources are presented. The NSS serves as a tool for estimating the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary as well as the depth of plutons and ore bodies. Furthermore changes in magnetization direction parallel to the mid-ocean ridges can be obtained from the scaled magnetic moment and the normalized source strength discriminates the boundaries between the anomalies of major continental provinces like southern Africa or the Eastern European Craton.

Schiffler, Markus; Queitsch, Matthias; Schneider, Michael; Stolz, Ronny; Krech, Wolfram; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Kukowski, Nina

2014-05-01

386

Magnetic field experiment on the Freja Satellite

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freja is a Swedish scientific satellite mission to study fine scale auroral processes. Launch was October 6, 1992, piggyback on a Chinese Long March 2C, to the present 600×1750 km, 63° inclination orbit. The JHU/APL provided the Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE), which includes a custom APL-designed Forth, language microprocessor. This approach has led to a truly generic and flexible design with adaptability to differing mission requirements and has resulted in the transfer of significant ground analysis to on-board processing. Special attention has been paid to the analog electronic and digital processing design in an effort to lower system noise levels, verified by inflight data showing unprecedented system noise levels for near-Earth magnetic field measurements, approaching the fluxgate sensor levels. The full dynamic range measurements are of the 3-axis Earth's magnetic field taken at 128 vector samples s-1 and digitized to 16 bit, resolution, primarily used to evaluate currents and the main magnetic field of the Earth. Additional 3-axis ‘AC’ channels are bandpass filtered from 1.5 to 128 Hz to remove the main field spin signal, the range is±650 nT. These vector measurements cover Pc waves to ion gyrofrequency magnetic wave signals up to the oxygen gyrofrequency (˜40 Hz). A separate, seventh channel samples the spin axis sensor with a bandpass filter of 1.5 to 256 Hz, the signal of which is fed to a software FFT. This on-board FFT processing covers the local helium gyrofrequencies (˜160 Hz) and is plotted in the Freja Summary Plots (FSPs) along with disturbance fields. First data were received in the U.S. October 16 from Kiruna, Sweden via the Internet and SPAN e-mail networks, and were from an orbit a few hours earlier over Greenland and Sweden. Data files and data products, e.g., FSPs generated at the Kiruna ground station, are communicated in a similar manner through an automatic mail distribution system in Stockholm to PIs and various users. Distributed management of spacecraft operations by the science team is also achieved by this advanced communications system. An exciting new discovery of the field-aligned current systems is the high frequency wave power or structure associated with the various large-scale currents. The spin axis ‘AC’ data and its standard deviation is a measure of this high-frequency component of the Birkeland current regions. The exact response of these channels and filters as well as the physics behind these wave and/or fine-scale current structures accompanying the large-scale currents is being pursued; nevertheless, the association is clear and the results are used for the MFE Birkeland current monitor calculated in the MFE microprocessor. This monitor then sets a trigger when it is greater than a commandable, preset threshold. This ‘event’ flag can be read by the system unit and used to remotely command all instruments into burst mode data taking and local memory storage. In addition,Freja is equipped with a 400 MHz ‘Low Speed Link’ transmitter which transmits spacecraft hcusekeeping that can be received with a low cost, portable receiver. These housekeeping data include the MFE auroral zone current detector; this space weather information indicates the location and strength of ionospheric current systems that directly impact communications, power systems, long distance telephone lines and near-Earth satellite operations. The JHU/APL MFE is a joint effort with NASA/GSFC and was co-sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and NASA/Headquarters in cooperation with the Swedish National Space Board and the Swedish Space Corporation.

Freja Magnetic Field Experiment Team

1994-11-01

387

The contributions of 4f, 5d and 6s electrons to the saturation magnetic moments and magnetic hyperfine fields in the heavy rare earth metals are calculated using the model described in the previous paper. It is found that 4f shell moments are reduced from their free ion values by amounts varying from 0.05µB in Gd to several tenths of a Bohr

D. M. Eagles

1975-01-01

388

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

Boozer, A.H.

1986-05-01

389

QCD vacuum structure in strong magnetic fields

We study the response of the QCD vacuum to strong magnetic fields, using a potential model for the quark-antiquark interaction. We find that production of spin-polarized u¯ u pairs is energetically favorable for fields B > Bcrit ? 10 GeV2. We contrast the resulting uu condensate with the quark condensate which is present at zero magnetic field, and we estimate

Daniel Kabata; Kimyeong Leea; Erick Weinberg

390

Calculations for Magnetism in SQUIDs at Millikelvin Temperatures S. Sendelbach1

Calculations for Magnetism in SQUIDs at Millikelvin Temperatures S. Sendelbach1 , D. Hover1 , A a surface density of spins from the flux vs. temperature experiments performed on field-cooled dc SQUIDs- dence of SQUID flux on bath temperature. The flux change scales as 1/T as temperature is lowered. Param

Saffman, Mark

391

An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has completed two Mars years in nearly circular polar orbit at a nominal altitude of 400 km. The Mars crust is at least an order of magnitude more intensely magnetized than that of the Earth [1], and intriguing in both its global distribution and geometric properties [2,3]. Measurements of the vector magnetic field have been used to map the magnetic field of crustal origin to high accuracy [4]. We present here a new map of the magnetic field with an order of magnitude increased sensitivity to crustal magnetization. The map is assembled from > 2 full years of MGS night-side observations, and uses along-track filtering to greatly reduce noise due to external field variations.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.

2004-01-01

392

Structure and evolution of the heliospheric magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global structure of the heliospheric magnetic field is investigated through several solar cycles. The study includes magnetic field measurements by space probes located in various spaces in the heliosphere. The latitudinal extent of the heliospheric current sheet is determined from the off-ecliptic observation by Ulysses during the declining phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. The results are compared to the latitudinal excursion of the neutral line on the source surface maps, the deviations are interpreted in relation with the characteristics of the solar cycles. The open magnetic flux of the sun, as determined from interplanetary measurements is best characterized by the radial component of the magnetic field. It is shown that the distribution of the radial component is a complex function of the location in the heliosphere, of the type of solar wind (i.e., slow or fast), and of the phase of the solar cycle. We demonstrate that this complexity is due to fluctuations of the magnetic field, the effect of which can be largely reduced by exploiting the symmetry features of the waves. Two methods are presented for the corrections of the interplanetary flux measurements. It is shown that the corrected magnetic flux density measured by the Ulysses around its solar polar orbit from 1990 to 2009 matches that calculated from the OMNI in-ecliptic, 1 AU data set over the same interval. This result shows that the sun's magnetic flux is generally distributed uniformly in the heliosphere and depends only on the total open magnetic flux of the sun. We calculate the open magnetic flux of the sun from the OMNI data base covering four solar cycles and the values are compared to the total open magnetic flux of the sun as determined from source surface models. The match is fairly good except for the raising phase of the solar cycles. The possible reasons are discussed.

Erdos, Geza

393

Prediction of DC magnetic fields for magnetic cleanliness on spacecraft

Magnetometry is among the most used techniques in space exploration, e.g. to study complex plasma interactions between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, to map the planetary or interplanetary magnetic fields, or to retrieve information about the structural composition of planets. The success of each mission relies on the attainment of an adequate level of magnetic cleanliness at the

Axel Junge; Filippo Marliani

2011-01-01

394

Magnetic reconnection at the edge of Uranus's magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new modeling study sheds light on how the magnetosphere of Uranus compares to those of other planets. Magnetospheres around the inner planets Mercury and Earth are primarily driven by the solar wind—the charged particles spewed out from the Sun—through magnetic reconnection, in which the planet's magnetic field lines break and reconnect, releasing energy in the process.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-09-01

395

Stability of accretion discs threaded by a strong magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stability of poloidal magnetic fields anchored in a thin accretion disc. The two-dimensional hydrodynamics in the disc plane is followed by a grid-based numerical simulation including the vertically integrated magnetic forces. The three-dimensional magnetic field outside the disc is calculated in a potential field approximation from the magnetic flux density distribution in the disc. For uniformly rotating discs we confirm numerically the existence of the interchange instability as predicted by Spruit, Stehle & Papaloizou. In agreement with predictions from the shearing sheet model, discs with Keplerian rotation are found to be stabilized by the shear, as long as the contribution of magnetic forces to support against gravity is small. When this support becomes significant, we find a global instability which transports angular momentum outwardly and allows mass to accrete inwardly. The instability takes the form of a m=1 rotating `crescent', reminiscent of the purely hydrodynamic non-linear instability previously found in pressure-supported discs. A model where the initial surface mass density ?(r) and Bz(r) decrease with radius as power laws shows transient mass accretion during about six orbital periods, and settles into a state with surface density and field strength decreasing approximately exponentially with radius. We argue that this instability is likely to be the main angular momentum transport mechanism in discs with a poloidal magnetic field sufficiently strong to suppress magnetic turbulence. It may be especially relevant in jet-producing discs.

Stehle, R.; Spruit, H. C.

2001-05-01

396

New design for a field emission electron gun immersed in a magnetic lens field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new design for a field emission electron gun immersed in a magnetic- lens field. Its low aberration yields both a high brightness and a high emittance. A single-pole- like magnetic lens made a water-cooled pipe coil produces a magnetic flux density of 0.28 T at the emitter tip. The spherical aberration of the gun, as calculated by an electron ray tracing program, is only 1/3 that of a conventional gun with a magnetic lens. A prototype of the gun was constructed using a zirconium-oxide/tungsten thermal-field emitter. The measured crossover diameters agree with those calculated by the ray tracing program, confirming that the aberration is very low.

Saito, Kenichi; Morita, Hirofumi; Shimazu, Nobuo; Uno, Yasumichi

1995-09-01

397

Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius.

Schermer, R.I.

1987-01-01

398

A simple mechanism for the generation of Earth's magnetic field

Based on the ideal gas model, the dielectric polarization of mantle is achieved, the physical-mathematical model is constructed and the estimate calculation of a dipole of Earth's magnetic field with the considering of rotation, parameters of density and temperature, potential of ionization and static dielectric constant (relative dielectric permittivity), chemical compound of substance in Earth's mantle is executed.

Oleg. V. Styazhkin

2011-05-25

399

Particle Transport in Therapeutic Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, in ferrofluids or as magnetic microspheres, offer magnetic maneuverability, biochemical surface functionalization, and magnetic relaxation under the influence of an alternating field. The use of these properties for clinical applications requires an understanding of particles, forces, and scalar transport at various length scales. This review explains the behavior of magnetic nano- and microparticles during magnetic drug targeting and magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and the microfluidic transport of these particles in bioMEMS (biomedical microelectromechanical systems) devices for ex vivo therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Magnetic particle transport, the momentum interaction of these particles with a host fluid in a flow, and thermal transport in a particle-infused tissue are characterized through the governing electrodynamic, hydrodynamic, and scalar transport equations.

Puri, Ishwar K.; Ganguly, Ranjan

2014-01-01

400

The Measurement of Magnetic Fields

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five experimental methods used by senior high school students to provide an accurate calibration curve of magnet current against the magnetic flux density produced by an electromagnet. Compares the relative merits of the five methods, both as measurements and from an educational viewpoint. (JR)

Berridge, H. J. J.

1973-01-01

401

Nonlinear evolution of the coronal magnetic field under reconnective relaxation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, Vekstein et al. (Vekstein, Priest, & Steele 1993) have developed a model for coronal heating in which the corona responds to photospheric footpoint motions by small-scale reconnection events that bring about a relaxed state while conserving magnetic helicity but not field-line connectivity. Vekstein et al. consider a partially open field configuration in which magnetic helicity is ejected to infinity on open field lines but retained in the closed-field region. Under this scheme, they describe the evolution of an initially potential field, in response to helicity injection, in the linear regime. The present work uses numerical calculations to extend the model of Vekstein et al. into the fully nonlinear regime. The results show a rise and bulging of the field lines of the closed-field region with increasing magnetic helicity, to a point where further solutions are impossible. We interpret these solution-sequence endpoints as indicating a possible loss of equilibrium, in the sense that a relaxed equilibrium state may no longer be available to the corona when sufficient helicity has been injected. The rise and bulging behavior is reminiscent of what is observed in a helmet streamer just before the start of a coronal mass ejection (CME), and so our model suggests that a catastrophic loss of magnetic equilibrium might be the initiation mechanism for CMEs. We also find that some choices of boundary conditions can result in qualitative changes in the magnetic topology, with the appearance of magnetic islands. Whether or not this behavior occurs depends on the relative strengths of the fields in the closed- and open-field regions; in particular, island formation is most likely when the open field (which is potential) is strong and thus acts to confine the force-free closed field. Finally, we show that the energy released through reconnective relaxation can be a substantial fraction of the magnetic energy injected into the corona through footpoint motions and may be sufficient for heating the corona above active regions.

Wolfson, R.; Vekstein, G. E.; Priest, E. R.

1994-01-01

402

Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1–3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘?’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of density factor from 1 to 5. Key Words: Magnetic field, photosphere, corona, solar wind, bursts *Email:drvkdmani@gmail.com

Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

403

A calculation of the magnetic moment of a charged vector meson using proper normalization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renormalization has been the standard technique used in quantum field theory for 50 years. However, this technique relies upon perturbation theory, and it is easy to show that quantum field theory must be non- perturbative. Consequently, other techniques for solving Feynman diagrams must be used. Proper normalization is a non-perturbative technique which can be used to solve problems in quantum field theory. Instead of using cut- off masses and renormalized charges, proper normalization includes a proper normalization factor for each propagator. This makes the calculation necessarily finite. In this calculation, proper normalization is used to determine the magnetic moment of a charged vector meson, such as the ? meson.

Talbot, Julie L.

2000-12-01

404

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spin-1 transverse Ising model with longitudinal crystal field in a longitudinal magnetic field is examined by introducing an effective field approximation (IEFT) which includes the correlations between different spins that emerge when expanding the identities. The effects of the crystal field as well as the transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields on the thermal and magnetic properties of the spin system are discussed in detail. The order parameters, Helmholtz free energy, entropy and specific heat curves are calculated numerically as functions of the temperature and Hamiltonian parameters. A number of interesting phenomena such as reentrant phenomena originating from the temperature, crystal field, transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields have been found.

Yüksel, Yusuf; Polat, Hamza

2010-12-01

405

ASYMMETRIC DIFFUSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES

Stochasticity of magnetic field lines is important for particle transport properties. Magnetic field lines separate faster than diffusively in turbulent plasma, which is called superdiffusion. We discovered that this superdiffusion is pronouncedly asymmetric, so that the separation of field lines along the magnetic field direction is different from the separation in the opposite direction. While the symmetry of the flow is broken by the so-called imbalance or cross-helicity, the difference between forward and backward diffusion is not directly due to imbalance, but a non-trivial consequence of both imbalance and non-reversibility of turbulence. The asymmetric diffusion perpendicular to the mean magnetic field entails a variety of new physical phenomena, such as the production of parallel particle streaming in the presence of perpendicular particle gradients. Such streaming and associated instabilities could be significant for particle transport in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas.

Beresnyak, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-04-20

406

Normal glow discharge in axial magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory and results of mathematical modeling of a glow discharge in a parallel-plate configuration with axial magnetic field is presented. The model consists of continuity equations for electron and ion fluids, the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field. Numerical simulation results are presented for two-dimensional glow discharge at various initial conditions. The results are obtained for molecular nitrogen at pressure 1–5 Torr, emf of power supply 1–2 kV, and magnetic field induction B = 0–0.5 T. It is shown that in the presence of the axial magnetic field the glow discharge is rotated around its axis of symmetry. Nevertheless it is shown that in the investigated range of discharge parameters in an axial magnetic field the law of the normal current density is retained.

Surzhikov, S.; Shang, J.

2014-10-01

407

Magnetic field induced transition in vanadium spinels.

We study vanadium spinels AV2O4 (A = Cd,Mg) in pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T. A jump in magnetization at ?0H?40??T is observed in the single-crystal MgV2O4, indicating a field induced quantum phase transition between two distinct magnetic orders. In the multiferroic CdV2O4, the field induced transition is accompanied by a suppression of the electric polarization. By modeling the magnetic properties in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling characteristic of vanadium spinels, we show that both features of the field induced transition can be successfully explained by including the effects of the local trigonal crystal field. PMID:24483929

Mun, E D; Chern, Gia-Wei; Pardo, V; Rivadulla, F; Sinclair, R; Zhou, H D; Zapf, V S; Batista, C D

2014-01-10

408

Superconducting arrays in a magnetic field: Quantum effects

We consider a Josephson-coupled superconducting array with finite quantum fluctuations, arising from a nonzero capacitive charging energy, placed in a transverse magnetic field. To estimate the superconducting transition temperature as a function of magnetic field, we introduce a Hartree-type mean-field approximation. With no applied magnetic field, this approximation is very similar to that of Simanek, but unlike the latter, it does not lead to a reentrant normal phase transition. Reentrance is absent because we include no 4..pi..-periodic eigenstates of Mathieu's equation in calculating quantum-statistical expectation values. We argue that these 4..pi..-periodic functions are properly omitted because the original Hamiltonian does not include pair-breaking terms. With charging energies included, we find the transition temperature to be highly nonmonotonic in magnetic field, just as in the zero-capacitance limit. For every field B, there exists an upper critical charging energy U/sub c/(B) above which the array is normal even at T = 0; this charging energy is highly nonmonotonic in field. A brief comparison is made between our results and other recent calculations involving superconducting arrays in the presence of charging energies.

Fishman, R.S.; Stroud, D.

1987-02-01

409

Magnetic Field of Lightning Return Stroke

The magnetic flux density due to first and to subsequent lightning return strokes is calculated for distances from the strokes of 0.5 to 200 kin. The basis of the calculations is various assumed forms for the channel current as a function of time and of channel height. Two new channel-current models are introduced for first strokes and one new model

Martin A. Uman; D. Kenneth McLain

1969-01-01

410

Magnetic fields from second-order interactions

It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-free approach, but could be done in the standard covariant indexed-approach.

Bob Osano

2014-03-21

411

FEM Computation of Magnetic Fields in Anisotropic Magnetic Materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields in nonlinear anisotropic magnetic materials were analyzed by using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The measured data was directly used in the computation without a complicateded smoothing. The resultant asymmetric linear equations were solved by using the ILUBiCGStab method without symmetrization or the ICCG method with symmetrization. The magnetic flux distributions in a ring core model showed the characteristic patterns according to the non-oriented, grain-oriented and doubly-oriented magnetic properties. The good convergence of the Newton-Raphson nonlinear iteration was attained by the iterative solvers without special techniques for the smoothing.

Kameari, Akihisa; Fujiwara, Koji

412

Dynamo Models for Saturn's Axisymmetric Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field measurements by the Cassini mission have confirmed the earlier Pioneer 11 and Voyager missions' results that Saturn's observed magnetic field is extremely axisymmetric . For example, Saturn's dipole tilt is less than 0.06 degrees (Cao et al., 2011) . The nearly-perfect axisymmetry of Saturn's dipole is troubling because of Cowling's Theorem which states that an axisymmetric magnetic field cannot be maintained by a dynamo. However, Cowling's Theorem applies to the magnetic field generated inside the dynamo source region and we can avert any contradiction with Cowling's Theorem if we can find reason for a non-axisymmetric field generated inside the dynamo region to have an axisymmetrized potential field observed at satellite altitude. Stevenson (1980) proposed a mechanism for this axisymmetrization. He suggested that differential rotation in a stably-stratified electrically conducting layer (i.e. the helium rain-out layer) surrounding the dynamo could act to shear out the non-axisymmetry and hence produce an axisymmetric observed magnetic field. In previous work, we used three-dimensional self-consistent numerical dynamo models to demonstrate that a thin helium rain-out layer can produce a more axisymmetrized field (Stanley, 2010). We also found that the direction of the zonal flows in the layer is a crucial factor for magnetic field axisymmetry. Here we investigate the influence of the thickness of the helium rain-out layer and the intensity of the thermal winds on the axisymmetrization of the field. We search for optimal regions in parameter space for producing axisymmetric magnetic fields with similar spectral properties to the observed Saturnian field.

Stanley, S.; Tajdaran, K.

2012-12-01

413

TRANSITION REGION MAGNETIC FIELD AND POLAR MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

The Explorer 12 measurements of the magnetic field outside the magnetosphere are compared with ground magnetograms from arctic observatories. Results indicate that an exterior field with a southerly component tends to be associated with ground disturbance, whereas a northward field is associated with quiet conditions. Examples are presented show- ing how a north-to-south field-direction change accompanies an increase in ground

D. H. Fairfield; L. J. Jr. Cahill

1966-01-01

414

Electrical properties of chain microstructure magnetic emulsions in magnetic field

The work deals with the experimental study of the emulsion whose dispersion medium is a magnetic fluid while the disperse phase is formed by a glycerin-water mixture. It is demonstrated that under effect of a magnetic field chain aggregates form from the disperse phase drops. Such emulsion microstructure change affects its macroscopic properties. The emulsion dielectric permeability and specific electrical conductivity have been measured. It is demonstrated that under the effect of relatively weak external magnetic fields (~ 1 kA/m) the emulsion electrical parameters may change several fold. The work theoretically analyzes the discovered regularities of the emulsion electrical properties.

Arthur Zakinyan; Yuri Dikansky; Marita Bedzhanyan

2014-02-05

415

On magnetic field generation in Kolmogorov turbulence

We analyze the initial, kinematic stage of magnetic field evolution in an isotropic and homogeneous turbulent conducting fluid with a rough velocity field, v(l) ~ l^alpha, alphamagnetic Reynolds number that is needed to excite magnetic fluctuations. This implies that numerical or experimental investigations of the Kolmogorov turbulence with small Prandtl numbers need to achieve extremely high resolution in order to adequately describe magnetic phenomena; (ii) For small Prandtl numbers, magnetic energy penetrates below the resistive scale and has a power-law spectrum between the resistive and viscous scales. Magnetic energy is dissipated not at the resistive scale but at the much smaller viscous scale, which may be relevant for the problems of anomalous resistivity and fast magnetic reconnection. Our results also suggest that the l...

Boldyrev, S A; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto

2004-01-01

416

Screening magnetic fields by superconductors: A simple model

We introduce a simple approach to evaluate the magnetic field distribution around superconducting samples, based on the London equations; the elementary variable is the vector potential. This procedure has no adjustable parameters, only the sample geometry and the London length, ?, determine the solution. This approach was validated by comparing the induction field calculated to the one measured above MgB{sub 2} disks of different diameters, at 20?K and for applied fields lower than 0.4?T. The model can be applied if the flux line penetration inside the sample can be neglected when calculating the induction field distribution outside the superconductor. We conclude by showing on a cup-shape geometry how one can design a magnetic shield satisfying a specific constraint.

Caputo, J.-G., E-mail: caputo@insa-rouen.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l'Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Gozzelino, L.; Laviano, F.; Ghigo, G.; Gerbaldo, R. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129, Torino (Italy); Noudem, J.; Thimont, Y.; Bernstein, P. [CRISMAT/LUSAC, Physics Department, Université de Caen (France)

2013-12-21

417

The earth's magnetic field: Its history, origin and planetary perspective

The history of geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism is examined, and an analysis and description of the present geomagnetic field is presented. The magnetic compass is discussed along with declination, inclination, secular variation, magnetic charts and the search for the poles, fossil magnetism and the magnetic field in the past, transient magnetic variations regarding the external magnetic field, the origin of the

R. T. Merrill; M. W. McElhinny

1983-01-01

418

Tracing Magnetic Fields by Atomic Alignment in Extended Radiation Fields

Tracing magnetic fields is crucial as magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical processes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Ground State Alignment (GSA) is a unique way to detect weak magnetic fields (1G> B> 1exp(-15)G) in diffuse media, they consider the situation when the pumping source is a point source, which applies when the star is very far away from the diffuse media. In this paper, we explore the GSA in the presence of extended radiation fields. For the radiation fields with a clear geometric structure, we consider the alignment in circumstellar medium, binary systems, disc, and Local Interstellar Medium (LISM). For the radiation fields with unidentified pumping sources, we apply the method of multipole expansion and discuss the GSA induced by each component. We demonstrate that for general radiation fields, it is adequate to consider the contribution from dipole and quadrupole radiation components. We find that in general polarization of absorption arizing from GSA coincides ...

Zhang, Heshou; Dong, Le

2014-01-01

419

Force-free magnetic fields - Generating functions and footpoint displacements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents analytic and numerical calculations that explore equilibrium sequences of bipolar force-free magnetic fields in relation to displacments of their magnetic footpoints. It is shown that the appearance of magnetic islands - sometimes interpreted as marking the loss of equilibrium in models of the solar atmosphere - is likely associated only with physically unrealistic footpoint displacements such as infinite separation or 'tearing' of the model photosphere. The work suggests that the loss of equilibrium in bipolar configurations, sometimes proposed as a mechanism for eruptive solar events, probably requires either fully three-dimensional field configurations or nonzero plasma pressure. The results apply only to fields that are strictly bipolar, and do not rule out equilibrium loss in more complex structures such as quadrupolar fields.

Wolfson, Richard; Verma, Ritu

1991-01-01

420

The selection rule of graphene in a composite magnetic field

The generalized tight-binding model with exact diagonalization method is developed to calculate the optical properties of monolayer graphene in the presence of composite magnetic fields. The ratio of the uniform magnetic field and the modulated one accounts for a strong influence on the structure, number, intensity and frequency of absorption peaks, and thus the extra selection rules that are subsequently induced can be explained. When the modulated field increases, each symmetric peak, under a uniform magnetic field, splits into a pair of asymmetric peaks with lower intensities. The threshold absorption frequency exhibits an obvious evolution in terms of a redshift. These absorption peaks obey the same selection rule that is followed by Landau level transitions. Moreover, at a sufficiently strong modulation strength, the extra peaks in the absorption spectrum might arise from different selection rules.

Ou, Y C; Yang, P H; Lin, M F

2014-01-01

421

Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Static Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of the transport and diffusion of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider Diffusion of charged particles in fully three dimensional statistically isotropic magnetic field turbulence with no mean field which is pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We classify different regions of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. We propose three different theoretical models to calculate the diffusion coefficient each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared with those from computer simulations, showing very good agreement.

Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Wan, M.; Montgomery, D.

2013-12-01

422

Computer Program for Earths magnetic field

A FORTRAN IV computer program has been developed by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to compute the elements of the earths magnetic field for any geographic position.Part of the program is a mathematical model of the geomagnetic field consisting of two sets of spherical harmonic coefficients. The first set, representing the main geomagnetic field, consists of 168 coefficients (degree

Anonymous

1970-01-01

423

Recent biophysical studies in high magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of biophysical effects of steady magnetic fields is given. The need of high field strength is illustrated by several recent diamagnetic orientation experiments. They include rod-like viruses, purple membranes and chromosomes. Results of various studies on bees, quails, rats and pigeons exposed to fields above 7 T are also resumed.

Maret, Georg

1990-06-01

424

Review: Magnetic fields of O stars

Since 2002, strong, organized magnetic fields have been firmly detected at the surfaces of about 10 Galactic O-type stars. In this paper I will review the characteristics of the inferred fields of individual stars, as well as the overall population. I will discuss the extension of the 'magnetic desert', first inferred among the A-type stars, to O stars up to 60 solar masses. I will discuss the interaction of the winds of the magnetic stars with the fields above their surfaces, generating complex 'dynamical magnetosphere' structures detected in optical and UV lines, and in X-ray lines and continuum. Finally, I will discuss the detection of a small number of variable O stars in the LMC and SMC that exhibit spectral characteristics analogous to the known Galactic magnetic stars, and that almost certainly represent the first known examples of extra-Galactic magnetic stars.

Wade, G A

2014-01-01

425

The rotation-magnetic field relation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the generation of magnetic fields in solar-type stars and its relation to activity and rotation can coherently be explained, although it is certainly not understood in its entirety. Rotation facilitates the generation of magnetic flux that couples to the stellar wind, slowing down the star. There are still many open questions, particularly at early phases (young age), and at very low mass. It is vexing that rotational braking becomes inefficient at the threshold to fully convective interiors, although no threshold in magnetic activity is seen, and the generation of large scale magnetic fields is still possible for fully convective stars. This article briefly outlines our current understanding of the rotation-magnetic field relation.

Reiners, Ansgar; Scholz, Alexander; Eislöffel, Jochen; Hallinan, Gregg; Berger, Edo; Browning, Matthew; Irwin, Jonathan; Küker, Manfred; Matt, Sean

2009-02-01

426

Magnetic field effects on surgical ligation clips.

Magnetic forces exerted on surgical clips and the magnetic resonance imaging distortion they create in phantoms and rabbits at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla were investigated. Results are reported for both ligation and aneurysm clips manufactured from three types of stainless steel as well as titanium, tantalum and niobium metals. Paramagnetism and eddy currents were measured in a customized moving Gouy balance. Direct measurements of other magnetic forces were carried out in a 1.5T MRI system. The titanium and tantalum clips showed the least interaction with the magnetic field, both in terms of forces exerted and the observed image distortion with the larger clips generating the larger interactions. The strongest field distortions and attractive forces occurred with 17-7PH stainless steel clips. These interactions were ferromagnetic in origin and of sufficient strength to present significant risk to patients having this type of clip present during an MRI scan. PMID:3431354

Brown, M A; Carden, J A; Coleman, R E; McKinney, R; Spicer, L D

1987-01-01

427

Magnetic field evolution in white dwarfs: The hall effect and complexity of the field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We calculate the evolution of the magnetic fields in white dwarfs, taking into account the Hall effect. Because this effect depends nonlinearly upon the magnetic field strength B, the time dependences of the various multipole field components are coupled. The evolution of the field is thus significantly more complicated than has been indicated by previous investigations. Our calculations employ recent white dwarf evolutionary sequences computed for stars with masses 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. We show that in the presence of a strong (up to approximately 10(exp 9) G) internal toroidal magnetic field; the evolution of even the lowest order poloidal modes can be substantially changed by the Hall effect. As an example, we compute the evolution of an initially weak quadrupole component, which we take arbitrarily to be approximately 0.1%-1% of the strength of a dominant dipole field. We find that coupling provided by the Hall effect can produce growth of the ratio of the quadrupole to the dipole component of the surface value of the magnetic field strength by more than a factor of 10 over the 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 10) year cooling lifetime of the white dwarf. Some consequences of these results for the process of magnetic-field evolution in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.

Muslimov, A. G.; Van Horn, H. M.; Wood, M. A.

1995-01-01

428

Magnetic field generated by current filaments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetic field generated by two straight current filaments using the analogy between steady MHD and Euler flows. Using the Biot-Savart law, we present a dynamical system describing the extension of magnetic lines around the current filaments. It is demonstrated that, if two current filaments are non-parallel, a magnetic line starting near one current goes to infinity by the drifting effect of the other.

Kimura, Y.

2014-10-01

429

Dynamical quark mass generation in a strong external magnetic field

We investigate the effect of a strong magnetic field on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in quenched and unquenched QCD. To this end we apply the Ritus formalism to the coupled set of (truncated) Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark and gluon propagator under the presence of an external constant Abelian magnetic field. We work with an approximation that is trustworthy for large fields eH > \\Lambda_{QCD}^2 but is not restricted to the lowest Landau level. We confirm the linear rise of the quark condensate with large external field previously found in other studies and observe the transition to the asymptotic power law at extremely large fields. We furthermore quantify the validity of the lowest Landau level approximation and find substantial quantitative differences to the full calculation even at very large fields. We discuss unquenching effects in the strong field propagators, condensate and the magnetic polarization of the vacuum. We find a significant weakening of magnetic catalysis caused by the back reaction of quarks on the Yang-Mills sector. Our results support explanations of the inverse magnetic catalysis found in recent lattice studies due to unquenching effects.

Niklas Mueller; Jacqueline A. Bonnet; Christian S. Fischer

2014-01-08

430

Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields

The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.

Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.

2010-03-15

431

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel implementation of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory utilizing London atomic orbitals as basis functions. External magnetic fields are treated non-perturbatively, which enable the study of both magnetic response properties and the effects of strong fields, using either standard density functionals or current-density functionals—the implementation is the first fully self-consistent implementation of the latter for molecules. Pilot applications are presented for the finite-field calculation of molecular magnetizabilities, hypermagnetizabilities, and nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants, focusing on the impact of current-density functionals on the accuracy of the results. Existing current-density functionals based on the gauge-invariant vorticity are tested and found to be sensitive to numerical details of their implementation. Furthermore, when appropriately regularized, the resulting magnetic properties show no improvement over standard density-functional results. An advantage of the present implementation is the ability to apply density-functional theory to molecules in very strong magnetic fields, where the perturbative approach breaks down. Comparison with high accuracy full-configuration-interaction results show that the inadequacies of current-density approximations are exacerbated with increasing magnetic field strength. Standard density-functionals remain well behaved but fail to deliver high accuracy. The need for improved current-dependent density-functionals, and how they may be tested using the presented implementation, is discussed in light of our findings.

Tellgren, E. I.; Teale, A. M.; Furness, J. W.; Lange, K. K.; Ekström, U.; Helgaker, T.

2014-01-01

432

Rotation of the Earth's Magnetic Field

HALLEY1 first noticed that the magnetic declination at a number of sites changed with time in a manner that was consistent with a steady westward drift of the magnetic field relative to the surface of the Earth. After long neglect, interest in westward drift was revived by the work of Bullard et al.2, who examined the westward drift of the

S. R. C. Malin; I. Saunders

1973-01-01

433

Is the 3-D magnetic null point with a convective electric field an efficient particle accelerator?

Aims: We study the particle acceleration at a magnetic null point in the solar corona, considering self-consistent magnetic fields, plasma flows and the corresponding convective electric fields. Methods: We calculate the electromagnetic fields by 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and expose charged particles to these fields within a full-orbit relativistic test-particle approach. In the 3-D MHD simulation part, the initial magnetic

J.-N. Guo; J. Büchner; A. Otto; J. Santos; E. Marsch; W.-Q. Gan

2010-01-01

434

Cosmic Magnetic Fields and the CMB

I describe the imprint of primordial magnetic fields on the CMB. I show that these are observable only if the field amplitude is of the order of $B\\gsim 10^{-9}G$ on Mpc scale. I further argue that such fields are strongly constrained by the stochastic background of gravity waves which they produce. Primordial magnetic fields, which are strong enough to be seen in the CMB, are compatible with the nucleosynthesis bound, only if their spectrum is close to scale invariant, or maybe if helical magnetic fields provoke an inverse cascade. For helical fields, the CMB signature is especially interesting. It contains parity violating T-B and E--B correlations.

Ruth Durrer

2006-09-08

435

Magnetic space-based field measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite measurements of the geomagnetic field began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May 1958 and have continued sporadically in the intervening years. A list of spacecraft that have made significant contributions to an understanding of the near-earth geomagnetic field is presented. A new era in near-earth magnetic field measurements began with NASA's launch of Magsat in October 1979. Attention is given to geomagnetic field modeling, crustal magnetic anomaly studies, and investigations of the inner earth. It is concluded that satellite-based magnetic field measurements make global surveys practical for both field modeling and for the mapping of large-scale crustal anomalies. They are the only practical method of accurately modeling the global secular variation. Magsat is providing a significant contribution, both because of the timeliness of the survey and because its vector measurement capability represents an advance in the technology of such measurements.

Langel, R. A.

1981-01-01

436

Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

437

Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model displays the field lines and field vectors of a dipole located at the origin and oriented along the z-axis. Users can compute the field line passing through a point by dragging the a marker within the 3D view. Users can also visualize the field vectors in a plane passing though the center of the dipole. The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticDipole3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-08-11

438

Lunar magnetic field measurements with a cubesat

We have developed a mission concept that uses 3-unit cubesats to perform new measurements of lunar magnetic fields, less than 100 meters above the Moon’s surface. The mission calls for sending the cubesats on impact ...

Garrick-Bethell, Ian

439

Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under some conditions, time series of the interplanetary magnetic field strength and components have the properties of fractal curves. Magnetic field measurements made near 8.5 AU by Voyager 2 from June 5 to August 24, 1981 were self-similar over time scales from approximately 20 sec to approximately 3 x 100,000 sec, and the fractal dimension of the time series of the strength and components of the magnetic field was D = 5/3, corresponding to a power spectrum P(f) approximately f sup -5/3. Since the Kolmogorov spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic, stationary turbulence is also f sup -5/3, the Voyager 2 measurements are consistent with the observation of an inertial range of turbulence extending over approximately four decades in frequency. Interaction regions probably contributed most of the power in this interval. As an example, one interaction region is discussed in which the magnetic field had a fractal dimension D = 5/3.

Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

1985-01-01

440

End fields of CBA superconducting magnets

Measurements of the two dimensional harmonic content of the end fields generated by the Brookhaven CBA dipole and quadrupole superconducting magnets are presented. Both the local longitudinal structure and the integrated end effects are examined.

Kirk, H.G.; Herrera, J.; Willen, E.

1983-01-01

441

Vacuum Birefringence in Strong Magnetic Fields

Table of Contents 1. One-loop effective Lagrangian in spinor QED. 2. Dispersion effects for low-frequency photons. 3. Vacuum birefringence in magnetic fields. 4. Light cone condition, effective Lagrangian approach.

Walter Dittrich; Holger Gies

1998-01-01

442

Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

2005-01-01

443

Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequencies correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic field used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for discerning changes in sensor s response kequency, resistance and amplitude is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminating the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

444

Graviton creation from the CMB in large scale magnetic fields

Conversion of the CMB photons into gravitational waves at the post recombination epoch is considered. We calculate the probability of transformation of the CMB photons into gravitons in the presence of a large scale magnetic field. Based on the present day limits on the strength of the large scale magnetic field we show that the probability of the produced gravitons as a result of photon to graviton conversion is reasonable and such mechanism would produce an isotropic background of gravitational waves in the same frequency range of the CMB photons. The mechanism proposed would be a rather good opportunity to study the high frequency part of the spectrum of gravitational waves.

Damian Ejlli

2013-05-26

445

Trapping of transuranium elements by the earth's magnetic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for a transuranium element component of cosmic radiation has been carried out in high altitude balloon experiments. The trapping of high Z elements on orbits in the Earth's magnetic field may lead to a sufficient enhancement of the intensity of particle flux to make it possible to detect these elements by satellite experiments. Calculations are presented that predict the behavior of trapped particles as a function of the predicted flux and energy distribution of high Z elements incident on the Earth's magnetic field. Techniques are suggested for the detection of such particles. In addition, the possibility of production of transuranium elements in the recently discovered pulsars are discussed.

Bloom, J. L.; Eastlund, B. J.

1972-01-01

446

Conductivity of quantum wires in uniform magnetic fields

The features of the de conductivity of quantum wires in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields are studied for degenerate and nondegenerate electron gas. The conductivity is calculated on the basis of the Kubo formalism with regard to the elastic scattering of charge carriers at long-wavelength lattice vibrations. The final theoretical results for the conductivity are compared to the experimental data. The suggested model of quantum wires allows, among other things, an interpretation of the nonmonotonic