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1

Progress on Field Reversed Configuration target for Magnetized Target Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview the experimental high density Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) approach for a LANL AFRL collaborative physics demonstration of Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). We show some initial translation data from the Los Alamos FRC experiment FRXL that characterize the MTF translated target plasma. The conical theta coil is expected to generate toroidal magnetic field, helicity, and good curvature field lines,

T. Intrator; G. A. Wurden; P. E. Sieck; W. J. Waganaar; R. Oberto; T. D. Olson; D. Sutherland; J. H. Degnan; E. L. Ruden; M. Domonkos; P. Adamson; C. Grabowski; D. G. Gale; W. Sommars; M. Kostora; M. H. Frese; S. D. Frese; J. F. Camacho; S. K. Coffey; N. F. Roderick; D. J. Amdahl; P. Parks; R. E. Siemon; T. Awe; A. G. Lynn

2009-01-01

2

Electrostatic waves in general magnetic field configurations  

SciTech Connect

A scheme for investigating linear electrostatic waves in general magnetically confined plasmas is presented. The scheme is a generalization of the low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) gyrokinetic formalism of Rutherford and Frieman as well as Taylor and Hastie to arbitrary frequencies. Governing integral wave equations for slab plasmas with magnetic shear as well as axisymmetric tokamaks are then derived to illustrate the applications.

Chen, L.; Tsai, S.T.

1981-07-01

3

Multipole magnetic field configurations for stable plasma confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A method of eliminating plasma leakage by connecting cusps with a magnetic field bridge has been, described by Tuck (4). Here\\u000a we discuss a multipole configuration employing this idea but with no circumferential (B\\u000a z) field. High ? plasma is confined with no free plasma surface in the usual cusp model sense. The stability diagram for such\\u000a configurations can be

T. Ohkawa; W. D. Kerst

1961-01-01

4

A filament supported by different magnetic field configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation of vector magnetogram data obtained by THEMIS/MTR on 2005 May 27 suggests the simultaneous existence of different magnetic configurations within one active region filament: one part of the filament is supported by field line dips within a flux rope, while the other part is located in dips within an arcade structure. Although the axial field chirality (dextral) and the magnetic helicity (negative) are the same along the whole filament, the chiralities of the filament barbs at different sections are opposite, i.e., right-bearing in the flux rope part and left-bearing in the arcade part. This argues against past suggestions that different barb chiralities imply different signs of helicity of the underlying magnetic field. This new finding about the chirality of filaments will be useful to associate eruptive filaments and magnetic cloud using the helicity parameter in the Space Weather Science.

Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P.; Wiegelmann, T.; Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.

2011-08-01

5

Symmetrized magnetic field configuration of low aspect ratio helical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A helical system has the attractive feature such that it can generate the closed magnetic surface by externally wound coils alone. However, there are many problems to be solved for the confinement of a reactor grade plasma in helical systems. A new method is proposed for coil width modulation (modulation of the helical coil current distribution) to meet with the requirement for the magnetic configuration of a high temperature plasma confinement. This method can reduce multi-helicity (higher or satellite harmonics of the fundamental helical field) which brings many demerits into the conventional stellerator/torsatron/heliotron configuration.

Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Fujiwara, Masami

1988-05-01

6

Evolution of field-reversed configuration by flux enhancement with rotating magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have numerically studied the transient behavior of the evolution of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma with rotating magnetic field. The plasma formed by a field reversed theta pinch is evolved by increasing the internal magnetic flux with a rotating magnetic field (RMF) and by regulating the axial magnetic flux. The dynamic responses of a plasma pressure, separatrix radius and

M. Ohnishi; J. Kitagaki; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yoshikawa

1997-01-01

7

Ring Current Modeling in a Realistic Magnetic Field Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-dimensional kinetic model has been developed to study the dynamics of the storm time ring current in a dipole magnetic field. In this paper, the ring current model is extended to include a realistic, time-varying magnetic field model. The magnetic field is expressed as the cross product of the gradients of two Euler potentials and the bounce-averaged particle drifts are calculated in the Euler potential coordinates. A dipolarization event is modeled by collapsing a tail-like magnetosphere to a dipole-like configuration. Our model is able to simulate the sudden enhancements in the ring current ion fluxes and the corresponding ionospheric precipitation during the substorm expansion.

Fok, M.-C.; Moore, T. E.

1997-01-01

8

Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-Beta plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive...

A. Brooks B. Berlinger C. E. Myers M. R. Edwards S. A. Cohen

2011-01-01

9

Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear configurations  

SciTech Connect

Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configurations is numerically investigated by using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in slab geometry. To explore different dynamic processes in locked modes, three equilibrium states are adopted. Stable, marginal, and unstable current profiles for double tearing modes are designed by varying the current intensity between two resonant surfaces separated by a certain distance. Further, the dynamic characteristics of locked modes in the three RMS states are identified, and the relevant physics mechanisms are elucidated. The scaling behavior of critical perturbation value with initial plasma velocity is numerically obtained, which obeys previously established relevant analytical theory in the viscoresistive regime.

Wang, H. H.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, X. Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-06-15

10

The ``Shim-a-ring'' magnet: Configurable static magnetic fields using a ring magnet with a concentric ferromagnetic shim  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a permanent magnet assembly that can be configured to obtain uniform, gradient, or tunable field distribution. The design is composed of a single ring shaped permanent magnet and a concentric ferromagnetic shim. Magnetic field is configured by changing the shape of the air gap inside the ring magnet. Circular cross-section produces up to 0.54 T uniform field, whereas rectangular or triangular cross-sections result in gradient magnetic field distributions. Tunable field from a given ring magnet is obtained by changing the thickness of the ferromagnetic shim or the spacing between the shim and the permanent magnet.

Nath, P.; Chandrana, C. K.; Dunkerley, D.; Neal, J. A.; Platts, D.

2013-05-01

11

The effect of magnetic field configuration on plasma beam profiles in curved magnetic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curved magnetic filters are commonly used with cathodic vacuum arcs to remove macroparticles from the plasma stream, making it suitable for the preparation of smooth, dense, and defect free films. Although a variety of filters have been investigated experimentally, the influence of the magnetic field configuration on the shape and position of the plasma beam at the filter exit has

M. M. M. Bilek

1999-01-01

12

A quantitative investigation of rotating magnetic field current drive in a field-reversed configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is experimentally demonstrated that a Field-Reversed Configuration can be generated and maintained by the rotating magnetic field technique of driving plasma current. For the particular discharge described in this paper, detailed measurements showed that the pressure varied linearly with the poloidal flux function and that the contribution of any ponderomotive force to plasma confinement was negligible. Consequently, the observed

A. J. Knight; I. R. Jones

1990-01-01

13

Large Solar Flares and Sheared Magnetic Field Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Comment gives additional information about the nature of flaring locations on the Sun described in the article "Sun unleashes Halloween storm", by R. E. Lopez, et al. What causes the large explosions from solar active regions that unleash huge magnetic storms and adverse space weather? It is now beyond doubt that the magnetic field in solar active regions harbors free energy that is released during these events. Direct measurements of the longitudinal and transverse components of active region magnetic fields with the vector magnetograph at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), taken on a regular basis for the last 30 years, have found key signatures of the locations of powerful flares. A vector magnetograph detects and measures the magnetic shear, which is the deviation of the observed transverse magnetic field direction from the potential field. The sheared locations possess abundant free magnetic energy for solar flares. In addition to active region NOAA 10486, the one that produced the largest flares last October, the NASA/MSFC vector magnetograph has observed several other such complex super active regions, including NOAA 6555 and 6659.

Choudhary, Debi Prasad

2001-01-01

14

Configurations and control of magnetic fields for manipulating magnetic particles in microfluidic applications: magnet systems and manipulation mechanisms.  

PubMed

The use of a magnetic field for manipulating the motion of magnetic particles in microchannels has attracted increasing attention in microfluidic applications. Generation of a flexible and controllable magnetic field plays a crucial role in making better use of the particle manipulation technology. Recent advances in the development of magnet systems and magnetic field control methods have shown that it has great potential for effective and accurate manipulation of particles in microfluidic systems. Starting with the analysis of magnetic forces acting on the particles, this review gives the configurations and evaluations of three main types of magnet system proposed in microfluidic applications. The interaction mechanisms of magnetic particles with magnetic fields are also discussed. PMID:24903572

Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Li, Liang

2014-08-01

15

Magnetic Field Configuration Models and Reconstruction Methods: a comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to provide a reference to different magnetic field models and reconstruction methods. In order to understand the dissimilarities of those models and codes, we analyze 59 events from the CDAW list, using four different magnetic field models and reconstruction techniques; force- free reconstruction (Lepping et al.(1990); Lynch et al.(2003)), magnetostatic reconstruction, referred as Grad-Shafranov (Hu & Sonnerup(2001); Mostl et al.(2009)), cylinder reconstruction (Marubashi & Lepping(2007)), elliptical, non-force free (Hidalgo et al.(2002)). The resulted parameters of the reconstructions, for the 59 events are compared, statistically, as well as in more details for some cases. The differences between the reconstruction codes are discussed, and suggestions are provided as how to enhance them. Finally we look at 2 unique cases under the microscope, to provide a comprehensive idea of the different aspects of how the fitting codes work.

Al-haddad, Nada; Möstl, Christian; Roussev, Ilia; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Poedts, Stefaan; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Savani, Neel

2012-07-01

16

Effects of open field line plasma on rotating magnetic field current drive in a field-reversed configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model has been used to study the effects that open field line plasma may have on the rotating magnetic field (RMF), when it is applied to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) for current drive. The model is a two-dimensional (r–?) magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation. The RMF is found to be an extremely good particle pump, continuously sweeping plasma into the

Richard D. Milroy

2001-01-01

17

Magnetized Target Fusion - Field Reversed Configuration Formation and Injection (MTF-FRC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DETAR Task 0rder 0016 supports the Air Force Research Laboratory's ongoing effort to demonstrate magnetized target fusion in a laboratory environment. The experimental premise involves forming a plasma in a field- reversed configuration (FRC), translating...

C. Grabowski W. Sommars

2009-01-01

18

Unbalanced magnetic field configuration: plasma and film properties.  

PubMed

Coatings of CrN, TiN, ZrN, TaN and NbN were deposited using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system with two different degrees of unbalancing to investigate the effect of the degree of unbalancing on both plasma characteristics and film properties. The degree of unbalancing was determined by an extensive characterization of the magnetic field fluxes in the X-Z plane perpendicular to the target. Then, the plasma parameters, such as electron temperature, plasma potential, plasma density and ion current density, were obtained for each target and as a function of the unbalance coefficient. The film microstructure, hardness, corrosion and wear resistant were measured to determine the effect of the degree of unbalancing on these properties. The results suggested that the degree of unbalancing, through the variations induced in the ion bombardment and plasma ionization, had a strong influence on the film hardness, microstructure and preferred orientation. PMID:21690858

Rodil, S E; Olaya, J J

2006-08-16

19

Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations  

SciTech Connect

The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-? plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMFo from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (?fc) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with (?fc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 103 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

E. Oz, C.E. Myers, M.R. Edwards, B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, and S.A. Cohen

2011-01-05

20

Effects of magnetic field configuration on thrust performance in a miniature microwave discharge ion thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of magnetic field configuration on thrust performance in a miniature microwave discharge ion thruster were investigated in order to improve thrust performance. First, the extracted ion beam current was measured for various levels of strength of the magnetic field. It was found that there is an optimum magnitude of the magnetic field. That this is due to the tradeoff between magnetic mirror confinement and microwave-plasma coupling was confirmed by measurement of the ion saturation current into the antenna of the ion thruster. The ion saturation current was found to decrease with an increase in magnetic field strength, due to the improvement in magnetic mirror confinement. The estimated electron temperature also decreases with an increase in magnetic field strength. This result shows that the increase in magnetic field strength leads to a decrease in microwave-plasma coupling. Next, the ion beam current for three magnetic field shapes was measured by changing the length of the central yoke. The results show that the optimum magnetic field shape depends on the mass flow rate because of the tradeoff between magnetic confinement and ionization probability. For the configurations tested, the 3 mm length central yoke is optimal for low mass flow, whereas 7 mm is the best for high mass flow. Overall, the extracted ion beam current is 21.4 mA, at a xenon mass flow rate of 0.036 mg/s, beam voltage of 1500 V, and incident microwave power of 16 W.

Yamamoto, Naoji; Kondo, Shinya; Chikaoka, Takayuki; Nakashima, Hideki; Masui, Hirokazu

2007-12-01

21

Stray Fields and Metastable Magnetization Configurations in Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of the utility of magnetic tunnel junctions and the giant magneto-resistive effect devices is reversal of the magnetization of a thin film. In these devices, found in hard disk drive read heads and magneto-resistive random access memory technology, robust control of magnetization in thin films is necessary. We study, via Monte-Carlo simulations, the nature of metastable (intermediate)

Adebanjo Oriade; Siu-Tat Chui

2007-01-01

22

Cross-Field Motion of Plasma Blobs in an Open Magnetic Field Line Configuration  

SciTech Connect

The radial propagation of blobs generated from plasma instabilities is investigated in an open magnetic field line configuration. Blob cross-field velocities and sizes are obtained from internal probe measurements using pattern recognition. By varying the ion mass, the normalized vertical blob scale a-tilde is scanned from a-tilde<1 to a-tilde>1. An analytical expression for the blob velocity including cross-field ion polarization currents, parallel currents to the sheath, and ion-neutral collisions is derived and shows good quantitative agreement with the experimental data. In agreement with previous theoretical studies, this scaling shows that, for a-tilde<1, the blob velocity is limited by cross-field ion polarization currents, while for a-tilde>1 it is limited by parallel currents to the sheath.

Theiler, C.; Furno, I.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Labit, B.; Plyushchev, G. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mueller, S. H. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2009-08-07

23

Magnetic pressure driven implosion of solid liner suitable for compression of field reversed configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The initial design and performance of a magnetic pressure driven imploding solid liner with dimensions suitable for compressing a field reversed configuration (FRC) is presented and discussed. The nominal liner parameters are 30 cm length, 5 cm outer radius, ~0.1 cm thickness, Al material. The liner is imploded by magnetic pressure from an axial

J. H. Degnan; R. Bartlett; T. Cavazos; D. Clark; S. K. Coffey; R. J. Faehl; M. Frese; D. Fulton; D. Gale; T. W. Hussey; T. P. Intrator; R. Kirkpatrick; G. F. Kiuttu; F. M. Lehr; I. Lindemuth; W. McCullough; R. Moses; R. E. Peterkin; R. E. Reinovsky; N. F. Roderick; E. L. Ruden; J. Schlacter; K. Schoenberg; D. Scudder; R. E. Siemon; W. Sommars; P. J. Turchi; G. Wurden; F. Wysocki

1999-01-01

24

FRX-L: A field-reversed configuration plasma injector for magnetized target fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the experiment and technology leading to a target plasma for the magnetized target fusion research effort, an approach to fusion wherein a plasma with embedded magnetic fields is formed and subsequently adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. The target plasmas under consideration, field-reversed configurations (FRCs), have the required closed-field-line topology and are translatable and compressible. Our goal is to

J. M. Taccetti; T. P. Intrator; G. A. Wurden; S. Y. Zhang; R. Aragonez; P. N. Assmus; C. M. Bass; C. Carey; S. A. Devries; W. J. Fienup; I. Furno; S. C. Hsu; M. P. Kozar; M. C. Langner; J. Liang; R. J. Maqueda; R. A. Martinez; P. G. Sanchez; K. F. Schoenberg; K. J. Scott; R. E. Siemon; E. M. Tejero; E. H. Trask; M. Tuszewski; W. J. Waganaar; C. Grabowski; E. L. Ruden; J. H. Degnan; T. Cavazos; D. G. Gale; W. Sommars

2003-01-01

25

Effects of open field line plasma on rotating magnetic field current drive in a field-reversed configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model has been used to study the effects that open field line plasma may have on the rotating magnetic field (RMF), when it is applied to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) for current drive. The model is a two-dimensional (r-theta) magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation. The RMF is found to be an extremely good particle pump, continuously sweeping plasma into the

Richard D. Milroy

2001-01-01

26

Radial current density effects on rotating magnetic field current drive in field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

Steady state solutions, suitable for field-reversed configurations (FRCs) sustained by rotating magnetic fields (RMFs) are obtained by properly including three-dimensional effects, in the limit of large FRC elongation, and the radial component of Ohm's law. The steady electrostatic potential, necessary to satisfy Ohm's law, is considered to be a surface function. The problem is analyzed at the midplane of the configuration and it is reduced to the solution of two coupled nonlinear differential equations for the real and imaginary parts of the phasor associated to the longitudinal component of the vector potential. Additional constraints are obtained by requesting that the steady radial current density and poloidal magnetic flux vanish at the plasma boundary which is set at the time-averaged separatrix. The results are presented in terms of the degree of synchronism of the electrons with the RMF and compared with those obtained when radial current effects are neglected. Three important differences are observed when compared with the case without radial current density. First, at low penetration of the RMF into the plasma there is a significant increase in the driven azimuthal current. Second, the RMF amplitude necessary to access the high synchronism regime, starting from low synchronism, is larger and the difference appears to increase as the separatrix to classical skin depth ratio increases. Third, the minimum RMF amplitude necessary to sustain almost full synchronism is reduced.

Clemente, R. A.; Gilli, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Farengo, R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche (8400), RN (Argentina)

2008-10-15

27

Rotating magnetic field current drive of high-temperature field reversed configurations with high {zeta} scaling  

SciTech Connect

Greatly reduced recycling and impurity ingestion in the Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment--Upgrade (TCSU) device has allowed much higher plasma temperatures to be achieved in the field reversed configurations (FRC) under rotating magnetic field (RMF) formation and sustainment. The hotter plasmas have higher magnetic fields and much higher diamagnetic electron rotation rates so that the important ratio of average electron rotation frequency to RMF frequency, called {zeta}, approaches unity, for the first time, in TCSU. A large fraction of the RMF power is absorbed by an as yet unexplained (anomalous) mechanism directly proportional to the square of the RMF magnitude. It becomes of relatively lesser significance as the FRC current increases, and simple resistive heating begins to dominate, but the anomalous absorption is useful for initial plasma heating. Measurements of total absorbed power, and comparisons of applied RMF torque to torque on the electrons due to electron-ion friction under high-{zeta} operation, over a range of temperatures and fields, have allowed the separation of the classical Ohmic and anomalous heating to be inferred, and cross-field plasma resistivities to be calculated.

Guo, H. Y.; Hoffman, A. L.; Milroy, R. D. [Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 14700 NE 95th Street, Suite 100, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)

2007-11-15

28

How plasma configurations determine poloidal magnetic field topology in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The theory of non-linear equilibrium has been developed in the low vorticity approximation in axisymmetric tokamaks. Pressure is not conserved around a magnetic surface, but generalized functions, including velocity terms, have been found, which are now conserved. A generalized Grad-Shafranov type equation has been also derived for this low vorticity case. As a limit, the usual equations for the linear treatment are obtained, and in this linear case new analytic solutions for the Grad-Shafranov equation, including ellipticity and triangularity, are presented, which are improvements of previous works already published by us. The topology of the poloidal magnetic is studied as a function of the ellipticity {kappa} and the triangularity {delta}. Different kind of trapped particles appears now depending of {kappa} and {delta}.

Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela)

2006-12-04

29

Bisymmetric open-spiral configuration of magnetic fields in the galaxies M 51 and M 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positional variations are studied of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of linearly polarized radio waves from the spiral galaxies M 51 and M 81. A double periodicity is found in the RM distribution round the center of the galaxy, which indicates the presence of a bisymmetric and open-spiral magnetic field in the galactic plane. The field configuration suggests a primordial

Y. Sofue; T. Takano; M. Fujimoto

1980-01-01

30

Magnetic field configuration associated with solar gamma ray flares in June, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vector magnetic field configuration of the solar active region AR 6659 that produced very high levels of flare activity in Jun. 1991 is described. The morphology and evolution of the photospheric fields are described for the period 7-10 Jun., and the flares taking place around these dates and their locations relative to the photospheric fields are indicated. By comparing the observed vector field with the potential field calculated from the observed line-of-sight flux, we identify the nonpotential characteristics of the fields along the magnetic neutral lines where the flares were observed. These results are compared with those from the earlier study of gamma-ray flares.

Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.; Trussart, F.-M.; Kenney, E. G.

1992-01-01

31

A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOCUSED ON THE CONFIGURATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD RESPONSIBLE FOR A SOLAR PENUMBRAL MICROJET  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the configuration of magnetic field producing a solar penumbral microjet that was recently discovered by Hinode, we performed a magnetohydrodynamic simulation reproducing a dynamic process of how that configuration is formed in a modeled solar penumbral region. A horizontal magnetic flux tube representing a penumbral filament is placed in a stratified atmosphere containing the background magnetic field that is directed in a relatively vertical direction. Between the flux tube and the background field there forms the intermediate region in which the magnetic field has a transitional configuration, and the simulation shows that in the intermediate region magnetic reconnection occurs to produce a clear jet-like structure as suggested by observations. The result that a continuous distribution of magnetic field in three-dimensional space gives birth to the intermediate region producing a jet presents a new view about the mechanism of a penumbral microjet, compared to a simplistic view that two field lines, one of which represents a penumbral filament and the other the background field, interact together to produce a jet. We also discuss the role of the intermediate region in protecting the structure of a penumbral filament subject to microjets.

Magara, T., E-mail: magara@khu.ac.k [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-20

32

Progress on formation of field reversed configurations suitable for subsequent compression to magnetized target fusion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The design, calculations, and experimental progress on forming Field Reversed Configuration's (FRCs) suitable for subsequent compression by an imploding metal liner to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) conditions are presented and discussed. The desired initial FRC parameters are density ~1017 cm-3, temperature ~100 to 300 eV, length ~30 cm, separatrix radius ~2.5 cm, magnetic field between separatrix

J. H. Degnan; T. W. Hussey; G. F. Kiuttu; F. M. Lehr; E. L. Ruden; T. Cavazos; D. Gale; C. Gilman; C. Grabowski; W. Sommars; S. K. Coffey; M. Frese; G. Marklin; R. J. Faehl; T. P. Intrator; R. Kirkpatrick; I. Lindermuth; R. Moses; K. F. Schoenberg; R. E. Siemon; J. M. Taccetti; P. J. Turchi; G. A. Wurden; N. F. Roderick

2001-01-01

33

Penetration and radial force balance in field-reversed configuration with large rotating magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field-reversed configuration (FRC) is formed by applying a rotating magnetic field (RMF) much larger than the axial magnetic field to a cylindrical glass vacuum chamber filled with 10 Pa argon gas without a preionization. The FRC with the plasma density 2.2×1019 m-3, the temperature 8.0 eV, the separatrix length 0.45 m, and the separatrix radius 0.035 m is sustained for the notably long period of 40 ms. It is observed that the antenna current which produces the RMF is reduced by about half after the FRC is formed. The interaction between the plasma and the antenna circuit increases the antenna resistance and changes the inductance of the antenna so that the circuit becomes nonresonant. The RMF is sufficiently large to fully penetrate to the center during the period and drive the current with a rigid rotor profile. The RMF is shown to play a major role in sustaining the plasma pressure.

Ohnishi, M.; Hugrass, W.; Fukuhara, M.; Masaki, T.; Osawa, H.; Chikano, T.

2008-10-01

34

Penetration and radial force balance in field-reversed configuration with large rotating magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

A field-reversed configuration (FRC) is formed by applying a rotating magnetic field (RMF) much larger than the axial magnetic field to a cylindrical glass vacuum chamber filled with 10 Pa argon gas without a preionization. The FRC with the plasma density 2.2x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, the temperature 8.0 eV, the separatrix length 0.45 m, and the separatrix radius 0.035 m is sustained for the notably long period of 40 ms. It is observed that the antenna current which produces the RMF is reduced by about half after the FRC is formed. The interaction between the plasma and the antenna circuit increases the antenna resistance and changes the inductance of the antenna so that the circuit becomes nonresonant. The RMF is sufficiently large to fully penetrate to the center during the period and drive the current with a rigid rotor profile. The RMF is shown to play a major role in sustaining the plasma pressure.

Ohnishi, M.; Fukuhara, M.; Masaki, T.; Osawa, H.; Chikano, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Hugrass, W. [School of Computing, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1359, Launceston, Tasmania 7250 (Australia)

2008-10-15

35

Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

Lawton, R. M.

1976-01-01

36

MHD simulations of the flapping instability in tail-like magnetic configurations with guide field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flapping (kink) mode developing in the magnetotail-like magnetic configuration with tailward growing normal magnetic component and finite guide field is studied by means of linearized 2-dimensional and non-linear 3-dimensional MHD modeling. We consider a particular case of a weak normal magnetic component (that is, small radius of the magnetic field line curvature), which makes the configuration unstable to a special branch of ballooning instability known as "double-gradient" mode, introduced recently to describe the magnetotail flapping oscillations. The initial tail-like equilibrium is provided by conventional Grad-Shafranov equation. The results of the 2D linearized MHD code are in agreement with the analytical predictions, and the growth rate is found to be close to the peak value provided by an analytical estimate. Both 2D and 3D calculations confirm that the double-gradient mode is excited in a region of large curvature of the magnetic field lines. In agreement with the analytical predictions, non-zero guide field reduces the growth rate significantly for large (compare to the current sheet width L) wave numbers k, hence the modes kL ~ 1 are the fastest growing. Thus, the non-zero guide field introduces a characteristic wavelength corresponding to the dispersion curve peak. For the guide field of ~ 0.5 (in the lobe magnetic field units), the mode decays totally.

Korovinskiy, Daniil; Divin, Andrey; Ivanov, Ivan; Semenov, Vladimir; Erkaev, Nikolay; Artemiev, Anton; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni; Ivanova, Viktoria; Kubyshkina, Darya

2014-05-01

37

Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field

Kiyoyuki Yambe; Michiaki Inomoto; Shigefumi Okada; Yuka Kobayashi; Tomohiko Asai

2008-01-01

38

LSP simulation of the formation of a field reversed configuration plasma with odd-parity rotating magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The field reversed configuration (FRC) for plasma confinement and heating has features that make it a leading candidate for practical compact fusion energy plants. The PFRC (Princeton FRC) experiment makes use of odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMF) to drive field reversal and provide plasma heating. In this paper, we describe \\

D. R. Welch; T. C. Genoni; S. A. Cohen

2009-01-01

39

Multichord laser interferometer for the magnetized target fusion program's field reverse configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFRL's Directed Energy Directorate has built a multiple chord 6328 nm interferometer to diagnose a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) being developed for LANL and AFRL's collaborative Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) program. The FRC is intended for compression to near thermonuclear fusion conditions by AFRL's Shiva Star capacitor bank. The interferometer is designed to measure the density integral along eight chords

Edward Ruden; Francis Analla; Shouyin Zhang

2002-01-01

40

Extended magnetohydrodynamic simulations of field reversed configuration formation and sustainment with rotating magnetic field current drive  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional simulations of field reversed configuration (FRC) formation and sustainment with rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive have been performed with the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)]. The Hall term is a zeroth order effect with strong coupling between Fourier components, and recent enhancements to the NIMROD preconditioner allow much larger time steps than was previously possible. Boundary conditions to capture the effects of a finite length RMF antenna have been added, and simulations of FRC formation from a uniform background plasma have been performed with parameters relevant to the translation, confinement, and sustainment-upgrade experiment at the University of Washington [H. Y. Guo, A. L. Hoffman, and R. D. Milroy, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112502 (2007)]. The effects of both even-parity and odd-parity antennas have been investigated, and there is no evidence of a disruptive instability for either antenna type. It has been found that RMF effects extend considerably beyond the ends of the antenna, and that a large n=0 B{sub t}heta can develop in the open-field line region, producing a back torque opposing the RMF.

Milroy, R. D. [Plasma Science and Innovation Center, University of Washington, P.O. Box 32250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 14700 NE 95th St., Suite 100, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Kim, C. C. [Plasma Science and Innovation Center, University of Washington, P.O. Box 32250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [Plasma Science and Innovation Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2010-06-15

41

Application of magnetized coaxial plasma gun for external control of field-reversed configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) has been utilized to generate spheromak plasma. In this work, we propose to employ a MCPG as tools for pre-ionization, fueling and biasing of field- reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. Start-up experiments with a MCPG pre-ionization have been performed and a FRC has been formed successfully. In the case with a MCPG, the initial plasma density

Tomohiro Kiguchi; Taisuke Nishida; Naoki Yamamoto; Tomohiko Asai; Tsutomu Takahashi; Yasuyuki Nogi; Toshiki Takahashi

2006-01-01

42

Overview of Reversed Field Configuration plasma target research at LANL for Magnetized Target Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FRX-L), including the design, plasma physics and diagnostics. The Magnetized Target Fusion project goal is to achieve fusion conditions in a pulsed experiment using relatively small resources during our lifetimes. FRX-L is designed to operate at large density n 10^17 cm-3 and high enough temperature to surmount

T. Intrator; J. Taccetti; G. Wurden; R. Siemon; P. Sanchez; W. Waganaar; S. Y. Zhang; M. Tuszewski; R. Maqueda; D. Begay; C. Bass; J. Campbell; C. Carey; M. Kozar; J. Liang; R. Renneke; C. Grabowski; J. Degnan; W. Sommars; E. Ruden; D. Gale; T. Cavasos

2002-01-01

43

Spin Configuration of a Circular Quantum Dot in a Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an approach for modeling the spin configuration of a two-dimensional circular quantum dot in a magnetic field based on the interacting Green's functions on a tight-binding basis, where the electron-electron interaction is represented by the retarded self-energy. The quantum dot is composed of a circular lattice of tight-binding sites and has a cylindrically symmetric electrostatic

Zhong Wang; Tanroku Miyoshi

1998-01-01

44

The large scale magnetic field configuration in the Sombrero galaxy - persistence during galaxy evolution?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio polarization observations at 4.86 and 8.35 GHz of the nearby edge-on galaxy M 104 revealed a large-scale magnetic field in this early-type spiral. This is to our knowledge the first detection of a regular magntic field in an Sa galaxy in the radio range. The magnetic field orientation in M 104 is predominantly parallel to the disk but has also vertical components at larger z-distances from the disk, i.e. a field configuration typical for normal edge-on spiral galaxies. Bolometer observations at 345 GHz data pertain to the cold dust content of the galaxy. Despite the optical appearance of the object with the huge dust lane, its dust content is smaller than that of more late-type spirals.

Krause, M.; Wielebinski, R.; Dumke, M.

2006-06-01

45

Investigation on configuration of self-assembly in magnetic fluid film under a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally study transmittances of water-based magnetic fluid (MF) film and the behaviors of nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. The transmittances of two orthogonally polarized rays exhibit different curve shapes. The experimental data are used to determine the values of three important parameters that are related to the intensity of the field. Based on the relationship between these parameters and the field, the self-assembly of particles is discussed. The method introduced in this paper can be employed as an available means to inspect the behavior of the particles in MF.

Kou, Yao; di, Ziyun; Chen, Xianfeng

2009-07-01

46

Plasma-dominated magnetic field configurations for the magnetosphere of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is significant indirect evidence that the planet Uranus possesses a magnetic field. This evidence is based on the observation of hydrogen Lyman alpha emission from Uranus with the aid of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft. The detection of water ice on the Uranian moons led Cheng (1984) to suggest that charged particle sputtering of the icy satellites could provide a significant internal source of oxygen ions and protons to the Uranian magnetosphere. Cheng concluded that this mechanism would predict aurorae around both magnetic poles of Uranus. Cheng's idea of the presence of a continuous internal plasma supply to the Uranian magnetosphere is further pursued in the present investigation. Questions are considered regarding the evolution of Uranus' magnetosphere from a vacuum configuration toward a plasma pressure dominated equilibrium configuration, taking into account the amount of the thermal plasma pressure as a free parameter.

Ip, A. K.; Voigt, G.-H.

1985-01-01

47

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFIGURATION AT THE GALACTIC CENTER INVESTIGATED BY WIDE-FIELD NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY: TRANSITION FROM A TOROIDAL TO A POLOIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

We present a large-scale view of the magnetic field (MF) in the central 2{sup 0} x 2{sup 0} region of our Galaxy. The polarization of point sources has been measured in the J, H, and K{sub S} bands using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. Comparing the Stokes parameters between high extinction stars and relatively low extinction ones, we obtain polarization originating from magnetically aligned dust grains in the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy. We find that near the Galactic plane, the MF is almost parallel to the Galactic plane (i.e., toroidal configuration), but at high Galactic latitudes (|b | >0.{sup 0}4) the field is nearly perpendicular to the plane (i.e., poloidal configuration). This is the first detection of a smooth transition of the large-scale MF configuration in this region.

Nishiyama, Shogo; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hatano, Hirofumi; Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tamura, Motohide [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsunaga, Noriyuki [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Suenaga, Takuya [Department of Astronomical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hough, James H. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Yamanohata, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Kato, Daisuke, E-mail: shogo@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.j [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5210 (Japan)

2010-10-10

48

Ion and electron cyclotron wall conditioning in stellarator and tokamak magnetic field configuration on WEGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge wall conditioning is an effective tool to improve plasma performance in tokamaks and stellarators. RF Discharge Conditioning (RFDC) techniques are envisaged for use during operational campaigns on superconducting devices like the ITER tokamak and W7-X stellarator, as alternative to DC Glow Discharge Conditioning which is inefficient in presence of magnetic fields. This contribution investigates RFDC in both the ion and electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF and ECRF) on the WEGA device (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald, Germany) as preparation for W7-X operation. ECRF discharges produced by localised absorption of RF power at EC resonance layers suffer from poor radial discharge homogeneity in the tokamak vacuum magnetic field configuration, severely limiting the plasma wetted wall areas and consequently the conditioning efficiency. The non-localised production of ICRF discharges by collisional RF power absorption features much improved discharge homogeneity making Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) the favoured RFDC technique for superconducting tokamaks. RFDC with the stellarator vacuum magnetic field needs to aim at sufficient plasma densities at and outside the last closed flux surface (LCFS), maximising the convective plasma flux along the open field lines to the wall. Whereas for ICRF discharges this condition is easily fulfilled, on WEGA for He-ECRF discharges this could be achieved as well by off axis heating close to the LCFS. In stellarator magnetic field configuration it is found that He-ICWC for wall desaturation is at least one order of magnitude more efficient than He-ECWC. Novel ECWC methods are proposed that can decrease this efficiency gap with ICWC to a factor 2-3. The efficiency difference is less pronounced in case of H2-ICWC and ECWC for isotopic exchange.

Wauters, T.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Preynas, M.; Stange, T.; Urlings, P.; Altenburg, Y.; Aßmus, D.; Birus, D.; Louche, F.

2014-02-01

49

Onset and Saturation of Ion Heating by Odd-parity Rotating-magnetic-fields in a Field-reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

Heating of figure-8 ions by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMF?) applied to an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is investigated. The largest energy gain occurs at resonances (s ? ?(sub)R??) of the RMF? frequency, ?(sub)R, with the figure-8 orbital frequency, ?, and is proportional to s^2 for s – even resonances and to s for s – odd resonances. The threshold for the transition from regular to stochastic orbits explains both the onset and saturation of heating. The FRC magnetic geometry lowers the threshold for heating below that in the tokamak by an order of magnitude.

A.S. Landsman, S.A. Cohen, A.H. Glasser

2005-11-01

50

Reproducible High Density Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma for Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma will be translated into an imploding metal liner in a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) scenario. Field-Reversed Theta Pinch technology is employed with programmed cusp fields at the theta coil ends to achieve non-tearing field line reconnection during FRC formation. In the Field Reversed Configuration Experiment with a Liner (FRX-L), an optimum formation procedure is identified. The well-formed FRC plasma has volume-averaged density of 2 - 4x10^22m-3, Te+Ti of 300-500 eV, and plasma lifetime between 15-20 ?s. These parameters are very close to the desired parameters of a target plasma for MTF, and they can be reproduced with standard deviation of less than 10% about the mean in consecutive discharges. Recently, the redesigned crowbar switches have reduced the external main field modulation from 52% previously to 21% now. Better FRC performance is expected in on-going experimental campaigns.

Zhang, Shouyin; Grabowski, Chris; Ruden, Edward

2005-10-01

51

Magnetic Field Configuration Models and Reconstruction Methods for Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to provide a reference for different magnetic field models and reconstruction methods for interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). To understand the differences in the outputs of these models and codes, we analyzed 59 events from the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) list, using four different magnetic field models and reconstruction techniques; force-free fitting, magnetostatic reconstruction using a numerical solution to the Grad-Shafranov equation, fitting to a self-similarly expanding cylindrical configuration and elliptical, non-force-free fitting. The resulting parameters of the reconstructions for the 59 events are compared statistically and in selected case studies. The ability of a method to fit or reconstruct an event is found to vary greatly; this depends on whether the event is a magnetic cloud or not. We find that the magnitude of the axial field is relatively consistent across models, but that the axis orientation of the ejecta is not. We also find that there are a few cases with different signs of the magnetic helicity for the same event when we leave the boundaries free to vary, which illustrates that this simplest of parameters is not necessarily always clearly constrained by fitting and reconstruction models. Finally, we examine three unique cases in depth to provide a comprehensive idea of the different aspects of how the fitting and reconstruction codes work.

Al-Haddad, N.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Savani, N. P.; Möstl, C.; Marubashi, K.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Roussev, I. I.; Poedts, S.; Farrugia, C. J.

2013-05-01

52

Magnetic diagnostic suite of the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment confinement vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic measurements are a fundamental part of determining the size and shape of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas in the C-2 device. The magnetic probe suite consists of 44 in-vessel and ex-vessel probes constructed using various technologies: ultra-high vacuum compatible mineral-insulated cable, nested triple axis coils hand-wound on ceramic bobbins, and commercial chip inductors mounted on printed circuit boards. Together, these probes measure the three-dimensional excluded flux profile of the FRC, which approximates the shape of the separatrix between the confined plasma volume and the scrape-off layer. High accuracy is achieved by using the extensive probe measurements to compensate for non-ideal effects such as flux leakage through the vacuum vessel and bulk motion of the FRC towards the wall. A subset of the probes is also used as a set of Mirnov arrays that provide sensitive detection of perturbations and oscillations of the FRC.

Thompson, M. C.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P.; Knapp, K.; Luo, Y.; Mendoza, R.; Patel, V.; Tuszewski, M.; Van Drie, A. D.

2012-10-01

53

Spatial configuration of a flux rope observed downstream from the Martian crustal magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars is a unique planet since it locally possesses strong crustal magnetic fields mainly located in the southern hemisphere [e.g., Acuna et al., 1999]. The Martian electromagnetic environment can thus become highly complicated and variable, since the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded in the solar wind interacts with the Martian crustal magnetic field. Whereas it is known that the Martian upper atmosphere is escaping to interplanetary space due to the interaction with the solar wind [e.g., Lundin et al., 1989; Barabash et al., 2007], the contribution of crustal magnetic fields to atmospheric escape from Mars has not yet been well understood. Flux ropes are characteristic magnetic field structures seen throughout the solar system, e.g., at the Sun, in the interplanetary space, and at the Earth often in association with substorms. Flux ropes are also observed at planets such as at Venus and Mars [e.g., Russell and Elphic, 1979; Vignes et al., 2004], which do not possess a global magnetic field. Recently, Brain et al. [2010] found a large-scale isolated flux rope filled with Martian atmospheric plasma located downstream from the crustal magnetic fields with respect to the solar wind flow based on their analyses of the magnetic field and suprathermal electron measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. They suggested that the flux rope can intermittently carry significant amounts of atmosphere away from Mars by a bulk removal process such as magnetic reconnection between the IMF and the crustal magnetic fields. They supposed that this process occurs frequently and may account for as much as 10 % of the total present-day ion escape from Mars. We here attempt to reconstruct the spatial configuration of the reported flux rope using the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction technique, assuming that it has a magnetohydrostatic, two-dimensional magnetic field structure [Hu and Sonnerup, 2002]. The GS reconstruction technique is capable of recovering a two-dimensional field structure from single spacecraft data. Since there is no ion detector onboard MGS, we assumed a typical density and temperature of the Martian ionosphere at the spacecraft altitude in order to calculate the input thermal pressure for the model. It is also assumed that the spacecraft velocity is the dominant component causing apparent movement of the flux rope relative to the MGS spacecraft. The reconstructed structure of the flux rope indicates stretching in the anti-sunward direction, which is consistent with Brain et al. [2010]. We also find that the stretching of the reconstructed structure has a significant component in the dawn-dusk direction in the Mars-centered, Solar Orbital (MSO) coordinate system. The result provides a reliable observational restriction on the spatial scales of the flux rope. In the presentation, we will also discuss the effects of the flux rope on the atmospheric escape from Mars.

Hara, T.; Seki, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Brain, D. A.; Saito, M. H.

2012-12-01

54

Magnetic Filaments at the Galactic Center: Clues to the Field Configuration in the Inner Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution, polarimetric VLA observations reveal several new filamentary features in the central 250 pc of the Galaxy. G359.79+0.17 (the Curved filament) and G358.85+0.47 (the Pelican) both exhibit strong linearly polarized radio emission and have intrinsic magnetic field orientations aligned along their long axes. Based on their structural, spectral and polarimetric characteristics, these two filaments can be classified as the newest members of the unique collection of Galactic center non-thermal filaments (NTFs). The group of six previously-known NTFs all have orientations perpendicular to the Galactic plane and are thought to define a poloidal magnetic field configuration in the central 200 pc of the Galaxy. The orientation of the Curved filament is consistent with this geometry. In contrast, the Pelican, which is the furthest known NTF from the Galactic center (225 pc in projection), is oriented parallel to the Galactic plane. The location and orientation of the Pelican suggests that the magnetic field may be undergoing a transition at this location from its perpendicular orientation in the innermost central regions, to the azimuthal orientation in the Galactic disk. In addition, these observations have sufficient resolution to confirm a new property of NTFs: that they are comprised of multiple, parallel, and very narrow (<0.2 pc) strands which appear to be twisting about each other.

Lang, Cornelia C.; Anantharamaiah, K. R.

55

Development of a Dynamical Magnetosphere Model by Coupling the WINDMI Plasma Physics Model to an Analytical Magnetospheric Magnetic Field Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Toivanen (P.K. Toivanen, JGR 10.1029/2006JA011815, 2007) described a magnetospheric magnetic field model using coordinate transformations to deform the earth's dipole field into a magnetospheric configuration. The deformation of the dipole field is accomplished by five consecutive deformations caused by the ring current, the open and closed field lines, the near earth plasma sheet, dayside compression, the magnetopause and tail lobes, and the dipole tilt. The magnetic field is parameterized by geometrical parameters corresponding to each of these contributions which are consequently used in the coordinate transformations in order to deform the initial dipole field. Here we use the WINDMI model to drive the Toivanen analytical model of the magnetospheric magnetic field. We develop a new combined model that uses the physical variables and parameters of the Toivanen model to produce a time dependent magnetospheric configuration that will dynamically evolve corresponding to solar wind activity. We present derivation of geometric parameters from the plasma physics variables in the WINDMI model that will be used as input into the Toivanen magnetic field model. We accomplish this by analytically estimating the geometric factors needed to drive the magnetic field model from the energy stored in the ring current, the field aligned current values, the geotail current values, the plasma sheet force balance, the magnetopause current values, and the dayside solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere arising from the solar wind dynamic and magnetic pressure. The new model is used to track the magnetospheric field configuration during large geomagnetic storm events.

Spencer, E. A.; Patra, S.; Mays, M. L.; Horton, W.

2009-12-01

56

Driven magnetic reconnection during the formation of a two-cell field-reversed configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of a two-cell Field-Reversed Configuration has been accomplished with the addition of three independently-driven coils at the ends and near the central plane around the axis of a theta pinch. The reconnection process in the region between the cells has been studied with internal magnetic field probes. It is found that the reconnection in this region (x-circle) consists of two distinct phases. During the initial phase flux is dissipated slowly. This phase is followed by a rapid reconnection process which eventually leads to the formation of two independent cells. The resistivity at the x-circle is a few times classical in the initial phase and an order of magnitude greater during the rapid reconnection process. Recent theory and magnetohydrodynamic particle simulations by Brunel, et al. predict a sudden increase in magnetic reconnection similar to that observed here as the reconnected field lines near the diffusive layer assume a transverse, radial component and are convected axially with the fluid. In an alternative qualitative model radial convection of low density plasma to the diffusive layer near the x circle causes depletion of current carriers and consequent onset of anomalously high resistivity, leading to an increased reconnection rate.

Sevillano, E.; Ribe, F. L.

57

Field-dependent spin chirality and frustration in V and Cu nanomagnets in transverse magnetic field. 2. Spin configurations, chirality and intermediate spin magnetization in distorted trimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlated spin configurations, magnetizations, frustration, vector ? and scalar ?¯ chiralities are considered for distorted V, /Cu/ anisotropic DM nanomagnets in transverse Bx?X and longitudinal B?Z fields. Different planar configurations in the ground and excited states of distorted nanomagnets in Bx determine different field behavior of the vector chiralities and the degenerate frustration in these states correlated with the M?˜12±(Bx) intermediate spin (IS) magnetization which describes the S12 characteristics, ?=0. Distortion results in the reduced ?<1 chirality in the ground distorted configuration and in the maximum ?z=±1 in the excited states with the planar 120° configurations at avoided level crossing. In B?Z, distorted longitudinal spin-collinear configurations are characterized by the reduced degenerate frustration, out-of-plane staggered and IS M?˜12±(Bz) magnetizations, and in-plane toroidal moments, correlated with the ?, ?¯ chiralities, ?¯=±|?|. The chiralities and IS magnetization in EPR, INS and NMR spectra are considered. The quantitative correlations describe variable spin chirality, frustration and field manipulation of chiralities in nanomagnets.

Belinsky, Moisey I.

2014-05-01

58

Measurements accounting for the impediment of ion spin-up in rotating magnetic field driven field reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

Improved vacuum hygiene, wall conditioning, and reduced recycling in the rotating magnetic field (RMF) driven translation, confinement, and sustainment-upgrade (TCSU) field reversed configuration experiment have made possible a more accurate assessment of the forces affecting ion spin-up. This issue is critical in plasmas sustained by RMFs, such as TCSU since ion spin-up can substantially reduce or cancel the RMF current drive effect. Several diagnostics are brought to bear, including a 3-axis translatable magnetic probe allowing the first experimental measurement of the end shorting effect. These results show that the ion rotation is determined by a balance between electron-ion friction, the end shorting effect, and ion drag against neutrals.

Deards, C. L. [Lockheed Martin, 1011 Lockheed Way, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States); Hoffman, A. L.; Steinhauer, L. C. [Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 14700 NE 95th Street, Suite 100, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)

2011-11-15

59

Configuration of an inviscid plasma in the field of a rotating magnetized central body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem is considered of configurations of a strongly magnetized inviscid plasma around a rotating magnetized central\\u000a body. Strong plasma magnetization implies that the Hall conductivity is much lower than the transverse conductivity, which\\u000a in turn is much lower than the longitudinal conductivity. For such conditions, a self-consistent set of equations is derived\\u000a that describes the conduction current density, the

A. O. Soldatkin; Yu. V. Chugunov

2005-01-01

60

Resolution of the 180° Ambiguity for Inverse Horizontal Magnetic Field Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-known problem in solar physics is that solutions for the transverse magnetic field direction are ambiguous with respect to a 180° reversal in the field direction. In this paper we focus on three methods for the removal of the 180° ambiguity applied to three MHD models. These methods are (1) the reference field method, (2) the method of magnetic pressure gradient, and (3) the magnetic field divergence-free method. All three methods are noniterative, and methods 2 and 3 are analytical and fast. We apply these methods to three MHD equilibrium model fields: (1) an analytical solution of a nonlinear force-free magnetic field equilibrium from Low, (2) a simulation of an emerging twisted flux tube from Fan & Gibson, and (3) a pre-eruptive twisted magnetic flux rope equilibrium reached by relaxation from Amari et al. We measure the success of methods within ``inverse horizontal field'' regions in the boundary, which are mathematically defined by B????Bz>0. When such regions overlap with the magnetic field neutral lines, they are known as ``bald patches'' (BPs) or inverse topology. Our most important conclusion is that the magnetic divergence-free method is far more successful than the other two methods within BPs. This method requires a second level of measurements of the vertical magnetic field. As high-quality multilevel magnetograms will come online in the near future, our work shows that multilayer magnetic field measurements will be highly desirable to objectively and successfully tackle the 180° ambiguity problem.

Li, Jing; Amari, Tahar; Fan, Yuhong

2007-01-01

61

Three-dimensional MHD simulation of FTEs produced by merging at an isolated point in a sheared magnetic field configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present predictions for the evolution of FTEs generated by localized bursts of reconnection on a planar magnetopause that separates a magnetosheath region of high densities and weak magnetic field from a magnetospheric region of low densities and strong magnetic field. The magnetic fields present a shear angle of 105 degrees. Reconnection forms a pair of FTEs each crossing the magnetopause in the field reversal region and bulging into the magnetosphere and magnetosheath. At their initial stage they can be characterized as flux tubes since the newly reconnected magnetic field lines are not twisted. Reconnection launches Alfvenic perturbations that propagate along the FTEs generating high-speed jets, which move the pair of FTEs in opposite directions. As the FTE moves, it displaces the ambient magnetic field and plasma producing bipolar magnetic field and plasma velocity signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause in the regions surrounding the FTE. The combination of the ambient plasma with the FTE flows generates a vortical velocity pattern around the reconnected field lines. During its evolution the FTE evolves to a flux rope configuration due to the twist of the magnetic field lines. The alfvenic perturbations propagate faster along the part of the FTE bulging into the magnetosphere than in the magnetosheath, and due to the differences between the plasma and magnetic field properties the perturbations have slightly different signatures in the two regions. As a consequence, the FTEs have different signatures depending on whether the satellite encounters the part bulging into the magnetosphere or into the magnetosheath.

Santos, J. C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Büchner, J.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Ferreira, J. L.

2014-03-01

62

Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the Hanle effect on the closed Fg=3-->Fe=4 D2-line transition of 85Rb. Exciting the rubidium atoms by circularly polarized laser light, and scanning an applied transverse magnetic field, a bright resonance Hanle signal is obtained at different values of an applied longitudinal magnetic field. We report experimental and numerical evidence of this bright resonance.

Renzoni, F.; Cartaleva, S.; Alzetta, G.; Arimondo, E.

2001-06-01

63

Three-Dimensional Natural Convection in the Horizontal Bridgman Configuration Under Various Wall Electrical Conductivity and Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical investigation of the three-dimensional natural convection of a liquid metal contained in the horizontal Bridgman configuration, having an aspect ratio equal to 5 and submitted to an external magnetic field in either the longitudinal or vertical direction, is presented. The numerical approach is based on the finite-volume approximation. A computer program based on the SIMPLER algorithm is developed.

Mouna Battira; Rachid Bessaih

2009-01-01

64

Transition from drift to interchange instabilities in an open magnetic field line configuration  

SciTech Connect

The transition from a regime dominated by drift instabilities to a regime dominated by pure interchange instabilities is investigated and characterized in the simple magnetized toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. The magnetic field lines are helical, with a dominant toroidal component and a smaller vertical component. Instabilities with a drift character are observed in the favorable curvature region, on the high field side with respect to the maximum of the background density profile. For a limited range of values of the vertical field they coexist with interchange instabilities in the unfavorable curvature region, on the plasma low field side. With increasing vertical magnetic field magnitude, a gradual transition between the two regimes is observed on the low field side, controlled by the value of the field line connection length. The observed transition follows the predictions of a two-fluid linear model.

Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M. [CRPP-EPFL, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2008-03-15

65

Application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for formation of a high-beta field-reversed configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested a field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation with a spheromak injection for the first time. In this method, initial pre-ionized plasma is injected as a magnetized spheromak-like plasmoid into the discharge chamber prior to main field reversal. The FRC plasma with an electron density of 1.3×1021m?3, a separatrix radius of 0.04m and a plasma length of 0.8m was produced

T. Nishida; T. Kiguchi; T. Asai; T. Takahashi; Y. Matsuzawa; T. Okano; Y. Nogi

2006-01-01

66

Numerical analysis of the trajectories of a single charged particle in a nonadiabatic cusp magnetic field configuration  

SciTech Connect

The trajectories of a nonrelativistic single charged particle in a nonadiabatic cusped magnetic field configuration are numerically analyzed. Depth of penetration of the particle into the cusped field, multiple reflections and radial excursion of the particle transmitted by the cusped field are discussed. A significant observation was that a meticulous choice of particle and field parameters could lead to several number of reflections. For radial excursion a plateau region over {Phi} was exhibited. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Selvarajan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, K.A. [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)] [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)

1995-05-01

67

Point sensitive NMR imaging system using a magnetic field configuration with a spatial minimum  

DOEpatents

A point-sensitive NMR imaging system (10) in which a main solenoid coil (11) produces a relatively strong and substantially uniform magnetic field and a pair of perturbing coils (PZ1 and PZ2) powered by current in the same direction superimposes a pair of relatively weak perturbing fields on the main field to produce a resultant point of minimum field strength at a desired location in a direction along the Z-axis. Two other pairs of perturbing coils (PX1, PX2; PY1, PY2) superimpose relatively weak field gradients on the main field in directions along the X- and Y-axes to locate the minimum field point at a desired location in a plane normal to the Z-axes. An RF generator (22) irradiates a tissue specimen in the field with radio frequency energy so that desired nuclei in a small volume at the point of minimum field strength will resonate.

Eberhard, Philippe H. (El Cerrito, CA)

1985-01-01

68

Magnetic field energy dissipation due to particle trapping in a force-free configuration of collisionless pair plasmas.  

PubMed

It is shown by using a two-dimensional, fully relativistic, electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation code that a force-free magnetic configuration in collisionless, electron-positron (pair) plasmas becomes unstable against current-driven Buneman instability and subsequently there occurs a strong magnetic field energy dissipation associated with collisionless magnetic reconnection, which can be driven by particle trapping due to two-dimensional electric potentials remaining in the nonlinear stage of the initial current-driven Buneman instability. About 43% of the initial magnetic field energy dissipates and is transformed to plasma heating as well as high-energy particle production. The energy spectrum in the high-energy region is given by an exponential type with two temperatures. We also show the simulation results for the electron-ion plasma to compare the effect of the mass ratio of the electron and proton. PMID:11308957

Sakai, J I; Sugiyama, D; Haruki, T; Bobrova, N; Bulanov, S

2001-04-01

69

The magnetic field configuration of a solar prominence inferred from spectropolarimetric observations in the He i 10 830 Å triplet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Determining the magnetic field vector in quiescent solar prominences is possible by interpreting the Hanle and Zeeman effects in spectral lines. However, observational measurements are scarce and lack high spatial resolution. Aims: We determine the magnetic field vector configuration along a quiescent solar prominence by interpreting spectropolarimetric measurements in the He i 1083.0 nm triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter installed at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide. Methods: The He i 1083.0 nm triplet Stokes profiles were analyzed with an inversion code that takes the physics responsible for the polarization signals in this triplet into account. The results are put into a solar context with the help of extreme ultraviolet observations taken with the Solar Dynamic Observatory and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory satellites. Results: For the most probable magnetic field vector configuration, the analysis depicts a mean field strength of 7 gauss. We do not find local variations in the field strength except that the field is, on average, lower in the prominence body than in the prominence feet, where the field strength reaches ~25 gauss. The averaged magnetic field inclination with respect to the local vertical is ~77°. The acute angle of the magnetic field vector with the prominence main axis is 24° for the sinistral chirality case and 58° for the dextral chirality. These inferences are in rough agreement with previous results obtained from the analysis of data acquired with lower spatial resolutions. A movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

2014-06-01

70

Anomalous D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum wells under a strong magnetic field in the Voigt configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an anomalous scaling of the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation with the momentum relaxation in semiconductor quantum wells under a strong magnetic field in the Voigt configuration. We focus on the case in which the external magnetic field is perpendicular to the spin-orbit-coupling-induced effective magnetic field and its magnitude is much larger than the latter one. It is found that the longitudinal spin relaxation time is proportional to the momentum relaxation time even in the strong-scattering limit, indicating that the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation demonstrates Elliott-Yafet-like behavior. Moreover, the transverse spin relaxation time is proportional (inversely proportional) to the momentum relaxation time in the strong- (weak-) scattering limit, both in the opposite trends against the well-established conventional D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation behaviors. We further demonstrate that all the above anomalous scaling relations come from the unique form of the effective inhomogeneous broadening.

Zhou, Y.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

2013-06-01

71

Influence of different types of magnetic fields on the interface shape in a 200 mm Si-EMCZ configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional time-dependent simulations were carried out in order to predict the heat transport and interface shape in a 200 mm diameter silicon electromagnetic Czochralski (EMCZ) configuration under the influence of two types of magnetic fields: (a) a vertical magnetic (VMF) field and (b) a cusp magnetic field (CMF). It was found that for a CMF, the interface deflection is much higher (more than two times) than in the case of a VMF. The same effect of increasing the interface deflection was also observed in experiments where a strongly convex interface shape towards the crystal with a deflection of about 40 mm has been observed. In comparison, in a VMF experiment, a convex interface with a deflection of about 10 mm has been measured. The difference of the interface shapes is a result of the influence of the magnetic field configuration on the convective heat flows in the melt. In the case of CMF, the hot melt can be easily transported to the solid-liquid interface causing the strong interface deflection, whereas for a VMF, the radial heat transport is suppressed due to the melt rotation.

Vizman, D.; Watanabe, M.; Friedrich, J.; Müller, G.

2007-05-01

72

Testing the isotropic boundary algorithm method to evaluate the magnetic field configuration in the tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equatorial boundary of the isotropic precipitation of energetic protons measured by the low-altitude NOAA spacecraft is studied. The observed isotropic boundary (IB) invariant altitude and its variations with MLT at nightside agree fairly well within the values predicted by the T89 magnetospheric model, but there are considerable deviations at the dayside. The IB latitudes on the nightside are strongly controlled by the tail equatorial magnetic field. The preferred magnetic field components predicted by the IB algorithm method display a high correlation with the corresponding field components measured by GOES 2. These results strongly support the view that particle scattering in the equatorial current sheet is, at least on the nightside, the dominant mechanism producing the isotropic precipitation of energetic protons.

Sergeev, V. A.; Malkov, M.; Mursula, K.

1993-05-01

73

Scaling of power threshold for edge transport barrier formation in CHS with density, magnetic field and magnetic configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved confinement state by the formation of an edge transport barrier can be obtained in the compact helical system. A power threshold exists, as is the case for the H-mode in tokamaks. The threshold scales as P_th \\propto \\bar {n}_e^0.36 \\times B_ax^0.64 . These dependences are similar to those in tokamaks. The threshold also depends on magnetic configuration parameters such as the position of the magnetic axis. The absolute value of the threshold is 1-3 times larger than the tokamak H-mode power scaling.

Akiyama, T.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Oishi, T.; Kado, S.; Takeuchi, M.; Toi, K.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishimura, S.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Takahashi, C.; CHS Experimental Group

2006-11-01

74

Generation and manipulation of monodispersed ferrofluid emulsions: the effect of a uniform magnetic field in flow-focusing and T-junction configurations.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the use of magnetically controlled microfluidic devices to produce monodispersed ferrofluid emulsions. By applying a uniform magnetic field on flow-focusing and T-junction configurations, the size of the ferrofluid emulsions can be actively controlled. The influences of the flow rates, the orientation, and the polarity of the magnetic field on the size of ferrofluid emulsions produced in both flow-focusing and T-junction configurations are compared and discussed. PMID:22060502

Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

2011-09-01

75

On the consequences of Fisk's type magnetic field configuration for galactic cosmic ray modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional steady state transport equation of galactic cosmic rays with drift included is solved by means of newly achieved Fortran code in two cases: 1) Fisk's type of heliospheric magnetic field dominates in the heliosphere; 2) standard Parker field fills the interplanetary space. The spherically symmetric heliosphere bounded at a distance of 100 AU is assumed. In the calculations the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients are proportional to 1/B, anti-symmetric element of the diffusion tensor has the form derived under the assumption of week-scattering. The computed modulated spectra are presented and compared with experimental data (IMP3, IMP8, balloons, and CAPRICE) for the minimum period of solar activity. The best fit is obtained when the index of the power of rigidity in diffusion coefficient formula is less than 0.8.

Kobylinski, Z.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.; Wysokinski, A.

2005-06-01

76

High Energy Research and Applications (HERA) Pulsed Power and Pulsed Power Systems R&D for Magnetized Target Fusion Using Field Reversed Configurations (MTF-FRC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We described efforts to advance the state of the art for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) using Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas. The work is primarily experimental. We document production, translation, and trapping of FRCs in a coaxial system, an...

A. Lerma, F. Camacho, G. F. Kiuttu, M. Kostora, S. Coffey

2013-01-01

77

Mitigation of rotational instability of high-beta field-reversed configuration by double-sided magnetized plasmoid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active control of destructive rotational instability in a high-beta field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was demonstrated by using double-sided plasmoid injection technique. The elliptical deformation of the FRC's cross section was mitigated as a result of substantial suppression of spontaneous spin-up by the plasmoid injection. It was found that the injected plasmoid provided better stability against the rotational mode, suggesting that the compensation of the FRC's decaying magnetic flux might help to suppress its spin-up.

Itagaki, H.; Asai, T.; Inomoto, M.; Takahashi, Ts.

2014-03-01

78

The position angle of Jupiter's linearly polarized synchrotron emission and the Jovian magnetic field configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plotted as a function of Jovian central meridian longitude, the position angle of Jupiter's linearly polarized microwave emission describes a curve which has been substantially invariant over a period of 16 years. This curve can be represented with considerable accuracy as a two-term Fourier series. The amplitude of the fundamental is between 9 deg and 10 deg and of the second harmonic between 1 deg .0 and 1 deg .5. Using a simplified model of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere, it is shown that the measured amplitudes and phases of these two terms are in good agreement with values deduced from the dipole and quadrupole components of Jupiter's magnetic field as measured from Pioneer 11.

Komesaroff, M. M.; McCulloch, P. M.

1981-06-01

79

Effect of wall electrical conductivity and magnetic field orientation on liquid metal flow in a geometry similar to the horizontal Bridgman configuration for crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with magnetic field damping of free-convective flows in cavities similar to those used in artificial growth of single crystals from melts (horizontal Bridgman configurations) and having aspect ratios A equal to 1 or 4. The combined effect of wall electrical conductivity and direction of the magnetic field on the buoyancy-induced flow of gallium was investigated numerically. The

R. Bessaih; M. Kadja; Ph. Marty

1999-01-01

80

Passive magnetic bearing configurations  

DOEpatents

A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA) [Walnut Creek, CA

2011-01-25

81

Stable transport and side-focusing of sheet electron beams in periodically cusped magnetic field configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheet electron beams and configurations with multiple electron beams have the potential to make possible higher power sources of microwave radiation due to their ability to transport high currents, at reduced current densities, through a single narrow RF interaction circuit. Possible microwave device applications using sheet electron beams include sheet-beam klystrons, grating TWTs, and planar FELs. Historically, implementation of sheet

J. Anderson; M. A. Basten; L. Rauth; J. H. Booske; J. Joe; J. E. Scharer

1995-01-01

82

Use of wiring configuration and wiring codes for estimating externally generated electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative locations and characteristics of the distribution lines feeding 434 residences in the Denver metropolitan area were recorded and classified according to the Wertheimer-Leeper code (WL code) as a part of an epidemiological study of the incidence of childhood cancer. The WL code was found to place the mean values of the fields in rank order. However, the standard

Frank Barnes; Howard Wachtel; David Savitz; Jackson Fuller

1989-01-01

83

Effect of the latitudinal distribution of temperature at the coronal base on the interplanetary magnetic field configuration and the solar wind flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a two-dimensional MHD model of the corona and solar wind, we investigate the role of the temperature distribution with latitude at the coronal base on the global magnetic field configuration and solar wind properties at 1 AU. The latitudinal distribution of temperature is aimed at modeling the transition in electron temperature at the Sun from a polar coronal hole

Bo Li; Shadia Rifai Habbal; Xing Li; Chris Mountford

2005-01-01

84

Effect of the latitudinal distribution of temperature at the coronal base on the interplanetary magnetic field configuration and the solar wind flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 22 July 2005; revised 13 September 2005; accepted 26 October 2005; published 30 December 2005. (1) Using a two-dimensional MHD model of the corona and solar wind, we investigate the role of the temperature distribution with latitude at the coronal base on the global magnetic field configuration and solar wind properties at 1 AU. The latitudinal distribution of temperature

Bo Li; Shadia Rifai Habbal; Xing Li; Chris Mountford

2005-01-01

85

Upgraded coil configuration for ISABELLE magnets  

SciTech Connect

Achievement of the design field of 5 T in the ISABELLE dipole magnets is turning out to be more arduous than expected and several avenues of improvement are being pursued. One possibility for improving training and peak field performance is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the inert spacers with their adjacent active turns in the cosine magnet windings can be replaced by a double thickness braid operating at approximately half-current density in 46 of the 190 turns. Since the high-field region occurs in the low current density turns near the poles, a performance improvement can be expected. It has been verified that the proposed coil configuration satisfies the field requirements and details thereof are given. Results from an experimental magnet in which superconducting spacer turns are used to simulate half-current density windings are presented. Construction of thick braid coils is being planned and the status of these magnets is reviewed.

Hahn, H.; Dahl, P.F.; Kaugerts, J.E.; Prodell, A.G.

1981-01-01

86

Progress in development of theta pinches for formation of field reversed configurations suitable for subsequent compression to magnetized target fusion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The design, calculations, and experimental progress for theta pinches to produce field reversed configuration's (FRC's) suitable for subsequent compression by an imploding metal liner to magnetized target fusion (MTF) conditions are presented and discussed. The desired initial FRC parameters are density ~1017 cm-3, temperature ~100 to 300 eV, length ~30 cm, separatrix radius -2.5 cm, magnetic

J. H. Degnan; D. C. Barnes; T. Cavazos; S. K. Coffey; R. J. Faehl; M. Frese; D. Gale; T. W. Hussey; T. P. Intrator; R. Kirkpatrick; G. F. Kiuttu; F. M. Lehr; J. D. Letterio; I. Lindemuth; R. Moses; R. E. Peterkin; N. F. Roderick; E. L. Ruden; K. Schoenberg; R. E. Siemon; W. Sommars; P. J. Turchi; G. A. Wurden; R. White; F. Wysocki

2000-01-01

87

Field-Reversed Configurations in an Unmagnetized Plasma  

SciTech Connect

An oscillating magnetic field is applied with a loop antenna to an unmagnetized plasma. At small amplitudes the field is evanescent. At large amplitudes the field magnetizes the electrons, which allows deeper field penetration in the whistler modes. Field-reversed configurations are formed at each half cycle. Electrons are energized. Transient whistler instabilities produce high-frequency oscillations in the magnetized plasma volume.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Strohmaier, K. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

2008-09-26

88

Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students visualize the magnetic field of a strong permanent magnet using a compass. The lesson begins with an analogy to the effect of the earth's magnetic field on a compass. Students see the connection that the compass simply responds to the earth's magnetic field since it is the closest, strongest field, and therefore the compass will respond to the field of the permanent magnets, allowing them the ability to map the field of that magnet in the activity. This information will be important in designing a solution to the grand challenge in activity 4 of the unit.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

89

Steady-state axisymmetric configurations of a weakly ionized plasma in the field of a rotating magnetized spherical body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-consistent steady-state axisymmetric configurations of a plasma envelope with a uniform anisotropic conductivity around\\u000a a rotating magnetized spherical body are considered. A set of electrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations is analyzed\\u000a under the assumption that the mass velocity of a moving weakly ionized plasma has only the azimuthal component. The equations\\u000a describing the profile of the angular frequency of the rotating

A. O. Soldatkin; Yu. V. Chugunov

2003-01-01

90

Toroidal configuration of the orbit of the electron of the hydrogen atom under strong external magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we overview some results on the hydrogen atom in external static uniform magnetic fields. We focus on the case of very strong magnetic field, B>>B_0=2.3x10^9 Gauss, use various approximate models and, particularly, in the adiabatic approximation have calculated exactly the integral defining the effective potential. This potential appears to be finite at z=0. Our consideration of the

A. K. Aringazin

2002-01-01

91

Magnetosphere-ionosphere connection in 3D-force balanced magnetic field configurations driven by empirical plasma sheet pressure under different geomagnetic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field configuration is crucial to plasma sheet dynamics and M-I coupling. More accurate evaluation of its role requires a configuration in force balance with plasma pressure, which cannot be provided by current empirical models. In this study we established 3D force-balanced magnetic field and investigated the characteristics of field configuration and the magnetosphere-ionosphere connection for different Kp levels and solar wind dynamic pressure (PSW). We first constructed an empirical equatorial plasma pressure model using THEMIS and Geotail data, which was then used as the pressure constraint in the Zaharia [2008] magnetic field solver to obtain 3D magnetic field. The model results show that larger convection electric field during higher Kp drives plasma sheet further earthward, resulting in a substantial pressure increase near the Earth, while magnetosphere compression during higher PSW mainly enhances pressure in the tail plasma sheet. Comparing the magnetic field response to the pressure change due to increasing PSW, the Kp associated pressure increase causes the perpendicular current density (J?) peak and associated Region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) to move deeper earthward, the magnetic field to decrease further in the near-Earth region, and field lines to stretch more significantly. The model magnetic field and its changes with Kp and PSW are found to agree fairly well with THEMIS and Geotail observations. Furthermore, we estimated the ion isotropic boundary (IB) caused by current sheet scattering for different particle energies. The IB equatorial locations match well with the earthward boundary of isotropic ions observed by THEMIS. We found that the IB is located around the transition region of dipolar to tail-like magnetic field and is close to the inner edge of Region-2 FAC. In the ionosphere, the latitudes of the IB are lower at midnight than at dawn/dusk. The IB latitudes decrease with increasing ion energy as well as with increasing Kp and PSW. These features are consistent with the IB latitudes observed by FAST satellite.

Yue, C.; Wang, C.; Zaharia, S. G.; Donovan, E.; Lyons, L. R.

2013-12-01

92

Solar cycle variation of large-scale coronal structures. [relationship to interplanetary and photospheric magnetic field configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A green line intensity variation is associated with the interplanetary and photospheric magnetic sector structure. This effect depends on the solar cycle and occurs with the same amplitude in the latitude range 60 N-60 S. Extended longitudinal coronal structures are suggested, which indicate the existence of closed magnetic field lines over the neutral line, separating adjacent regions of opposite polarities on the photospheric surface.

Antonucci, E.; Duvall, T. L.

1974-01-01

93

Cross-field motion of plasma blob-filaments and related particle flux in an open magnetic field line configuration on QUEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blob-filaments have been observed by combined measurement with a fast camera and a movable Langmuir probe in an open magnetic field line configuration of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating plasma in QUEST. Blob-filaments extended along field lines do correspond to over-dense plasma structures and propagated across the field lines to the outer wall. The radial velocity of the blob structure, Vb, was obtained by three methods and was dominantly driven by the E × B force. The radial velocity, size of the blob showed good agreements with the results obtained by sheath-connected interchange theoretical model. Vb corresponds to roughly 0.02-0.07 of the local sound speed (Cs) in QUEST. The higher moments (skewness S and kurtosis K) representing the shape of PDF of density fluctuation are studied. Their least squares fitting with quadratic polynomial is K = (1.60 ± 0.27)S2 - (0.46 ± 0.20). The larger blob structures, occurring only 10% of the time, can carry more than 60% loss of the entire radial particle flux.

Liu, H. Q.; Hanada, K.; Nishino, N.; Ogata, R.; Ishiguro, M.; Gao, X.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Quest Group

2013-07-01

94

Numerical study of convection in the horizontal Bridgman configuration under the action of a constant magnetic field. Part 2. Three-dimensional flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a constant magnetic field on electrically conducting liquid-metal flows in a parallelepiped cavity are investigated using a spectral numerical method involving direct numerical solution of the Navier Stokes and Ohm equations for three-dimensional flows. Three horizontal Bridgman configurations are studied: buoyancy-driven convection in a confined cavity and in a cavity where the top boundary is a stress-free

Hamda Ben Hadid; Daniel Henry

1997-01-01

95

11-13 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic-field configuration for broad ion-beam processing  

SciTech Connect

An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for broad ion-beam processing has been upgraded by a cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic-field configuration and 11-13 GHz frequency microwaves. A pair of comb-shaped magnets surrounds a large-bore discharge chamber. The magnetic field well confines plasmas with suppressing diffusion toward the axial direction of the cylindrical chamber. The magnetic field is constructed with a multipole and two quasiring permanent magnets. The plasma density clearly increases as compared with that in a simple multipole magnetic-field configuration. The frequency of microwaves output from the traveling-wave tube amplifier can be easily changed with an input signal source. The plasma density for 13 GHz is higher than that for 11 GHz. The maximum plasma density has reached approximately 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} at a microwave power of only 350 W and a pressure of 1.0 Pa. The enhancement of plasma generation by second-harmonic resonance and microwave modes has been investigated. The plasma density and the electron temperature are raised around the second-harmonic resonance zone. And then, the ion saturation current is periodically increased with varying the position of the plate tuner. The distance between the peaks is nearly equal to half of the free-space wavelength of microwave. The efficiency of ECR has been improved by using the comb-shaped magnetic field and raising microwave frequency, and then the high-density plasma source has been accomplished at low microwave power.

Asaji, Toyohisa; Kato, Yushi; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki; Saito, Junji [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Development Center of Advanced Technology, Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Development Center of Advanced Technology, Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan)

2006-11-15

96

Toroidal configuration of the orbit of the electron of the hydrogen atom under strong external magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we overview some results on the hydrogen atom in external\\u000astatic uniform magnetic fields. We focus on the case of very strong magnetic\\u000afield, B>>B_0=2.3x10^9 Gauss, use various approximate models and, particularly,\\u000ain the adiabatic approximation have calculated exactly the integral defining\\u000athe effective potential. This potential appears to be finite at z=0. Our\\u000aconsideration of the

A. K. Aringazin

2002-01-01

97

Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page and its annex describes, in trivial terms, the physics of magnetic fields and the history of its discovery. Included is the work of Halley, Oersted, Ampere and Maxwell. It also describes a way of demonstrating it in the classroom, using a vu-graph projector. Later sections #5, #5a and #6 extend this to magnetic field lines and electromagnetism.

Stern, David

2005-01-04

98

Radiation belt data assimilation of a moderate storm event using a magnetic field configuration from the physics-based RAM-SCB model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation using Kalman filters provides an effective way of understanding both spatial and temporal variations in the outer electron radiation belt. Data assimilation is the combination of in situ observations and physical models, using appropriate error statistics to approximate the uncertainties in both the data and the model. The global magnetic field configuration is one essential element in determining the adiabatic invariants for the phase space density (PSD) data used for the radiation belt data assimilation. The lack of a suitable global magnetic field model with high accuracy is still a long-lasting problem. This paper employs a physics-based magnetic field configuration for the first time in a radiation belt data assimilation study for a moderate storm event on 19 December 2002. The magnetic field used in our study is the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetosphere model RAM-SCB, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Furthermore, we apply a cubic spline interpolation method in converting the differential flux measurements within the energy spectrum, to obtain a more accurate PSD input for the data assimilation than the commonly used linear interpolation approach. Finally, the assimilation is done using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), with a localized adaptive inflation (LAI) technique to appropriately account for model errors in the assimilation and improve the performance of the Kalman filter. The assimilative results are compared with results from another assimilation experiment using the Tsyganenko 2001S (T01S) magnetic field model, to examine the dependence on a magnetic field model. Results indicate that the data assimilations using different magnetic field models capture similar features in the radiation belt dynamics, including the temporal evolution of the electron PSD during a storm and the location of the PSD peak. The assimilated solution predicts the energy differential flux to a relatively good degree when compared with independent LANL-GEO in situ observations. A closer examination suggests that for the chosen storm event, the assimilation using the RAM-SCB predicts a better flux at most energy levels during storm recovery phase but is slightly worse in the storm main phase than the assimilation using the T01S model.

Yu, Y.; Koller, J.; Jordanova, V. K.; Zaharia, S. G.; Godinez, H. C.

2014-05-01

99

Field-reversed configurations in an unmagnetized plasma.  

PubMed

An oscillating magnetic field is applied with a loop antenna to an unmagnetized plasma. At small amplitudes the field is evanescent. At large amplitudes the field magnetizes the electrons, which allows deeper field penetration in the whistler modes. Field-reversed configurations are formed at each half cycle. Electrons are energized. Transient whistler instabilities produce high-frequency oscillations in the magnetized plasma volume. PMID:18851455

Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D

2008-09-26

100

Radio polarization and sub-millimeter observations of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594). Large-scale magnetic field configuration and dust emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the nearby early-type spiral galaxy NGC 4594 (M 104, Sombrero galaxy) with the Very Large Array at 4.86 GHz, with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope at 8.35 GHz as well as with the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 345 GHz in radio continuum. The 4.86 and 8.35 GHz data contain polarization information and hence information about the magnetic fields: we detected a large-scale magnetic field which is to our knowledge the first detection of a large-scale magnetic field in an Sa galaxy in the radio range. The magnetic field orientation in M 104 is predominantly parallel to the disk but has also vertical components at larger z-distances from the disk. This field configuration is typical for normal edge-on spiral galaxies. The 345 GHz data pertain to the cold dust content of the galaxy. Despite the optical appearance of the object with the huge dust lane, its dust content is smaller than that of more late-type spirals.

Krause, M.; Wielebinski, R.; Dumke, M.

2006-03-01

101

Configurations of the solar wind flow and magnetic field around the planets with no magnetic field: Calculation by a new MHD simulation scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new MHD simulation scheme is developed on an unstructured grid system using the finite volume total variation diminishing scheme and applied to the problem of solar wind-planet interaction, assuming a perfect-conducting ionosphere around the planet. It is shown that the scheme presented here enables one to calculate effectively the configuration of three-dimensional MHD flow near planets, together with the

T. Tanaka

1993-01-01

102

Average configuration of the distant (less than 220-earth-radii) magnetotail - Initial ISEE-3 magnetic field results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field measurements from the first two passes of the ISEE-3 GEOTAIL Mission have been used to study the structure of the trans-lunar tail. Good agreement was found between the ISEE-3 magnetopause crossings and the Explorer 33, 35 model of Howe and Binsack (1972). Neutral sheet location was well ordered by the hinged current sheet models based upon near earth measurements. Between X = -20 and -120 earth radii the radius of the tail increases by about 30 percent while the lobe field strength decreases by approximately 60 percent. Beyond X = -100 to -1200 earth radii the tail diameter and lobe field magnitude become nearly constant at terminal values of approximately 60 earth radii and 9 nT, respectively. The distance at which the tail was observed to cease flaring, 100-120 earth radii, is in close agreement with the predictions of the analytic tail model of Coroniti and Kennel (1972). Overall, the findings of this study suggest that the magnetotail retains much of its near earth structure out to X = -220 earth radii.

Slavin, J. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Jones, D. E.; Sibeck, D. G.

1983-01-01

103

Numerical study of convection in the horizontal Bridgman configuration under the action of a constant magnetic field. Part 2. Three-dimensional flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a constant magnetic field on electrically conducting liquid-metal flows in a parallelepiped cavity are investigated using a spectral numerical method involving direct numerical solution of the Navier Stokes and Ohm equations for three-dimensional flows. Three horizontal Bridgman configurations are studied: buoyancy-driven convection in a confined cavity and in a cavity where the top boundary is a stress-free surface and thirdly, thermocapillary-driven flow in a cavity where the upper boundary is subjected to effects of surface tension. The results of varying the Hartmann number (Ha) are described for a cavity with Ax = L/H = 4 and Ay = W/H = 1, where L is the length, W is the width and H is the height of the cavity. In general, an increase in the strength of the applied magnetic field leads to several fundamental changes in the properties of thermal convection. The convective circulation progressively loses its intensity and when Ha reaches a certain critical value, which is found to depend on the direction (longitudinal or vertical) of the applied magnetic field, decrease of the flow intensity takes on an asymptotic form with important changes in the structure of the flow circulation. The flow structure may be separated into three regions: the core flow, Hartmann layers which develop in the immediate vicinity of the rigid horizontal boundaries or at the endwalls, and parallel layers appearing in the vicinity of the sidewalls. The behaviour of the maxima of velocity and of the overall flow circulation is found to depend on both the boundary conditions used and the direction of the applied magnetic field. Furthermore, the interaction of the electric current density with the applied magnetic field which leads to the structural reorganization described above can also create more subtle flow modifications, such as flow inversions which are observed mainly in the central region of the cavity.

Ben Hadid, Hamda; Henry, Daniel

1997-02-01

104

Collisional tearing in field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

It is shown by employing a more complete Ohm's law that field-reversed plasma configurations may magnetically tear at a rate proportional to eta/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/, where eta is the resistivity. Such a growth rate obtains if the current layer width is small enough and the plasma is not too collisional, the rate reverting to the usual eta/sup 3//sup ///sup 5/ scaling otherwise. The present theory, however, assumes cold ions, an assumption that would have to be relaxed for most applications.

Hassam, A.B.

1984-12-01

105

Coronal magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of coronal X-ray emission in determining the configuration of the magnetic field lines in the corona is discussed. Spatially-resolved X-ray observations provided by Skylab and subsequently by missions such as OSO-8 and SMM show the solar corona to be inhomogeneous, with open and closed structures determined by the topology of the magnetic field. The scenario provided by observations

R. Pallavicini

1986-01-01

106

Transitional field configurations and geomagnetic reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two axisymmetric, or zonal, nondipole field configurations, one predominantly octupolar and the other predominantly quadrupolar, are described. The two configurations have been considered as possible intermediate states of the geomagnetic field during reversals. It is shown that the two configurations would effect the transitional virtual geomagnetic pole behavior in different ways. If reversal records from both northern latitudes and southern

K. A. Hoffman; M. Fuller

1978-01-01

107

Evaluation of heliostat field-receiver configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates and compares north heliostat field\\/cavity receiver configurations and surround heliostat field\\/external receiver configurations. The receiver coolants are molten nitrate salts and liquid sodium. Both field\\/receiver configurations use molten salt thermal storage; the sodium receiver is thermally connected to thermal storage by a sodium-to-salt heat exchanger. The heliostat field size is fixed at 1,000,000 square meters of reflective

S. E. Faas; W. S. Winters

1986-01-01

108

Tilting mode in field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) experimentally have exhibited remarkable stability on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) timescale, despite numerous MHD calculations showing FRCs to be unstable. It is easy to believe that local modes are stabilized by finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, but more puzzling is the apparent stability of FRCs against global modes, where one would expect FLR effects to be less important. In this paper we study the tilting mode, which MHD has shown to be a rapidly growing global mode. The tilting mode in FRCs is driven by the pressure gradient, and magnetic compression and field line bending are the stabilizing forces. A schematic of the evolution of the tilting mode is shown. The tilting mode is considered dangerous, because it would lead to rapid tearing across the separatrix. Unlike spheromaks, the tilting mode in FRCs has a separatrix that is fixed in space, so that the mode is strictly internal.

Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Shestakov, A.I.

1982-01-01

109

Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radial profiles, n(r), Bz(r), and Er(r), for a Flux-Coil ("inductively driven"), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.

Conti, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Giammanco, F.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M.

2014-02-01

110

Experimental measurements of a converging flux conserver suitable for compressing a field reversed configuration for magnetized target fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented that are part of a first step in establishing the scientific basis of magnetized target fusion (MTF) as a cost effective approach to fusion energy. A radially converging flux compressor shell with characteristics suitable for MTF is demonstrated to be feasible. The key scientific and engineering question for this experiment is whether the large radial force density

T. Intrator; M. Taccetti; D. A. Clark; J. H. Degnan; D. Gale; S. Coffey; J. Garcia; P. Rodriguez; W. Sommars; B. Marshall; F. Wysocki; R. Siemon; R. Faehl; K. Forman; R. Bartlett; T. Cavazos; M. H. Frese; D. Fulton; J. C. Gueits; T. W. Hussey; R. Kirkpatrick; G. F. Kiuttu; F. M. Lehr; J. D. Letterio; I. Lindemuth; W. McCullough; R. Moses; R. E. Peterkin; R. E. Reinovsky; N. F. Roderick; E. L. Ruden; K. F. Schoenberg; D. Scudder; J. Shlachter; G. A. Wurden

2002-01-01

111

Global Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

New computational results are presented which provide a theoretical basis for the stability of the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is a compact toroid with negligible toroidal field in which the plasma is confined by a poloidal magnetic field associated with toroidal diamagnetic current. Although many MHD modes are predicted to be unstable, FRCs have been produced successfully by several formation techniques and show surprising macroscopic resilience. In order to understand this discrepancy, we have developed a new 3D nonlinear hybrid code (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), M3D-B, which is used to study the role of kinetic effects on the n = 1 tilt and higher n modes in the FRC. Our simulations show that there is a reduction in the tilt mode growth rate in the kinetic regime, but no absolute stabilization has been found for s bar less than or approximately equal to 1, where s bar is the approximate number of ion gyroradii between the field null and the separatrix. However, at low values of s bar, the instabilities saturate nonlinearly through a combination of a lengthening of the initial equilibrium and a modification of the ion distribution function. These saturated states persist for many Alfven times, maintaining field reversal.

E.V. Belova; S.C. Jardin; H. Ji; R.M. Kulsrud; W. Park; M. Yamada

2000-11-15

112

High field superconducting magnets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

113

Magnetic fields at Neptune  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10{sup {minus}5} gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R{sub N}. The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R{sub N} can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R{sub N} and inclined by 47{degrees} with respect to the rotation axis. Within 4 R{sub N}, the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an oblique rotator.

Ness, N.F. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA)); Acuna, M.H.; Burlaga, L.F.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Lepping, R.P. (NASA, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Neubauer, F.M. (Universitaet zu Koln (West Germany))

1989-12-15

114

Evaluation of heliostat field-receiver configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report evaluates and compares north heliostat field/cavity receiver configurations and surround heliostat field/external receiver configurations. The receiver coolants are molten nitrate salts and liquid sodium. Both field/receiver configurations use molten salt thermal storage; the sodium receiver is thermally connected to thermal storage by a sodium-to-salt heat exchanger. The heliostat field size is fixed at 1,000,000 square meters of reflective area, and the delivered molten salt temperature is fixed at 566 C. The delivered thermal power varies from 500 to 600 MW(sub t), depending on the overall system efficiency. The generic north heliostat field/cavity receiver configurations were found to be 6 to 10 percent efficient than a generic surround field/external receiver configuration. There was little or no difference found in the transient performance of a molten salt receiver compared to a sodium receiver connected to a sodium-to-salt heat exchanger. Four configurations were of particular interest: (1) a north heliostat field/single cavity molten salt receiver, (2) a surround heliostat field/external cylinder molten salt receiver, (3) a surround heliostat field/external cylinder liquid sodium receiver, and (4) a north heliostat field/single cavity liquid sodium receiver. It was found that the surround field/liquid sodium external receiver configuration may provide energy at a 14 percent lower levelized energy cost than a north field/molten salt cavity receiver configuration. However, the cost advantage of the surround field/liquid sodium external receiver is not conclusive because of uncertainties in system component costs.

Faas, S. E.; Winters, W. S.

1986-03-01

115

Large-gap magnetic positioning system having advantageous configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic configuration was devised in which the positioned object is maintained in a stable orientation and position on one side of an opaque plane surface entirely by means of magnetic components on the other side of the plane. The system is effective with or without gravity, and can operate in any orientation. In this system, the positioned object need only contain a simple dipole magnet. The positioning components consist of a group of permanent magnets creating a magnetic field configuration which stabilizes the levitated dipole in all but one degree of freedom, and a magnetic position sensing and force feedback system to actively stabilize the object in the one unstable direction. The system utilizes very low power at equilibrium and can maintain gaps of 50 mm.

Chong, Paul; Commandeur, Colin; Davis, Harold; Whitehead, Lorne

1992-01-01

116

Evaluation of heliostat field/receiver configurations  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates and compares north heliostat field/cavity receiver configurations and surround heliostat field/external receiver configurations. The receiver coolants are molten nitrate salts and liquid sodium. Both field/receiver configurations use molten salt thermal storage; the sodium receiver is thermally connected to thermal storage by a sodium-to-salt heat exchanger. The heliostat filed size is fixed at 1,000,000 square meters of reflective area, and the delivered molten salt temperature is fixed at 566/sup 0/C. The delivered thermal power varies from 500 to 600 MW/sub t/, depending on the overall system efficiency. The generic north heliostat field/cavity receiver configurations were found to be 6 to 10 percent efficient than a generic surround field/external receiver configuration. There was little or no difference found in the transient performance of a molten salt receiver compared to a sodium receiver connected to a sodium-to-salt heat exchanger. Four configurations were of particular interest: (1) a north heliostat field/single cavity molten salt receiver, (2) a surround heliostat field/external cylinder molten salt receiver, (3) a surround heliostat field/external cylinder liquid sodium receiver, and (4) a north heliostat field/single cavity liquid sodium receiver. It was found that the surround field/liquid sodium external receiver configuration may provide energy at a 14 percent lower levelized energy cost than a north field/molten salt cavity receiver configuration. However, the cost advantage of the surround field/liquid sodium external receiver is not conclusive because of uncertainties in system component costs.

Faas, S.E.; Winters, W.S.

1986-03-01

117

Eruptive solar magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quasi-steady evolution of solar magnetic fields in response to gradual photospheric changes is considered, with particular attention given to the threshold of a sudden eruption in the solar atmosphere. The formal model of an evolving, force-free field dependent on two Cartesian coordinates is extended to a field which is not force free but in static equilibrium with plasma pressure and gravity. The basic physics is illustrated through the evolution of a loop-shaped electric current sheet enclosing a potential bipolar field with footpoints rooted in the photosphere. A free-boundary problem is posed and then solved for the equilibrium configuration of the current sheet in a hydrostatically supported isothermal atmosphere. As the footpoints move apart to spread a constant photospheric magnetic flux over a larger region, the equilibria available extend the field to increasing heights.

Low, B. C.

1981-01-01

118

Experimental Investigation of the Magnetic Configuration Dependence of Turbulent Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of turbulent transport on magnetic field properties is measured in detail on a plasma in a stellarator configuration. Pronounced poloidal asymmetries of fluctuation amplitudes and turbulent transport are observed. The transport maximum is located in regions where normal curvature of the magnetic field is negative and simultaneously the geodesic curvature has positive values. A major role of the local magnetic shear cannot be confirmed. The results can have important implications for the optimization of stellarators and the power influx into the scrape-off layer.

Birkenmeier, G.; Ramisch, M.; Manz, P.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U.

2011-07-01

119

Stability and confinement of spheromaks and field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

The formation, confinement and stability of two types of compact toroids, spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC), are reviewed. Spheromaks, which contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, have been formed with magnetized coaxial plasma guns, by a combination of Z- and theta-pinch techniques and by an electrodeless slow induction technique, and trapped in both prolate and oblate flux conservers. As predicted by theory, the prolate configuration is unstable to the tilt mode, but the oblate configuration with a conducting wall is stable. Configuration lifetimes of up to 0.8 ms are observed. The FRC is a high-beta, highly prolate compact toroid formed with field-reversed theta-pinch techniques and having purely poloidal magnetic field. Theory predicts unstable fluting and internal tilting modes, but they are not observed experimentally. Configurations with high densities approx. 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ and with lifetimes of 50 to 120 ..mu..s are terminated by an n=2 rotational mode of instability.

Quinn, W.E.

1982-01-01

120

A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities.

Tuszewski, Michel

121

The effects of magnetic nozzle configurations on plasma thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma thrusters have been operated at power levels from 10kW to 0.1MW. When these devices have had magnetic fields applied to them which form a nozzle configuration for the expanding plasma, they have shown marked increases in exhaust velocity which is in direct proportion to the magnitude of the applied field. Further, recent results have shown that electrode erosion may be influenced by applied magnetic fields. This research is directed to the experimental and computational study of the effects of applied magnetic field nozzles in the acceleration of plasma flows. Plasma source devices which eliminate the plasma interaction in normal thrusters are studied as most basic. Normal thruster configurations will be studied without applied fields and with applied magnetic nozzle fields. Unique computational studies will utilize existing codes which accurately include transport processes. Unique diagnostic studies will support the experimental studies to generate new data. Both computation and diagnostics will be combined to indicate the physical mechanisms and transport properties that are operative in order to allow scaling and accurate prediction of thruster performance.

York, Thomas M.

1989-01-01

122

Magnetic fields in astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

123

Effective heat conduction in a configuration with nonoverlapped magnetic islands  

SciTech Connect

The effective radial heat conduction {kappa}{sub eff} in a plasma configuration with nonoverlapped magnetic island chains is assessed by applying an ''optimal path'' method. This approach implies that heat is transported predominantly along paths rendering the minimum temperature variation and is related to the principle of minimum entropy production. Paths combined of up to three radial sections and two segments aligned along magnetic field lines are considered. It is demonstrated that the enhancement of {kappa}{sub eff} over the level of perpendicular heat conduction {kappa}{sub perpendicular} arising due to flows along magnetic field lines is controlled only by the Chirikov parameter and by the value 4b{sub r}{sup 2}{kappa}{sub parallel}/{kappa}{sub perpendicular}, where b{sub r} is the relative amplitude of the radial field resonant harmonic and {kappa}{sub parallel} is the parallel heat conduction.

Gupta, A.; Tokar, M. Z. [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Juelich (Germany)

2008-03-15

124

Exploring Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."

Nasa

2012-06-26

125

Magnetic field sensors using GMR multilayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheatstone bridge magnetic field sensors using giant magnetoresistive ratio (GMR) multilayers were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The GMR ranged from 10% to 20% with saturation fields of 60 Oe to 300 Oe. The multilater resistances decreased linearly with magnetic field and showed little hysteresis. In one sensor configuration, a permanent magnet bias was placed between two pairs of magnetoresistors, each

J. Daughton; J. Brown; E. Chen; R. Beech; A. Pohm; W. Kude

1994-01-01

126

Magnetic configuration of the distant plasma sheet - ISEE 3 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the IMF orientation and magnitude and substorm activity on the magnetic configuration of the central plasma sheet at 20-240 earth radii down the geomagnetic tail is investigated on the basis of ISEE-3 data. The results are presented graphically, and high-speed antisolar bulk flows threaded by southward magnetic fields are shown to be present in the distant plasma sheet after periods of substorm activity and southward IMF Bz. The effective dayside reconnection efficiency is estimated as 25 + or - 4 percent, in good agreement with theoretical models.

Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Daly, P. W.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Lepping, R. P.

1987-01-01

127

Earth's Inconstant Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes long-term changes in Earth's magnetic field, and how magnetic stripes in the Atlantic seafloor provide evidence for reversals of this field. The site presents a model of Earth's interior that helps explain how Earth's magnetic field is generated and how the reversals occur. A computer-generated image shows the complicated magnetic field in-between reversals.

2007-04-27

128

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.

129

Magnetic configurations in a two-sublattice system with strong antisymmetric exchange and fourth order uniaxial anisotropy in vanishing external field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully general solutions to the equilibrium equations of a system of two equal magnetic moments coupled by isotropic, anisotropic and antisymmetric exchange, together with second- and fourth-order uniaxial anisotropy, in vanishing external field, are given. They depend critically upon the fourth-order anisotropy and the antisymmetric exchange, and comprise planar, axial and ''conical'' phases. The latter, stable over a wide range

M. Acquarone

1978-01-01

130

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

131

Magnetic Fields Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

132

Visualizing Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students take the age old concept of etch-a-sketch a step further. Using iron filings, students begin visualizing magnetic field lines. To do so, students use a compass to read the direction of the magnet's magnetic field. Then, students observe the behavior of iron filings near that magnet as they rotate the filings about the magnet. Finally, students study the behavior of iron filings suspended in mineral oil which displays the magnetic field in three dimensions.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

133

Magnetic field in a turbulent galactic disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple kinematic model has been applied to simulate the evolution of the interstellar magnetic field permanently twisted by turbulent gas motions accompanied by effects of the field diffusion. The magnetic field was found to develop well-ordered twisted structures over the whole gas parcel analyzed. This field configuration has a preferred sense of twisting dependent on the helicity of the

Katarzyna Otmianowska-Mazur; Marek Urbanik; Artur Terech

1992-01-01

134

Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

2002-07-09

135

Mapping Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about bar magnets and their invisible magnetic fields. Learners will experiment with magnets and a compass to detect and draw magnetic fields. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource, entitled Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO.

136

Magnetic field mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field mapper locates imperfections in cadmium sulphide solar cells by detecting and displaying the variations of the normal component of the magnetic field resulting from current density variations. It can also inspect for nonuniformities in other electrically conductive materials.

Masters, R. M.; Stenger, F. J.

1969-01-01

137

The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.  

PubMed

This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field. PMID:24676181

Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

2014-03-01

138

Extension of XGC kinetic simulation codes to magnetic mirror configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XGC codes, developed to simulate the edge regions of tokamak plasmas, are modified to carry out kinetic simulations of axisymmetric magnetic mirror configurations. The XGC codes are particle in cell kinetic codes that include a virtual sheath condition where magnetic field lines run into end plates. The XGC1 code is a fully five dimensional kinetic code that is used to investigate turbulence, while the faster XGC0 code uses the axisymmetric average electrostatic potential in order to simulate charged particle drifts, losses and collisional effects. Kinetic electron computations, neutral beam injection, atomic physics and the effects of thermal neutrals are included in the XGC codes. Changes are being made to allow the XGC codes to accept mirror equilibria and to run without a toroidal magnetic field component. The XGC0 code will be used to compute particle dynamics, electrostatic potentials, and moments of the distribution functions including plasma flows in mirror configurations. [1] C.S. Chang, S. Ku, H. Weitzner, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2649

Bateman, G.; Pankin, A. Y.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Park, G. Y.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Horton, W.; Pratt, J.

2009-11-01

139

The Declining Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the declining strength of Earth's magnetic field. Learners will review a graph of magnetic field intensity and calculate the amount by which the field has changed its intensity in the last century, the rate of change of its intensity, and when the field should decrease to zero strength at the current rate of change. Learners will also use evidence from relevant sources to create a conjecture on the effects on Earth of a vanished magnetic field. Access to information sources about Earth's magnetic field strength is needed for this activity. This is Activity 7 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide.

140

Solar Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical currents flowing in the solar plasma generate a magnetic field, which is detected in the SOLAR ATMOSPHERE by spectroscopic and polarization measurements (SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: INFERENCE BY POLARIMETRY). The SOLAR WIND carries the magnetic field into interplanetary space where it can be measured directly by instruments on space probes....

Schüssler, M.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

141

Magnetically Robust Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Heavy Fermion Systems with f2-Configuration: Competition between Crystalline-Electric-Field and Kondo-Yosida Singlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In f2-based heavy fermion systems with a crystalline-electric-field (CEF) singlet ground state, the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) arises around the quantum critical point (QCP) due to the competition between the CEF singlet and the Kondo-Yosida singlet states. In such a case, the characteristic temperature TF* at which the entropy starts to decrease toward zero is suppressed by the effect of the competition, compared to both energy scales characterizing each singlet state, the lower Kondo temperature (TK2) and the CEF splitting (?). We show that in the case of tetragonal symmetry TF* is not affected by the magnetic field up to Hz* which is determined by the distance from the QCP or characteristic energy scales of each singlet states, not by TF* itself. As a result, in the vicinity of QCP, there are parameter regions where the NFL is robust against the magnetic field, at an observable temperature range T > TF*, up to Hz* which is far larger than TF* and less than \\min(TK2,?). Our result suggests that such an anomalous NFL behavior can arise also in systems with other CEF symmetry, which might provide us with the basis to understand the anomalous behaviors of UBe13.

Nishiyama, Shinya; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Miyake, Kazumasa

2010-10-01

142

Drawing Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a compass and a permanent magnet to trace the magnetic field lines produced by the magnet. By positioning the compass in enough spots around the magnet, the overall magnet field will be evident from the collection of arrows representing the direction of the compass needle. In activities 3 and 4 of this unit, students will use this information to design a way to solve the grand challenge of separating metal for a recycling company.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

143

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

144

Plasma-wall interaction in Hall thrusters with magnetic lens configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recently developed Hall thrusters utilize a magnetic field configuration in which the field lines penetrate the thruster walls at a high incidence angle. This so-called magnetic lens leads to an electric field pointing away from the walls, which is expected to reduce ion losses and improve thruster efficiency. This configuration also introduces an interesting behavior in the sheath formation. At sufficiently large angles, ions are repelled from the wall, and sheath collapse is expected. We use a plasma simulation code to investigate this phenomenon in detail. We consider the role of the magnetic field incidence angle, secondary electron emission, and a magnetic mirror. Numerical study confirms the theoretical predictions, and at large angles, ions are seen to turn away from the wall. We also consider the role of the magnetic field geometry on ion wall flux and channel erosion, and observe reduction in both quantities as the magnetic field incidence angle is increased.

Brieda, Lubos; Keidar, Michael

2012-06-01

145

Plasma-wall interaction in Hall thrusters with magnetic lens configuration  

SciTech Connect

Some recently developed Hall thrusters utilize a magnetic field configuration in which the field lines penetrate the thruster walls at a high incidence angle. This so-called magnetic lens leads to an electric field pointing away from the walls, which is expected to reduce ion losses and improve thruster efficiency. This configuration also introduces an interesting behavior in the sheath formation. At sufficiently large angles, ions are repelled from the wall, and sheath collapse is expected. We use a plasma simulation code to investigate this phenomenon in detail. We consider the role of the magnetic field incidence angle, secondary electron emission, and a magnetic mirror. Numerical study confirms the theoretical predictions, and at large angles, ions are seen to turn away from the wall. We also consider the role of the magnetic field geometry on ion wall flux and channel erosion, and observe reduction in both quantities as the magnetic field incidence angle is increased.

Brieda, Lubos; Keidar, Michael [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd St., Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

2012-06-15

146

Circuits and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use the same method as in the activity from lesson 2 to explore the magnetism due to electric current instead of a permanent magnet. Students use a compass and circuit to trace the magnetic field lines induced by the electric current moving through the wire. Students develop an understanding of the effect of the electrical current on the compass needle through the induced magnetic field and understand the complexity of a three dimensional field system.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

147

Photospheric magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

Howard, R.

1972-01-01

148

Atlas of Photospheric Magnetic Field Observations and Computed Coronal Magnetic Fields. 1976-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Daily magnetogram observations of the large scale photospheric magnetic field have been made. These measurements provide a homogeneous record of the changing solar field through most of Solar Cycle 21. Using the photospheric data, the configuration of the...

J. T. Hoeksema P. H. Scherrer

1986-01-01

149

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

150

Melatonin and magnetic fields.  

PubMed

There is public health concern raised by epidemiological studies indicating that extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by electric power distribution systems in the environment may be hazardous. Possible carcinogenic effects of magnetic field in combination with suggested oncostatic action of melatonin lead to the hypothesis that the primary effects of electric and magnetic fields exposure is a reduction of melatonin synthesis which, in turn, may promote cancer growth. In this review the data on the influence of magnetic fields on melatonin synthesis, both in the animals and humans, are briefly presented and discussed. PMID:12019358

Karasek, Michal; Lerchl, Alexander

2002-04-01

151

Analytical Description of the Vacuum Magnetic Configuration of the Uragan-2M Torsatron and beta(Sub Eq) Ratio Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of additional longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields on the vacuum magnetic configuration of the stellarator is analyzed. The applicability of two approaches, a precise three-dimensional and an approximated two-dimensional one to describe ...

V. D. Pustovitov

1990-01-01

152

Magnetic Bearing Configurations: Theoretical and Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radial magnetic bearing, consisting of two permanent magnets, is an attractive choice because of its zero wear, negligible friction, and low cost, but it suffers from low load capacity, low radial stiffness, lack of damping, and high axial instability. To enhance the radial load and radial stiffness, and reduce the axial thrust, we have made a theoretical and experimental

Pranab Samanta; Harish Hirani

2008-01-01

153

Magnetic fields in neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

Viganò, Daniele

2013-09-01

154

Magnetic Field Viewing Cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years now laminated cards containing a green, magnetically sensitive film have been available from science education suppliers. When held near a magnet, these cards appear dark green in regions where the field is perpendicular to the card and light green where the field is parallel to the card. The cards can be used to explore the magnetic field near a variety of magnets as well as near wire loops. In this paper we describe how to make these cards and how we have used them in our physics classrooms and labs.

Kanim, Stephen; Thompson, John R.

2005-09-01

155

The galactic magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates for the scale, geometry and strength of the magnetic field in the galactic system can be derived from observations of polarization properties of radio emission from the Galaxy, extragalactic radio sources and pulsars, and polarization of starlight. Within distances of about 500 parsecs (1 parsec = 3.26 lightyears) from the solar system the magnetic field is directed towards galactic

T A Spoelstra; T. A. T

1977-01-01

156

Improved Spindle Cusp Magnetic Field for ECRIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field of minimum-B configuration is very important for achieving more plasma confinement and closed electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) surface for electron heating and plasma discharge. The spindle cusp magnetic field configuration forms the modified minimum-B configuration. The absolute magnetic field at the chamber surface on mid-plane has been optimized and improved sufficiently and symmetrized to the field at the point cusp positions on the central axis. With enhancement of electrostatic and magnetic mirror action at the cusp positions the density of the plasma as well as confinement is boosted. The system becomes simpler, more compact and cost-effective compared to the conventional one to generate and extract highly charged heavy ions (HCHI). A co-operative and collaborative effort is essential to develop and test such conceived new ECRIS.

Rashid, M. H.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

2005-03-01

157

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides information and a graphical exercise for students regarding the interaction between magnetic field lines and a plasma. The activity involves tracing a typical interplanetary magnetic field line, dragged out of a location on the Sun by the radial flow of the solar wind. This illustrates the way magnetic field lines are "frozen to the plasma" and the wrapping of field lines due to the rotation of the sun. This is part of the work "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

158

Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. I. Whistler spheromaks, mirrors, and field reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

The nonlinear interactions of time-varying magnetic fields with plasmas is investigated in the regime of electron magnetohydrodynamics. Simple magnetic field geometries are excited in a large laboratory plasma with a loop antenna driven with large oscillatory currents. When the axial loop field opposes the ambient field, the net field can be reversed to create a field-reversed configuration (FRC). In the opposite polarity, a strong field enhancement is produced. The time-varying antenna field excites whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient magnetic field. The resulting magnetic field topologies have been measured. As the magnetic topology is changed from FRC to strong enhancement, two propagating field configurations resembling spheromaks are excited, one with positive and the other with negative helicity. Such 'whistler spheromaks' propagate with their null points along the weaker ambient magnetic field, with the current density localized around its O-line. In contrast, 'whistler mirrors' which have topologies similar to linear whistlers, except with B{sub wave}>B{sub 0}, have no null regions and, therefore, broad current layers. This paper describes the basic field topologies of whistler spheromaks and mirrors, while companion papers discuss the associated nonlinear phenomena as well as the interaction between them.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Strohmaier, K. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

2008-04-15

159

Sonoluminescence in High Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made a detailed study of sonoluminescence (SL) in high magnetic fields. In magnetic field sweeps at constant levels of acoustic drive, SL disappears above a pressure-dependent threshold magnetic field. Sweeps of acoustic drive at fixed magnetic fields show that the upper and lower bounds of forcing pressure that determine the region of SL increase dramatically with magnetic field.

J. B. Young; T. Schmiedel; Woowon Kang

1996-01-01

160

High-field superconducting nested coil magnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

1970-01-01

161

Magnetic Bar Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet model is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

162

Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

163

Novel magnets configuration toward a high performance electrodynamic micro-electro-mechanical-systems microspeaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of different configurations of permanent magnets' to maximize microspeakers' electroacoustic performances. The proposed theoretical approach is based on an analytical model allowing the calculation of the magnetic field created by cylindrical and ring-shaped permanent magnet, making thus possible to analyze different magnetic structures. Several combinations of cylindrical and rings were analyzed in view of maximizing the magnetic field in the vicinity of the voice coil. Taking into account the whole electro-mechano-acoustic behavior of the microspeaker, we present two optimized magnets configurations which increase the efficiency by factors between 2.7 and 5 comparing to previously optimized microspeakers. Moreover, we show that it is possible to get devices twice smaller with efficiencies increased by factors between 1.2 and 3.4.

Sassine, G.; Shahosseini, I.; Woytasik, M.; Martincic, E.; Moulin, J.; Lefeuvre, E.

2014-05-01

164

Magnetic field tomography, helical magnetic fields and Faraday depolarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-band radio polarization observations offer the possibility to recover information about the magnetic fields in synchrotron sources, such as details of their three-dimensional configuration, that has previously been inaccessible. The key physical process involved is the Faraday rotation of the polarized emission in the source (and elsewhere along the wave's propagation path to the observer). In order to proceed, reliable methods are required for inverting the signals observed in wavelength space into useful data in Faraday space, with robust estimates of their uncertainty. In this paper, we examine how variations of the intrinsic angle of polarized emission ?0 with the Faraday depth ? within a source affect the observable quantities. Using simple models for the Faraday dispersion F(?) and ?0(?), along with the current and planned properties of the main radio interferometers, we demonstrate how degeneracies among the parameters describing the magneto-ionic medium can be minimized by combining observations in different wavebands. We also discuss how depolarization by Faraday dispersion due to a random component of the magnetic field attenuates the variations in the spectral energy distribution of the polarization and shifts its peak towards shorter wavelengths. This additional effect reduces the prospect of recovering the characteristics of the magnetic field helicity in magneto-ionic media dominated by the turbulent component of the magnetic field.

Horellou, C.; Fletcher, A.

2014-07-01

165

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding a coil of wire that is connected to a battery. This activity requires a large coil or spool of wire, a source of electricity such as 3 D-cell batteries or an AC to DC power adapter, alligator-clipped wire, and magnetic compasses. This is the third lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

166

Probing interstellar magnetic fields with Supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Supernova remnants expand, their shock waves are freezing in and compressing the magnetic field lines they encounter; consequently we can use Supernova remnants as magnifying glasses for their ambient magnetic fields. We will describe a simple model to determine emission, polarization, and rotation measure characteristics of adiabatically expanding Supernova remnants and how we can exploit this model to gain information about the large scale magnetic field in our Galaxy. We will give two examples: The SNR DA530, which is located high above the Galactic plane, reveals information about the magnetic field in the halo of our Galaxy. The SNR G182.4+4.3 is located close to the anti-centre of our Galaxy and reveals the most probable direction where the large-scale magnetic field is perpendicular to the line of sight. This may help to decide on the large-scale magnetic field configuration of our Galaxy. But more observations of SNRs are needed.

Kothes, Roland; Brown, Jo-Anne

2009-04-01

167

Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will introduce students to the idea of magnetic field lines--a concept they have probably encountered but may not fully grasp. Completing this activity and reading the corresponding background information should enable students to understand

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

168

Solar Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research work was directed towards the following: (1) Perform necessary laboratory experiments, including a study on the Zeeman effect in absorption. Make observations of the sunspot and general magnetic fields of the sun. (2) Conduct a program of int...

M. Cimino

1966-01-01

169

Topologically Nontrivial Field Configurations in Noncommutative Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of noncommutative geometry we describe spinor fields with nonvanishing winding number on a truncated (fuzzy) sphere. The corresponding field theory actions conserve all basic symmetries of the standard commutative version (space isometries and global chiral symmetry), but due to the noncommutativity of the space the fields are regularized and they contain only finite number of modes.

H. Grosse

1997-01-01

170

Topologically nontrivial field configurations in noncommutative geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of noncommutative geometry we describe spinor fields with nonvanishing winding number on a truncated (fuzzy) sphere. The corresponding field theory actions conserve all basic symmetries of the standard commutative version (space isometries and global chiral symmetry), but due to the noncommutativity of the space the fields are regularized and they contain only a finite number of modes.

Grosse, H.; Klim?ík, C.; Prešnajder, P.

1996-05-01

171

Solar Wind Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

Smith, E. J.

1995-01-01

172

The nonequilibrium of magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The more subtle properties of magnetic fields which create nonequilibrium and lead to vigorous activity in otherwise sluggish gas-field systems are evaluated for gross hydromagnetic effects. The gentle manipulation of magnetic fields on a large scale leads to the production of small scale variations and discontinuities, providing intense dissipation of magnetic field in a large scale system. A magnetic field

E. N. Parker

1981-01-01

173

Microinhomogeneities in Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small variations in the fields of magnets, caused by structures or domains in the pole faces, were investigated by moving a small coil in a circular path. It was found that for a given pole face the variations in the field were all about the same size, and decreased exponentially from the pole face. None of the materials tested as

H. H. Brown Jr.; F. Bitter

1956-01-01

174

Magnetic Field Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

Ilin, Andrew V.

2006-01-01

175

Micromagnetic study of magnetic configurations in submicron permalloy disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a finite-element study of magnetic configurations in submicron permalloy disks using micromagnetics principles. Depending on the disk size, many (meta)stable magnetic states such as normal and twisted onion, in-plane vortex, and various buckle states are observed. A diagram is constructed to bring out the dependence of the different remanent states on the disk diameter and thickness. It shows

Jonathan Kin Ha; Riccardo Hertel; J. Kirschner

2003-01-01

176

Confinement and heating studies of field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

Confinement studies of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) have been actively pursued during the past ten years with the larger and longer-lived FRCs produced in the FRX-C and FRX-C/LSM devices. Confinement measurements have included the global FRC quantities and, in some cases, profiles of electron temperature and density. The inferred confinement times and transport coefficients are used for comparison with transport models as wells as to find the best operating conditions in the experiment. Global power flow modelling shows that energy confinement during the equilibrium phase is usually dominated by particle losses, with a substantial secondary contribution from electron thermal conduction. Particle losses in present kinetic FRCs are strongly influenced by open field line confinement, which complicates the study of transport mechanisms. The electron thermal conduction is observed to be anomalous, as in other plasma devices. The bulk electrical resistivity is also anomalous and shows no evidence of classical Spitzer scaling. Recently, the resistive anomaly has been shown to correlate with tilt-like magnetic perturbations observed with Mirnov coils. FRC confinement studies have also been extended to a higher temperature regime during magnetic compression heating. In these experiments, translated FRCs are compressed by increasing the external magnetic flux up to a factor of seven on a time scale between the radial Alfven time and the FRC lifetime. Electron and ion temperatures up to 0.4 keV and 1.6 keV, respectively have been obtained. Confinement times scale roughly as r{sup 2} during compression.

Chrien, R.E.

1990-01-01

177

Negative ion extraction characteristics of a large negative ion source with double-magnetic filter configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-ampere hydrogen negative ion source with a large extraction area of 25 cm x 25 cm was developed. This negative ion source is a volume-production-type bucket ion source which is operated with double-magnetic filter configuration. In this configuration, the fast electrons, which produce the vibrationally excited molecules, are trapped near the chamber wall by the cusp field, which is

Y. Takeiri; A. Ando; O. Kaneko; Y. Oka; T. Kuroda

1992-01-01

178

Quasineutral hybrid simulation of field-reversed plasma configurations  

SciTech Connect

A method for solving the quasineutral hybrid plasma equations in two dimensions is presented, using full ion dynamics and inertialess electrons. The method is extended to allow plasma-vacuum interfaces of arbitrary shape. A simulation code based on this method is applied to the study of instabilities in field-reversed plasma configurations. Kink instabilities in long ion layers immersed in a dense background plasma are studied. A numerical extension of the analytic model of Lovelace indicates that these instabilities will occur for values of the self-magnetic field index below those predicted previously. The quasineutral hybrid simulation code has been used to verify these lower thresholds. The simulations also show that the end of exponential growth occurs due to a nonlinear shift in the betatron frequency at large amplitude, producing an increase in layer thickness and a layer which has many non-axis-encircling ions. Rotational instabilities in rigidly rotating field-reversed theta pinch equilibria are examined with the hybrid code.

Harned, D.S.

1981-01-01

179

Magnetic ionization fronts. I. Parallel magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the continuity equations across an ionization front. By including a plane parallel magnetic field we find significant differences in the allowed velocities of the R- and D-type solutions between the magnetized and non-magnetized cases. These results may have implications for the study of ionization bounded diffuse sources where a moderate or strong magnetic field is expected.

Redman, M. P.; Williams, R. J. R.; Dyson, J. E.; Hartquist, T. W.; Fernandez, B. R.

1998-03-01

180

The Sun and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about magnetic fields and their relation to the Sun, learners will simulate sunspots by using iron filings to show magnetic fields around a bar or cow magnet, and draw the magnetic field surrounding two dipole magnets, both in parallel and perpendicular alignments. Finally, learners examine images of sunspots to relate their magnetic field drawings and observations to what is seen on the Sun.

181

HMI Magnetic Field Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO has measured magnetic field, velocity, and intensity in the photosphere over the full disk continuously since May 2010 with arc-second resolution. Scalar images are measured every 45 seconds. From these basic observables the pipeline automatically identifies and tracks active regions on the solar disk. The vector magnetic field and a variety of summary quantities are determined every 720s in these tracked Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPS). Synoptic and synchronic maps are constructed daily and after each Carrington Rotation Most data products are available with definitive scientific calibration after a few day deal at and in a quick-look near-real-time version a few minutes after the observations are made. Uncertainties are determined for the derived products. All of the magnetic field products along with movies and images suitable for browsing are available at http:://Hmi.stanford.edu/magnetic. Other products, e.g. coronal field over active regions, can be computed on demand.

Hoeksema, Jon T.; HMI Magnetic Field Team

2013-07-01

182

Coronal magnetic fields and energetic particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination was made of magnetic field effects in coronal and interplanetary space on propagation and storage of energetic particles from the flare site to 1 AU. Attempts were made to determine how several characteristics of solar energetic particle emissions are influenced by detailed configuration of the corona magnetic fields below 2.5 solar radii. Solar energetic particles are followed in the ambient magnetic field from injection above a flare until they either: (1) impact on the photosphere, (2) escape into interplanetary space, or (3) mirrow at some distant location in the corona.

Newkirk, G., Jr.

1973-01-01

183

Modelling the Magnetic Field Geometry of the Rapidly Oscillating Star HD 154708 with an Extraordinarily Strong Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a non-axisymmetric oblique rotator model for the magnetic field geometry of the star HD 154708 which at the same time fits the magnetic variations — longitudinal magnetic field and field modulus — and the intensity profiles of selected Si I lines in the infrared. It turns out that only by discarding the usual assumption of an axisymmetric magnetic field configuration can field ratios, phase shifts and line profiles be correctly reproduced.

Stift, M. J.; Hubrig, S.; Leone, F.; Mathys, G.

2013-12-01

184

Magnetic Field and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners explore magnetic forces, fields, and the relationship between electricity. Learners will use this information to infer how the Earth generates a protective magnetic field. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson seven in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

185

An atlas of photospheric magnetic field observations and computed coronal magnetic fields: 1976-1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily magnetogram observations of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field have been made at the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford since May of 1976. These measurements provide a homogeneous record of the changing solar field through most of solar cycle 21. Using the photospheric data, the configuration of the coronal and heliospheric fields can be calculated using a Potential

J. T. Hoeksema; P. H. Scherrer

1986-01-01

186

An atlas of photospheric magnetic field observations and computed coronal magnetic fields: 1976 - 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily magnetogram observations of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field have been made at the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford since May of 1976. These measurements provide a homogeneous record of the changing solar field through most of solar cycle 21. Using the photospheric data, the configuration of the coronal and heliospheric fields can be calculated using a Potential

J. T. Hoeksema; P. H. Scherrer

1986-01-01

187

Advances in the numerical modeling of field-reversed configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a compact torus with little or no toroidal magnetic field. A theoretical understanding of the observed FRC equilibrium and stability properties presents significant challenges due to the high plasma beta, plasma flows, large ion gyroradius, and the stochasticity of the particle orbits. Advanced numerical simulations are generally required to describe and understand the detailed behavior of FRC plasmas. Results of such simulations are presented in this paper. It is shown that 3D nonlinear hybrid simulations using the HYM code [E. V. Belova et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4996 (2000)] reproduce all major experimentally observed stability properties of elongated (theta-pinch-formed) FRCs. Namely, the scaling of the growth rate of the n=1 tilt mode with the S*/E parameter (S* is the FRC kinetic parameter, E is elongation, and n is toroidal mode number), the nonlinear saturation of the tilt mode, ion toroidal spin-up, and the growth of the n=2 rotational mode have been demonstrated and studied in detail. The HYM code has also been used to study stability properties of FRCs formed by the counterhelicity spheromak merging method. A new stability regime has been found for FRCs with elongation E~1, which requires a close-fitting conducting shell and energetic beam ion stabilization.

Belova, Elena V.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki

2006-05-01

188

Hidden magnetic configuration in epitaxial La(1-x) Sr(x) MnO3 films.  

PubMed

We present an unreported magnetic configuration in epitaxial La(1-x) Sr(x) MnO3 (x ? 0.3) (LSMO) films grown on strontium titanate (STO). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism indicates that the remanent magnetic state of thick LSMO films is opposite to the direction of the applied magnetic field. Spectroscopic and scattering measurements reveal that the average Mn valence varies from mixed Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) to an enriched Mn3+ region near the STO interface, resulting in a compressive lattice along the a, b axis and a possible electronic reconstruction in the Mn e(g) orbital (d(3)z(2)-r(2). This reconstruction may provide a mechanism for coupling the Mn3+ moments antiferromagnetically along the surface normal direction, and in turn may lead to the observed reversed magnetic configuration. PMID:21231622

Lee, J-S; Arena, D A; Yu, P; Nelson, C S; Fan, R; Kinane, C J; Langridge, S; Rossell, M D; Ramesh, R; Kao, C-C

2010-12-17

189

Hidden Magnetic Configuration in Epitaxial La1-x SrxMnO3 Films  

SciTech Connect

We present an unreported magnetic configuration in epitaxial La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.3) (LSMO) films grown on strontium titanate (STO). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism indicates that the remanent magnetic state of thick LSMO films is opposite to the direction of the applied magnetic field. Spectroscopic and scattering measurements reveal that the average Mn valence varies from mixed Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} to an enriched Mn{sup 3+} region near the STO interface, resulting in a compressive lattice along the a, b axis and a possible electronic reconstruction in the Mn e{sub g} orbital (d{sub 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2}}). This reconstruction may provide a mechanism for coupling the Mn{sup 3+} moments antiferromagnetically along the surface normal direction, and in turn may lead to the observed reversed magnetic configuration.

Lee, J.S.; Arena, D.A.; Yu, P.; Nelson, C.S.; Fan, R.; Kinane, C.J.; Langridge, S.; Rossell, M.D.; Ramesh, R.; Kao, C.C.

2010-12-17

190

The interplanetary magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

Davis, L., Jr.

1972-01-01

191

Magnetic configuration sweep control in heliac type stellarators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel magnetic configuration sweep control system for the TJ-II heliac device is described. The system is prepared to establish a reference for plasma, torus or vessel current while the coil configuration currents are swept during a single plasma discharge. It can also be run in a special simulation mode, which does not require powering the TJ-II device, intended for commissioning and experiment preparation purposes. Preliminary tests with the system have shown its ability to perform rotational transform scans while establishing a waveform for torus current independently, despite variable plasma conditions. This opens up new experimental possibilities to study the influence of rotational transform and shear independently.

Romero, J. A.; Pacios, L.; de la Peña, A.; Lapayese, F.; Ascasíbar, E.

2014-04-01

192

Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

Bouillard, J.X.

1992-12-01

193

Magnetic dipole configurations on honeycomb lattices: effect of finite size and boundaries.  

PubMed

Artificial dipolar spin-ice patterns have attracted much attention recently because of their rich configurations and excitations in the form of Dirac strings connecting magnetic monopoles. We have analysed the distribution of excitations in the form of strings and vertices carrying magnetic charges Q=±3q in honeycomb artificial spin-ice patterns. Two types of patterns are compared, those that terminate with open hexagons and those with closed hexagons. The dipole configurations and the frequency of spin-ice rule-violating Q=±3q vertices depend slightly on the boundary conditions of the pattern. Upon rotation of the patterns by 2? in a coercive magnetic field of 500 Oe, complete reversibility of the charge and string configuration is observed. PMID:23166380

Schumann, Alexandra; Zabel, Hartmut

2012-12-28

194

The Earth's Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere), including detailed information about the aurora borealis, magnets, and solar wind. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

195

Disruption of coronal magnetic field arcades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ideal and resistive properties of isolated large-scale coronal magnetic arcades are studied using axisymmetric solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical geometry. We examine how flares and coronal mass ejections may be initiated by sudden disruptions of the magnetic field. The evolution of coronal arcades in response to applied shearing photospheric flows indicates that disruptive behavior can occur beyond a critical shear. The disruption can be traced to ideal MHD magnetic nonequilibrium. The magnetic field expands outward in a process that opens the field lines and produces a tangential discontinuity in the magnetic field. In the presence of plasma resistivity, the resulting current sheet is the site of rapid reconnection, leading to an impulsive release of magnetic energy, fast flows, and the ejection of a plasmoid. We relate these results to previous studies of force-free fields and to the properties of the open-field configuration. We show that the field lines in an arcade are forced open when the magnetic energy approaches (but is still below) the open-field energy, creating a partially open field in which most of the field lines extend away from the solar surface. Preliminary application of this model to helmet streamers indicates that it is relevant to the initiation of coronal mass ejections.

Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.

1994-01-01

196

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

2013-06-01

197

Configurational Dependence of the Magnetization Dynamics in Spin Valve Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin current related phenomena in F1/N/F2 spin valve heterostructures, where F is a ferromagnetic layer and N is a nonmagnetic metal layer, are important in modern magnetism. Spin valve theory predicts a spin pumping effect with a precessional relaxation rate that depends on the configuration of F1 and F2 [1]. Using time-resolved x-ray resonant magnetic scattering we report on the precessional dynamics of spin valve systems with parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) orientation. We observe in Co/Cu/Py spin valve systems an increase of the magnetic damping parameter in Py with changing magnetization direction of Py and Co layers from P to AP orientation [2]. Furthermore we studied the temperature dependence of the spin pumping effect and possible other causes for the configurational dependence of the damping parameter, such as domain wall induced coupling or magnetic dipole coupling [3]. The main focus is on Co/Cu/Py and on Co2MnGe/V/Py trilayers with spin valve properties.[4pt] [1] J.-V. Kim, C. Chappert, JMMM 286, 56 (2005)[0pt] [2] R. Salikhov et al., APL 99, 092509 (2011)[0pt] [3] R. Salikhov et al., PRB 86, 144422 (2012)

Salikhov, Ruslan; Abrudan, Radu; Bruessing, Frank; Westerholt, Kurt; Zabel, Hartmut; Radu, Florin; Garifullin, Ilgiz A.

2013-03-01

198

The Primordial Origin Model of Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a primordial-origin model for composite configurations of global magnetic fields in spiral galaxies. We show that a uniform tilted magnetic field wound up into a rotating disk galaxy can evolve into composite magnetic configurations comprising bisymmetric spiral (S = BSS), axisymmetric spiral (A = ASS), plane-reversed spiral (PR), and/or ring (R) fields in the disk, and vertical (V) fields in the center. By MHD simulations we show that these composite galactic fields are indeed created from a weak primordial uniform field, and that different configurations can co-exist in the same galaxy. We show that spiral fields trigger the growth of two-armed gaseous arms. The centrally accumulated vertical fields are twisted and produce a jet toward the halo. We found that the more vertical was the initial uniform field, the stronger was the formed magnetic field in the galactic disk.

Sofue, Yoshiaki; Machida, Mami; Kudoh, Takahiro

2010-10-01

199

LETTER: New method for inductively forming an oblate field reversed configuration from a spheromak  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for inductively forming a field reversed configuration is demonstrated, based on the inductively driven transformation of a spheromak. The driven transition can be achieved in argon and krypton plasmas, in which MHD modes are suppressed; simulations indicate that stability through the transition is explained by magnetic diffusion. Spheromaks with lighter working gas, such as neon and helium,

S. P. Gerhardt; E. V. Belova; M. Yamada; H. Ji; M. Inomoto; Y. Ren; B. McGeehan

2008-01-01

200

Magnetic-field enhancement in gold nanosandwiches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using dispersive finite-difference time-domain (D-FDTD) simulations, we show that a pair of gold nanodisks stacked in a 'sandwich'-like (end-fire) configuration produces a large enhancement of the magnetic field when irradiated with a plane optical wave, if the distance between the nanodisks is optically small. The effect, which can be rationalized in terms of a magnetic dipole resonance, is due the

T. Pakizeh; M. S. Abrishamian; N. Granpayeh; A. Dmitriev; M. Käll

2006-01-01

201

Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken and we explore two scenarios. Increasing the heat flux through the northern hemisphere of the core-mantle boundary is an obvious choice but is not supported by current models for Mercury's mantle. We find that a combination of internal rather than bottom driving and an increased heat flux through the equatorial region of the core-mantle boundary also promotes the required symmetry breaking and results in very Mercury like fields. The reason is that the imposed heat flux pattern, though being equatorially symmetric, lowers the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of equatorially anti-symmetric convection modes. In both scenarios, a stably stratified layer or a feedback coupling to the magnetospheric field is required for lowering the field strength to Mercury-like values.

Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

2014-05-01

202

Use of high magnetic fields at the study of magnetism and superconductivity in intermetallic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields have a large impact on the magnetic and superconducting properties of solids. High magnetic fields are required to reach magnetic saturation along a hard magnetic direction in a variety of rare-earth intermetallics, to break the ferrimagnetic moment configuration in specific 3d-4f intermetallics, to quench the strongly correlated electron states in heavy-fermion compounds, to reach the upper critical fields

J. J. M. Franse; F. R. Deboer; P. H. Frings; A. Devisser

1994-01-01

203

The use of high magnetic fields for the study of magnetism and superconductivity in intermetallic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields have a large impact on the magnetic and superconducting properties of solids. High magnetic fields are required to reach magnetic saturation along a hard magnetic direction in a variety of rare-earth intermetallics, to break the ferrimagnetic moment configuration in specific 3d-4f intermetallics, to quench the strongly correlated electron states in heavy-fermion compounds, to reach the upper critical fields

J. J. M. Franse; F. R. De Boer; P. H. Frings; A. De Visser

1994-01-01

204

The field line topology of a uniform magnetic field superposed on the field of a distributed ring current  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic field line topology with nulls, generated by superimposing a uniform magnetic field onto the field from a distributed ring current, is analyzed. This simple model, which is reminiscent of the structures found in laboratory field reversed configurations and detached plasmoids, is amenable to substantial analytical progress and also facilitates the visualization of the three dimensional field geometry. Four

M. S. Chance; J. M. Greene; T. H. Jensen

1992-01-01

205

Magnetic properties of actinide elements having the 5f6 and 5f7 electronic configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on multimicrogram quantities of 243AmF3, 248CmF4, 248CmO2, and 248CmBaO3 samples (nominally the 5f6 electronic configuration) and on 248Cm2O3, 248CmF3, 249BkF4, and 249BkO2 (nominally the 5f7 electronic configuration) in the temperature range 4.2-300 K and in magnetic fields up to 1650 G. The experimentally determined effective magnetic moments and the Curie-Weiss constants for these compounds are presented. The deviation of the moments for the 5f6 compounds from those expected from classic theory is discussed in terms of low-lying excited states, chemical composition, crystal-field perturbations, and realistic electronic structure.

Nave, S. E.; Haire, R. G.; Huray, Paul G.

1983-09-01

206

Magnetic Field of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can learn about how the magnetic field of the earth is similar to magnets. Go to the following link: Magnetic Field of the Earth 1. What makes the earth like a magnet? 2. How do we measure magnetism? Be sure to check out the fun games and activities on this web site too!! Now click on the following link and listen to a 2 minute presentation about magnetism: Pulse Planet Next go to ...

Merritt, Mrs.

2005-10-18

207

Probing Magnetic Configurations in Buried Cobalt/Copper Multilayered Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multilayered magnetic nanowires have been a model system for heterostructured junctions that exhibit a host of fascinating perpendicular spin transport phenomena, such as giant and tunneling magnetoresistance (MR), and spin-transfer torque effects. Due to the extremely small physical dimensions the magnetic components in these nanowires or junctions often exhibit complex magnetization reversal behaviors, which are difficult to probe by magnetic imaging since the entities are buried deep inside a matrix. Conventional hysteresis loop measurement alone cannot reliably distinguish the reversal mechanisms either. In this work we have captured magnetic and MR ``fingerprints'' of Co nanodiscs in Co/Cu multilayered nanowires as they undergo a single domain to vortex state transition, using a first-order reversal curve (FORC) method [1]. The nanowires have been electrochemically deposited into nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. In 50 nm diameter [Co(5nm)/Cu(8nm)]400 nanowires, a 10% MR effect is observed at 300 K. In 200 nm diameter nanowires, the magnetic configurations can be tuned by adjusting the Co nanodisc aspect ratio. Nanowires with thinnest Co exhibit single domain behavior. Those with thicker Co exhibit vortex states, where the irreversible nucleation and annihilation of the vortices are manifested as butterfly-like features in the FORC distributions, similar to those observed in arrays of Fe nanodots [2]. They also show a superposition of giant and anisotropic magnetoresistance, which corresponds to the specific magnetic configurations of the Co nanodiscs. [4pt] [1] J. E. Davies, et al, Phys. Rev. B 70, 224434 (2004); Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 262503 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 77, 014421 (2008).[0pt] [2] R. K. Dumas, et al, Phys. Rev. B 75, 134405 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202501 (2007).

Liu, Kai

2009-03-01

208

Method for the identification of the field configuration in presence of the localized perturbation observed in RFP toroidal plasma devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the identification of the magnetic field configuration inside a RFP plasma, affected by a localized nonaxisymmetric perturbation, is presented. The knowledge of the magnetic field on a closed surface located around the plasma torus, together with a simplified plasma model, assures a unique solution for this inverse problem

G. Chitarin

1999-01-01

209

Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments for validated determination of the helical field coil location in stellarators  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the behavior of plasmas in magnetic confinement fusion devices typically requires accurate knowledge of the magnetic field structure. In stellarator-type confinement devices, the helical magnetic field is produced by currents in external coils and may be traced experimentally in the absence of plasma through the experimental technique of vacuum magnetic field mapping. Field mapping experiments, such as these, were performed on the recently constructed compact toroidal hybrid to verify the range of accessible magnetic configurations, compare the actual magnetic configuration with the design configuration, and identify any vacuum field errors that lead to perturbations of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces. Furthermore, through the use of a new coil optimization routine, modifications are made to the simulation coil model such that better agreement exists between the experimental and simulation results. An outline of the optimization procedure is discussed in conjunction with the results of one such optimization process performed on the helical field coil.

Peterson, J.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G.; Knowlton, S. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

2010-03-15

210

THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-12-10

211

Magnetic Field Topology in Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

2000-01-01

212

The WIND magnetic field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and

R. P. Lepping; M. H. Ac?na; L. F. Burlaga; W. M. Farrell; J. A. Slavin; K. H. Schatten; F. Mariani; N. F. Ness; F. M. Neubauer; Y. C. Whang; J. B. Byrnes; R. S. Kennon; P. V. Panetta; J. Scheifele; E. M. Worley

1995-01-01

213

Low field magnetic resonance imaging  

DOEpatents

A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2010-07-13

214

Electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

1982-01-01

215

Codigo de calculo de campos magneticos FLINESH. (FLINESH computer code for magnetic fields calculation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the 'FLINESH' computer code for magnetic fields calculation developed for the simulation of field configurations in plasma magnetic confinement devices. The expressions for the poloidal field and flux, the program structure and the in...

C. S. Shibata A. Montes R. M. O. Galvao

1994-01-01

216

CSEM-steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies  

SciTech Connect

Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 kOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields.

Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

1985-05-01

217

Diffusion of magnetic field via turbulent reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of astrophysical magnetic fields in conducting fluids in the presence of turbulence depends on whether magnetic fields can change their topology via reconnection in highly conducting media. Recent progress in understanding fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence is reassuring that the magnetic field behavior in computer simulations and turbulent astrophysical environments is similar, as far as magnetic reconnection is concerned. This makes it meaningful to perform MHD simulations of turbulent flows in order to understand the diffusion of magnetic field in astrophysical environments. Our studies of magnetic field diffusion in turbulent medium reveal interesting new phenomena. First of all, our 3D MHD simulations initiated with anti-correlating magnetic field and gaseous density exhibit at later times a de-correlation of the magnetic field and density, which corresponds well to the observations of the interstellar media. While earlier studies stressed the role of either ambipolar diffusion or time-dependent turbulent fluctuations for de-correlating magnetic field and density, we get the effect of permanent de-correlation with one fluid code, i.e. without invoking ambipolar diffusion. In addition, in the presence of gravity and turbulence, our 3D simulations show the decrease of the magnetic flux-to-mass ratio as the gaseous density at the center of the gravitational potential increases. We observe this effect both in the situations when we start with equilibrium distributions of gas and magnetic field and when we follow the evolution of collapsing dynamically unstable configurations. Thus the process of turbulent magnetic field removal should be applicable both to quasi-static subcritical molecular clouds and cores and violently collapsing supercritical entities. The increase of the gravitational potential as well as the magnetization of the gas increases the segregation of the mass and magnetic flux in the saturated final state of the simulations, supporting the notion that the reconnection-enabled diffusivity relaxes the magnetic field + gas system in the gravitational field to its minimal energy state. This effect is expected to play an important role in star formation, from its initial stages of concentrating interstellar gas to the final stages of the accretion to the forming protostar.

Santos de Lima, Reinaldo; Lazarian, Alexander; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Cho, Jungyeon

2010-05-01

218

Nucleation of bulk superconductivity close to critical magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the two-dimensional Ginzburg–Landau functional with constant applied magnetic field. For applied magnetic fields close to the second critical field HC2 and large Ginzburg–Landau parameter, we provide leading order estimates on the energy of minimizing configurations. We obtain a fine threshold value of the applied magnetic field for which bulk superconductivity contributes to the leading order of the energy.

Søren Fournais; Ayman Kachmar

2011-01-01

219

Implosion of solid liner for compression of field reversed configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and first successful demonstration of an imploding solid liner with height to diameter ratio, radial convergence, and uniformity suitable for compressing a field reversed configuration is discussed. Radiographs indicated a very symmetric implosion with no instability growth, with ~13x radial compression of the inner liner surface prior to impacting a central measurement unit. The implosion kinetic energy was

J. H. Degnan; J. M. Taccetti; T. Cavazos; D. Clark; S. K. Coffey; R. J. Faehl; M. H. Frese; D. Fulton; J. C. Gueits; D. Gale; T. W. Hussey; T. P. Intrator; R. C. Kirkpatrick; G. H. Kiuttu; F. M. Lehr; J. D. Letterio; I. Lindemuth; W. F. McCullough; R. Moses; R. E. Reinovsky; N. F. Roderick; E. L. Ruden; J. S. Shlachter; K. F. Schoenberg; R. E. Siemon; W. Sommars; P. J. Turchi; G. A. Wurden; F. Wysocki

2001-01-01

220

Potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection system using a gradient magnetic field and magnetic flux compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for using a magnetic field in conjunction with conventional shielding configurations to protect against micrometeoroid and orbital debris is presented. Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of a conductor moving through a gradient magnetic field have been performed. The results show that in the high magnetic Reynolds number regime a conducting object will experience large forces that tend to deform it while moving through the gradient field. Additionally a configuration using magnetic flux compression is introduced to act as a magnetic shock absorber. Separately or together, this technology may augment or replace current protection designs for space systems.

Giffin, A.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B.

2010-08-01

221

Plasma transport in a simulated magnetic-divertor configuration  

SciTech Connect

The transport properties of plasma on magnetic field lines that intersect a conducting plate are studied experimentally in the Wisconsin internal ring D.C. machine. The magnetic geometry is intended to simulate certain aspects of plasma phenomena that may take place in a tokamak divertor. It is found by a variety of measurements that the cross field transport is non-ambipolar; this may have important implications in heat loading considerations in tokamak divertors. The undesirable effects of nonambipolar flow make it preferable to be able to eliminate it. However, we find that though the non-ambipolarity may be reduced, it is difficult to eliminate entirely. The plasma flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is found to be near the ion acoustic velocity in all cases. The experimental density and electron temperature profiles are compared to the solutions to a one dimensional transport model that is commonly used in divertor theory.

Strawitch, C. M.

1981-03-01

222

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with an electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater than the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. Magnetic switches and particularly fast kicker magnets are used in the accelerator industry to quickly deflect particle beams into and out of various transport lines, storage rings, dumps, and specifically to differentially route individual bunches of particles from a train of bunches which are injected or ejected from a given ring.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1995-12-31

223

Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

Wyntjes, Geert

2002-02-01

224

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

2013-11-01

225

Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

1983-01-01

226

Evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Remote observations of magnetic field topologies in the solar corona and in situ observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in interplanetary space are used to examine the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of open and closed field regions emanating from the Sun. The simple ``open`` configuration of inward and outward pointing sectors in the IMF is periodically disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from previously closed magnetic field regions in the corona into interplanetary space. At 1 AU, CMEs contain counterstreaming halo electrons which indicate their distinct magnetic topologies. This topology is generally thought to be: plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; magnetic ``bottles,`` still tied to the corona at both ends; or flux ropes which are only partially disconnected. Fully disconnected plasmoids would have no long term effect on the amount of open flux; however, both in situ observations of details of the halo electron distributions and remote coronagraph observations of radial fields following CMEs indicate that CMEs generally do retain at least partial attached to the Sun. Both the magnetic-bottle and flux rope geometries require some mitigating process to close off previously open fields in order to avoid a flux catastrophe. In addition, the average amount of magnetic flux observed in interplanetary space varies over the solar cycle, also indicating that there must be ways in which new flux is opened and previously open flux is closed off. The most likely scenario for closing off open magnetic fields is for reconnection to occurs above helmet streamers, where oppositely directed field regions are juxtaposed in the corona. These events would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open, U-shaped structures into the solar wind.

McComas, D.J.

1993-05-01

227

Evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Remote observations of magnetic field topologies in the solar corona and in situ observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in interplanetary space are used to examine the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of open and closed field regions emanating from the Sun. The simple open'' configuration of inward and outward pointing sectors in the IMF is periodically disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from previously closed magnetic field regions in the corona into interplanetary space. At 1 AU, CMEs contain counterstreaming halo electrons which indicate their distinct magnetic topologies. This topology is generally thought to be: plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; magnetic bottles,'' still tied to the corona at both ends; or flux ropes which are only partially disconnected. Fully disconnected plasmoids would have no long term effect on the amount of open flux; however, both in situ observations of details of the halo electron distributions and remote coronagraph observations of radial fields following CMEs indicate that CMEs generally do retain at least partial attached to the Sun. Both the magnetic-bottle and flux rope geometries require some mitigating process to close off previously open fields in order to avoid a flux catastrophe. In addition, the average amount of magnetic flux observed in interplanetary space varies over the solar cycle, also indicating that there must be ways in which new flux is opened and previously open flux is closed off. The most likely scenario for closing off open magnetic fields is for reconnection to occurs above helmet streamers, where oppositely directed field regions are juxtaposed in the corona. These events would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open, U-shaped structures into the solar wind.

McComas, D.J.

1993-01-01

228

End Plugging in the Gasdynamic Mirror Using a Field Reversed Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gasdynamic Mirror or GDM appears to be a most promising concept for producing extremely high performance rocket engines. Unfortunately, previous studies have indicated that in order to achieve the required plasma characteristics, the GDM will require either magnetic mirror fields which exceed that which can reasonably be obtained in the foreseeable future or unacceptably long main chamber lengths. One method which is currently under investigation to reduce the required magnetic mirror fields required for modest main chamber lengths is through the use of a Reversed Field Configuration (FRC) in the region between the mirror and the main plasma chamber. The FRC would act as a magnetic ``plug" requiring mirror fields only strong enough to prevent FRC ejection through the mirror throat. This requirement is much less stringent than that required to prevent ion ejection through the mirror ``loss cone". A promising technique in generating the FRC is through a procedure whereby a rotating magnetic field is induced in the plasma. If the magnetic field can be made to rotate at a frequency between the ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency, the electrons will be disposed to follow the rotating magnetic field and will create an azmuthal electron current in the plasma which will generate the required FRC. Provided the electron-ion collision frequency is not too great, the FRC can be sustained indefinitely with minimal power requirements.

Emrich, W. J., Jr.

1999-11-01

229

Measuring vector magnetic fields in solar prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet of a quiescent, hedgerow solar prominence. The data were taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The observed He I circular and linear polarization signals are dominated by the Zeeman effect and by atomic level polarization and the Hanle effect, respectively. These observables are sensitive to the strength and orientation of the magnetic field vector at each spatial point of the field of view. We determine the magnetic field vector of the prominence by applying the HAZEL inversion code to the observed Stokes profiles. We briefly discuss the retrieved magnetic field vector configuration.

Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

2013-05-01

230

The Astromag Superconducting Magnet Facility Configured for a FreeFlying Satellite  

SciTech Connect

ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled using superfluid helium. The task of resizing the facility so that it will fly in a satellite in. a high angle of inclination orbit is driven by the launch weight capability of the launch rocket and the desire to be able to do nearly the same physics as the Space Station version of ASTROMAG. In order to reduce the launch weight, the magnet and its cryogenic system had to be downsized, yet the integrated field generated by the magnet in the particle detectors has to match the Space Station version of the magnet. The use of aluminum matrix superconductor and oriented composite materials in the magnet insulation permits one to achieve this goal. The net magnetic dipole moment from the ASTROMAG magnet must be small to minimize the torque due to interaction with the earth's magnetic field. The ASTROMAG magnet consists of identical two coils 1.67 meters apart. The two coils are connected in series in persistent mode. Each coil is designed to carry 2.34 million ampere turns. Both coils are mounted on the same magnetic axis and they operate at opposite polarity. This reduces the dipole moment by a factor of more than 1000. This is tolerable for the Space Station version of the magnet. A magnet operating on a free flying satellite requires additional compensation. This report presents the magnet parameters of a free flying version of ASTROMAG and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet.

Green, M.A.; Smoot, George F.

1991-06-01

231

The ASTROMAG superconducting magnet facility configured for a free flying satellite  

SciTech Connect

ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled using superfluid helium. The task of resizing the facility so that it will fly in a satellite in a high angle of inclination orbit is driven by the launch weight capability of the launch rocket and the desire to be able to do nearly the same physics as the Space Station version of ASTROMAG. In order to reduce the launch weight, the magnet and its cryogenic system had to be downsized, yet the integrated field generated by the magnet in the particle detectors has to match the Space Station version of the magnet. The use of aluminum matrix superconductor and oriented composite materials in the magnet insulation permits one to achieve this goal. The net magnetic dipole moment from the ASTROMAG magnet must be small to minimize the torque due to interaction with the earth's magnetic field. The ASTROMAG magnet consists of identical two coils 1.67 meters apart. The two coils are connected in series in persistent mode. Each coil is designed to carry 2.34 million ampere turns. Both coils are mounted on the same magnetic axis and they operate at opposite polarity. This reduces the dipole moment by a factor of more than 1000. This is tolerable for the Space Station version of the magnet. A magnet operating on a free flying satellite requires additional compensation. This report presents the magnet parameters of a free flying version of ASTROMAG and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet. 12 refs., 6 figs.

Green, M.A.; Smoot, G.F.

1991-06-01

232

Whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient field.  

PubMed

Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background. PMID:16606272

Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D

2006-03-10

233

Whistler Modes with Wave Magnetic Fields Exceeding the Ambient Field  

SciTech Connect

Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.

Stenzel, R.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Strohmaier, K.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

2006-03-10

234

Convective mechanism of amplification and structuring of magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoconvection in a horizontal layer of incompressible fluid is simulated numerically. The initial magnetic field is assumed to be uniform and horizontal. The interaction of quasi-ordered cellular convection with the magnetic field is shown to be able to produce bipolar (and also diverse more complex) configurations of a substantially amplified magnetic field. The operation of this mechanism, which can be regarded as a modification of the mechanism suggested by Tverskoi (1966), is controlled by the very topology of the cellular flow, should be manifest on various spatial scales, and does not require strong initial fields. Magnetic configurations develop both in the central parts of convection cells, where circulatory fluid motion ``winds'' magnetic field lines, and in the network formed by their peripheral regions due to the ``sweeping'' of magnetic field lines.

Getling, A. V.; Kolmychkov, V. V.; Mazhorova, O. S.

2013-07-01

235

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

1996-01-01

236

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1996-08-06

237

Evolution of twisted magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

238

Dynamics of plasma bunch in weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The initially confined plasma bunch in vacuum in the absence of magnetic field unlimitedly expands and cools with time. It occurs that a certain configuration of external magnetic field allows the bunch to accelerate and compress as a whole. Using the exact solution of a system of two 3D Vlasov kinetic equations with a self-consistent electric

D. S. Dorozhkina; V. E. Semenov

1999-01-01

239

Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 1: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 concerning the large scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere are highlighted. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction.

N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; R. P. Lepping; L. F. Burlaga; K. W. Behannon; F. M. Neubauer

1979-01-01

240

Note on a noncritical holographic model with a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We consider a noncritical holographic model constructed from an intersecting brane configuration D4/D4-D4 with an external magnetic field. We investigate the influences of this magnetic field on strongly coupled dynamics by the gauge/gravity correspondence.

Cui Shengliang; Gao Yihong [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China); Seo, Yunseok [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin Sangjin [Physics Department, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Xu Weishui [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Physics Department, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-15

241

Reconnection of Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1.1 The Sun E. R. Priest; 1.2 Earth's magnetosphere J. Birn; Part II. Basic Theory of MHD Reconnection: 2.1 Classical theory of two-dimensional reconnection T. G. Forbes; 2.2 Fundamental concepts G. Hornig; 2.3 Three-dimensional reconnection in the absence of magnetic null points G. Hornig; 2.4 Three-dimensional reconnection at magnetic null points D. Pontin; 2.5 Three-dimensional flux tube reconnection M. Linton; Part III. Basic Theory of Collisionless Reconnection: 3.1 Fundamentals of collisionless reconnection J. Drake; 3.2 Diffusion region physics M. Hesse; 3.3 Onset of magnetic reconnection P. Pritchett; 3.4 Hall-MHD reconnection A. Bhattacharjee and J. Dorelli; 3.5 Role of current-aligned instabilities J. Büchner and W. Daughton; 3.6 Nonthermal particle acceleration M. Hoshino; Part IV. Reconnection in the Magnetosphere: 4.1 Reconnection at the magnetopause: concepts and models J. G. Dorelli and A. Bhattacharjee; 4.2 Observations of magnetopause reconnection K.-H. Trattner; 4.3 On the stability of the magnetotail K. Schindler; 4.4 Simulations of reconnection in the magnetotail J. Birn; 4.5 Observations of tail reconnection W. Baumjohann and R. Nakamura; 4.6 Remote sensing of reconnection M. Freeman; Part V. Reconnection in the Sun's Atmosphere: 5.1 Coronal heating E. R. Priest; 5.2 Separator reconnection D. Longcope; 5.3 Pinching of coronal fields V. Titov; 5.4 Numerical experiments on coronal heating K. Galsgaard; 5.5 Solar flares K. Kusano; 5.6 Particle acceleration in flares: theory T. Neukirch; 5.7 Fast particles in flares: observations L. Fletcher; 6. Open problems J. Birn and E. R. Priest; Bibliography; Index.

Birn, J.; Priest, E. R.

2007-01-01

242

Domain configuration and magnetization switching in arrays of permalloy nanostripes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximity effect in the collective behavior of arrays of magnetic nanostripes is currently a subject of intensive research. The imperative of reducing the size and distances between elements in order to achieve higher storage capacity, faster access to the information as well as low energy consumption, brings consequences about the isolated behavior of the elements and devices. Parallel to each other permalloy nanostripes with high aspect ratio have been prepared by the nanolithography technique. The evolution of the closure domains and the magnetization direction in individual nanostructures has been imaged under applied magnetic fields using Variable Field Magnetic Force Microscopy. Moreover, the magnetostatic interactions between neighboring elements and the proximity effects in arrays of such nanostructures have been quantitatively analyzed by Magnetic Force Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The agreement between simulations and the experimental results allows us to conclude the relevance of those interactions depending on the geometry characteristics. In particular, results suggest that the magnetostatic coupling between adjacent nanostripes vanishes for separation distances higher than 500 nm.

Iglesias-Freire, Ó.; Jaafar, M.; Pérez, L.; de Abril, O.; Vázquez, M.; Asenjo, A.

2014-04-01

243

Some remarkable current configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigate the current configurations imitating the field of the magnetic monopole, of the electric charge and the electrostatic field filling the toroidal cavity. The values of the supercurrent arising in the superconducting coil embracing the magnet...

G. N. Afanas'ev

1997-01-01

244

Matter in strong magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of matter are drastically modified by strong magnetic fields, B>>m2ee3c\\/h3=2.35×109 G (1 G=10-4 T), as are typically found on the surfaces of neutron stars. In such strong magnetic fields, the Coulomb force on an electron acts as a small perturbation compared to the magnetic force. The strong-field condition can also be mimicked in laboratory semiconductors. Because of the

Dong Lai

2001-01-01

245

Suprathermal ion transport in simple magnetized torus configurations  

SciTech Connect

Inspired by suprathermal ion experiments in the basic plasma experiment TORPEX, the transport of suprathermal ions in ideal interchange mode turbulence is theoretically examined in the simple magnetized torus configuration. We follow ion tracer trajectories as specified by ideal interchange mode turbulence imported from a numerical simulation of drift-reduced Braginskii equations. Using the variance of displacements, {sigma}{sup 2}(t){approx}t{sup {gamma}}, we find that {gamma} depends strongly on suprathermal ion injection energy and the relative magnitude of turbulent fluctuations. The value of {gamma} also changes significantly as a function of time after injection, through three distinguishable phases: ballistic, interaction, and asymmetric. During the interaction phase, we find the remarkable presence of three regimes of dispersion: superdiffusive, diffusive, and subdiffusive, depending on the energy of the suprathermal ions and the amplitude of the turbulent fluctuations. We contrast these results with those from a 'slab' magnetic geometry in which subdiffusion does not occur during the interaction phase. Initial results from TORPEX are consistent with data from a new synthetic diagnostic used to interpret our simulation results. The simplicity of the simple magnetized torus makes the present work of interest to analyses of more complicated contexts ranging from fusion devices to astrophysics and space plasma physics.

Gustafson, K.; Ricci, P.; Bovet, A.; Furno, I.; Fasoli, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-06-15

246

Zero-dimensional model for field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

A 0-D model has been developed to study energy, particle, and internal flux confinement during the equilibrium phase in field-reversed configurations (FRC's). Earlier work has been extended to include: (1) a 1-D radial equilibrium pressure profile consistent with particle transport calculations; (2) a time-dependent treatment of impurity radiation losses; (3) a more consistent treatment of ohmic power. The 0-D model is described. Example numerical solutions are presented.

Rej, D.J.; Tuszewski, M.

1982-01-01

247

Magnetic field draping about coronal mass ejecta  

SciTech Connect

Fast coronal mass ejecta (CMEs) accelerate and deflect the slower moving solar wind plasma which piles up ahead of them as they propagate out through the heliosphere. This acceleration and deflection, in turn, causes the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) imbedded in the upstream solar wind to drape about the ejecta. Draping should cause substantial out-of-the-ecliptic magnetic fields at some locations ahead of CMEs, and radial fields behind and along the flanks. At the Earth, draping can be an important factor in the generation of some magnetic storms and substorms, while in the outer heliosphere draping may produce very large magnetotail-like configurations, somewhat analogous to those observed behind Venus and comets. 17 refs.

McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T.

1987-01-01

248

The Effects of Magnetic Nozzle Configurations on Plasma Thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the course of eight years, the Ohio State University has performed research in support of electric propulsion development efforts at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. This research has been largely devoted to plasma propulsion systems including MagnetoPlasmaDynamic (MPD) thrusters with externally-applied, solenoidal magnetic fields, hollow cathodes, and Pulsed Plasma Microthrusters (PPT's). Both experimental and theoretical work has been performed, as documented in four master's theses, two doctoral dissertations, and numerous technical papers. The present document is the final report for the grant period 5 December 1987 to 31 December 1995, and summarizes all activities. Detailed discussions of each area of activity are provided in appendices: Appendix 1 - Experimental studies of magnetic nozzle effects on plasma thrusters; Appendix 2 - Numerical modeling of applied-field MPD thrusters; Appendix 3 - Theoretical and experimental studies of hollow cathodes; and Appendix 4 -Theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of pulsed plasma thrusters. Especially notable results include the efficacy of using a solenoidal magnetic field downstream of a plasma thruster to collimate the exhaust flow, the development of a new understanding of applied-field MPD thrusters (based on experimentally-validated results from state-of-the art, numerical simulation) leading to predictions of improved performance, an experimentally-validated, first-principles model for orificed, hollow-cathode behavior, and the first time-dependent, two-dimensional calculations of ablation-fed, pulsed plasma thrusters.

Turchi, P. J.

1997-01-01

249

Dynamic evolution of coronal magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of coronal magnetic fields to photospheric motion is investigated using a time-dependent, two-dimensional MHD simulation. Starting with an initially uniform field, a circular section of the loop base is slowly rotated to represent the photospheric motion. The field lines at the base move with this flow in a manner consistent with the generated electric fields. The subsequent evolution of the field and flow can be characterized as passing through several distinct configurations. In the earliest phase the kinetic energy is negligible, and the current and field are parallel throughout most of the cylinder. This is followed by a period in which the field rotation increases, the axial field at and near the axis increases, and the acial field decreases in two cylindrical regions away from the axis. When the field in an appreciable portion of the cylinder has undergone one complete rotation, a rapid change in field configuration occurs with a large portion of the field making several rotations at large radii and a corresponding large reduction in the axial field.

Steinolfson, Richard S.

1986-01-01

250

Diagnosing the high density FRX-L Field Reversed Configuration plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FRX-L plasma is a high pressure, high density, field reversed configuration (FRC), at n ˜1x10^16-1x10^17 cm-3, and hundreds of eV electron temperature. In order to study formation, equilibrium, transport, flow, and confinement issues, we have a suite of diagnostics. Standard plasma diagnostics include B-dot probes, magnetic flux loops, single and multi-channel visible spectroscopy, optical light tomography arrays, up to

G. A. Wurden; T. P. Intrator; R. M. Renneke; L. A. Dorf; M. W. Farrell; T. K. Gray; S. C. Hsu; A. G. Lynn; E. L. Ruden

2006-01-01

251

Magnetic fields around evolved stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

2014-04-01

252

The Sun's global magnetic field.  

PubMed

Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

Mackay, Duncan H

2012-07-13

253

Magnetic tunnel junctions for low magnetic field sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we did a comprehensive investigation on the relationship between spin-dependent tunneling and structural variation in junction devices. Magnetic, microstructural, and transport studies have shown a significant improvement in exchange-bias, a reduced barrier roughness, and an enhanced magnetoresistance for samples after magnetic annealing. We have examined different magnetic configurations required for sensing applications and presented some results of using MTJ sensors to detect AC magnetic fields created by electrical current flow and DC stray field distributions of patterned magnetic materials. We have studied the low frequency noise in MTJ sensors. We have found that the 1/f noise in MTJs has magnetic as well as electrical origins, and is strongly affected by the junction's internal structure. The magnetic noise comes from magnetization fluctuations in the free FM layer and can be understood using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. While the field-independent electrical noise due to charge trapping in the barrier, is observed in the less optimized MTJs sensors, and has an amplitude at least one order of magnitude higher than the noise component due to magnetization fluctuations. In addition, we have studied the magnetization switching of Cobalt rings with varying anisotropy utilizing scanning magnetoresistive microscopy. We have for the first time observed a complicated multi-domain intermediate phase during the transition between onion states for samples with strong anisotropy. This is in contrast to as deposited samples, which reverse by simple domain wall motion and feature an intermediate vortex state. The result is further analyzed by micro magnetic simulations.

Liu, Xiaoyong

254

Magnetic Field Topology and Observed Energy Release Locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field is thought to be the source of the energy release in many and varied observed coronal phenomena, from the less energetic coronal heating to the most violent flares and prominence eruptions. These phenomena involve not only very different scales from the energetic, but also from the temporal, point of view. Magnetic field reconnection, which is efficient only at very small spatial scales, has been the energy release mechanism that has been so far proposed. From a theoretical point of view, magnetic configurations with a complex topology, i.e. having separatrices, are the ones where current sheets can form in 2D. When going to 3D, and if the photospheric magnetic field is described by a series of isolated polarities (surrounded by field free regions), a complete topological description is given by the skeleton formed by null points, spines, fans and separators, and associated separatrices. However, if the photosphere is fully magnetized, most of the above topological structures disappear: only separatrices associated to coronal magnetic nulls remain. An extra set of separatrices is associated to the field lines curved up above the photosphere (defining the bald-patch locations). For some observed magnetic configurations, those topological structures are enough to understand where flare brightenings appear as a result of magnetic field reconnection. However, solar active phenomena are seen to occur also in a larger variety of configurations. Quasi-separatrix layers, which are regions where there is a drastic change in field-line linkage, generalize the concept of separatrices to magnetic configurations without magnetic null points and bald patches. We will review examples of observed flaring regions and their topologies that show us that magnetic reconnection can occur in wider variety of magnetic configurations than traditionally thought.

Mandrini, C. H.

2006-08-01

255

Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.

2014-04-01

256

The Extended Coronal Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coronal magnetic field should contain many field lines connecting the photosphere to interplanetary space. A sharp boundary separates two adjacent sectors of opposite polarity. The large-scale structure of the corona is related to the photospheric sec...

J. M. Wilcox

1970-01-01

257

Flares and Changing Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the principal objectives of the magnetic field observing program at the Sacramento Peak Observatory has been to discover whether there are any observable changes in the photospheric fields at the time of flares.

D. M. Rust

1972-01-01

258

Heat pipes for use in a magnetic field  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe configuration for use in a magnetic field environment of a fusion reactor. Heat pipes for operation in a magnetic field when liquid metal working fluids are used are optimized by flattening of the heat pipes having an unobstructed annulus which significantly reduces the adverse side region effect of the prior known cylindrically configured heat pipes. The flattened heat pipes operating in a magnetic field can remove 2--3 times the heat as a cylindrical heat pipe of the same cross sectional area.

Werner, Richard W. (San Ramon, CA); Hoffman, Myron A. (Davis, CA)

1983-01-01

259

Heat pipes for use in a magnetic field  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe configuration for use in a magnetic field environment of a fusion reactor is disclosed. Heat pipes for operation in a magnetic field when liquid metal working fluids are used are optimized by flattening of the heat pipes having an unobstructed annulus which significantly reduces the adverse side region effect of the prior known cylindrically configured heat pipes. The flattened heat pipes operating in a magnetic field can remove 2--3 times the heat as a cylindrical heat pipe of the same cross sectional area. 4 figs.

Werner, R.W.; Hoffman, M.A.

1983-07-19

260

The Wind Magnetic Field Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and associated electronics. The dual configuration provides redundancy and also permits accurate removal of the dipolar portion of the spacecraft magnetic field. The instrument provides (1) near real-time data at nominally one vector per 92 s as key parameter data for broad dissemination, (2) rapid data at 10.9 vectors s-1 for standard analysis, and (3) occasionally, snapshot (SS) memory data and Fast Fourier Transform data (FFT), both based on 44 vectors s-1. These measurements will be precise (0.025%), accurate, ultra-sensitive (0.008 nT/step quantization), and where the sensor noise level is <0.006 nT r.m.s. for 0 10 Hz. The digital processing unit utilizes a 12-bit microprocessor controlled analogue-to-digital converter. The instrument features a very wide dynamic range of measurement capability, from ±4 nT up to ±65 536 nT per axis in eight discrete ranges. (The upper range permits complete testing in the Earth's field.) In the FTT mode power spectral density elements are transmitted to the ground as fast as once every 23 s (high rate), and 2.7 min of SS memory time series data, triggered automatically by pre-set command, requires typically about 5.1 hours for transmission. Standard data products are expected to be the following vector field averages: 0.0227-s (detail data from SS), 0.092 s (‘detail’ in standard mode), 3 s, 1 min, and 1 hour, in both GSE and GSM coordinates, as well as the FFT spectral elements. As has been our team's tradition, high instrument reliability is obtained by the use of fully redundant systems and extremely conservative designs. We plan studies of the solar wind: (1) as a collisionless plasma laboratory, at all time scales, macro, meso and micro, but concentrating on the kinetic scale, the highest time resolution of the instrument (=0.022 s), (2) as a consequence of solar energy and mass output, (3) as an external source of plasma that can couple mass, momentum, and energy to the Earth's magnetosphere, and (4) as it is modified as a consequence of its imbedded field interacting with the moon. Since the GEOTAIL Inboard Magnetometer (GIM), which is similar to the MFI instrument, was developed by members of our team, we provide a brief discussion of GIM related science objectives, along with MFI related science goals.

Lepping, R. P.; Ac?na, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Farrell, W. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Schatten, K. H.; Mariani, F.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.; Whang, Y. C.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kennon, R. S.; Panetta, P. V.; Scheifele, J.; Worley, E. M.

1995-02-01

261

MT-index - a possible new index to characterize the magnetic configuration of magnetotail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing activity indices (magnetic indices like AE, Kp, Dst or indices based on solar wind parameters) are poor predictors of the instantaneous magnetospheric configuration. We suggest a new activity index - the MT-index. It is defined as the invariant latitude of the isotropic boundary (IB) of \\uparrow100 keV protons reduced to the midnight meridian. This IB is a low-altitude signature of the boundary between regions of adiabatic and chaotic regimes of particle motion in the tail current sheet which is controlled by the magnetic field in the equatorial near-Earth tail (at 5-10Re). We have investigated the local time and activity dependence of the IB latitude based on data from about 2000 orbits of NOAA spacecraft. By finding the formula to reduce the IB latitude to midnight meridian, we then evaluate the accuracy of the derived index. We compared the MT-index with the magnetic field measured simultaneously by geosynchronous GOES-2 spacecraft and showed that, unlike the traditional indices, the MT-index displays a good correlation (r\\uparrow0.9) with the magnetic field inclination in the nightside portion of the geosynchronous orbit. It is, thus, a good measure to characterize quantitatively the tailward stretching of the tail magnetic field. Based on the measured MT value, a simple numerical procedure is suggested to choose the version of the T89 magnetospheric model. We conclude that the MT-index is the best known predictor of the instantaneous magnetic configuration in the near-Earth magnetotail. It may be available on a regular basis and can be implemented for scientific studies.

Sergeev, V. A.; Gvozdevsky, B. B.

1995-10-01

262

Plasma Expansion in Presence of Electric and Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

The presence of electric and magnetic fields in high enthalpy nozzle flows can produce strong effects. In particular, non equilibrium conditions can be observed when this field are present. In this work we have investigated two different field configurations in supersonic nozzle: first of all we have studied the cooperative effect of electric and magnetic field applied inside the nozzle and secondly we have investigated the role of non equilibrium distribution produced in the reservoir by electric discharge (plasma jet)

Colonna, Gianpiero; Capitelli, Mario [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Bari (Italy); CNR-IMIP, Bari Section (Italy)

2005-05-16

263

Dresden pulsed magnetic field facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status quo of the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) that is being set up at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Dresden, Germany. First pulsed-field coils reaching up to 71 T with a pulse duration of about 100 ms have been designed, constructed, and tested. A two-coil 100 T magnet and a long-pulse (1000 ms) 60 T magnet are under construction. Electrical-transport and magnetization experiments are running routinely in the pilot laboratory at the IFW Dresden. The feasibility of NMR experiments in pulsed-field environments has been proven.

Wosnitza, J.; Bianchi, A. D.; Freudenberger, J.; Haase, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Kozlova, N.; Schultz, L.; Skourski, Y.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Zvyagin, S. A.

2007-03-01

264

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-01

265

Magnetic field sensor by orthoferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all ferromagnets orthoferrites possess the highest velocities of domain wall motion. Dynamic properties of a magnetic field meter based on domain wall dynamics in yttrium orthoferrite are reported. It is shown that at low driving magnetic fields and at frequencies up to the MHz band domain wall dynamics can be adequately described by linear equations. In a wide range

Y. S. Didosyan; V. Y. Barash; N. A. Bovarin; H. Hauser; P. Fulmek

1997-01-01

266

THE CLUSTER MAGNETIC FIELD INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cluster mission provides a new opportunity to study plasma processes and structures in the near-Earth plasma environment. Four-point measurements of the magnetic field will enable the analysis of the three dimensional structure and dynamics of a range of phenomena which shape the macroscopic properties of the magnetosphere. Difference measurements of the magnetic field data will be combined to derive

A. Balogh; M. W. Dunlop; S. W. H. Cowley; D. J. Southwood; J. G. Thomlinson; K. H. Glassmeier; G. Musmann; H. Luhr; S. Buchert; M. H. AcuÑA; D. H. Fairfield; J. A. Slavin; W. Riedler; K. Schwingenschuh; M. G. Kivelson

1997-01-01

267

Dresden pulsed magnetic field facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the status quo of the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) that is being set up at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Dresden, Germany. First pulsed-field coils reaching up to 71T with a pulse duration of about 100ms have been designed, constructed, and tested. A two-coil 100T magnet and a long-pulse (1000ms) 60T magnet are under construction. Electrical-transport

J. Wosnitza; A. D. Bianchi; J. Freudenberger; J. Haase; T. Herrmannsdörfer; N. Kozlova; L. Schultz; Y. Skourski; S. Zherlitsyn; S. A. Zvyagin

2007-01-01

268

Magnetic configurations related to the coronal heating and solar wind generation. I. Twist and expansion profiles of magnetic loops produced by flux emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of outflows from the Sun known as solar winds is coupled with the heating of the solar corona, and both processes are operated in magnetic structures formed on the Sun. To study the magnetic configuration responsible for these processes, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to reproduce magnetic structures via flux emergence and investigate their configurations. We focus on two key quantities characterizing a magnetic configuration: the force-free parameter ? and the flux expansion rate fex, the former of which represents how much a magnetic field is twisted while the latter represents how sharply a magnetic field expands. We derive distributions of these quantities in an emerging flux region. Our result shows that an emerging flux region consists of an outer part where a magnetic loop takes a large flux expansion rate but a small value of ? at their photospheric footpoints, and an inner part occupied by those loops where a strong electric current flows. We also investigate the expansion profile of a magnetic loop comprising an emerging flux region. The profile is given by an exponential expansion type near the solar surface while it is given by a quadratic expansion type in an outer atmosphere. These detailed magnetic configurations obtained by this study contribute to developing a realistic model for the coronal heating and solar wind generation.

Lee, Hwanhee; Magara, Tetsuya

2014-05-01

269

Resistivity in the dynamic current sheath of a field reversed configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resistivity of a field reversed configuration in a theta-pinch with slow rising current was investigated during the turbulent phase from the moment of field reversal until end of plasma radial implosion. This transport coefficient was obtained in a hydrogen plasma by local measurements with magnetic probe and compared to numerical calculations with Chodura resistivity and evolution of lower hybrid drift instability. The values of resistivity are higher than those predicted by classical binary collision. During early phase of confinement, the doubly layer structure of current sheath in the low electric field machine was theoretically well reproduced with anomalous collision frequency calculated with Chodura resistivity that provides appropriate conditions for onset of lower hybrid drift instability and the regular evolution of pinch. The plasma dynamic, radial profiles of magnetic field during the radial compression and resistivity values were equally close to those observed by the measurements.

Kayama, M. E.

2012-03-01

270

Poloidal magnetic fields in superconducting neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the formalism for computing the magnetic field within an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong type II superconductor core surrounded by a normal conductor. The formalism takes full account of the constraints imposed by hydrostatic equilibrium with a barotropic equation of state. A characteristic of this problem is that the currents and fields need to be determined simultaneously and self-consistently. Within the core, the strong type II limit B ? H allows us to compute the shapes of individual field lines. We specialize to purely poloidal magnetic fields that are perpendicular to the equator, and develop the `most dipolar case' in which field lines are vertical at the outer radius of the core, which leads to a magnetic field at the stellar surface that is as close to a dipole as possible. We demonstrate that although field lines from the core may only penetrate a short distance into the normal shell, boundary conditions at the inner radius of the normal shell control the field strength on the surface. Remarkably, we find that for a Newtonian N = 1 polytrope, the surface dipole field strength is Bsurf ? Hb?b/3, where Hb is the magnetic field strength at the outer boundary of the type II core and ?bR is the thickness of the normal shell. For reasonable models, Hb ? 1014 G and ?b ? 0.1 so the surface field strength is Bsurf ? 3 × 1012 G, comparable to the field strengths of many radio pulsars. In general, Hb and ?b are both determined by the equation of state of nuclear matter and by the mass of the neutron star, but Bsurf ˜ 1012 G is probably a robust result for the `most dipolar' case. We speculate on how the wide range of neutron star surface fields might arise in situations with less restrictions on the internal field configuration. We show that quadrupolar distortions are ˜-10-9(Hb/1014 G)2 and arise primarily in the normal shell for B ? Hb.

Henriksson, K. T.; Wasserman, I.

2013-06-01

271

Superconductivity at High Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using pulsed-magnetic-field techniques, we have studied the magnetic-field-induced superconducting transitions of alloys in the systems Ti-V, Ti-Nb, Ti-Ta, Ti-Mo, Zr-Nb, Hf-Nb, Hf-Ta, U-Nb, and U-Mo. For concentrated alloys the low-current-density resistive critical field Hr(J<~10 A\\/cm2) is nearly independent of the amount of cold working and the relative orientations of magnetic field, current, and anisotropic defect structure. The observed values of

T. G. Berlincourt; R. R. Hake

1963-01-01

272

Laboratory Measurements of Astrophysical Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that high Mach number collisionless shocks propagating in an initially unmagnetized plasma play a major role in the magnetization of large scale structures in the Universe. A detailed study of the experimental configuration necessary to scale such environments down to laboratory dimensions will be presented. We will show initial results from preliminary experiments conducted at the Phoenix laser (UCLA) and the LULI laser (Ecole Polytechnique) where collisionless shocks are generated by the expansion of exploding foils driven by energetic laser beams. The time evolution of the magnetic field is probed with induction coils placed at 10 cm from the laser focus. We will discuss various mechanisms of magnetic field generation and compare them with the experimental results.

Murphy, C. D.; Miniati, F.; Edwards, M.; Mithen, J.; Bell, A. R.; Constantin, C.; Everson, E.; Schaeffer, D.; Niemann, C.; Ravasio, A.; Brambrink, E.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Gregory, C.; Woolsey, N.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ryutov, D.; Bingham, R.; Gargate, L.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gregori, G.

2010-11-01

273

High latitude solar magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kitt Peak magnetograms are used to measure polar magnetic fields. The polar mean absolute field increases at the same time as the polar mean field decreases. That is, the polar mean absolute field varies in phase with solar activity, in contrast to the out of phase variation of the mean polar field. It is found that the polar fields have a large bipolar component even at solar minimum, with a magnitude equal to that found at low latitudes outside the active latitude bands.

Murray, Norman

1992-01-01

274

A model of the magnetosheath magnetic field during magnetic clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic clouds (MCs) are huge interplanetary structures which originate from the Sun and have a paramount importance in driving magnetospheric storms. Before reaching the magnetosphere, MCs interact with the Earth's bow shock. This may alter their structure and therefore modify their expected geoeffectivity. We develop a simple 3-D model of the magnetosheath adapted to MCs conditions. This model is the first to describe the interaction of MCs with the bow shock and their propagation inside the magnetosheath. We find that when the MC encounters the Earth centrally and with its axis perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line, the MC's magnetic structure remains mostly unchanged from the solar wind to the magnetosheath. In this case, the entire dayside magnetosheath is located downstream of a quasi-perpendicular bow shock. When the MC is encountered far from its centre, or when its axis has a large tilt towards the ecliptic plane, the MC's structure downstream of the bow shock differs significantly from that upstream. Moreover, the MC's structure also differs from one region of the magnetosheath to another and these differences vary with time and space as the MC passes by. In these cases, the bow shock configuration is mainly quasi-parallel. Strong magnetic field asymmetries arise in the magnetosheath; the sign of the magnetic field north-south component may change from the solar wind to some parts of the magnetosheath. We stress the importance of the Bx component. We estimate the regions where the magnetosheath and magnetospheric magnetic fields are anti-parallel at the magnetopause (i.e. favourable to reconnection). We find that the location of anti-parallel fields varies with time as the MCs move past Earth's environment, and that they may be situated near the subsolar region even for an initially northward magnetic field upstream of the bow shock. Our results point out the major role played by the bow shock configuration in modifying or keeping the structure of the MCs unchanged. Note that this model is not restricted to MCs, it can be used to describe the magnetosheath magnetic field under an arbitrary slowly varying interplanetary magnetic field.

Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.

2014-02-01

275

Real gas flow fields about three dimensional configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real gas, inviscid supersonic flow fields over a three-dimensional configuration are determined using a factored implicit algorithm. Air in chemical equilibrium is considered and its local thermodynamic properties are computed by an equilibrium composition method. Numerical solutions are presented for both real and ideal gases at three different Mach numbers and at two different altitudes. Selected results are illustrated by contour plots and are also tabulated for future reference. Results obtained compare well with existing tabulated numerical solutions and hence validate the solution technique.

Balakrishnan, A.; Lombard, C. K.; Davy, W. C.

1983-01-01

276

Some effects of interference flow fields on supersonic configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of selected results for various basic research models is presented in order to illustrate some effects of interference flow fields at supersonic speeds. Some general effects of wings and tails on typical cruciform missile configurations are shown. Several arrangements of cruise-type missile concepts are presented to show the effects of added body volume on the lift-drag ratio. In addition, the effects of several tail arrangements and some effects of body cross-section on the directional stability characteristics are included.

Spearman, M. L.

1986-01-01

277

Configuration factors of various elements of a shielded collector field  

SciTech Connect

A shielded collector model is developed to predict the solar irradiance received by a tilted flat collector in a field of solar collectors. The model has the same form as the conventional model commonly used, but with the use of several correction factors to account for the effect of shielding by adjacent collectors. For this purpose analysis is given to derive the expressions of the configuration factors between a flat collector, shielded by one or more collectors in the preceding row, and the ground and the sky. The analytical expressions of these configuration factors are found to depend on the dimensions of each collector (width and length), tilt angle, a spacing between collector rows, and the relative position of the collector with respect to the shielding collectors in the preceding row. In a first level of calculation accuracy, the use of these configuration factors in the shielded collector model showed that the conventional model overestimates both the solar irradiance and the monthly-averaged daily solar radiation received by the collector. the use of the shielded collector model is thus recommended as a more accurate model than the conventional model.

Elsayed, M.M.; Al-Beirutty, M.H. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1992-01-01

278

PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, K., E-mail: tyamamot@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

2012-06-20

279

Magnetic field structure evolution in rotating magnetic field plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A study of magnetic field structure evolution during 40-ms plasma discharge has been performed in a new device with 80 cm long/40 cm diameter cylindrical chamber, in which a plasma current I{sub p}{approx_equal}2 kA was driven and sustained by a rotating magnetic field. The main focus of the experiments is on how the changes in externally applied magnetic field affect the current profile and magnetic field in plasma. During plasma discharge, a pulse current was briefly fed to a magnetic coil located at the midplane (middle coil). The magnetic field in cross section of plasma was scanned with pickup probes. Two regimes were studied: without and with an external toroidal field (TF) produced by axial I{sub z} current. With a relatively small current (I{sub m} {<=} 600 A) in the middle coil, the plasma current is boosted up to 5 kA. The magnetic flux surfaces become extended along the axial Z direction, sometimes with the formation of doublet shape plasma. The regime without TF appears to be less stable, presumably due to the reversal of plasma current in central area of plasma column.

Petrov, Yuri; Yang Xiaokang; Huang, T.-S. [Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States)

2008-07-15

280

Monopoles without magnetic charges: Finite energy monopole-antimonopole configurations in CP1 model and restricted QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new type of regular monopole-like field configuration in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and CP1 model. The monopole configuration can be treated as a monopole-antimonopole pair without localized magnetic charges. An exact numeric solution for a simple monopole-antimonopole solution has been obtained in CP1 model with an appropriate potential term. We suppose that similar monopole solutions may exist in effective theories of QCD and in the electroweak standard model.

Zou, L. P.; Pak, D. G.; Zhang, P. M.

2014-01-01

281

Spinning magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible electrical charge model based on the spinning time invariant point magnetic dipole within the framework of classical physics is outlined, as suggested by the admissible circular trajectory of a test charge around the magnetic dipole in its equatorial plane. The model depends on the moving force line hypothesis which has been claimed to have been disproved. The controversy

Jovan Djuric

1975-01-01

282

Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence - III. Influence of field configuration and mass injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stresses produced by magnetorotational turbulence can provide effective angular momentum transport in accretion discs. However, questions remain about the ability of simulated discs to reproduce observationally inferred stress-to-gas-pressure ratios. In this paper, we present a set of high-resolution global magnetohydrodynamic disc simulations which are initialized with different field configurations: purely toroidal, vertical field lines, and nested poloidal loops. A mass source term is included which allows the total disc mass to equilibrate in simulations with long run times, and also enables the impact of rapid mass injection to be explored. Notably different levels of angular momentum transport are observed during the early-time transient disc evolution. However, given sufficient time to relax, the different models evolve to a statistically similar quasi-steady state with a stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, ˜ 0.032-0.036. Such behaviour is anticipated based on consideration of mean magnetic field evolution subject to our adopted simulation boundary conditions. The indication from our results is that steady, isolated discs may be unable to maintain a large-scale magnetic field or produce values for the stress-to-gas-pressure ratio implied by some observations. Supplementary simulations exploring the influence of trapping magnetic field, injecting vertical field, and rapidly injecting additional mass into the disc show that large stresses can be induced by these mechanisms. In the first instance, a highly magnetized disc is produced with ˜ 0.21, whereas the latter cases lead to a transient burst of accretion with a peak ? 0.1-0.25. As a whole, the simulations highlight the common late-time evolution and characteristics of turbulent discs for which the magnetic field is allowed to evolve freely (i.e. without constraint/replenishment). In contrast, if the boundaries of the disc, the rate of injection of magnetic field, or the rate of mass replenishment are modified to mimic astrophysical discs, markedly different disc evolution occurs.

Parkin, E. R.

2014-07-01

283

Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution  

DOEpatents

The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency. 15 figures.

Prueitt, M.L.; Mueller, F.M.; Smith, J.L.

1991-04-09

284

Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution  

DOEpatents

The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

285

Magnetic fields in galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is established that galaxy clusters host magnetic fields of the order of a few ?G, both, their origin as well as their role in the intracluster medium (ICM) remain unclear. I will review the observational evidence for magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and present various lines of research that study the effects of magnetic fields in the ICM. Magnetic fields affect the way in which galaxies interact with the ICM, they may render the ICM buoyantly unstable in the presence of anisotropic thermal conduction, and they affect the thermal structure of the gas in cluster cores. Finally, opportunities for future research in this field, in particular in light of new radio telescopes is highlighted.

Brüggen, M.

2013-06-01

286

Preflare magnetic and velocity fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

1986-01-01

287

Ion-Acoustic Double Layer in a Magnetic Picket Fence Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small amplitude double layer formed across the magnetic sheath of a picket fence configuration has been experimentally observed in a multi-magnetic-dipole discharge plasma. The double layer is shown to be associated with the anomalous resistivity caused...

J. L. Ferreira G. O. Ludwig A. Montes

1985-01-01

288

Broad Ion Beam Extraction from Large Bore ECR Ion Source with Cylindrically Comb-Shaped Magnetic Fields Configuration by Feeding Simultaneously 11 to 13 GHz and 2.45 GHz Microwaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tried to enlarge the operation window of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for producing the ECR plasma confined by cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic field, and for extracting the broad ion beam under the low pressures and low microwave powers. The magnetic field by permanent magnets constructs ECR zones at different positions for 2.45 GHz and 11 to 13 GHz microwaves, respectively. According to probe measurements, profiles of plasma density and temperature are different for using each single microwave. We conduct production of ECR plasma by launching simultaneously these two frequency microwaves, and obtain flat profiles of the electron density and the electron temperature. These profiles are not achieved by feeding single frequency microwave. It is found that plasma can be controllable on spatial profiles beyond wide operation window of plasma parameters. We conducted preliminary extracting and forming large bore ion beam from this source. We will make this source a part of tandem type ion source for the first stage. We investigated feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams as like to universal source based on ECR ion source.

Kato, Y.; Satani, T.; Matsui, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, F.; Iida, T.

2008-11-01

289

Magnetic Field Effect Transistors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been demonstrated that magnetic Cr02 can be selectively deposited on semiconductor substrates and polymide resin plastics with feature resolution smaller than micron. In addition, hard coatings have been fabricated to protect active devices as well...

J. T. Spencer P. A. Dowben

1990-01-01

290

The interplanetary and solar magnetic field sector structures, 1962 - 1968  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interplanetary magnetic field sector structure was observed from late 1962 through 1968. During this time it has been possible to study the manner in which the sector pattern and its relation to the photospheric magnetic field configuration changes from solar minimum to solar maximum. Observations were also made relating sector boundaries to specific regions on the solar disk. These and other observations related to the solar origin of the interplanetary field are briefly reviewed.

Jones, D. E.

1972-01-01

291

Results from recent rotating magnetic field experiments on TCS  

SciTech Connect

The Field Reversed Confipation (FRC) is attractive for the design of a magnetic fusion reactor because of its intrinsically high plasma beta, natural divertor, and engineering simplicity. The lifetime of FRCs produced by the conventional field reversed theta pinch (FRTP) method is restricted to only hundreds of microseconds due to resistive flux losses. Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) offers a promising tool for toroidal current drive in FRCs and maintaining the configurations in steady state.

Brooks, R. D.; Crawford, E. A. (Edward A.); Hoffman, A. L. (Alan L.); Melnik, P.; Milroy, R. D. (Richard D.); Peter, M.; Pietrzyk, Z. A. (Z. Adam); Slough, J. T.; Tobin, S. J. (Stephen J.); Votroubek, G. R.; Guo, H. Y.

2001-01-01

292

Acceleration of blob driven by helical instability in a simple magnetic configuration in QUEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blob generation mechanisms have been studied in slab plasma produced by electron cyclotron waves in a simple magnetic configuration with vertical (Bz) and toroidal fields (Bt). Two dimensional high speed images are analyzed as plasma and fluctuation evolution. Near the outer boundary (source region) of the slab plasma helix-sinusoidal perturbations are exited, whose helix angle and vertical wavelength are consistent with pitch angle and turn distance of the magnetic field lines there. Two dimensional evolution of these helix instabilities are studied as a function of Bz/Bt. Steep gradient outside the source region triggers the plasma to expand radially as a blob ejection. Along the ridge line of the maximum inverse scale length a wave front of the helix perturbation moves outward. Radial ejection of blob with typical velocity of ˜1 km/s is recognized as non-linear evolution of these helix instabilities. Acceleration of a blob is found in the source-free region.

Quest Group; Zushi, H.; Nishino, N.; Hanada, K.; Honma, H.; Liu, H. Q.; Higashizono, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Tashima, S.; Ryoukai, T.

2011-08-01

293

Magnetic Fields in the Sun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas a...

D. J. Mullan

1974-01-01

294

Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here, we will discuss our numerical studies of plasma jets and loops, of basic interest for plasma propulsion and plasma astrophysics. Space plasma propulsion systems require strong guiding magnetic fields known as magnetic nozzles to control plasma flow and produce thrust. Propulsion methods currently being developed that require magnetic nozzles include the VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) [1] and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Magnetic nozzles are functionally similar to de Laval nozzles, but are inherently more complex due to electromagnetic field interactions. The two crucial physical phenomenon are thrust production and plasma detachment. Thrust production encompasses the energy conversion within the nozzle and momentum transfer to a spacecraft. Plasma detachment through magnetic reconnection addresses the problem of the fluid separating efficiently from the magnetic field lines to produce maximum thrust. Plasma jets similar to those of VASIMR will be studied with particular interest in dual jet configurations, which begin as a plasma loops between two nozzles. This research strives to fulfill a need for computational study of these systems and should culminate with a greater understanding of the crucial physics of magnetic nozzles with dual jet plasma thrusters, as well as astrophysics problems such as magnetic reconnection and dynamics of coronal loops.[2] To study this problem a novel, hybrid kinetic theory and single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver known as the Magneto-Gas Kinetic Method is used.[3] The solver is comprised of a "hydrodynamic" portion based on the Gas Kinetic Method and a "magnetic" portion that accounts for the electromagnetic behaviour of the fluid through source terms based on the resistive MHD equations. This method is being further developed to include additional physics such as the Hall effect. Here, we will discuss the current level of code development, as well as numerical simulation results

Ebersohn, F.; Shebalin, J.; Girimaji, S.; Staack, D.

2012-01-01

295

Study of the synchronous operation of an Annular Field Reversed Configuration plasma device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas are high-density, magnetized, pulsed plasmas with unique translational and efficient formation properties that lend themselves to many uses. This dissertation furthers the understanding and empirical investigations into a slow-formation FRC, the low-voltage Annular Field Reversed Configuration plasma (AFRC) by successfully operating with heavy gases, at low-voltages, and in a synchronous discharge configuration. The AFRC plasma is an evolution of the cylindrical shock compression driven FRC that aims to increase compression times well into diffusive timescales, thereby increasing overall plasma content, lifetime, and greatly simplifying pulsed switching and transmission hardware. AFRC plasmas have uses ranging from primary pulsed magnetic fusion, refueling for Tokamak plasmas, and advanced space propulsion. In this thesis it is shown that AFRCs operating in a synchronous discharge configuration generate efficient, high-density magnetized toroidal plasmas with clear transitional regimes and optimal discharge parameters. A 10-kJ pulsed power facility and discharge network was constructed to explore AFRC plasmas. An extensive array of pulsed diagnostics were developed to explore the operational characteristics of a 40-cm outer diameter annular theta pinch and its pre-ionization, compression, field reversal, and translation configurations. Twelve high-speed, 3-axis B-dot probes were used to show plasma magnetization and compression for various discharge geometries. A fast DICAM and wide-angle photometer examined overall plasma content, compression regimes, downstream translation, and plasma instabilities for argon and xenon discharges ranging from 3--20 mTorr, 500--1000 V, and 185--450 mus discharge periods. Downstream B-dot probes and collimated, amplified photometers examined downstream plasma translation and magnetization. An axially-scanning internal triple probe was utilized to measure temporal plasma temperature, density, and geometry evolution for the complete set of discharge conditions and geometries. Optimized pre-ionization conditions, neutral gas densities, and plasma transition energies were determined for the 40 cm annulus in both argon and xenon. Peak argon and xenon densities and temperatures were found to be 5 x 1019 m-3, 11 eV and 2 x 1020 m-3 , 8 eV, respectively, for 250-J plasma discharges. Finally, a zero-dimensional energy analysis has been developed and compared to collected internal plasma data.

Kirtley, David E.

296

Negative ion extraction characteristics of a large negative ion source with double-magnetic filter configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-ampere hydrogen negative ion source with a large extraction area of 25 cm x 25 cm was developed. This negative ion source is a volume-production-type bucket ion source which is operated with double-magnetic filter configuration. In this configuration, the fast electrons, which produce the vibrationally excited molecules, are trapped near the chamber wall by the cusp field, which is the first magnetic filter. In the central region of the arc chamber, there exist only the thermal electrons with low temperature. As a result, the negative ions are produced in the central region by dissociative attachment. A rod magnetic filter in front of the plasma grid, which is the second magnetic filter, is utilized for reducing the population of the electrons in the vicinity of the plasma grid, which are extracted together with the negative ions. By this structure the extracted electron current can be controlled independently of the H(-) ion current. So far, a 1.4A of H(-) ion current was obtained with the energy of 34 keV. Negative ion extraction characteristics of this ion source, such as the arc power dependence and the gas pressure dependence, are presented.

Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.; Oka, Y.; Kuroda, T.

1992-05-01

297

The polar heliospheric magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that the polar heliospheric magnetic field, at large heliocentric distances, may deviate considerably from the generally accepted Archimedean spiral. Instead, it is suggested that the large-scale field near the poles may be dominated by randomly-oriented transverse magnetic fields with magnitude much larger than the average spiral. The average vector field is still the spiral, but the average magnitude may be much larger. In addition, the field direction is transverse to the radial direction most of the time instead of being nearly radial. This magnetic-field structure has important consequences for the transport of cosmic rays. Preliminary model calculations suggest changes in the radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays which may improve agreement with observations.

Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

1989-01-01

298

Theorem on magnet fringe field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b(sub n)) and skew (a(sub n)) multipoles, B(sub y) + iB(sub x)...

J. Wei R. Talman

1995-01-01

299

Majorana Neutrinos and Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is stressed that if neutrinos are massive they are probably of Majorana type. This implies that their magnetic moment form factor vanishes identically so that the previously discussed phenomenon of spin rotation in a magnetic field would not appear to ...

J. Schechter J. W. F. Valle

1981-01-01

300

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

301

Neutron in Strong Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistic world-line Hamiltonian for strongly interacting 3q systems in a magnetic field is derived from the path integral for the corresponding Green's function. The neutral baryon Hamiltonian in the magnetic field obeys the pseudomomentum conservation and allows a factorization of the c.m. and internal motion. The resulting expression for the baryon mass in the magnetic field is written explicitly with the account of hyperfine, one pion exchange, and one gluon exchange (color Coulomb) interaction. The neutron mass is fast decreasing with the magnetic field, losing 1/2 of its value at eB ˜0.25 GeV2 and is nearly zero at eB ˜0.5 GeV2. Possible physical consequences of the calculated mass trajectory of the neutron, Mn(B), are presented and discussed.

Andreichikov, M. A.; Kerbikov, B. O.; Orlovsky, V. D.; Simonov, Yu. A.

2014-04-01

302

Impurity entanglement through electron scattering in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the entanglement of magnetic impurities in an environment of electrons through successive scattering while an external magnetic field is applied. We show that the dynamics of the problem can be approximately described by a reduced model of three interacting spins, which reveals an intuitive view on how spins can be entangled by controlled electron scattering. The role of the magnetic field is rather crucial. Depending on the initial state configuration, the magnetic field can either increase or decrease the resulting entanglement but more importantly it can allow the impurities to be maximally entangled.

Metavitsiadis, Alexandros; Dillenschneider, Raoul; Eggert, Sebastian

2014-04-01

303

Equivalent source mapping of lunar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) shall launch the SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) spacecraft this autumn. Amongst many instruments, it has a magnetometer (LMAG: Lunar MAGnetomter) which will measure the magnetic field on the orbit around the Moon. The nominal orbit of the SELENE is about 100km in altitudes for 1 year observation. Although the extended mission is still not determined, LMAG team is requesting a low altitude (less than 50km) observation, if the remaining fuel allows. We are preparing data processing software for the mission. Here, we report an objective scheme for mapping the lunar crustal magnetic field from the orbital measurement data of unequal altitudes. In this study, the magnetic field is restored by solving a linear inverse-problem determining the sources distributed on the lunar surface to satisfy the observational data, which is known as the equivalent source method. Our scheme has three features improving the method: First, the source calculation is performed simultaneously with detrending. Second, magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) are used as the equivalent sources. It reduces the density of the sources for the same smoothness in produced field, comparing to the dipole sauces. Third, the number of sources is taken large enough to avoid the problem of configuration of the sources, instead the damped least square assuming the strength of each charge is similar to the next one, and the smoothness factor is determined by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). It guarantees the objectivity of the calculation, in other words, there is no adjustable parameter which may depend of the researcher dealing the data analyses. For testing the scheme, we apply this method to the Lunar Prospector magnetometer data, and provide magnetic field map in the region centered at several regions of strong crustal field including the Reiner Gamma anomaly. The stability of the method and the resolution of the anomaly map are found to be satisfactory.

Toyoshima, M.; Shibuya, H.

2007-12-01

304

Solar magnetic fields and convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux-rope model of solar magnetic fields is developed further by the use of a variety of observational results.(i)It is confirmed that magnetic fields emerging to form active regions are already in the form of helically twisted flux ropes.(ii)A flux rope is not a homogeneous structure but is made up of hundreds or thousands of flux fibres. These are individually

J. H. Piddington

1976-01-01

305

Solar magnetic fields: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field of the Sun is thought to be produced by a dynamo in the solar interior and exhibits its greatest influence\\u000a on the solar plasma in the tenuous outer layers of the solar atmosphere, where it lies at the heart of almost every major\\u000a phenomenon. Most direct observations of the magnetic field are restricted to the solar surface,

S. K. Solanki

306

Spontaneous thermal magnetic field fluctuation  

SciTech Connect

In recent days, the relativistic version of the classic Weibel instability received renewed attention for its potential role as a mechanism to generate cosmic magnetic fields. However, one of the key conceptual foundations in association with the Weibel instability has not been addressed in the literature. Namely, the spontaneous emission of magnetic field fluctuation, which is supposed to provide the seed perturbation for the Weibel instability, has not been adequately discussed. The present Brief Communication addresses this issue.

Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2007-06-15

307

Magnetic control of natural convection in the horizontal Bridgman configuration: symmetric and non-symmetric cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the electromagnetic damping of free-convective flows in cavities such as those used in the crystal growth horizontal Bridgman configuration. The cavities are filled with a dilute electrically conducting alloy and are subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient. The flow is steady and laminar under an external, vertical, transversal and uniform magnetic field. Several cross sections of

Nizar B. Salah; Ines Baaziz; Daniel Rousse; Khira Zlaoui; Yvan Dutil

2011-01-01

308

Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields at Venus. Venus Express observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field and plasma measurements carried out onboard Venus Express during solar minimum conditions suggest the existence of two kinds of magnetic field configuration in the Venusian ionosphere. We interpret these as the manifestation of two different types of generation mechanisms for the induced magnetosphere. A different magnetic field topology (toroidal and poloidal) arises if the induced currents are driven either by the solar wind motional electric field or by the Faraday electric field—a conducting ionosphere sees the magnetic field carried by solar wind as a time-varying field. At the dayside, both driving agents produce a similar draping pattern of the magnetic field. However, different magnetic field signatures inherent to both induction mechanisms appear at lower altitudes in the terminator region. The conditions at low solar EUV flux when the ionosphere of Venus becomes magnetized seem to be favorable to distinguish between two different types of the induced fields. We present cases of both types of the magnetic field topology. The cases when the effects of the Faraday induction become well noticeable are especially interesting since they provide us with an example of solar wind interaction with a tiny induced dipole field immersed into the ionosphere. Another interesting case when poloidal magnetic fields are evidently displayed is observed when the IMF vector is almost aligned with the solar wind velocity. In general case, both mechanisms of induction probably complement each other.

Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Woch, J.; Zhang, T. L.; Wei, Y.; Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.

2013-10-01

309

Theorem on magnet fringe field  

SciTech Connect

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b{sub n}) and skew (a{sub n}) multipoles, B{sub y} + iB{sub x} = {summation}(b{sub n} + ia{sub n})(x + iy){sup n}, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ``field integrals`` such as {bar B}L {equivalent_to} {integral} B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For {bar a}{sub n}, {bar b}{sub n}, {bar B}{sub x}, and {bar B}{sub y} defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ``standard`` approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell`s equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub {proportional_to}}{vert_bar}, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub 0}{vert_bar}, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B{sub x} from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Talman, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

1995-12-31

310

Optical sensor of magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

1986-03-25

311

Chiral transition with magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses—taken as functions of the order parameter—can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling constants, and the number of fermions. We show that the critical temperature for the restoration of chiral symmetry monotonically increases from small to intermediate values of the magnetic field and that this temperature is always above the critical temperature for the case when the magnetic field is absent.

Ayala, Alejandro; Hernández, Luis Alberto; Mizher, Ana Júlia; Rojas, Juan Cristóbal; Villavicencio, Cristián

2014-06-01

312

Pulse configuration-dependent effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual perception.  

PubMed

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique for direct stimulation of the neocortex. In the last two decades it is successfully applied in the study of motor and sensory physiology. TMS uses the indirect induction of electrical fields in the brain generated by intense changes of magnetic fields applied to the scalp. It encompasses two widely used waveform configurations: mono-phasic magnetic pulses induce a single current in the brain while biphasic pulses induce at least two currents of inverse direction. As has been shown for the motor cortex, efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may depend on pulse configuration. In order to clarify this question with regard to visual perception, static contrast sensitivities (sCS) were evaluated before, during, immediately after and 10 minutes after monophasic and biphasic low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS applied to the occipital cortex of 15 healthy subjects. The intensity of stimulation was the phosphene threshold of each individual subject. Using 4 c/d spatial frequency, significant sCS loss was found during and immediately after 10 min of monophasic stimulation, while biphasic stimulation resulted in no significant effect. Ten minutes after the end of stimulation, the sCS values were at baseline level again. However, reversed current flow direction resulted in an increased efficacy of biphasic and decreased efficacy of monophasic stimulation. Our results are in agreement with previous findings showing that primary visual functions, such as contrast detection, can be transiently altered by low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation. However the effect of modulation significantly depends on the current waveform and direction. PMID:12488802

Antal, Andrea; Kincses, Tamas Z; Nitsche, Michael A; Bartfai, Orsolya; Demmer, Iris; Sommer, Martin; Paulus, Walter

2002-12-01

313

Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Barnes, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-06-01

314

Magnetic field analysis and optimal design of magnetic bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field distribution of a radial magnetic bearing with sixteen-pole was analyzed by using finite element method. It was verified by magnetic field measurement. Magnetic bearing structure was optimized based on finite element analysis (FEA) and magnetic circuit method. Optimization was done in object of maximum magnetic force. Two optimizations had similar results. Analysis showed that FEA-based optimization is more

Han Wu; Chunguang Xu; Dingguo Xiao; Juan Hao

2009-01-01

315

Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

2012-10-01

316

The contrasting magnetic fields of superconducting pulsars and magnetars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study equilibrium magnetic field configurations in a neutron star (NS) whose core has type-II superconducting protons. Unlike the equations for normal matter, which feature no special field strength, those for superconductors contain the lower critical field, of the order of 1015 G. We find that the ratio of this critical field to the smooth-averaged stellar field at the crust-core boundary is the key feature dictating the field geometry. Our results suggest that pulsar- and magnetar-strength fields have notably different configurations. Field decay for NSs with Bpole ˜ 1014 G could thus result in substantial internal rearrangements, pushing the toroidal field component out of the core; this may be related to observed magnetar activity. In addition, we calculate the magnetically induced ellipticities of our models.

Lander, S. K.

2014-01-01

317

Comparison of the field configurations of the magnetotails of Uranus and Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic field configuration-states of the magnetotails of the planets Uranus and Neptune are compared. Earth's case is also briefly treated, as well as some related aspects of the other three magnetic planets. In Uranus' case, due to the large tilt (59 deg) of the planet's magnetic dipole with respect to its spin axis and the unusual obliquity of that axis, the angle of attack (alpha) of the solar wind with respect to dipole alignment goes through all possible angles, 0 deg to 180 deg, yielding a very broad spectrum of configuration-states of its tail. Cases are discussed where the planetary magnetic dipole is either aligned with the Sun-planet-line ('pole-on' state) or perpendicular to it and some intermediate states, for both Uranus and Neptune. Only Uranus experiences the pole-on state, which next occurs in November 1999 (+/- 2 months); last year (1993.2) it had the first 'perpendicular' state since Voyager encounter which resembles Earth's case. Neptune never has a pole-on configuration, but it gets as close as alpha = 14 deg from it; the next occurrence is early in 2003. At Voyager encounter Neptune's magnetotail apparently rapidly migrated through a broad spectrum of field structures with near extreme states resembling an Earth-like case on the one hand and a cylindrically symmetric one on the other. Magnetopause 'openness' should dramatically change in terms of the rapidly changing angle of attack throughout a planetary day for these two planets, and this has important implications for their magnetotails. Any future manetospheric mission plans for Uranus or Neptune should take in to consideration the allowed range of values for alpha for the epoch of interest; this is especially of concern for Uranus which has a pole-on state, and all possible alphas, around the middle of 2014, 20 years from now.

Lepping, R. P.

1994-01-01

318

Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the axial fields in high-latitude quiescent prominences is considered. The fact that almost all quiescent prominences obey the same hemisphere-dependent rule strongly suggests that the solar differential rotation plays an important role in producing the axial fields. However, the observations are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the axial fields are produced by differential rotation acting on an existing coronal magnetic field. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. The possibility that the sign of the axial field depends on the topology of the magnetic field in which the prominence is embedded is examined, as is the possibility that the neutral line is tilted with respect to the east-west direction, so that differential rotation causes the neutral line also to rotate with time. The possibility that the axial fields of quiescent prominences have their origin below the solar surface is also considered. 29 refs.

Van Ballegooijen, A.A.; Martens, P.C.H. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-09-01

319

Electric and magnetic fields in the high-latitude magnetosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The configuration of high-latitude electric and magnetic fields is reviewed. Various results suggest that high-latitude magnetic field lines from the outermost regions of the dayside magnetosphere converge toward a point near the noon meridian. Plasma flows, the midday cusp, and a dawn-dusk electric field across the polar cap are characterized. The electric fields associated with plasma flows produce Hall currents on the polar cap which vary with sector structure. Some evidence indicates that polar cap convection may reverse during intervals of strong northward interplanetary field. It is concluded that most observations are consistent with an open field magnetosphere model.

Fairfield, D. H.

1977-01-01

320

A new high performance field reversed configuration operating regime in the C-2 device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large field reversed configurations (FRCs) are produced in the C-2 device by combining dynamic formation and merging processes. The good confinement of these FRCs must be further improved to achieve sustainment with neutral beam (NB) injection and pellet fuelling. A plasma gun is installed at one end of the C-2 device to attempt electric field control of the FRC edge layer. The gun inward radial electric field counters the usual FRC spin-up and mitigates the n = 2 rotational instability without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. Better plasma centering is also obtained, presumably from line-tying to the gun electrodes. The combined effects of the plasma gun and of neutral beam injection lead to the high performance FRC operating regime, with FRC lifetimes up to 3 ms and with FRC confinement times improved by factors 2 to 4.

Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Akhmetov, T.; Ivanov, A.; Voskoboynikov, R.; Barnes, D.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Clary, R.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Garate, E.; Glass, F. J.; Gota, H.; Guo, H. Y.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Longman, A.; Hollins, M.; Li, X. L.; Luo, Y.; Mendoza, R.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Primavera, S.; Ruskov, E.; Schmitz, L.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sevier, L.; Sibley, A.; Song, Y.; Sun, X.; Trask, E.; Van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Wyman, M. D.; the TAE Team

2012-05-01

321

A new high performance field reversed configuration operating regime in the C-2 device  

SciTech Connect

Large field reversed configurations (FRCs) are produced in the C-2 device by combining dynamic formation and merging processes. The good confinement of these FRCs must be further improved to achieve sustainment with neutral beam (NB) injection and pellet fuelling. A plasma gun is installed at one end of the C-2 device to attempt electric field control of the FRC edge layer. The gun inward radial electric field counters the usual FRC spin-up and mitigates the n = 2 rotational instability without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. Better plasma centering is also obtained, presumably from line-tying to the gun electrodes. The combined effects of the plasma gun and of neutral beam injection lead to the high performance FRC operating regime, with FRC lifetimes up to 3 ms and with FRC confinement times improved by factors 2 to 4.

Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Barnes, D.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Clary, R.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Garate, E.; Glass, F. J.; Gota, H.; Guo, H.Y.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); and others

2012-05-15

322

MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.  

SciTech Connect

Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

2004-10-03

323

Flux Transport and the Sun's Global Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun s global magnetic field is produced and evolved through the emergence of magnetic flux in active regions and its transport across the solar surface by the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric convective flows of granulation, supergranulation, and giant cell convection. Maps of the global magnetic field serve as the inner boundary condition for space weather. The photospheric magnetic field and its evolution determine the coronal and solar wind structures through which CMEs must propagate and in which solar energetic particles are accelerated and propagate. Producing magnetic maps which best represent the actual field configuration at any instant requires knowing the magnetic field over the observed hemisphere as well as knowing the flows that transport flux. From our Earth-based vantage point we only observe the front-side hemisphere and each pole is observable for only six months of the year at best. Models for the surface magnetic flux transport can be used to provide updates to the magnetic field configuration in those unseen regions. In this presentation I will describe successes and failures of surface flux transport and present new observations on the structure, the solar cycle variability, and the evolution of the flows involved in magnetic flux transport. I find that supergranules play the dominant role due to their strong flow velocities and long lifetimes. Flux is transported by differential rotation and meridional flow only to the extent that the supergranules participate in those two flows.

Hathaway, David H.

2010-01-01

324

Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

Steinhauer, Loren [Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Barnes, D. C. [Coronado Consulting, 146 Bishop Lamy Rd., Lamy, New Mexico 87540 (United States)

2009-09-15

325

Transverse magnetic surface plasmons and complete absorption supported by doped graphene in Otto configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High sensitivity of the Attenuated Total Reflectance technique for exciting transverse magnetic surface plasmons in free-standing doped graphene is reported; complete agreement with the electromagnetic dispersion relation is numerically demonstrated in the terahertz regime. By reducing the air gap between prism and graphene in the Otto configuration we found that the surface plasmon excitation is weakened, but interference effects arise producing perfect absorption. At 5 THz two dips of zero-reflection were found, one of them with residual plasmonic contribution. Consequently, the reflection can be suppressed by changing the separation between prism and graphene; it is not needed to modify the graphene doping level. Conditions for destructive interference leading to complete absorption are presented and a particular behavior of the evanescent magnetic fields just at perfect absorption is reported

Ramos-Mendieta, F.; Hernández-López, J. A.; Palomino-Ovando, M.

2014-06-01

326

Hydrogen molecules in a superstrong magnetic field: Excitation levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the energy levels of H2 molecules in a superstrong magnetic field (B>~1012 G), typically found on the surfaces of neutron stars. The interatomic interaction potentials are calculated by a Hartree-Fock method with multiconfigurations assuming electrons are in the ground Landau state. Both the aligned configurations and arbitrary orientations of the molecular axis with respect to the magnetic-field axis

Dong Lai; Edwin E. Salpeter

1996-01-01

327

Alternating magnetic field assisted magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic antidot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the effects of high-frequency electromagnetic waves on magnetization reversal have been extensively studied, the influence of a low-frequency ac field on magnetization reversal has seldom been examined. In this study, we measured the magnetoresistance and examined the magnetic switching process of Permalloy antidot thin films under an alternating magnetic field with a frequency of 25 kHz. When no alternating magnetic field was present, the transitional field of the antidot thin films decreased as the angle of the direct magnetic field increased. When an alternating magnetic field was present, the transitional field exhibited the same trend. We compared the magnetization process of the antidot thin films with and without the alternating magnetic field and determined that the alternating field can facilitate the transition of magnetization, specifically, by lowering the transitional field with the highest variation rate (33.73%).

Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Huang, Chen-Yu; Liao, Kuei-Tien; Wang, Pei-Jen; Lai, Jun-Yang; Chen, Jiann-Yeu; Lai, Mei-Feng

2014-05-01

328

MHD Simulation of the Global Solar Corona Using the Synoptic Frame of the Photospheric Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the proxy of the entire surface distribution of the photospheric magnetic field at a specific time, the synoptic frame of the photospheric magnetic field [Zhao et al., 1999] consists of a magnetogram that contains the real field configuration and newly emerging magnetic features at the observational time, and a part of synoptic charts around the time of interest. Recently

K. Hayashi; X. Zhao; Y. Liu

2005-01-01

329

General magnetic reconnection, parallel electric fields, and helicity  

SciTech Connect

Analyzing the qualitative three-dimensional magnetic structure of a plasmoid, we were led to reconsider the concept of magnetic reconnection from a general point of view. The properties of relatively simple magnetic field models provide a strong preference for one of two definitions of magnetic reconnection that exist in the literature. Any concept of magnetic reconnection defined in terms of magnetic topology seems naturally restricted to cases where the magnetic field vanishes somewhere in the nonideal (diffusion) region. The main part of this paper is concerned with magnetic reconnection in nonvanishing magnetic fields (finite-B reconnection), which has attracted less attention in the past. We show that E/sub parallel/ (the electric field component parallel to the magnetic field) plays a crucial physical role in finite-B reconnection, and we present two theorems involving E/sub parallel/. The first states a necessary and sufficient condition on E/sub parallel/ for global reconnection to occur. Here the term ''global'' means the generic case where the breakdown of magnetic connection occurs for plasma elements that stay outside the nonideal region. The second theorem relates the change of magnetic helicity to E/sub parallel/ for cases where the electric field vanishes at large distances. That these results provide new insight into three-dimensional reconnection processes is illustrated in terms of the plasmoid configuration, which was our starting point. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

Schindler, K.; Hesse, M.; Birn, J.

1988-06-01

330

Apparatus having reduced mechanical forces for supporting high magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of supporting extremely high magnetic fields suitable for plasma confinement, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements are significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by conventional techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

331

High-field magnets and high-field superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief historical review of the development of high magnetic fields and high field superconductors including brief summaries of the early developments of high magnetic fields and the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory (FBNML). The start of the first revolution (when large critical currents in Nb3Sn were observed in high magnetic fields) and the development of practical

Simon Foner; Francis Bitter

1995-01-01

332

Polar plumes' orientation and the Sun's global magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We characterize the orientation of polar plumes as a tracer of the large-scale coronal magnetic field configuration. We monitor in particular the north and south magnetic pole locations and the magnetic opening during 2007-2008 and provide some understanding of the variations in these quantities. Methods: The polar plume orientation is determined by applying the Hough-wavelet transform to a series of EUV images and extracting the key Hough space parameters of the resulting maps. The same procedure is applied to the polar cap field inclination derived from extrapolating magnetograms generated by a surface flux transport model. Results: We observe that the position where the magnetic field is radial (the Sun's magnetic poles) reflects the global organization of magnetic field on the solar surface, and we suggest that this opens the possibility of both detecting flux emergence anywhere on the solar surface (including the far side) and better constraining the reorganization of the corona after flux emergence.

de Patoul, Judith; Inhester, Bernd; Cameron, Robert

2013-10-01

333

Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies: NGC 4214  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium of galaxies. They provide support, transfer energy from supernovae, provide a possible heating mechanism, and channel gas flows (Beck 2004). Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, it is not well known what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in

Amanda A. Kepley; E. M. Wilcots; T. Robishaw; C. Heiles; E. Zweibel

2006-01-01

334

Solar magnetic fields - The Italian contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short account is given of the methods of observation, the characteristics of solar magnetic fields, the relationships between velocity and magnetic fields, the theoretical approaches, and the possibilities opened by studies of stellar activity of the solar type. In discussing the classification and characteristics of solar magnetic fields, attention is given to normal bipolar regions, large-scale unipolar magnetic fields,

D. Fabbri; G. Godoli; F. Mazzucconi

1982-01-01

335

Progress in Solar Magnetic Field Extrapolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar magnetic field is the predominant factor of the solar activities. Precise measurements of solar magnetic fields so far are still confined to the thin layer of the solar photosphere. In order to understand the nature of the coronal magnetic fields, it becomes necessary to extrapolate the coronal magnetic fields based on theoretical models using observed photospheric magnetograms as boundary

Juan Hao; Mei Zhang

2007-01-01

336

Satellite to study earth's magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

1979-01-01

337

Observations of Mercury's magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

1975-01-01

338

Deflections in magnet fringe fields.  

PubMed

A transverse multipole expansion is derived, including the longitudinal components necessarily present in regions of varying magnetic field profile. It can be used for exact numerical orbit following through the fringe-field regions of magnets whose end designs introduce no extraneous components, i.e., fields not required to be present by Maxwell's equations. Analytic evaluations of the deflections are obtained in various approximations. Mainly emphasized is a "straight-line approximation," in which particle orbits are treated as straight lines through the fringe-field regions. This approximation leads to a readily-evaluated figure of merit, the ratio of rms end deflection to nominal body deflection, that can be used to determine whether or not a fringe field can be neglected. Deflections in "critical" cases (e.g., near intersection regions) are analyzed in the same approximation. PMID:12786502

Papaphilippou, Y; Wei, J; Talman, R

2003-04-01

339

Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor  

DOEpatents

A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.

Coffey, H.T.

1993-10-19

340

Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor  

DOEpatents

A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.

Coffey, Howard T. (Darien, IL)

1993-01-01

341

Shear-induced inflation of coronal magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using numerical models of force-free magnetic fields, the shearing of footprints in arcade geometries leading to an inflation of the coronal magnetic field was examined. For each of the shear profiles considered, all of the field lines become elevated compared with the potential field. This includes cases where the shear is concentrated well away from the arcade axis, such that B(sub z), the component of field parallel to the axis, increases outward to produce an inward B(sub z)squared/8 pi magnetic pressure gradient force. These results contrast with an earlier claim, shown to be incorrect, that field lines can sometimes become depressed as a result of shear. It is conjectured that an inflation of the entire field will always result from the shearing of simple arcade configurations. These results have implications for prominence formation, the interplanetary magnetic flux, and possibly also coronal holes.

Klimchuk, James A.

1989-01-01

342

Shear-induced inflation of coronal magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using numerical models of force-free magnetic fields, the shearing of footprints in arcade geometries leading to an inflation of the coronal magnetic field was examined. For each of the shear profiles considered, all of the field lines become elevated compared with the potential field. This includes cases where the shear is concentrated well away from the arcade axis, such that B(sub z), the component of field parallel to the axis, increases outward to produce an inward B(sub z) squared/8 pi magnetic pressure gradient force. These results contrast with an earlier claim, shown to be incorrect, that field lines can sometimes become depressed as a result of shear. It is conjectured that an inflation of the entire field will always result from the shearing of simple arcade configurations. These results have implications for prominence formation, the interplanetary magnetic flux, and possibly also coronal holes.

Klimchuk, James A.

1990-01-01

343

Relaxed magnetic field structures in multi-ion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady state solution of a three species magnetoplasma is presented. It is shown that relaxed magnetic field configuration results in a triple curl Beltrami equation which permits the existence of three structures. It is the consequence of inertial effects of the plasma constituents. One of the three vortices is of large scale while the remaining two relaxed structures are of small size of the order of electron skin depth. The magnetic field profiles are given for different Beltrami parameters. The study could be helpful to understand large magnetic field structures in three species plasmas found in space and laboratory.

Iqbal, M.; Shukla, P. K.

2012-05-01

344

MAJOR ELECTRON EVENTS AND CORONAL MAGNETIC CONFIGURATIONS OF THE RELATED SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

A statistical survey of 26 major electron events during the period 2002 February through the end of solar cycle 23 is presented. We have obtained electron solar onset times and the peak flux spectra for each event by fitting to a power-law spectrum truncated by an exponential high-energy tail, i.e., f(E){approx}E{sup -{delta}}e{sup -E/E{sub 0}}. We also derived the coronal magnetic configurations of the related solar active regions (ARs) from the potential-field source-surface model. It is found that (1) 10 of the 11 well-connected open field-line events are prompt events whose solar onset times coincide with the maxima of flare emission and 13 of the 14 closed field-line events are delayed events. (2) A not-well-connected open field-line event and one of the closed field-line events are prompt events, they are both associated with large-scale coronal disturbances or dimming. (3) An averaged harder spectrum is found in open field-line events compared with the closed ones. Specifically, the averaged spectral index {delta} is of 1.6 {+-} 0.3 in open field-line events and of 2.0 {+-} 0.4 in closed ones. The spectra of three closed field-line events show infinite rollover energies E {sub 0}. These correlations clearly establish a significant link between the coronal magnetic field-line topology and the escape of charged particles from the flaring ARs into interplanetary space during the major solar energetic particle events.

Li, C.; Owen, C. J.; Matthews, S. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Dai, Y.; Tang, Y. H., E-mail: cl2@mssl.ucl.ac.u [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-01

345

Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 1: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 are described. These results concern the large-scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction. This is much like Earth's magnetosphere but is a new configuration for Jupiter's magnetosphere not previously considered from earlier Pioneer data. We report on the analysis and interpretation of magnetic field perturbations associated with intense electrical currents (approximately 5 x 10(6) amperes) flowing near or in the magnetic flux tube linking Jupiter with the satellite Jo and induced by the relative motion between Io and the corotating Jovian magnetosphere. These currents may be an important source of heating the ionosphere and interior of Io through Joule dissipation. PMID:17800435

Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

1979-06-01

346

Magnetic resonance imaging at ultrahigh fields.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of 4 T human systems in three academic laboratories circa 1990, rapid progress in imaging and spectroscopy studies in humans at 4 T and animal model systems at 9.4 T have led to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in SNR and biological information content at these ultrahigh fields, as well as the presence of numerous challenges. Primary difference from lower fields is the deviation from the near field regime; at the frequencies corresponding to hydrogen resonance conditions at ultrahigh fields, the RF is characterized by attenuated traveling waves in the human body, which leads to image nonuniformities for a given sample-coil configuration because of interferences. These nonuniformities were considered detrimental to the progress of imaging at high field strengths. However, they are advantageous for parallel imaging for signal reception and parallel transmission, two critical technologies that account, to a large extend, for the success of ultrahigh fields. With these technologies, and improvements in instrumentation and imaging methods, ultrahigh fields have provided unprecedented gains in imaging of brain function and anatomy, and started to make inroads into investigation of the human torso and extremities. As extensive as they are, these gains still constitute a prelude to what is to come given the increasingly larger effort committed to ultrahigh field research and development of ever better instrumentation and techniques. PMID:24686229

Ugurbil, Kamil

2014-05-01

347

Formation of Magnetic Particle Chains in Ultra High Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic particles form chain-like clusters in the magnetic field. This phenomenon is of interest in two separate fields, one is a development system of the laser printer and another is an electromagnetic manipulation of biological cells. Experiments on the chain formation in air and oil have been performed in the ultra high magnetic field created by a superconducting magnet. It

Hiroyuki Kawamoto; Masatomo Teshima; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Nobuyuki Nakayama; Noriyuki Hirota

2007-01-01

348

Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

Sheeley, N.R., Jr. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

349

Magnetic Forces and Field Line Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about depicting the relative strength of magnetic fields using field line density. Learners will use the magnetic field line drawing of six magnetic poles created in a previous activity and identify the areas of strong, weak, and medium magnetic intensity using the density of magnetic field lines. This is the fifth activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. How to Draw Magnetic Fields - II in the Magnetic Math booklet must be completed prior to this activity.

350

Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity that compares the magnetic field of the Earth to the complex magnetic field of the Sun. Using images of the Earth and Sun that have magnets attached in appropriate orientations, learners will use a handheld magnetic field detector to observe the magnetic field of the Earth and compare it to that of the Sun, especially in sunspot areas. For each group of students, this activity requires use of a handheld magnetic field detector, such as a Magnaprobe or a similar device, a bar magnet, and ten small disc magnets.

351

On the Physics of the Interaction of a Rotating Magnetic Field with a Magnetized Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF) with plasmas is a fundamental plasma physics problem with implications to fusion related Field-Reversed Configurations (FRC), space propulsion, astronaut protection from cosmic rays in long interstellar travel, control of energetic population in the radiation belts and near zone processes in pulsar magnetospheres. An important but not yet explored application of RMF is as

A. V. Karavaev; K. Papadopoulos; X. Shao; G. Milikh; W. Gekelman; A. Gigliotti; S. Vincena

2007-01-01

352

BEC manipulation with fictitious magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) atoms with counterpropagating laser beams can often be represented by fictitious magnetic fields [1]. These fictitious fields can be combined with ordinary magnetic fields to produce total fields whose amplitudes vary in space on the scale of the laser wavelength. When the strengths of such magnetic fields are positioned in the neighborhood of a

Jeffrey Heward; Mark Edwards; Charles W. Clark

2010-01-01

353

Flares and changing magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observational study of maps of the longitudinal component of the photospheric fields in flaring active regions leads to the following conclusions:(1)The broad-wing Ha kernels characteristic of the impulsive phase of flares occur within 10? of neutral lines encircling features of isolated magnetic polarity (‘satellite sunspots’).(2)Photospheric field changes intimately associated with several importance 1 flares and one importance 2B flare

David M. Rust

1972-01-01

354

Ohm's Law for Mean Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it ...

A. H. Boozer

1986-01-01

355

Crystal field and magnetic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

Flood, D. J.

1977-01-01

356

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electro-magnetic environment.

R. Haagmans; Y. Menard; R. Floberghagen; G. Plank; M. R. Drinkwater

2010-01-01

357

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

358

Field-aligned accelerations by plasma shocks propagating through interstellar magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model of particle acceleration by plasma shocks is analyzed theoretically and with numerical calculations. The shocks are propagating through weakly magnetized background plasmas, namely interstellar magnetic fields (IMFs). Particles located at the shock front are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field of the shock; this is defined as the field-aligned acceleration (FAA). The cross angle between IMF and the magnetic field of the shock plays an important role in creating the magnetic neutral sheet at the shock front. A test particle trapped by the neutral sheet obtains enormous energy due to the FAA. A reasonable formula for the highest energy gain is derived from theoretical analysis of the relativistic equations of motion. A possible configuration of the electric and magnetic fields in supernova remnants is also proposed by way of example.

Takeuchi, Satoshi [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

2012-07-15

359

A flexible and configurable system to test accelerator magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D programs, including production of superconducting high gradient quadrupoles for the LHC insertion regions, require rigorous yet flexible magnetic measurement systems. Measurement systems must be capable of handling various types of hardware and extensible to all measurement technologies and analysis algorithms. A tailorable software system that satisfies these requirements is discussed. This single system, capable of distributed

Jerzy M. Nogiec; J. Dimarco; H. Glass; J. Sim; K. Trombly-Freytag; G. Velev; D. Walbridge

2001-01-01

360

Vibrating H3+ in a Uniform Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy surfaces are obtained for singlet H3+ in magnetic fields of up to 2350 T. The magnetic interaction was treated by first-order perturbation theory and the interaction terms computed ab initio. They were then fitted to a functional form and added to a recent, highly accurate adiabatic potential energy surface. In its most stable orientation, the molecule is arranged such that the magnetic field vector is in the molecular plane. The most stable configuration is no longer D3h as in the field-free case, but C2v, though the stabilization energy is extremely small, of the order of 0.01 cm-1 for a 2350 T field. Finally, we have calculated, for a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations, all the vibrational eigenvalues that are below the barrier to linearity in the field-free case.

Medel Cobaxin, Héctor; Alijah, Alexander

2013-10-01

361

Large-scale solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics discussed in this review of large-scale solar magnetic fields include large-scale magnetic surface features, the solar activity cycle and the large-scale patterns, and magnetic fields in the corona. Features considered include the decay of active regions, the background field pattern, the polar fields, giant regular structures, expansion of the field in surface harmonics, and the average inclination of magnetic-field

R. Howard

1977-01-01

362

Magnetic fields in the sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

Mullan, D. J.

1974-01-01

363

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

2011-01-01

364

Microstability theory for the field reversed configuration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done in the last contract period. Previous work has been described in Annual Performance Reports. The work carried on under this Research Grant and not included in previous progress and annual reports includes two distinct items. One work is a study of the nonlocal high beta microstability of the FRC (Field Reversed Configuration), which they began sometime ago. This study identified the limiting beta (=4{pi}nT/B{sup 2}) for the mode to remain unstable. The study found that as beta increases, the wavenumbers (k{sub y}, K{sub z}) for maximum growth changes, so that the limiting beta is not the one found by fixing (k{sub y}, K{sub z}) and increasing beta. It also appears that the criterion for nonlocal terms to influence the result, as beta increases, is substantially weaker than might have been thought. The authors identify the parameter that determines this effect. This study is presented as Appendix 1 of this report. The second study is of the effect of collisions on the lower hybrid drift instability. The result is that the effect of collisions is substantially more important than might have been expected. These two studies are in different stages of completion. The second is in fact complete, and could be published virtually as is, although it would benefit from a small amount of numerical analysis. The first study is far richer than the second, in that it includes a variety of regimes and effects. The formulation presented in it could e used as the basis for a series of papers, although in its present stage it is not ready for publication. It is unfortunate, but the level of the research Grant, and its untimely end, did not permit further progress on that study.

Krall, N.A.

1997-11-05

365

Magnetic Fields above the Surface of aSuperconductor with Internal Magnetism  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a method for calculating the magnetic fields near a planar surface of a superconductor with a given intrinsic magnetization in the London limit. He computes solutions for various magnetic domain boundary configurations and derives relations between the spectral densities of the magnetization and the resulting field in the vacuum half space, which are useful if the magnetization can be considered as a statistical quantity and its features are too small to be resolved individually. The results are useful for analyzing and designing magnetic scanning experiments. Application to existing data from such experiments on Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} show that a domain wall would have been detectable, but the magnetic field of randomly oriented small domains and small defects may have been smaller than the experimental noise level.

Bluhm, Hendrik; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRl

2007-06-26

366

A modified permanent magnet structure for a stronger multipole magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) increases proportionally to the microwave frequency squared. This behavior encourages the use of higher microwave frequencies. However, a higher frequency would require a stronger magnetic field for the efficient operation of ECRIS. A rather complicated magnetic field configuration results from the combination of solenoids for the axial confinement and a multipolar radial field usually provided by permanent magnets. These fields produce the so-called B-minimum structure which is required for a stable and efficient operation of ECRIS. The highest multipole field achieved so far in an ECR ion source by using permanent magnets is about 1.3 T. This makes the efficient operation at a microwave frequency of about 18 GHz possible. We introduce here a new approach to further increase the magnetic multipole field provided by permanent magnets. According to our two-dimensional (2D) simulations, a remarkable improvement in the radial magnetic field of the multipole can be achieved. The idea was tested using a simple construction in the plasma chamber of the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The multipole field increased from 0.37 to 0.5 T while the solenoids for the axial magnetic field were excited. This result is consistent with our 2D simulations. Based on our simulations and the simple test with the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS, we believe that a multipole field value of 2 T is feasible in ECRIS while still using permanent magnets.

Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Hitz, D.

2004-05-01

367

Magnetic field of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws of electromagnetism. According to a rule of the left hand: if the magnetic field in a kernel is directed to drawing, electric current are directed to an axis of rotation of the Earth, - a action of force clockwise (to West). Definition of the force causing drift a kernel according to the law of Ampere F = IBlsin. Powerful force 3,5 × 1012 Nyton, what makes drift of the central part of a kernel of the Earth on 0,2 the longitude in year to West, and also it is engine of the mechanism of movement of slabs together with continents. Movement of a core of the Earth carry out around of a terrestrial axis one circulation in the western direction in 2000 of years. Linear speed of rotation of a kernel concerning a mantle on border the mantle a kernel: V = × 3,471 × 10 = 3,818 × 10 m/s = 33 m/day = 12 km/years. Considering greater viscosity of a mantle, the powerful energy at rotation of a kernel seize a mantle and lithospheric slabs and makes their collisions as a result of which there are earthquakes and volcano. Continents Northern and Southern America every year separate from the Europe and Africa on several centimeters. Atlantic ocean as a result of movement of these slabs with such speed was formed for 200 million years, that in comparison with the age of the Earth - several billions years, not so long time. Drift of a kernel in the western direction is a principal cause of delay of speed of rotation of the Earth. Flow of radial electric currents allot according to the law of Joule - Lenz, the quantity of warmth : Q = I2Rt = IUt, of thermal energy 6,92 × 1017 calories/year. This defines heating of a kernel and the Earth as a whole. In the valley of the median-Atlantic ridge having numerous volcanos, the lava flow constantly thus warm up waters of Atlantic ocean. It is a fact the warm current Gulf Stream. Thawing of a permafrost and ices of Arctic ocean, of glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica is acknowledgement: the warmth of earth defines character of thawing of glaciers and a permafrost. This is a global warming. The version of the author: the period

Popov, Aleksey

2013-04-01

368

Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.  

PubMed

This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. PMID:21393794

Nogaret, Alain

2010-06-30

369

Oxide superconductors under magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of the broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

Kitazawa, K.

1990-01-01

370

Oxide superconductors under magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

Kitazawa, K.

1991-01-01

371

Effects of the solar wind conditions on the global magnetospheric configuration as deduced from data-based field models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of data based modeling of the magnetospheric configuration and its response to changes in the solar wind dynamical pressure and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) are described. Previous models did not have a pre-defined magnetopause and were calibrated by the Kp index, and therefore did not correctly model the solar wind effects. Models are presented which include the effects of the solar wind-controlled magnetopause, the region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents, and the interconnection of the magnetospheric and solar wind fields at the boundary. They predict the most significant effects of solar wind variation on the global magnetospheric structure. On the dayside, the region 1 Birkeland currents cause major changes of the magnetic configuration as the IMF turns southward. The tail current intensity is controlled mainly by the pressure of the solar wind, although the influence of the southward IMF is clearly seen. The effects of the IMF-induced interconnection field were found to be significant.

Tsyganenko, N. A.

1996-01-01

372

Dynamics of Magnetic Bubbles in Acoustic and Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on shelled bubbles that can be manipulated with magnetic fields. The magnetic shell consists of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic susceptibility of the bubbles is proportional to the surface area, chib=(9±3×10-6m)r2 where r is the radius. Magnetic bubbles are compressible in moderate acoustic fields. A bubble with a radius of 121mum oscillates in resonance in a sound field

Xue Zhao; Pedro A. Quinto-Su; Claus-Dieter Ohl

2009-01-01

373

Control of translating velocity using pulse field on field-reversed configuration plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The translating velocity of a field-reversed configuration plasma is controlled using a pulse mirror field. Numerical calculations are carried out, using a flux-conserving moving mirror coil, to simulate the motion of the plasma subject to the pulse field. The calculations suggest that it is possible to stop the plasma smoothly without reflection under the pulse mirror coil when the strength of the mirror is changed depending on the velocity of the plasma. In the experiment, the pulse field is produced by a current flowing in a one-turn coil installed inside a theta-pinch coil. It is demonstrated that the translating plasma passing under the one-turn coil is reflected and stops depending on the strength of the pulse field. The optimum strength of the field to stop the plasma without reflection is in good agreement with the estimation of the calculations.

Fujino, T.; Gota, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Kanamaru, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Asai, T.; Takahashi, T.; Nogi, Y. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

2006-01-15

374

Observational Study of Solar Magnetic Field and Eruption Phenomena at Huairou Solar Observing Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the observational study of vector magnetic field and also the development of new optical instrumentations at Huairou Solar Observing Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. The presentations are following: 1.The synthetical analysis between photospheric vector magnetic field and the morphological configuration in solar atmosphere provides the essential information on the developments of magnetic energy in source regions of

Hongqi Zhang

2006-01-01

375

Measurements and simulations of cable shielding against magnetic field induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only as given. An experimental setup with loop configurations is applied to measure the performance of cable shielding against the magnetic field induction at power frequencies. Such scheme is preferred for shielding measurements in a small test region to avoid the influences of the ground potential rises and the grounding resistances. A quasi-static two-wire transmission line model has

C.-F. Yang; J.-T. Hwang; J.-S. Yang; T.-H. Lee

1999-01-01

376

MAGNETIC FIELD DIFFUSION IN FAST DISCHARGING HOMOPOLAR MACHINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusually high mechanical and thermal stresses occuring in fast discharging homopolar machines require accurate prediction of high magnetic fields accompanying their operation. Linear methods and ideal configurations are no longer acceptable as simplifying assumptions in designing such devices used in controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments, laser applications, etc.A finite element method - Galerkin technique is used for solution of Maxwell's

M. D. DRIGA; E. B. BECKER; R. D. PILLSBURY; W. F. WELDON; H. G. RYLANDER; H. H. WOODSON

1977-01-01

377

On the existence of interfacial waves with inclined magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersive characteristics of interfacial waves in low beta plasma is studied. The condition for the existence of these waves is derived. It is assumed that the magnetic field and the propagation vector are inclined at different angles to the density discontinuity which is horizontal.The dispersion relation for such a configuration is solved for the interfacial (surface) waves as a

A. Satya Narayanan

1997-01-01

378

Ion beam stabilization of rotational instability in a field-reversed configuration with rigid rotation  

SciTech Connect

The rotational instability of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) can be suppressed by applying a multipole magnetic field. The multipole field, however, breaks the axisymmetry and may compromise configuration. An alternative method using injected beam'' ions would preserve the symmetry. This method is studied here within the framework of a multifluid model for which a variational principle has been developed and solved using the Rayleigh--Ritz technique. This approach leads to an analytic solution for a rigid-rotor equilibrium and allows the straightforward derivation of marginal stability conditions. This was not possible with a previous hybrid simulation which, though more complete, was cumbersome to apply. It is found that if the ratio of the rotational frequency of beam ions to that of the background ions exceeds a critical value, the radial displacement of the plasma and beam ions are opposite, and the rotational instability can be suppressed. The effect of compressibility of beam ions on the stability is also examined. The stability analysis is applied to present or near-term experimental devices and a future reactor. The beam energy and current need only be a small fraction of those of the background plasma in order to stabilize the rotational instability. These results are in qualitative agreement with previous results from a hybrid particle simulation.

Ohnishi, M. (Institute of Atomic Energy, Kyoto University, Uji 611 (Japan)); Ishida, A.; Akasaka, T. (Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21 (Japan))

1993-06-01

379

Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

Stenflo, J. O.

1985-01-01

380

Note: Manipulation of supersonic atomic beams with static magnetic fields.  

PubMed

The inhomogeneous magnetic field of a permanent-magnet planar Halbach array is used to either deflect or to specularly reflect a supersonic beam of neutral atoms. Metastable neon and helium beams are tested to experimentally evaluate the performance of this array in a range of configurations. Results are compared with numerical simulations and the device is presented as a high precision tool for the manipulation of neutral atom beams. PMID:24028135

Gardner, Jamie; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Raizen, Mark G

2013-09-01

381

Thermal Relaxation of Very Small Solar Magnetic Structures in Intergranules: A Process That Produces Kilogauss Magnetic Field Strengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium configuration of very small magnetic flux tubes in an intergranular environment automatically produces kilogauss magnetic field strengths. We argue that such a process takes place in the Sun and complements the convective collapse (CC), which is traditionally invoked to explain the formation of kilogauss magnetic concentrations in the solar photosphere. In particular, it can concentrate the very weak

J. Sánchez Almeida

2001-01-01

382

The X-ray corona and the photospheric magnetic field.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soft X-ray photographs of the solar corona have been obtained on four flights of a rocket-borne grazing incidence telescope having a resolution of a few arc sec. The configuration of the X-ray emitting structures in the corona has been compared to the magnetic field distribution measured by photospheric longitudinal magnetograms. The X-ray structures trace the three-dimensional configuration of the magnetic field through the lower corona. Active regions in the corona take the form of tubular structures connecting regions of opposite magnetic polarity within the same or adjacent chromospheric active regions. Higher, larger structures link widely separated active regions into complexes of activity covering substantial fractions of the disk. The complexes are separated by areas of low average field in the photosphere. Interconnections across the solar equator appear to originate over areas of preceding polarity.

Krieger, A. S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.

1971-01-01

383

Residential wire codes: reproducibility and relation with measured magnetic fields  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reproducibility of wire codes to characterise residential power line configurations and to determine the extent to which wire codes provide a proxy measure of residential magnetic field strength in a case-control study of childhood leukaemia conducted in nine states within the United States. METHODS: Misclassification of wire codes was assessed with independent measurements by two technicians for 187 residences. The association between categories of wire code and measured level of magnetic field was evaluated in 858 residences with both a wire code measurement and a 24 hour measurement of the magnetic field in the bedroom. The strength of the association between category of wire code and risk of leukaemia was examined in two regions with different average levels of magnetic field in homes with high categories of wire code. RESULTS: The reproducibility of any of three different classifications of wire codes was excellent (kappa > or = 0.89). Mean and median magnetic fields, and the percentage of homes with high magnetic fields increased with increasing category for each of the wire code classification schemes. The size of the odds ratios for risk of leukaemia and high categories of wire code did not reflect the mean levels of the magnetic field in those categories in two study regions. CONCLUSION: Misclassification of categories of wire code is not a major source of bias in the study. Wire codes provide a proxy measure of exposure to residential magnetic fields. If magnetic fields were a risk factor for leukaemia, however, there would be some attenuation of risk estimates based on wire codes because of misclassification of exposure to magnetic fields at both extremes of the wire code range. The lack of an association between high categories of wire code and risk of leukaemia cannot be explained by a failure of the wire code classification schemes to estimate exposure to magnetic fields in the study area.  

Tarone, R. E.; Kaune, W. T.; Linet, M. S.; Hatch, E. E.; Kleinerman, R. A.; Robison, L. L.; Boice, J. D.; Wacholder, S.

1998-01-01

384

3-D mesoscale MHD simulations of a cusp-like magnetic configuration: method and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a local mesoscale model of the magnetospheric cusp region with high resolution (up to 300 km). We discuss the construction and implementation of the initial configuration and give a detailed description of the numerical simulation. An overview of simulation results for the case of strongly northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is then presented and compared with data from Cluster 2 spacecraft from 14 February 2003. Results show a cusp diamagnetic cavity (CDC) with depth normal to the magnetospheric boundary on the order of 1-2 RE and a much larger extent of ~5-9 RE tangential to the boundary, bounded by a gradual inner boundary with the magnetospheric lobe and a more distinct exterior boundary with the magnetosheath. These results are qualitatively consistent with observational data.

Adamson, E.; Nykyri, K.

2011-05-01

385

Uniform rotating field network structure to efficiently package a magnetic bubble domain memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique and compact open coil rotating magnetic field network structure to efficiently package an array of bubble domain devices is disclosed. The field network has a configuration which effectively enables selected bubble domain devices from the array to be driven in a vertical magnetic field and in an independent and uniform horizontal rotating magnetic field. The field network is suitably adapted to minimize undesirable inductance effects, improve capabilities of heat dissipation, and facilitate repair or replacement of a bubble device.

Wolfshagen, Ronald G. (Inventor); Ypma, John E. (Inventor); Murray, Glen W. (Inventor); Chen, Thomas T. (Inventor)

1978-01-01

386

Internal Magnetic Configuration Measured by ECE Imaging on EAST Tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ECE imaging (electron cyclotron emission imaging) is an important diagnostic which can give 2D imaging of temperature fluctuation in the core of tokamak. A method based on ECE imaging is introduced which can give the information of the position of magnetic axis and the structure of internal magnetic surface for EAST tokamak. The EFIT equilibrium reconstruction is not reliable due to the absence of important core diagnostic at the initial phase for EAST, so the information given by ECE imaging could help to improve the accuracy of EFIT equilibrium reconstruction.

Xu, Ming; Wen, Yizhi; Xie, Jinlin; Yu, Changxuan; Gao, Bingxi; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Wandong; Hu, Liqun; Sun, Youwen; Qian, Jinping; Wan, Baonian

2013-12-01

387

Generation of Whistler Wave by a Rotating Magnetic Field Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF) with plasmas is a fundamental plasma physics problem with implications to fusion related Field-Reversed Configurations (FRC), space propulsion, astronaut protection from cosmic rays in long interstellar travel, control of the energetic population in the radiation belts and near zone processes in pulsar magnetospheres. In this paper we report recent experiments on the generation of whistler waves with a new type RMF-based antenna. The experiments were conducted on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). The Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) is created using poly-phased loop antennas. A number of parameter combinations, e.g. plasma density, background magnetic field, and driving current, were used. It was found that RMF created by a two phase-delayed loop antenna drives significant currents along the ambient magnetic field. The measured amplitude of induced wave field was proportional to the square-root of the plasma density. The spatial decay rate for the wave perturbation across the background magnetic field was found to scale with the plasma skin depth. A small amplitude second harmonic was also measured. The paper will also present analytic and simulation results that account for the experimental results; in particular, the scaling of the induced magnetic field as a function of the RMF and plasma parameters and the spatial decay rate of magnetic field. Applications of RMF as an efficient radiation source of plasma waves in space plasmas will be discussed. This work was sponsored by ONR MURI Grant 5-28828

Karavaev, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Sharma, A. S.; Gigliotti, A.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.

2008-12-01

388

FRC (field-reversed configuration) translation studies on FRX-C/LSM  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for upcoming compression-heating experiments, field-reversed configurations (FRCs) have been translated out of the FRX-C/LSM theta-pinch source, and into the 0.4-m-id, 6.7-m-long translation region formerly used on FRX-C/T. Unlike earlier experiments FRCs are generated without magnetic tearing in the larger FRX-C/LSM source (nominal coil id = 0.70 m, length = 2 m); larger, lower-energy-density FRCs are formed: r/sub s/ approx. = 0.17 m, B/sub ext/ approx. = 0.35 T, approx. = 7 /times/ 10/sup 20/m/sup /minus/3/ and T/sub e/ + T/sub i/ approx. = 400 eV. An initial 3-mtorr D/sub 2/ pressure is introduced by either static or puff fill. Asymmetric fields from auxiliary end coils (used for non-tearing formation) provide the accelerating force on the FRC, thereby eliminating the need for a conical theta-pinch coil. An important feature is the abrupt 44% decrease in the flux-conserving wall radius at the transition between the theta-pinch and translation region, similar to that in the compressor. In this paper we review a variety of issues addressed by the recent translation experiments: translation dynamics; translation through a modulated magnetic field; stabilization of the n = 2 rotational instability by weak helical quadrupole fields; and confinement properties. Results from internal magnetic field measurements in translating FRCs may be found in a companion paper. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Rej, D.; Barnes, G.; Baron, M.; Chrien, R.; Crawford, E.; Okada, S.; Siemon, R.; Taggart, D.; Tuszewski, M.; Webster, R.

1989-01-01

389

Magnetic domain structure in thin film under alternate magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic domain structures in a garnet thin film under alternate magnetic fields have been investigated. In alternate magnetic fields, a labyrinth structure approaches a parallel-stripe structure. The competition among the segment clusters, in which stripes have different directions, causes stable dynamical domain structures. With the increase of the amplitude of alternate fields, the segment clusters become small.

M. Mino; H. Yamazaki

2004-01-01

390

Magnetic domain structure in thin film under alternate magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic domain structures in a garnet thin film under alternate magnetic fields have been investigated. In alternate magnetic fields, a labyrinth structure approaches a parallel-stripe structure. The competition among the segment clusters, in which stripes have different directions, causes stable dynamical domain structures. With the increase of the amplitude of alternate fields, the segment clusters become small.

Mino, M.; Yamazaki, H.

391

Magnetic domain structure in thin film under alternate magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic domain structures in a garnet thin film under alternate magnetic fields have been investigated. In alternate magnetic fields, a labyrinth structure approaches a parallel-stripe structure. The competition among the segment clusters, in which stripes have different directions, causes stable dynamical domain structures. With the increase of the amplitude of alternate fields, the segment clusters become small.

Mino, M.; Yamazaki, H.

2004-05-01

392

Cancellation of the ion deflection due to electron-suppression magnetic field in a negative-ion acceleratora)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new magnetic configuration is proposed for the suppression of co-extracted electrons in a negative-ion accelerator. This configuration is produced by an arrangement of permanent magnets embedded in one accelerator grid and creates an asymmetric local magnetic field on the upstream and downstream sides of this grid. Thanks to the "concentration" of the magnetic field on the upstream side of the grid, the resulting deflection of the ions due to magnetic field can be "intrinsically" cancelled by calibrating the configuration of permanent magnets. At the same time, the suppression of co-extracted electrons can be improved.

Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Marconato, N.; Veltri, P.

2014-02-01

393

Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...

394

Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

Hagyard, M. J. (editor)

1985-01-01

395

Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

1999-06-24

396

Electron temperature measurements of field-reversed configuration plasmas on the FRX-C/LSM experiment  

SciTech Connect

A single-point Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to determine the electron temperature T/sub e/ of field-reversed-configuration (FRC) compact toroids generated in the /theta/-pinch source of the Los Alamos FRX-C/LSM experiment. Measurements are performed close to the axial midplane and near the magnetic and geometric axes. A broad range of plasma conditions is investigated and electron temperatures vary, on average, between 90 and 190 eV. For a given condition, T/sub e/ remains relatively constant during the 60 /mu/s measurement interval between formation and the onset of the n = 2 rotational instability. T/sub e/ increases with plasma diameter and external magnetic field, and decreases slightly with fill pressure. The temperature at the geometric axis is consistently 10--20% lower than that near the field null. The temperature is approximately 35% higher than observed previously on the smaller FRX-C device. The implications of these measurements on plasma confinement properties are discussed. 25 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

Rej, D.J.

1989-09-01

397

Magnetic order of UPt3 in high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak magnetic order of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3 has been investigated by elastic neutron-scattering measurements in magnetic fields up to 12 T along the a and c axes of the hexagonal crystal structure. The small antiferromagnetically ordered moment of 0.02?B/(U atom) shows only a weak dependence on the applied magnetic field and no sign of a domain repopulation for B?a. In high magnetic fields an increase in the magnetic correlation length is observed for magnetic fields along the c axis.

van Dijk, N. H.; Fåk, B.; Regnault, L. P.; Huxley, A.; Fernández-Díaz, M.-T.

1998-08-01

398

Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields on Neutron Star Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study static neutron stars with poloidal magnetic fields and a simple class of electric current distributions consistent with the requirement of stationarity. For this class of electric current distributions, we find that magnetic fields are too large for static configurations to exist when the magnetic force pushes a sufficient amount of mass off-center that the gravitational force points outward near the origin in the equatorial plane. (In our coordinates an outward gravitational force corresponds to ?lngtt/?r>0, where t and r are respectively time and radial coordinates and gtt is coefficient of dt2 in the line element.) For the equations of state (EOSs) employed in previous work, we obtain configurations of higher mass than had been reported; we also present results with more recent EOSs. For all EOSs studied, we find that the maximum mass among these static configurations with magnetic fields is noticeably larger than the maximum mass attainable by uniform rotation, and that for fixed values of baryon number the maximum mass configurations are all characterized by an off-center density maximum.

Cardall, Christian Y.; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.

2001-06-01

399

Convective Flow Induced by Localized Traveling Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axisymmetric traveling magnetic field induces a meridional base flow in a cylindrical zone of an electrically conducting liquid. This remotely induced flow can be conveniently controlled, in magnitude and direction, and can have benefits for crystal growth applications. In particular, it can be used to offset natural convection. For long vertical cylinders, non-uniform and localized in the propagating direction, magnetic fields are required for this purpose. Here we investigate a particular form of this field, namely that induced by a set of a few electric current coils. An order of magnitude reduction of buoyancy convection is theoretically demonstrated for a vertical Bridgman crystal growth configuration.

Mazuruk, Konstantin; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

400

Crustal Magnetic Fields of Terrestrial Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements are very valuable, as they provide constraints on the interior of the telluric planets and Moon.\\u000a The Earth possesses a planetary scale magnetic field, generated in the conductive and convective outer core. This global magnetic\\u000a field is superimposed on the magnetic field generated by the rocks of the crust, of induced (i.e. aligned on the current main

Benoit Langlais; Vincent Lesur; Michael E. Purucker; Jack E. P. Connerney; Mioara Mandea

2010-01-01

401

Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.

Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

1976-01-01

402

Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of rotating field-reversed configurations with excluded multipole fields  

SciTech Connect

The rotational instability in field-reversed configurations (FRC's) is observed experimentally to be suppressed by the application of multipole fields. In this paper the equilibrium and stability of a FRC with multipole fields that do not penetrate into the plasma are studied. It is shown that two rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria are possible for a long FRC in a multipole field. One is nearly circular while the other is cusp shaped. Experiments and hybrid simulations indicate that cusp-like equilibria are usually obtained. The effect of helical multipole fields on the equilibrium is also discussed. The stability of such a configuration has been previously studied by using the MHD model on a circular plasma and by using a hybrid simulation code. In the important quadrupole case, the two calculations disagree: the simulation shows that the mode is stabilized while the circular MHD calculation predicts that it remains unstable. A close look at the MHD calculation shows that stability is strongly influenced by the shape of the equilibrium. Simple estimates indicate that the cusp-like equilibrium should be more stable than the circular one.

Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.

1985-08-01

403

The resistance peak of helicon plasmas at low magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The dispersion characteristics of the radial eigenmodes and resistive loading of helicon plasmas are studied to explain the occurrence of the density peak at low magnetic fields. The plasma resistance is usually found to be large for the eigenmodes near the magnetic field where the fast and slow waves are coupled and can be peaked at low magnetic fields depending on the antenna configuration. It is explained how reflection of the waves at an axial end causes the resistance peak at low magnetic fields for a single loop antenna and the Nagoya type III or helical antenna itself can give rise to the resistance peak regardless of reflection. Finally, the dependence of the resistance peak on the density and the wave frequency is examined to show that the general trend is consistent with experimental observations.

Cho, Suwon [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Kyonggi-Do 442-760 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-03-15

404

Critical turbulent energy reductions in plasmas using weak magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

With an arc-driven shock tube, laser induced fluorescence, and a multipoint density diagnostic technique, we study the turbulence behind an ionizing shock wave in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field is directed either parallel to or antiparallel to the direction of the shock wave's propagation, and is configured in such a way as to couple with turbulent velocity fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the direction of flow. We find that the magnetic field can be used to reduce the turbulent energy in a plasma system. Further, when the evolution to turbulence is treated as a second-order phase transformation, the critical turbulent energy decreases with increasing magnetic field.

Raynor, Chavis T.; Mezonlin, Ephrem D.; Johnson, Joseph A. III [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

2009-02-15

405

Characteristics of geometric distortion correction with increasing field-of-view in open-configuration MRI.  

PubMed

Open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are becoming increasingly desirable for musculoskeletal imaging and image-guided radiotherapy because of their non-claustrophobic configuration. However, geometric image distortion in large fields-of-view (FOV) due to field inhomogeneity and gradient nonlinearity hinders the practical applications of open-type MRI. We demonstrated the use of geometric distortion correction for increasing FOV in open MRI. Geometric distortion was modeled and corrected as a global polynomial function. The appropriate polynomial order was identified as the minimum difference between the coordinates of control points in the distorted MR image space and those predicted by polynomial modeling. The sixth order polynomial function was found to give the optimal value for geometric distortion correction. The area of maximum distortion was<1 pixel with an FOV of 285mm. The correction performance error was increased at most 1.2% and 2.9% for FOVs of 340mm and~400mm compared with the FOV of 285mm. In particular, unresolved distortion was generated by local deformation near the gradient coil center. PMID:24698340

Hong, Cheolpyo; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Han, Bong Soo

2014-07-01

406

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and near-Earth electro-magnetic environment. After release from a single launcher, a side-by-side flying slowly decaying lower pair of satellites will be released at an initial altitude of about 490 km together with a third satellite that will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations that are required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission aims to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the development phase, will be addressed. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2012.

Haagmans, R.; Menard, Y.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Drinkwater, M. R.

2010-12-01

407

The measurement of solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for studying solar magnetic fields are examined, taking into account Zeeman and Hanle effects, radio observations, the influence of magnetic fields in solar structures, theoretical extrapolations of photospheric measurements, in situ measurements in the solar-wind region, and meteorite records of the primordial solar magnetic field. Instrumental techniques for optical polarization measurements are considered and an interpretation of optical polarization

J. O. Stenflo

1978-01-01

408

MR imaging at high magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, more investigators have been applying higher magnetic field strengths (3–4 Tesla) in research and clinical settings. Higher magnetic field strength is expected to afford higher spatial resolution and\\/or a decrease in the length of total scan time due to its higher signal intensity. Besides MR signal intensity, however, there are several factors which are magnetic field dependent, thus the

Masaya Takahashi; Hidemasa Uematsu; Hiroto Hatabu

2003-01-01

409

Magnetic field navigation in an indoor environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method that has been developed to aid an inertial navigation system when GNSS signals are not available, by taking advantage of the uniqueness of magnetic field variations. Most indoor environments have many different features (ferrous structural materials or contents, electrical currents, etc.) which perturb the Earths natural magnetic field. The variations in the magnetic field in

William Storms; Jeremiah Shockley; John Raquet

2010-01-01

410

PLASMA CONFINEMENT USING ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the current distribution set up by a ; magnetic field rotating about the axis of a cylindrical plasma. If the plasma ; resistivity was sufficiently small electrons rotated with the magnetic field ; producing a steady azimuthal current. In conjunction with an externally applied ; axial magnetic field such a system can be used to

H. Blevin; P. C. Thonemann

1961-01-01

411

Magnetic field quality analysis using ANSYS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of superconducting magnets for particles accelerators requires a high quality of the magnetic field. This paper presents an ANSYS 4.4A Post 1 macro that computes the field quality performing a Fourier analysis of the magnetic field. The results...

D. Dell'Orco Y. Chen

1991-01-01

412

Magnetic field effect for cellulose nanofiber alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerated cellulose formed into cellulose nanofibers under strong magnetic field and aligned perpendicularly to the magnetic field. Well-aligned microfibrils were found as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased. Better alignment and more crystalline structure of the cellulose resulted in the increased decomposition temperature of the material. X-ray crystallograms showed that crystallinity index of the cellulose increased as the

Jaehwan Kim; Yi Chen; Kwang-Sun Kang; Young-Bin Park; Mark Schwartz

2008-01-01

413

An ancient lunar magnetic dipole field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories giving the source of the previously hypothesized ancient strong lunar magnetic field and reasons for its disappearance are presented. It is suggested that since it was demonstrated that the moon possessed a small iron core, a dynamo process within this core may have accounted for the field. The disappearance of this magnetizing field can be explained; either the magnetic

S. K. Runcorn

1975-01-01

414

Magnetic field gradient measurement on magnetic cards using magnetic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field gradients of magnetic stripe cards, which are developed for classifying magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspections, have been measured using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The magnetic force exerted on a MFM probe by the stray field emanating from the card was measured to determine the field gradients. The results are in good agreement with the field gradients estimated from the magnetizing field strengths used in the encoding process. .

Lo, C. C. H.; Leib, J.; Jiles, D. C.; Chedister, W. C.

2002-05-01

415

Magnetic field gradient measurement on magnetic cards using magnetic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field gradients of magnetic stripe cards, which are developed for classifying magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspections, have been measured using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The magnetic force exerted on a MFM probe by the stray field emanating from the card was measured to determine the field gradients. The results are in good agreement with the

C. C. H. Lo; J. Leib; D. C. Jiles; W. C. Chedister

2002-01-01

416

Transonic Flow Field Analysis for Wing-Fuselage Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational method for simulating the aerodynamics of wing-fuselage configurations at transonic speeds is developed. The finite difference scheme is characterized by a multiple embedded mesh system coupled with a modified or extended small disturbance flow equation. This approach permits a high degree of computational resolution in addition to coordinate system flexibility for treating complex realistic aircraft shapes. To augment the analysis method and permit applications to a wide range of practical engineering design problems, an arbitrary fuselage geometry modeling system is incorporated as well as methodology for computing wing viscous effects. Configuration drag is broken down into its friction, wave, and lift induced components. Typical computed results for isolated bodies, isolated wings, and wing-body combinations are presented. The results are correlated with experimental data. A computer code which employs this methodology is described.

Boppe, C. W.

1980-01-01

417

Magnetic field response sensor for conductive media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field response sensor comprises an inductor placed at a fixed separation distance from a conductive surface to address the low RF transmissivity of conductive surfaces. The minimum distance for separation is determined by the sensor response. The inductor should be separated from the conductive surface so that the response amplitude exceeds noise level by a recommended 10 dB. An embodiment for closed cavity measurements comprises a capacitor internal to said cavity and an inductor mounted external to the cavity and at a fixed distance from the cavity's wall. An additional embodiment includes a closed cavity configuration wherein multiple sensors and corresponding antenna are positioned inside the cavity, with the antenna and inductors maintained at a fixed distance from the cavity's wall.

Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

2010-01-01

418

Magnetic field response sensor for conductive media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field response sensor comprises an inductor placed at a fixed separation distance from a conductive surface to address the low RF transmissivity of conductive surfaces. The minimum distance for separation is determined by the sensor response. The inductor should be separated from the conductive surface so that the response amplitude exceeds noise level by a recommended 10 dB. An embodiment for closed cavity measurements comprises a capacitor internal to said cavity and an inductor mounted external to the cavity and at a fixed distance from the cavity's wall. An additional embodiment includes a closed cavity configuration wherein multiple sensors and corresponding antenna are positioned inside the cavity, with the antenna and inductors maintained at a fixed distance from the cavity's wall.

Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

419

Levitation performance of the magnetized bulk high- Tc superconducting magnet with different trapped fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To a high- Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system which needs large levitation force density, the magnetized bulk high- Tc superconductor (HTSC) magnet is a good candidate because it can supply additional repulsive or attractive force above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). Because the induced supercurrent within a magnetized bulk HTSC is the key parameter for the levitation performance, and it is sensitive to the magnetizing process and field, so the magnetized bulk HTSC magnets with different magnetizing processes had various levitation performances, not only the force magnitude, but also its force relaxation characteristics. Furthermore, the distribution and configuration of the induced supercurrent are also important factor to decide the levitation performance, especially the force relaxation characteristics. This article experimentally investigates the influences of different magnetizing processes and trapped fields on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk HTSC magnet with smaller size than the magnetic inter-pole distance of PMG, and the obtained results are qualitatively analyzed by the Critical State Model. The test results and analyses of this article are useful for the suitable choice and optimal design of magnetized bulk HTSC magnets.

Liu, W.; Wang, J. S.; Liao, X. L.; Zheng, S. J.; Ma, G. T.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.

2011-03-01

420

Asymmetries of the magnetic field line draping shape around Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field data observed by Venus Express (VEX) from April 2006 to December 2009 are analyzed in order to describe the magnetic configuration around Venus. All the magnetic observations are organized in a coordinate system which is determined by the solar wind (SW) flow and the interplanetary magnetic field. By averaging and compiling the VEX data, we compile a global picture of the magnetic field for the SW interaction with Venus. The magnetic field around the planet displays a clear asymmetry on both field strength and pattern. The magnetic field is stronger on the +E hemisphere where the convective electric field E?SW points away from the planet, and is wrapped around the planet more tightly on the -E hemisphere where E?SW points toward the planet. The underlying physics of this E?SW asymmetry is still under debate. Except in ideal single-fluid MHD simulation, the E?SW asymmetry can be observed in both multifluid MHD and hybrid simulations.

Du, J.; Wang, C.; Zhang, T. L.; Kallio, E.

2013-11-01

421

Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maps of far-infrared and submillimeter polarization vectors have typically been examined one-at-a-time for magnetic field structure related to processes such as gravitational collapse, differential rotation, expanding H II regions, or tidal stripping. The same maps can be used to determine angular dispersion due to turbulence in molecular clouds, where the turbulent dispersion is distinguished from dispersion due to curvature of the large-scale structure or the apparent dispersion due to measurement error. Taking into account the differences between the dispersion due to magneto-hydrodynamic waves in the arms of the Galaxy and dispersion due to turbulence in molecular clouds, one can infer field strengths in dense clouds using a method analogous to that used by Chandresekhar & Fermi to determine field strengths in the Galactic plane. With an accurate archive of flux and polarization maps one can also determine three-dimensional cloud shapes and field orientations, or look for correlations between fields in molecular clouds and fields in the surrounding medium.

Hildebrand, R. H.

2009-12-01

422

Interplanetary magnetic field data book  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

King, J. H.

1975-01-01

423

The Giotto magnetic field investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.

Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.

1983-01-01

424

Modeling Current Drive in Space Plasma with Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of rotating magnetic fields with plasmas is fundamental plasma physics problem with implications to fusion related Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) configurations, space propulsion, astronaut protection from cosmic rays in long interstellar travel, control of energetic population in the radiation belts and near zone processes in pulsar magnetospheres. Despite its importance the basic plasma physics understanding of the interaction of

X. Shao; K. Papadopoulos; G. Joyce

2006-01-01

425

Magnetic field re-arrangement after prominence eruption  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that magnetic reconnection plays a fundamental role in a variety of solar events. Although mainly invoked in flare problems, large-scale loops interconnecting active regions, evolving coronal hole boundaries, the solar magnetic cycle itself, provide different evidence of phenomena which involve magnetic reconnection. A further example might be given by the magnetic field rearrangement which occurs after the eruption of a prominence. Since most often a prominence reforms after its disappearance and may be observed at about the same position it occupied before erupting, the magnetic field has to undergo a temporary disruption to relax back, via reconnection, to a configuration similar to the previous one. The above sequence of events is best observable in the case of two-ribbon (2-R) flares but most probably is associated with all filament eruptions. Even if the explanation of the magnetic field rearrangement after 2-R flares in terms of reconnection is generally accepted, the lack of a three-dimensional model capable of describing the field reconfiguration, has prevented, up to now, a thorough analysis of its topology as traced by H..cap alpha../x-ray loops. The purpose of the present work is to present a numerical technique which enables one to predict and visualize the reconnected configuration, at any time t, and therefore allows one to make a significant comparison of observations and model predictions throughout the whole process. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Kopp, R.A.; Poletto, G.

1986-01-01

426

Graphene in high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-based nano-materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, represent a fascinating research area aiming at exploring their remarkable physical and electronic properties. These materials not only constitute a playground for physicists, they are also very promising for practical applications and are envisioned as elementary bricks of the future of the nano-electronics. As for graphene, its potential already lies in the domain of opto-electronics where its unique electronic and optical properties can be fully exploited. Indeed, recent technological advances have demonstrated its effectiveness in the fabrication of solar cells and ultra-fast lasers, as well as touch-screens and sensitive photo-detectors. Although the photo-voltaic technology is now dominated by silicon-based devices, the use of graphene could very well provide higher efficiency. However, before the applied research to take place, one must first demonstrates the operativeness of carbon-based nano-materials, and this is where the fundamental research comes into play. In this context, the use of magnetic field has been proven extremely useful for addressing their fundamental properties as it provides an external and adjustable parameter which drastically modifies their electronic band structure. In order to induce some significant changes, very high magnetic fields are required and can be provided using both DC and pulsed technology, depending of the experimental constraints. In this article, we review some of the challenging experiments on single nano-objects performed in high magnetic and low temperature. We shall mainly focus on the high-