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1

An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new global map of the magnetic field of Mars, with an order of magnitude improved sensitivity to crustal magnetization, is derived from Mars Global Surveyor mapping orbit magnetic field data. With this comes greatly improved spatial resolution and geologic intrpretation.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.

2004-03-01

2

Magnetic Field Maps of Quiescent BOK Globules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present magnetic field maps of 12 starless Bok Globules. Maps were constructed from polarimetric V-band images taken with a computer-controlled CCD camera with a fast shutter and a bidirectional charge-shifting capability. The linear polarization of stars in the globule field has been determined by repeated use of imaging through a polaroid filter, shifting the charge up by many times the stellar PSF, reimaging through an orthogonal polaroid filter, then shifting the charge back down to its starting point. Between one and five CCD fields-of-view were necessary to map each globule, and up to 50 stars in each FOV had detectable polarizations. This globule sample exhibits a variety of magnetic field patterns, including uniform fields with dispersion less than 10(deg) , overlapping fields with two distinct directions, and cometary extensions.

Kane, Brian D.; Clemens, Dan P.

1994-12-01

3

Validate Mapping of Internal Lunar Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a global mapping of vector lunar magnetic field based on new method of separation of internal and external fields using inversion. The magnetic measurements collected during the lifetime of Lunar Prospector (LP) extended mission during 1999 were strongly disturbed by the solar wind, a period which coincided with a maximum of the 23 cycle activity. The multi scale wavelength external fields were analyzed using spherical harmonic transform. The external field determined by inversion was then removed from each magnetic field component for each half orbit. To map the vector magnetic crustal anomalies, all LP magnetometer data collected at low altitudes in the three different lunar environments: (1) geomagnetic tail (2) solar wind (3) geomagnetic sheath, were processed using this new approach. The results obtained using these selection criteria allow us to get a global coverage of the lunar surface by the vector magnetic field at variable spacecraft low altitudes. To validate our mapping we have developed and applied a method based on properties of potential fields functions. This method can be used to determine both horizontal North and East components using only vertical component. The validate lunar internal magnetic measurements obtained at variable spacecraft altitudes was then continued to a common altitude of 30 km using non linear inverse methods. This mapping confirm firstly the nature of the crustal sources of lunar magnetic field and clearly shows that the strongest concentrations of anomalies are associated with of high albedo and/or located antipodal to large young basins (Orientale, Serenitatis, Imbrium, and Crisium) of age about 3.9 Ga.

Berguig, M. C.; Hamoudi, M.; LeMouël, J. L.; Cohen, Y.

2012-04-01

4

Equivalent source mapping of lunar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) shall launch the SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) spacecraft this autumn. Amongst many instruments, it has a magnetometer (LMAG: Lunar MAGnetomter) which will measure the magnetic field on the orbit around the Moon. The nominal orbit of the SELENE is about 100km in altitudes for 1 year observation. Although the extended mission is still not determined, LMAG team is requesting a low altitude (less than 50km) observation, if the remaining fuel allows. We are preparing data processing software for the mission. Here, we report an objective scheme for mapping the lunar crustal magnetic field from the orbital measurement data of unequal altitudes. In this study, the magnetic field is restored by solving a linear inverse-problem determining the sources distributed on the lunar surface to satisfy the observational data, which is known as the equivalent source method. Our scheme has three features improving the method: First, the source calculation is performed simultaneously with detrending. Second, magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) are used as the equivalent sources. It reduces the density of the sources for the same smoothness in produced field, comparing to the dipole sauces. Third, the number of sources is taken large enough to avoid the problem of configuration of the sources, instead the damped least square assuming the strength of each charge is similar to the next one, and the smoothness factor is determined by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). It guarantees the objectivity of the calculation, in other words, there is no adjustable parameter which may depend of the researcher dealing the data analyses. For testing the scheme, we apply this method to the Lunar Prospector magnetometer data, and provide magnetic field map in the region centered at several regions of strong crustal field including the Reiner Gamma anomaly. The stability of the method and the resolution of the anomaly map are found to be satisfactory.

Toyoshima, M.; Shibuya, H.

2007-12-01

5

Mapping crustal magnetic fields at Mars using electron reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a kinetic model for the interaction of electrons precipitating along magnetic field lines into Mars' atmosphere and develop a technique for detecting crustal magnetic fields, which act as magnetic mirrors, reflecting some of the incident electrons back to spacecraft altitudes. We present an initial map covering 20% of the planet, which shows the topology of magnetic sources along the dichotomy boundary and reveals new magnetic sources in the northern lowlands, implying the existence of preserved Noachian crust beneath at least some regions of the apparently young plains.

Lillis, R. J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuña, M. H.

2004-08-01

6

Lorentz Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Hot Dense Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Unique detection of electromagnetic fields and identification of field type and strength as a function of position were used to determine the nature of self-generated fields in a novel experiment with laser-generated plasma bubbles on two sides of a plastic foil. Field-induced deflections of monoenergetic 15-MeV probe protons passing through the two bubbles, measured quantitatively with proton radiography, were combined with Lorentz mapping to provide separate measurements of magnetic and electric fields. The result was absolute identification and measurement of a toroidal magnetic field around each bubble and determination that any electric field component parallel to the foil was below measurement uncertainties.

Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Rygg, J. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Froula, D. H.; Landen, O. L.; Patel, P. K.; Ross, J. S.; Town, R. P. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2009-08-21

7

Mapping Magnetic Fields from Hat Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near the end of its days, the 85-foot telescope at Hat Creek had gotten so good at H I Zeeman observing that one might even say the spectra were being ``mass-produced.'' In a typical integration time of 10 hours, it was possible to measure fields on the order of 5 to 10 mu G in a broad range of interstellar

A. Goodman; C. Heiles; P. Myers; R. G. Usten

1993-01-01

8

Hypervelocity dust beam injection for internal magnetic field mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injecting neutral atoms into high-temperature plasmas forms the basis for several important diagnostics, such as motional Stark effect and charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. We describe an alternative approach to seeding the plasma with neutrals, via ``hypervelocity dust beam injection'' (HDBI), using micron-sized dusts. Among its many potential applications, HDBI mapping of two-dimensional internal magnetic fields inside medium-sized (50-500 eV) plasmas is discussed in detail. Electrostatic acceleration at ~100-200 kV will launch a stream of (0.2-10 ?m-sized) dust grains of lithium or carbon to hypervelocities (1-10 km/s). Each dust grain, acting as a ``microcomet'' in the plasma, forming a plume (tail), which if photographed, will reveal the direction of the local magnetic field, with anywhere from 10-100 microcomets in the plasma at any time, a full profile of the B-field direction could be obtained per high resolution image. Due to the small dust grain size, the perturbation to the plasma will be minimal. HDBI could be a simple low cost approach to obtain internal magnetic field information in plasmas with magnetic field structures that are significantly different than vacuum fields, such as in spherical tokamaks, FRC's, RFP's, and spheromaks.

Wang, Zhehui; Wurden, G. A.

2003-03-01

9

Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments for validated determination of the helical field coil location in stellarators  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the behavior of plasmas in magnetic confinement fusion devices typically requires accurate knowledge of the magnetic field structure. In stellarator-type confinement devices, the helical magnetic field is produced by currents in external coils and may be traced experimentally in the absence of plasma through the experimental technique of vacuum magnetic field mapping. Field mapping experiments, such as these, were performed on the recently constructed compact toroidal hybrid to verify the range of accessible magnetic configurations, compare the actual magnetic configuration with the design configuration, and identify any vacuum field errors that lead to perturbations of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces. Furthermore, through the use of a new coil optimization routine, modifications are made to the simulation coil model such that better agreement exists between the experimental and simulation results. An outline of the optimization procedure is discussed in conjunction with the results of one such optimization process performed on the helical field coil.

Peterson, J.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G.; Knowlton, S. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

2010-03-15

10

Lunar Magnetic Field Observation and Initial Global Mapping of Lunar Magnetic Anomalies by MAP-LMAG Onboard SELENE (Kaguya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field around the Moon has been successfully observed at a nominal altitude of ˜100 km by the lunar magnetometer (LMAG) on the SELENE (Kaguya) spacecraft in a polar orbit since October 29, 2007. The LMAG mission has three main objectives: (1) mapping the magnetic anomaly of the Moon, (2) measuring the electromagnetic and plasma environment around the Moon and (3) estimating the electrical conductivity structure of the Moon. Here we review the instrumentation and calibration of LMAG and report the initial global mapping of the lunar magnetic anomaly at the nominal altitude. We have applied a new de-trending technique of the Bayesian procedure to multiple-orbit datasets observed in the tail lobe and in the lunar wake. Based on the nominal observation of 14 months, global maps of lunar magnetic anomalies are obtained with 95% coverage of the lunar surface. After altitude normalization and interpolation of the magnetic anomaly field by an inverse boundary value problem, we obtained full-coverage maps of the vector magnetic field at 100 km altitude and the radial component distribution on the surface. Relatively strong anomalies are identified in several basin-antipode regions and several near-basin and near-crater regions, while the youngest basin on the Moon, the Orientale basin, has no magnetic anomaly. These features well agree with characteristics of previous maps based on the Lunar Prospector observation. Relatively weak anomalies are distributed over most of the lunar surface. The surface radial-component distribution estimated from the inverse boundary value problem in the present study shows a good correlation with the radial component distribution at 30 km altitude by Lunar Prospector. Thus these weak anomalies over the lunar surface are not artifacts but likely to be originated from the lunar crustal magnetism, suggesting possible existence of an ancient global magnetic field such as a dynamo field of the early Moon. The possibility of the early lunar dynamo and the mechanism of magnetization acquisition will be investigated by a further study using the low-altitude data of the magnetic field by Kaguya.

Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Nakazawa, Satoru; Otake, Hisashi; Iijima, Yuichi

2010-07-01

11

Interferometric mapping of magnetic fields in star- forming regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields are thought to play a significant role in all stages of star formation. However, there are few observations that measure magnetic fields at the relevant scale for the star formation process. In this thesis, I present the results from a survey of linear polarization in molecular cores at 1.3 mm wavelength with the BIMA millimeter interferometer. The linear

Shih-Ping Lai

2001-01-01

12

Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.

Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun

2011-07-01

13

The Milky Way Magnetic Field Mapping Mission: M4  

Microsoft Academic Search

M4 has been proposed this year as a potential new SMEX mission. The central goal of the mission is to measure magnetic field orientations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way Galaxy to assess the importance of the field in star formation and other physical processes. The measurement technique is far-infrared imaging linear polarimetry, which has been extensively proven

D. P. Clemens; J. Bookbinder; A. Goodman; H. Kristen; P. Myers; P. Padoan; K. Wood; M. H. Heyer; C. Heiles; T. J. Jones; J. Dickey; E. Young; G. Rieke; K. Dow; C. D. Dowell; B. Draine; J. Greaves; U. Klaas; R. Laureijs; A. Lazarian; B. Shulz; E. Zweibel

2000-01-01

14

Surface mapping of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly field: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping of the lunar magnetic anomaly gives a crucial constraint on the crustal magnetization structure of the Moon. High spatial resolution of the magnetic anomaly map requires low altitude mapping. We have developed a new method for mapping three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly field on the lunar surface using magnetic field observations by a satellite magnetometer. This surface mapping method was applied to the datasets of several lunar magnetic anomaly regions observed by Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. We will report their preliminary results. The radial component of the crustal magnetic field (Br) on the surface can be obtained from the satellite observations at various altitudes through the inversion of a boundary value problem (Tsunakawa et al., in press). In our method, surface Br values are mapped at almost equal interval points, called generalized spiral points. Two horizontal components are calculated at each point from Br values at the adjacent points. Thus we can map the surface values of three components and total intensity of the lunar magnetic anomaly field (Tsunakawa et al., in prep.). We have applied the method to several strong anomaly regions (e.g. Reiner Gamma) observed by Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. Since the observation altitudes are mostly 15-45 km, spatial resolutions are estimated to be 0.5-1 degree. Preliminary results show strong magnetic anomaly fields with intensity peaks of more than 500 nT on the lunar surface.

Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.; Shimizu, H.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.

2010-12-01

15

Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do

Quan Jiang; Xiao Yang Zhou; Jessie Yao Chin; Tie Jun Cui

2011-01-01

16

Mapping Gravitational and Magnetic Fields with Children 9-11: Relevance, difficulties and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation centered on a guided conceptual path concerning magnetic and gravitational fields, proposed for children aged 9–11. The goal is to appreciate to what extent the idea of “mapping” two fields of interaction is accessible and fruitful for children of that age. The conceptual target is to link magnetic and gravitational sources with their respective field

F. Bradamante; L. Viennot

2007-01-01

17

Two-dimensional field-sensing map and magnetic anisotropy dispersion in magnetic tunnel junction arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the inherent disorder in local structures, anisotropy dispersion exists in almost all systems that consist of multiple magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Aided by micromagnetic simulations based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth (S-W) model, we used a two-dimensional field-sensing map to study the effect of anisotropy dispersion in MTJ arrays. First, we recorded the field sensitivity value of an MTJ array as a function of the easy- and hard-axis bias fields, and then extracted the anisotropy dispersion in the array by comparing the experimental sensitivity map to the simulated map. Through a mean-square-error-based image processing technique, we found the best match for our experimental data, and assigned a pair of dispersion numbers (anisotropy angle and anisotropy constant) to the array. By varying each of the parameters one at a time, we were able to discover the dependence of field sensitivity on magnetoresistance ratio, coercivity, and magnetic anisotropy dispersion. The effects from possible edge domains are also discussed to account for a correction term in our analysis of anisotropy angle distribution using the S-W model. We believe this model is a useful tool for monitoring the formation and evolution of anisotropy dispersion in MTJ systems, and can facilitate better design of MTJ-based devices.

Zhang, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang; Carter, Matthew J.

2011-04-01

18

The Impact of Different Global Photospheric Magnetic Field Maps on Coronal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary objective of current and future solar magnetic field observations is to provide an accurate description of the spatial and temporal distribution of the photospheric magnetic field. These observations are usually merged together over an extended period of time, typically a solar rotation, to produce 360-degree surface maps of the magnetic flux distribution that are regularly used today in several space weather programs. As the main drivers for coronal and heliospheric models, the quality of the maps will ultimately test the diagnostic capabilities of these models and our ability to model the state of the inner heliosphere. Different techniques have been used to construct global magnetic maps of the solar surface from selected set of magnetograms. In our study we have compared the impact of using either diachronic or synchronic maps for predicting the background solar wind speed at Earth. For this purpose we used a potential field source surface model driven by 1-degree resolution full Carrington rotation (CR) radial maps, combined with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. The radial maps were produced for CR 2055 to CR 2087 using SOLIS longitudinal magnetic field observations in the spectral line of Fe I at 630.15nm. The quality of each of these maps is then validated by comparing the predicted background solar wind speeds to the observed values as measured by ACE.

Bertello, L.; Petrie, G. J.; Tran, T.

2010-12-01

19

PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in the journal Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. All articles have been refereed by experts in the field. Both of these journals are fully accessible electronically and can be cited and referenced in the usual way. It is our hope that the reader will enjoy and profit from the MAP3 Proceedings. Hitoshi Wada (Kashiwa, Japan) Chair Eric Beaugon (Grenoble, France) Hans J Schneider-Muntau (Tallahassee, USA) Co-chair Advisory Board Shigeo Asai (Nagoya, Japan) Koichi Kitazawa (Tokyo, Japan) Mitsuhiro Motokawa (Sendai, Japan) Shoogo Ueno (Fukuoka, Japan) Robert Tournier (Grenoble, France) Justin Schwartz (Tallahassee, USA) J C Maan (Nijmegen, Netherland) Scientific Committee Yoshifumi Tanimoto (Hiroshima, Japan) Masuhiro Yamaguchi (Yokohama, Japan) Tsunehisa Kimura (Kyoto, Japan) Yoshio Sakka (Tsukuba Japan) Ryoichi Aogaki (Tokyo, Japan) Jyunji Miyakoshi (Hirosaki, Japan) Kazuo Watanabe (Sendai, Japan) James M Valles Jr. (Providence, USA) Joon Pyo Park (Pohang, Korea) Qiang Wang (Shenyang, China) Nicole Pamme (Hull, UK) Sophie Rivoirard (Grenoble, France) P C M Christianen (Nijmegen, Netherland) Local Organizing Committee Isao Yamamoto Masafumi Yamato Shigeru Horii Norihito Sogoshi Masateru Ikehata Noriyuki Hirota Tsutomu Ando Proceedings Editorial Board Yoshio Sakka Noriyuki Hirota Shigeru Horii Tsutomu Ando Conference photograph

Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

2009-07-01

20

Surface magnetic field mapping on high albedo marking areas of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation between high albedo markings (HAM) on the surface of the moon and strong magnetic anomalies has been claimed since the early time of the lunar magnetic field study (Hood and Schubert, 1980). Hood et al. (1989) mapped the smoothed magnetic field over the Reiner Gamma region using Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP-MAG) data, and showed that the position of them matches well. We have developed a method to recover the 3-d magnetic field from satellite field observations (EPR method which stands for Equivalent Pole Reduction; Toyoshima et al. 2008). Applying EPR to the several areas of strong magnetic anomalies, we calculated the magnetic anomaly maps of near surface regions, to see how the anomaly and the HAM correlate each other. The data used is of the Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP-MAG). They are selected from low altitude observations performed in 1998 to 1999. The areas studied are Reiner Gamma, Airy, Descartes, Abel, and Crisium Antipode regions. The EPR determines a set of magnetic monopoles at the moon surface which produce the magnetic field of the observation. In each studied area, we put poles in 0.1° intervals of both latitude and longitude, then the magnetic field at 5km in altitude is calculated. The field distribution is superimposed with the albedo map made from Clementine data. The total force (Bf) maps indicate that the HMA occurs at the strong anomaly regions, but their shape does not quite overlie. However, taking horizontal component (Bh), not only position but the shape and size of the anomalies coincide with HMA regions. It is particularly true for the Reiner Gamma, and Descartes regions. The shape of HMA fits in a Bh contour. The HMA is argued to be formed by the reduction of solar wind particles which are shielded by the magnetic field. Since the deflection of the charged particle becomes large at large horizontal component, the Bh distribution showed here support the argument.

Shibuya, H.; Aikawa, K.; Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.; Shimizu, H.; Matsushima, M.

2009-12-01

21

A global map of Mars' crustal magnetic field based on electron reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a global map of the amplitude of Mars' crustal magnetic field at 170-km altitude based on electron reflectometry, using data from the Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor. This new map contains features that are about seven times weaker than those in previously published maps obtained with the MAG alone from the 400-km-altitude mapping orbit. The increased sensitivity and nearly complete sampling reveal numerous weak magnetic sources in the northern lowlands. A group of these sources forms a nearly complete ring surrounding the Utopia basin, coinciding with a ridge of thickened crust. A larger 5800-km-diameter ring is defined by a ˜120° arc of magnetic sources that extend to the north pole, supporting the hypothesis that part of the dichotomy boundary was established or modified by the Utopia impact. We also map the magnetic signatures of the Hellas, Argyre, and Isidis impact basins with increased dynamic range, confirming the large contrast in magnetic field strength between the basin interior and surroundings. Magnetic sources surround most of the Tharsis rise, except in the north, suggesting that the construction of Tharsis thermally demagnetized a large region of the northern lowlands. Thermal demagnetization is also suggested in the Elysium region, which intersects the inner Utopia magnetic ring, and south of the Hellas basin in the vicinity of Peneus Patera and Amphitrites Patera.

Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R. J.; Lin, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuña, M. H.

22

Mapping CMEs into the Heliosphere Using Observed Photospheric Magnetic Fields and Coronal Field Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all concepts and current models of coronal eruptive activity involve initiation by changes in the photospheric magnetic field followed by opening coronal magnetic fields. The photospheric field changes may include flux emergence or reconfiguration by shearing or other motions, all of which should have an observable signature. Our efforts have focused on searching for such signatures using magnetograph data-based

J. G. Luhmann; Y. Li; T. Mulligan; C. N. Arge; X. Zhao

2001-01-01

23

Field mapping and temperature dependence of magnetic domain memory induced by exchange couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong magnetic domain memory is achieved in [Co/Pd]IrMn exchange-biased ferromagnetic thin films when zero-field-cooled (ZFC) below their blocking temperature TB. By mapping out the amount of memory throughout the entire magnetization cycle, from nucleation to saturation, at different temperatures below and above TB, we discover how microscopic morphological changes in the magnetic domain patterns correlate with the macroscopic magnetic hysteresis, in the presence or absence of exchange couplings. Our unique inter-field correlation maps show that in the ZFC state, the film exhibits the highest amount of domain memory, exceeding 90%, when domain patterns are compared at the same field value, in the coercive region of the magnetization loop. However, domain patterns also cross-correlate surprisingly well when measured at different field values, on a wide field range centered about the coercive region. The shape and symmetry of the correlation maps provide further insights into the microscopic morphological changes in the domain patterns and the amount of reversibility in the reversal process, at the nanoscale.

Chesnel, Karine; Wilcken, Brian; Rytting, Matthew; Kevan, Steve D.; Fullerton, Eric E.

2013-02-01

24

Making global map of the solar surface Br from the HMI vector magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) has made full-disk vector magnetic field measurements of the Sun with cadence of 12 minutes. The three-component solar surface magnetic field vector data are from the HMI observations with the data process pipeline modules, VFISV (Very Fast Inversion of the Stokes Vector, Borrero et al., 2011) for Milne-Eddington inversion and the minimum-energy disambiguation algorithm (Metcalf 1994, Leka et al, 2009). The models of the global corona and solar wind, such as the PFSS (potential-field source-surface) model and the MHD simulations, often use the maps of solar surface magnetic field, especially the radial component (Br) as the boundary condition. The HMI observation can provide new Br data for these model. Because of weak magnetic signals at the quiet regions of the Sun, the limb darkening, and geometric effects near solar poles, we need to apply an assumption to make a whole-surface map. In this paper, we tested two assumptions for determining Br at weak-field regions. The coronal structures calculated by the PFSS model with the vector-based Br are compared with those with the magnetogram-based Br and the corona observed by the SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly). In the tested period, CR 2098, the vector-based Br map gives better agreements than the line-of-sight magnetogram data, though we need further investigation for evaluation.

Hayashi, K.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Centeno, R.; Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.

2013-06-01

25

The symmetric quartic map for trajectories of magnetic field lines in elongated divertor tokamak plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in divertor tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to ({psi}{sub t},{theta},{phi}) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. {psi}{sub t} is toroidal magnetic flux, {theta} is poloidal angle, and {phi} is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct the symmetric quartic map such that the only parameter that determines magnetic geometry is the elongation of the separatrix surface. The poloidal flux inside the separatrix, the safety factor as a function of normalized minor radius, and the magnetic perturbation from the symplectic discretization are all held constant, and only the elongation is {kappa} varied. The width of stochastic layer, the area, and the fractal dimension of the magnetic footprint and the average radial diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines from the stochastic layer; and how these quantities scale with {kappa} is calculated. The symmetric quartic map gives the correct scalings which are consistent with the scalings of coordinates with {kappa}. The effects of m=1, n={+-}1 internal perturbation with the amplitude that is expected to occur in tokamaks are calculated by adding a term [H. Ali, A. Punjabi, A. H. Boozer, and T. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] to the symmetric quartic map. In this case, the width of stochastic layer scales as 0.35 power of {kappa}. The area of the footprint is roughly constant. The average radial diffusion coefficient of field lines near the X-point scales linearly with {kappa}. The low mn perturbation changes the quasisymmetric structure of the footprint, and reorganizes it into a single, large scale, asymmetric structure. The symmetric quartic map is combined with the dipole map [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, and A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)] to calculate the effects of magnetic perturbation from a current carrying coil. The coil position and coil current coil are constant. The dipole perturbation enhances the magnetic shear. The width of the stochastic layer scales exponentially with {kappa}. The area of the footprint decreases as the {kappa} increases. The radial diffusion coefficient of field lines scales exponentially with {kappa}. The dipole perturbation changes the topology of the footprint. It breaks up the toroidally spiraling footprint into a number of separate asymmetric toroidal strips. Practical applications of the symmetric quartic map to elongated divertor tokamak plasmas are suggested.

Jones, Morgin; Wadi, Hasina; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh [Department of Mathematics, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States)

2009-04-15

26

Detection of Magnetic Field Intensity Gradient by Homing Pigeons (Columba livia) in a Novel "Virtual Magnetic Map" Conditioning Paradigm  

PubMed Central

It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a “virtual magnetic map” during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain.

Mora, Cordula V.; Bingman, Verner P.

2013-01-01

27

The Use of Faraday Rotation Sign Maps as a Diagnostic for Helical Jet Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present maps of the sign of the Faraday Rotation measure obtained from multi-frequency radio observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considered have B-field structures with a central "spine" of B-field orthogonal to the jet and/or a longitudinal B-field near one or both edges of the jet. This structure can plausibly be interpreted as being caused by a helical/toroidal jet magnetic field. Faraday Rotation is a rotation of the plane of polarization that occurs when the polarized radiation passes through a magnetized plasma. The sign of the RM is determined by the direction of the line-of-sight B-field in the region causing the Faraday Rotation, and an ordered toroidal or helical magnetic field associated with an AGN jet will thus produce a distinctive bilateral distribution of the RMs across the jet. We present and discuss RM-sign maps and their possible interpretation regarding the magnetic field geometries for several sources.

Reichstein, Andrea; Gabuzda, Denise

2012-03-01

28

Equivalent source mapping of the lunar crustal magnetic field using ABIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective scheme is presented for estimating the lunar crustal magnetic field from the LMAG (Lunar MAGnetometer) data of the SELENE ("KAGUYA") spacecraft. Our scheme improves the equivalent source method in three respects. The first improvement is that the source calculation is performed simultaneously with detrending. The second is that a great number of magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) are used as the equivalent sources. The third is that the distribution of the magnetic charges is detremined by the damped least squares method, and the optimum smoothness is determined objectively by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). For testing the scheme, we apply it to the Lunar Prospector magnetometer data in the region centered at the Reiner Gamma magnetic anomaly. The magnetic field map at an altitude of 20 km is stably drawn from datasets for different altitudes (18 km and 34 km). The ABIC minimizing criterion successfully controls the smoothness due to the numerical damping and extracts as much information as possible from the given data. This scheme will help produce a coherent lunar magnetic anomaly map by integrating the observations from various altitudes of the SELENE and previous missions.

Toyoshima, M.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Tsunakawa, H.

2008-04-01

29

Magnetic Field Mapping and Biaxial Vector Operation for Biomagnetic Applications Using High-Sensitivity Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically pumped alkali-metal atomic magnetometers are expected to be used not only for biomagnetic field measurements but also for magnetic resonance imaging because of their potential ultrahigh sensitivity. Here, we studied magnetic field mapping and biaxial vector operation using atomic magnetometers. A potassium atomic magnetometer was used in these measurements. First, we obtained sensor output signals by solving the Bloch equation. Next, we measured magnetic field distributions generated by a current dipole electrode that was placed in a spherical phantom, which simulated a group of simultaneously activated neurons in the human brain. We obtained vector contour maps of the magnetic field distributions from the dipoles oriented parallel and orthogonal to the pump laser beam and have found good agreement with theoretical magnetic field distributions. These results demonstrate practical applications of magnetic field mapping and biaxial vector operation using optically pumped atomic magnetometers.

Taue, Shuji; Sugihara, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Keigo

2011-11-01

30

Estimation of magnetic field mapping accuracy using the pulsating aurora-chorus connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although magnetic field models are widely used in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling studies to perform field-line mapping, their accuracy has been difficult to estimate experimentally. Taking advantage of the high correlation between lower-band chorus and pulsating aurora, we located the THEMIS spacecraft footprint within ˜km accuracy and calculated the differences from mappings given in widely-used Tsyganenko models. Using 13 conjunctions of the THEMIS spacecraft and ground-based imagers, we found that the Tsyganenko model footprints were located within 1°-2° magnetic latitude and 0.1-0.2 h magnetic local time of our derived footprint. The deviation between the footprints has a consistent dependence on geomagnetic activity. Our results showed that the real magnetic field tends to be less stretched than that in the Tsyganenko models during quiet times and comparable to or more stretched during disturbed times. This approach can be used to advance modeling of field lines that connect to the near-Earth plasma sheet.

Nishimura, Y.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Lyons, L. R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mende, S. B.; Bonnell, J.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Ergun, R.; Auster, U.

2011-07-01

31

Maser maps and magnetic field of OH 337.705-0.053  

Microsoft Academic Search

New high resolution studies of the Galactic maser site 337.705-0.053 reveal its magnetic field and velocity morphology. The long baseline array of the Australia Telescope National Facility provided simultaneous observations of both the 1665- and 1667-MHz OH transitions which yielded a sequence of maps at velocity spacing 0.09 km s-1, in both senses of circular polarization, with tenth-arcsec spatial resolution.

J. L. Caswell; B. Hutawarakorn Kramer; J. E. Reynolds

2011-01-01

32

The Crustal Magnetic Fields at Mars: Improving the Spatial Resolution of Our Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present revised observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer of the crustal magnetic fields at Mars. We have implemented a new data analysis technique (enhanced analytic downward continuation) that brings out comparatively small scale regional features in the dataset. This increase in the spatial resolution allows for more detailed interpretations of the geophysical features such as the linear "stripes” of alternating polarity in the southern hemisphere. We discuss in detail the improvements that we have made to the analytic downward continuation technique. In particular, we discuss how the stability of upward continuation allows us to make iteratively better solutions of what the fields look like at lower observation altitudes (and hence higher spatial resolutions). Additionally, we explore how the usage of the observations made from both pre-mapping altitude ( 100 km) and mapping altitude ( 400 km) can further constrain the resulting solutions.

Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, J.

2009-09-01

33

Experimental Mapping and Benchmarking of Magnetic Field Codes on the LHD Ion Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

For the validation of the numerical models used for the design of the Neutral Beam Test Facility for ITER in Padua [1], an experimental benchmark against a full-size device has been sought. The LHD BL2 injector [2] has been chosen as a first benchmark, because the BL2 Negative Ion Source and Beam Accelerator are geometrically similar to SPIDER, even though BL2 does not include current bars and ferromagnetic materials. A comprehensive 3D magnetic field model of the LHD BL2 device has been developed based on the same assumptions used for SPIDER. In parallel, a detailed experimental magnetic map of the BL2 device has been obtained using a suitably designed 3D adjustable structure for the fine positioning of the magnetic sensors inside 27 of the 770 beamlet apertures. The calculated values have been compared to the experimental data. The work has confirmed the quality of the numerical model, and has also provided useful information on the magnetic non-uniformities due to the edge effects and to the tolerance on permanent magnet remanence.

Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); University of Padova, Dept. of Management and Engineering, strad. S. Nicola, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Agostinetti, P.; Gallo, A.; Marconato, N.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Particle Beam Heated Research Div, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan)

2011-09-26

34

An evaluation of the use of magnetic field maps to undistort echo-planar images.  

PubMed

When a head is placed in an MRI scanner, differences between the magnetic susceptibility of tissue, bone, and air distort the magnetic field. While some of the resulting inhomogeneity can be corrected by the shimming process, much of it cannot, and this causes distortion (sometimes referred to as geometric distortion) of echo-planar images (EPIs). One strategy for the correction of distortion is to acquire a map of the magnetic field achieved in each subject and then to use this to undistort their EPIs after reconstruction (). Here, we present five experiments to evaluate the application of such a strategy on data from a 3-T scanner. We show that after undistortion, the shape of EPIs is more similar to the true shape of the brain, and we investigate the effect of head movement on the efficacy of undistortion. If undistortion was applied first, it was found that less nonlinear warping was required to transform EPIs into a standard space, particularly in the phase-encode direction. We show that if SPM 99 normalization is used to perform a nonlinear warp to standard space, the prior application of undistortion increases the statistical power of group studies with motor and auditory tasks. We show that this increase in power is due to an increase in the overlap of activation of different subjects. Finally, we evaluate where in the brain undistorting EPIs might be expected to have the greatesteffect, in terms both of mislocalization of activationand of a reduction in power. Overall, undistorting EPIs using field maps has proved extremely successful, improving the anatomical localization of activation and increasing statistical power. PMID:12507450

Cusack, Rhodri; Brett, Matthew; Osswald, Katja

2003-01-01

35

A model of the AGS based on stepwise ray-tracing through the measured field maps of the main magnets  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional mid-plane magnetic field maps of two of the main AGS magnets were produced, from Hall probe measurements, for a series of different current settings. The analysis of these data yielded the excitation functions [1] and the harmonic coefficients [2] of the main magnets which have been used so far in all the models of the AGS. The constant increase of the computation power makes it possible today to directly use a stepwise raytracing through these measured field maps with a reasonable computation time. We describe in detail how these field maps have allowed the generation of models of the 6 different types of AGS main magnets, and how they are being handled with the Zgoubi ray-tracing code [3]. We give and discuss a number of results obtained regarding both beam and spin dynamics in the AGS, and we provide comparisons with other numerical and analytical modelling methods.

Dutheil Y.; Meot, F.; Tsoupas, N.

2012-05-20

36

Development of magnetic field mapping via heavy ion beam spectral imaging  

SciTech Connect

Mapping magnetic fields via heavy ion beam spectral imaging relies upon establishing a high quality ion beam, identifying beam emission at wavelengths favorable for imaging, and designing an appropriate imaging configuration. Identifying emission lines suitable for imaging is difficult due to intense, broadband radiation of the target reversed field pinch plasma. To compensate, we have worked to raise the beam emission intensity. Simulations of the beam optics and characteristics have led to a technique that achieves a narrower beam and increased ion current at the plasma. Additionally, we are developing computer vision tools to reconstruct beam trajectories based on various camera and system configurations. We simulate charge coupled device images of the vessel interior and beam trajectories, and reconstruct three dimensional trajectories from image pairs. Analysis of the simulated images will guide the system specifications. We present results of the beam optics and camera simulations, surveys of radiation, and status of the diagnostic.

Demers, D.R.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.; Radke, R.J.; Anderson, J.K.; Craig, D.; Hartog, D.J. den [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2004-10-01

37

American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society Clinical Practice Guideline 2: Presurgical Functional Brain Mapping Using Magnetic Evoked Fields*  

PubMed Central

The following are “minimum standards” for the routine clinical recording of magnetic evoked fields (MEFs) in all age-groups. Practicing at minimum standards should not be the goal of a magnetoencephalography (MEG) center but rather a starting level for continued improvement. Minimum standards meet only the most basic responsibilities to the patient and the referring physician. These minimum standards have been put forth to improve standardization of procedures, to facilitate interchange of recordings and reports among laboratories in the United States, and to confirm the expectations of referring physicians. Recommendations regarding Laboratory (Center) Environment and Preparation for MEG Recordings are detailed in the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) 1 : Recording and Analysis of Spontaneous Cerebral Activity, except for its EEG aspect that is not considered necessary (although may be helpful in trained hands) for MEFs (presurgical functional brain mapping).

Burgess, Richard C.; Funke, Michael E.; Bowyer, Susan M.; Lewine, Jeffrey D.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Bagic, Anto I.

2012-01-01

38

Field mapping characterization for axially magnetized, superconducting cylinders in the remanent critical state: theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect

Based on the Bean model with a constant critical current density j{sub c}, novel and very precise, analytical approximations for the axial induction component B{sub z}({bold r}) inside and outside of a finite, axially magnetized, circular cylinder with arbitrary aspect ratio in the fully penetrated, remanent critical state are presented. Starting from any mapped field profile the possibility to determine the material parameter j{sub c} by means of a {ital global} optimum fit procedure is demonstrated. Some characteristic results for melt-textured yttrium barium copper oxide material are outlined. We found that j{sub c} determined by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) exceeds that from mapping at least by about 50{percent}. This systematic discrepancy is discussed on the basis of two independent effects resulting in a local, space-dependent critical current density: the {bold B}-dependence of j{sub c} and material inhomogeneities. The first effect becomes important for sample radii in the 1-cm-range, although the B{sub z}-profile remains axially symmetric and well fitted by the Bean model. The second one may lead to asymmetric B{sub z}-profile deformations connected with a decreasing fitting significance. For the first and second effect we estimate the considerable ratio of the absolute maximum to absolute minimum of the local, critical current density of 2 and 4, respectively, which explains the observed discrepancies between the {ital effective} j{sub c} from mapping and VSM measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Klupsch, T.; Strasser, T.; Habisreuther, T.; Gawalek, W. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie Jena, D- 07702 Jena (Germany); Gruss, S. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden, D- 01171 Dresden (Germany); May, H.; Palka, R. [Institut fuer Elektrische Maschinen, Antriebe und Bahnen Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, D- 38023 Braunschweig (Germany); Mora Serrano, F.J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Consell Superior dInvestigacions Cientifiques, Campus de la Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain)

1997-09-01

39

High resolution mapping of the magnetic field of the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution KPNO magnetograph measurements of the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field over the entire dynamic range from 0 to 4000 gauss are used as the basic data for a new analysis of the photospheric and coronal magnetic field distributions. The daily magnetograph measurements collected over a solar rotation are averaged onto a 180 × 360 synoptic grid

Martin D. Altschuler; Randolph H. Levine; Michael Stix; John Harvey

1977-01-01

40

First Synoptic Maps of Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field from SOLIS/VSM: Non-radial Magnetic Fields and Hemispheric Pattern of Helicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ? ? ? 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., ?.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., ?.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ? ? ? 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., ?.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., ?.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.

Gusain, Sanjay; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

2013-07-01

41

Global mapping of the lunar crustal magnetic field using LP-MAG database and comparison with preliminary KAGUYA LMAG results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 2007 AGU fall meeting, we reported an objective scheme for estimating the spatial (3-d) distribution of the lunar crustal magnetic field from the satellite magnetometer data, and applied it to the Reiner Gamma magnetic anomaly on the nearside of the moon. Here, we provide the global vector map of the lunar crustal magnetic field using this scheme with Lunar Prospector Magnetometer (LP-MAG) low-altitude datasets. The scheme is a variant of the equivalent source method for estimating the magnetic field distribution. The features of our scheme are (1) utilising magnetic monopoles the equivalent sources, (2) simultaneous calculation for subtracting the trend due to the varying external magnetic field with the intensity of equivalent sources, and (3) Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) minimization for determining the damping factor of the damped least square calculation, which endorses objectivity to the scheme. In this study, we select LP-MAG data of quiet times in all area of the Moon, and produce the global lunar crustal field map at altitudes of 40 km. Utilizing the data obtained at different altitudes, we were able to find more than two sets of reasonably stable data in all regions of the Moon, except for a few parts of the polar regions and the western mid-latitude region on the lunar farside. Following the visual inspection of the magnetic field distribution, the Moon is divided into 96 fan-shaped areas, where the scheme is individually applied. As a result of calculation, the magnetic filed is stably estimated. From the resultant equivalent poles representation, the magnetic field at the KAGUYA orbit is calculated and compared with the LMAG(Lunar MAGnetometer) observations. Their agreement is astonishing in several areas, showing that the scheme works well, as well as the good accuracy of the KAGUYA-LMAG observations.

Shibuya, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.; Tsunakawa, H.

2008-12-01

42

Interpreting the Role of the Magnetic Field from Dust Polarization Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust polarization observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are analyzed with the goal of providing a general tool to interpret the role of the magnetic field in molecular clouds. Magnetic field and dust emission gradient orientations are observed to show distinct patterns and features. The angle ? between these two orientations can be interpreted as a magnetic field alignment deviation, assuming the emission gradient orientation to coincide with the density gradient orientation in the magnetohydrodynamics force equation. In SMA high-resolution (collapsing) cores, additional symmetry properties in ? can reveal accretion and outflow zones. All these observational findings suggest the angle ? to be a relevant quantity that can assess the role of the magnetic field. Indeed, when comparing this angle with the (projection-free) magnetic field significance ? B (introduced by Koch and coworkers in 2012), it is demonstrated that |?| yields an approximation to the change in ? B . Thus, changes in the magnetic field alignment deviation ? trace changes in the role of the magnetic field. The angle ? is observationally straightforward to determine, providing a tool to distinguish between zones of minor or significant magnetic field impact. This is exemplified by the CSO M+0.25 + 0.01, Mon R2, CO+0.02 - 0.02, M-0.02 - 0.07 sources and by the SMA high-resolution data from W51 e2, W51 North, Orion BN/KL and g5.89. Additional CSO sources are analyzed, providing further support of this result. Finally, based on the different features found in our sample of 31 sources in total, covering sizes from large-scale complexes to collapsing cores, a schematic evolutionary scenario is proposed. Here, the significance of the magnetic field evolves both with position and scale, and can be assessed with the angle ?.

Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

2013-09-01

43

Detecting Ferrite Nanobeads for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with a Highly Sensitive Hall Differential Magnetic Field Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a novel type of Hall differential magnetic field sensor for anti-cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using ferrofluid as a marker. A pair of Hall devices are mounted on both end surfaces of a ferrite core (10 mm phi ×32 mm) of an electromagnetic coil which generates an AC exciting magnetic field at 2.5 kHz. The signals are retrieved by a digital phase sensitive detection circuit. Mapping a ferrofluid (ResovistR) sample of l00?g in Fe atomic amount (comparable to that accumulated in human SLNs) was attained when the sample was placed within 6 mm distance from the sensor head. The detectable distance is limited primarily due to the magnetic induction effect of the metal XYZ stage which held the sample.

Abe, M.; Ueda, T.; Masaki, T.; Kitamoto, Y.; Matsushita, N.; Handa, H.

2012-03-01

44

Microstructural Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex - From Brodmann's Post-Mortem Map to in vivo Mapping with High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

The year 2009 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of the famous brain map of Korbinian Brodmann. Although a “classic” guide to microanatomical parcellation of the cerebral cortex, it is – from today's state-of-the-art neuroimaging perspective – problematic to use Brodmann's map as a structural guide to functional units in the cortex. In this article we discuss some of the reasons, especially the problematic compatibility of the “post-mortem world” of microstructural brain maps with the “in vivo world” of neuroimaging. We conclude with some prospects for the future of in vivo structural brain mapping: a new approach which has the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains: “in vivo Brodmann mapping” with high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

Geyer, Stefan; Weiss, Marcel; Reimann, Katja; Lohmann, Gabriele; Turner, Robert

2011-01-01

45

Considerations of variations in ionospheric field effects in mapping equatorial lithospheric Magsat magnetic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal, seasonal, and altitude-dependent variability of the magnetic field in equatorial latitudes is investigated to determine the effect of these variabilities on the isolation of lithospheric Magsat magnetic anomalies. It was found that the amplitudes of the dawn dip-latitude averages were small compared to the dusk averages, and that they were of the opposite sign. The longitudinal variation in

D. Ravat; W. J. Hinze

1993-01-01

46

A preliminary global map of the vector lunar crustal magnetic field based on Lunar Prospector magnetometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous processing of the Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP-MAG) data has yielded ~40% coverage of the Moon. Here, new mapping of the low-altitude LP-MAG data is reported with the goal of producing the first global vector map of the lunar crustal magnetic field. By considering all data regardless of the external plasma environment and using less restrictive editing criteria, 2360 partial and complete passes have been identified that can be used to investigate the lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The cleanest global coverage is provided using 329 low-altitude nightside and terminator passes. An inverse power method has been used to continue the final mapping data to constant altitude. Using the 329 optimal passes, global maps of the lunar crustal magnetic field are constructed at 30 and 40 km. Consistent with previous studies: (1) the largest concentrations of anomalies are mapped antipodal to the Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, and Orientale basins and (2) isolated anomalies at Reiner Gamma, Rima Sirsalis, Descartes, and Airy are mapped. Anomalies previously unmapped by the LP-MAG experiment include (1) isolated anomalies near the craters Abel and Hartwig, (2) weak magnetization within the Nectarian-aged Crisium and Moscoviense basins, and (3) a relatively weak anomaly in an area dominated by crater chains associated with the formation of Nectaris. Future work with the new low-altitude data set is discussed and will include determining whether the lunar anomalies are capable of deflecting the solar wind and investigating directions of magnetization to evaluate a possible former core dynamo.

Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.

2008-02-01

47

Toward direct mapping of neuronal activity: MRI detection of ultraweak, transient magnetic field changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method based on selective detection of rapidly chang- ing B0 magnetic fields and suppression of slowly changing B0 fields is presented. The ultimate goal of this work is to present a method that may allow detection of transient and subtle changes in B0 in cortical tissue associated with electrical currents produced by neuronal activity. The method involves the

Jerzy Bodurka; Peter A. Bandettini

2002-01-01

48

Retinotopic mapping of the peripheral visual field to human visual cortex by functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Retinotopic mapping is a key property of organization in the human occipital cortex. The retinotopic organization of the central visual field of visual areas V1, V2, and V3 has been well established. We used fMRI to measure the retinotopic map of the peripheral visual field (eccentricity up to 60°). We estimated the sizes of the visual areas between 0° and 60° and obtained results consistent with anatomical studies. We also estimated the cortical distances and magnification factors for reconstruction of the retinotopic map using the peripheral wedge dipole model. By comparing the retinotopic map with the flattened surface, we analyzed the datasets used to reconstruct the map. We found that: (1) the percentage of the striate cortex devoted to peripheral vision in humans is significantly larger than that in the macaque, (2) the estimate of the scaling factor in linear magnification is larger than that found in previous studies focusing on central vision, and (3) the estimate of the peripheral factor in the dipolar model is too large to make the curve direction of the dipolar map in the periphery equivalent to that in the center. On the basis of our results, we revised the dipolar map to fit our conditions. The revised map in humans has a similar elliptical shape to that of macaques, and the central parts of the two species are the same. The different parts of the map are the peripheral regions, for which the peripheral wedge dipole model in humans is reversed compared to that of macaques. PMID:22438122

Wu, Jinglong; Yan, Tianyi; Zhang, Zhen; Jin, Fengzhe; Guo, Qiyong

2012-03-22

49

MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH MAPS FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS: A NEW METHOD BASED ON A POLARIZATION-INTENSITY GRADIENT RELATION  

SciTech Connect

Dust polarization orientations in molecular clouds often tend to be close to tangential to the Stokes I dust continuum emission contours. The magnetic field and the emission gradient orientations, therefore, show some correlation. A method is proposed, which-in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-connects the measured angle between magnetic field and emission gradient orientations to the total field strength. The approach is based on the assumption that a change in emission intensity (gradient) is a measure for the resulting direction of motion in the MHD force equation. In particular, this new method leads to maps of position-dependent magnetic field strength estimates. When evaluating the field curvature and the gravity direction locally on a map, the method can be generalized to arbitrary cloud shapes. The technique is applied to high-resolution ({approx}0.''7) Submillimeter Array polarization data of the collapsing core W51 e2. A tentative {approx}7.7 mG field strength is found when averaging over the entire core. The analysis further reveals some structures and an azimuthally averaged radial profile {approx}r{sup -1/2} for the field strength. Maximum values close to the center are around 19 mG. The currently available observations lack higher resolution data to probe the innermost part of the core where the largest field strength is expected from the method. Application regime and limitations of the method are discussed. As a further important outcome of this technique, the local significance of the magnetic field force compared to the other forces can be quantified in a model-independent way, from measured angles only. Finally, the method can potentially also be expanded and applied to other objects (besides molecular clouds) with measurements that reveal the field morphology, as, e.g., Faraday rotation measurements in galaxies.

Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: pmkoch@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2012-03-01

50

Synoptic Magnetic Variance Maps and Their Effects on Field-extrapolation Coronal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction and description of the conditions throughout the heliosphere relies today mostly on potential field source surface (PFSS) and magnetohydrodynamics coronal and heliospheric models. Carrington synoptic maps are produced from individual magnetograms and used as the primary drivers for these models. However, the uncertainties on the flux distribution across synoptic maps have never been included in the models. As the measure of uncertainties, we produced synoptic spatial variance (1-sigma standard deviation) maps derived from the distribution of pixel values in the sky magnetograms that contribute the to average flux in each bin of the final Carrington map. Each variance-map is then used to generate a series of Carrington maps where the value of each bin differs, randomly, from the original value by up to 3-sigma. We discuss here how the uncertainty in the Carrington map affects the location of neutral lines and the footpoint locations of the open-field, the model coronal holes, determined from a standard PFSS model. In this preliminary investigation we studied two distinct periods, corresponding to minimum and maximum of solar activity. We show that the variance in the derived synoptic maps does not affect significantly the shape of neutral line or general location of coronal holes. The position of neutral lines and boundaries of coronal holes can be shifted by as much as 5 degrees in some locations.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The prediction and description of the conditions throughout the heliosphere relies today mostly on potential field source surface (PFSS) and magnetohydrodynamics coronal and heliospheric models. Carrington synoptic maps are produced from individual magnetograms and used as the primary drivers for these models. However, the uncertainties on the flux distribution across synoptic maps have never been included in the models. As the measure of uncertainties, we produced synoptic spatial variance (1-sigma standard deviation) maps derived from the distribution of pixel values in the sky magnetograms that contribute the to average flux in each bin of the final Carrington map. Each variance-map is then used to generate a series of Carrington maps where the value of each bin differs, randomly, from the original value by up to 3-sigma. We discuss here how the uncertainty in the Carrington map affects the location of neutral lines and the footpoint locations of the open-field, the model coronal holes, determined from a standard PFSS model. In this preliminary investigation we studied two distinct periods, corresponding to minimum and maximum of solar activity. We show that the variance in the derived synoptic maps does not affect significantly the shape of neutral line or general location of coronal holes. The position of neutral lines and boundaries of coronal holes can be shifted by as much as 5 degrees in some locations.

Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, A. A.; Keys, D.; Petrie, G.

2013-07-01

51

New Gravity and Magnetic Maps of the San Juan Volcanic Field, Southwestern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very large simple Bouguer anomaly gravity low, about 100 km by 150 km in map view and reaching values less than -350 mGals, lies over the Oligocene San Juan volcanic field in southwestern Colorado. Roughly 15-18 different calderas represent the eruptive sources of the andesitic-rhyolitic rocks of this large volcanic field, and most are located within two swarms: the

B. J. Drenth; G. R. Keller

2004-01-01

52

Mapping the stability diagram of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a static transverse magnetic field applied.  

PubMed

Previous experimental and theoretical work identified that the application of a static magnetic (B) field can improve the resolution of a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and this simple method of performance enhancement offers advantages for field deployment. Presented here are further data showing the effect of the transverse magnetic field upon the QMS performance. For the first time, the asymmetry in QMS operation with B x and B y is considered and explained in terms of operation in the fourth quadrant of the stability diagram. The results may be explained by considering the additional Lorentz force (v x B) experienced by the ion trajectories in each case. Using our numerical approach, we model not only the individual ion trajectories for a transverse B field applied in x and y but also the mass spectra and the effect of the magnetic field upon the stability diagram. Our theoretical findings, confirmed by experiment, show an improvement in resolution and ion transmission by application of magnetic field for certain operating conditions. PMID:23720050

Maher, Simon; Syed, Sarfaraz U; Hughes, David M; Gibson, John R; Taylor, Stephen

2013-05-30

53

Magnetic Field Mapping and Integral Transfer Function Matching of the Prototype Dipoles for the NSLS-II at BNL  

SciTech Connect

The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will be equipped with 54 dipole magnets having a gap of 35 mm, and 6 dipoles having a gap of 90 mm. Each dipole has a field of 0.4 T and provides 6 degrees of bending for a 3 GeV electron beam. The large aperture magnets are necessary to allow the extraction of long-wavelength light from the dipole magnet to serve a growing number of users of low energy radiation. The dipoles must not only have good field homogeneity (0.015% over a 40 mm x 20 mm region), but the integral transfer functions and integral end harmonics of the two types of magnets must also be matched. The 35 mm aperture dipole has a novel design where the yoke ends are extended up to the outside dimension of the coil using magnetic steel nose pieces. This design increases the effective length of the dipole without increasing the physical length. These nose pieces can be tailored to adjust the integral transfer function as well as the homogeneity of the integrated field. One prototype of each dipole type has been fabricated to validate the designs and to study matching of the two dipoles. A Hall probe mapping system has been built with three Group 3 Hall probes mounted on a 2-D translation stage. The probes are arranged with one probe in the midplane of the magnet and the others vertically offset by {+-}10 mm. The field is mapped around a nominal 25 m radius beam trajectory. The results of measurements in the as-received magnets, and with modifications made to the nose pieces are presented.

He, P.; Jain, A., Gupta, R., Skaritka, J., Spataro, C., Joshi, P., Ganetis, G., Anerella, M., Wanderer, P.

2011-03-28

54

CDC field mapping device - ''ROTOTRACK''  

SciTech Connect

A field mapping device for the magnet of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) was constructed. The device was used for extensive study of the CDF magnetic field distribution. The mechanical and electrical features of the device, as well as the data acquisition system and software, are described. The mechanical system was designed so that the errors on the position and angle of the probe were +-0.75 mm and +-1 mrad, respectively.

Yamada, R.; Hawtree, J.; Kaczar, K.; Leverence, R.; McGuire, K.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Schmidt, E.E.; Shallenberger, J.

1985-10-01

55

High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon is in the solar wind but the spacecraft is in the lunar wake; the data are transformed to a radial, east, and north coordinate system with measurements given as a function of spacecraft latitude, longitude, and altitude; (2) visual editing of individual orbit segments selected for minimal external field disturbances; (3) minimization of remaining low-frequency external fields for individual orbit data segments by quadratic detrending; and (4) two-dimensional filtering of individual orbit segments to produce a vector field map along the slightly curved surface defined by the spacecraft altitude; maps of the three field components (radial, east, and north), the field magnitude, and the spacecraft altitude are constructed. For data obtained at low to middle latitudes, the horizontal resolution of the field maps is limited by the orbit-track separation (about 30 km at the equator). Maps of the field magnitude have been constructed within limited selenographic regions based mainly on data acquired in March, April, and May of 1999. This was a time period when the orbit plane was nearly aligned with the Sun-Moon line so that field mapping was possible at times when the Moon was in the solar wind as well as when the Moon was in the geomagnetic tail. Most of the coverage is across the lunar farside. However, a shows an example of a field map produced from solar-wind wake data for a region including Reiner Gamm on western Oceanus Procellarum (location: 58.5W, 7.5N). The contour interval is 3 nT and the mean spacecraft altitude is 18 km to within the accuracy allowed by the resolution of the map (30 km or about 1 deg.); strong magnetic anomalies correlate closely with swirl locations. Individual orbit profiles (whose resolution along the orbit track is comparable to the spacecraft altitude of 18 km) also demonstrate a good correlation of field magnitude with surface albedo. In order to investigate the correlation of magnetic fields with the location of swirl features, we have reexamined available lunar imagery (Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, and Clementine) to identify and map s

Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

1999-01-01

56

Photospheric faculae-III-intensity, and magnetic field mapping of a typical element of the photospheric network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors studied a typical quiet sun magnetic network element. Without introducing any correction, high spatial resolution spectra (=0arcsec.75) of two iron lines, simultaneous Ca II K and white-light slit-jaw pictures as well as spectroheliograms in Hα and Mgb1 - 0.4 Å of a typical quiet region of the solar photosphere were analyzed in order: 1. to map the intensity, the velocity field and the magnetic field of a typical element of this region; 2. to study the underlying solar granulation, which seems to have a lower contrast; 3. to get from Hα filtergrams the fibril structure around the rosette. Finally the authors give an estimate of the magnetic flux of a large region of the quiet sun.

Dara-Papamargaritis, H.; Koutchmy, S.

1983-09-01

57

Numerical simulations of axially symmetric magnetized jets. I - The influence of equipartition magnetic fields. II - Apparent field structure and theoretical radio maps. III - Collimation of underexpanded jets by magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation is presented of the influence of equipartition magnetic fields of various configuration on the propagation of a Mach 6 jet in pressure equilibrium and with a density 10 times smaller than the ambient medium. It is found that a purely poloidal equipartition field can decollimate the jet, while a purely toroidal equipartition field increases the confinement but introduces pinching waves. The results are used to compute theoretical radio maps and apparent field configurations projected onto a plane perpendicular to the line of sight. It is found that the apparent field structure of weak radio sources is explained by the projection of the true field configuration onto a plane perpendicular to the line of sight, and that it is unlikely that the X-like shock structures found in numerical simulations of supersonic jets produce the prominent knots observed in the jets of edge-darkened extragalactic radio sources. Finally, the role of magnetic fields in the stabilization of overpressured jets is demonstrated by another set of numerical simulations.

Koessl, D.; Mueller, E.; Hillebrandt, W.

1990-03-01

58

An area-preserving mapping in natural canonical coordinates for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new approach of integrating magnetic field line trajectories in natural canonical coordinates (Punjabi and Ali 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 122502) in divertor tokamaks is used for the DIII-D tokamak (Luxon and Davis1985 Fusion Technol. 8 441). The equilibrium EFIT data (Evans et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 235003, Lao et al 2005 Fusion Sci. Technol. 48 968) for the DIII-D tokamak shot 115467 at 3000 ms is used to construct the equilibrium generating function (EGF) for the DIII-D in natural canonical coordinates. The EGF gives quite an accurate representation of the closed and open equilibrium magnetic surfaces near the separatrix, the separatrix, the position of the X-point and the poloidal magnetic flux inside the ideal separatrix in the DIII-D. The equilibrium safety factor q from the EGF is somewhat smaller than the DIII-D EFIT q profile. The equilibrium safety factor is calculated from EGF as described in the previous paper (Punjabi and Ali 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 122502). Here the safety factor for the open surfaces in the DIII-D is calculated. A canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic mapping for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D in natural canonical coordinates. The map is explored in more detail in this work, and is used to calculate field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak. The continuous analogue of the map does not distort the DIII-D magnetic surfaces in different toroidal planes between successive iterations of the map. The map parameter k can represent effects of magnetic asymmetries in the DIII-D. These effects in the DIII-D are illustrated. The DIII-D map is then used to calculate stochastic broadening of the ideal separatrix from the topological noise and field errors, the low mn, the high mn and peeling-ballooning magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D. The width of the stochastic layer scales as 1/2 power of amplitude with a maximum deviation of 6% from the Boozer-Rechester scaling (Boozer and Rechester 1978 Phys. Fluids 21 682). The loss of poloidal flux scales linearly with the amplitude of perturbation with a maximum deviation of 10% from linearity. Perturbations with higher mode numbers result in higher stochasticity. The higher the complexity and coupling in the equilibrium magnetic geometry, the closer is the scaling to the Boozer-Rechester scaling of width. The comparison of the EGF for the simple map (Punjabi et al 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 3322) with that of the DIII-D shows that the more complex the magnetic geometry and the more coupling of modes in equilibrium, the more robust or resilient is the system against the chaos-inducing, symmetry-breaking perturbations.

Punjabi, Alkesh

2009-11-01

59

Mapping magnetic fields of Fe3O4 nanosphere assemblies by electron holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline Fe3O4 nanospheres with averaged diameters of 150 nm have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and electron holography. The nanospheres can self-assemble into either chain-like or ring-like shapes with sizes of a few micrometers, where large magnetic moments are found for individual particles at the remanent state and lead to strong fringing field in vicinity of the assemblies. Magnetic dipolar moments can be aligned both within and out of the sample plane, with a typical length scale on the order of 500 nm.

He, Kai; Ma, Fei-Xiang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Cumings, John

2013-05-01

60

Cortical mapping and frameless stereotactic navigation in the high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suite.  

PubMed

Frameless stereotactic neuronavigation provides tracking of surgical instruments on radiographic images and orients the surgeon to tumor margins at surgery. Bipolar electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) delineates safe limits for resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent cortex. These standard techniques could complement the capability of intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging to evaluate for occult residual disease during surgery and promote more complete tumor removal. The use of frameless neuronavigation in the high-field iMR imaging suite requires that a few pieces of standard equipment be replaced by nonferromagnetic instruments. Specific use of ESM in a high-field iMR imaging suite has not been reported in the literature. To study whether frameless neuronavigation and electrical stimulation mapping could be successfully integrated in the high-field iMR imaging suite, the authors employed these modalities in 10 consecutive cases involving patients undergoing conscious craniotomy for primary brain tumors located in or adjacent to eloquent cortices. Equipment included a custom high-field MR imaging-compatible head holder and dynamic reference frame attachment, a standard MR imaging-compatible dynamic reference frame, a standard MR imaging machine with a table top that could be translated to a pedestal outside the 5-gauss line for the operative intervention, and standard neuronavigational and cortical stimulation equipment. Both ESM and frameless stereotactic guidance were performed outside the 5-gauss line. The presence of residual neoplasm was evaluated using iMR imaging; resection was continued until eloquent areas were encountered or iMR imaging confirmed complete removal of any residual tumor. Mapping identified essential language (5 patients), sensory (6), and motor (7) areas. The combined use of frameless stereotactic navigation, ESM, and iMR imaging resulted in complete radiographic resection in 7 cases and resection to an eloquent margin in 3 cases. Postoperative MR imaging confirmed final iMR imaging findings. No patient experienced a permanent new neurological deficit. Familiar techniques such as frameless navigation and ESM can be rapidly, inexpensively, safely, and effectively integrated into the high-field iMR imaging suite. PMID:19499978

Weingarten, David M; Asthagiri, Ashok R; Butman, John A; Sato, Susumu; Wiggs, Edythe A; Damaska, Bonita; Heiss, John D

2009-12-01

61

Cortical mapping and frameless stereotactic navigation in the high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suite  

PubMed Central

Frameless stereotactic neuronavigation provides tracking of surgical instruments on radiographic images and orients the surgeon to tumor margins at surgery. Bipolar electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) delineates safe limits for resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent cortex. These standard techniques could complement the capability of intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging to evaluate for occult residual disease during surgery and promote more complete tumor removal. The use of frameless neuronavigation in the high-field iMR imaging suite requires that a few pieces of standard equipment be replaced by nonferromagnetic instruments. Specific use of ESM in a high-field iMR imaging suite has not been reported in the literature. To study whether frameless neuronavigation and electrical stimulation mapping could be successfully integrated in the high-field iMR imaging suite, the authors employed these modalities in 10 consecutive cases involving patients undergoing conscious craniotomy for primary brain tumors located in or adjacent to eloquent cortices. Equipment included a custom high-field MR imaging–compatible head holder and dynamic reference frame attachment, a standard MR imaging–compatible dynamic reference frame, a standard MR imaging machine with a table top that could be translated to a pedestal outside the 5-gauss line for the operative intervention, and standard neuronavigational and cortical stimulation equipment. Both ESM and frameless stereotactic guidance were performed outside the 5-gauss line. The presence of residual neoplasm was evaluated using iMR imaging; resection was continued until eloquent areas were encountered or iMR imaging confirmed complete removal of any residual tumor. Mapping identified essential language (5 patients), sensory (6), and motor (7) areas. The combined use of frameless stereotactic navigation, ESM, and iMR imaging resulted in complete radiographic resection in 7 cases and resection to an eloquent margin in 3 cases. Postoperative MR imaging confirmed final iMR imaging findings. No patient experienced a permanent new neurological deficit. Familiar techniques such as frameless navigation and ESM can be rapidly, inexpensively, safely, and effectively integrated into the high-field iMR imaging suite.

Weingarten, David M.; Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Butman, John A.; Sato, Susumu; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Damaska, Bonita; Heiss, John D.

2013-01-01

62

Mapping ultrahigh energy cosmic rays deflections through the turbulent galactic magnetic field with the latest rotation measure data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of the random part of the galactic magnetic field on the propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Within very mild approximations about the properties of the electron density fluctuations in the Galaxy, we are able to derive a clear and direct relation between the observed variance of rotation measures and the predicted cosmic ray deflections. Remarkably, this is obtained bypassing entirely the detailed knowledge of the magnetic properties of the turbulent plasma. Depending on the parameters of the electron density spectrum, we can either directly estimate the expected deflection, or constrain it from above. Thanks to the latest observational data on rotation measures, we build a direction-dependent map of such deflections. We find that over most of the sky the random deflections of 40 EeV protons do not exceed 1°-2°, and can be as large as 5° close to the Galactic plane.

Pshirkov, M. S.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Urban, F. R.

2013-10-01

63

Whole-head mapping of middle-latency auditory evoked magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We recorded middle-latency auditory evoked magnetic fields from 9 healthy subjects with a 122-channel whole-head SQUID gradiometer. The stimuli were click triplets, 2.5 msec in total duration, delivered alternately to the two ears once every 333 msec. Contralateral clicks elicited P30m responses in 16 and P50m responses in 12 out of 18 hemispheres studied; ipsilateral clicks did so in 7 and 13 hemispheres, respectively. The field patterns were satisfactorily explained by current dipoles in 16 and 4 hemispheres for contra- and ipsilateral P30m, and in 4 and 10 hemispheres for contra- and ipsilateral P50m. The peak latencies of P30m and P50m were not affected by stimulation side. The results show that middle-latency auditory evoked responses receive a strong contribution from auditory cortical structures, and that differences of input latency to cortical auditory areas, evaluated from MLAEF latencies, do not explain the latency differences seen in late auditory evoked fields to contralateral vs. ipsilateral stimulation. PMID:7523085

Mäkelä, J P; Hämäläinen, M; Hari, R; McEvoy, L

1994-09-01

64

High resolution magnetic field mapping of complex magmatic rock suites and associated tectonic structures in the Southern Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the southernmost Andes (50 to 55°S) document a complex magmatic and tectonic history of an active continental margin during the past >140 Ma [1]. However, the regional distribution of the multiple magmatic intrusive rock suites and younger systems of basaltic dykes as well as the tectonic control of associated hydrothermal systems are widely unexplored. Since the rocks are often bare exposed they represent an ideal test site for a magnetic field investigation with significant implication for future aeromagnetic mapping. Thus we performed a high resolution near-surface grid of measurements with a scalar and vector magnetometer at selected sites which include different intrusive rocks, tectonic lineaments and hydrothermal alteration with an associated mineralization. The magnetic signature corresponding to the Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) was measured on Mesozoic and Cenozoic gabbroid to granitic plutons with large range chemical and mineralogical variations [1], on distinct basaltic dykes, as well as on mylonites, gneisses and hornfels rocks. The whole-rock chemistry of the selected rock types was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence. The analysed and mapped rocks include the SiO2 range from 45 to 76 wt.%, FeO (tot) contents from 2 to 18 wt.% and Ti2O contents from 0.2 to 2.5 wt.%. The mineral assemblages were analysed by polarization microscopy, with an electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction. In the plutonic rocks the whole rock chemistry often is related to the amount of magnetite and NRM intensities [2]. However, measured magnetic intensities let us estimate the degree of chloritization and associated demagnetisation by magnetite alteration and transformation to maghemite and/or iron-hydroxides. For Miocene basaltic dyke systems of decimetre to several meters extension within granitic plutons, a high resolution magnetic mapping has been also performed. We expected a relationship of distinct cooling histories and related grain size distribution of magnetites in these dyke, but most of them have been demagnetized by hydrothermal alteration. However, many dykes include thin zones (a few centimetres) with hydrothermal mineralization (e.g. pyrrhotite) which have been formed at the interfaces between mafic dykes and granites. This hydro-thermal re-magnetization along the dykes and sometimes within the granites are characterised by significant and sharp defined positive magnetic anomalies. The regional mapping of these anomalies shows the orientation of the hydrothermal pathways which follow typical neotectonic crustal lineaments. Our results should improve interpretation of aeromagnetic mapping of crystalline basement rocks and hydrothermal pathways, also on other planets. 1 - Hervé, F., Pankhurst, R.J., Fanning, C.M., Calderón, M., Yaxley, G.M. (2007). The South Patagonian batholith: 150 my of granite magmatism on a plate margin. Lithos 97, 373-394. 2 - Alva-Valdivia L. M. and López-Loera, H. (2011). A review of iron oxide transformations, rock magnetism and interpretation of magnetic anomalies: El Morro Mine (Brazil), a case study. Geofísica International 50-3: 341-362.

Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf

2013-04-01

65

Tokamak magnetic field lines described by simple maps. Dedicated to Professor Celso Grebogi on the occasion of his 60th birthday  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field line structure in a tokamak can be obtained by direct numerical integration of the field line equations. However, this is a lengthy procedure and the analysis of the solution may be very time-consuming. Otherwise we can use simple two-dimensional, area-preserving maps, obtained either by approximations of the magnetic field line equations, or from dynamical considerations. These maps can be quickly iterated, furnishing solutions that mirror the ones obtained from direct numerical integration, and which are useful when long-term studies of field line behavior are necessary (e.g. in diffusion calculations). In this work we focus on a set of simple tokamak maps for which these advantages are specially pronounced.

Portela, J. S. E.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.

2008-12-01

66

High-order map treatment of superimposed cavities, absorbers, and magnetic multipole and solenoid fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various modern systems for the transport and manipulation of large acceptance beams of rare and short-lived particles require the treatment of nonlinear optics of acceleration, absorption, and focusing in a combined approach. We describe a differential algebraic method for the treatment of such nonlinear dynamics via high-order transfer maps. We include the processes of scattering and straggling through absorbing material, which are inherently non-deterministic and hence not representable in the map formalism, in a split operator approach. Some examples of simulations of muon beam ionization cooling channels are provided.

Makino, K.; Berz, M.; Johnstone, C. J.; Errede, D.

2004-02-01

67

Characterization of phase-based methods used for transmission field uniformity mapping: a magnetic resonance study at 3.0 T and 7.0 T.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the transmission field (B1(+)) of radio-frequency coils is crucial for high field (B0 ?=?3.0 T) and ultrahigh field (B0 ?7.0 T) magnetic resonance applications to overcome constraints dictated by electrodynamics in the short wavelength regime with the ultimate goal to improve the image quality. For this purpose B1(+) mapping methods are used, which are commonly magnitude-based. In this study an analysis of five phase-based methods for three-dimensional mapping of the B1(+) field is presented. The five methods are implemented in a 3D gradient-echo technique. Each method makes use of different RF-pulses (composite or off-resonance pulses) to encode the effective intensity of the B1(+) field into the phase of the magnetization. The different RF-pulses result in different trajectories of the magnetization, different use of the transverse magnetization and different sensitivities to B1(+) inhomogeneities and frequency offsets, as demonstrated by numerical simulations. The characterization of the five methods also includes phantom experiments and in vivo studies of the human brain at 3.0 T and at 7.0 T. It is shown how the characteristics of each method affect the quality of the B1(+) maps. Implications for in vivo B1(+) mapping at 3.0 T and 7.0 T are discussed. PMID:23472127

Carinci, Flavio; Santoro, Davide; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico; Lindel, Tomasz Dawid; Dieringer, Matthias Alexander; Niendorf, Thoralf

2013-03-05

68

Studies on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spatiotemporal patterns of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields to stimulation of upper and lower limb nerves were examined in healthy humans. The studies summarized here provide the first magnetic field maps over the primary foot projection area after li...

J. Huttunen

1987-01-01

69

An improved crustal magnetic field map of Mars from electron reflectometry: Highland volcano magmatic history and the end of the martian dynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply improved kinetic modeling of electron transport in the martian thermosphere to fit pitch angle distributions measured by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer\\/Electron Reflectometer (MAG\\/ER), together with appropriate filtering, binning, averaging and error correction techniques, to create the most reliable ER global map to date of crustal magnetic field magnitude at 185 km altitude, with twice the spatial

Robert J. Lillis; Herbert V. Frey; Michael Manga; David L. Mitchell; Robert P. Lin; Mario H. Acuña; Stephen W. Bougher

2008-01-01

70

Magnetic fields in astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

71

Magnetic Fields Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

72

Magnetic field line Hamiltonian  

SciTech Connect

The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined.

Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

73

Addition of Trim Coils to the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) Magnet System to Improve the Magnetic Field Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mapping of the magnetic flux bundle from the center cell to the Plasma Potential Control plates (PPC) on the end fan of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U), was improved by the addition of trim coils (12,000 amp-turns) on each side of each en...

R. L. Wong L. R. Pedrotti D. E. Baldwin S. M. Hibbs D. N. Hill

1985-01-01

74

High-field (9.4 T) MRI of brain dysmyelination by quantitative mapping of magnetic susceptibility.  

PubMed

The multilayered myelin sheath wrapping around nerve axons is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous system. Abnormal myelination leads to a wide range of neurological diseases and developmental disorders. Non-invasive imaging of myelin content is of great clinical importance. The present work demonstrated that loss of myelin in the central nervous system of the shiverer mouse results in a dramatic reduction of magnetic susceptibility in white matter axons. The reduction resulted in a near extinction of susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter. Quantitative magnetic susceptibility imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were conducted on a group of control and shiverer mice at 9.4 T. We measured the resonance frequency distribution of the whole brain for each mouse. Magnetic susceptibility maps were computed and compared between the two groups. It was shown that the susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter was reduced by 96% in the shiverer compared to the controls. Diffusion measurements further confirmed intact fiber pathways in the shiverer mice, ruling out the possibility of axonal injury and its potential contribution to the altered susceptibility. As an autosomal recessive mutation, shiverer is characterized by an almost total lack of central nervous system myelin. Our data provide new evidences indicating that myelin is the predominant source of susceptibility differences between deep gray and white matter observed in magnetic resonance imaging. More importantly, the present study suggests that quantitative magnetic susceptibility is a potential endogenous biomarker for myelination. PMID:21320606

Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Johnson, G Allan; Wu, Bing

2011-02-12

75

High-Field (9.4 T) MRI of Brain Dysmyelination by Quantitative Mapping of Magnetic Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

The multilayered myelin sheath wrapping around nerve axons is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous system. Abnormal myelination leads to a wide range of neurological diseases and developmental disorders. Non-invasive imaging of myelin content is of great clinical importance. The present work demonstrated that loss of myelin in the central nervous system of the shiverer mouse results in a dramatic reduction of magnetic susceptibility in white matter axons. The reduction resulted in a near extinction of susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter. Quantitative magnetic susceptibility imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were conducted on a group of control and shiverer mice at 9.4 T. We measured the resonance frequency distribution of the whole brain for each mouse. Magnetic susceptibility maps were computed and compared between the two groups. It was shown that the susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter was reduced by 96% in the shiverer compared to the controls. Diffusion measurements further confirmed intact fiber pathways in the shiverer mice, ruling out the possibility of axonal injury and its potential contribution to the altered susceptibility. As an autosomal recessive mutation, shiverer is characterized by an almost total lack of central nervous system myelin. Our data provides new evidences indicating that myelin is the predominant source of susceptibility differences between deep gray and white matter observed in magnetic resonance imaging. More importantly, the present study suggests that quantitative magnetic susceptibility is a potential endogenous biomarker for myelination.

Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Johnson, G. Allan; Wu, Bing

2011-01-01

76

Mapping of LSU Field Camp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students, with knowledge of the stratigraphy of the field area will work with a partner to map contacts between adjacent units, measure and record attitudes, make detailed lithologic descriptions of strata across the field area. This data will then be analyzed by the students and a geologic interpretation of the mapping area will be developed. Students will create complete geologic maps along with two cross sections through the field area. Students will write a brief summary of how the geology which they have mapped in this field area fits into what they have been taught about the wider regional geology and geologic history of the area.

Kelley, Daniel

77

Solar Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical currents flowing in the solar plasma generate a magnetic field, which is detected in the SOLAR ATMOSPHERE by spectroscopic and polarization measurements (SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: INFERENCE BY POLARIMETRY). The SOLAR WIND carries the magnetic field into interplanetary space where it can be measured directly by instruments on space probes....

Schüssler, M.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

78

Magnetic field of atrial depolarization.  

PubMed

The isomagnetic maps of normal subjects and patients with right and left atrial overloading were recorded to determine the characteristic features of the magnetic field of atrial depolarization. The isomagnetic maps examined in this study indicated the instantaneous current source, which specifically localizes the current sources due to the right and left atria, respectively. The magnetic field recorded with a second derivative gradiometer clearly detected the cardiac current source from the right atrium, which is located close to the anterior chest wall, thus this method improved the diagnostic sensitivity for right atrial overloading. In patients with left atrial overloading, the isomagnetic map showed multiple dipoles due to the right and left atria, respectively, which are difficult to be detected by the electrocardiogram or isopotential map. These results suggest that the magnetocardiogram provides useful information on the current source to supplement information obtained by the conventional electrocardiogram. PMID:2978585

Takeuchi, A; Watanabe, K; Katayama, M; Nomura, M; Nakaya, Y; Mori, H

79

High spatial resolution and temporally resolved T2* mapping of normal human myocardium at 7.0 Tesla: an ultrahigh field magnetic resonance feasibility study.  

PubMed

Myocardial tissue characterization using T(2)(*) relaxation mapping techniques is an emerging application of (pre)clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The increase in microscopic susceptibility at higher magnetic field strengths renders myocardial T(2)(*) mapping at ultrahigh magnetic fields conceptually appealing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of myocardial T(2)(*) imaging at 7.0 T and examines the applicability of temporally-resolved and high spatial resolution myocardial T(2)(*) mapping. In phantom experiments single cardiac phase and dynamic (CINE) gradient echo imaging techniques provided similar T(2)(*) maps. In vivo studies showed that the peak-to-peak B(0) difference following volume selective shimming was reduced to approximately 80 Hz for the four chamber view and mid-ventricular short axis view of the heart and to 65 Hz for the left ventricle. No severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the septum and in the lateral wall for T(2)(*) weighting ranging from TE = 2.04 ms to TE = 10.2 ms. For TE >7 ms, a susceptibility weighting induced signal void was observed within the anterior and inferior myocardial segments. The longest T(2)(*) values were found for anterior (T(2)(*) = 14.0 ms), anteroseptal (T(2)(*) = 17.2 ms) and inferoseptal (T(2)(*) = 16.5 ms) myocardial segments. Shorter T(2)(*) values were observed for inferior (T(2)(*) = 10.6 ms) and inferolateral (T(2)(*) = 11.4 ms) segments. A significant difference (p = 0.002) in T(2)(*) values was observed between end-diastole and end-systole with T(2)(*) changes of up to approximately 27% over the cardiac cycle which were pronounced in the septum. To conclude, these results underscore the challenges of myocardial T(2)(*) mapping at 7.0 T but demonstrate that these issues can be offset by using tailored shimming techniques and dedicated acquisition schemes. PMID:23251708

Hezel, Fabian; Thalhammer, Christof; Waiczies, Sonia; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

2012-12-14

80

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

81

Optical Auroral Observations at High Latitudes to Investigate Processes at the Foot of Magnetic Field Lines That Map Into the Interplanetary Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At high magnetic latitudes the magnetic field lines, are open and they map from the ground into the interplanetary medium. Due to the larger offset between the geographic and geomagnetic poles in the Southern hemisphere the Antarctic Continent is especially suitable for making visible wavelength optical observations of the foot of such field lines. Near the Austral winter solstice the entire polar cap, the region of open field lines are in darkness. For many years optical observation had been conducted in the Antarctica, mostly at South Pole station, with focus on studying dayside auroral phenomena that may be associated with the reconnection process between the interplanetary and the Earth's field. Although a great deal has been learned from such ground based observations, satellite based global views especially those from the IMAGE satellite proton imager, that is quite blind to dayside solar produced luminosities, contributed significantly to our understanding of the global scale morphology of the high latitude regions. Ground based optical observatory arrays are still very useful for providing the small to medium scale view of the various phenomena and the development of such array of observatories in Antarctica are still being actively pursued. Although it is not its primary purpose, the ground based THEMIS array will also be on line in the near future and it will make observations of the nightside polar cap region. In the near future there will be several arrays in operation to study the region of field lines that map from the ground into the interplanetary medium.

Mende, S. B.

2005-12-01

82

Electric field mapping and auroral Birkeland currents  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field lines, electric fields and equipotentials have been mapped throughout the magnetosphere in the vicinity of strong Birkeland currents. It was found that a uniform electric field at either the ionospheric or the equatorial end of a field line can map to a highly structured field at the other end if strong Birkeland currents are located nearby. The initiation of sheet currents of the region 1 - region 2 scale size and intensity resulted in magnetic field line displacements of about 1/2 hour in local time between equatorial and ionospheric end points. As a result, a uniform dawn to dusk electric field at the equator mapped to an ionospheric electric field with strong inward pointing components in the dusk hemisphere. Similar distortions were produced by Birkeland currents associated with narrow east-west-aligned auroral arcs. A specific model for the auroral current system, based on ionospheric measurements during a large substorm, was used to study effects seen during disturbed periods. An iterative procedure was developed to generate a self-consistent current system even in the presence of highly twisted field lines. The measured ionospheric electric field was projected tot he equatorial plane in the presence of the model Birkeland current system. Several physical processes were seen to influence ionospheric and equatorial electric fields, and the associated plasma convection, during a substorm.

Kaufmann, R.L.; Larson, D.J. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA))

1989-11-01

83

Where does transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stimulate? Modelling of induced field maps for some common cortical and cerebellar targets.  

PubMed

Computational models have been be used to estimate the electric and magnetic fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and can provide valuable insights into the location and spatial distribution of TMS stimulation. However, there has been little translation of these findings into practical TMS research. This study uses the International 10-20 EEG electrode placement system to position a standard figure-of-eight TMS coil over 13 commonly adopted targets. Using a finite element method and an anatomically detailed and realistic head model, this study provides the first pictorial and numerical atlas of TMS-induced electric fields for a range of coil positions. The results highlight the importance of subject-specific gyral folding patterns and of local thickness of subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our modelling shows that high electric fields occur primarily on the peaks of those gyri which have only a thin layer of CSF above them. These findings have important implications for inter-individual generalizability of the TMS-induced electric field. We propose that, in order to determine with accuracy the site of stimulation for an individual subject, it is necessary to solve the electric field distribution using subject-specific anatomy obtained from a high-resolution imaging modality such as MRI. PMID:22678596

Bijsterbosch, Janine D; Barker, Anthony T; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Woodruff, P W R

2012-06-08

84

Magnetic Field Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You may drag either magnet and double-click anywhere inside the animation to add a magnetic field line, and mouse-down to read the magnitude of the magnetic field at that point.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

85

Magnetic Fields in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and, due to the lack of magnetic monopoles, hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas, or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars, and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic field is still under debate. The available data for external galaxies can well be explained by field amplification and ordering via the dynamo mechanism. The measured field strengths and the similarity of field patterns and flow patterns of the diffuse ionized gas give strong indication that galactic magnetic fields are dynamically important. They may affect the formation of spiral arms, outflows, and the general evolution of galaxies. In spite of our increasing knowledge on magnetic fields, many important questions on the origin and evolution of magnetic fields, their first occurrence in young galaxies, or the existence of large-scale intergalactic fields remained unanswered. The present upgrades of existing instruments and several planned radio astronomy projects have defined cosmic magnetism as one of their key science projects.

Beck, Rainer; Wielebinski, Richard

86

Intergalactic magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no observational support to the hypothesis of the most large-scale homogeneous magnetic field in the Universe. The best upper limit is given by interpretation of the Faraday rotation from the extragalactic radio sources. However the magnetic fields can be generated in the clusters of galaxies by a turbulence in the wakes of moving galaxies. These fields have an

A. A. Ruzmajkin

1991-01-01

87

Magnetic Field Example 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clicking on the different links below will produce different magnetic fields in the box above. The wires (perpendicular to the screen) or coils (in and out of the screen) are not visible, but you can determine what they are from the field. You can also click on a point to read off the magnetic field at that place.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

88

Software representation of the ATLAS solenoid magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS solenoid produces a magnetic field which enables the ATLAS Inner Detector to measure track momentum by track curvature. This solenoidal magnetic field was measured using a rotating-arm mapping machine and, after removing mapping machine effects has been understood to 0.05% level. As tracking algorithms require the field strength at many different points, the representation of this magnetic field

J C Hart; P S Miyagawa; S W Snow

2008-01-01

89

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Universe, Windows T.

1997-12-03

90

USGS Topographic Mapping Field Camp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS topographic mapping field camp in the early 1900s. Note the USGS "pick and hammer" flag flying below the United States flag. It was common practice to fly both flags in USGS field camps. Also note the "US" on the tents. Much of the USGS field gear was obtained from army surplus....

2009-11-23

91

Melatonin and magnetic fields.  

PubMed

There is public health concern raised by epidemiological studies indicating that extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by electric power distribution systems in the environment may be hazardous. Possible carcinogenic effects of magnetic field in combination with suggested oncostatic action of melatonin lead to the hypothesis that the primary effects of electric and magnetic fields exposure is a reduction of melatonin synthesis which, in turn, may promote cancer growth. In this review the data on the influence of magnetic fields on melatonin synthesis, both in the animals and humans, are briefly presented and discussed. PMID:12019358

Karasek, Michal; Lerchl, Alexander

2002-04-01

92

An Improved Magnetic Map of the Milky Way, with the Circularly Orbiting Gas and Magnetic Field Lines Crossing the Dusty Stellar Spiral Arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether the Galactic magnetic field lines would or would not cross the spiral arms is a matter of debate. To reach the solution to this question, we first need rotation measure data over a wide range of longitudes, as well as a good distance estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic center (GC), and also the locations for the

Jacques P. Vallée

2008-01-01

93

Magnetic field generator  

DOEpatents

A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

1990-01-01

94

On Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are present in all astrophysical media. However, many models and interpretations of observations often ignore them, because magnetic fields are difficult to handle and because they produce complicated morphological features. Here we will comment on the basic intuitive properties, which even if not completely true, provide a first guiding insight on the physics of a particular astrophysical problem. These magnetic properties are not mathematically demonstrated here. How magnetic fields evolve and how they introduce dynamical effects are considered, also including a short comment on General Relativity Magnetohydrodynamics. In a second part we consider some audacious and speculative matters. They are answers to three questions: a) How draw a cube without lifting the pencil from the paper so that when the pen passes through the same side do in the same direction? B) Are MILAGRO anisotropies miraculous? C) Do cosmic magnetic lenses exist?. The last two questions deal with issues related with the interplay between magnetic fields and cosmic ray propagation.

Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

2010-12-01

95

Magnetic Field of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An internal potential function was created using the averaged MGS vector data released by Mario Acuna for altitudes from 95 to 209 km above the Martian geoid, all longitudes, and latitudes from 87 degrees south to 78 degrees north. Even with some gaps in coverage it is found that a consistent internal potential function can be derived up to spherical harmonic terms of n = 65 using all three components of the data. Weighting the data according to the standard errors given, the model fits to 7-8 nT rms. The energy density spectrum of the harmonics is seen to peak near n = 39 with a value of 7 J/cu km and fall off to less than 0.5 J/cu km below n = 15 and above n = 55. Contour maps of the X (north) component drawn for 100 km altitude show the strongly anomalous region centered at 60 degrees S latitude and 180 degrees longitude, as well as the alternating east-west trends already observed by other groups. Maps of the other components show the anomalous region, but not the east-west trends. The dichotomy is also maintained with much weaker anomalies bounding the northern plains. The results herein as as well as those of others is limited by the sparse low-altitude data coverage as well as the accuracy of the observations in the face of significant spacecraft fields. Work by Connerney and Acuna have mitigated these sources somewhat, but the design of the spacecraft did not lend itself to accurate observations. Recent results reported by David Mitchell of the ER group have shown that the field observations are significantly influenced by the solar wind with the possibility that the present results may only reflect that portion of the internal field visible above 95 km altitude. Depending on the solar wind, the anomaly field may be shielded or distorted to produce spurious results. The spectrum we have obtained so far may only see the stronger portion of the signal with a significant weaker component hidden. Measurements of crustal anomalies versus relative ages of source bodies combined with later absolute dating of Martian geologic units could lead to a quantitative constraint on the thermal history of the planet, i.e. the time when convective dynamo generation ceased in the core. Determination of directions of magnetization of anomaly sources as a function of age combined with the expectation that the Martian dynamo field was roughly aligned with the rotation axis would lead to a means of investigating polar wandering for Mars. Preliminary analysis of two magnetic anomalies in the northern polar region has yielded paleomagnetic pole positions near 50 N, 135 W, about 30 degrees north of Olympus Mons. This location is roughly consistent with the orientation of the planet expected theoretically prior to the formation of the Tharsis region. In the future, more accurate observations of the vector field at the lowest possible altitudes would significantly improve our understanding of Martian thermal history, polar wandering, and upper crustal evolution. Mapping potential resources (e.g., iron-rich source bodies) for future practical use would also be a side benefit. Additional information is contained in the original abstract.

Cain, J. C.; Ferguson, B.; Mozzoni, D.; Hood, L.

2000-07-01

96

Magnetic fields at Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusions drawn regarding the structure, behavior and composition of the Uranian magnetic field and magnetosphere as revealed by Voyager 2 data are summarized. The planet had a bipolar magnetotail and a bow shock wave which was observed 23.7 Uranus radii (UR) upstream and a magnetopause at 18.0 UR. The magnetic field observed can be represented by a dipole offset

N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; K. W. Behannon; L. F. Burlaga; J. E. P. Connerney; R. P. Lepping

1986-01-01

97

THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analysis of magnetic and concurrent plasma data collected from the ; space probes Pionecr 5, Explorer 10, and Mariner 2 yields a new model of the ; interplanetary magnetic field. It is hypothesized that the observed ; interplanetary field F\\/sub i\\/ is due to motion of the magnetometer relative to a ; negatively charged rotating sun from which

V. A. BAILEY

1963-01-01

98

Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources

Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Dal Pino

2006-01-01

99

Magnetic fields from OH maser maps at 6035 and 6030 MHz at Galactic sites 351.417+0.645 and 353.410-0.360  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyl (OH) masers at two Galactic sites of massive star formation have been studied using the Long Baseline Array of the Australia Telescope National Facility. The 6035- and 6030-MHz OH excited-state transitions were observed, yielding a series of maps at velocity spacing 0.10 km s-1, in both senses of circular polarization, with angular resolution of approximately 50 mas. Within a radius of several arcsec each site displays many maser spots. Pairs of spots with the same position, but with right and left circular polarization separated in frequency, reveal Zeeman splitting. Towards 351.417+0.645, positions and velocities were measured for 56 discrete maser spots. Remarkably, all of these are components of Zeeman pairs, with 6035-MHz pairs at 23 distinct locations, five of which show matching 6030-MHz pairs. Strikingly, at 14 southerly locations the magnetic field is typically -5 mG (towards us), whereas seven of the northerly locations show a magnetic field of opposite sign, of up to +6.4 mG. The velocity field spanning -11.2 to -5 km s-1 shows no simple pattern. Maser emission towards 353.410-0.360 is confined to half an arcsecond total extent, comprising 24 maser spots, most of them members of nine Zeeman pairs. Derived magnetic fields are all negative, three between -4.8 and -10.6 mG and three much weaker fields between 0 and -1.6 mG. There is no simple pattern in the velocity field. OH masers at the 1665- and 1720-MHz transitions, and prominent ultracompact H II regions, are present at both 351.417+0.645 and 353.410-0.360. They are accompanied by methanol maser emission at the 6668-MHz, 12-GHz, and 107-GHz transitions. Masers at the 1667-MHz transition of OH and at the 22-GHz transition of water are found towards 351.417+0.645, but not towards 353.410-0.360. The magnetic fields of both sites are in accord with tracing an ordered Galactic magnetic field.

Caswell, J. L.; Kramer, B. Hutawarakorn; Reynolds, J. E.

2011-07-01

100

The Earth's Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnetic field of the Earth is contained in a region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth. This site, produced by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), uses text, scientific illustrations,and remote imagery to explain the occurrence and nature of planetary magnetic fields and magnetospheres, how these fields interact with the solar wind to produce phenomena like auroras, and how magnetic fields of the earth and other planets can be detected and measured by satellite-borne magnetometers.

101

The origins of lunar crustal magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to understanding the origins of lunar crustal magnetism. We wish to understand the processes which have created and modified the crustal magnetic field distribution that we observe today, and to determine whether the Moon ever had an active magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Previously, our only measurements of lunar magnetic fields came from the Explorer 35 and Apollo missions. Data coverage was incomplete, but sufficient to establish some systematics of the crustal field distribution. With new data from the Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instrument on Lunar Prospector, we have generated the first completely global maps of the lunar crustal fields. We use measurements of electrons magnetically reflected above the lunar surface, which we then correct for the effects of electrostatic fields (which also reflect electrons), and convert to estimates of surface magnetic fields. The resulting global map shows that impact basins and craters (especially the youngest) generally have low magnetic fields, suggesting impact demagnetization, primarily by shock effects. A secondary signature of some large lunar basins (especially older ones) is the presence of a more localized central magnetic anomaly. Meanwhile, the largest regions of strong crustal fields lie antipodal to young large impact basins, suggesting shock remanent magnetization due to a combination of antipodal focussing of seismic energy and/or ejecta and plasma compression of ambient magnetic fields. Smaller regions of strong magnetic fields are sometimes associated with basin ejecta, and basin and crater ejecta terranes have the strongest average fields outside of the antipodal regions. This implies that impact-generated magnetization may extend beyond the antipodal regions. The antipodal, non-antipodal, and central basin magnetic fields, as well as returned samples, can all be used to estimate the lunar magnetic field history and place constraints on a possible lunar dynamo. All of these quantities provide evidence for stronger magnetic fields early in the Moon's history, and thereby suggest the existence of an ancient core dynamo.

Halekas, Jasper S.

102

The First Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars are discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early generation of stars or active galactic nuclei can be dispersed into the intergalactic medium.

Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ryu, Dongsu; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G.; Treumann, Rudolf A.

2012-05-01

103

Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will introduce students to the idea of magnetic field lines--a concept they have probably encountered but may not fully grasp. Completing this activity and reading the corresponding background information should enable students to understand

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

104

Magnetic field dosimeter development  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1980-09-01

105

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

2013-01-01

106

Magnetic field confinement for magnetically levitated vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically levitated vehicle adapted for movement along a guide way, comprising: a passenger compartment; first and second primary magnet means secured on the vehicle to produce a magnetic field having a magnetic flux density extending outward from the primary magnet means, to support the vehicle above and spaced from the guide way; and a plurality of confining magnets disposed on the vehicle to confine the magnetic flux extending outward from the primary magnet means and to reduce the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment; wherein the primary magnet means has a capacity to produce a primary magnetic field having a maximum strength of at least 200 gauss in the passenger compartment, and the confining magnets maintain the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment below 5 gauss.

Proise, M.

1993-05-25

107

Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey maps and data, East Poplar Oil Field area, August 2004, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a data release for a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during August 2004 in a 275-square-kilometer area that includes the East Poplar oil field on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic resistivity data were converted to six electrical conductivity grids, each representing different approximate depths of investigation. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. Areas of high conductivity in shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field area are being delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, in order to map areas of saline-water plumes. Ground electromagnetic methods were first used during the early 1990s to delineate more than 31 square kilometers of high conductivity saline-water plumes in a portion of the East Poplar oil field area. In the 10 years since the first delineation, the quality of water from some wells completed in the shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field changed markedly. The extent of saline-water plumes in 2004 likely differs from that delineated in the early 1990s. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies is being used by resource managers to develop ground-water resource plans for the area.

Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Cain, Michael J.; Tyrrell, Christa; Hill, Patricia L.

2006-01-01

108

A Mapping Model for Magnetic Fields with q-profile Variations Typical of Internal Transport Barrier Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of ion and electron transport indicate that the safety factor profile, q(r), affects internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in magnetic confinement devices [1, 2]. These studies are consistent with experimental observations that low shear suppresses magnetic island interaction and associated stochasticity when the ITB is formed [3]. In this sense the position and quality of the ITB depend

B. I. Rapoport; I. Pavlenko; B. Weyssow; D. Carati

2002-01-01

109

Planetary magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large

David J. Stevenson

2003-01-01

110

Magnetic Multipole Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Multipole Field Model shows the field of a magnetic dipole or quadrupole with little compasses that indicate direction and relative field strength. A slider changes the angular orientation of the dipole and a movable compass shows the magnetic field direction and magnitude. Compass values can be recorded into a data table and analyzed using a built-in data analysis tool. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Multipole Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticMultipoleField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne; Franciscouembre

2010-02-14

111

Magnetic Field Measurement System  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic field measurement system was designed, built and installed at MAX Lab, Sweden for the purpose of characterizing the magnetic field produced by Insertion Devices (see Figure 1). The measurement system consists of a large granite beam roughly 2 feet square and 14 feet long that has been polished beyond laboratory grade for flatness and straightness. The granite precision coupled with the design of the carriage yielded minimum position deviations as measured at the probe tip. The Hall probe data collection and compensation technique allows exceptional resolution and range while taking data on the fly to programmable sample spacing. Additional flip coil provides field integral data.

Kulesza, Joe; Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Waterman, Dave; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Dunn, Jonathan Hunter [MAX-lab, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-19

112

Magnetic Field Problem: Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of a circular wire loop carrying an unknown current is shown above. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You can double-click in the animation to add magnetic field lines, click-drag the center of the loop to reposition it, and click-drag the top or bottom of the loop to change its size.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

113

Indoor localization using magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

114

Crustal magnetic field of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equivalent source dipole technique is used to model the three components of the Martian lithospheric magnetic field. We use magnetic field measurements made on board the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Different input dipole meshes are presented and evaluated. Because there is no global, Earth-like, inducing magnetic field, the magnetization directions are solved for together with the magnetization intensity. A

B. Langlais; M. E. Purucker; M. Mandea

2004-01-01

115

Magnetic Fields in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized emission traces turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important, e.g. they can drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic random, generated from isotropic random fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several spiral galaxies reveal large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field dynamo. However, in most spiral galaxies observed so far the field structure is more complicated. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. Future observations of polarized emission at high frequencies, with the EVLA, the SKA and its precursors, will trace galactic magnetic fields in unprecedented detail. Low-frequency telescopes (e.g. LOFAR and MWA) are ideal to search for diffuse emission and small RMs from weak interstellar and intergalactic fields.

Beck, Rainer

2012-05-01

116

The induced magnetic field.  

PubMed

Aromaticity is indispensable for explaining a variety of chemical behaviors, including reactivity, structural features, relative energetic stabilities, and spectroscopic properties. When interpreted as the spatial delocalization of ?-electrons, it represents the driving force for the stabilization of many planar molecular structures. A delocalized electron system is sensitive to an external magnetic field; it responds with an induced magnetic field having a particularly long range. The shape of the induced magnetic field reflects the size and strength of the system of delocalized electrons and can have a large influence on neighboring molecules. In 2004, we proposed using the induced magnetic field as a means of estimating the degree of electron delocalization and aromaticity in planar as well as in nonplanar molecules. We have since tested the method on aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic compounds, and a refinement now allows the individual treatment of core-, ?-, and ?-electrons. In this Account, we describe the use of the induced magnetic field as an analytical probe for electron delocalization and its application to a large series of uncommon molecules. The compounds include borazine; all-metal aromatic systems Al(4)(n-); molecular stars Si(5)Li(n)(6-n); electronically stabilized planar tetracoordinate carbon; planar hypercoordinate atoms inside boron wheels; and planar boron wheels with fluxional internal boron cluster moieties. In all cases, we have observed that planar structures show a high degree of electron delocalization in the ?-electrons and, in some examples, also in the ?-framework. Quantitatively, the induced magnetic field has contributions from the entire electronic system of a molecule, but at long range the contributions arising from the delocalized electronic ?-system dominate. The induced magnetic field can only indirectly be confirmed by experiment, for example, through intermolecular contributions to NMR chemical shifts. We show that calculating the induced field is a useful method for understanding any planar organic or inorganic system, as it corresponds to the intuitive Pople model for explaining the anomalous proton chemical shifts in aromatic molecules. Indeed, aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic molecules show differing responses to an external field; that is, they reduce, augment, or do not affect the external field at long range. The induced field can be dissected into different orbital contributions, in the same way that the nucleus-independent chemical shift or the shielding function can be separated into component contributions. The result is a versatile tool that is particularly useful in the analysis of planar, densely packed systems with strong orbital contributions directly atop individual atoms. PMID:21848282

Islas, Rafael; Heine, Thomas; Merino, Gabriel

2011-08-17

117

Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.

Shockley, Jeremiah A.

118

Magnetic field annihilators: invisible magnetization at the magnetic equator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some distributions of magnetization give rise to magnetic fields that vanish everywhere above the surface, rendering these distributions of magnetization completely invisible. They are the annihilators of the magnetic inverse problem. Known examples are the infinite sheet with constant magnetization and the spherical shell of constant susceptibility magnetized by an arbitrary internal field. Here, we show that remarkably more interesting

S. Maus; V. Haak

2003-01-01

119

Downward Mapping of Equatorial Ionospheric Electric Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of downward mapping of equatorial ionospheric electric fields is studied in two dimensions. Numerical solutions are shown and are compared with the corresponding ones for high latitudes. It is found that ionospheric electric fields can map dow...

W. D. Gonzalez S. L. G. Dutra A. L. C. Gonzalez A. E. C. Pereira

1985-01-01

120

Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as

K. N. Henrichsen

1998-01-01

121

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

2013-06-01

122

Mapping the energy spectrum of the spin states of mixed-valent [Fe8]n- via pulsed field magnetization  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structure of a family of octanuclear Fe{sup III}-complexes of the general formula [Fe{sub 8}({mu}{sub 4}-O)4({mu}-{sub r}-R-pz){sub 12}X{sub 4}] ([Fe{sub 8}]{sup 0}) and its redox-modified, mixed-valence [Fe{sub 8}]{sup n-} derivatives, where R = H, Me, Et, F, CI, Sr, I, etc. and X = F, CI, Sr, NCS, NCO, N{sub 3}, has recently been modeled by a an effective Hamiltonian consisting of two dominant exchange interactions [1]. The ground state properties (from S{sub tot} = 0 to 7) and magnetic energy level spacing of the Hamiltonian, and hence predicted magnetic properties, are widely tunable via choice of J's. The corresponding [Fe{sub 8}]{sup n-} anionic complexes with n = 1 - 4 are accessible electrochemically, allowing their in situ spectroelectrochemical characterization. The singly-reduced anions [Fe{sub 8}]{sup 1-} of the R = H, Cl and X = Cl species have also been prepared chemically via reduction with a stoichiometric amount of [BH{sub 4}]-, and characterized crystallographically; the structure of the Fe{sub 8}-cluster remains unaffected by the reduction, with most bond lengths differences within experimental error. Their Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis has pointed to the reduction taking place primarily within the Fe{sub 4}O{sub 4}-cubane, with charges delocalized over the four Fe{sub c} sites in the Moessbauer timescale. In contrast, the [Fe{sub 8}]{sup 1-} and [Fe{sub 8}]{sup 2-} species with R = Cl and X = NCS show a reduction at the outer, Fe{sub o}-sites, generating one or two localized Fe{sub o}-centers.

Mcdonald, Ross D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raptis, Raphel G [UNIV OF PUERTO RICO

2011-01-14

123

Magnetic connectivity of coronal fields: geometrical versus topological description  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the mapping produced by the field lines which connect photospheric areas of positive and negative magnetic polarity on the Sun. The geometrical quantities independent of the direction of such a mapping (from positive to negative polarity, and vice versa) are introduced. They yield a complete description of the field line connectivity in coronal magnetic configurations and, in particular,

V. S. Titov; G. Hornig

2002-01-01

124

Magnetic fields and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

Jones, T.L.

1993-10-01

125

Magnetic nanoparticle density mapping from the magnetically induced displacement data: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic nanoparticles are gaining great roles in biomedical applications as targeted drug delivery agents or targeted imaging contrast agents. In the magnetic nanoparticle applications, quantification of the nanoparticle density deposited in a specified region is of great importance for evaluating the delivery of the drugs or the contrast agents to the targeted tissues. We introduce a method for estimating the nanoparticle density from the displacement of tissues caused by the external magnetic field. Methods We can exert magnetic force to the magnetic nanoparticles residing in a living subject by applying magnetic gradient field to them. The nanoparticles under the external magnetic field then exert force to the nearby tissues causing displacement of the tissues. The displacement field induced by the nanoparticles under the external magnetic field is governed by the Navier's equation. We use an approximation method to get the inverse solution of the Navier's equation which represents the magnetic nanoparticle density map when the magnetic nanoparticles are mechanically coupled with the surrounding tissues. To produce the external magnetic field inside a living subject, we propose a coil configuration, the Helmholtz and Maxwell coil pair, that is capable of generating uniform magnetic gradient field. We have estimated the coil currents that can induce measurable displacement in soft tissues through finite element method (FEM) analysis. Results From the displacement data obtained from FEM analysis of a soft-tissue-mimicking phantom, we have calculated nanoparticle density maps. We obtained the magnetic nanoparticle density maps by approximating the Navier's equation to the Laplacian of the displacement field. The calculated density maps match well to the original density maps, but with some halo artifacts around the high density area. To induce measurable displacement in the living tissues with the proposed coil configuration, we need to apply the coil currents as big as 104A. Conclusions We can obtain magnetic nanoparticle maps from the magnetically induced displacement data by approximating the Navier's equation under the assumption of uniform-gradient of the external magnetic field. However, developing a coil driving system with the capacity of up to 104A should be a great technical challenge.

2012-01-01

126

Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question.

Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

2000-08-01

127

Magnetic Field Problem: Current and Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. A wire is placed between the magnets and a current that comes out of the page can be turned on.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

128

Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil

Labros Spiridon Petropoulos

1993-01-01

129

Integrated semiconductor magnetic field sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in integrated silicon magnetic devices are reviewed, with particular attention given to integrated Hall plates, magnetic field-effect transistors, vertical and lateral bipolar magnetotransistors, magnetodiodes, and current-domain magnetometers. Also described are current developments in integrated magnetic field sensors based on III-V semiconductors and bulk Hall-effect devices. The discussion also covers magnetic device modeling and the incorporation of magnetic devices

H. P. Baltes; R. S. Popovic

1986-01-01

130

New magnetic anomaly map in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic data provides basic information for geologic and geophysical interpretation. From 2004 to 2010 we have collected 57 magnetic cruises by using different research vessels. In this study we attempt to compile the newly collected and existing magnetic data including land, marine and aeromagnetic data in East Asia area, which can provide us a general overview of the tectonic framework of the study area. Based on newly compiled map, several magnetic features can be identified in the new magnetic map. (1) The NE-SW trending high positive magnetic anomaly zone presenting in southwest Taiwan is still apparently. (2) A sharp boundary, named Zhongnan Fault, separates South China Sea into east and southwest sub-basin. The magnetic patterns in the southwest sub-basin differ from in east, not only in amplitude, but also in the trending of the spreading. (3) Between Gagua ridge and Luzon-Okinawa Fracture Zone, the magnetic lineations reveals NW-SE direction. This indicates that the spreading direction was NE-SW in this area. (4) Strong positive magnetic anomalies over the Taiwan-Sinzi, Yushan, Yandang, and Zhemin Ridges suggest the existence of remnant volcanic arcs. High positive magnetic anomalies located beneath Ryukyu arc and Ryukyu Trench implies a high magnetized material of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate.

Doo, W.

2011-12-01

131

Mapping phases of singular scalar light fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implement experimentally a simple method for accurate measurements of phase distributions of scalar light fields. The method is based on the polarimetric technique for recording the polarization maps of vector fields, where coaxial superposition of orthogonally polarized reference and signal beams allows the signal phase to be reconstructed from the polarization map of the total field. We demonstrate this

Vladimir G. Denisenko; Alexander Minovich; Anton S. Desyatnikov; Wieslaw Krolikowski; Marat S. Soskin; Yuri S. Kivshar

2008-01-01

132

Planetary magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large radial extent. The relevant electrical conductivities range from metallic values to values that may be only about 1% or less that of a typical metal, appropriate to ionic fluids and semiconductors. In all planets, the Coriolis force is dynamically important, but slow rotation may be more favorable for a dynamo than fast rotation. The maintenance and persistence of convection appears to be easy in gas giants and ice-rich giants, but is not assured in terrestrial planets because the quite high electrical conductivity of iron-rich cores guarantees a high thermal conductivity (through the Wiedemann-Franz law), which allows for a large core heat flow by conduction alone. In this sense, high electrical conductivity is unfavorable for a dynamo in a metallic core. Planetary dynamos mostly appear to operate with an internal field ~(2??/?)1/2 where ? is the fluid density, ? is the planetary rotation rate and ? is the conductivity (SI units). Earth, Ganymede, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and maybe Mercury have dynamos, Mars has large remanent magnetism from an ancient dynamo, and the Moon might also require an ancient dynamo. Venus is devoid of a detectable global field but may have had a dynamo in the past. The presence or absence of a dynamo in a terrestrial body (including Ganymede) appears to depend mainly on the thermal histories and energy sources of these bodies, especially the convective state of the silicate mantle and the existence and history of a growing inner solid core. Induced fields observed in Europa and Callisto indicate the strong likelihood of water oceans in these bodies.

Stevenson, David J.

2003-03-01

133

Large TileCal magnetic field simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ATLAS magnetic field map has been estimated in the presence of the hadron tile calorimeter. This is an important issue in order to quantify the needs for individual PMT shielding, the effect on the scintillator light yield and its implications on the ...

M. Nessi F. Bergsma S. B. Vorozhtsov O. N. Borisov O. V. Lomakina

1994-01-01

134

Test of Map-Read Magnetic Declination Accuracy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers a test of how accurately a map-referenced magnetic declination represents the actual magnetic declination found by measuring true north and magnetic north at various points selected at random within the mapped area. The undeveloped area...

G. W. Schmeidel

1978-01-01

135

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1996-08-06

136

Tracking charged particles through magnetic fields using MCNP and MCNPX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MCNP and MCNPX multiparticle Monte Carlo transport codes have been modified with a patch that allows specialized tracking of charged particles through the magnetic fields of a charged-particle beam optics system using pregenerated maps output from the COSY INFINITY code. A map is the rule for updating the particles' phase-space through a magnetic element. A file containing a single

J. A. Favorite; K. J. Adams; J. D. Zumbro

1999-01-01

137

A Study of the Mean Solar Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic field of the sun seen as a star has been observed at the Mount Wilson Observatory. The sun-as-a-star field, or mean field, as measured in integrated sunlight has been compared with both large scale averages of conventional solar magnetic maps...

P. H. Scherrer

1973-01-01

138

Evolution of twisted magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

139

Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

Miller, G.

1987-12-01

140

Stellar atmospheres with magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the most probable configuration of the magnetic field in the atmosphere of an Ap star is an almost force-free, poloidal field, close to a low-order multipole. Such a magnetic field can not change the structure of the atmosphere to any great extent, but the vertical component of the Lorentz force can decrease the effective gravity by

K. Stepien

1980-01-01

141

Microprobe for Measuring Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hall effect has been widely utilized to measure magnetic fields. The relatively simple geometry of a Hall element suggested the use of such a device on a microscale as a probe to examine magnetic fields of small structures. Hall probes are described which were constructed with a sensitive area about 10×10 ?. Fields of less than 0.01 gauss were

D. D. Roshon Jr.

1962-01-01

142

Magnetic fields in galactic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jet region of M87 is discussed to illustrate the astrophysical observations of radio sources, with note made of magnetic field phenomena contributing to radio frequency emissions. The jet appearing in M87 has been modelled as a continuous supersonic flow of plasma embedded in a self-consistent, ordered magnetic field. The field has both parallel and helical components, and may work

A. Ferrari

1982-01-01

143

Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields ($\\\\ge 1 \\\\mu$G) in high\\u000aredshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving\\u000aprotogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic\\u000aseed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and\\u000aincorporated into a spherical \\

Harald Lesch; Masashi Chiba

1994-01-01

144

Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields (>=1muG) in high redshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving protogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic seed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and incorporated into a spherical \\

H. Lesch; M. Chiba

1995-01-01

145

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21

146

A statistical study of the ionospheric convection response to changing interplanetary magnetic field conditions using the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine 65 ionospheric convection changes associated with changes in the Y and Z components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We measure the IMF reorientations (for all but six of the events) at the Wind satellite. For 22 of the events the IMF reorientation is clearly observed by both Wind and IMP 8. Various methods are used to estimate

A. J. Ridley; Gang Lu; C. R. Clauer; V. O. Papitashvili

1998-01-01

147

An efficient symplectic approximation for fringe-field maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fringe fields of particle optical elements have a strong effect on optical properties. In particular higher order aberrations are often dominated by fringe-field effects. So far their transfer maps can only be calculated accurately using numerical integrators, which is rather time consuming. Any alternative or approximate calculation scheme should be symplectic because of the importance of the symplectic symmetry for long term behavior. We introduce a method to approximate fringe-field maps of magnetic elements in a symplectic fashion which works extremely quickly and accurately. It is based on differential algebra (DA) techniques and was implemented in COSY INFINITY. The approximation exploits the advantages of Lie transformations, generating functions, scaling of the map with field strength and aperture, and the dependence of transfer maps on the ratio of magnetic rigidity to magnetic field strength. The results are compared to numerical integration and to the approximation via fringe-field integrals. The quality of the approximation will be illustrated on some examples including linear design, high order effects, and long term tracking.

Hoffstätter, G. H.; Berz, M.

1993-12-01

148

The Sun's global magnetic field.  

PubMed

Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

Mackay, Duncan H

2012-07-13

149

Magnetic property mapping system for analyzing three-dimensional magnetic components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic measurement system utilizing a vector magnetic sensor for analyzing and mapping low frequency magnetic properties of metals has been developed for nondestructive evaluation. The measurement system consists mainly of an induction coil which can expose a large sample area, a vector magnetic sensor for detecting magnetic fields emanating from a sample, a lock-in amplifier, and a two-dimensional scanning stage. The system was determined to have a high magnetic sensitivity corresponding to less than 1 nT in the locked-in state. The magnetic field strength change was detected in a sample that contained a slit of width greater than 1 mm. Time sequential vector component (normal and tangential) maps were developed. An iron plate as an example of a ferromagnetic metal and an aluminum plate as an example of a good conducting and nonferromagnetic material were compared using this system. Analyzing the vector component maps could differentiate differences in the magnetic properties, such as permeability, eddy current distribution, and residual magnetism.

Tsukada, Keiji; Kiwa, Toshihiko

2006-06-01

150

Microwave Measurements of Coronal Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements of the solar corona using microwave observation are reviewed. The solar corona is filled with highly ionised plasma and magnetic field. Moving charged particles interact with magnetic field due to Lorentz force. This results in gyration motion perpendicular to the magnetic field and free motion along the magnetic field. Circularly polarized electro-magnetic waves interact with gyrating electrons

K. Shibasaki

2006-01-01

151

Evolution of primordial magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we briefly summarise the main phases which determine the dynamical evolution of primordial magnetic fields in the early universe. On the one hand, strong fields undergo damping due to excitations of plasma fluctuations, and, on the other hand, weak magnetic fields will be strongly amplified by the small-scale dynamo in a turbulent environment. We find that, under reasonable assumptions concerning the efficiency of a putative magnetogenesis era during cosmic phase transitions, surprisingly strong magnetic fields 10-13-10-11 G on comparatively small scales 100 pc -10 kpc may survive to prior to structure formation. Additionally, any weak magnetic field will be exponentially amplified during the collapse of the first minihalos until they reach equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy. Hence, we argue that it seems possible for cluster magnetic fields to be entirely of primordial origin.

Banerjee, R.

2013-06-01

152

Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

153

Measurements of magnetic field alignment  

SciTech Connect

The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

1987-11-06

154

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-06

155

Magnetic Field Problem: Measuring Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of two circular wire loops carrying the exact same current is shown above (position given in centimeters and magnetic field given in milli-Tesla). You can click-drag to read the magnitude of the magnetic field.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

156

Dual-plane flow mapping in a liquid-metal model experiment with a square melt in a traveling magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directional solidification is an important process for fabricating large multicrystalline silicon ingots. The complex 3D melt flows during solidification can be influenced by magnetic fields and are usually investigated in model experiments using 1D ultrasound Doppler measurements and extensive sensor traversing. We present a dual-plane, two-component ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter that utilizes four ultrasound line arrays for flow measurements in liquid metals at room temperature that achieves high temporal and spatial resolution at the same time. It was successfully applied to isothermal model experiments in square-shaped containers under the influence of a vertically traveling magnetic field. Depending on the aspect ratio of the melt different 3D flows were observed: With lower melt heights, a central horizontal vortex appears, while higher melt heights lead to a toroidal flow structure, which is similar to the structure in cylindrical container geometries. Corresponding numerical simulations showed a good qualitative agreement with the measurement data.

Nauber, R.; Burger, M.; Neumann, M.; Büttner, L.; Dadzis, K.; Niemietz, K.; Pätzold, O.; Czarske, J.

2013-04-01

157

Preliminary global mapping of lunar magnetic anomalies at nominal and low altitudes by MAP-LMAG onboard SELENE (KAGUYA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field around the Moon has been successfully observed at nominal and lower altitudes by the lunar magnetometer (LMAG) on the SELENE (KAGUYA) spacecraft in a polar orbit from October 29, 2007 to June 10, 2009. Since the solar activity has been very low during the observation, relatively weak anomalies can be observed even at a nominal altitude of about 100 km. In this paper we report preliminary results of the global mapping in the constancy and optional phases and compare the results with previous global maps (e.g. Richmond and Hood, 2008; Mitchell et al., 2008). The nominal altitude was 70-120 km (mostly 100 +/- 10 km) in the constancy phase (November, 2007 to December, 2008). Based on dataset in the tail lobe and in the lunar wake, magnetic anomaly fields without altitude correction were mapped on 1 x 1 degree bins with 95 % coverage of the lunar surface. We also obtained full-coverage maps of the vector magnetic field at a constant altitude of 100 km after altitude normalization and interpolation of the magnetic anomaly field by the inverse boundary value problem, the EPR method by Toyoshima et al. (2008). After the constancy phase, we subsequently conducted the optional phase in 2009 to observe the magnetic field and plasma at lower altitudes. The altitude was mostly 50-70 km during January to March, and then further lowered by 20-50 km with a pericenter above the South-Pole Aitken basin. We obtained global maps of 1 x 1 degree bins at the low altitudes with 84 % coverage. We also applied our detrending method to the low-altitude dataset of the lunar magnetic field by the Lunar Prospector (LP). and compared them with our maps. As a result, characteristic features in the lunar magnetic anomaly distribution are consistent with each other. The results in the present study indicate that statistically significant magnetic anomalies are distributed over almost the whole lunar surface. Relatively strong anomalies are identified in several basin, basin-antipode and near-crater regions, while the youngest basin on the Moon, the Orientale basin, has no magnetic anomaly. The basin-forming impact model can explain formation of the basin-antipode anomaly in the amplified interplanetary magnetic field (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2008). However, some basins and their antipode regions show magnetic anomalies, and thus it seems difficult to induce significant magnetization due to the interplanetary magnetic field in both regions. These suggest that the early lunar dynamo or the early geodynamo before the Orientale basin formation is preferable as a magnetic field source of the lunar crustal magnetism to the interplanetary magnetic field.

Tsunakawa, H.; Shibuya, H.; Takahashi, F.; Shimizu, H.; Matsushima, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Nakazawa, S.; Otake, H.; Iijima, Y.

2009-12-01

158

Tracking charged particles through magnetic fields using MCNP and MCNPX  

SciTech Connect

The MCNP and MCNPX multiparticle Monte Carlo transport codes have been modified with a patch that allows specialized tracking of charged particles through the magnetic fields of a charged-particle beam optics system using pregenerated maps output from the COSY INFINITY code. A map is the rule for updating the particles' phase-space through a magnetic element. A file containing a single COSY map is assigned to each magnetic cell, which must be a vacuum. For current applications, the COSY maps are generated for protons, but any charged particle will be properly transported.

Favorite, J.A.; Adams, K.J.; Zumbro, J.D.

1999-07-01

159

Galactic dynamics and magnetic fields. 2: Magnetic fields in barred galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a magnetic-field amplification process in galaxies in conjunction with bar dynamics. Our model considers especially the observed non-circular gas velocities in barred spiral galaxies. The bar drives the spirally-falling gas flow toward the center, which consists of a net radial flow (referred to as flow b) and an elliptically elongated flow rotating in the azimuth (flow a). The induced radial flow by a bar (flow b) produces a magnetic field, whose exponential growth is closely related with the angular-momentum transport by the non-axisymmetric bar perturbation. Furthermore, the non-axisymmetric gas flow (flow a) also leads to the exponential and oscillatory growth of magnetic fields by driving a growing magnetic wave. The interplay of both flows in a bar hence induces an oscillatory amplification of magnetic fields, and the resulting magnetic field pattern rotates with a bar and holds the azimuthal wavenumber m = 1 or 2, depending on the strength of velocity disturbances. This model naturally explains the characteristic radio features observed in M83, where the m = 1 magnetic field is aligned with the bar, and the bar ends are dominated by the vertical component Bz, giving the holes in polarized intensity map. It is emphasized that the evolution of galactic magnetic fields is closely related with galactic dynamics and evolution.

Chiba, M.; Lesch, H.

1994-04-01

160

Magnetic field in a finite toroidal domain  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field structure in a domain surrounded by a closed toroidal magnetic surface is analyzed. It is shown that ergodization of magnetic field lines is possible even in a regular field configuration (with nonvanishing toroidal component). A unified approach is used to describe magnetic fields with nested toroidal (possibly asymmetric) flux surfaces, magnetic islands, and ergodic field lines.

Ilgisonis, V. I.; Skovoroda, A. A., E-mail: skovorod@nfi.kiae.r [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

161

Magnetic fields and scintillator performance  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data have shown that the light output of a scintillator depends on the magnitude of the externally applied magnetic fields, and that this variation can affect the calorimeter calibration and possibly resolution. The goal of the measurements presented here is to study the light yield of scintillators in high magnetic fields in conditions that are similar to those anticipated for the LHC CMS detector. Two independent measurements were performed, the first at Fermilab and the second at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

Green, D.; Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Hagopian, V. [Florida State Univ., Tallahasse, FL (United States)

1995-06-01

162

Magnetic induction maps in a magnetized spherical Couette flow experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DTS experiment is a spherical Couette flow experiment with an imposed dipolar magnetic field. Liquid sodium is used as a working fluid. In a series of measurement campaigns, we have obtained data on the mean axisymmetric velocity, the mean induced magnetic field and electric potentials. All these quantities are coupled through the induction equation. In particular, a strong ?-effect is produced by differential rotation within the fluid shell, inducing a significant azimuthal magnetic field. Taking advantage of the simple spherical geometry of the experiment, I expand the azimuthal and meridional fields into Legendre polynomials and derive the expressions that relate all measurements to the radial functions of the velocity field for each harmonic degree. For small magnetic Reynolds numbers Rm the relations are linear, and the azimuthal and meridional equations decouple. Selecting a set of measurements for a given rotation frequency of the inner sphere (Rm?9.4), I invert simultaneously the velocity and the magnetic data and thus reconstruct both the azimuthal and the meridional fields within the fluid shell. The results demonstrate the good internal consistency of the measurements, and indicate that turbulent non-axisymmetric fluctuations do not contribute significantly to the axisymmetric magnetic induction.

Nataf, Henri-Claude

2013-02-01

163

Magnetic field structure of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently planet Mercury—an unexplored territory in our solar system—has been of much interest to the scientific community due to recent flybys of the spacecraft MESSENGER that discovered its intrinsic stationary and large-scale dipole like magnetic field structure with an intensity of ˜300nT confirming Mariner 10 observations. In the present study, with the observed constraint of Mercury's atmospheric magnetic field structure, internal magnetic field structure is modeled as a solution of magnetic diffusion equation. In this study, Mercury's internal structure mainly consists of a stable stratified fluid core and the convective mantle. For simplicity, magnetic diffusivity in both parts of the structure is considered to be uniform and constant with a value represented by a suitable averages. It is further assumed that vigorous convection in the mantle disposes of the electric currents leading to a very high diffusivity in that region. Thus, in order to satisfy observed atmospheric magnetic field structure, Mercury's most likely magnetic field structure consists of a solution of MHD diffusion equation in the core and a combined multipolar (dipole and quadrupole like magnetic field structures embedded in the uniform field) solution of a current free like magnetic field structure in the mantle and in the atmosphere. With imposition of appropriate boundary conditions at the core-mantle boundary for the first two diffusion eigen modes, in order to satisfy the observed field structure, present study puts the constraint on Mercury's core radius to be ˜2000km.From the estimated magnetic diffusivity and the core radius, it is also possible to estimate the two diffusion eigen modes with their diffusion time scales of ˜8.6 and 3.7 billion years respectively suggesting that the planet inherits its present-day magnetic field structure from the solar Nebula. It is proposed that permanency of such a large-scale magnetic field structure of the planet is attained during Mercury's early evolutionary history of heavy bombardments by the asteroids and comets supporting the giant impact hypothesis for the formation of Mercury.

Hiremath, K. M.

2012-04-01

164

Cosmic Magnetic Fields – An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion\\u000a on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys\\u000a of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds’ staffs get at times

Richard Wielebinski; Rainer Beck

2010-01-01

165

Magnetic Pumping in Spatially Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic pumping by major-radius oscillation of a toroidal plasma can be made more practical by introducing a major-radius range within which the vertical-field gradient is sufficiently great so that major-radius perturbations are marginally stable or, be...

H. P. Furth R. A. Ellis

1972-01-01

166

Simulations of Photospheric Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have run plots of artificial data, which mimic solar magnetograms, through standard algorithms to critique several results reported in the literature. In studying correlation algorithms, we show that the differences in the profiles for the differential rotation of the photospheric magnetic field stem from different methods of averaging. We verify that the lifetimes of small magnetic features, or of

A. A. Smith; H. B. Snodgrass

1999-01-01

167

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)|

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

168

Magnetic Field Waves at Uranus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (Sw...

C. W. Smith M. L. Goldstein R. P. Lepping W. H. Mish H. K. Wong

1991-01-01

169

Thermometers in Low Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the effect of low amplitude DC magnetic fields on different types of thermometers is discussed. By means of\\u000a a precision water-cooled electromagnet, the effect of a magnetic field on platinum resistance thermometers, thermistors, and\\u000a type T, J, and K thermocouples was investigated, while thermometers were thermally stabilized in thermostatic baths. Four\\u000a different baths were used for temperatures

G. Gersak; S. Begus

2010-01-01

170

The NBS-LANL RTM end-magnet field mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-controlled magnetic field mapper is under construction at the National Bureau of Standards to map the end magnets of the NBS-LANL racetrack microtron (RTM). The mapper consists of a large, two-dimensional translation stage which simultaneously positions a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetometer probe in the 55 cm x 135 cm uniform field region and a temperature-compensated Hall effect probe

E. R. Lindstrom; P. H. Debenham; D. L. Mohr; N. R. Yoder

1983-01-01

171

Theorem on magnet fringe field  

SciTech Connect

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b{sub n}) and skew (a{sub n}) multipoles, B{sub y} + iB{sub x} = {summation}(b{sub n} + ia{sub n})(x + iy){sup n}, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ``field integrals`` such as {bar B}L {equivalent_to} {integral} B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For {bar a}{sub n}, {bar b}{sub n}, {bar B}{sub x}, and {bar B}{sub y} defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ``standard`` approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell`s equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub {proportional_to}}{vert_bar}, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub 0}{vert_bar}, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B{sub x} from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Talman, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

1995-12-31

172

Mapping receptive fields in primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Nearly 40 years ago, in the pages of this journal, Hubel and Wiesel provided the first description of receptive fields in the primary visual cortex of higher mammals. They defined two classes of cortical cells, ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, based on neural responses to simple visual stimuli. The notion of a hierarchy of receptive fields, where increasingly intricate receptive fields are constructed from more elementary ones, was introduced. Since those early days we have witnessed the birth of quantitative methods to map receptive fields and mathematical descriptions of simple and complex cell function. Insights gained from these models, along with new theoretical concepts, are refining our understanding of receptive field structure and the underlying cortical circuitry. Here, I provide a brief historical account of the evolution of receptive field mapping in visual cortex along with the associated conceptual advancements, and speculate on the shape novel theories of the cortex may take as a result these measurements.

Ringach, Dario L

2004-01-01

173

High field magnetic resonance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A magnetic resonance system is disclosed. The system includes a transceiver having a multichannel receiver and a multichannel transmitter, where each channel of the transmitter is configured for independent selection of frequency, phase, time, space, and magnitude, and each channel of the receiver is configured for independent selection of space, time, frequency, phase and gain. The system also includes a magnetic resonance coil having a plurality of current elements, with each element coupled in one to one relation with a channel of the receiver and a channel of the transmitter. The system further includes a processor coupled to the transceiver, such that the processor is configured to execute instructions to control a current in each element and to perform a non-linear algorithm to shim the coil.

2010-09-21

174

Magnetic fields in merging spirals - the Antennae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extensive study of magnetic fields in a system of merging galaxies. We obtained for NGC 4038/39 (the Antennae) radio total intensity and polarization maps at 8.44 GHz, 4.86 GHz and 1.49 GHz using the VLA in the C and D configurations. The galaxy pair possesses bright, extended radio emission filling the body of the whole system, with no dominant nuclear sources. The radio thermal fraction of NGC 4038/39 was found to be about 50% at 10.45 GHz, higher than in normal spirals. Most of the thermal emission is associated with star-forming regions, but only a part of these are weakly visible in the optical domain because of strong obscuration. The mean total magnetic fields in both galaxies are about two times stronger (?20 ?G) than in normal spirals. However, the degree of field regularity is rather low, implying tangling of the regular component in regions with interaction-enhanced star formation. Our data combined with those in H I, H?, X-rays and in far infrared allow us to study local interrelations between different gas phases and magnetic fields. We distinguish several radio-emitting regions with different physical properties and at various evolutionary stages: the rudimentary magnetic spiral, the northern cool part of the dark cloud complex extending between the galaxies, its warm southern region, its southernmost star-forming region deficient in radio emission, and the highly polarized northeastern ridge associated with the base of an unfolding tidal tail. The whole region of the dark cloud complex shows a coherent magnetic field structure, probably tracing the line of collision between the arms of merging spirals while the total radio emission reveals hidden star formation nests. The southern region is a particularly intense merger-triggered starburst. Highly tangled magnetic fields reach there strengths of ?30 ?G, even larger than in both individual galaxies, possibly due to compression of the original fields pulled out from the parent disks. In the northeastern ridge, away from star-forming regions, the magnetic field is highly coherent with a strong regular component of 10 ?G tracing gas shearing motions along the tidal tail. We find no signs of field compression by infalling gas there. The radio spectrum is much steeper in this region indicating aging of the CR electron population as they move away from their sources in star-forming regions. Modelling Faraday rotation data shows that we deal with a three-dimensionally curved structure of magnetic fields, becoming almost parallel to the sky plane in the southeastern part of the ridge.

Chy?y, K. T.; Beck, R.

2004-04-01

175

Improving the Magnetic Anomaly Map of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have improved magnetic anomaly map of the United States using National Uranium Reconnaissance & Evaluations (NURE) aeromagnetic surveys collected during the 1970s. Previous versions of these data processed using IGRF/DGRF do not mesh well at the survey boundaries because of leveling artifacts. Similarly, the U.S. component of the North American magnetic anomaly map has long wavelength errors caused by warping of hundreds of state and local aeromagnetic surveys during the merging process. The main difference in our processing that has allowed us to retain proper base levels is the use of the temporally continuous main field Comprehensive Model (CM4) by Sabaka et al. (2004, GJI, 159, 521-547). The advantage of using the NURE surveys is that most of these surveys have time information and diurnal variation observed with basestation magnetometers is removed from them. Furthermore, we have cleaned the NURE data by removing many spurious values through visual inspection. Some NURE surveys did not have total field values or time information. For these surveys, we reintroduced the IGRF for their approximate date and removed the core field determined by CM4. We compare the results of our processing and improvements with the U.S. aeromagnetic anomaly data prepared by different merging techniques. The improved map is more suitable for regional geologic and geodynamic interpretations.

McIndoo, M.; Shaw, A.; Batir, J.; Ravat, D.; Milligan, P.; Kucks, R. P.; Hill, P.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

2007-05-01

176

MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.  

SciTech Connect

Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

2004-10-03

177

Map of metastable states for thin circular magnetic nanocylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomagnetic systems of artificially shaped ferromagnetic islands recently became a popular subject due to their current and potential applications in spintronics [R. P. Cowburn, Nat. Mater. 6, 255 (2007)], magnetophotonics [A. Garcia-Martin, G. Armelles, and S. Pereira Phys. Rev. B 71, 205116 (2005)], and superconductivity. [D. S. Golubovi?, W. V. Pogosov, M. Morelle, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177904 (2004)] When the island size is close to the exchange length of magnetic material (around 15 nm), its magnetic structure becomes markedly different. It determines both static and dynamic magnetic properties of elements, but strongly depends on their shape and size. Here, we map this dependence for circular cylindrical islands of a few exchange lengths in size. We outline the region of metastability of C-type magnetic states, proving that they are indeed genuine and not a result of pinning on particle imperfections. A way to create the smallest particles with guaranteed magnetic vortex state at zero field becomes evident. It is expected that the map will help focus the efforts in planning of experiments and devices.

Metlov, Konstantin L.; Lee, Youngpak

2008-03-01

178

Magnetic fields in neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

Viganò, Daniele

2013-09-01

179

Spherical Cap Harmonic Modeling of the Antarctic Magnetic Anomaly Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP) produced a representation of the Antarctic crustal magnetic anomalies. All the ground, marine and aeromagnetic data collected south of 60°S since the IGY 1957-58 were compiled and reprocessed to produce a regional crustal magnetic anomaly map with a 5-km grid interval. Satellite-altitude crustal anomalies from the CHAMP (400 km) and Ørsted (700 km altitude) missions were also processed and used to fill in regional gaps in the near-surface survey coverage. In this paper, we report on our efforts to develop a Spherical Cap Harmonic (SCH) model of the multi-altitude crustal magnetic observations. The purpose of our work is to produce a regional model that will depict the crustal magnetic anomalies anywhere between the surface and satellite altitude with an accuracy not achieved by global-Earth models. The new SCH model synthesizes almost 50 years of magnetic survey observations to facilitate our future studies of the Antarctic magnetic field.

Gaya-Pique, L. R.; Kim, H.; von Frese, R. R.; Chiappini, M.; Taylor, P. T.; Golynsky, A. V.

2005-05-01

180

Magnetic Maps and Coronal/Solar Wind Modeling: Practices and Pitfalls (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient solar corona and solar wind play a crucial role in solar and heliospheric physics. The Sun's magnetic field is an essential ingredient of any predictive model of the solar wind. It defines the structure of the heliosphere, including the position of the heliospheric current sheet and the regions of fast and slow solar wind. The geoeffectiveness of CMEs is influenced in part by their interaction with the ambient magnetic field, and the field determines where SEPs propagate. To model the global magnetic field of the solar corona, maps of the magnetic field over the entire solar surface must be supplied as boundary conditions. In this talk, we demonstrate how common errors and uncertainties in the field measurements can at times strongly influence the solutions, and we discuss some of the key challenges to improving magnetic maps. Research supported by CISM (NSF), the LWS Strategic Capabilities Program (NASA, NSF, and AFOSR), and Heliophysics Theory Program (NASA).

Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Lionello, R.; Titov, V. S.

2010-12-01

181

Black holes and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact mechanism of formation of highly relativistic jets from galactic nuclei and microquasars remains unknown but most accepted models involve a central black hole and a strong external magnetic field. This idea is based on assumption that the black hole rotates and the magnetic field threads its horizon. Magnetic torques provide a link between the hole and the surrounding plasma which then becomes accelerated. We first review our work on black holes immersed in external stationary vacuum (electro)magnetic fields in both test-field approximation and within exact general-relativistic solutions. A special attention will be paid to the Meissner-type effect of the expulsion of the flux of external axisymmetric stationary fields across rotating (or charged) black holes when they approach extremal states. This is a potential threat to any electromagnetic mechanism launching the jets at the account of black-hole rotation because it inhibits the extraction of black-hole rotational energy. We show that the otherwise very useful "membrane viewpoint of black holes" advocated by Thorne, Price and Macdonald does not represent an adequate formalism in the context of the field expulsion from extreme black holes. After briefly summarizing the results for black holes in magnetic fields in higher dimensions - the expulsion of stationary axisymmetric fields was demonstrated to occur also for extremal black-hole solutions in string theory and Kaluza-Klein theory - we shall review astrophysically relevant axisymmetric numerical simulations reported recently by Gammie, Komissarov, Krolik and others. Although the field expulsion has not yet been observed in these time-dependent simulations, they may still be too far away from the extreme limit at which the black-hole Meissner effect should show up. We mention some open problems which, according to our view, deserve further investigation.

Bi?ák, Ji?í; Karas, Vladimír; Ledvinka, Tomáš

2007-04-01

182

FOREWORD: Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic) magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3), which was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields. This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings of MAP3. Other papers of the proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Tournier and Beaugnon review experimental texturing in metallic melts by cooling in magnetic fields, which is modeled in detail in a study by Tournier. Wang et al provide further experimental results on the solidification of Mn-90.4 wt % Sb alloy in magnetic fields. The orientations of grains and particles induced by magnetic fields is reported by Horii et al (rare-earth-doped cuprates), Tanaka et al (barium-bismuth titanate ceramics), Liu and Schwartz (Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/AgMg wires) and Tsuda and Sakka (carbon nanotubes). Gielen et al present a model of how to quantify a molecular alignment using magnetic birefringence, and Ando et al simulate the movement of feeble particles in magnetic fields. Hirota et al report the experimental control of the lattice constant in a triangular lattice of feeble magnetic particles. The size separation of diamagnetic particles by magnetic fields is experimentally studied by Tarn et al and theoretically studied by Fukui et al. A setup measuring x-ray diffraction patterns in magnetic fields up to 5 T and temperatures above 200 oC has been developed by Mitsui et al. We hope that this focus issue will help readers to understand several aspects of materials analysis and processing in magnetic fields at the frontier of the science.

Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

2009-03-01

183

Simulations of magnetic fields in the cosmos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of large-scale magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies remains controversial. The intergalactic magnetic field within filaments should be less polluted by magnetised outflows from active galaxies than magnetic fields in clusters. Therefore, filaments may be a better laboratory to study magnetic field amplification by structure formation than galaxy clusters, which typically host many more active galaxies. We present

M. Brüggen; M. Hoeft

2006-01-01

184

HMI Magnetic Field Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft will begin observing the solar photospheric magnetic field continuously after commissioning in early 2009. This paper describes the HMI magnetic processing pipeline and the expected data products that will be available. The full disk line-of-sight magnetic field will be available every minute with 1" resolution. Comparable vector measurements collected over a three-minute time interval will ordinarily be averaged for at least 10 minutes before inversion. Useful Quick Look products for forecasting purposes will be available a few minutes after observation. Final products will be computed within 36 hours and made available through the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). Three kinds of magnetic data products have been defined - standard, on-demand, and on-request. Standard products, such as frequently updated synoptic charts, are made all the time on a fixed cadence. On-demand products, such as high cadence full-disk disambiguated vector magnetograms, will be generated whenever a user asks for them. On-request products, such as high-resolution time series of MHD model solutions, will be generated as resources allow. This paper describes the observations, magnetograms, synoptic and synchronic products, and field model calculations that will be produced by the HMI magnetic pipeline.

Hoeksema, J.; Hmi, M. T.

2008-05-01

185

Tunneling in a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Quantum tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field is very sensitive to an analytical form of the potential barrier. Depending on that, the oscillatory structure of the modulus of the wave function can be formed in the direction of tunneling. Due to an underbarrier interference, the probability of tunneling through a higher barrier can be larger than through a lower one. For some barriers the quantum interference of underbarrier cyclotron paths results in a strong enhancement of tunneling. This occurs in the vicinity of the certain magnetic field and is referred to as Euclidean resonance. This strongly contrasts to the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin type tunneling which occurs with no magnetic field.

Ivlev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NanoCenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78000 Mexico

2006-05-15

186

Thermalization in external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the AdS/CFT framework meson thermalization in the presence of a constant external magnetic field in a strongly coupled gauge theory has been studied. In the gravitational description the thermalization of mesons corresponds to the horizon formation on the flavour D7-brane which is embedded in the AdS 5 × S 5 background in the probe limit. The apparent horizon forms due to the time-dependent change in the baryon number chemical potential, the injection of baryons in the gauge theory. We will numerically show that the thermalization happens even faster in the presence of the magnetic field on the probe brane. We observe that this reduction in the thermalization time sustains up to a specific value of the magnetic field.

Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Ebrahim, Hajar

2013-03-01

187

Stellar magnetic fields: observations and nonlinear modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields on a global scale are observed in a wide variety of astrophysical objects, spanning from planets, stars, and accretion disks to galaxies. These magnetic fields are anything but passive, taking part in the dynamics of their hosts, resulting for example in the familiar activity phenomena of the Sun, which also affect life here on the Earth. We have a long time series of temperature mapping and photometry of an active late-type star II Peg. II Peg is known as one of the most active RS Cvn stars representing the Sun at a younger age. We are trying to establish the link between the Sun and the more active rapidly rotating stars and compare the results to the dynamo models of the Sun. Preliminary results show some resemblance to the dynamo solutions.

Lindborg, M.; Korpi, M.; Tuominen, I.; Hackman, T.; Ilyin, I.; Käpylä, P.

2009-12-01

188

Diffusion of Magnetic Field Lines in Astrophysically-Relevant Stochastic Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple analytic model in which the KS-entropy for the exponential divergence of two neighboring field lines of an astrophysically-relevant stochastic magnetic field can be estimated. We treat the problem as a diffusive (random-walk) process describable by a Fokker-Planck equation and approximated by the standard nonlinear map. For Kolmogorov-like turbulence, we find that the field lines exhibit a non-Gaussian (or anomalous) diffusion for weak to moderate turbulence strength, consistent with a recent MHD numerical calculation(Zimbardo, G., et al. (1995), Phys. Plasmas 2), 2653., but in sharp contrast with simple quasilinear predictions. For moderate to strong turbulence, however, both our model and the numerical MHD study support such predictions in that the field lines appear to follow a Gaussian-like diffusion. Brief description of the model as well as implications to transport mechanisms of charged particles across turbulent magnetic fields will be presented.

Barghouty, A. F.; Jokipii, J. R.

1996-05-01

189

Photospheric Magnetic Field: Quiet Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar photosphere is the layer in which the magnetic field has been most reliably and most often measured. Zeeman- and Hanle-effect based probes have revealed many details of a rich variety of structures and dynamic processes, but the number of open and debated questions has remained large. The magnetic field in the quiet Sun has maintained a particularly large number of secrets and has been a topic of a particularly lively debate as new observations and analysis techniques have revealed new and often unexpected aspects of its organization, physical structure and origin.

Solanki, S. K.

2009-06-01

190

Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

Sheeley, N.R., Jr. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

191

Bladder Wall Thickness Mapping for Magnetic Resonance Cystography  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have shown the evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. The clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach.

Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

2013-01-01

192

MIT Phyics 8.02: Vector Fields - Mapping Fields Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation that illustrates the structure of two-dimensional vector fields using the "grass seeds" (or "iron filings") representation. Users enter x and y components for a field, then choose from a variety of field examples: two-point charges, dipole in constant or no field, two-line currents, radiating dipole, and dipole in a field with gradient. The applet will display the chosen field in either a grass seeds electric field or as equipotential lines. For more advanced users, the applet provides functions for yielding polar coordinates. This item is part of a collection of visualizations developed by the MIT TEAL project to supplement an introductory course in calculus-based electricity and magnetism. Lecture notes, labs, and presentations are also available as part of MIT's Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

2010-03-31

193

Magnetic fields in nearby normal galaxies: energy equipartition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present maps of total magnetic field using `equipartition' assumptions for five nearby normal galaxies at sub-kpc spatial resolution. The mean magnetic field is found to be ˜ 11 ?G. The field is strongest near the central regions where mean values are ˜ 20-25 ?G and fall to ˜ 15 ?G in disc and ˜ 10 ?G in the outer parts. There is little variation in the field strength between arm and interarm regions, such that, in the interarms, the field is ?20 per cent weaker than in the arms. There is no indication of variation in magnetic field as one moves along arm or interarm after correcting for the radial variation of magnetic field. We also studied the energy densities in gaseous and ionized phases of the interstellar medium and compared to the energy density in the magnetic field. The energy density in the magnetic field was found to be similar to that of the gas within a factor of ?2 at sub-kpc scales in the arms, and thus magnetic field plays an important role in pressure balance of the interstellar medium. Magnetic field energy density is seen to dominate over the kinetic energy density of gas in the interarm regions and outer parts of the galaxies and thereby helps in maintaining the large-scale ordered fields seen in those regions.

Basu, Aritra; Roy, Subhashis

2013-08-01

194

Flux Transport and the Sun's Global Magnetic Field (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun’s global magnetic field is produced and evolved through the emergence of magnetic flux in active regions and its transport across the solar surface by the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric convective flows of granulation, supergranulation, and giant cell convection. Maps of the global magnetic field serve as the inner boundary condition for space weather. The photospheric magnetic field and its evolution determine the coronal and solar wind structures through which CMEs must propagate and in which solar energetic particles are accelerated and propagate. Producing magnetic maps which best represent the actual field configuration at any instant requires knowing the magnetic field over the observed hemisphere as well as knowing the flows that transport flux. From our Earth-based vantage point we only observe the front-side hemisphere and each pole is observable for only six months of the year at best. Models for the surface magnetic flux transport can be used to provide updates to the magnetic field configuration in those unseen regions. In this presentation I will describe successes and failures of surface flux transport and present new observations on the structure, the solar cycle variability, and the evolution of the flows involved in magnetic flux transport. I find that supergranules play the dominant role due to their strong flow velocities and long lifetimes. Flux is transported by differential rotation and meridional flow only to the extent that the supergranules participate in those two flows.

Hathaway, D. H.

2010-12-01

195

Magnetic Field from Loops Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJSMagnetic Field from Loops model computes the B-field created by an electric current through a straight wire, a closed loop, and a solenoid. Users can adjust the vertical position of the slice through the 3D field. The Magnetic Field from Loops model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ntnu_MagneticFielfFromLoops.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for classical mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-11-17

196

Model of a magnetic field in poloidal divertor tokamaks affected by resonant magnetic perturbations  

SciTech Connect

A generic analytical model for the description of magnetic field lines in poloidal divertor tokamaks in the presence of external resonant magnetic perturbations is proposed. It is based on the Hamiltonian description of magnetic field lines in tokamaks. The safety factor and the spectra of magnetic perturbations are chosen by the requirement to satisfy their generic behavior near the magnetic separatrix and at the magnetic axis. The field line equations of the model are integrated using symplectic efficient mappings of field lines. The analytical formulas for the quasilinear diffusion and convection coefficients of field lines are obtained. The latter describes the outwardly directed transport of field lines at the plasma edge. It was shown that they are in a good agreement with the corresponding numerically calculated coefficients.

Abdullaev, S. S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute of Energy Research IEF-4: Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2009-03-15

197

Magnetic field generation in Galactic molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetic field which is generated by turbulent motions of a weakly ionized gas. Galactic molecular clouds give us an example of such a medium. As in the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model we assume a medium to be homogeneous and a neutral gas velocity field to be isotropic and ? correlated in time. We take into consideration the presence of a mean magnetic field, which defines a preferred direction in space and eliminates isotropy of magnetic field correlators. Evolution equations for the anisotropic correlation function are derived. Isotropic cases with zero mean magnetic field as well as with small mean magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that stationary bounded solutions exist only in the presence of the mean magnetic field for the Kolmogorov neutral gas turbulence. The dependence of the magnetic field fluctuations amplitude on the mean field is calculated. The stationary anisotropic solution for the magnetic turbulence is also obtained for large values of the mean magnetic field.

Istomin, Ya. N.; Kiselev, A.

2013-10-01

198

FIELD CHARACTERIZATION OF XFEL QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotating coil setup for magnetic field characterization and fiducialization of XFEL quadrupole magnets is pre- sented. The instrument allows measurement of the rel- ative position of the magnetic axis with accuracy better than 1 ?m and measurement of weak magnetic error field components. Tests and evaluation based on a FLASH quadrupole magnet are presented together with a discus- sion

A. Hedqvist; H. Danared; F. Hellberg; J. Pfluger

199

EXPLORER 10 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements made by means of Explorer 10 over geocentric ; distances of 1.8 to 42.6R\\/sub e\\/ on March 25experiment on the same satellite are ; referenced in interpretations. The close-in data are consistent with the ; existence of a very weak ring current below 3R\\/sub e\\/ along the trajectory, but ; alternative explanations for the field deviations are

J. P. Heppner; N. F. Ness; C. S. Scearce; T. L. Skillman

1963-01-01

200

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations indicate that jets (i.e., charged particle beams) are emitted from the central black hole sources of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Magnetic fields are produced in e(-)-p or e(-)-e(+)-p jets when electrons (and positrons) are slowed with respect to protons in the jets. Interaction with an ambient interstellar gas or external radiation field can cause such drift velocities. Calculations

William K. Rose

1987-01-01

201

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations indicate that jets are emitted from the central black hole sources of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Magnetic fields are produced in e--p or e--e+-p jets when electrons and positrons are slowed with respect to protons in the jets. Interaction with an ambient interstellar gas or external radiation field can cause such drift velocities. In this paper calculations for

William K. Rose

1987-01-01

202

The somatosensory evoked magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaged magnetoencephalography (MEG) following somatosensory stimulation, somatosensory evoked magnetic field(s) (SEF), in humans are reviewed. The equivalent current dipole(s) (ECD) of the primary and the following middle-latency components of SEF following electrical stimulation within 80–100 ms are estimated in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), the posterior bank of the central sulcus, in the hemisphere contralateral to the

Ryusuke Kakigi; Minoru Hoshiyama; Motoko Shimojo; Daisuke Naka; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Shoko Watanabe; Jing Xiang; Kazuaki Maeda; Khanh Lam; Kazuya Itomi; Akinori Nakamura

2000-01-01

203

Understanding Modern Magnets through Conformal Mapping  

SciTech Connect

When I had to choose, within some narrow range, the topic of this paper, I received great help from a colleague in Berkeley and from Prof. Little when it was suggested that I should pick among the possible subjects of my talk the subject that Prof. Bloch would have enjoyed most. Since Prof. Bloch would prefer a scalpel over a sword every time, I hope and think that most people will approve my choice. When one intends to talk about a subject that is as old as conformal mapping and one does not want to lose the audience in a very short time, it is advisable to start by explaining both the motivation for the talk as well as the goals one has in mind when giving the talk. This particular talk has been motivated by the increasing frequency with which one hears, from people that ought to know better, statements like: 'Conformal mapping is really a thing of the past because of all the marvelous computer programs that we now have'. Even though, or more likely because, I have been intimately involved in the development of some large and widely used computer codes, I am deeply disturbed by such statements since they indicate a severe lack of understanding of the purpose of conformal mapping techniques, computers, and computer codes. In my view, conformal mapping can be an extremely powerful computational technique, and the easy availability of computers has made that aspect even more important now than it has been in the past. Additionally, and more importantly, conformal mapping can give very deep and unique insight into problems, giving often solutions to problems that can not be obtained with any other method, in particular not with computers. Wanting to demonstrate in particular the latter part, I set myself two goals for this talk: (1) I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all. When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw H.Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations (ref. 1). This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to: (2) Show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology. This is followed by a brief summary of the most important properties of functions of a complex variable. When reading this introduction into the relevant mathematics, the reader needs to keep in mind that this is not a mathematics essay, but a demonstration how beautiful and powerful, but not always appreciated, mathematics can be if used by a physicist or engineer to solve some real life problems.

Halbach, K.

1989-10-27

204

The NBS-LANL RTM end-magnet field mapper  

SciTech Connect

A computer-controlled magnetic field mapper is under construction at the National Bureau of Standards to map the end magnets of the NBS-LANL racetrack microtron (RTM). The mapper consists of a large, two-dimensional translation stage which simultaneously positions a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetometer probe in the 55 cm x 135 cm uniform field region and a temperature-compensated Hall effect probe in the fringe field region. A computer-based control system automatically positions the probes at points on a selected grid and records the measured field values and positions in computer memory. In this paper the authors describe the field mapping requirements, the mapper, its operation, and the field measurements and analysis that are to be performed.

Lindstrom, E.R.; Debenham, P.H.; Mohr, D.L.; Yoder, N.R.

1983-08-01

205

Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil have been presented. Also, the design of a self-shielded cylindrical gradient coil with a restricted length has been presented. In order to generate gradient coils adequate for head imaging without including the human shoulders in the design, asymmetric cylindrical coils in which the gradient center is shifted axially towards the end of a finite cylinder have been introduced and theoretical as well as experimental results have been presented. In order to eliminate eddy current effects in the design of the non-shielded asymmetric gradient coils, the self-shielded asymmetric cylindrical gradient coil geometry has been introduced. Continuing the development of novel geometries for the gradient coils, the complete set of self-shielded cylindrical gradient coils, which are designed such that the x component of the magnetic field varies linearly along the three traditional gradient axes, has been presented. In order to understand the behavior of the rf field inside a dielectric object, a mathematical model is briefly presented. Although specific methods can provide an indication of the rf behavior inside a loosely dielectric object, finite element methodology is the ultimate approach for modeling the human torso and generating an accurate picture for the shape of the rf field inside this dielectric object. For this purpose we have developed a 3D finite element model, using the Coulomb gauge condition as a constraint. Agreement with the heterogeneous multilayer planar model has been established, while agreement with theoretical results from the spherical model and experimental results from the cylindrical model at 170 M H z is very good and provides an encouraging sign for using this finite element approach for modeling the rf inside the human body. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Petropoulos, Labros Spiridon

206

Advances in Magnetic Field Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important milestone in the field of magnetic sensors was when AMR sensors started to replace Hall sensors in many applications where the greater sensitivity of AMRs was an advantage. GMR and SDT sensors finally found applications. We also review the development of miniaturization of fluxgate sensors and refer briefly to SQUIDs, resonant sensors, GMIs, and magnetomechanical sensors.

Pavel Ripka; Michal Janosek

2010-01-01

207

Random Field Effect in Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to explore the consequences of random field effects we have carried out a series of neutron scattering experiments on three prototypical diluted Ising magnets. The systems studied are Rb sub 2 Co sub 7 Mg sub 3 F sub 4 which is a model two dimens...

R. J. Birgeneau

1982-01-01

208

Magnetic Field Waves at Uranus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the phy...

C. W. Smith M. L. Goldstein R. P. Lepping W. H. Mish H. K. Wong

1994-01-01

209

LARGE-SCALE KINEMATICS, ASTROCHEMISTRY, AND MAGNETIC FIELD STUDIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS THROUGH HC{sub 3}N, HNC, AND C{sub 2}H MAPPINGS  

SciTech Connect

We have mapped 27 massive star-forming regions associated with water masers using three dense gas tracers: HC{sub 3}N 10-9, HNC 1-0, and C{sub 2}H 1-0. The FWHM sizes of HNC clumps and C{sub 2}H clumps are about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher than those of HC{sub 3}N, respectively, which can be explained by the fact that HC{sub 3}N traces more dense gas than HNC and C{sub 2}H. We found evidence for an increase in the optical depth of C{sub 2}H with a 'radius' from the center to the outer regions in some targets, supporting the chemical model of C{sub 2}H. The C{sub 2}H optical depth is found to decline as molecular clouds evolve to a later stage, suggesting that C{sub 2}H might be used as a 'chemical clock' for molecular clouds. The large-scale kinematic structure of clouds was investigated with three molecular lines. All of these sources show significant velocity gradients. The magnitudes of gradient are found to increase toward the inner region, indicating the differential rotation of clouds. Both the ratio of rotational to gravitational energy and the specific angular momentum seem to decrease toward the inner region, implying the obvious angular momentum transfer, which might be caused by magnetic braking. The average magnetic field strength and number density of molecular clouds is derived using the uniform magnetic sphere model. The derived magnetic field strengths range from 3 to 88 {mu}G, with a median value of 13 {mu}G. The mass-to-flux ratio of the molecular cloud is calculated to be much higher than the critical value with derived parameters, which agrees well with numerical simulations.

Li Juan; Wang Junzhi; Gu Qiusheng; Zheng Xingwu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou RD, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Zhiyu, E-mail: ljuan@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2012-01-20

210

Edge effects on forces and magnetic fields produced by a conductor moving past a magnet  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to further understand the forces acting on magnets moving along and over the edge of a continuous conducting sheet and to produce a comprehensive data set for the validation of analysis methods. Mapping the magnetic field gives information about the eddy currents induced in the conductor, which agrees with numerical calculations.

Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Almer, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rossing, T.D. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

211

Edge effects on forces and magnetic fields produced by a conductor moving past a magnet  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to further understand the forces acting on magnets moving along and over the edge of a continuous conducting sheet and to produce a comprehensive data set for the validation of analysis methods. Mapping the magnetic field gives information about the eddy currents induced in the conductor, which agrees with numerical calculations.

Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Almer, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rossing, T.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)

1992-04-01

212

Crustal magnetization and gradient tensor component maps of the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic gradient tensor component maps for an altitude of 300 m above sea-level have been generated from measurements of the horizontal derivative of the total-field over the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. They are digitized with a sampling interval of 148 m in the east direction and 222 m in the north direction. These maps contain geological

J. Bradley Nelson

1988-01-01

213

A Space Mapping Methodology for Defect Characterization From Magnetic Flux Leakage Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an inversion methodology for defect characterization using the data from magnetic flux leakage (MFL) measurements. We use a single tangential component of the leakage field as the MFL response. The inversion procedure employs the space mapping methodology. Space mapping is an efficient technique that shifts the optimization burden from a computationally expensive accurate (fine) model to a less

Reza K. Amineh; Slawomir Koziel; Natalia K. Nikolova; John W. Bandler; James P. Reilly

2008-01-01

214

Polar plumes' orientation and the Sun's global magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We characterize the orientation of polar plumes as a tracer of the large-scale coronal magnetic field configuration. We monitor in particular the north and south magnetic pole locations and the magnetic opening during 2007-2008 and provide some understanding of the variations in these quantities. Methods: The polar plume orientation is determined by applying the Hough-wavelet transform to a series of EUV images and extracting the key Hough space parameters of the resulting maps. The same procedure is applied to the polar cap field inclination derived from extrapolating magnetograms generated by a surface flux transport model. Results: We observe that the position where the magnetic field is radial (the Sun's magnetic poles) reflects the global organization of magnetic field on the solar surface, and we suggest that this opens the possibility of both detecting flux emergence anywhere on the solar surface (including the far side) and better constraining the reorganization of the corona after flux emergence.

de Patoul, Judith; Inhester, Bernd; Cameron, Robert

2013-10-01

215

NMR imaging in the earth's magnetic field.  

PubMed

The most important and very expensive part of a magnetic resonance imaging set-up is the magnet, which is capable of generating a constant and highly homogeneous magnetic field. Here a new MR imaging technique without the magnet is introduced. This technique uses the earth's magnetic field instead of a magnetic field created by a magnet. This new method has not yet reached the stage of medical application, but the first images obtained by MRIE (magnetic resonance imaging in the earth's field) show that the resolution is close to that expected based on sensitivity estimations. PMID:2233218

Stepisnik, J; Erzen, V; Kos, M

1990-09-01

216

Separation of magnetic field lines  

SciTech Connect

The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-11-15

217

Magnetospheres of accreting compact stars possessing multipole magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetospheres of accreting compact stars (neutron stars and white dwarfs) are examined. It is assumed that the compact star possesses a multipole magnetic field. The shape of the magnetosphere for the two-dimensional analog of spherically symmetric accretion and the magnetic-field configuration for the case of disk accretion are found with the help of conformal mappings. The results of a generalization of the two-dimensional solution to the real three-dimensional case are discussed.

Lipunov, V.M.

1978-11-01

218

Active Region Magnetic Fields. I. Plage Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations taken with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) in active-region plages and study the frequency distribution of the magnetic field strength (B), inclination with respect to vertical ( gamma ), azimuthal orientation ( chi ), and filling factor (f). The most common values at disk center are B = 1400 G, gamma < 10 deg, no preferred east-west orientation, and f = 15%. At disk center, there is a component of weak (<1000 G), more horizontal fields that corresponds to arching field lines connecting footpoints of different polarities. The center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the field strength shows that, close to the limb ( mu = 0.3), the field strength is reduced to 800 G from its disk-center value. This can be interpreted as a gradient of B with height in solar plages of around -3 G km-1. From this CLV study, we also deduce that magnetic field lines remain vertical for the entire range of heights involved. A similar analysis is performed for structures found in active regions that show a continuous distribution of azimuths (resembling sunspots) but that do not have a darkening in continuum. These "azimuth centers" show slightly larger values of B than normal plages, in particular at their magnetic center. Filling factors are also larger on average for these structures. The velocities in the magnetic component of active regions have been studied for both averaged Stokes profiles over the entire active region and for the spatially resolved data. The averaged profiles (more representative of high filling factor regions) do not show any significant mean velocities. However, the spatial average of Doppler velocities derived from the spatially resolved profiles (i.e., unweighted by filling factor) show a net redshift at disk center of 200 m s-1. The spatially resolved velocities show a strong dependence on filling factor. Both mean velocities and standard deviations are reduced when the filling factor increases. This is interpreted as a reduction of the p-mode amplitude within the magnetic component. Strong evidence for velocities transverse to the magnetic field lines has been found. Typical rms values are between 200 and 300 m s-1, depending on the filling factor. The possible importance of these transverse motions for the dynamics of the upper atmospheric layers is discussed. The asymmetries of the Stokes profiles and their CLV have been studied. The averaged Stokes V profiles show amplitude and area asymmetries that are positive at disk center and become negative at the limb. Both asymmetries, and for the two Fe I lines, are maximized away from disk center. The spatially resolved amplitude asymmetries show a clear dependence on filling factor: the larger the filling factor, the smaller the amplitude asymmetry. On the other hand, the area asymmetry is almost independent of the filling factor. The only observed dependence is the existence of negative area-asymmetry profiles at disk center for filling factors smaller than 0.2. Around 20% of the observed points in a given plage have negative area asymmetry. The amplitude asymmetry of Stokes V is, on the other hand, always positive. The amplitude asymmetries of the linear polarization profiles are observed to have the same sign as the Stokes V profiles. Similarly, the same CLV variation of the linear polarization amplitude asymmetries as for Stokes V has been found. The scenarios in which this similarity can exist are studied in some detail.

Martinez Pillet, V.; Lites, B. W.; Skumanich, A.

1997-01-01

219

Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.  

PubMed

This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. PMID:21393794

Nogaret, Alain

2010-06-04

220

Magnetic fields in the cosmos  

SciTech Connect

Although only a small part of available energy in the universe is invested in magnetic fields, they are responsible for most of the continual violent activity in the cosmos. There is a single, generic explanation for the ability of bodies as different as a dense, cold planet and a tenuous hot galactic disk to generate a magnetic field. The explanation, first worked out for the earth, comes from the discipline of magnetohydrodynamics. The cosmos is filled with fluids capable of carrying electric currents. The magnetic fields entrained in these fluids are stretched and folded by the fluid motion, gaining energy in the process. In other words, the turbulent fluids function as dynamos. However, the dynamo mechanism by itself cannot account for the exceptionally strong field of some stars. Because of such gaps in information, the rival hypothesis that there are primordial fields cannot be disproved. The balance of evidence, however, indicates that the planets, sun, most stars and the galaxy function as colossal dynamos. (SC)

Parker, E.N.

1983-08-01

221

Behavior of magnetic liquids in an inhomogeneous magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The authors present experimental results from the investigation of the behavior of certain magnetic liquids differeing in the degree of stability in inhomogenous magnetic fields. The growth of holding presure of sealing step at rest is reviewed and the increase of effective viscosity in inhomogeneous magnetic fields is studied. The behaviors of magnetic liquids in an inhomogeneous magnetic field are sensitive to structural changes caused by the field. Significant differences are demonstrated between magnetic liquids with the same saturation magnetization but different particle size distribution.

Anton, I.; Bika, D.; Potents, I.; Vekash, L.

1986-01-01

222

Mapping the Field of VET Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks critically at partnerships in education and training by presenting a case study of a community-level partnership\\u000a aimed at promoting high school apprenticeships in Ontario Canada. The analysis maps the field of social relations within this\\u000a partnership in order to reveal institutionally-based struggles and their implications for youth training and employment. The\\u000a assumptions within policy that employers are

Alison Taylor

2009-01-01

223

SQUID-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Microtesla Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe studies of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liquid samples at room temperature in microtesla magnetic fields. The nuclear spins are prepolarized in a strong transient field. The magnetic signals generated by the precessing spins, which range in frequency from tens of Hz to several kHz, are detected by a low-transition temperature dc

R. McDermott; N. Kelso; S. K. Lee; M. MöBetale; M. Mück; W. Myers; B. ten Haken; H. C. Seton; A. H. Trabesinger; A. Pines; J. Clarke

2004-01-01

224

Two dimensional frustrated magnets in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frustrated magnets in high magnetic field have a long history of offering beautiful surprises to the patient investigator. Here we present the results of extensive classical Monte Carlo simulations of a variety of models of two dimensional magnets in magnetic field, together with complementary spin wave analysis. Striking results include (i) a massively enhanced magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnets bordering on

L. Seabra; N. Shannon; P. Sindzingre; T. Momoi; B. Schmidt; P. Thalmeier

2009-01-01

225

Small-scale magnetic fields on the lunar surface inferred from plasma sheet electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins of the lunar crustal magnetic fields remain unclear although dozens of magnetic field measurements have been conducted on and above the lunar surface. A major obstacle to resolving this problem is the extreme difficulty of determining a surface distribution of small-scale magnetization. We present a new technique to map small-scale magnetic fields using nonadiabatic scattering of high-energy electrons in the terrestrial plasma sheet. Particle tracing, utilizing three-dimensional lunar magnetic field data synthesized from magnetometer measurements, enables us to separate the contributions to electron motion of small- and large-scale magnetic fields. We map significant kilometer-scale magnetic fields on the southwestern side of the South Pole-Aitken basin that are correlated with larger-scale magnetization. This implies that kilometer-scale magnetization may be ubiquitous over the lunar surface and related to the large-scale magnetization.

Harada, Yuki; Machida, Shinobu; Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Asamura, Kazushi; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Futoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

2013-07-01

226

The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

2009-05-01

227

Geological modeling of the new CHAMP magnetic anomaly maps using a geographical information system technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable global crustal field anomaly maps produced from magnetic measurements of the CHAMP satellite mission now allow for quantitative geological studies of crustal structure and composition. We have developed a GIS based forward modeling technique to model these anomaly maps. On the basis of the geologic and tectonic maps of the world, laboratory susceptibility values of the occurring rock types, and the seismic thickness of the crust, a vertically integrated susceptibility grid is generated in the GIS system. In addition, a remanent magnetization grid is computed for the oceanic crust using a digital isochron map of the ocean floor and rotation models of the paleoplates. Combining the global VIS and remanent magnetization grids, the vertical magnetic field anomaly is computed at satellite altitude and compared with the corresponding CHAMP magnetic anomaly map. Over the oceans, induced and remanent magnetization explains well the prominent observed anomalies over the Cretaceous quiet zones. We also find a good agreement between predicted and observed anomalies over the continents. Remaining discrepancies between the predicted and observed anomalies can be used to adjust poorly known boundaries and the composition of the buried Precambrian provinces, until the recomputed anomalies fit the observed anomalies. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on Greenland, the West African Craton, Bangui in central Africa, and the Kolyma-Omolon Block in Siberia. We conclude that quantitative information on the lateral extent, the composition and the thickness of the lower crust within a Precambrian province can thus be inferred from the new satellite magnetic anomaly maps.

Hemant, K.; Maus, S.

2005-12-01

228

Effects of magnetic field perturbations in the ATF torsatron  

SciTech Connect

The effects of errors in the magnetic fields of tokamaks on the plasma are quite different from those in stellarators. In tokamaks, field errors can cause disruptive locked modes through the non-linear evolution of tearing modes acting on initially small error-induced islands. Scaling predictions for these effects indicate that the critical relative field error which can be tolerated becomes smaller as the tokamak size becomes larger. In stellarators, the effect is more benign, as field errors appear only to cause increased plasma transport in the vicinity of islands. Great care has been taken to minimize magnetic field errors in the most recent generation of stellarator-type magnetic plasma traps. In the past six years, several new and sensitive techniques have been developed to detect and map field errors. These methods all rely on the detection of electrons injected along magnetic field lines. During the commissioning of ATF, flux surfaces were mapped using the fluorescent screen technique. Field errors were discovered and traced to uncompensated dipoles in the helical current feeds. Prior to elimination of these errors, plasma discharges indicated centrally peaked plasma profiles. After correction of the uncompensated dipoles, flux surfaces were mapped a second time, and the island widths were found to be greatly reduced. Field errors were then deliberately introduced using a set of perturbation coils that had been added to ATF, and electron-beam mapping of the flux surfaces showed that islands several centimeters in width could easily be created by these coils. After elimination of the error fields, the measured plasma temperature and density profiles were much broader. The field-perturbation coils were then used to produce magnetic field asymmetries, and the measured plasma profiles were again shown to narrow as a result of islands.

Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Isler, R.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aceto, S.C.; Zielinski, J.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1993-10-01

229

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes both the setup and the use of a system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Earth's magnetic field. Phase instability caused by temporal fluctuations of Earth's field can be successfully improved by using a reference signal from a separate Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer\\/magnetometer. In imaging, it is important to correctly determine the phase

Ales Mohoric; Gorazd Planinsic; Miha Kos; Andrej Duh; Janez Stepisnik

2004-01-01

230

Variations of the magnetic field at CNSC, VA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current work had the goal to map the magnetic field at Claytor Nature Study Center (CNSC) near Bedford, VA. Magnetic ground measurements of the total intensity of the magnetic field were conducted over a period of two years. The data were obtained using a Geometrics G-856 proton precession magnetometer and were interpreted using the Mag2dc algorithm. The magnetometer provides a repeatable absolute total field magnetic reading. It has resolution of 0.1 nanotesla (nT), and accuracy of 0.5 nT. Readings were taken along several survey lines. Magnetic anomalies due to metal fences, buried pipes, well casings, and power lines were eliminated. The Mag2dc algorithm calculates the magnetic anomaly over 2.5 dimensional bodies. Each body can be represented by a polygon with up to 50 sides. The magnetic susceptibility for each body is assumed to be constant. Magnetic anomalies on the order of a few hundred to over a thousand nT were observed. The results were interpolated to obtain a continuous map of the magnetic field at CNSC. )

Gilstrap, Tatiana; Keane, James

2010-02-01

231

Magnetic Field Gradient Waveform Monitoring for Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear magnetic field gradients have played a central role in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) since Fourier Transform MRI was proposed three decades ago. Their primary function is to encode spatial information into MR signals. Magnetic field gradients are also used to sensitize the image contrast to coherent and/or incoherent motion, to selectively enhance an MR signal, and to minimize image artifacts. Modern MR imaging techniques increasingly rely on the implementation of complex gradient waveforms for the manipulation of spin dynamics. However, gradient system infidelities caused by eddy currents, gradient amplifier imperfections and group delays, often result in image artifacts and other errors (e.g., phase and intensity errors). This remains a critical problem for a wide range of MRI techniques on modern commercial systems, but is of particular concern for advanced MRI pulse sequences. Measuring the real magnetic field gradients, i.e., characterizing eddy currents, is critical to addressing and remedying this problem. Gradient measurement and eddy current calibration are therefore a general topic of importance to the science of MRI. The Magnetic Field Gradient Monitor (MFGM) idea was proposed and developed specifically to meet these challenges. The MFGM method is the heart of this thesis. MFGM methods permit a variety of magnetic field gradient problems to be investigated and systematically remedied. Eddy current effects associated with MR compatible metallic pressure vessels were analyzed, simulated, measured and corrected. The appropriate correction of eddy currents may enable most MR/MRI applications with metallic pressure vessels. Quantitative imaging (1D/2D) with model pressure vessels was successfully achieved by combining image reconstruction with MFGM determined gradient waveform behaviour. Other categories of MR applications with metallic vessels, including diffusion measurement and spin echo SPI T2 mapping, cannot be realized solely by MFGM guided image reconstruction. A new 'demand compensation' gradient waveform adjustment method was proposed to address this particular challenge. This idea was verified in this thesis. It should also be noted that, in a general sense, this new waveform compensation method will potentially provide a novel solution to a variety of gradient related problems in MRI.

Han, Hui

232

Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

1999-06-24

233

A Bayesian View on Faraday Rotation Maps -- Seeing the Magnetic Power Spectrum in Clusters of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are an important ingredient of galaxy clusters and are indirectly observed on cluster scales as radio haloes and radio relics. One promising method to shed light on the properties of cluster wide magnetic fields is the analysis of Faraday rotation maps of extended extragalactic radio sources. We developed a Fourier analysis for such Faraday rotation maps in order to determine the magnetic power spectra of cluster fields. In an advanced step, here we apply a Bayesian maximum likelihood method to the RM map of the north lobe of Hydra A on the basis of our Fourier analysis and derive the power spectrum of the cluster magnetic field. For Hydra A, we measure a spectral index of -5/3 over at least one order of magnitude implying Kolmogorov type turbulence. We find a dominant scale of about 3 kpc on which the magnetic power is concentrated, since the magnetic autocorrelation length is ?_B = 3 ± 0.5 kpc. Furthermore, we investigate the influences of the assumption about the sampling volume (described by a window function) on the magnetic power spectrum. The central magnetic field strength was determined to be ˜ 7 ± 2 ?G for the most likely geometries.

Vogt, Corina; Enßlin, Torsten A.

2004-12-01

234

The Galactic halo magnetic field revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Sun et al. published new Galactic 3D-models of magnetic fields in the disk and halo of the Milky Way and the distribution of cosmic-ray electron density by taking into account the thermal electron density model NE2001 by Cordes & Lazio. The models successfully reproduce observed continuum and polarization all-sky maps and the distribution of rotation measures of extragalactic sources across the sky. However, the model parameters obtained for the Galactic halo, although reproducing the observations, seem physically unreasonable: the magnetic field needs to be significantly stronger in the Galactic halo than in the plane and the cosmic-ray distribution must be truncated at about 1 kpc to avoid excessive synchrotron emission from the halo. The reason for these unrealistic parameters was the low scale-height of the warm thermal gas of about 1 kpc adopted in the NE2001 model. However, this scale-height seemed reasonable and was well studied by numerous investigations. Recently, the scale-height of the warm gas in the Galaxy was revised by Gaensler et al. to about 1.8 kpc, by showing that the 1 kpc scale-height results from a systematic bias in the analysis of pulsar data. This implies a higher thermal electron density in the Galactic halo, which in turn reduces the halo magnetic field strength to account for the observed rotation measures of extragalactic sources. We slightly modified the NE2001 model according to the new scale-height and revised the Sun et al. model parameters accordingly: the strength of the regular halo magnetic field is now 2 ?G or lower, and the physically unrealistic cutoff in z for the cosmic-ray electron density is removed. The simulations based on the revised 3D-models reproduce all-sky observations as before.

Sun, Xiao-Hui; Reich, Wolfgang

2010-12-01

235

Luminescence in applied magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal complexes and solids were synthesized and subjected to photoexcitation measurements under the influence of externally applied magnetic fields. The photoluminescence of complexes of rhodium (I) and iridium (I) displayed both field induced emission bands and a many fold shortening of the excited state lifetime. Both the decay rates and the induced emission band intensities showed a quadratic dependence on the applied field. A several fold shortening of the phosphorescence from the octaphosphitoplatinum (II) anion under an applied field (50 T) was also observed. Spectroscopic studies of several bis (N-heterocyclic) complexes of copper (I) were also concluded and complete group theoretic assignments of the charge transfer excited states were made. The technique of Thermal Modulation was perfected and applied to the study of the exited states of transition metal complexes with near degenerate emitting states.

Crosby, G. A.

1989-08-01

236

Simulations of Photospheric Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have run plots of artificial data, which mimic solar magnetograms, through standard algorithms to critique several results reported in the literature. In studying correlation algorithms, we show that the differences in the profiles for the differential rotation of the photospheric magnetic field stem from different methods of averaging. We verify that the lifetimes of small magnetic features, or of small patterns of these features in the large-scale background field, are on the order of months, rather than a few days. We also show that a meridional flow which is cycle dependent creates an artifact in the correlation-determined magnetic rotation which looks like a torsional oscillation; and we compare this artifact to the torsional patterns that have been reported. Finally, we simulate the time development of a large-scale background field created solely from an input of artifical, finite-lifetime 'sunspot' bipoles. In this simulation, we separately examine the effects of differential rotation, meridional flow and Brownian motion (random walk, which we use rather than diffusion), and the inclination angles of the sunspot bipoles (Joy's law). We find, concurring with surface transport equation models, that a critical factor for producing the patterns seen on the Sun is the inclination angle of the bipolar active regions. This work was supported by NSF grant 9416999.

Smith, A. A.; Snodgrass, H. B.

1999-05-01

237

Detection of brain magnetic fields with an atomic magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detection of magnetic fields generated by evoked brain activity with an atomic magnetometer. The measurements are performed with a high-density potassium magnetometer operating in a spin-exchange relaxation free regime. Compared to SQUID magnetometers which so far have been the only detectors capable of measuring the magnetic fields from the brain, atomic magnetometers have the advantages of higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, simple multi-channel recording, and no need for cryogenics. Using a multi-channel photodetector array we recorded magnetic fields from the brain correlated with an audio tone administered with a non-magnetic earphone. The spatial map of the magnetic field gives information about the location of the brain region responding to the auditory stimulation. Our results demonstrate the atomic magnetometer as an alternative and low cost technique for brain imaging applications, without using cryogenic apparatus.

Xia, Hui; Hoffman, Dan; Baranga, Andrei; Romalis, Michael

2006-05-01

238

Mapping Geomagnetic Field Variations With Unmanned Airborne Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used for a variety of commercial and research applications. The small (wingspan ~3 meters), fully autonomous aircraft are well suited for use in remote areas or dangerous settings. UAVs that are launched and recovered on land are being used for atmospheric chemistry and surface imaging studies and for aeromagnetic surveys [Curry et al., 2004; Ramanathan et al., 2007; Funaki et al., 2007]. We report here on the first deployment of UAVs launched from a marine research vessel. The UAVs mapped fluctuations in the magnetic field in a remote area of the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

Gee, Jeffrey S.; Cande, Steven C.; Kent, Dennis V.; Partner, Richard; Heckman, Kate

2008-05-01

239

Analyzing and Modeling the Magnetic Field of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently Mars possesses no intrinsic magnetic field; rather its crust exhibits strong remanent magnetization primarily in the Southern Highlands. The deficiency of magnetization surrounding volcanic provinces and impact basins on Mars is attributed to evidence suggesting that the crust gained its magnetic remanence early on via an internal dynamo. This dynamo is believed to have become extinct by the time of the last major impacts. Measurements taken by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) have been used to create a new map of Mars' crustal magnetic field. We present an analysis of these data in conjunction with topographical data taken from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) to determine if magnetization in Mars' southern regions correlates with surface features displayed on topographic maps. MGS and MOLA data were used to identify and study a region of intense magnetic field beneath a 1500 km section of an impact basin in the western hemisphere of the Southern Highlands. In conjunction with the development of models and intensity plots for the radial component of this field, analysis of the possible shape, configuration and composition of the magnetic material beneath the crater was performed. Our models showed that the magnetic signature beneath the impact basin was produced by two adjacent blocks of magnetic material within the Martian crust. We found that the blocks were most likely rectangular in shape and were relatively closely spaced. They also possessed properties similar to those of stainless steel permanent magnets with magnetization directions of -90 degrees, and -45 degrees, respectively. The results of this research will contribute to future studies of Mars, specifically of its present magnetic state, magnetic history, and impact record. This research was made possible via funding from the North Carolina Space Grant Consortium.

Quick, L. C.; Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.

2005-12-01

240

Field Concentrator Based Resonant Magnetic Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel resonant magnetic sensor based on the combination of a mechanical resonator and a magnetic field concentrator with two gaps is reported. In contrast to previous Lorentz force based resonant magnetic sensors, a high sensitivity is achieved without modulated driving current and complex feedback electronics. Furthermore, compared to magnetic moment based resonant magnetic sensors, the new concept requires no

S. Brugger; P. Simon; O. Paul

2006-01-01

241

Color Superconducting Matter in a Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on cold dense quark matter using an effective model with four-Fermi interactions. We find that the gap parameters representing the predominant pairing between the different quark flavors show oscillatory behavior as a function of the magnetic field. We point out that due to electric and color neutrality constraints the magnetic fields as strong as presumably existing inside magnetars might induce significant deviations from the gap structure at a zero magnetic field.

Fukushima, Kenji [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Warringa, Harmen J. [Department of Physics, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2008-01-25

242

Magnetic-field-dependent excitation transfer in quantum wells of diluted magnetic semiconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the excitation transfer in double quantum wells of a diluted magnetic semiconductor using a scanning near-field optical microscope at 7 K in external magnetic fields up to 9 T. In each quantum well, local energy minima are generated by local fluctuation of layer thickness and doping concentration of magnetic components. Excitons relax into the local energy minima and transfer between the minima via near-field optical interactions even across quantum wells toward stable sites at which to localize. We measured the intensity maps of near-field photoluminescence with spatial resolution estimated to be 30 nm under varying external magnetic fields. The measurement position reproducibility was confirmed by scanning tunneling microscope images. Analysis of the maps derived the magnetic-field dependence of the typical size of exciton-localization sites for each quantum well. Based on these results, we investigated the excitation transfer between the two quantum wells lying in different layers of the double quantum well system, and showed that the exciton transfer takes place at the two specific applied magnetic-field intensities that result in the crossing of Zeeman-split energy levels of the two different wells. We concluded that both the localization and the inter-quantum-well transfer of excitons are able to be controlled by an external magnetic field. This provides the basis for functional devices operating without any wiring.

Uchiyama, K.; Kubota, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Hori, H.

2013-10-01

243

Numerical Simulation In Magnetic Drug Targeting. Magnetic Field Source Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents numerical simulation model and results on magnetic drug targeting therapy. The study aims at investigating\\u000a the aggregate blood - magnetic carrier flow interaction with an external magnetic field. Another objective was finding the\\u000a optimal magnetic field source configuration that provides for flows that best assist in magnetic drug targeting. In order\\u000a to evaluate the effects we used

A. Dobre; A. M. Morega

244

Magnetic field gradient measurement on magnetic cards using magnetic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field gradients of magnetic stripe cards, which are developed for classifying magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspections, have been measured using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The magnetic force exerted on a MFM probe by the stray field emanating from the card was measured to determine the field gradients. The results are in good agreement with the field gradients estimated from the magnetizing field strengths used in the encoding process. .

Lo, C. C. H.; Leib, J.; Jiles, D. C.; Chedister, W. C.

2002-05-01

245

Magnetic fields in the early Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review concerns the origin and the possible effects of magnetic fields in the early Universe. We start by providing the reader with a short overview of the current state of the art of observations of cosmic magnetic fields. We then illustrate the arguments in favor of a primordial origin of magnetic fields in the galaxies and in the clusters

Dario Grasso; Hector R. Rubinstein

2001-01-01

246

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data  

SciTech Connect

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2010-10-15

247

Penetration of plasma across a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility to investigate the plasma penetration across an externally applied magnetic field. In experiment, a short-pulse laser ablates a polyethylene laser target, producing a plasma which interacts with an external magnetic field. The mechanism which allows the plasma to penetrate the applied magnetic field in experiment will be discussed.

Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Neff, S.; Haboub, A.

2009-08-01

248

Magnetic field reversals in the Milky Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies have tremendously enhanced our knowledge of their global magnetic field distributions. Recent theoretical developments in the area of dynamos have also helped in the interpretation of magnetic field data in spiral galaxies. When it comes to the magnetic field in the Milky Way galaxy, our position in the Milky Way's galactic disk hinders our

J. P. Vallee

1996-01-01

249

Transmission line magnetic fields; Measurements and calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent controversy over 60 Hz magnetic fields has heightened public awareness of overhead transmission lines. As a result, there is increasing motivation to study the magnetic fields form transmission lines. The most cost effective means to conduct research into transmission line magnetic fields is with computer or reduced-scale line models. However, from the standpoint of public perception and acceptance, it

B. A. Clairmont; G. B. Johnson; J. H. Dunlap

1992-01-01

250

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina; Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Ratra, Bharat

2010-10-01

251

Adaptive Gaussian Markov random fields with applications in human brain mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging has become a standard technology in human brain mapping. Analyses of the massive spatiotemporal functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets often focus on parametric or non-parametric modelling of the temporal component, whereas spatial smoothing is based on Gaussian kernels or random fields. A weakness of Gaussian spatial smoothing is underestimation of activation peaks or blurring of

A. Brezger; L. Fahrmeir; A. Hennerfeind

2007-01-01

252

Evolution of normal pulsar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results and new progress of the origin and evolution of pulsar magnetic fields are reviewed. Lots of models about how such strong magnetic fields were generated, mainly two kinds of structures were proposed for initial magnetic fields: fields confined in the cores and fields confined in the crusts of neutron stars. No consensus has been reached on whether the magnetic fields decay or not, despite some observational evidence for the evolution of magnetic fields. The discrepancy between characteristic ages and kinematic ages indicates that the magnetic fields decay exponentially. On the other hand, the braking indices of several young pulsars and the comparison between pulsar characteristic ages and the ages of associated supernova remnants suggest that the magnetic fields of young pulsars grow like a power-law. Pulsar population synthesis is one of the most important methods to investigate the evolution of magnetic fields. Many simulations show that if magnetic fields do decay exponentially, the e-folding decay time should be 100 Myr or longer. The numerical calculations of the Ohmic decay in the crust indicate that the scenario of exponential decay is oversimple, and the evolution could be divided into four possible phases approximately: exponential decay, no decay, power-law decay and exponential decay again. The model of magnetic fields expulsion induced by spin-down suggests that the magnetic fields decay only in a period between 107yr and 108yr.

Sun, Xiaohui; Han, Jinlin

2002-06-01

253

Crustal Magnetic Fields of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field measurements are very valuable, as they provide constraints on the interior of the telluric planets and Moon. The Earth possesses a planetary scale magnetic field, generated in the conductive and convective outer core. This global magnetic field is superimposed on the magnetic field generated by the rocks of the crust, of induced (i.e. aligned on the current main field) or remanent (i.e. aligned on the past magnetic field). The crustal magnetic field on the Earth is very small scale, reflecting the processes (internal or external) that shaped the Earth. At spacecraft altitude, it reaches an amplitude of about 20 nT. Mars, on the contrary, lacks today a magnetic field of core origin. Instead, there is only a remanent magnetic field, which is one to two orders of magnitude larger than the terrestrial one at spacecraft altitude. The heterogeneous distribution of the Martian magnetic anomalies reflects the processes that built the Martian crust, dominated by igneous and cratering processes. These latter processes seem to be the driving ones in building the lunar magnetic field. As Mars, the Moon has no core-generated magnetic field. Crustal magnetic features are very weak, reaching only 30 nT at 30-km altitude. Their distribution is heterogeneous too, but the most intense anomalies are located at the antipodes of the largest impact basins. The picture is completed with Mercury, which seems to possess an Earth-like, global magnetic field, which however is weaker than expected. Magnetic exploration of Mercury is underway, and will possibly allow the Hermean crustal field to be characterized. This paper presents recent advances in our understanding and interpretation of the crustal magnetic field of the telluric planets and Moon.

Langlais, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Purucker, Michael E.; Connerney, Jack E. P.; Mandea, Mioara

2010-05-01

254

Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for pulsed high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields is described. The magnetic field pulses created together with various magnet coils determine the requirements such an apparatus has to fulfill to be operated successfully in pulsed fields. Independent of the chosen coil it is desirable to operate the entire experiment at the highest possible bandwidth such that a correspondingly large temporal fraction of the magnetic field pulse can be used to probe a given sample. Our apparatus offers a bandwidth of up to 20 MHz and has been tested successfully at the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden, even in a very fast dual coil magnet that has produced a peak field of 94.2 T. Using a medium-sized single coil with a significantly slower dependence, it is possible to perform advanced multi-pulse nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. As an example we discuss a Carr-Purcell spin echo sequence at a field of 62 T.

Meier, Benno; Kohlrautz, Jonas; Haase, Jürgen; Braun, Marco; Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Kampert, Erik; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Wosnitza, Joachim

2012-08-01

255

FREQUENCY FILTERING OF TORSIONAL ALFVEN WAVES BY CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, we demonstrate how the observation of broadband frequency propagating torsional Alfven waves in chromospheric magnetic flux tubes can provide valuable insight into their magnetic field structure. By implementing a full nonlinear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation with a realistic vortex driver, we demonstrate how the plasma structure of chromospheric magnetic flux tubes can act as a spatially dependent frequency filter for torsional Alfven waves. Importantly, for solar magnetoseismology applications, this frequency filtering is found to be strongly dependent on magnetic field structure. With reference to an observational case study of propagating torsional Alfven waves using spectroscopic data from the Swedish Solar Telescope, we demonstrate how the observed two-dimensional spatial distribution of maximum power Fourier frequency shows a strong correlation with our forward model. This opens the possibility of beginning an era of chromospheric magnetoseismology, to complement the more traditional methods of mapping the magnetic field structure of the solar chromosphere.

Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Verth, G. [School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2011-10-20

256

Near Field Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots Under Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the basic steps for the study of the linear near field absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots under magnetic field of variable orientation. We show that the application of the magnetic field alone is sufficient to induce -increasing the spot illuminated by the near field probe- interesting features to the absorption spectra.

Anna Zora; Constantinos Simserides; Georgios Triberis

2005-01-01

257

Near Field Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots Under Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the basic steps for the study of the linear near field absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots under magnetic field of variable orientation. We show that the application of the magnetic field alone is sufficient to induce -increasing the spot illuminated by the near field probe- interesting features to the absorption spectra.

Anna Zora; Constantinos Simserides; Georgios Triberis

2004-01-01

258

Insight Into Lunar Crustal Magnetization by Joint Analysis of Gravity and Magnetic Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most important clues to understanding the early geologic evolution of a planet is the pattern of crustal remanent magnetization. We study the processes that magnetized the lunar crust by applying a method that has already been used to study the magnetized crust of Mars. The approach involves a least squares inversion of both the gravity and magnetic field data sets and a joint analysis of the results. The use of multiple data sets reduces the inherent non-uniqueness of the inversions. The density and magnetization distributions and their correlation together with geologic and topographic data are used to infer the processes that modified the crust, e.g., magnetization or demagnetization by crustal processes. The principal concentrations of magnetic field anomalies with the strongest magnitudes are on the far side of the Moon antipodal to the Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, and Orientale impact basins. Isolated near side magnetic anomalies have been mapped at Reiner Gamma, Rima Sirsalis, and the craters Descartes and Airy. Richmond and Hood (2008) have mapped previously unidentified magnetic anomalies near the craters Abel, Hartwig and Stöfler, inside the Crisium and Moscoviense basins, and near the Snellius and Rheito crater chains. Proposed sources of the lunar crustal magnetization include the solar wind magnetic field, the geomagnetic field, transient magnetic fields produced by impacts, and a lunar dynamo. Many of the magnetic anomalies have geologic and/or albedo features, that may be related to the magnetization mechanism. Analyses of the magnetic anomalies at Mare Crisium and Mare Moscoviense may provide insight into the possible existence of a former core dynamo if the anomalies within the basins are produced by crustal thermoremanent magnetization. The furrowed terrane at Mare Crisium and the albedo feature at Mare Moscoviense have been proposed to be due to seismic effects or ejecta materials from the Orientale and Humorum impacts, respectively. It is possible that the processes that formed these features may also have magnetized the crustal rocks. Abel crater is interesting because an albedo feature has not been mapped in this region and it would therefore provide a test of the association between albedo and magnetization. We will discuss the reults of the gravity and magnetic analyses of the above features.

Milbury, C.; Schubert, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2008-12-01

259

Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

1986-05-01

260

The global magnetic field of Mercury from MESSENGER orbital observations.  

PubMed

Magnetometer data acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit about Mercury permit the separation of internal and external magnetic field contributions. The global planetary field is represented as a southward-directed, spin-aligned, offset dipole centered on the spin axis. Positions where the cylindrical radial magnetic field component vanishes were used to map the magnetic equator and reveal an offset of 484 ± 11 kilometers northward of the geographic equator. The magnetic axis is tilted by less than 3° from the rotation axis. A magnetopause and tail-current model was defined by using 332 magnetopause crossing locations. Residuals of the net external and offset-dipole fields from observations north of 30°N yield a best-fit planetary moment of 195 ± 10 nanotesla-R(M)(3), where R(M) is Mercury's mean radius. PMID:21960627

Anderson, Brian J; Johnson, Catherine L; Korth, Haje; Purucker, Michael E; Winslow, Reka M; Slavin, James A; Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

2011-09-30

261

Symplectic scaling of transfer maps including fringe fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is introduced that provides an accurate and fast approximation of high-order maps of fringe fields and other fields that change along the reference trajectory. While the effects of main fields of optical elements can be determined very efficiently with differential algebraic (DA) methods via exponentiation of the respective propagator, the computation of high-order maps of nonstationary fields in

Georg Heinz Hoffstätter; Martin Berz

1996-01-01

262

Magnetic field seeding by galactic winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of intergalactic magnetic fields is still a mystery and several scenarios have been proposed so far: among them, primordial phase transitions, structure-formation shocks and galactic outflows. In this work, we investigate how efficiently galactic winds can provide an intense and widespread `seed' magnetization. This may be used to explain the magnetic fields observed today in clusters of galaxies

Serena Bertone; Corina Vogt; Torsten Enßlin

2006-01-01

263

Invited Safety of Strong, Static Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues associated with the exposure of patients to strong, static magnetic fields during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed and discussed. The history of human exposure to magnetic fields is reviewed, and the contra- dictory nature of the literature regarding effects on human health is described. In the absence of ferromagnetic for- eign bodies, there is no replicated scientific study

John F. Schenck

2000-01-01

264

Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z~3,

Steven R. Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2001-01-01

265

Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m

K. T. Chyzy; M. Wezgowiec; R. Beck; D. J. Bomans

2011-01-01

266

Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

2011-01-01

267

Baking a magnetic-field display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copy machine developer powder is an alternative for creating permanent displays of magnetic fields. A thin layer of developer powder on a sheet of paper placed over a magnet can be baked in the oven, producing a lasting image of a magnetic field.

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1998-02-01

268

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In…

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

269

Cluster magnetic fields from galactic outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed cosmological, magnetohydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields is galactic outflows during the starburst phase of galactic evolution. To do this, we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by Bertone, Vogt & Enßlin to our cosmological simulation. We

J. Donnert; K. Dolag; H. Lesch; E. Müller

2009-01-01

270

Sub arcsec evolution of solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: .The evolution of the concentrated magnetic field in flux tubes is one challenge of the nowadays Solar physics which requires time sequence with high spatial resolution. Aims: .Our objective is to follow the properties of the magnetic concentrations during their life, in intensity (continuum and line core), magnetic field and Doppler velocity. Methods: .We have observed solar region NOAA

Th. Roudier; J. M. Malherbe; J. Moity; S. Rondi; P. Mein; Ch. Coutard

2006-01-01

271

Magnetic field effects on the motion of circumplanetary dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypervelocity impacts on satellites or ring particles replenish circumplanetary dusty rings with grains of all sizes. Due to interactions with the plasma environment and sunlight, these grains become electrically charged. We study the motion of charged dust grains launched at the Kepler orbital speed, under the combined effects of gravity and the electromagnetic force. We conduct numerical simulations of dust grain trajectories, covering a broad range of launch distances from the planetary surface to beyond synchronous orbit, and the full range of charge-to-mass ratios from ions to rocks, with both positive and negative electric potentials. Initially, we assume that dust grains have a constant electric potential, and, treating the spinning planetary magnetic field as an aligned and centered dipole, we map regions of radial instability (positive grains only), where dust grains are driven to escape or collide with the planet at high speed, and vertical instability (both positive and negative charges) whereby grains launched near the equatorial plane and are forced up magnetic field lines to high latitudes, where they may collide with the planet. We derive analytical criteria for local stability in the equatorial plane, and solve for the boundaries between all unstable and stable outcomes. Comparing our analytical solutions to our numerical simulations, we develop an extensive model for the radial, vertical and azimuthal motions of dust grains of arbitrary size and launch location. We test these solutions at Jupiter and Saturn, both of whose magnetic fields are reasonably well represented by aligned dipoles, as well as at the Earth, whose magnetic field is close to an anti-aligned dipole. We then evaluate the robustness of our stability boundaries to more general conditions. Firstly, we examine the effects of non-zero launch speeds, of up to 0.5 km s?1, in the frame of the parent body. Although these only weakly affect stability boundaries, we find that the influence of a launch impulse on stability boundaries strongly depends on its direction. Secondly, we focus on the effects of higher-order magnetic field components on orbital stability. We find that vertical stability boundaries are particularly sensitive to a moderate vertical offset in an aligned dipolar magnetic field. This configuration suffices as a model for Saturn's full magnetic field. The vertical instability also expands to cover a wider range of launch distances in slightly tilted magnetic dipoles, like the magnetic field configurations for Earth and Jupiter. By contrast, our radial stability criteria remain largely unaffected by both dipolar tilts and vertical offsets. Nevertheless, a tilted dipole magnetic field model introduces non-axisymmetric forces on orbiting dust grains, which are exacerbated by the inclusion of other higher-order magnetic field components, including the quadrupolar and octupolar terms. Dust grains whose orbital periods are commensurate with the spatial periodicities of a rotating non-axisymmetric magnetic field experience destabilizing Lorentz resonances. These have been studied by other authors for the largest dust grains moving on perturbed Keplerian ellipses. With Jupiter's full magnetic field as our model, we extend the concept of Lorentz resonances to smaller dust grains and find that these can destabilize trajectories on surprisingly short timescales, and even cause negatively-charged dust grains to escape within weeks. We provide detailed numerically-derived stability maps highlighting the destabilizing effects of specific higher-order terms in Jupiter's magnetic field, and we develop analytical solutions for the radial locations of these resonances for all charge-to-mass ratios. We include stability maps for the full magnetic field configurations of Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, to compare with our analytics. We further provide numerically-derived stability maps for the tortured magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune. Relaxing the assumption of constant electric charges on dust, we test the effects of time-variable grain charg

Jontof-Hutter, Daniel Simon

272

Unpaired Floquet Majorana fermions without magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum wires subject to the combined action of spin-orbit and Zeeman coupling in the presence of s-wave pairing potentials (superconducting proximity effect in semiconductors or superfluidity in cold atoms) are one of the most promising systems for the developing of topological phases hosting Majorana fermions. The breaking of time-reversal symmetry is essential for the appearance of unpaired Majorana fermions. By implementing a time-dependent spin rotation, we show that the standard magnetostatic model maps into a nonmagnetic one where the breaking of time-reversal symmetry is guaranteed by a periodical change of the spin-orbit coupling axis as a function of time. This suggests the possibility of developing the topological superconducting state of matter driven by external forces in the absence of magnetic fields and magnetic elements. From a practical viewpoint, the scheme avoids the disadvantages of conjugating magnetism and superconductivity, even though the need of a high-frequency driving of spin-orbit coupling may represent a technological challenge. We describe the basic properties of this Floquet system by showing that finite samples host unpaired Majorana fermions at their edges despite the fact that the bulk Floquet quasienergies are gapless and that the Hamiltonian at each instant of time preserves time-reversal symmetry. Remarkably, we identify the mean energy of the Floquet states as a topological indicator. We additionally show that the localized Floquet Majorana fermions are robust under local perturbations. Our results are supported by complementary numerical Floquet simulations.

Reynoso, Andres A.; Frustaglia, Diego

2013-03-01

273

COORDINATES FOR MAPPING THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETICALLY TRAPPED PARTICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipole representations of the earth's magnetic field have insufficient ; accuracy for the study of magnetically trapped particles. A coordinate system ; consisting of the magnitude of the magnetic field B and the integral invariant I ; was organized adequately, measurements made at different geographic locations. A ; parameter L = f(B,I) is defined that retains most of the desirable

Carl E. McIlwain

1961-01-01

274

Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Marysvale detail survey, Richfield National Topographic Map sheet, Utah. Volume IV. Graphic data maps. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of the analyses of a systematic airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic survey for the area identified as Marysvale, located in southwestern Utah, is presented in Volumes I-IV of this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the equivalent uranium, thorium and potassium gamma radiation intensities, the ratios of these intensities, the total gamma radiation counting rate and the earth's residual magnetic field intensity. Profile plots of the aircraft's altitude above the earth's surface, the ambient temperature and pressure, and the magnetic field data measured by a base station magnetometer is presented also. An evaluation of the distribution of the radiometric data in terms of its established geochemical map units, which were derived via geochemical analysis methods, for the entire survey area has been prepared and is included. The determination of the geochemical units presented has been established principally from the analysis of the radiometric and magnetic contour maps and, more importantly, the multi-variate analysis map. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic and geochemical units, is included within the text. Volume IV contains the following maps at a scale of 1:62,500/sup 0/; flight line base maps; radiometric and magnetic contour maps; multi-variate analysis maps; geochemical analysis maps; geochemical composite maps.

Not Available

1982-01-01

275

Rotating magnetic beacons magnetic field strength size in SAGD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotation magnetic beacons magnetic field strength is very important to drill parallel horizontal twin wells in steam assisted\\u000a gravity drainage (SAGD). This paper analyzes a small magnet with a diameter of 25.4 mm. At each end, there is a length of\\u000a 12.6 mm with permanent magnet, and in the middle, there is a length of 78mm with magnetic materials. The

Bing Tu; Desheng Li; Enhuai Lin; Bin Luo; Jian He; Lezhi Ye; Jiliang Liu; Yuezhong Wang

2010-01-01

276

Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic anomaly map of the Arctic (to 60 degrees N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international effort to compile Circum-Arctic geophysical and bedrock data has been conducted by several national agencies (Russia-VSEGEI and VNIIO, Sweden-SGU, Finland-GTK, Denmark-GEUS, USA-USGS, Canada-GSC, Germany-BGR and Norway-NGU) since 2005. This project aims to produce an atlas that will comprise geological and geophysical digital maps at a scale of 1: 5 million scale for the Arctic region limited by the 60 degree North latitude. New published and classified magnetic anomaly gridded data from each participant group were gathered and converted to a common datum (WGS84) and format. The Greenland region magnetic anomaly grid (Verhoef et al., 1996) has been updated with new aeromagnetic surveys performed in West Greenland between 1992-2001 (Rasmussen, 2002), and in the Nares Strait area (Damaske & Oakey, 2006; Oakey & Damaske, 2006). The oceanic area east of Greenland (NE Atlantic) contains most of the aeromagnetic data used in the Verhoef et al., (1996)'s compilation (pre-1990) plus new aeromagnetic surveys over offshore Norway collected up to 2007 (Olesen et al., 1997; Olesen et al., 2007; Gernigon et al., 2008). The gridded data has been upward continued to 1 km above ground or sea-level and trimmed around the areas of major overlaps. The Alaska USGS aeromagnetic compilation has been used as the "master grid" for merging the major gridded data sets together and the downward continued lithospheric magnetic field model MF6 derived from satellite data (Maus et al., 2008) has been used as a regional reference surface. We have used a blending function over the area of overlap in order to smooth the transition from one grid to the other (GridKnit, GEOSOFT). The resulting grid has been re-sampled to a 2 km grid cell. In order to construct the final Circum-Arctic magnetic anomaly grid (CAMP-M) we have adopted the approach used by several research groups for compiling the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) and used near-surface magnetic data for the short wavelength component of the compilation and the satellite derived magnetic anomalies for the long wavelength (Hemant et al., 2007; Maus et al., 2007). MF6 extends to spherical harmonics degree 120 (333 km wavelength) and therefore it is able to provide consistent long wavelength information between 300 and 400 km. This information is mainly related to regional deeper and/or thicker portions of the magnetic sources within the crust. We have prepared two versions for the CAMP-M magnetic anomaly grid. The first one combines short wavelength components of regional grids (less than 400 km) with long wavelengths (400 km) of the MF6 model. The second one combines short wavelengths of regional datasets (obtained by filtering with a cosine squared taper to remove the wavelengths in the waveband between 307 and 333 km and larger, with the MF6 model (to degree 120). We have selected Model 1 as the new Circum-Arctic Magnetic Anomaly Map.

Gaina, Carmen

2010-05-01

277

Mapping the molecular axes of pentacene-d14 doped in p-terphenyl single crystal using pulsed EPR technique in near zero magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using computer controlled three-dimensional (3D) near-zero fields (NZF, 0-1.5 mT) have previously been reported. This paper reports on a comprehensive NZF pulsed EPR study of pentacene-d14 doped in p-terphenyl (PDPT) single crystals. Molecular symmetry axes are determined from the analyses of these NZF EPR spectra.

Lang, J.; Sloop, D. J.; Lin, T.-S.

2006-05-01

278

Mapping the molecular axes of pentacene-d14 doped in p-terphenyl single crystal using pulsed EPR technique in near zero magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using computer controlled three-dimensional (3D) near-zero fields (NZF, 0-1.5 mT) have previously been reported. This paper reports on a comprehensive NZF pulsed EPR study of pentacene-d14 doped in p-terphenyl (PDPT) single crystals. Molecular symmetry axes are determined from the analyses of these NZF EPR spectra.

J. Lang; D. J. Sloop; T.-S. Lin

2006-01-01

279

Boston University Physics Applets: Magnetic Field Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics simulation that explores magnetic fields. The user can add currents coming into or out of a simulated grid, and see the fields created. There is also a selection of pre-created fields, including bar magnets, loops, opposing magnets, and coils in uniform fields. Double-clicking on any point displays the full loop created by the magnetic field. This item is part of a larger collection of introductory physics simulations developed by the author. This is part of a collection of similar simulation-based student activities.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-23

280

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOEpatents

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

281

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOEpatents

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25

282

Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective...

P. K. Harris

2003-01-01

283

Constant Current Source for Stable Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electronic control system for stabilization of currents in magnetic fields is described. Three superimposed control stages with different characteristics provide optimum elimination of all interfering factors. The use of electrostatic and magnetic shie...

K. Weyand

1976-01-01

284

Large scale magnetic susceptibility soil mapping: a proxy for geological mapping and exploration from Bogoso (Ghana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of magnetic susceptibility measurements on a set of nearly 3000 soil samples (one sample per km2) collected for geochemical analyses within the framework of a geological mapping program in Ghana. The result is a map of soil magnetic susceptibility which has been compared with other maps. There is a good consistency with geological domains and lithologies, as well as with some of the geochemical soil analyses and also partly with the aeromagnetic data. In the tropical, deeply weathered lateritic context of the study area, soil magnetic susceptibility reveals similarities with magnetic and/or geochemical survey results, suggesting this rapid and easy to use technique can be an effective tool for exploration and geological mapping programs.

Théveniaut, Hervé; Clarke, Brendan

2013-01-01

285

THE EARTH'S YOUNG MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invisible lines of magnetic force enclose our planet in what scientists call adipolarmagneticfield. Today these lines go from magnetic south to magnetic north, which are offset a few degrees from the geographic poles. Some minerals, like magnetite, can \\

Trevor Major

286

Arc Discharges in a Curved Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment on arc discharges in hydrogen in a curved magnetic field is described. For a few milliseconds the discharge current flowed between two electrodes along the field lines of a toroidal magnetic field over an angle of 258 deg. The plasma was not...

F. C. Schueller

1974-01-01

287

Is the intergalactic magnetic field primordial?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the various methods used to constrain the possible field strength of the present day intergalactic field and findB0(G)-10 as a probable upper bound. It is suggested that the observed intergalactic magnetic field might not be primordial in origin but rather the result of magnetic flux leakage from galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Martin Beech

1985-01-01

288

Intergalactic magnetic field and galactic WARPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative explanation of galactic warps is proposed, in which the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is responsible for these structures. The model predicts that, to be efficient, the magnetic field must have a direction not much different from 45 deg with the galactic plane. The required values of the field strength are uncertain, of about 10 nG, higher values being

E. Battaner; E. Florido; M. L. Sanchez-Saavedra

1990-01-01

289

Fiber Bragg Grating Magnetic Field Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate experimentally a magnetic field sensor using a fiber Bragg grating. The shift in the Bragg condition as a result of strain applied on the fiber mounted on a nickel base by the magnetic field gives an indirect measure of the field. The proposed method overcomes the need for long fiber lengths required in methods such

K. V. Madhav; K. Ravi Kumar; T. Srinivas; S. Asokan

2006-01-01

290

Is the intergalactic magnetic field primordial?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various methods used to constrain the possible field strength of the present day intergalactic field are considered, and Bzero (G) less than 10 to the -10th is found as a probable upper bound. It is suggested that the observed intergalactic magnetic field might not be primordial in origin but rather the result of magnetic flux leakage from galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Beech, M.

1985-11-01

291

Observational testing of magnetospheric magnetic field models at geosynchronous orbit  

SciTech Connect

Empirical mode which estimate the magnetic field direction and magnitude at any point within the magnetosphere under a variety of conditions play an important role in space weather forecasting. We report here on a number of different studies aimed at quantitatively evaluating these models, and in particular the Tsyganenko T89a model. The models are evaluated in two basic ways: (1) by comparing the range of magnetic field tilt angles observed at geosynchronous orbit with the ranges predicted for the same locations by the models; and (2) by comparing the observed magnetic field mapping between the ionosphere and geosynchronous orbit (using two-satellite magnetic field conjunctions) with the model predictions at the same locations. We find that while the T89a model predicts reasonably well the basic variation in tilt angle with local time and permits a range of field inclinations adequate to encompass the majority of observed angles on the dawn, dusk, and night sides, it is unable to reproduce the range of inclinations on the dayside. The model also predicts a smaller magnetic latitude range of geosynchronous field line footpoints than the observed two-satellite mapping indicate. Together, these results suggest that the next generation of field models should allow a greater range of stretching, especially in local time sectors away from midnight. It is important to note, however, that any increased range should encompass less-stretched configurations: although there are certainly cases where the models are not sufficiently stretched, we find that on average all magnetic field models tested, including T89a, are too stretched. Finally, in investigating how well the observed degree of field stretch was ordered by various magnetospheric indices, we find that the tilt of the field at geosynchronous orbit is a promising candidate for the incorporation into future models.

Weiss, L.A.; Thomsen, M.F.; Reeves, G.D.; McComas, D.J.

1996-09-01

292

Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae  

SciTech Connect

Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

293

Detecting the orientation of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of galaxies, filled with hot magnetized plasma, are the largest bound objects in existence and an important touchstone in understanding the formation of structures in our Universe. In such clusters, thermal conduction follows field lines, so magnetic fields strongly shape the cluster's thermal history; that some have not since cooled and collapsed is a mystery. In a seemingly unrelated puzzle, recent observations of Virgo cluster spiral galaxies imply ridges of strong, coherent magnetic fields offset from their centre. Here we demonstrate, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations, that such ridges are easily explained by galaxies sweeping up field lines as they orbit inside the cluster. This magnetic drape is then lit up with cosmic rays from the galaxies' stars, generating coherent polarized emission at the galaxies' leading edges. This immediately presents a technique for probing local orientations and characteristic length scales of cluster magnetic fields. The first application of this technique, mapping the field of the Virgo cluster, gives a startling result: outside a central region, the magnetic field is preferentially oriented radially as predicted by the magnetothermal instability. Our results strongly suggest a mechanism for maintaining some clusters in a `non-cooling-core' state.

Pfrommer, Christoph; Jonathan Dursi, L.

2010-07-01

294

Extraterrestrial Magnetic Fields: Achievements and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major scientific achievements associated with the measurement of magnetic fields in space over the past decade and a half are reviewed. Aspects of space technology relevant to magnetic-field observations are discussed, including the different types of magnetometers used and how they operate, problems arising from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields and the appropriate countermeasures that have been developed and on-board processing

EDWARD J. SMITHAND; Charles Sonett

1976-01-01

295

Modeling solar force-free magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields is presented, described in terms of the solutions to a second-order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation. These magnetic fields are three-dimensional, filling the infinite half-space above a plane where the lines of force are anchored. They model the magnetic fields of the sun over active regions with a striking geometric realism. The total energy

B. C. Low; Y. Q. Lou

1990-01-01

296

Induced Magnetic Anisotropy of Ferrofluid Frozen in Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetization process of a ferrofluid whose carrier fluid is paraffin was investigated in the temperature range from 77 K to 300 K, as a function of the cooling field intensity and freezing rate. Phase transitions between the liquid and solid states can be simulated by using the ferrofluids as a magnetic probe. A uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was induced by

N. Inaba; H. Miyajima; S. Taketomi; S. Chikazumi

1989-01-01

297

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

2013-04-01

298

Magnetic fields and flares in the region CMP 20 September 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

The position of bright knots of 30 flares at their very beginning relative to the high-resolution isogauss maps of the longitudinal component (H?) and maps of the transverse component (H?) of magnetic field are considered for seven days during the passage of the active and large spot group in Sept. 1963 (see Table I and maps on Figures 1–8).

G. E. Moreton; A. B. Severny

1968-01-01

299

Five years of magnetic field management  

SciTech Connect

The extensive publicity of epidemiological studies inferring correlation between 60 Hz magnetic fields and childhood leukemia prompted world wide research programs that have as a goal to determine if low frequency magnetic fields represent any risk for the general population, children or utility workers. While supporting this research effort through EPRI, Con Edison embarked on a technical research program aimed to: characterize magnetic fields as to intensity and variation in time; and investigate practical means to manage these magnetic fields through currently known methods. The final goal of these research projects is to establish viable methods to reduce magnetic field intensity to desired values at reasonable distances from the sources. This goal was pursued step by step, starting with an inventory of the main sources of magnetic fields in substations, distribution and transmission facilities and generating plants. The characterization of the sources helped to identify typical cases and select specific cases, far practical applications. The next step was to analyze the specific cases and develop design criteria for managing the magnetic fields in new installations. These criteria included physical arrangement of equipment based oil calculation of magnetic fields, cancellation effect, desired maximum field intensity at specific points and shielding with high magnetic permeability metals (mu-metal and steel). This paper summarizes the authors` experiences and shows the results of the specific projects completed in recent years.

Durkin, C.J.; Fogarty, R.P.; Halleran, T.M.; Mark, Dr. D.A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

1995-01-01

300

Quark matter in a strong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a strong magnetic field on the stability and gross properties of bulk as well as quasibulk quark matter is investigated using the conventional MIT bag model. Both the Landau diamagnetism and the paramagnetism of quark matter are studied. How the quark hadron phase transition is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field is also investigated. The equation of state of strange quark matter changes significantly in a strong magnetic field. It is also shown that the thermal nucleation of quark bubbles in a compact metastable state of neutron matter is completely forbidden in the presence of a strong magnetic field. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Chakrabarty, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, District: Nadia, West Bengal 741 235 (India)]|[Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

1996-07-01

301

Two dimensional frustrated magnets in high magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustrated magnets in high magnetic field have a long history of offering beautiful surprises to the patient investigator. Here we present the results of extensive classical Monte Carlo simulations of a variety of models of two dimensional magnets in magnetic field, together with complementary spin wave analysis. Striking results include (i) a massively enhanced magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnets bordering on ferromagnetic order, (ii) a route to an m = 1/3 magnetization plateau on a square lattice, and (iii) a cascade of phase transitions in a simple model of AgNiO2.

Seabra, L.; Shannon, N.; Sindzingre, P.; Momoi, T.; Schmidt, B.; Thalmeier, P.

2009-01-01

302

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: Austin National Topographic Map, Texas Gulf Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results from an aerial radiometric and magnetic survey of the Austin National Topographic Map area of the Texas Gulf Coast are presented as multiple-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic stacked profiles, geology map, and flight base map. (ERA citation...

1979-01-01

303

The Magnetic Fields of the Quiet Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reviews our understanding of the magnetic fields observed in the quiet Sun. The subject has undergone a major change during the last decade (quiet revolution), and it will remain changing since the techniques of diagnostic employed so far are known to be severely biased. Keeping these caveats in mind, our work covers the main observational properties of the quiet Sun magnetic fields: magnetic field strengths, unsigned magnetic flux densities, magnetic field inclinations, as well as the temporal evolution on short time-scales (loop emergence), and long time-scales (solar cycle). We also summarize the main theoretical ideas put forward to explain the origin of the quiet Sun magnetism. A final prospective section points out various areas of solar physics where the quiet Sun magnetism may have an important physical role to play (chromospheric and coronal structure, solar wind acceleration, and solar elemental abundances).

Sánchez Almeida, J.; Martínez González, M.

2011-04-01

304

New magnetic anomaly map of the East Antarctic continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine magnetic survey coverage of the southern part of Indian Ocean is to a certain extent limited for defining the magnetic pattern of the continental margin of East Antarctica. The USA research vessels collected the bulk of the marine magnetic data in the beginning of 1960's. During the succeeding years Australian, German, Japanese, Russian and other international scientific programs made major contributions to the network of marine magnetic data. Since the beginning of new century only two nations (Russian and Australian) have acquired the marine magnetic data in the southern part of Indian Ocean. The marine surveys in the Cosmonaut Sea, the western part of the Cooperation Sea in the Davis and Mawson Seas were accomplished by the PMGRE in 2000-2009 field seasons. The marine magnetic data collected during two seasons (2001-2002) within the AASOPP Project which was established in early 2000 to define the outer limits of the continental shelf offshore of the Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) covered the full length of the AAT from 40OE to 160OE. The new magnetic anomaly map of the East Antarctic continental margin incorporates all available data acquired by the international community since the IGY 1957-58 through to 2009. Results of the compilation do not radically alter recent models describing first-order motions between the Antarctic, Australian and Indian plates, but they help to resolve uncertainties in early break-up history of opening between these plates. The timing and direction of early seafloor spreading in the area off the Antarctic margin, once conjugate to part of the Southern Greater Indian margin and to Australian margin, along the largely unknown region of the Enderby Basin, Davis Sea and Mawson Sea has been analyzed by many authors using different data sets. It is highly likely that spreading in the Enderby Basin occurred around the same time as the well documented M-sequence (anomalies M10 to M0) off the Perth Basin, Western Australia (Powell et al. 1988). The history of the early spreading is complicated further by the likelihood of one or several ridge jumps in which most early seafloor crust was transferred to the Antarctic plate and the Elan Bank micro-continent was isolated from the Indian continent (Muller et al. 2001). Additionally, a large amount of the seafloor crust is now probably overprinted by igneous activity associated with the Kerguelen Plume, which began forming the Kerguelen LIP from about 120-110 Ma. However all available results of interpretations do not match to the magnetic anomaly pattern which can be distinguished by the newly compiled map. Our observations suggest that this is especially correct to the Enderby Basin and to lesser degree for the region that was conjugate to Australia. The prominent magnetic anomaly boundary signal and sharp basement step correlated with the MacRobertson Coast Anomaly or the Enderby Basin Anomaly (Golynsky et al., 2007) is not observed elsewhere in the Enderby Basin, Princess Elizabeth Trough or Davis Sea. In the central Enderby Basin there some evidences for an abandoned ‘fossil' spreading centre that might continue to the west of the Kerguelen Plateau, east of Gunnerus Ridge. The estimated timing of its extinction corresponding to the early surface expression of the Kerguelen Plume at the Southern Kerguelen Plateau around 120 Ma and the subsequent formation of the Elan Bank microcontinent. Alternatively, the ridge jump occurred only in the central Enderby basin, due to the proximity of the Kerguelen plateau, whereas seafloor spreading continued in the western Enderby basin and conjugate south of Sri Lanka basin.

Golynsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Sergey; Kazankov, Andrey

2010-05-01

305

Radio frequency field intensity mapping using a composite spin-echo sequence.  

PubMed

A novel radio frequency (RF) field intensity mapping or imaging method using a composite NMR spin-echo sequence is proposed. A composite spin-echo RF pulse with 90 degrees y-180 degrees x-90 degrees y sequence makes phase change in the final image depending on the RF field intensity on the object. The resultant phase change or phase map can be used to obtain the actual RF flip-angle map for a given condition which includes the status of tuning and RF inhomogeneity, etc. Bloch equation has been solved numerically to obtain the effects of the RF field intensity as well as the main magnetic field inhomogeneity and the results are used for the mapping (imaging) of the RF field intensity. Phantom studies have been performed using a 1.5 Tesla whole body MRI system and the results are presented. PMID:2325512

Oh, C H; Hilal, S K; Cho, Z H; Mun, I K

1990-01-01

306

PRINCIPLE OF CORRECTION OF ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC FIELDS IN BENDING MAGNETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of a high quality electron beam by a race- track microtron (RTM) requires highly precise magnetic fields in the two reversing magnets. At the RTM cascade MAMI (Mainz Microtron), a precision of 10 ?4 for the ver- tical field component By was achieved by symmetrical sur- face coils placed at the upper and lower pole surface in each

F. Hagenbuck; P. Jennewein; K.-H. Kaiser; H.-J. Kreidel; U. Ludwig-Mertin; M. Seidl

2002-01-01

307

Crustal Magnetization and Gradient Tensor Component Maps of the Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic gradient tensor component maps for an altitude of 300 m above sea-level have been generated from measurements of the horizontal derivative of the total-field over the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. They are digitized with a sampling inte...

J. B. Nelson

1988-01-01

308

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: Austin National Topographic Map, Texas Gulf Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Austin National Topographic Map NH14-6 is presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by grou...

1979-01-01

309

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: Perryton National Topographic Map, Texas/Oklahoma/Kansas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Perryton National Topographic Map NJ14-10 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to...

1980-01-01

310

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: San Antonio National Topographic Map, Texas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Antonio National Topographic Map NH14-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities ...

1980-01-01

311

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: Big Spring National Topographic Map, Texas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Big Spring National Topographic Map NI14-10 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground compute...

1980-01-01

312

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: Eagle Pass National Topographic Map, Texas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Eagle Pass National Topographic Map NH14-10 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities ...

1980-01-01

313

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey: Del Rio National Topographic Map, Texas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Del Rio National Topographic Map NH14-7 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to y...

1980-01-01

314

Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it was found that the multi-component glass a-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 exhibits unusual magnetic properties at very low temperatures. Thus the question arises whether this is a specialty of that particular glass or a more general phenomenon. We report here on our studies of the magnetic-field dependence of the dielectric properties of the borosilicate glass BK7 which contains only a negligible amount of magnetic impurities. Since this glass also responds sensitively to magnetic fields, our investigations demonstrate that the reaction of glasses to magnetic fields is not caused by magnetic impurities but reflects a more general phenomenon. In addition, we have observed that the variation of the dielectric constant and the loss angle with magnetic field depend on the amplitude of the electric field that is used to measure the glass capacitance. We present the data and discuss possible origins of the magnetic-field phenomena in non-magnetic glasses.

Wohlfahrt, M.; Strehlow, P.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

2001-12-01

315

Magnetic Mapping and Classification of Contaminant Impact Levels in Lake Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic property measurements of Hamilton Harbour cores show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe) in an upper contaminated sediment layer are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic contrast between contaminated and `clean' pre-colonial sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bottom. Systematic magnetic surveying (> 500 line km) of the harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of localized magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from the total field data provide a further attribute for classifying contaminant impact levels, as susceptibility is directly linked to pollutant levels. Magnetic detection of near-surface anomalies requires a closely-spaced survey grid and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity. These results demonstrate the potential of lake-based magnetic surveying as a rapid reconnaissance method for mapping large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring work.

Boyce, J. I.; Morris, W. A.; Pozza, M. R.

2004-05-01

316

Magnetohydrodynamics of the Earth'S Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of observational and theoretical work pertaining to the origin of planetary magnetic fields is given with special emphasis on the dynamo theory which attempts to explain these fields as arising from magnetohydrodynamic regenerative action. Some p...

G. Venezian

1967-01-01

317

Cosmic Rays in the Earth'S Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies are presented of the behavior of cosmic rays in the earth's magnetic field. It discusses the theory of motion of charged particles in an idealized field model and presents results of trajectory calculations of asymptotic directions and cutoff rigi...

L. I. Dorman V. S. Smirnov M. I. Tyasto

1973-01-01

318

The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)|

Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

1989-01-01

319

Tracing magnetic fields with ground state alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational studies of magnetic fields are vital as magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g. transport of heat), and cosmic rays. The existing ways of magnetic field studies have their limitations. Therefore, it is important to explore new effects that can bring information about magnetic field. We identified a process “ground state alignment” as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion, while the magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1G?B?10-15G). Compared to the upper level Hanle effect, atomic realignment is most suitable for the studies of magnetic field in the diffuse medium, where magnetic field is relatively weak. The corresponding physics of alignment is based on solid foundations of quantum electrodynamics and in a different physical regime the alignment has become a part of solar spectroscopy. In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment, including the realignment in magnetic field, were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. It is very encouraging that a variety of atoms with fine or hyperfine splitting of the ground or metastable states exhibit the alignment and the resulting polarization degree in some cases exceeds 20%. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this paper, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields, including those in the early universe.

Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.

2012-08-01

320

Magnetic Field Investigations During ROSETTA's Steins Flyby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent Steins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft magnetic field measurements have been made with both, the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Steins different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing our measurements with simulation results show that Steins does not possess a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 1 mAm2/kg. This is significantly different from results at Braille and Gaspra.

Glassmeier, K.; Auster, H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; RPC/ROMAP Teams

2009-05-01

321

Modeling Magnetic Field Topology at Jupiter with the Khurana Magnetic Field Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the degree of coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and Jupiter's magnetosphere, we traced magnetic field lines from the polar region of the planet using the Khurana [1997, 2005] magnetic field model. We used a parameterized definition of the Jovian magnetopause created by Joy et al. [2002] that varies with the value of the solar wind dynamic pressure. We searched for field lines that cross the magnetopause and that potentially connect to the interplanetary magnetic field. We further explored the variation on magnetic field structure with local time orientation of Jupiter's dipole (i.e. Central Meridian Longitude) as well as upstream solar wind and IMF conditions.

Cohen, I.; Bagenal, F.

2008-12-01

322

The Jovian magnetospheric magnetic and electric fields: Effects of the interplanetary magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to study using a constructed magnetospheric magnetic field model the electric fields and plasma motions caused by Jupiter's rotation and the solar wind MHD generator. Analysis of observations shows that a complicated differential rotation system is operating in the jovian magnetosphere. Observational data also reveal the presence of solar wind plasma in the jovian magnetosphere. However, the processes by which it crosses the magnetopause are left unexplained. Here we present an approach to the fundamental problem of the nature of the global plasma convection and corotation in the jovian magnetosphere. The constructed model allows us to map the various parts of the magnetosphere into the ionosphere and vice versa in order to correlate them with the different regions and processes.

Belenkaya, E. S.

2004-04-01

323

Regional And Global Evolution Of Mars: Insights From Geologic, Topographic, and Magnetic Field Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Johnson and Phillips (2005) used magnetic field observations from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), the ages of geologic units, and topographic data to provide constraints on the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Tharsis volcanic province on Mars. They conclude that Tharsis is underlain by a Noachian crust that was previously more magnetic than at present. Here, we extend these analyses to other regions and to the entire planet. We investigate the distributions of magnetic field intensities and directions (or the inferred magnetizations) as a function of geological age, where the latter is assessed via global maps of surface unit ages. Available global geological maps have higher spatial resolution (0.125°) compared with global magnetic field models ( 2° at best). The geologic data are grouped into bins of the same size as the magnetic field data and a modal age is assigned to the bin. The number of magnetic observations (magnetic field or magnetization), the mean value, standard deviation, and maximum values are computed for each bin. We test whether magnetic anomaly and/or inferred magnetization distributions are consistent with an ancient global dipolar magnetizing field. Geologic age data provide constraints on the timing of events that may have magnetized or subsequently modified the crust. Topographic data provide information related to processes that affect topography, such as uplifting. Analyses of the combined magnetic field, geologic age, and topographic data, will help to constrain regional and global models of Martian evolution. This research is supported in part by a NASA Graduate Student Research Program fellowship.

Milbury, Colleen A.; Johnson, C. L.; Schubert, G.

2006-09-01

324

Global map of Titan's dune fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Methane is the second major constituent of Titan's atmosphere; but it should be totally removed at least in ten million years by photochemistry in the stratosphere and condensation in the troposphere [1]. The first process produces hydrocarbons which form the haze and can condensate onto the surface. The second process causes methane rains on the surface, which carve channels networks. The loss of methane is possibly balanced by outgassing during cryovolcanic event [2]. But hydrocarbons grains deposited onto the surface cannot be recycled. They may be stored in the dunes [3], which were first seen by SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) [4]. We focus our study on the mapping of the dune fields in order to determine their global distribution. The aim is to constrain the amount of hydrocarbon material existing in the dunes, and to relate it to the duration of the methane cycle. Data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and RADAR instruments onboard Cassini spacecraft can be used to map Titan's surface. Infrared images, which are mainly sensitive to composition and grain size, are very complementary to the microwave measurements which depend mainly on roughness and topography. We used spectral criteria after empirical correction of aerosols to map the distribution of heterogeneous units on Titan [5]. These units are compared with SAR images in overlapping regions. Titan's surface mosaics with VIMS VIMS probes the first ten of microns of the ground in seven narrow atmospheric windows in the 0.88 to 5.11 ?m wavelength range. We built infrared mosaics with cubes sorted by spatial resolution, by keeping cubes corresponding to favorable observing conditions (incidence, emergence, phase and time exposure). Band ratios were computed and combined in false color composite images (red as 1.59/1.27-?m, green as 2.03/1.27-?m and blue as 1.27/1.08-?m). Band ratios are useful to minimize the effect of illuminating conditions and albedo variations [6]. Mosaics of Titan's surface were created using images acquired during 42 flybys from Ta (October 26th 2004) to T42 (March 25th 2008). These images have been integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Global maps of band ratios appear fuzzy at high latitudes due to a low spatial resolution and to the presence of haze and clouds. The unfavorable observing geometry, with high incidence angles, induces a very strong scattering by the aerosols in these regions. On the contrary, equatorial and mid-latitudes regions have been covered at a medium resolution, in better observing conditions. In our color composites, most of Titan surface appears either in brown units, bluish units or bright units. We observed that brown units cover 18% of the whole Titan's surface and are found in equatorial regions. Dark blue units cover roughly 2% of Titan's surface. They are systematically associated with bright terrains and are never found isolated within brown units (Fig. 1a). Dune patterns were first observed in the infrared with VIMS during the closest approach at T4 and T20 flybys [7, 8]. The detailed study of dune fields by [8] shows that dune patterns are found mainly in brown units and interdunes can account for the observed spectral variability. Dunes with Radar SAR dataset We also use the RADAR data in SAR mode, mainly sensitive to roughness, surface topography and dielectric constant variations. It is independent of solar light conditions and of the presence of clouds. We retrieved the radar swaths from Ta to T25 (February 22nd 2007) flybys from the PDS website and reprojected the data using the ISIS2 software. The spatial resolution of the SAR images allows the direct imaging of the dunes. Most of Titan's dunes appear longitudinal and resemble terrestrial dunes, such as the ones found in Namibia [4]. Detailed morphologic analysis was performed in [9], who inferred a dominant wind eastward to account for their formation. Two kinds of dunes have been observed: sand seas and small dunes in low sand supply zones. Most of the aeolian sand deposits are found in sand

Le Corre, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Nicholson, P.

2008-09-01

325

Constrained superfields and supersymmetric magnetic field systems  

SciTech Connect

After Lancaster the authors examine chiral constraints in N = 2 superspace formulation for supersymmetric magnetic field systems. Such odd constraints are connected with the so-called spin-orbit coupling procedure of supersymmetrization. They propose new even constraints for magnetic supersymmetric systems and relate them to the standard procedure enhanced by Witten. These models describing spin-one half particles moving in a plane with a transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed. The cases of a constant magnetic field and of the harmonic oscillator are connected through different correspondences.

Dehin, D.; Hussin, V. (Universite de Liege, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Institut de Physique au Sart Tilman, Batiment B.5, B-4000 Liege (BE))

1988-01-01

326

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

PubMed

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

327

Ionospheric electric fields, currents, and resulting magnetic fields variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis uses an equivalent circuit model to calculate ionospheric electric fields, current densities and introduced magnetic fields variations on the ground. The role of the field aligned current is examined. Using different wind models, we studied the electric field variations with altitude, season and solar activity. The ionospheric eastward electric field changes very little within the whole ionosphere. The southward (equatorward) electric field is large and changes quickly with height in the E region although it is nearly constant in the F region. The prereversal enhancement of the eastward electric field is produced by the F region dynamo. We conclude that the Forbes and Gillette tidal wind can reproduce most features of the Jicamarca experiment and the AE-E and DE-2 satellite observations of the electric fields. The HWM90 empirical wind model failed to produce the observed electric field and it seems the semidiurnal wind in HWM90 is too strong. The field aligned current is located mainly in the E and low F region. The non-coincidence of the geomagnetic and geographic equators has a strong effect on the field aligned current in the equatorial zone. The field aligned currents driven by Forbes' winds for March equinox and December solstice flow mainly from the southern to northern hemisphere in the morning and vice versa in the afternoon at F region heights. The observed magnetic field variations on the ground are well reproduced in our simulations. The field aligned current is the main contributor to the eastward magnetic field component in the equatorial zone. The longitudinal inequality of the northward magnetic field is introduced mainly by the variations of the local magnetic field intensity. The electric field variations have only a minor effect. The northward magnetic field variations with the solar activity are introduced by changes of the E region equatorward electric field and the Hall conductivity.

Du, Junhu

328

Magnetic field associated with active electrochemical corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the underlying sources of the magnetic field associated with ongoing electrochemical corrosion, to investigate the spatio-temporal information content of the corrosion magnetic field, and to evaluate its potential utility in non-invasive quantification of hidden corrosion. The importance of this work lies in the fact that conventional electrochemical instruments

Afshin Abedi

2000-01-01

329

Coronal Heating and the Photospheric Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since magnetic field typically plays a role (either active or passive) in coronal heating theories, it may be possible to evaluate these theories by investigating the relationship between the coronal energy budget (the total power requirement of the corona) and measurable properties of the photospheric magnetic field. The X-ray flux is a useful proxy for the total power required to

C. E. Parnell; P. A. Sturrock

1997-01-01

330

Variability and topology of solar magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the large scale magnetic field in the photosphere taken at the Wilcox Solar Observatory since 1976 up to 2005 have been analyzed to deduce its latitudinal and longitudinal structures, its differential rotation, and their variability in time. The main results are the following: - The latitudinal structure of the solar magnetic field with a period of polarity change

E. A. Gavryuseva

2006-01-01

331

Astrophysical magnetic fields and nonlinear dynamo theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current understanding of astrophysical magnetic fields is reviewed, focusing on their generation and maintenance by turbulence. In the astrophysical context this generation is usually explained by a self-excited dynamo, which involves flows that can amplify a weak ‘seed’ magnetic field exponentially fast. Particular emphasis is placed on the nonlinear saturation of the dynamo. Analytic and numerical results are discussed

Axel Brandenburg; Kandaswamy Subramanian

2005-01-01

332

Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body-centered-cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic-field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields B?1014G ). The effect of the magnetic field on ion displacements in a strongly magnetized neutron star crust can suppress the nuclear reaction rates and make them extremely sensitive to the magnetic-field direction.

Baiko, D. A.

2009-10-01

333

Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in

W. S. Gilbert; R. F. Althaus; P. J. Barale; R. W. Benjegerdes; M. A. Green; M. I. Green; R. M. Scanlan

1989-01-01

334

Biological effects of high DC magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal focus of the program is the analysis of magnetic field effects on physiological functions in experimental animals and selected organ and tissue systems. A major research effort has involved the use of electrical recording techniques to detect functional alterations in the cardiovascular, neural, and visual systems during the application of DC magnetic fields. These systems involve ionic conduction

Tenforde

1981-01-01

335

Magnetic fields and the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronal magnetic fields calculated by the methods developed in Paper I (Altschuler and Newkirk, 1969) and the empirical description of the solar corona of November 1966 derived in Paper II (Newkirket al., 1970) are combined in order to investigate what connection exists between the magnetic fields and the density structure of the corona.

Gordon Newkirk; Martin D. Altschuler

1970-01-01

336

Pure phase encode magnetic field gradient monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous methods have been developed to measure MRI gradient waveforms and k-space trajectories. The most promising new strategy appears to be magnetic field monitoring with RF microprobes. Multiple RF microprobes may record the magnetic field evolution associated with a wide variety of imaging pulse sequences. The method involves exciting one or more test samples and measuring the time evolution of

Hui Han; Rodney P. MacGregor; Bruce J. Balcom

2009-01-01

337

Efficient Characterization of Magnetic Field Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the estimation of the magnetic field intensity emitted by industrial installations is presented. The method is best-suited for investigation of environmental magnetic field for health purposes. Simulation and measurement case-studies supporting the provided theoretical results are discussed

M. Bertocco; F. Dughiero; C. Greggio; E. Sieni; A. Sona

2006-01-01

338

Magnetic fields, branes, and noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a simple physical model of a particle moving on the infinite noncommutative 2-plane. The model consists of a pair of opposite charges moving in a strong magnetic field. In addition, the charges are connected by a spring. In the limit of large magnetic field, the charges are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. Interactions of such particles include

Daniela Bigatti; Leonard Susskind

2000-01-01

339

Directional discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the interplanetary magnetic field has different characteristics on different scales, and it is noted that a given physical theory may not be applicable or relevant on all scales. Four scales are defined in terms of time intervals on which the data may be viewed. Many discontinuities in the magnetic-field direction are seen on the mesoscale (˜

Leonard F. Burlaga

1969-01-01

340

Magnetic Fields, Ball Lightning and Campanology  

Microsoft Academic Search

WOODING suggests1 that ball lightning is a plasma vortex ring structure produced by a process similar to the ablation of a solid surface by a high power laser pulse. A plasma vortex ring structure requires a magnetic field; here I present two pieces of evidence to show that a magnetic field is associated with ball lightning, and which may help

A. J. F. Blair

1973-01-01

341

Magnetic field propagation in a stellar dynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations of stellar dynamos are reviewed. Dynamic dynamo models solve the nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic equations for the convective velocity, the thermodynamic variables, and the generated magnetic field in a rotating, spherical shell of ionized gas. When the dynamo operates in the convection zone, the simulated magnetic fields propagate away from the equator in the opposite direction inferred from

Gary A. Glatzmaier

1985-01-01

342

Space Quantization in a Gyrating Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonadiabatic transitions which a system with angular momentum J makes in a magnetic field which is rotating about an axis inclined with respect to the field are calculated. It is shown that the effects depend on the sign of the magnetic moment of the system. We therefore have an absolute method for measuring the sign and magnitude of the

I. I. Rabi

1937-01-01

343

Hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field is considered in a wide region of magnitudes of magnetic field and atom momentum. We solve the Schroedinger equation of the system numerically using an imaginary time method and find wave functions of the lowest states of atom. We calculate the energy and the mean electron-nucleus separation as a function of atom momentum and magnetic field. All the results obtained could be summarized as a phase diagram on the 'atom-momentum - magnetic-field' plane. There are transformations of wave-function structure at critical values of atom momentum and magnetic field that result in a specific behavior of dependencies of energy and mean interparticle separation on the atom momentum P. We discuss a transition from the Zeeman regime to the high magnetic field regime. A qualitative analysis of the complicated behavior of wave functions vs P based on the effective potential examination is given. We analyze a sharp transition at the critical momentum from a Coulomb-type state polarized due to atom motion to a strongly decentered (Landau-type) state at low magnetic fields. A crossover occurring at intermediate magnetic fields is also studied.

Lozovik, Yu.E.; Volkov, S.Yu. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Troitsk, Moscow region, 142190 (Russian Federation)

2004-08-01

344

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the DNA synthesis.  

PubMed

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the rate of DNA synthesis catalysed by polymerases ? with isotopic ions (24)Mg(2+), (25)Mg(2+) and (26)Mg(2+) in the catalytic sites were detected. No difference in enzymatic activity was found between polymerases ? carrying (24)Mg(2+) and (26)Mg(2+) ions with spinless, non-magnetic nuclei (24)Mg and (26)Mg. However, (25)Mg(2+) ions with magnetic nucleus (25)Mg were shown to suppress enzymatic activity by two to three times with respect to the enzymatic activity of polymerases ? with (24)Mg(2+) and (26)Mg(2+) ions. Such an isotopic dependence directly indicates that in the DNA synthesis magnetic mass-independent isotope effect functions. Similar effect is exhibited by polymerases ? with Zn(2+) ions carrying magnetic (67)Zn and non-magnetic (64)Zn nuclei, respectively. A new, ion-radical mechanism of the DNA synthesis is suggested to explain these effects. Magnetic field dependence of the magnesium-catalysed DNA synthesis is in a perfect agreement with the proposed ion-radical mechanism. It is pointed out that the magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects may be used for medicinal purposes (trans-cranial magnetic treatment of cognitive deceases, cell proliferation, control of the cancer cells, etc). PMID:23851636

Buchachenko, Anatoly L; Orlov, Alexei P; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A; Breslavskaya, Natalia N

2013-07-13

345

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the DNA synthesis  

PubMed Central

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the rate of DNA synthesis catalysed by polymerases ? with isotopic ions 24Mg2+, 25Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ in the catalytic sites were detected. No difference in enzymatic activity was found between polymerases ? carrying 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions with spinless, non-magnetic nuclei 24Mg and 26Mg. However, 25Mg2+ ions with magnetic nucleus 25Mg were shown to suppress enzymatic activity by two to three times with respect to the enzymatic activity of polymerases ? with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions. Such an isotopic dependence directly indicates that in the DNA synthesis magnetic mass-independent isotope effect functions. Similar effect is exhibited by polymerases ? with Zn2+ ions carrying magnetic 67Zn and non-magnetic 64Zn nuclei, respectively. A new, ion–radical mechanism of the DNA synthesis is suggested to explain these effects. Magnetic field dependence of the magnesium-catalysed DNA synthesis is in a perfect agreement with the proposed ion–radical mechanism. It is pointed out that the magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects may be used for medicinal purposes (trans-cranial magnetic treatment of cognitive deceases, cell proliferation, control of the cancer cells, etc).

Buchachenko, Anatoly L.; Orlov, Alexei P.; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A.; Breslavskaya, Natalia N.

2013-01-01

346

Magnetic Breakdown and Landau Level Spectrum of Coupled Double Quantum Wells in Tilted Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We map the Landau level spectra of coupled GaAs\\/Al_0.3Ga_0.7As double quantum wells (QWs) in tilted magnetic fields. A purely in-plane field B| | displaces one QW dispersion curve with respect to that of the other QW, resulting in an anticrossing and energy gap. When the gap is below the chemical potential the resulting Fermi surface (FS) consists of two components,

N. E. Harff; J. A. Simmons; S. K. Lyo; J. F. Klem; G. S. Boebinger; L. N. Pfeiffer; K. W. West

1997-01-01

347

Vehicle detection using a magnetic field sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of vehicle magnetic moments and the results from use of a fluxgate magnetic sensor to actuate a lighting system from the magnetic fields of passing vehicles is reported. A typical U.S. automobile has a magnetic moment of about 200 A-m2(Ampere-meters2), while for a school bus it is about 2000 A-m2. When the vehicle is modeled as an ideal

S. V. Marshall

1978-01-01

348

Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of\\u000a a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and\\u000a calculate their distribution as a function magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We find that by a redshift \\u000a z ~ <\\/font\\u000a>3z \\\\sim

Steven Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2002-01-01

349

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole  

DOEpatents

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

Tatchyn, R.O.

1997-01-21

350

High Field Magnets With HTS Conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of high-field magnets using high temperature superconductors (HTS) is a core activity at the NHMFL. Magnet technology based on both YBCO-coated tape conductors and Bi-2212 round wires is being pursued. Two specific projects are underway. The first is a user magnet with a 17 T YBCO coil set which, inside an LTS outsert, will generate a combined field of

H. W. Weijers; U. P. Trociewitz; W. D. Markiewicz; J. Jiang; D. Myers; E. E. Hellstrom; A. Xu; J. Jaroszynski; P. Noyes; Y. Viouchkov; D. C. Larbalestier

2010-01-01

351

Magnetic Instabilities in High Field Superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of magnetizing cylindrical specimens of a typical high field superconductor Nb-50 at.%Ti, flux jumps were induced by magnetic disturbances. The stability limit field Hfj increased steadily with increasing temperature, and no magnetic instability occurred for temperatures in excess of about 6.5 K. The calculation of Hfj was performed taking into account the cylindrical sample geometry and the

Tatsuo Akachi; Takeshi Ogasawara; Ko Yasukochi

1981-01-01

352

Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

2004-03-01

353

Materials Processing in Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest in lattice QCD -- Quark-gluon plasma physics -- String theory and exact results in quantum field theory -- The status of local supersymmetry.Supersymmetry in nuclei -- Inflation, dark matter, dark energy -- How many dimensions are really compactified? -- Horizons -- Neutrino oscillations physics -- Fundamental constants and their possible time dependence.Highlights from BNL. new phenomena at RHIC -- Highlights from BABAR -- Diffraction studied with a hard scale at HERA -- The large hadron collider: a status report -- Status of non-LHC experiments at CERN -- Highlights from Gran Sass.Fast automatic systems for nuclear emulsion scanning: technique and experiments -- Probing the QGP with charm at ALICE-LHC -- magnetic screening length in hot QCD -- Non-supersymmetric deformation of the Klebanov-Strassler model and the related plane wave theory -- Holographic renormalization made simple: an example -- The kamLAND impact on neutrino oscillations -- Particle identification with the ALIC TOF detector at very high multiplicity -- Superpotentials of N = 1 SUSY gauge theories -- Measurement of the proton structure function F2 in QED compton scattering at HERA -- Yang-Mills effective action at high temperature -- The time of flight (TOF) system of the ALICE experiment -- Almost product manifolds as the low energy geometry of Dirichlet Brane.

Schneider-Muntau, Hans J.; Wada, Hitoshi

354

Magnetic resonance velocity vector mapping in aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used magnetic resonance imaging with cine velocity vector mapping to study blood flow patterns in the thoracic aorta of patients with aortic aneurysms. Spin-echo images of the thoracic aorta were acquired in orthogonal and oblique planes. Cine phase-shift velocity maps were then acquired in selected aortic planes, with velocity encoded in two orthogonal directions. The two-directional velocity data were

R. H. Mohiaddin; H. G. Bogren; G. Z. Yang; P. J. Kilner; D. N. Firmin

1994-01-01

355

Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

Piccinelli, Gabriella; Sánchez, Ángel; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

2013-07-01

356

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Spatially complicated magnetic fields are frequently treated as the sum of a large, slowly varying, mean field and a small, rapidly varying, field. The primary effect of the small field is to modify the Ohm's law of the mean field. A set of plausible assumptions leads to a form of the mean field Ohm's law which is fundamentally different from the conventional alpha effect of dynamo theory.

Boozer, A.H.

1984-11-01

357

Soft-edged magnet models for higher-order beam-optics map codes  

SciTech Connect

Continuously varying surface and volume source-density distributions are used to model magnetic fields inside of cylindrical volumes. From these distributions, a package of subroutines computes on-axis generalized gradients and their derivatives at arbitrary points on the magnet axis for input to the numerical map-generating subroutines of the Lie-algebraic map code Marylie. In the present version of the package, the magnet menu includes: 1. cylindrical current-sheet or radially thick current distributions with either open boundaries or with a surrounding cylindrical boundary with normal field lines (which models high-permeability iron), 2. Halbach-type permanent mutipole magnets, either as sheet magnets or as radially thick magnets, 3. modeling of arbitrary fields inside a cylinder by use of a fictitious current sheet. The subroutines provide on-axis gradients and their z derivatives to essentially arbitrary order, although in the present 3rd and 5th order Marylie only the 0th through 6th derivatives are needed. The formalism is especially useful in beam-optics applications, such as magnetic lenses, where realistic treatment of fringefield effects is needed.

Walstrom, P. L. (Peter L.)

2002-01-01

358

Lake-based magnetic mapping of urban-sourced contaminated sediment, Lake Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of toxic sediments in harbours and urban waterways requires detailed mapping of contaminated sediment distribution and thickness. Conventional methods rely on interpolation of pollutant concentrations from widely spaced core samples but can lead to significant errors in estimating sediment distribution. An improved approach, as demonstrated by recent work in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, is to estimate pollutant levels from 'proxy' measurements of sediment magnetic properties. Measurements from 40 core samples collected within the harbour show that the magnetic susceptibility of a contaminated upper layer of sediment is one to two orders of magnitude greater than in the underlying uncontaminated 'pre-colonial' sediments. The susceptibility contrast results from elevated levels of urban-sourced magnetic oxides and is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 5-40 nT) that can be measured with a towed magnetometer. Systematic lake-based magnetic surveying (> 500 line km) of the harbour using a towed Overhauser marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from total field data show a close spatial correspondence with core-derived susceptibility values and provide a means for identifying areas of urban impacted sediments. Detection of low amplitude magnetic anomalies is dependent upon a closely spaced survey grid (< 70 m line spacing) and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity.

Boyce, J. I.; Pozza, M. R.; Morris, W. A.

2003-04-01

359

Magnetic and velocity fields of a solar pore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Solar pores are intermediate-size magnetic flux features that emerge at the surface of the Sun. The absence of a filamentary penumbra indicates that there is a relatively simple magnetic structure with a prevailing vertical magnetic field. Aims: Relations between the magnetic field components, line-of-sight velocities, and horizontal motions in and around a large pore (Deff = 8''.5) are analysed to provide observational constraints on theoretical models and numerical simulations. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations in Fe I 617.3 nm of the pore NOAA 11005 with the IBIS spectrometer attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope are inverted into series of maps of thermal, magnetic, and velocity parameters using the SIR code. Horizontal velocities are obtained from series of white-light images by means of local correlation tracking. Results: The magnetic field B extends from the visible pore border of more than 3''.5 and has a radial structure in a form of spines that are co-spatial with dark intergranular lanes. The horizontal component Bhor is more extended than the vertical component Bz. The temperature linearly decreases with increasing Bz, by about - 300 K kG-1 in the photosphere and - 800 K kG-1 in the umbra. The temperature contrast of granulation increases with increasing magnetic field strength and is then suppressed for Bz > 1200 G. Granular upflows dominate in regions with Bz < 600-700 G. Line-of-sight velocities are lower in stronger fields, except for fast isolated downflows at the pore's border. The velocity signature of granulation is suppressed completely for Bhor > 1000 G. Horizontal motions of granules start to be damped for Bz > 500 G and recurrently exploding granules appear only in magnetic fields comparable to or weaker than the equipartition field strength 400 G.

Sobotka, M.; Del Moro, D.; Jur?ák, J.; Berrilli, F.

2012-01-01

360

Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields Using Ly? Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From previous studies of the effect of primordial magnetic fields on early structure formation, we know that the presence of primordial magnetic fields during early structure formation could induce more perturbations at small scales (at present 1-10 h -1 Mpc) as compared to the usual ?CDM theory. Matter power spectra over these scales are effectively probed by cosmological observables such as shear correlation and Ly? clouds. In this paper we discuss the implications of primordial magnetic fields on the distribution of Ly? clouds. We simulate the line-of-sight density fluctuation including the contribution coming from the primordial magnetic fields. We compute the evolution of Ly? opacity for this case and compare our theoretical estimates of Ly? opacity with the existing data to constrain the parameters of the primordial magnetic fields. We also discuss the case when the two density fields are correlated. Our analysis yields an upper bound of roughly 0.3-0.6 nG on the magnetic field strength for a range of nearly scale-invariant models, corresponding to a magnetic field power spectrum index n ~= -3.

Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Sethi, Shiv K.

2013-01-01

361

Mercury's internal magnetic field: Constraints on fields of crustal origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of Mercury's internal magnetic field during MESSENGER's first flyby (M1) and the first and third flybys of Mariner 10 (M10-I, M10-III) suggest that small-scale crustal magnetic fields, if they exist, are at the limit of resolution. Small-scale crustal fields are most easily identified near closest approach (CA) as features with wavelengths comparable to, or larger than, the spacecraft altitude. One small feature (< 4 nT in magnitude) encountered near CA during MESSENGER's first flyby may be either a crustal magnetic field or a plasma pressure effect. By means of Parker's constrained optimization approach, with no assumptions on the direction of magnetization, we can place constraints on the product of magnetization and magnetized layer thickness from such observations. The second flyby (M2) will allow additional constraints to be placed on the presence of small-scale fields, and correlations will be possible among topographic profiles measured by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), features seen on MESSENGER and Mariner 10 images, and any variations in the internal field. This flyby will acquire the first images of the CA region of M10-III, which has been pivotal in establishing the dipolar character of Mercury's magnetic field. Our ability to isolate small-scale crustal magnetic fields has been hindered by the limited coverage to date, as well as the difficulty in isolating the internal field. Across the terrestrial planets and the Moon, minimum magnetization contrast and iron abundance in the crust show a positive correlation. This correlation suggests that crustal iron content plays a determining role in the strength of crustal magnetization.

Purucker, M. E.; Sabaka, T. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Head, J. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Uno, H.

2008-12-01

362

MAP IT: The GIS software for field mapping with tablet pc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Map IT is a proper Geographic Information System (GIS) software designed for digital mapping and data capture with tablet pc that ought to be tested and evaluated by field geologists and people who project and use field systems and geologic databases.It can be easily used at different levels of digital knowledge. The digital pen writing on the sunlight readable screen

Mauro de Donatis; Lorenzo Bruciatelli

2006-01-01

363

The Protogalactic Origin for Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that strong magnetic fields are produced from a zero\\u000ainitial magnetic field during the pregalactic era, when galaxies are first\\u000aforming. Their development proceeds in three phases. In the first phase, weak\\u000amagnetic fields are created by the Biermann battery mechanism, acting in\\u000ashocked parts of the intergalactic medium where caustics form and intersect. In\\u000athe second

Russell M. Kulsrud; Renyue Cen; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Dongsu Ryu

1996-01-01

364

Turbulence and Magnetic Fields in Astrophysical Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields permeate the Universe. They are found in planets, stars, accretion discs, galaxies, clusters of galaxies,\\u000a and the intergalactic medium. While there is often a component of the field that is spatially coherent at the scale of the\\u000a astrophysical object, the field lines are tangled chaotically and there are magnetic fluctuations at scales that range over\\u000a orders of magnitude.

Alexander A. Schekochihin; Steven C Cowley

2007-01-01

365

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

Boozer, A.H.

1986-05-01

366

Emittance measurement in a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Emittance can be measured by intercepting an electron beam on a range thick plate and then observing the expansion of beamlets transmitted through small holes. The hole size is selected to minimize space charge effects. In the presence of a magnetic field the beamlets have a spiral trajectory and the usual field free formulation must be modified. To interpret emittance in the presence of a magnetic field an envelope equation is derived in the appropriate rotating frame. 1 ref.

Boyd, J.K.

1991-04-15

367

Manipulating Cells with Static Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our investigations of the use of static magnetic fields, B, for manipulating cells and cellular processes. We describe how B fields modify the cell division pattern of frog embryos and consequently can be used to probe the pattern determinants. We also observe that magnetic fields modify the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. We describe these modifications and their potential application to investigations of their swimming behavior.

Valles, J. M.; Guevorkian, K.

2005-07-01

368

Magnetic field effects on dielectrophoresis in manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite-type manganese oxides (manganites) are of interest for many of the different properties they possess, including colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and ferroelectric behavior. With the application of an electric field, large resistance decreases have been noted near the insulator-to-metal transition temperature in samples of (La1-yPry)1-xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO). Two proposed models have emerged to explain the behavior, dielectric breakdown and dielectrophoresis, with experimental evidence showing some aspects of the dielectrophoresis model to be correct. However, neither model accounts for magnetic interactions among the ferromagnetic metallic regions and the effects of a magnetic field applied in conjunction with an electric field. We have performed measurements on LPCMO samples by varying the strength and orientation of the magnetic field and the applied voltage. Cross-shaped microstructures have been made on LPCMO samples to allow us to investigate the effects of sample size on dielectrophoresis. We will present resistance and magnetization data obtained on LPCMO samples at various magnetic field strengths, magnetic field orientations, and sample sizes to elucidate the effect of magnetic interactions on dielectrophoresis induced transport and magnetic properties.

Grant, Daniel; Dragiev, Galin; Biswas, Amlan

2013-03-01

369

Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

370

Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic

H. B. Liemohn; D. L. Lessor; B. H. Duane

1976-01-01

371

Lake-based magnetic mapping of contaminated sediment distribution, Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of toxic sediment in harbours and urban waterways requires detailed mapping of contaminated sediment distribution and thickness. Conventional methods rely on interpolation of pollutant concentrations from widely spaced core samples but can lead to significant errors in estimating sediment distribution. An improved approach, as demonstrated by recent work in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, is to estimate pollutant levels from proxy measurements of sediment magnetic properties. Measurements from 40 core samples collected within the harbour show that the magnetic susceptibility of a contaminated upper layer of sediment is one to two orders of magnitude greater than in the underlying uncontaminated ‘pre-colonial’ sediments. The susceptibility contrast results from elevated levels of urban-source magnetic oxides and is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 5 40 nT) that can be measured with a towed magnetometer. Systematic lake-based magnetic surveying (>500 line km) of the harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer identifies well-defined positive magnetic anomalies that coincide with mapped accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Forward modelling of the anomalies shows that the magnetic response is consistent with a contaminated upper layer thickness of up to 5 m. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from magnetic survey data show a close spatial correspondence with core-derived magnetic susceptibilities and provide a rapid means for classifying contaminated sediments. Detection of shallow magnetic anomalies is dependent upon a closely spaced survey grid (<75 m line spacing) and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity.

Pozza, M. R.; Boyce, J. I.; Morris, W. A.

2004-12-01

372

Magnetic Field Extrapolations And Current Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) --- phenomena which impact our society, but are scientifically interesting in themselves --- are driven by free magnetic energy in the coronal magnetic field. Since the coronal magnetic field cannot be directly measured, modelers often extrapolate the coronal field from the photospheric magnetograms --- the only field measurements routinely available. The best extrapolation techniques assume that the field is force free (coronal currents parallel the magnetic field), but that currents are not simply a linear function of the magnetic field. Recent tests, however, suggest that such non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation techniques often underestimate free magnetic energy. We hypothesize that, since relaxation-based NLFFF techniques tend to smooth field discontinuities, such approaches will fail when current sheets are present. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying the Optimization NLFFF method to two configurations from an MHD simulation --- one with strong current concentrations, and one with weak concentrations. This work is supported by a NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory grant to UC-Berkeley.

Welsch, Brian; De Moortel, I.; McTiernan, J. M.

2007-05-01

373

Neutron Star Crust in Strong Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the effects of strong magnetic fields through Landau quantization of electrons on the structure and stability of nuclei in neutron star crust. In strong magnetic fields, this leads to the enhancement of the electron number density with respect to the zero field case. We obtain the sequence of equilibrium nuclei of the outer crust in the presence of strong magnetic fields adopting most recent versions of the experimental and theoretical nuclear mass tables. For B ~ 1016G, it is found that some new nuclei appear in the sequence and some nuclei disappear from the sequence compared with the zero field case. Further we investigate the stability of nuclei in the inner crust in the presence of strong magnetic fields using the Thomas-Fermi model. The coexistence of two phases of nuclear matter - liquid and gas, is considered in this case. The proton number density is significantly enhanced in strong magnetic fields B ~ 1017G through the charge neutrality. We find nuclei with larger mass number in the presence of strong magnetic fields than those of the zero field. These results might have important implications for the transport properties of the crust in magnetars.

Nandi, Rana; Bandyopadhyay, Debades

2011-09-01

374

Global magnetic fields: variation of solar minima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topology of the large-scale magnetic field of the Sun and its role in the development of magnetic activity were investigated using H ? charts of the Sun in the period 1887-2011. We have considered the indices characterizing the minimum activity epoch, according to the data of large-scale magnetic fields. Such indices include: dipole-octopole index, area and average latitude of the field with dominant polarity in each hemisphere and others. We studied the correlation between these indices and the amplitude of the following sunspot cycle, and the relation between the duration of the cycle of large-scale magnetic fields and the duration of the sunspot cycle. The comparative analysis of the solar corona during the minimum epochs in activity cycles 12 to 24 shows that the large-scale magnetic field has been slow and steadily changing during the past 130 years. The reasons for the variations in the solar coronal structure and its relation with long-term variations in the geomagnetic indices, solar wind and Gleissberg cycle are discussed. We also discuss the origin of the large-scale magnetic field. Perhaps the large-scale field leads to the generation of small-scale bipolar ephemeral regions, which in turn support the large-scale field. The existence of two dynamos: a dynamo of sunspots and a surface dynamo can explain phenomena such as long periods of sunspot minima, permanent dynamo in stars and the geomagnetic field.

Tlatov, Andrey G.; Obridko, Vladimir N.

2012-07-01

375

Ultrafast heating and magnetic switching with weak external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TbFeCo magneto-optical media with the coercivity of bigger than 1.0 kOe are used for the investigation of ultrafast heating and magnetic switching with the weak external magnetic field. It has been found that the laser-induced active region becomes larger with an external magnetic field because the boundary of the active region is magnetized with the assistance of the external field during the ultrafast heating. According to this physical phenomenon, the so called ``mark expansion method'' has been proposed for visual observation of ultrafast switching marks. Using this method, the ultrafast magnetic switching in TbFeCo media has been studied using 40 fs laser pulse with linear polarization. The result shows that the ultrafast magnetic switching can be implemented by the laser pulse with assistance of the weak external field of about 0.7 kOe. Further studies show that the area percentage of the magnetic mark expansion relative to its thermal mark decreases with the increasing of the laser pulse energy. There exists the threshold pulse energy that the active region is fully magnetized. The theoretical analysis of electron, spin, and lattice temperatures has been conducted to the active region of the media where the maximum spin temperature is close to the Curie temperature of the media. The result indicates that the media become active at 4.137 ps and the ultrafast heating plays a key role for the ultrafast magnetic switching. The weak external magnetic field provides sufficient driving force to control the magnetization direction in the media.

Li, J. M.; Xu, B. X.; Zhang, J.; Ye, K. D.

2013-01-01

376

Polarization Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar atmosphere is a highly ionized medium which is the playground of magnetic fields. In the deepest layer (the photosphere), magnetic fields disturb the 'normal' fluid motions forcing the plasma to behave incounterintuitive ways; in the outer layers (the chromosphere and the corona) magnetic fields rule, making the plasma levitate or even ejecting it out of the gravitational well of the Sun, with important consequences for us here on Earth. However, magnetic fields are elusive. The only quantitative evidence of their presence is through the polarization state of the light emitted by the plasma they are playing with. Remote sensing of magnetic fields from 150 million km away through spectropolarimetry is a challenge on applied physics as well as an art. It requires the application of quantum mechanics, radiative transfer theory, and advanced optics to the interpretation and analysis of spectropolarimetric observations. I will review standard diagnostic techniques and recent developments on this field. I will discuss their limitations and how to overcome them through the complementary aspects of different diagnostic techniques, spectral regions, and statistical analysis. Finally, I will review what are the main areas for progress in this regard: most notably, the 'measurement' of magnetic fields in the extremely dilute and weakly magnetized outer layers of the sun.

Manso Sainz, R.

2011-12-01

377

New Magnetic phases of holmium in a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the behavior of two well-characterized single crystals ofholmium in a magnetic field applied along the /ital c/ axis in a temperaturerange from 90 to 140 K, using magnetization and dilatometric measurements. Wehave found several new phases in this previously unexplored region of the phasediagram.

Steinitz, M. O.; Kahrizi, M.; Tindall, D. A.; Ali, N.

1989-07-01

378

Relationship between the magnetic hyperfine field and the magnetic moment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on experimental data it is shown, for some chosen alloys and compounds of iron, that there is no unique relationship between the 57Fe-site magnetic hyperfine field, Bhf, and the magnetic moment per Fe atom, ?. Instead, the Bhf–? plot consists of several branches, each of them being characteristic of a given alloy or compound. Consequently, the effective proportionality constant

S. M. Dubiel

2009-01-01

379

Magnetic fields around BOK globules: CCD polarimetry of CB 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small Bok globule CB 4 was probed using a CCD imaging polarimeter in order to create a detailed map of the magnetic field associated with this cloud. Stars as faint as 17th mag at V band were measured polarimetrically with uncertainties less than 1%. Sky transmission variations were minimized via a system of synchronous polaroid rotation and bidirectional charge shifting. In all, 80 stars behind the periphery of the globule were accurately analyzed polarimetrically. The large-scale (1-2 pc) magnetic field direction around CB 4 was found to be very uniform (P.A. = 63.3 deg +/- 1.1 deg). Double-Gaussian fitting of the polarization position angle histogram gave a dispersion of 10 deg about the primary field direction. Possible field-line compression was found inward of approximately 0.2 pc from the cloud center. No appreciable twisting of field lines was found. By plotting stellar separations against differences of polarization angles, CB 4 was found to have a magnetic field decorrelation length of approximately 0.1 pc, similar to the size of the visually opaque cire, but much smaller than the size of the bright optical rim or CO half-power contour of approximately 0.5 pc. The magnetic field decorrelation length may be related to a characteristic transient clumping size, or perhaps even to clumps of a more permanent nature.

Kane, Brian D.; Clemens, Dan P.; Leach, Robert W.; Barvainis, Richard

1995-05-01

380

How are static magnetic fields detected biologically?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is overwhelming evidence that life, from bacteria to birds to bats, detects magnetic fields, using the fields for orientation or navigation. Indeed there are recent reports (based on Google Earth imagery) that cattle and deer align themselves with the earth's magnetic field. [1]. The development of frog and insect eggs are changed by high magnetic fields, probably through known physical mechanisms. However, the mechanisms for eukaryotic navigation and alignment are not clear. Persuasive published models will be discussed. Evidence, that static magnetic fields might produce therapeutic effects, will be updated [2]. [4pt] [1] S. Begall, et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105:13451 (2008). [0pt] [2] L. Finegold and B.L. Flamm, BMJ, 332:4 (2006).

Finegold, Leonard

2009-03-01

381

XUV harmonic enhancement by magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We examine three ways to enhance harmonic output of an XUV planar free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the Compton regime. The first method is to increase the rms static magnetic field, making it as large as possible. The second is by adding effective magnetic fields at the harmonics, thereby increasing the coupling to the harmonics. The third is by phase programming; i.e. programming the magnetic field to introduce jumps in the phase of the electrons as they move through phase space.

Elliott, C.J.; Schmitt, M.J.

1986-09-01

382

Magnetic field dependent tunneling in glasses  

PubMed

We report on experiments giving evidence for quantum effects of electromagnetic flux in barium alumosilicate glass. In contrast to expectation, below 100 mK the dielectric response becomes sensitive to magnetic fields. The experimental findings include both lifting of the dielectric saturation by weak magnetic fields and oscillations of the dielectric response in the low temperature resonant regime. As the origin of these effects we suggest that the magnetic induction field violates the time reversal invariance leading to a flux periodicity in the energy levels of tunneling systems. At low temperatures, this effect is strongly enhanced by the interaction between tunneling systems and thus becomes measurable. PMID:11017665

Strehlow; Wohlfahrt; Jansen; Haueisen; Weiss; Enss; Hunklinger

2000-02-28

383

Magnetic field structures in chemically peculiar stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of magnetic field modelling of around 50 CP stars, performed using the "magnetic charges" technique. The modelling shows that the sample reveals four main types of magnetic configurations: 1) a central dipole, 2) a dipole, shifted along the axis, 3) a dipole, shifted across the axis, and 4) complex structures. The vast majority of stars has the field structure of a dipole, shifted from the center of the star. This shift can have any direction, both along and across the axis. A small percentage of stars possess field structures, formed by two or more dipoles.

Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

2011-04-01

384

Magnetic field quality analysis using ANSYS  

SciTech Connect

The design of superconducting magnets for particles accelerators requires a high quality of the magnetic field. This paper presents an ANSYS 4.4A Post 1 macro that computes the field quality performing a Fourier analysis of the magnetic field. The results show that the ANSYS solution converges toward the analytical solution and that the error on the multipole coefficients depends linearly on the square of the mesh size. This shows the good accuracy of ANSYS in computing the multipole coefficients. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Dell'Orco, D.; Chen, Y.

1991-03-01

385

Magnetic Field Dependent Tunneling in Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments giving evidence for quantum effects of electromagnetic flux in barium alumosilicate glass. In contrast to expectation, below 100 mK the dielectric response becomes sensitive to magnetic fields. The experimental findings include both lifting of the dielectric saturation by weak magnetic fields and oscillations of the dielectric response in the low temperature resonant regime. As the origin of these effects we suggest that the magnetic induction field violates the time reversal invariance leading to a flux periodicity in the energy levels of tunneling systems. At low temperatures, this effect is strongly enhanced by the interaction between tunneling systems and thus becomes measurable.

Strehlow, P.; Wohlfahrt, M.; Jansen, A. G. M.; Haueisen, R.; Weiss, G.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

2000-02-01

386

[Weak magnetic fields and cognitive activity].  

PubMed

The influence of natural level of uniform magnetic field (to 200 microT) on Wistar rat cognition was studied in this work. It was found that influence of disturbed Earth magnetic field has caused a long depression of explorative activity only in the presence of information loading. Such depression was removed only after short external stimulation. After this stimulation rats were able to learn by themselves and it took them twice less time than in the control (nootropic effect). It is suggested that a weak magnetic field disturbances may be considered as a negative psychogenic factor which distorts normal conditions for cognitive activity. PMID:8962888

Nikol'skaia, K A; Shtemler, A V; Savonenko, A V; Osipov, A I; Nikol'ski?, S V

387

Environmental magnetic fields: Influences on early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

A 10-mG, 50 to 60-Hz magnetic field is in the intensity and frequency range that people worldwide are often exposed to in homes and in the workplace. Studies about the effects of 50- to 100-Hz electromagnetic fields on various species of animal embryos (fish, chick, fly, sea urchin, rat, and mouse) indicate that early stages of embryonic development are responsive to fluctuating magnetic fields. Chick, sea urchin, and mouse embryos are responsive to magnetic field intensities of 10-100 mG. Results from studies on sea urchin embryos indicate that exposure to conditions of rotating 60-Hz magnetic fields, e.g., similar to those in our environment, interferes with cell proliferation at the morula stage in a manner dependent on field intensity. The cleavage stages, prior to the 64-cell stage, were not delayed by this rotating 60-Hz magnetic field suggesting that the ionic surges, DNA replication, and translational events essential for early cleavage stages were not significantly altered. Studies of histone synthesis in early sea urchin embryos indicated that the rotating 60-Hz magnetic field decreased zygotic expression of early histone genes at the morula stage and suggests that this decrease in early histone production was limiting to cell proliferation. Whether these comparative observations from animal development studies will be paralleled by results from studies of human embryogenesis, as suggested by some epidemiology studies, has yet to be established. 38 refs.

Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Winters, W.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

1993-04-01

388

Plasma Dynamics in Pulsed Strong Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe recent studies of the interaction of fast-rising magnetic fields with multi-species plasmas of densities 10^13-10^15 cm-3. The configurations studied are planar or coaxial gaps, prefilled with plasmas that are driven by 80-400 ns current pulses. The diagnostics is based on time-dependent spectroscopic observations that are spatially resolved in 3D using plasma-doping techniques. The measurements include the magnetic-field structure (from Zeeman splitting), ion velocity distributions (from Doppler profiles), electric fields (from line shapes of allowed and forbidden transitions), and non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution (from line ratios). It is found that the magnetic field propagates in the plasma faster than expected from diffusion. Also, the field spatial distribution is inconsistent with diffusion. The observed broad current channel, as well as non-dependence of the magnetic field evolution on the current polarity, cannot be explained by the available Hall-field theories. Moreover, detailed observations reveal that magnetic field penetration and plasma reflection occur simultaneously, leading to ion-species separation [1, 2], which are also not predicted by Hall-field theories. Measurements of the reflected-proton velocities (twice the magnetic field velocity) show that the protons dissipate a significant fraction of the magnetic field energy. A possible mechanism previously formulated for astrophysical plasmas, based on the formation of small-scale density fluctuations (perhaps as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability) that lead to field penetration via the Hall mechanism, has recently been suggested. The new phenomena observed require novel theoretical treatments. Applications include plasmas under high currents and space physics. 1. A. Weingarten et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115004 (2001). 2. R. Arad, et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 112 (2003).

Maron, Yitzhak

2003-10-01

389

Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function. Human visual cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human brain activity are described. Task-induced changes in brain cognitive state were measured using high-speed MRI techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation. These techniques were used to generate the first functional MRI maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. The methodology

J. W. Belliveau; K. K. Kwong; D. N. Kennedy; J. R. Baker; C. E. Stern; R. Benson; D. A. Chesler; R. M. Weisskoff; M. S. Cohen; R. B. Tootell; P. T. Fox; T. J. Brady

1992-01-01

390

Recent biophysical studies in high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of biophysical effects of steady magnetic fields is given. The need of high field strength is illustrated by several recent diamagnetic orientation experiments. They include rod-like viruses, purple membranes and chromosomes. Results of various studies on bees, quails, rats and pigeons exposed to fields above 7 T are also resumed.

Maret, Georg

1990-06-01

391

Directed Plasma Flow across Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hall effect plays a significant role in the penetration of plasma flows across magnetic field. For example, its effect may become dominant in the solar wind penetration into the magnetosphere, in the magnetic field advection in wire array z-pinch precursors, or in the arcing of magnetically insulated transmission lines. An experiment performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility explored the penetration of plasma with large Hall parameter (˜10) across ambient magnetic field. The plasma was produced by ablation with the short pulse high intensity laser Leopard (0.35 ps, 10^17W/cm^2) and the magnetic field with the pulsed power generator Zebra (50 T). The expanding plasma assumed a jet configuration and propagated beyond a distance consistent with a diamagnetic bubble model. Without magnetic field, the plasma expansion was close to hemispherical. The ability to produce the plasma and the magnetic field with distinct generators allows a controlled, quasi-continuous variation of the Hall parameter and other plasma parameters making the experiments useful for benchmarking numerical simulations.

Presura, R.; Stepanenko, Y.; Neff, S.; Sotnikov, V. I.

2008-04-01

392

TRANSITION REGION MAGNETIC FIELD AND POLAR MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Explorer 12 measurements of the magnetic field outside the magnetosphere are compared with ground magnetograms from arctic observatories. Results indicate that an exterior field with a southerly component tends to be associated with ground disturbance, whereas a northward field is associated with quiet conditions. Examples are presented show- ing how a north-to-south field-direction change accompanies an increase in ground

D. H. Fairfield; L. J. Jr. Cahill

1966-01-01

393

Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the effect of accretion on the evolution of the magnetic field of a neutron star and highlight the main unresolved issues. Charged, accreted matter is funneled towards the magnetic poles where it heats the stellar surface and alters its magnetic structure resulting in an overall reduction of the magnetic dipole moment. Mechanisms for accretion-induced field reduction include accelerated Ohmic decay, vortex-fluxoid interactions, and magnetic burial or screening. We discuss how these can be integrated into a global model and detail recent self-consistent, three-dimensional, magneto-hydrodynamic, calculations (using analytic Grad-Shafranov methods and the numerical solver ZEUS-MP) which incorporate global resistive instabilities. These models can explain why neutron stars in binaries have systematically lower magnetic dipole moments than isolated neutron stars. Finally we discuss applications including the evolution of accreting millisecond pulsars and type-I X-ray bursts, magnetars, and gravitational waves.

Payne, D. J. B.; Vigelius, M.; Melatos, A.

2008-10-01

394

Reconnection Rates of Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sweet-Parker and Petschek scalings of magnetic reconnection rate are modified to include the effect of the viscosity. The modified scalings show that the viscous effect can be important in high- beta plasmas. The theoretical reconnection scalings are ...

W. Park D. A. Monticello R. B. White

1983-01-01

395

Field Directed Ordering in Magnetic Nanocrystal Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide nanocrystals (NCs) have been the focus of intense research owing to the observation of tunable magnetic properties which could lead to advances in many fields including magnetic storage devices and medicine. We have been targeting the use of iron oxide NCs as magnetoresistance (MR) based sensors using ordered NC arrays. In this work, we will present our efforts toward using external magnetic fields to induce intraparticle ordering in iron oxide NC drop cast films. We use x-ray diffraction to analyze effects of the external fields on the NC array structure, while using SQUID magnetometry to probe the effects of NC interactions on the magnetic properties of iron oxide NCs ranging from 5 - 20 nm in diameter. MR measurements suggest large changes in the MR ratio can be achieved using the directed ordering approach for NC arrays. Our work could provide new avenues towards the fabrication of new magnetic devices.

Lawson, Stuart; Meulenberg, Robert

2013-03-01

396

Magnetic Instabilities in High Field Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of magnetizing cylindrical specimens of a typical high field superconductor Nb-50 at.%Ti, flux jumps were induced by magnetic disturbances. The stability limit field Hfj increased steadily with increasing temperature, and no magnetic instability occurred for temperatures in excess of about 6.5 K. The calculation of Hfj was performed taking into account the cylindrical sample geometry and the critical state equation JcB1-?{=}?. According to the relative magnitudes of the magnetic diffusivity Dm and the thermal diffusivity Dt, the expression of Hfj was derived for two cases; (1) Dm>Dt, and (2) Dm?Dt. Good agreement between experiment and theory was obtained on the stability limit field Hfj and the temperature above which magnetic instabilities do not take place.

Akachi, Tatsuo; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Yasuk?chi, K?

1981-08-01

397

Magnetic field gradient effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability with continuous magnetic field and density profiles  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effects of magnetic field gradient (i.e., the magnetic field transition layer effects) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) with continuous magnetic field and density profiles are investigated analytically. The transition layers of magnetic field and density with two different typical profiles are studied and the analytic expressions of the linear growth rate of the RTI are obtained. It is found that the magnetic field effects strongly reduce the linear growth rate of the RTI, especially when the perturbation wavelength is short. The linear growth rate of the RTI increases with the thickness of the magnetic field transition layer, especially for the case of small thickness of the magnetic field transition layer. When the magnetic field transition layer width is long enough, the linear growth rate of the RTI can be saturated. Thus when one increases the width of the magnetic field transition layer, the linear growth rate of the RTI increases only in a certain range, which depends on the magnetic field strength. The numerical results are compared with the analytic linear growth rates and they agree well with each other.

Yang, B. L. [Graduate School, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H. [HEDPS and CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Xue, C. [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2011-07-15

398

Magnetic field sensors and visualizers using magnetic photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-optical imaging is widely used to observe the domain patterns in magnetic materials, visualize defects in ferromagnetic objects, and measure the spatial distribution of stray magnetic fields. Optimized 1D magneto-photonic crystals enable a significant increase in the sensitivity of magneto-optical sensors. The properties of such devices based on the optimized reflection (doubled Faraday rotation) mode and the use of 1D magnetic photonic crystals as sensors are discussed. Experimental results of the fabrication and characterization of ferrite-garnet layers possessing uniaxial magnetic anisotropy are shown, and an optimized film structure suitable for magneto-optical imaging is proposed.

Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alameh, Kamal E.; Kotov, Viatcheslav

2008-06-01

399

Magnetic power inverter: AC voltage generation from DC magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method that allows power conversion from DC magnetic fields to AC electric voltages using domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic nanowires. The device concept relies on spinmotive force, voltage generation due to magnetization dynamics. Sinusoidal modulation of the nanowire width introduces a periodic potential for a DW, the gradient of which exerts variable pressure on the traveling DW. This results in time variation of the DW precession frequency and the associated voltage. Using a one-dimensional model, we show that the frequency and amplitude of the AC outputs can be tuned by the DC magnetic fields and wire-design.

Ieda, Jun'ichi; Maekawa, Sadamichi

2012-12-01

400

Impurities in magnetic-field-induced Luttinger liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown recently(C. Biagini, D. L. Maslov, M. Yu. Reizer and L. I. Glazman, `` Magnetic-field-induced Luttinger liquid''), cond-mat/0006407. that a strong magnetic field applied to a bulk metal may induce a Luttinger liquid phase. This is a consequence of the reduced effective dimensionality of charge carriers from 3D to 1D, an effect which is most pronounced in the ultra-quantum limit, when only the lowest Landau level remains populated. We study the effect of impurities in this system. For the case of a point impurity, the calculation of the scattering cross section at a single impurity can be mapped exactly to a 1D problem of tunneling conductance through a barrier for interacting electrons, solved by Yue et al.(D. Yue, L. I. Glazman and K. A. Matveev, Phys. Rev. B 49) (1994) 1966.. Using this mapping, we find that the longitudinal (?=+1) and transverse (?=-1) Drude conductivities exhibit the scaling laws ?_?? T^??, where ?=2e^2|ln?l_B|/? v_F, and vF and ? are the B-dependent Fermi velocity and screening wavevector, respectively; lB is the magnetic length. The physical reason for such a behavior of the conductivity is the almost 1D form of the Friedel oscillation around a single point impurity in the strong magnetic field.

Tsai, Shan-Wen; Maslov, Dmitrii L.; Glazman, Leonid I.

2001-03-01

401

Modulating the Magnetic Field to Improve Magnetic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of most magnetic sensors is affected by 1/f noise. Modulating the magnetic field to be detected by magnetic sensors can improve their performance by minimizing the effect of this 1/f noise and, in some cases, also have them operate in a narrow frequency band where they have higher sensitivity. We present approaches for modulating the field. One approach is the MEMS flux concentrator can be used with small magnetic sensors and another, based on using a rotating disc containing flux concentrators that can be used with large magnetic sensors, such as magnetoelectric sensors, that have an increased sensitivity at their mechanical resonance frequency. Sidebands observed around the modulation frequency demonstrate the applicability of these approaches. The MEMS flux concentrator has improved the signal to noise ratio in the power spectrum by a factor of 15. The sensors have the potential to achieve sensitivities of a few pT/Hz^1/2 at 1 Hz.

Edelstein, Alan; Petrie, Jonathan; Fine, Jonathan; Fischer, Greg; Burnette, James; Srinivasan, Gopal; Mandal, Sanjay

2011-03-01

402

Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

403

Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model displays the field lines and field vectors of a dipole located at the origin and oriented along the z-axis. Users can compute the field line passing through a point by dragging the a marker within the 3D view. Users can also visualize the field vectors in a plane passing though the center of the dipole. The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticDipole3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-08-11

404

Magnetic field evolution in interacting galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Violent gravitational interactions can change the morphologies of galaxies and, by means of merging, transform them into elliptical galaxies. We aim to investigate how they affect the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. Methods: We selected 16 systems of interacting galaxies with available VLA archive radio data at 4.86 and 1.4 GHz and compared their radio emission and estimated magnetic

R. T. Drzazga; K. T. Chyzy; W. Jurusik; K. Wiórkiewicz

2011-01-01

405

Magnetic field sensors for the industrial automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple noncontacting detection of position plays a major role in the automation technique. Especially for the application in production plants, a high level of quality, reliability and durability is an absolute necessity. In this environment, the use of magnetic field sensors for detecting the position of a permanent magnet is at first glance a very well known and solved

T. Reininger; C. Hanisch

1997-01-01

406

The origin of galactic magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two suggested origins for the observed galactic magnetic fields: the primordial origin and the dynamo origin. In this paper the dynamo origin is discussed and criticized. It is pointed out that if the interstellar medium, in which the dynamo operates, is infinitely conducting, the dynamo will not behave properly but will amplify the chaotic part of the magnetic

R. M. Kulsrud

1990-01-01

407

Bioeffects issues of power frequency magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent release of two Swedish epidemiological studies correlating residential and occupational magnetic field exposures with certain cancers has strengthened the hypothesis that high voltage power delivery can increase the incidence of cancer. The studies have received wide television, radio, and newsmedia attention, and can be expected to influence public and governmental attitudes regarding residential and occupational 60-Hertz (Hz) magnetic

W. W. Shelton; J. C. Toler

1993-01-01

408

The Creation of Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, on the basis of Scriptures implying the original created material of the earth was water, I proposed that God created the water with the spins of its hydrogen nuclei initially aligned in one direction (Humphreys, 1983). That would produce a strong magnetic field. After 6,000 years of decay, including energy losses from magnetic reversals during the Genesis Flood,

D. Russell Humphreys

2008-01-01

409