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1

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding a coil of wire that is connected to a battery. This activity requires a large coil or spool of wire, a source of electricity such as 3 D-cell batteries or an AC to DC power adapter, alligator-clipped wire, and magnetic compasses. This is the third lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

2012-08-03

2

Mapping Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about bar magnets and their invisible magnetic fields. Learners will experiment with magnets and a compass to detect and draw magnetic fields. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource, entitled Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO.

2012-08-03

3

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

2012-08-03

4

Mapping Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetism. Using bar magnets, classroom materials, and a compass, learners will explore how bar magnets interact with one another and with other materials, use a compass to find the direction north, and use various materials to make magnetic field lines visible around a bar magnet. This is an activity in a larger poster resource, entitled The Sun Like It's Never Been Seen Before: In 3D.

5

Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

2007-01-01

6

Mapping the magnetic field vector in a fountain clock  

SciTech Connect

We show how the mapping of the magnetic field vector components can be achieved in a fountain clock by measuring the Larmor transition frequency in atoms that are used as a spatial probe. We control two vector components of the magnetic field and apply audio frequency magnetic pulses to localize and measure the field vector through Zeeman spectroscopy.

Gertsvolf, Marina; Marmet, Louis [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2011-12-15

7

Starspots Magnetic field by transit mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspots are important signatures of the global solar magnetic field cycle. It is believed that other stars also present these same phenomena. However, today it is not possible to observe directly star spots due to their very small sizes. The method applied here studies star spots by detecting small variations in the stellar light curve during a planetary transit. When the planet passes in front of its host star, there is a chance of it occulting, at least partially, a spot. This allows the determination of the spots physical characteristics, such as size, temperature, and location on the stellar surface. In the case of the Sun, there exists a relation between the magnetic field and the spot temperature. We estimate the magnetic field component along the line-of-sight and the intensity of sunspots using data from the MDI instrument on board of the SOHO satellite. Assuming that the same relation applies to other stars, we estimate spots magnetic fields of CoRoT-2 and Kepler-17 stars.

Válio, Adriana; Spagiari, Eduardo

2014-08-01

8

New frontiers in magnetic field interpretation and modeling: Examples from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is a joint effort on the part of the marine, airborne, and satellite magnetic communities to stitch together a unified map of the earth's lithospheric magnetic field. Several preliminary versions of this map will be exhibited during AGU, and this presentation will highlight interpretations of data that have gone into making this map. Examples

M. Purucker

2006-01-01

9

Vacuum Magnetic Field Mapping of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments are performed on the CTH torsatron with a movable electron gun and phosphor-coated screen or movable wand at two different toroidal locations. These experiments compare the experimentally measured magnetic configuration produced by the as-built coil set, to the magnetic configuration simulated with the IFT Biot-Savart code using the measured coil set parameters. Efforts to minimize differences between the experimentally measured location of the magnetic axis and its predicted value utilizing a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) process result in small modifications of the helical coil winding law used to model the vacuum magnetic field geometry of CTH. Because these studies are performed at relatively low fields B = 0.01 - 0.05 T, a uniform ambient magnetic field is included in the minimization procedure.

Peterson, J. T.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Montgomery, C.; Munoz, J.

2007-11-01

10

Directly Mapping Magnetic Field Effects of Neuronal Activity by Magnetic Resonance  

E-print Network

Directly Mapping Magnetic Field Effects of Neuronal Activity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jinhu Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain functional functional activity by directly detecting magnetic fields induced by neuronal firing. Using a well

Gabrieli, John

11

Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity Equation. Among these approaches, image-plane off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope has acquired a prominent role thanks to its quantitative capabilities and broad range of applicability. After a brief overview of the main ideas and methods behind field mapping, we focus on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p-n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors and magnetization topographies in nanoparticles and other magnetic materials) and electron-optical geometries (including multiple biprism, amplitude and mixed-type set-ups). We conclude by highlighting the emerging perspectives of (i) three-dimensional field mapping using electron holographic tomography and (ii) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.

Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

2014-02-01

12

Far-field mapping of the longitudinal magnetic and electric optical fields C. Ecoffey, T. Grosjean  

E-print Network

Far-field mapping of the longitudinal magnetic and electric optical fields C. Ecoffey, T. Grosjean of the longitudinal magnetic and electric optical fields with a standard scanning microscope that involves a high filter aimed at transmitting selectively to the detector the signal from the magnetic or electric

Boyer, Edmond

13

New frontiers in magnetic field interpretation and modeling: Examples from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is a joint effort on the part of the marine, airborne, and satellite magnetic communities to stitch together a unified map of the earth's lithospheric magnetic field. Several preliminary versions of this map will be exhibited during AGU, and this presentation will highlight interpretations of data that have gone into making this map. Examples to be discussed include 1) the Chicxulub impact structure, 2) geodynamical interpretations of dike swarms, 3) structural and tectonic interpretations of aeromagnetic maps over forearc basins with Cenozoic to Recent faulting, 4) heat flux beneath the Antarctic ice sheet, 5) the role of magnetic interpretations in identifying diamond-bearing kimberlites, and 6) structural inferences drawn from magnetic surveys over the West Siberian basin, and the Urengoy gas field.

Purucker, M.

2006-12-01

14

Magnetic Field Analysis of External Rotor Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Conformal Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analytical and numerical conformal mapping (CM) to analyze magnetic fields originating from permanent magnets and armature winding currents in a slotted air-gap of a surface mounted radial permanent-magnet synchronous motor (SPM), taking into account the effect of arbitrarily curved motor surfaces. We also studied the slotless configuration of the external rotor permanent-magnet motor for the purpose of

Kamel Boughrara; Rachid Ibtiouen; Damir Zarko; Omar Touhami; Abderezzak Rezzoug

2010-01-01

15

Mapping Magnetic Influence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educator’s guide details activities that allow students to explore magnets and the region of influence around a magnet called a magnetic field. Students learn that magnets exert a force on a magnetically-sensitive object without coming into direct contact with it. Students then create a map of the magnetic influence around the magnet.

16

Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students visualize the magnetic field of a strong permanent magnet using a compass. The lesson begins with an analogy to the effect of the Earth's magnetic field on a compass. Students see the connection that the compass simply responds to the Earth's magnetic field since it is the closest, strongest field, and thus the compass responds to the field of the permanent magnets, allowing them the ability to map the field of that magnet in the activity. This information will be important in designing a solution to the grand challenge in activity 4 of the unit.

2014-09-18

17

SOFIA/HAWC+: Mapping the Galactic center magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetry of the far infrared emission from magnetically-aligned interstellar grains is one of the best ways of studying the magnetic field at the Galactic center. We describe the HAWC+ instrument, under development for flight on SOFIA starting in 2015, which will provide a major advance in capability for these critically important measurements.

Werner, Michael W.; Dowell, C. Darren; Chuss, D. T.; Morris, M. R.; Novak, G.; HAWC+ Team

2014-05-01

18

MAGMO: Mapping the Galactic Magnetic field through OH masers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are undertaking a project (MAGMO) to examine large-scale magnetic fields pervading regions of high-mass star formation. The project will test if the orientations of weak large-scale magnetic fields can be maintained in the contraction (and field amplification) to the high densities encountered in high-mass star forming regions. This will be achieved through correlating targeted observations of ground-state hydroxyl (OH) maser emission towards hundreds of sites of high-mass star formation spread throughout the spiral arms of the Milky Way. Through the Zeeman splitting of the OH maser emission these observations will determine the strength and orientation of the in-situ magnetic field. The completion of the southern hemisphere Methanol Multibeam survey has provided an abundance of targets for ground-state OH maser observations, approximately 1000 sites of high-mass star formation. With this sample, much larger and more homogeneous than previously available, we will have the statistics necessary to outweigh random fluctuations and observe an underlying Galactic magnetic field if it exists. We presented details of the overall progress of the project illustrated by the results of a pilot sample of sources towards the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm tangent, where a coherent field is implied.

Green, James A.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Caswell, James L.; Robishaw, Tim; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Mao, Sui Ann

2015-03-01

19

First scalar magnetic anomaly map from CHAMP satellite data indicates weak lithospheric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite magnetic anomaly maps derived by different techniques from Magsat/POGO data vary by more than a factor of 2 in the deduced strength of the lithospheric magnetic field. Here, we present a first anomaly map from new CHAMP scalar magnetic field data. After subtracting a recent Ørsted main and external field model, we remove remaining unmodeled large-scale external contributions from 120° track segments by subtracting a best-fitting uniform field. In order to preserve N/S trending features, the data are not filtered along-track. Direct integration of the spherically gridded data yields the final degree 14-65 spherical harmonic expansion of the total intensity anomaly at the mean satellite altitude of 438 km. Apart from enhanced long wavelength features and a smoother general appearance, our initial map is strikingly similar to one of the lower strength Magsat/POGO maps.

Maus, S.; Rother, M.; Holme, R.; Lühr, H.; Olsen, N.; Haak, V.

2002-07-01

20

The Impact of Different Global Photospheric Magnetic Field Maps on Coronal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary objective of current and future solar magnetic field observations is to provide an accurate description of the spatial and temporal distribution of the photospheric magnetic field. These observations are usually merged together over an extended period of time, typically a solar rotation, to produce 360-degree surface maps of the magnetic flux distribution that are regularly used today in several space weather programs. As the main drivers for coronal and heliospheric models, the quality of the maps will ultimately test the diagnostic capabilities of these models and our ability to model the state of the inner heliosphere. Different techniques have been used to construct global magnetic maps of the solar surface from selected set of magnetograms. In our study we have compared the impact of using either diachronic or synchronic maps for predicting the background solar wind speed at Earth. For this purpose we used a potential field source surface model driven by 1-degree resolution full Carrington rotation (CR) radial maps, combined with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. The radial maps were produced for CR 2055 to CR 2087 using SOLIS longitudinal magnetic field observations in the spectral line of Fe I at 630.15nm. The quality of each of these maps is then validated by comparing the predicted background solar wind speeds to the observed values as measured by ACE.

Bertello, L.; Petrie, G. J.; Tran, T.

2010-12-01

21

The Milky Way Magnetic Field Mapping Mission: M4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M4 has been proposed this year as a potential new SMEX mission. The central goal of the mission is to measure magnetic field orientations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way Galaxy to assess the importance of the field in star formation and other physical processes. The measurement technique is far-infrared imaging linear polarimetry, which has been extensively proven from both the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and the recent Infrared Space Observatory. M4 will conduct the first extensive surveys of magnetic field orientations, spanning 1400 square degrees of the dense interstellar medium of the inner Milky Way, 300 square degrees of nearby star-forming dark molecular clouds, and 330 square degrees away from the Galactic plane, chosen to cover regions with infrared cirrus. The M4 instrument consists of a 20 cm cooled telescope, far-infrared light polarization analysis optics, and two 32x32 focal plane array detectors operating around 100 microns wavelength. The M4 spacecraft is a 3-axis stablized pointing platform. The nominal launch date is 1 March 2004. The Pegasus XL is the baseline launch vehicle. The flight portion will span 3-4 months, in a 500 km, Sun-sync orbit. Data will be released in two stages: 6 months and 12 months after the end of the flight portion of the project.

Clemens, D. P.; Bookbinder, J.; Goodman, A.; Kristen, H.; Myers, P.; Padoan, P.; Wood, K.; Heyer, M. H.; Heiles, C.; Jones, T. J.; Dickey, J.; Young, E.; Rieke, G.; Dow, K.; Dowell, C. D.; Draine, B.; Greaves, J.; Klaas, U.; Laureijs, R.; Lazarian, A.; Shulz, B.; Zweibel, E.

2000-05-01

22

PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in the journal Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. All articles have been refereed by experts in the field. Both of these journals are fully accessible electronically and can be cited and referenced in the usual way. It is our hope that the reader will enjoy and profit from the MAP3 Proceedings. Hitoshi Wada (Kashiwa, Japan) Chair Eric Beaugon (Grenoble, France) Hans J Schneider-Muntau (Tallahassee, USA) Co-chair Advisory Board Shigeo Asai (Nagoya, Japan) Koichi Kitazawa (Tokyo, Japan) Mitsuhiro Motokawa (Sendai, Japan) Shoogo Ueno (Fukuoka, Japan) Robert Tournier (Grenoble, France) Justin Schwartz (Tallahassee, USA) J C Maan (Nijmegen, Netherland) Scientific Committee Yoshifumi Tanimoto (Hiroshima, Japan) Masuhiro Yamaguchi (Yokohama, Japan) Tsunehisa Kimura (Kyoto, Japan) Yoshio Sakka (Tsukuba Japan) Ryoichi Aogaki (Tokyo, Japan) Jyunji Miyakoshi (Hirosaki, Japan) Kazuo Watanabe (Sendai, Japan) James M Valles Jr. (Providence, USA) Joon Pyo Park (Pohang, Korea) Qiang Wang (Shenyang, China) Nicole Pamme (Hull, UK) Sophie Rivoirard (Grenoble, France) P C M Christianen (Nijmegen, Netherland) Local Organizing Committee Isao Yamamoto Masafumi Yamato Shigeru Horii Norihito Sogoshi Masateru Ikehata Noriyuki Hirota Tsutomu Ando Proceedings Editorial Board Yoshio Sakka Noriyuki Hirota Shigeru Horii Tsutomu Ando Conference photograph

Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

2009-07-01

23

Modelling and Interpreting The Effects of Spatial Resolution on Solar Magnetic Field Maps  

E-print Network

Different methods for simulating the effects of spatial resolution on magnetic field maps are compared, including those commonly used for inter-instrument comparisons. The investigation first uses synthetic data, and the results are confirmed with {\\it Hinode}/SpectroPolarimeter data. Four methods are examined, one which manipulates the Stokes spectra to simulate spatial-resolution degradation, and three "post-facto" methods where the magnetic field maps are manipulated directly. Throughout, statistical comparisons of the degraded maps with the originals serve to quantify the outcomes. Overall, we find that areas with inferred magnetic fill fractions close to unity may be insensitive to optical spatial resolution; areas of sub-unity fill fractions are very sensitive. Trends with worsening spatial resolution can include increased average field strength, lower total flux, and a field vector oriented closer to the line of sight. Further-derived quantities such as vertical current density show variations even in ...

Leka, KD

2011-01-01

24

PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo

Yoshio Sakka; Noriyuki Hirota; Shigeru Horii; Tsutomu Ando

2009-01-01

25

Making global map of the solar surface Br from the HMI vector magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) has made full-disk vector magnetic field measurements of the Sun with cadence of 12 minutes. The three-component solar surface magnetic field vector data are from the HMI observations with the data process pipeline modules, VFISV (Very Fast Inversion of the Stokes Vector, Borrero et al., 2011) for Milne-Eddington inversion and the minimum-energy disambiguation algorithm (Metcalf 1994, Leka et al, 2009). The models of the global corona and solar wind, such as the PFSS (potential-field source-surface) model and the MHD simulations, often use the maps of solar surface magnetic field, especially the radial component (Br) as the boundary condition. The HMI observation can provide new Br data for these model. Because of weak magnetic signals at the quiet regions of the Sun, the limb darkening, and geometric effects near solar poles, we need to apply an assumption to make a whole-surface map. In this paper, we tested two assumptions for determining Br at weak-field regions. The coronal structures calculated by the PFSS model with the vector-based Br are compared with those with the magnetogram-based Br and the corona observed by the SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly). In the tested period, CR 2098, the vector-based Br map gives better agreements than the line-of-sight magnetogram data, though we need further investigation for evaluation.

Hayashi, K.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Centeno, R.; Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.

2013-06-01

26

Magnetic field map around a wall with a complete lightning protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a lumped element model suitable for the evaluation of the electromagnetic interference generated by a lightning protection system during a transient. The protection system considered, consisting of several downlead and potential equalization conductors, is complete. The proposed model accounts for possible ionization effects caused by high lightning currents. A map of the magnetic field near the wall

G. Casinovi; A. Geri; G. M. Veca

1989-01-01

27

A Global Map of Mars' Crustal Magnetic Field Based on Electron Reflectometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the great surprises of the Mars Global Surveyor mission was the discovery of intensely magnetized crust. Magnetic sources on Mars are at least ten times stronger than their terrestrial counterparts, probably requiring large volumes of coherently magnetized material, very strong remanence, or both. Although much of the attention so far has been placed on the strong crustal fields in the southern highlands, magnetic sources do exist in the younger low-lying plains. The strength and morphology of these sources could yield clues to the thermal and magnetic history of the northern plains. Low altitude (approx. 100 km) Magnetometer (MAG) data obtained during aerobraking have the greatest spatial resolution and sensitivity for identifying crustal magnetic sources from orbit, but those data are sparse and therefore limit the ability to discern morphology. Fully sampled MAG data obtained in the 400-km altitude mapping orbit have been differenced with respect to latitude (Br/Lat) to minimize the influence of induced fields from the solar wind interaction and thus enhance the sensitivity to weak crustal sources. Here we describe independent results from the Electron Reflectometer (ER), which remotely measures the magnetic field intensity at approx. 170 km altitude, and is roughly seven times more sensitive to crustal magnetic sources than measurements of Br from the mapping orbit.

Mitchell, D. L.; Lillis, R. J.; Lin, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.

2005-01-01

28

Detection of magnetic field intensity gradient by homing pigeons (Columba livia) in a novel "virtual magnetic map" conditioning paradigm.  

PubMed

It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a "virtual magnetic map" during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain. PMID:24039812

Mora, Cordula V; Bingman, Verner P

2013-01-01

29

Detection of Magnetic Field Intensity Gradient by Homing Pigeons (Columba livia) in a Novel “Virtual Magnetic Map” Conditioning Paradigm  

PubMed Central

It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a “virtual magnetic map” during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain. PMID:24039812

Mora, Cordula V.; Bingman, Verner P.

2013-01-01

30

Mapping and Initial Interpretation of The Lithospheric Field From Champ Scalar and Vector Magnetic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighteen months into the CHAMP mission there is now a seizable data set of scalar and vector magnetic measurements. With this data the lithospheric magnetic field can be mapped with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. After illustrating certain qual- ity characteristics of the measured data I discuss the correction for magnetospheric currents, which is a key issue in lithospheric field mapping. Our maps of the anomaly of the total intensity and of the vertical component of the magnetic field show considerable agreement with earlier Magsat/POGO maps in areas of strong lithospheric signal. The most significant differences are seen in areas of young crust where the signal is weak. Interestingly, the area with the weakest magnetic signal in the Pacific Ocean does not coincide with the Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR). Generally, anomalies are well aligned with the MORs, though. Over the continents the Archean Shields stand out clearly by their bulk magnetisation against younger crust. Particularly in Africa it may be difficult to explain the observed anomalies by induced magnetisation and a varying Curie depth alone.

Maus, S.

31

Vacuum Field Mapping of Magnetic Equilibria and Islands in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum field mapping experiments are being performed on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) to get an accurate model the magnetic coils and to minimize magnetic islands. Using the electron-beam, phosphor-coated screen/wand techniques, comparisons are made between the designed and experimentally achieved magnetic configurations. A Single Value Decomposition (SVD) technique uses the modeled and experimentally measured magnetic axis position and rotational transform to attempt to give a more accurate model of the CTH coils. Furthermore, magnetic islands are observed at low order rational surfaces. Corrections to reduce the resonant island sizes are computed with the Fix Stellarator code and applied by a set of up to 15 circular error-correction coils. We have successfully minimized the size of the island on the iota = 1/3 rational surface. Efforts are underway to reduce the island width of multiple island chains in the same equilibrium.

Peterson, J. T.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Montgomery, C.; Munoz, J.

2006-10-01

32

Fast simulation of the whole-sky CMB map in the presence of primordial magnetic field  

E-print Network

We present a novel method for generation of sets of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy maps, which reproduces the $\\Delta \\l=2$ correlations associated with Alfv\\'en turbulence. The method is based on the non-linear transformation of the CMB maps, which is obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation of the statistically isotropic Gaussian signal. Our method is computationally fast and efficient. We have applied two estimators (the cross-correlation estimator in multipole domain for $\\l+1,m$ and $\\l-1,m$ modes and circular phase moments) to test the statistical properties of derived maps. Both of these statistics confirm the effectiveness of our generation method. We believe that our method can be useful for fast generation of the non-Gaussian maps in the presence of the primordial magnetic field, and be a valuable tool for the non-Gaussianity investigation of the CMB in the framework of the future PLANCK data analysis.

Pavel Naselsky; Jaiseung Kim

2008-09-17

33

Coronal Loop Mapping to Infer the Best Magnetic Field Models for Active Region Prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article comments on the results of a new, rapid, and flexible manual method to map on-disk individual coronal loops of a two-dimensional EUV image into the three-dimensional coronal loops. The method by Gary, Hu, and Lee (2013) employs cubic Bézier splines to map coronal loops using only four free parameters per loop. A set of 2D splines for coronal loops is transformed to the best 3D pseudo-magnetic field lines for a particular coronal model. The results restrict the magnetic field models derived from extrapolations of magnetograms to those admissible and inadmissible via a fitness parameter. This method uses the minimization of the misalignment angles between the magnetic field model and the best set of 3D field lines that match a set of closed coronal loops. We comment on the implication of the fitness parameter in connection with the magnetic free energy and comment on extensions of our earlier work by considering the issues of employing open coronal loops or employing partial coronal loop.

Gary, G. Allen; Hu, Qiang; Lee, Jong Kwan

2014-01-01

34

Generating Synthetic Magnetic Field Intermittency Using a Minimal Multiscale Lagrangian Mapping Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Minimal Multiscale Lagrangian Mapping procedure developed in the context of neutral fluid turbulence is a simple method for generating synthetic vector fields. Using a sequence of low-pass filtered fields, fluid particles are displaced at their rms speed for some scale-dependent time interval, and then interpolated back to a regular grid. Fields produced in this way are seen to possess certain properties of real turbulence. This paper extends the technique to plasmas by taking into account the coupling between the velocity and magnetic fields. We examine several possible applications to plasma systems. One use is as initial conditions for simulations, wherein these synthetic fields may efficiently produce a strongly intermittent cascade. The intermittency properties of the synthetic fields are also compared with those of the solar wind. Finally, studies of cosmic ray transport and modulation in the test particle approximation may benefit from improved realism in synthetic fields produced in this way.

Subedi, P.; Chhiber, R.; Tessein, J. A.; Wan, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.

2014-12-01

35

Mapping of Ambient Magnetic Fields within Liquid Helium Dewar for Testing of a DC SQUID Magnetometer  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to explore the cavity lights phenomenon, Experimental Facilities Department at SLAC is testing a DC SQUID magnetometer. Due to the nature of the SQUID magnetometer and the intended tests, the earth's magnetic field must be negated. It is proposed to reduce ambient fields using bucking coils. First, however, an accurate map of the magnetic field inside the liquid helium Dewar where the experiment is going to take place needed to be made. This map was made using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on a 3D positioning device made for this purpose. A ten inch tall volume within the Dewar was measured at data points approximately an inch from each other in all three axes. A LabVEIW program took readings from the magnetometer at 2 ms intervals for 1000 readings in such a way as to eliminate any ambient 60 Hz signals that may be present in the data. This data was stored in spreadsheet format and was analyzed to determine how the magnetic field within the Dewar was changing as a function of position.

Newhouse, Randal

2003-09-05

36

Precise mapping of the magnetic field in the CMS barrel yoke using cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

2010-03-01

37

Precise Mapping of the Magnetic Field in the CMS Barrel Yoke using Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G

2010-01-01

38

Precise mapping of the magnetic field in the CMS barrel yoke using cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12 000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

CMS Collaboration

2010-03-01

39

Measuring the cluster magnetic field power spectra from Faraday rotation maps of Abell 400, Abell 2634 and Hydra A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a novel technique of Faraday Rotation measure (RM) map analysis to three galaxy clusters, Abell 400, Abell 2634 and Hydra A, in order to estimate cluster magnetic field strengths, length scales and power spectra. This analysis - essentially a correlation analysis - is based on the assumption that the magnetic fields are statistically isotropically distributed across the Faraday

Corina Vogt; T. A. Enßlin

2003-01-01

40

Results of SPARO 2003: Mapping Magnetic Fields in Giant Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results obtained in 2003 using the Submillimeter Polarimeter for Antarctic Remote Observations (SPARO). SPARO is an imaging polarimeter operating at 450 microns that is used together with the 2 meter Viper telescope at South Pole to map magnetic fields in the dense component of the Galactic ISM. In comparison with other submillimeter polarimeters currently in use, SPARO is especially sensitive to diffuse, extended submillimeter emission. SPARO observed four Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) during April-July 2003, obtaining polarimetric detections for about 150 sky positions covering a total sky area of about 0.5 square degrees. The inferred projected magnetic field directions show a tendency to be parallel to the Galactic Plane except where disturbed by expanding bubbles. The bubbles are revealed by Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Band A (7-11 microns) images, as well as (in some cases) by optical recombination line maps. In the vicinity of the bubbles, the projected magnetic field directions tend to run parallel to the bubbles' limb-brightened shells, as expected for formation of a highly compressed shell of gas under flux-freezing conditions. We discuss the implications of our results for future studies of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in GMCs to be carried out using instruments now under development such as the polarimeter for SCUBA2 at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and the SHARP polarimeter at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. SPARO is funded by the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs.

Novak, G.; Griffin, G. S.; Krejny, M.; Li, H.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Newcomb, M. G.; Calisse, P. G.; Chuss, D. T.

2005-05-01

41

Cardiac magnetic field map topology quantified by Kullback-Leibler entropy identifies patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common primary inherited cardiac muscle disorder, defined clinically by the presence of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. The detection of affected patients remains challenging. Genetic testing is limited because only in 50%-60% of all HCM diagnoses an underlying mutation can be found. Furthermore, the disease has a varied clinical course and outcome, with many patients having little or no discernible cardiovascular symptoms, whereas others develop profound exercise limitation and recurrent arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. Therefore prospective screening of HCM family members is strongly recommended. According to the current guidelines this includes serial echocardiographic and electrocardiographic examinations. In this study we investigated the capability of cardiac magnetic field mapping (CMFM) to detect patients suffering from HCM. We introduce for the first time a combined diagnostic approach based on map topology quantification using Kullback-Leibler (KL) entropy and regional magnetic field strength parameters. The cardiac magnetic field was recorded over the anterior chest wall using a multichannel-LT-SQUID system. CMFM was calculated based on a regular 36 point grid. We analyzed CMFM in patients with confirmed diagnosis of HCM (HCM, n =33, 43.8±13 years, 13 women, 20 men), a control group of healthy subjects (NORMAL, n =57, 39.6±8.9 years; 22 women and 35 men), and patients with confirmed cardiac hypertrophy due to arterial hypertension (HYP, n =42, 49.7±7.9 years, 15 women and 27 men). A subgroup analysis was performed between HCM patients suffering from the obstructive (HOCM, n =19) and nonobstructive (HNCM, n =14) form of the disease. KL entropy based map topology quantification alone identified HCM patients with a sensitivity of 78.8% and specificity of 86.9% (overall classification rate 84.8%). The combination of the KL parameters with a regional field strength parameter improved the overall classification rate to 87.9% (sensitivity: 84.8%, specificity: 88.9%, area under ROC curve: 0.94). KL measures applied to discriminate between HOCM and HNCM patients showed a correct classification of 78.8%. The combination of one KL and one regional parameter again improved the overall classification rate to 97%. A preliminary prospective analysis in two HCM families showed the feasibility of this diagnostic approach with a correct diagnosis of all 22 screened family members (1 HOCM, 4 HNCM, 17 normal). In conclusion, Cardiac Magnetic Field Mapping including KL entropy based topology quantifications is a suitable tool for HCM screening.

Schirdewan, A.; Gapelyuk, A.; Fischer, R.; Koch, L.; Schütt, H.; Zacharzowsky, U.; Dietz, R.; Thierfelder, L.; Wessel, N.

2007-03-01

42

Mapping nanoscale light fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of light fields on subwavelength scales in nanophotonic structures has become ubiquitous, driven by both curiosity and a multitude of applications in fields ranging from biosensing to quantum optics. Mapping these fields in detail is crucial, as theoretical modelling is far from trivial and highly dependent on nanoscale geometry. Recent developments of nanoscale field mapping, particularly with near-field microscopy, have not only led to a vastly increased resolution, but have also resulted in increased functionality. The phase and amplitude of different vector components of both the electric and magnetic fields are now accessible, as is the ultrafast temporal or spectral evolution of propagating pulses in nanostructures. In this Review we assess the current state-of-the-art of subwavelength light mapping, highlighting the new science and nanostructures that have subsequently become accessible.

Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

2014-12-01

43

A model of the AGS based on stepwise ray-tracing through the measured field maps of the main magnets  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional mid-plane magnetic field maps of two of the main AGS magnets were produced, from Hall probe measurements, for a series of different current settings. The analysis of these data yielded the excitation functions [1] and the harmonic coefficients [2] of the main magnets which have been used so far in all the models of the AGS. The constant increase of the computation power makes it possible today to directly use a stepwise raytracing through these measured field maps with a reasonable computation time. We describe in detail how these field maps have allowed the generation of models of the 6 different types of AGS main magnets, and how they are being handled with the Zgoubi ray-tracing code [3]. We give and discuss a number of results obtained regarding both beam and spin dynamics in the AGS, and we provide comparisons with other numerical and analytical modelling methods.

Dutheil Y.; Meot, F.; Tsoupas, N.

2012-05-20

44

Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

Schöller, Markus

2015-01-01

45

Inner Magnetosphere Modeling at the CCMC: Ring Current, Radiation Belt and Magnetic Field Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of the inner magnetosphere has entered center stage with the launch of the Van Allen Probes (RBSP) in 2012. The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has drastically improved its offerings of inner magnetosphere models that cover energetic particles in the Earth's ring current and radiation belts. Models added to the CCMC include the stand-alone Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model by M.C. Fok, the Rice Convection Model (RCM) by R. Wolf and S. Sazykin and numerous versions of the Tsyganenko magnetic field model (T89, T96, T01quiet, TS05). These models join the LANL* model by Y. Yu hat was offered for instant run earlier in the year. In addition to these stand-alone models, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) by M.C. Fok and N. Buzulukova joined as a component of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) in the magnetosphere model run-on-request category. We present modeling results of the ring current and radiation belt models and demonstrate tracking of satellites such as RBSP. Calculations using the magnetic field models include mappings to the magnetic equator or to minimum-B positions and the determination of foot points in the ionosphere.

Rastaetter, L.; Mendoza, A. M.; Chulaki, A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Zheng, Y.

2013-12-01

46

Synoptic solar magnetic field maps for the interval including Carrington rotations 1601-1680, May 5, 1973-April 26, 1979  

SciTech Connect

A program of regular observations of solar magnetic fields was started at Kitt Peak National Observatory in April 1973, primarily in response to the needs of the Skylab mission. At first, the observations were made with the 40-channel magnetograph at the McMath telescope. During 1973 a telescope dedicated to synoptic studies was completed, and starting in 1974, observations were made with a 512-channel magnetograph. Daily full disk observations were first combined into synoptic maps during the Skylab Solar Workshop on Coronal Holes and High Speed Wind Streams and were used for studies of the magnetic field strength below coronal holes and extrapolations of the magnetic field into the corona, but these maps have never been published. Starting with Carrington rotation number 1681 the synoptic maps have been produced and published regularly in Solar-Geophysical Data, Part I (National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center, Boulder, Colorado). Old data obtained prior to Carrington rotation number 1681 have now been processed into synoptic maps in the same way as current data are processed, and this publication presents these earlier maps in the same format.

Harvey, J.; Gillespie, B.; Miedaner, P.; Slaughter, C.

1980-08-01

47

Detecting Ferrite Nanobeads for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with a Highly Sensitive Hall Differential Magnetic Field Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a novel type of Hall differential magnetic field sensor for anti-cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using ferrofluid as a marker. A pair of Hall devices are mounted on both end surfaces of a ferrite core (10 mm phi ×32 mm) of an electromagnetic coil which generates an AC exciting magnetic field at 2.5 kHz. The signals are retrieved by a digital phase sensitive detection circuit. Mapping a ferrofluid (ResovistR) sample of l00?g in Fe atomic amount (comparable to that accumulated in human SLNs) was attained when the sample was placed within 6 mm distance from the sensor head. The detectable distance is limited primarily due to the magnetic induction effect of the metal XYZ stage which held the sample.

Abe, M.; Ueda, T.; Masaki, T.; Kitamoto, Y.; Matsushita, N.; Handa, H.

2012-03-01

48

Magnetic Dirac-harmonic maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a functional, whose critical points couple Dirac-harmonic maps from surfaces with a two form. The critical points can be interpreted as coupling the prescribed mean curvature equation to spinor fields. On the other hand, this functional also arises as part of the supersymmetric sigma model in theoretical physics. In two dimensions it is conformally invariant. We call critical points of this functional magnetic Dirac-harmonic maps. We study geometric and analytic properties of magnetic Dirac-harmonic maps including their regularity and the removal of isolated singularities.

Branding, Volker

2015-03-01

49

Interpreting the Role of the Magnetic Field from Dust Polarization Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust polarization observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are analyzed with the goal of providing a general tool to interpret the role of the magnetic field in molecular clouds. Magnetic field and dust emission gradient orientations are observed to show distinct patterns and features. The angle ? between these two orientations can be interpreted as a magnetic field alignment deviation, assuming the emission gradient orientation to coincide with the density gradient orientation in the magnetohydrodynamics force equation. In SMA high-resolution (collapsing) cores, additional symmetry properties in ? can reveal accretion and outflow zones. All these observational findings suggest the angle ? to be a relevant quantity that can assess the role of the magnetic field. Indeed, when comparing this angle with the (projection-free) magnetic field significance ? B (introduced by Koch and coworkers in 2012), it is demonstrated that |?| yields an approximation to the change in ? B . Thus, changes in the magnetic field alignment deviation ? trace changes in the role of the magnetic field. The angle ? is observationally straightforward to determine, providing a tool to distinguish between zones of minor or significant magnetic field impact. This is exemplified by the CSO M+0.25 + 0.01, Mon R2, CO+0.02 - 0.02, M-0.02 - 0.07 sources and by the SMA high-resolution data from W51 e2, W51 North, Orion BN/KL and g5.89. Additional CSO sources are analyzed, providing further support of this result. Finally, based on the different features found in our sample of 31 sources in total, covering sizes from large-scale complexes to collapsing cores, a schematic evolutionary scenario is proposed. Here, the significance of the magnetic field evolves both with position and scale, and can be assessed with the angle ?.

Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

2013-09-01

50

INTERPRETING THE ROLE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD FROM DUST POLARIZATION MAPS  

SciTech Connect

Dust polarization observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are analyzed with the goal of providing a general tool to interpret the role of the magnetic field in molecular clouds. Magnetic field and dust emission gradient orientations are observed to show distinct patterns and features. The angle ? between these two orientations can be interpreted as a magnetic field alignment deviation, assuming the emission gradient orientation to coincide with the density gradient orientation in the magnetohydrodynamics force equation. In SMA high-resolution (collapsing) cores, additional symmetry properties in ? can reveal accretion and outflow zones. All these observational findings suggest the angle ? to be a relevant quantity that can assess the role of the magnetic field. Indeed, when comparing this angle with the (projection-free) magnetic field significance ?{sub B} (introduced by Koch and coworkers in 2012), it is demonstrated that |?| yields an approximation to the change in ?{sub B}. Thus, changes in the magnetic field alignment deviation ? trace changes in the role of the magnetic field. The angle ? is observationally straightforward to determine, providing a tool to distinguish between zones of minor or significant magnetic field impact. This is exemplified by the CSO M+0.25 + 0.01, Mon R2, CO+0.02 – 0.02, M–0.02 – 0.07 sources and by the SMA high-resolution data from W51 e2, W51 North, Orion BN/KL and g5.89. Additional CSO sources are analyzed, providing further support of this result. Finally, based on the different features found in our sample of 31 sources in total, covering sizes from large-scale complexes to collapsing cores, a schematic evolutionary scenario is proposed. Here, the significance of the magnetic field evolves both with position and scale, and can be assessed with the angle ?.

Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: pmkoch@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-09-20

51

Mapping the earth's magnetic and gravity fields from space Current status and future prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal magnetic fields encountered by earth orbiting spacecraft include the main (core) field, external fields produced by electrical currents within the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the crustal (anomaly) field generated by variations in the magnetization of the outermost portions of the earth. The first orbital field measurements which proved to be of use for global studies of crustal magnetization were obtained by a series of three satellites launched and operated from 1965 to 1971. Each of the satellites, known as a Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), carried a rubidium vapor magnetometer. Attention is also given to Magsat launched in 1979, the scalar anomaly field derived from the Magsat measurements, satellite tracking studies in connection with gravity field surveys, radar altimetry, the belt of positive free air gravity anomalies situated along the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin, future technological capabilities, and information concerning data availability.

Settle, M.; Taranik, J. V.

1983-01-01

52

Active region magnetic fields inferred from simultaneous VLA microwave maps, X-ray spectroheliograms, and magnetograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VLA maps at 6-cm wavelength discussed here are generated from observations of a solar active region (NOAA 2363) on March 29 and 30, 1980. The X-ray spectroheliograms were acquired for this region in the lines of O VIII, Ne IX, Mg XI, Si XIII, S XV, and Fe XXV. It is found that the peaks of X-ray and 6-cm emission do not coincide but that the sources in the two wavelength domains tend to overlap. These facts are seen as evidence for the existence of opacity mechanisms other than thermal bremsstrahlung. To quantify this assertion, differential emission measures are computed to derive densities and temperatures. Using these and calculated force-free magnetic fields from Kitt Peak magnetograms, an assessment is made of the mechanism of gyroresonance absorption at low harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency as the source of opacity responsible for the microwave features. It is concluded that large-scale currents must be present in the active region loops to account for the bright 6-cm sources far from sunspots.

Schmahl, E. J.; Kundu, M. R.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Smith, J. B., Jr.; Krall, K. R.

1982-01-01

53

Drawing the treasure map: disentangling the structure of the magnetic field of the system BD+20 1790  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we present the preliminary results of the study of the surface of the magnetic field of the system BD+20 1790 and its close-in giant planet. Previous results show a high level of stellar activity, with the presence of prominence-like structures, spots on the surface and strong flare events, despite the moderate rotational velocity of the star. The presence of the planet could be an interpretation for these, in terms of stellar-planet interactions (SPI) theory. To study the stellar activity we have carried out both echelle spectroscopic and photometric monitoring over the past few years. The aim of this work is to map the active regions at different atmospheric levels. The simultaneous study of photospheric and chromospheric active regions is a powerful tool that allows us to trace, reconstruct and model the puzzle of the magnetic field topology since the structure of magnetic flux tube breaking into the stellar atmosphere is traced by the configuration of these active regions at the different levels. In short, studying and drawing the map of the magnetic field of this system will enlarge our understanding of SPI, as well as magnetism and activity.

Hernan-Obispo, M.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Anglada-Escude, G.; Kane, S. R.; Barnes, J. R.; Golovin, A.; de Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

2011-11-01

54

MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH MAPS FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS: A NEW METHOD BASED ON A POLARIZATION-INTENSITY GRADIENT RELATION  

SciTech Connect

Dust polarization orientations in molecular clouds often tend to be close to tangential to the Stokes I dust continuum emission contours. The magnetic field and the emission gradient orientations, therefore, show some correlation. A method is proposed, which-in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-connects the measured angle between magnetic field and emission gradient orientations to the total field strength. The approach is based on the assumption that a change in emission intensity (gradient) is a measure for the resulting direction of motion in the MHD force equation. In particular, this new method leads to maps of position-dependent magnetic field strength estimates. When evaluating the field curvature and the gravity direction locally on a map, the method can be generalized to arbitrary cloud shapes. The technique is applied to high-resolution ({approx}0.''7) Submillimeter Array polarization data of the collapsing core W51 e2. A tentative {approx}7.7 mG field strength is found when averaging over the entire core. The analysis further reveals some structures and an azimuthally averaged radial profile {approx}r{sup -1/2} for the field strength. Maximum values close to the center are around 19 mG. The currently available observations lack higher resolution data to probe the innermost part of the core where the largest field strength is expected from the method. Application regime and limitations of the method are discussed. As a further important outcome of this technique, the local significance of the magnetic field force compared to the other forces can be quantified in a model-independent way, from measured angles only. Finally, the method can potentially also be expanded and applied to other objects (besides molecular clouds) with measurements that reveal the field morphology, as, e.g., Faraday rotation measurements in galaxies.

Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: pmkoch@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2012-03-01

55

High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon is in the solar wind but the spacecraft is in the lunar wake; the data are transformed to a radial, east, and north coordinate system with measurements given as a function of spacecraft latitude, longitude, and altitude; (2) visual editing of individual orbit segments selected for minimal external field disturbances; (3) minimization of remaining low-frequency external fields for individual orbit data segments by quadratic detrending; and (4) two-dimensional filtering of individual orbit segments to produce a vector field map along the slightly curved surface defined by the spacecraft altitude; maps of the three field components (radial, east, and north), the field magnitude, and the spacecraft altitude are constructed. For data obtained at low to middle latitudes, the horizontal resolution of the field maps is limited by the orbit-track separation (about 30 km at the equator). Maps of the field magnitude have been constructed within limited selenographic regions based mainly on data acquired in March, April, and May of 1999. This was a time period when the orbit plane was nearly aligned with the Sun-Moon line so that field mapping was possible at times when the Moon was in the solar wind as well as when the Moon was in the geomagnetic tail. Most of the coverage is across the lunar farside. However, a shows an example of a field map produced from solar-wind wake data for a region including Reiner Gamm on western Oceanus Procellarum (location: 58.5W, 7.5N). The contour interval is 3 nT and the mean spacecraft altitude is 18 km to within the accuracy allowed by the resolution of the map (30 km or about 1 deg.); strong magnetic anomalies correlate closely with swirl locations. Individual orbit profiles (whose resolution along the orbit track is comparable to the spacecraft altitude of 18 km) also demonstrate a good correlation of field magnitude with surface albedo. In order to investigate the correlation of magnetic fields with the location of swirl features, we have reexamined available lunar imagery (Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, and Clementine) to identify and map s

Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

1999-01-01

56

Magnetic Field Safety Magnetic Field Safety  

E-print Network

Magnetic Field Safety Training #12;Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain medical conditions such as pacemakers, magnetic implants, or embedded shrapnel. In addition, high magnetic

McQuade, D. Tyler

57

CDC field mapping device - ''ROTOTRACK''  

SciTech Connect

A field mapping device for the magnet of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) was constructed. The device was used for extensive study of the CDF magnetic field distribution. The mechanical and electrical features of the device, as well as the data acquisition system and software, are described. The mechanical system was designed so that the errors on the position and angle of the probe were +-0.75 mm and +-1 mrad, respectively.

Yamada, R.; Hawtree, J.; Kaczar, K.; Leverence, R.; McGuire, K.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Schmidt, E.E.; Shallenberger, J.

1985-10-01

58

Lobe crossing events observed by the Van Allen Probes as tests of magnetic field line mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we examine a series of lobe crossing events witnessed by the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft between 0200 and 0515 on November 14th 2012. The events occurred on the flank between 0400 and 0635 local time and at altitudes between 5.6 and 6.2 RE. During the events Dst was less than 100nT with the IMF being strongly southward (Bz = - 15nT) and eastward (By = 20 nT). Other observations at geosynchronous orbit also show lobe crossings at dawn and dusk flanks. These events provide a chance to examine the magnetic field topology in detail and compare it with models. We will show that the spacecraft were in locations with access to the open field lines by comparison to the CRCM + BATS-RUS models as well as comparing spacecraft encounters with the lobe to the predicted magnetic field topology.

Dixon, P.; MacDonald, E.; Grande, M.; Glocer, A.

2014-04-01

59

Heart rate adjustment of magnetic field map rotation in detection of myocardial ischemia in exercise magnetocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims We studied the capability of heart rate (HR) adjusted change in multichannel magnetocardiogram (MCG) to detect exercise-induced\\u000a ischemia. Methods and results The MCG and 12-lead ECG were recorded simultaneously during supine exercise testing in 17 healthy controls and 24 patients\\u000a with single vessel coronary artery disease (CAD). In the MCG analysis, we plotted the orientation of the magnetic field

Panu Takala; H. Hänninen; J. Montonen; P. Korhonen; M. Mäkijärvi; J. Nenonen; L. Oikarinen; L. Toivonen; T. Katila

2002-01-01

60

LABORATORY V MAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES  

E-print Network

's technology. Magnets are used today to image parts of the body, to explore the mysteries of the human brain to combine magnets to change the magnetic field at any point. You must determine the map of the magnetic

Minnesota, University of

61

Tokamak magnetic field lines described by simple maps. Dedicated to Professor Celso Grebogi on the occasion of his 60th birthday  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field line structure in a tokamak can be obtained by direct numerical integration of the field line equations. However, this is a lengthy procedure and the analysis of the solution may be very time-consuming. Otherwise we can use simple two-dimensional, area-preserving maps, obtained either by approximations of the magnetic field line equations, or from dynamical considerations. These maps can be quickly iterated, furnishing solutions that mirror the ones obtained from direct numerical integration, and which are useful when long-term studies of field line behavior are necessary (e.g. in diffusion calculations). In this work we focus on a set of simple tokamak maps for which these advantages are specially pronounced.

Portela, J. S. E.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.

2008-12-01

62

Commentary Magnetic maps in animals: nature's GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse animals detect the Earth's magnetic field and use it as a cue in orientation and navigation. Most research on magnetoreception has focused on the directional or 'compass' information that can be extracted from the Earth's field. Because the field varies predictably across the surface of the globe, however, it also provides a potential source of positional or 'map' information,

Kenneth J. Lohmann; Catherine M. F. Lohmann; Nathan F. Putman

63

The Effect of Limited Spatial Resolution of Stellar Surface Magnetic Field Maps on Magnetohydrodynamic Wind and Coronal X-Ray Emission Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of the spatial resolution on scales of 5° and smaller of solar surface magnetic field maps on global magnetohydrodynamic solar wind models, and on a model of coronal heating and X-ray emission. We compare the solutions driven by a low-resolution Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic map, the same map with spatial resolution artificially increased by a refinement algorithm, and a high-resolution Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager map. We find that both the wind structure and the X-ray morphology are affected by the fine-scale surface magnetic structure. Moreover, the X-ray morphology is dominated by the closed loop structure between mixed polarities on smaller scales and shows significant changes between high- and low-resolution maps. We conclude that three-dimensional modeling of coronal X-ray emission has greater surface magnetic field spatial resolution requirements than wind modeling, and can be unreliable unless the dominant mixed polarity magnetic flux is properly resolved.

Garraffo, C.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Downs, C.

2013-02-01

64

THE EFFECT OF LIMITED SPATIAL RESOLUTION OF STELLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD MAPS ON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WIND AND CORONAL X-RAY EMISSION MODELS  

SciTech Connect

We study the influence of the spatial resolution on scales of 5 Degree-Sign and smaller of solar surface magnetic field maps on global magnetohydrodynamic solar wind models, and on a model of coronal heating and X-ray emission. We compare the solutions driven by a low-resolution Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic map, the same map with spatial resolution artificially increased by a refinement algorithm, and a high-resolution Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager map. We find that both the wind structure and the X-ray morphology are affected by the fine-scale surface magnetic structure. Moreover, the X-ray morphology is dominated by the closed loop structure between mixed polarities on smaller scales and shows significant changes between high- and low-resolution maps. We conclude that three-dimensional modeling of coronal X-ray emission has greater surface magnetic field spatial resolution requirements than wind modeling, and can be unreliable unless the dominant mixed polarity magnetic flux is properly resolved.

Garraffo, C.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Downs, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-02-10

65

Magnetic fields in astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

66

Magnetic field sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

Silva, Nicolas

2012-09-01

67

Exploring Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."

2012-06-26

68

Magnetic maps in animals: nature's GPS.  

PubMed

Diverse animals detect the Earth's magnetic field and use it as a cue in orientation and navigation. Most research on magnetoreception has focused on the directional or ;compass' information that can be extracted from the Earth's field. Because the field varies predictably across the surface of the globe, however, it also provides a potential source of positional or 'map' information, which some animals use to steer themselves along migratory pathways or to navigate toward specific target areas. The use of magnetic positional information has been demonstrated in several diverse animals including sea turtles, spiny lobsters, newts and birds, suggesting that such systems are phylogenetically widespread and can function over a wide range of spatial scales. These ;magnetic maps' have not yet been fully characterized. They may be organized in several fundamentally different ways, some of which bear little resemblance to human maps, and they may also be used in conjunction with unconventional navigational strategies. PMID:17951410

Lohmann, Kenneth J; Lohmann, Catherine M F; Putman, Nathan F

2007-11-01

69

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.

2012-08-03

70

The Galactic Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength ?20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

2012-12-01

71

THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-12-10

72

Coronal temperature, density, and magnetic field maps of a solar acitve region using the Owens Valley Solar Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first results of solar active region observations with the recently completed five-element Owens Valley Solar Array. On 1991 October 24, maps of Active Region AR 6891 were obtained at 22 frequencies from 1.2-7.0 GHz to provide brightness temperature spectra at each point. This is the first time that both high spatial and frequency-resolution brightness temperature spectra have been available over such a broad radio-frequency range. We find that over most of the region the spectra fall into one of the two well-defined categories: thermal free-free or thermal gyroresonance. In these cases, we use the spectra to deduce the spatial variation of physical parameters-electron temperature, column emission measure (intergral n(sup 2)(sub e) dl), and the coronal magnetic field strength-in and around the active region. Over a limited area of the region, the spectra resemble neither of the simple types, and alternative interpretations are required. The possibilties include the presence of fine structure that is unresolved at low frequencies; the presence of a small number of nonthermal electrons; or the presence of overlying, cooler 10(exp 6) K material which at low frequencies absorbs the hot (3 x 10(exp 6) K) thermal emission generated below.

Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.

1994-01-01

73

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

74

Magnetic Fields Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

2014-09-18

75

An Alternative Map from a 2 + 1 Dimensional Charged Dirac Oscillator in the Background of a Uniform Perpendicular Magnetic Field to a Quantum Optics Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an alternative map from the the 2-dimensional charged Dirac oscillator in the background of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field onto a quantum optics model which contains both Jaynes-Cummings (JC) and Anti-Jaynes-Cummings (AJC) interactions. Different from previous work, we only introduce one kind of phonons and realize a symmetrical competition which is controlled by the magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that this model behaves as a quantum phase transition when a dimensionless parameter crosses its critical value. Several characteristics of quantum phase transition are exhibited explicitly.

Hou, Yu-Long; Wang, Qing; Long, Zheng-Wen; Jing, Jian

2014-09-01

76

Visualizing Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students take the age old concept of etch-a-sketch a step further. Using iron filings, students begin visualizing magnetic field lines. To do so, students use a compass to read the direction of the magnet's magnetic field. Then, students observe the behavior of iron filings near that magnet as they rotate the filings about the magnet. Finally, students study the behavior of iron filings suspended in mineral oil which displays the magnetic field in three dimensions.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

77

What are Magnetic Fields?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

2012-08-03

78

Magnetic fields of galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the understanding of the magnetic fields of galaxies is reviewed. A simple model of the turbulent dynamo is developed which explains the main observational features of the global magnetic fields of spiral galaxies. The generation of small-scale chaotic magnetic fields in the interstellar medium is also examined. Attention is also given to the role of magnetic

Aleksandr A. Ruzmaikin; Dmitrii D. Sokolov; Anvar M. Shukurov

1988-01-01

79

Crustal Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmos 49, Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO-2, 4 and 6)) and Magsat have been the only low-earth orbiting satellites to measure the crustal magnetic field on a global scale. These missions revealed the presence of long- wavelength (> 500 km) crustal anomalies predominantly located over continents. Ground based methods were, for the most part, unable to record these very large-scale features; no doubt due to the problems of assembling continental scale maps from numerous smaller surveys acquired over many years. Questions arose as to the source and nature of these long-wave length anomalies. As a result there was a great stimulant given to the study of the magnetic properties of the lower crust and upper mantle. Some indication as to the nature of these deep sources has been provided by the recent results from the deep crustal drilling programs. In addition, the mechanism of magnetization, induced or remanent, was largely unknown. For computational ease these anomalies were considered to result solely from induced magnetization. However, recent results from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), a magnetometer-bearing mission to Mars, have revealed crustal anomalies with dimensions similar to the largest anomalies on Earth. These Martian features could only have been produced by remanent magnetization, since Mars lacks an inducing field. The origin of long-wavelength crustal anomalies, however, has not been completely determined. Several large crustal magnetic anomalies (e.g., Bangui, Kursk, Kiruna and Central Europe) will be discussed and the role of future satellite magnetometer missions (Orsted, SUNSAT and Champ) in their interpretation evaluated.

Taylor, Patrick T.; Ravat, D.; Frawley, James J.

1999-01-01

80

Preprocessing Magnetic Fields with Chromospheric Longitudinal Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

2012-06-01

81

PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, K., E-mail: tyamamot@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

2012-06-20

82

The magnetic field of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager 2 observations obtained during the Neptune encounter are used to develop a spherical harmonic model of the planetary magnetic field of Neptune. The model yields a dipole of magnitude 0.14 G R(N) exp 3, tilted by 47 deg toward 72 deg west longitude. Neptune's quadrupole is equal to or exceeding in magnitude the surface dipole field; the octupole is also very large, although less well constrained. The characteristics of the Neptune's magnetic field are illustrated using contour maps of the field on the planet's surface.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, Mario H.; Ness, Norman F.

1991-01-01

83

The Declining Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the declining strength of Earth's magnetic field. Learners will review a graph of magnetic field intensity and calculate the amount by which the field has changed its intensity in the last century, the rate of change of its intensity, and when the field should decrease to zero strength at the current rate of change. Learners will also use evidence from relevant sources to create a conjecture on the effects on Earth of a vanished magnetic field. Access to information sources about Earth's magnetic field strength is needed for this activity. This is Activity 7 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide.

84

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Jeffrey Barker

85

Drawing Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a compass and a permanent magnet to trace the magnetic field lines produced by the magnet. By positioning the compass in enough spots around the magnet, the overall magnet field will be evident from the collection of arrows representing the direction of the compass needle. In activities 3 and 4 of this unit, students will use this information to design a way to solve the grand challenge of separating metal for a recycling company.

2014-09-18

86

Electricity and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The grand challenge for this legacy cycle unit is for students to design a way to help a recycler separate aluminum from steel scrap metal. In previous lessons, they have looked at how magnetism might be utilized. In this lesson, students think about how they might use magnets and how they might confront the problem of turning the magnetic field off. Through the accompanying activity students explore the nature of an electrically induced magnetic field and its applicability to the needed magnet.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

87

Magnetic fields at Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10⁻⁵ gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a

N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; L. F. Burlaga; J. E. P. Connerney; R. P. Lepping; F. M. Neubauer

1989-01-01

88

The magnetic field of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspherical harmonic model of the planetary magnetic field of Uranus is obtained from the Voyager 2 encounter observations using generalized inverse techniques which allow partial solutions to complex (underdetermined) problems. The Goddard Space Flight Center 'Q3' model is characterized by a large dipole tilt (58.6 deg) relative to the rotation axis, a dipole moment of 0.228 G R(Uranus radii cubed) and an unusually large quadrupole moment. Characteristics of this complex model magnetic field are illustrated using contour maps of the field on the planet's surface and discussed in the context of possible dynamo generation in the relatively poorly conducting 'ice' mantle.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, Mario H.; Ness, Norman F.

1987-01-01

89

Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet  

E-print Network

Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet produces a magnetic field, B Set up a B field two ways: Moving electrically charged particles Current in a wire Intrinsic magnetic field Basic) Opposite magnetic poles attract like magnetic poles repel #12;Like the electric field lines

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

90

Magnetic Field Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You may drag either magnet and double-click anywhere inside the animation to add a magnetic field line, and mouse-down to read the magnitude of the magnetic field at that point.

Wolfgang Christian

91

Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field  

E-print Network

We show that 2+1 dimensional Dirac oscillators in an external magnetic field is mapped onto the same with reduced angular frequency in absence of magnetic field. This can be used to study the atomic transitions in a radiation field. Relativistic Landau levels are constructed explicitly. Several interesting features of this system are discussed.

Bhabani Prasad Mandal; Shweta Verma

2009-12-19

92

Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

Christodoulou, Christos G.

1994-01-01

93

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Windows to the Universe

1997-12-03

94

SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX  

SciTech Connect

We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

Jin, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A., E-mail: cljin@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu, E-mail: apietarila@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2013-03-10

95

Lithospheric drift on early Mars: Evidence in the magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crustal magnetic anomalies on Mars may represent hot spot tracks resulting from lithospheric drift on ancient Mars. As evidence, an analysis of lineation patterns derived from the ?Br magnetic map is presented. The ?Br map, largely free of external magnetic field effects, allows excellent detail of the magnetic anomaly pattern, particularly in areas of Mars where the field is

Daisuke Kobayashi; Kenneth F. Sprenke

2010-01-01

96

Magnetic Fields on the Surface of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about magnetism in solar flares. Learners will map magnetic fields around bar magnets and investigate how this configuration relates to magnetic fields of sunspots. This activity requires compasses, bar magnets, and a equipment for the instructor to project a PowerPoint or pdf lecture presentation. This is Activity 1 in the Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares teachers guide.

97

Magnetic Field Distribution of Permanent Magnet Magnetized by Static Magnetic Field Generated by HTS Bulk Magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demagnetized rare earth magnets (Nd-Fe-B) can be fully magnetized by scanning them in the intense static fields over 3 T of a HTS bulk magnet which was cooled to the temperature range lower than 77K with use of cryo-coolers and activated by the field of 5 T. We precisely examined the magnetic field distributions of magnetized permanent magnets. The magnetic

Tetsuo Oka; Nobutaka Kawasaki; Satoshi Fukui; Jun Ogawa; Takao Sato; Toshihisa Terasawa; Yoshitaka Itoh; Ryohei Yabuno

2012-01-01

98

Photodetachment in magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the photodetachment cross section, near threshold, for atomic negative ioris in a magnetic field is described and illustrated with data on photodetachment of electrons from negative sulfur ions. The effect of the final state interaction is discussed and the photodetachment of atomic negative ions in a magnetic field is compared to photoionization of neutral atoms in a

D. J. Larson; R. Stoneman

1982-01-01

99

THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analysis of magnetic and concurrent plasma data collected from the ; space probes Pionecr 5, Explorer 10, and Mariner 2 yields a new model of the ; interplanetary magnetic field. It is hypothesized that the observed ; interplanetary field F\\/sub i\\/ is due to motion of the magnetometer relative to a ; negatively charged rotating sun from which

V. A. BAILEY

1963-01-01

100

Magnetic field line Hamiltonian  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained.

Boozer, A.H.

1984-03-01

101

Cosmic Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources

Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Dal Pino

2006-01-01

102

A global magnetic anomaly map. [obtained from POGO satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subset of POGO satellite magnetometer data has been formed that is suitable for analysis of crustal magnetic anomalies. Using a thirteenth order field model, fit to these data, magnetic residuals have been calculated over the world to latitude limits of plus 50 deg. These residuals averaged over one degree latitude-longitude blocks represent a detailed global magnetic anomaly map derived solely from satellite data. Preliminary analysis of the map indicates that the anomalies are real and of geological origin.

Regan, R. D.; Davis, W. M.; Cain, J. C.

1974-01-01

103

Cosmological magnetic fields  

E-print Network

Magnetic fields are observed not only in stars, but in galaxies, clusters, and even high redshift Lyman-alpha systems. In principle, these fields could play an important role in structure formation and also affect the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The study of cosmological magnetic fields aims not only to quantify these effects on large-scale structure and the CMB, but also to answer one of the outstanding puzzles of modern cosmology: when and how do magnetic fields originate? They are either primordial, i.e. created before the onset of structure formation, or they are generated during the process of structure formation itself.

Roy Maartens

2000-07-24

104

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, provides information and a graphical exercise for students regarding the interaction between magnetic field lines and a plasma. The activity involves tracing a typical interplanetary magnetic field line, dragged out of a location on the Sun by the radial flow of the solar wind. This illustrates the way magnetic field lines are "frozen to the plasma" and the wrapping of field lines due to the rotation of the sun. This is part of the work "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". A Spanish translation is available.

Mendez, J.

105

The Earth's Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnetic field of the Earth is contained in a region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth. This site, produced by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), uses text, scientific illustrations,and remote imagery to explain the occurrence and nature of planetary magnetic fields and magnetospheres, how these fields interact with the solar wind to produce phenomena like auroras, and how magnetic fields of the earth and other planets can be detected and measured by satellite-borne magnetometers.

106

Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

1991-01-01

107

Beebook: light field mapping app  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi). Deriving from those experiences, we developed a tool which is easy to use and applicable not only for geology but also to every field survey.

De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

2014-05-01

108

Sources of Magnetic Field Magnetic Phenomena  

E-print Network

push on currents Moving charges can make and feel magnetic forces. We don't understand how permanent will consider the last piece of the puzzle in electromagnetic - changing magnetic fields can make induction. 15Lecture 9 Sources of Magnetic Field 1 Magnetic Phenomena 1. Magnets can push on each other (and

Tobar, Michael

109

The First Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars are discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early generation of stars or active galactic nuclei can be dispersed into the intergalactic medium.

Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ryu, Dongsu; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G.; Treumann, Rudolf A.

2012-05-01

110

Quantitative prediction of radio frequency induced local heating derived from measured magnetic field maps in magnetic resonance imaging: A phantom validation at 7 T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) technique utilizes measurable radio frequency (RF) coil induced magnetic fields (B1 fields) in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system to quantitatively reconstruct the local electrical properties (EP) of biological tissues. Information derived from the same data set, e.g., complex numbers of B1 distribution towards electric field calculation, can be used to estimate, on a subject-specific basis, local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR plays a significant role in RF pulse design for high-field MRI applications, where maximum local tissue heating remains one of the most constraining limits. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of such B1-based local SAR estimation, expanding on previously proposed EPT approaches. To this end, B1 calibration was obtained in a gelatin phantom at 7 T with a multi-channel transmit coil, under a particular multi-channel B1-shim setting (B1-shim I). Using this unique set of B1 calibration, local SAR distribution was subsequently predicted for B1-shim I, as well as for another B1-shim setting (B1-shim II), considering a specific set of parameter for a heating MRI protocol consisting of RF pulses plaid at 1% duty cycle. Local SAR results, which could not be directly measured with MRI, were subsequently converted into temperature change which in turn were validated against temperature changes measured by MRI Thermometry based on the proton chemical shift.

Zhang, Xiaotong; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Liu, Jiaen; Schmitter, Sebastian; He, Bin

2014-12-01

111

'Fixed-axis' magnetic orientation by an amphibian: non-shoreward-directed compass orientation, misdirected homing or positioning a magnetite-based map detector in a consistent alignment relative to the magnetic field?  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to investigate the earlier prediction that prolonged exposure to long-wavelength (>500 nm) light would eliminate homing orientation by male Eastern red-spotted newts Notophthalmus viridescens. As in previous experiments, controls held in outdoor tanks under natural lighting conditions and tested in a visually uniform indoor arena under full-spectrum light were homeward oriented. As predicted, however, newts held under long-wavelength light and tested under either full-spectrum or long-wavelength light (>500 nm) failed to show consistent homeward orientation. The newts also did not orient with respect to the shore directions in the outdoor tanks in which they were held prior to testing. Unexpectedly, however, the newts exhibited bimodal orientation along a more-or-less 'fixed' north-northeast-south-southwest magnetic axis. The orientation exhibited by newts tested under full-spectrum light was indistinguishable from that of newts tested under long-wavelength light, although these two wavelength conditions have previously been shown to differentially affect both shoreward compass orientation and homing orientation. To investigate the possibility that the 'fixed-axis' response of the newts was mediated by a magnetoreception mechanism involving single-domain particles of magnetite, natural remanent magnetism (NRM) was measured from a subset of the newts. The distribution of NRM alignments with respect to the head-body axis of the newts was indistinguishable from random. Furthermore, there was no consistent relationship between the NRM of individual newts and their directional response in the overall sample. However, under full-spectrum, but not long-wavelength, light, the alignment of the NRM when the newts reached the 20 cm radius criterion circle in the indoor testing arena (estimated by adding the NRM alignment measured from each newt to its magnetic bearing) was non-randomly distributed. These findings are consistent with the earlier suggestion that homing newts use the light-dependent magnetic compass to align a magnetite-based 'map detector' when obtaining the precise measurements necessary to derive map information from the magnetic field. However, aligning the putative map detector does not explain the fixed-axis response of newts tested under long-wavelength light. Preliminary evidence suggests that, in the absence of reliable directional information from the magnetic compass (caused by the 90 degrees rotation of the response of the magnetic compass under long-wavelength light), newts may resort to a systematic sampling strategy to identify alignment(s) of the map detector that yields reliable magnetic field measurements. PMID:12432012

Phillips, John B; Borland, S Chris; Freake, Michael J; Brassart, Jacques; Kirschvink, Joseph L

2002-12-01

112

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hornig, G. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2013-01-15

113

Magnetic field dosimeter development  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1980-09-01

114

Solar Wind Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

Smith, E. J.

1995-01-01

115

Large-scale Kinematics, Astrochemistry, and Magnetic Field Studies of Massive Star-forming Regions through HC3N, HNC, and C2H Mappings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have mapped 27 massive star-forming regions associated with water masers using three dense gas tracers: HC3N 10-9, HNC 1-0, and C2H 1-0. The FWHM sizes of HNC clumps and C2H clumps are about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher than those of HC3N, respectively, which can be explained by the fact that HC3N traces more dense gas than HNC and C2H. We found evidence for an increase in the optical depth of C2H with a "radius" from the center to the outer regions in some targets, supporting the chemical model of C2H. The C2H optical depth is found to decline as molecular clouds evolve to a later stage, suggesting that C2H might be used as a "chemical clock" for molecular clouds. The large-scale kinematic structure of clouds was investigated with three molecular lines. All of these sources show significant velocity gradients. The magnitudes of gradient are found to increase toward the inner region, indicating the differential rotation of clouds. Both the ratio of rotational to gravitational energy and the specific angular momentum seem to decrease toward the inner region, implying the obvious angular momentum transfer, which might be caused by magnetic braking. The average magnetic field strength and number density of molecular clouds is derived using the uniform magnetic sphere model. The derived magnetic field strengths range from 3 to 88 ?G, with a median value of 13 ?G. The mass-to-flux ratio of the molecular cloud is calculated to be much higher than the critical value with derived parameters, which agrees well with numerical simulations.

Li, Juan; Wang, Junzhi; Gu, Qiusheng; Zhang, Zhi-yu; Zheng, Xingwu

2012-01-01

116

Harmonic analysis of solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal variations of the global magnetic field in the Sun's photosphere have been investigated through a harmonic analysis of the zonal (m=0) as well as the non-axisymmetric (m!=0) modes. A 25 yr time series of magnetic maps, recorded at the Kitt Peak Observatory (Tucson, AZ) on a daily basis, was used to calculate the spherical coefficients of the radial

R. Knaack; J. O. Stenflo

2002-01-01

117

Indoor localization using magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

118

Magnetic Field Problem: Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of a circular wire loop carrying an unknown current is shown above. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You can double-click in the animation to add magnetic field lines, click-drag the center of the loop to reposition it, and click-drag the top or bottom of the loop to change its size.

Wolfgang Christian

119

Magnetic Field Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

Ilin, Andrew V.

2006-01-01

120

Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey maps and data, East Poplar Oil Field area, August 2004, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a data release for a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during August 2004 in a 275-square-kilometer area that includes the East Poplar oil field on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic resistivity data were converted to six electrical conductivity grids, each representing different approximate depths of investigation. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. Areas of high conductivity in shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field area are being delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, in order to map areas of saline-water plumes. Ground electromagnetic methods were first used during the early 1990s to delineate more than 31 square kilometers of high conductivity saline-water plumes in a portion of the East Poplar oil field area. In the 10 years since the first delineation, the quality of water from some wells completed in the shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field changed markedly. The extent of saline-water plumes in 2004 likely differs from that delineated in the early 1990s. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies is being used by resource managers to develop ground-water resource plans for the area.

Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Cain, Michael J.; Tyrrell, Christa; Hill, Patricia L.

2006-01-01

121

Three-dimensional mapping of single-atom magnetic anisotropy.  

PubMed

Magnetic anisotropy plays a key role in the magnetic stability and spin-related quantum phenomena of surface adatoms. It manifests as angular variations of the atom's magnetic properties. We measure the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on a copper nitride surface with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Using a three-axis vector magnet we rotate the magnetic field and map out the resulting variations of the spin excitations. We quantitatively determine the three-dimensional distribution of the magnetic anisotropy of single Fe atoms by fitting the spin excitation spectra with a spin Hamiltonian. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fully mapping the vector magnetic properties of individual spins and characterizing complex three-dimensional magnetic systems. PMID:25664924

Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A J; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

2015-03-11

122

Magnetic fields at Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager 2 magnetic field experiment discovered a complex and powerful magnetic field in Neptune, as well as an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar. The auroral zones are probably located far from the rotation poles, and may possess complex geometry. The Neptune rings and all its known moons are imbedded deep within the magnetosphere (except for Nereid, which is outside when it lies sunward of the planet); the radiation belts have a complex structure due to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune, as well as losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration.

Ness, Norman F.; Acuna, Mario H.; Burlaga, Leonard F.; Connerney, John E. P.; Lepping, Ronald P.

1989-01-01

123

The Sun and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about magnetic fields and their relation to the Sun, learners will simulate sunspots by using iron filings to show magnetic fields around a bar or cow magnet, and draw the magnetic field surrounding two dipole magnets, both in parallel and perpendicular alignments. Finally, learners examine images of sunspots to relate their magnetic field drawings and observations to what is seen on the Sun.

124

Graphene Magnetic Field Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) devices have been fabricated and characterized in varying magnetic fields at room temperature. The atomic thickness, high carrier mobility and high current carrying capabilities of graphene are ideally suited for the detection of nanoscale sized magnetic domains. The device sensitivity can reach 10 mV\\/Oe, larger than state of the art InAs 2DEG devices of comparable size

Simone Pisana; Patrick M. Braganca; Ernesto E. Marinero; Bruce A. Gurney

2010-01-01

125

Magnetic Field and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners explore magnetic forces, fields, and the relationship between electricity. Learners will use this information to infer how the Earth generates a protective magnetic field. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson seven in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

126

Multiwavelength Magnetic Field Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields, including a spiral arm compression to generate anisotropic turbulence, by comparing polarized synchrotron and thermal dust emission. Preliminary results show that in the outer Galaxy, the dust emission comes from regions where the fields are more ordered than average while the situation is reversed in the inner Galaxy. We will attempt in subsequent work to present a more complete picture of what the comparison of these observables tells us about the distribution of the components of the magnetized ISM and about the physics of spiral arm shocks and turbulence.

Jaffe, T. R.

2015-03-01

127

Magnetic Fields in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, their strength and structure in intergalactic space, their first occurrence in young galaxies, and their dynamical importance for galaxy evolution remain widely unknown. Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized radio synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important; they can affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized radio emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, generated from isotropic turbulent fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered (anisotropic turbulent) fields are also observed at the inner edges of the spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Irregular galaxies host isotropic turbulent fields often of similar strength as in spiral galaxies, but only weak ordered fields. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several galaxies reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field ? -? dynamo. So far no indications were found in external galaxies of large-scale field reversals, like the one in the Milky Way. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. In the outflow cone above a starburst region of NGC 253, RM data indicate a helical magnetic field.

Beck, Rainer

128

High field superconducting magnets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

129

The next generation Antarctic digital magnetic anomaly map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

S (Golynsky et al., 2001). This map synthesized over 7.1 million line-kms of survey data available up through 1999 from marine, airborne and Magsat satellite observations. Since the production of the initial map, a large number of new marine and airborne surveys and improved magnetic observations from the Ørsted and CHAMP satellite missions have become available. In addition, an improved core field model for the Antarctic has been developed to better isolate crustal anomalies in these data. The next generation compilation also will likely represent the magnetic survey observations of the region in terms of a high-resolution spherical cap harmonic model. In this paper, we review the progress and problems of developing an improved magnetic anomaly map to facilitate studies of the Antarctic crustal magnetic field

von Frese, R.R.B; Golynsky, A.V.; Kim, H.R.; Gaya-Piqué, L.; Thébault, E.; Chiappinii, M.; Ghidella, M.; Grunow, A.; ADMAP Working Group

2007-01-01

130

SIMULATING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present self-consistent high-resolution simulations of NGC 4038/4039 (the 'Antennae galaxies') including star formation, supernova feedback, and magnetic fields performed with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code GADGET, in which magnetohydrodynamics are followed with the SPH method. We vary the initial magnetic field in the progenitor disks from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -4} G. At the time of the best match with the central region of the Antennae system, the magnetic field has been amplified by compression and shear flows to an equilibrium field value of {approx}10 {mu}G, independent of the initial seed field. These simulations are a proof of the principle that galaxy mergers are efficient drivers for the cosmic evolution of magnetic fields. We present a detailed analysis of the magnetic field structure in the central overlap region. Simulated radio and polarization maps are in good morphological and quantitative agreement with the observations. In particular, the two cores with the highest synchrotron intensity and ridges of regular magnetic fields between the cores and at the root of the southern tidal arm develop naturally in our simulations. This indicates that the simulations are capable of realistically following the evolution of the magnetic fields in a highly nonlinear environment. We also discuss the relevance of the amplification effect for present-day magnetic fields in the context of hierarchical structure formation.

Kotarba, H.; Karl, S. J.; Naab, T.; Johansson, P. H.; Lesch, H. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Dolag, K.; Stasyszyn, F. A., E-mail: kotarba@usm.lmu.d [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

2010-06-20

131

Magnetic fields at Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conclusions drawn regarding the structure, behavior and composition of the Uranian magnetic field and magnetosphere as revealed by Voyager 2 data are summarized. The planet had a bipolar magnetotail and a bow shock wave which was observed 23.7 Uranus radii (UR) upstream and a magnetopause at 18.0 UR. The magnetic field observed can be represented by a dipole offset from the planet by 0.3 UR. The field vector and the planetary angular momentum vector formed a 60 deg angle, permitting Uranus to be categorized as an oblique rotator, with auroral zones occurring far from the rotation axis polar zones. The surface magnetic field was estimated to lie between 0.1-1.1 gauss. Both the field and the magnetotail rotated around the planet-sun line in a period of about 17.29 hr. Since the ring system is embedded within the magnetosphere, it is expected that the rings are significant absorbers of radiation belt particles.

Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Lepping, R. P.

1986-01-01

132

Optical Potential Field Mapping System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an optical system for creating a potential field map of a bounded two dimensional region containing a goal location and an arbitrary number of obstacles. The potential field mapping system has an imaging device and a processor. Two image writing modes are used by the imaging device, electron deposition and electron depletion. Patterns written in electron deposition mode appear black and expand. Patterns written in electron depletion mode are sharp and appear white. The generated image represents a robot's workspace. The imaging device under processor control then writes a goal location in the work-space using the electron deposition mode. The black image of the goal expands in the workspace. The processor stores the generated images, and uses them to generate a feedback pattern. The feedback pattern is written in the workspace by the imaging device in the electron deposition mode to enhance the expansion of the original goal pattern. After the feedback pattern is written, an obstacle pattern is written by the imaging device in the electron depletion mode to represent the obstacles in the robot's workspace. The processor compares a stored image to a previously stored image to determine a change therebetween. When no change occurs, the processor averages the stored images to produce the potential field map.

Reid, Max B. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

133

Evolution of Stellar Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar magnetic fields can reliably be characterized by several magnetic activity indicators, such as X-ray or radio luminosity. Physical processes leading to such emission provide important information on dynamic processes in stellar atmospheres and magnetic structuring.

Güdel, Manuel

2015-03-01

134

Magnetic nanoparticle density mapping from the magnetically induced displacement data: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic nanoparticles are gaining great roles in biomedical applications as targeted drug delivery agents or targeted imaging contrast agents. In the magnetic nanoparticle applications, quantification of the nanoparticle density deposited in a specified region is of great importance for evaluating the delivery of the drugs or the contrast agents to the targeted tissues. We introduce a method for estimating the nanoparticle density from the displacement of tissues caused by the external magnetic field. Methods We can exert magnetic force to the magnetic nanoparticles residing in a living subject by applying magnetic gradient field to them. The nanoparticles under the external magnetic field then exert force to the nearby tissues causing displacement of the tissues. The displacement field induced by the nanoparticles under the external magnetic field is governed by the Navier's equation. We use an approximation method to get the inverse solution of the Navier's equation which represents the magnetic nanoparticle density map when the magnetic nanoparticles are mechanically coupled with the surrounding tissues. To produce the external magnetic field inside a living subject, we propose a coil configuration, the Helmholtz and Maxwell coil pair, that is capable of generating uniform magnetic gradient field. We have estimated the coil currents that can induce measurable displacement in soft tissues through finite element method (FEM) analysis. Results From the displacement data obtained from FEM analysis of a soft-tissue-mimicking phantom, we have calculated nanoparticle density maps. We obtained the magnetic nanoparticle density maps by approximating the Navier's equation to the Laplacian of the displacement field. The calculated density maps match well to the original density maps, but with some halo artifacts around the high density area. To induce measurable displacement in the living tissues with the proposed coil configuration, we need to apply the coil currents as big as 104A. Conclusions We can obtain magnetic nanoparticle maps from the magnetically induced displacement data by approximating the Navier's equation under the assumption of uniform-gradient of the external magnetic field. However, developing a coil driving system with the capacity of up to 104A should be a great technical challenge. PMID:22394477

2012-01-01

135

Magnetic Fields and Forces in Permanent Magnet Levitated Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields and magnetic forces from magnetic bearings made of circular Halbach permanent-magnet arrays are computed and analyzed. The magnetic fields are calculated using superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. The magnetic force from the magnetic bearing is computed using superposition of forces on each patch of magnetization charge. The

Kevin D. Bachovchin; James F. Hoburg; Richard F. Post

2012-01-01

136

Global magnetic anomaly maps derived from POGO spacecraft data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic anomaly maps which are reduced to common elevation and to the pole are derived using data from the POGO spacecraft. The maps are global and are presented in both equatorial and polar projections. Reduction is accomplished using the equivalent source technique, including principal components analysis to deal with instabilities at and near the geomagnetic equator. Data reduction methods are discussed and average anomaly maps are presented together with their standard error. Such maps are derived for four distinct local time regions and intercompared in order to estimate the remaining effects of fields from ionospheric and magnetospheric sources.

Langel, Robert A.

137

Magnetic Field of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can learn about how the magnetic field of the earth is similar to magnets. Go to the following link: Magnetic Field of the Earth 1. What makes the earth like a magnet? 2. How do we measure magnetism? Be sure to check out the fun games and activities on this web site too!! Now click on the following link and listen to a 2 minute presentation about magnetism: Pulse Planet Next go to ...

Mrs. Merritt

2005-10-18

138

The WIND magnetic field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and

R. P. Lepping; M. H. Ac?na; L. F. Burlaga; W. M. Farrell; J. A. Slavin; K. H. Schatten; F. Mariani; N. F. Ness; F. M. Neubauer; Y. C. Whang; J. B. Byrnes; R. S. Kennon; P. V. Panetta; J. Scheifele; E. M. Worley

1995-01-01

139

Magnetic Field Topology in Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

2000-01-01

140

Low field magnetic resonance imaging  

DOEpatents

A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2010-07-13

141

Magnetic Field Problem: Current and Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. A wire is placed between the magnets and a current that comes out of the page can be turned on.

Wolfgang Christian

142

Probing Magnetic Fields With SNRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As supernova remnants (SNRs) expand, their shock waves freeze in and compress magnetic field lines they encounter; consequently we can use SNRs as magnifying glasses for interstellar magnetic fields. A simple model is used to derive polarization and rotation measure (RM) signatures of SNRs. This model is exploited to gain knowledge about the large-scale magnetic field in the Milky Way. Three examples are given which indicate a magnetic anomaly, an azimuthal large-scale magnetic field towards the anti-centre, and a chimney that releases magnetic energy from the plane into the halo.

Kothes, Roland

2015-03-01

143

The Martian magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.

Russell, C. T.

1979-01-01

144

Electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

1982-01-01

145

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional compensation methods that do not use electrical current terms. Recent demonstrations of the AUV MM System conducted at test plots seeded with inert munitions show reliable detection of 75mm and larger projectiles at altitudes of over 2 meters above the seafloor. Improvement ratios between 11 and 12.4 were observed in the survey data after magnetic compensation, reducing system noise to approximately ±0.25 nano-Tesla. Co-registered side scan sonar images were acquired with the magnetic data to augment target analysis and interpretation. No net drift of the navigation solution was observed during survey missions thus confirming target positional accuracy to better than 1 meter.;

Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

2012-12-01

146

Magnetic maps in animals: a theory comes of age?  

PubMed

The magnetic map hypothesis proposes that animals can use spatial gradients in the Earth's magnetic field to help determine geographic location. This ability would permit true navigation--reaching a goal from an entirely unfamiliar site with no goal-emanating cues to assist. It is a highly contentious hypothesis since the geomagnetic field fluctuates in time and spatial gradients may be disturbed by geological anomalies. Nevertheless, a substantial body of evidence offers support for the hypothesis. Much of the evidence has been indirect in nature, such as the identification of avian magnetoreceptor mechanisms with functional properties that are consistent with those of a putative map detector or the patterns of orientation of animals exposed to temporal and/or spatial geomagnetic anomalies. However; the most important advances have been made in conducting direct tests of the magnetic map hypothesis by exposing experienced migrants to specific geomagnetic values representing simulated displacements. Appropriate shifts in the direction of orientation, which compensate for the simulated displacements, have been observed in newts, birds, sea turtles, and lobsters, and provide the strongest evidence to date for magnetic map navigation. Careful experimental design and interpretation of orientation data will be essential in the future to determine which components of the magnetic field are used to derive geographic position. PMID:17240727

Freake, Michael J; Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B

2006-12-01

147

Magnetic field programming in quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF) is a technique for the separation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles. It is explained that the analysis of polydisperse samples requires a programmed decay of field and field gradient during sample elution. A procedure for achieving reproducible field decay with asymptotic approach to zero field using a quadrupole electromagnet is described. An example of an analysis of a polydisperse sample under programmed field decay is given.

Stephen Williams, P.; Carpino, Francesca; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej

148

The magnetic map of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles.  

PubMed

Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida, U.S.A., undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the North Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Hatchlings in the open sea are guided at least partly by a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial locations along the migratory route. The magnetic map exists in turtles that have never migrated and thus appears to be inherited. Turtles derive both longitudinal and latitudinal information from the Earth's field, most likely by exploiting unique combinations of field inclination and intensity that occur in different geographic areas. Similar mechanisms may function in the migrations of diverse animals. PMID:22137566

Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Catherine M F

2012-04-01

149

Scattering by magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the scattering amplitude $s(\\\\omega,\\\\omega^\\\\prime;\\\\lambda)$,\\u000a$\\\\omega,\\\\omega^\\\\prime\\\\in{\\\\Bbb S}^{d-1}$, $\\\\lambda > 0$, corresponding to an\\u000aarbitrary short-range magnetic field $B(x)$, $x\\\\in{\\\\Bbb R}^d$. This is a smooth\\u000afunction of $\\\\omega$ and $\\\\omega^\\\\prime$ away from the diagonal\\u000a$\\\\omega=\\\\omega^\\\\prime$ but it may be singular on the diagonal. If $d=2$, then\\u000athe singular part of the scattering amplitude (for example, in the transversal\\u000agauge) is a

D. R. Yafaev

2005-01-01

150

Fourier-based magnetic induction tomography for mapping resistivity  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic induction tomography is used as an experimental tool for mapping the passive electromagnetic properties of conductors, with the potential for imaging biological tissues. Our numerical approach to solving the inverse problem is to obtain a Fourier expansion of the resistivity and the stream functions of the magnetic fields and eddy current density. Thus, we are able to solve the inverse problem of determining the resistivity from the applied and measured magnetic fields for a two-dimensional conducting plane. When we add noise to the measured magnetic field, we find the fidelity of the measured to the true resistivity is quite robust for increasing levels of noise and increasing distances of the applied and measured field coils from the conducting plane, when properly filtered. We conclude that Fourier methods provide a reliable alternative for solving the inverse problem.

Puwal, Steffan; Roth, Bradley J. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States)

2011-01-01

151

Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

1983-01-01

152

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

2013-11-01

153

Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

Wyntjes, Geert

2002-02-01

154

Light Field Mapping: Efficient Representation of Surface Light Fields  

E-print Network

and automatic content creation. Representations such as Plenoptic Modeling, Light Field, and the LumigraphLight Field Mapping: Efficient Representation of Surface Light Fields by Wei-Chao Chen ABSTRACT WEI-CHAO CHEN. Light Field Mapping: Efficient Representation of Surface Light Fields. (Under

Whitton, Mary C.

155

Magnetic properties and energy-mapping analysis.  

PubMed

The magnetic energy levels of a given magnetic solid are closely packed in energy because the interactions between magnetic ions are weak. Thus, in describing its magnetic properties, one needs to generate its magnetic energy spectrum by employing an appropriate spin Hamiltonian. In this review article we discuss how to determine and specify a necessary spin Hamiltonian in terms of first principles electronic structure calculations on the basis of energy-mapping analysis and briefly survey important concepts and phenomena that one encounters in reading the current literature on magnetic solids. Our discussion is given on a qualitative level from the perspective of magnetic energy levels and electronic structures. The spin Hamiltonian appropriate for a magnetic system should be based on its spin lattice, i.e., the repeat pattern of its strong magnetic bonds (strong spin exchange paths), which requires one to evaluate its Heisenberg spin exchanges on the basis of energy-mapping analysis. Other weaker energy terms such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin exchange and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies, which a spin Hamiltonian must include in certain cases, can also be evaluated by performing energy-mapping analysis. We show that the spin orientation of a transition-metal magnetic ion can be easily explained by considering its split d-block levels as unperturbed states with the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) as perturbation, that the DM exchange between adjacent spin sites can become comparable in strength to the Heisenberg spin exchange when the two spin sites are not chemically equivalent, and that the DM interaction between rare-earth and transition-metal cations is governed largely by the magnetic orbitals of the rare-earth cation. PMID:23128376

Xiang, Hongjun; Lee, Changhoon; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Gong, Xingao; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

2013-01-28

156

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

1996-01-01

157

Aeromagnetic map of Korea; Magnetic patterns and structural features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional airborne magnetic survey is very cost-effective mapping tool. Magnetic anomaly maps have abundant information, which are an important tool for understanding the geological evolution and mineral exploration. The pattern of magnetic anomaly map is a powerful indicator of geologic structure and rock formation. Magnetic anomaly patterns primarily reflect the distribution and structural setting of magnetized material within the crust. These features including amplitude and orientation of individual anomalies or the texture of anomalous regions can provide useful constraints for geological interpretation. KIGAM has conducted airborne magnetic mapping programme since 1982, and has coverage of almost whole the country. The latest version of airborne magnetic anomaly map was published by compiling data acquired from 1982 to 2012. The helicopter-borne surveys were flown by a line spacing 1~2 km with control lines of 5~8 km. The flight altitude was tried to keep 100~150 m above ground surface with sampling distance of 30m. The data were continued to the reference level of 300 m above ground level, and regional field was reduced by 11th generation IGRF. This paper introduced the latest version of magnetic anomaly map of Korea, and briefly examined the magnetic characteristics, with geologic characteristics and structural features of tectonic zones. Furthermore, magnetic patterns were quantitatively analyzed by using skeletonization technique. Korea, southern part of the Korean peninsula, could be divided in 5 tectonic provinces, such as, Gyeonggi massif, Okcheon fold belt, Sobaeksan massif, Gyeongsang basin, and circum-Pacific alkali volcanic zone. Magnetic anomalies in Gyeonggi massif zone are broadly distributed with moderately high amplitude, and the dominant trend is NE, but not strong. Okcheon fold belt can be magnetically characterized as strong dominant NE trend (Sinian direction) and linear positive anomalies of high amplitude. Sobaeksan massif is magnetically characterized as diverse trend with strong amplitude in NE part and weak amplitude in SW part. In Gyeongsang basin, strong positive anomalies due to Cretaceous granites and volcanic rocks are distributed in the broad and weak field by Jurassic sedimentary rocks. Magnetic lineaments of NNE trend are disrupted by intense volcanic activities in Cretaceous period. Magnetic lineaments were plotted by using skeletonization algorithm. Skeletonization is a syntactic pattern recognition method that is applied to gridded data to produce an automatic line drawing. The algorithms were tailored for seismic reflection profiles at first. Eaton and Vasudevan (2004) modified the technique to render it more suitable for other types of gridded data, with particular emphasis on aeromagnetic maps. Magnetic first vertical derivative data calculated from pole-reduced aeromagnetic map were used as input of skeletonization algorithm. The event map was plotted by skeletonization process, and the orientation of the magnetic pattern was quantitatively analyzed by rose diagrams. They showed the distinguishing characteristics of magnetic pattern of tectonic provinces, which reflected their geological characteristics and structural features.

Park, Yeong-Sue; Rim, Hyoungrea; Lim, Mutaek; Shin, Young Hong

2014-05-01

158

Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.  

PubMed

Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate. PMID:25646869

Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

2015-03-11

159

Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

Miller, G.

1987-12-01

160

Magnetic fields in massive stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although indirect evidence for the presence of magnetic fields in high-mass stars is regularly reported in the literature, the detection of these fields remains an extremely challenging observational problem. We review the recent discoveries of magnetic fields in different types of massive stars and briefly discuss strategies for spectropolarimetric observations to be carried out in the future.

S. Hubrig; M. Scholler; M. Briquet; M. A. Pogodin; R. V. Yudin; J. F. Gonzalez; T. Morel; P. De; R. Ignace; G. Mathys; G. J. Peters

2007-01-01

161

Magnetic fields in massive stars  

E-print Network

Although indirect evidence for the presence of magnetic fields in high-mass stars is regularly reported in the literature, the detection of these fields remains an extremely challenging observational problem. We review the recent discoveries of magnetic fields in different types of massive stars and briefly discuss strategies for spectropolarimetric observations to be carried out in the future.

S. Hubrig

2007-03-09

162

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system  

SciTech Connect

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21

163

The Galileo magnetic field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Orbiter carries a complement of fields and particles instruments designed to provide data needed to shed light on the structure and dynamical variations of the Jovian magnetosphere. Many questions remain regarding the temporal and spatial properties of the magnetospheric magnetic field, how the magnetic field maintains corotation of the embedded plasma and the circumstances under which corotation breaks

M. G. Kivelson; K. K. Khurana; J. D. Means; C. T. Russell; R. C. Snare

1992-01-01

164

Mercury's magnetic field and interior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.

1988-01-01

165

Mapping RHESSI footpoints with potential-field models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RHESSI hard X-ray observations help us to identify the locations of magnetically conjugate footpoints, and to study their apparent motions during the evolution of the impulsive phase of a flare. We put this information into the context of an M-class flare that occurred 2002 March 14 01:50 UT (GOES peak time) at S12, E23 (NOAA region 9866) by making potential-field mappings of the coronal magnetic structure. In principle the hard X-ray sources (plus the mapping) constrain the site of magnetic energy release, and the maps reveal the location of the stored energy. The RHESSI source centroids can be determined to better than 1'' (rms) for an M-class flare. This analysis is an exploration of the feasibility of such an approach, since full success would require understanding the magnetic restructuring in detail. If suitable X-class RHESSI flares occur we will be able to present data with better precision.

Fletcher, L.; Hudson, H. S.; Metcalf, T. R.

2002-12-01

166

Ferrofilm in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertically draining thin ferrofilm under the influence of gravity and a nonuniform magnetic field is considered. It is observed experimentally that the presence of the magnetic field greatly alters the drainage of the film. A mathematical model is developed to describe the behavior. Experiments are conducted for multiple magnetic field configurations. The model is solved for two different sets of boundary conditions and results are compared to experiments. It is shown that the magnetic field structure, the concentration of magnetite in the solution, and the boundary conditions all have noticeable affects on the evolution of the thinning film. Good qualitative agreement between the model and the experiments is observed.

Back, Randy; Beckham, J. Regan

2012-10-01

167

Evolution of pulsar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical considerations of neutron star matter and magnetic fields suggest a picture of the evolution of pulsar dipole moments. At birth the spin axis and magnetic dipole are argued to be roughly aligned. Subsequently the magnetic dipole greatly diminishes in strength and changes its direction until it ultimately makes a large angle with the spin axis. This view is supported

E. Flowers; M. A. Ruderman

1977-01-01

168

Theory of fossil magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory of fossil magnetic field is based on the observations, analytical estimations and numerical simulations of magnetic flux evolution during star formation in the magnetized cores of molecular clouds. Basic goals, main features of the theory and manifestations of MHD effects in young stellar objects are discussed.

Dudorov, Alexander E.; Khaibrakhmanov, Sergey A.

2015-02-01

169

Magnetic field dispersion in the neighbourhood of Bok Globules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed an observational study of the relation between the interstellar magnetic field alignment and star formation in twenty (20) sky regions containing Bok Globules. The presence of young stellar objects in the globules is verified by a search of infrared sources with spectral energy distribution compatible with a pre main-sequence star. The interstellar magnetic field direction is mapped using optical polarimetry. These maps are used to estimate the dispersion of the interstellar magnetic field direction in each region from a Gaussian fit, ? B . In addition to the Gaussian dispersion, we propose a new parameter, ?, to measure the magnetic field alignment that does not rely on any function fitting. Statistical tests show that the dispersion of the magnetic field direction is different in star forming globules relative to quiescent globules. Specifically, the less organised magnetic fields occur in regions having young stellar objects.

Rodrigues, C. V.; Magalhães, V. de S.; Vilas-Boas, J. W.; Racca, G.; Pereyra, A.

2014-08-01

170

Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

171

Cosmic Magnetic Fields: Observations and Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation at radio frequencies of 0.2-10 GHz are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of cosmic magnetic fields. Unpolarized emission traces turbulent fields which are strongest in galactic spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important, e.g. they can drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields which can be regular (uni-directional) or anisotropic random (generated from isotropic random fields by compression or shear). Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. The strongest ordered (mostly regular) fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in galactic interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several spiral galaxies reveal large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields probably generated by a mean-field dynamo. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns.--The strength of the total magnetic field in our Milky Way is about 6 ?G near the solar radius, but several mG in dense clouds, pulsar wind nebulae, and filaments near the Galactic Center. Diffuse polarized radio emission and Faraday rotation data from pulsars and background sources show spiral fields with large-scale reversals, but the overall field structure in our Galaxy is still under debate.--Diffuse radio emission from the halos of galaxy clusters is mostly unpolarized because intracluster magnetic fields are turbulent, while cluster ``relics'', probably shock fronts by cluster mergers, can have degrees of polarization of up to 60% and extents of up to 2 Mpc. The IGM magnetic field strength is >=3 10-16 G with a filling factor of at least 60%, derived from the combination of data from the HESS and FERMI telescopes.--Polarization observations with the forthcoming large radio telescopes will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields and will help to understand their origin. At low frequencies, LOFAR (10-250 MHz) will allow us to map the structure of weak magnetic fields in the outer regions and halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Small Faraday rotation measures can also be best measured at low frequencies. Polarization at higher frequencies (1-10 GHz), as observed with the EVLA, MeerKAT, APERTIF and the SKA, will trace magnetic fields in the disks and central regions of nearby galaxies in unprecedented detail. The SKA pulsar survey will find many new pulsars; their RMs will map the Milky Way's magnetic field with high precision. All-sky surveys of Faraday rotation measures towards a dense grid of polarized background sources with the SKA and its precursor telescope ASKAP are dedicated to measure magnetic fields in distant intervening galaxies, galaxy clusters and intergalactic filaments, and will be used to model the overall structure and strength of the magnetic field in the Milky Way. With the SKA, ordered fields in distant galaxies and cluster relics can be measured to redshifts of z~=0.5, turbulent fields in starburst galaxies or cluster halos to z~=3 and regular fields in intervening galaxies towards QSOs to z~=5.

Beck, Rainer

2011-09-01

172

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-01

173

Measurements of magnetic field alignment  

SciTech Connect

The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

1987-11-06

174

A Bayesian view on Faraday rotation maps Seeing the magnetic power spectra in galaxy clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Bayesian maximum likelihood analysis of Faraday rotation measure (RM) maps of extended radio sources to determine magnetic field power spectra in clusters of galaxies. Using this approach, it is possible to determine the uncertainties in the measurements. We apply this approach to the RM map of Hydra A and derive the power spectrum of the cluster magnetic

Corina Vogt; T. A. Enßlin

2005-01-01

175

Mapping hydrothermal alteration in Yellowstone National Park using magnetic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a very large hydrothermal system with over 10,000 thermal features. Hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been mapped with field observations and remote-sensing imagery, but these methods can only detect alteration at the ground surface. Magnetic surveys are useful for detecting buried hydrothermal alteration as demonstrated by a recent high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in YNP (Finn and Morgan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 115, 207-231, 2002). Results of this survey show that magnetic lows extend over and beyond areas of hydrothermal activity, suggesting large volumes of demagnetized rocks due to hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic substratum. Although results of this aeromagnetic survey were of relatively high resolution, they were insufficient for more detailed mapping of alteration. In September 2008, we collected ground magnetic profiles in four hydrothermal areas within YNP (Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Lone Star Geyser, and Smoke Jumper Hot-springs). These measurements were performed using a cesium-vapor magnetometer along several 4-5 km long transects crossing hydrothermal features. In addition, we collected gravity data to characterize the subsurface geologic structures. We also performed magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence and density measurements on rock samples collected in the field and from drill cores collected in 1967-1968 to characterize physical properties of fresh and altered geologic units. Ground magnetic profiles acquired over unaltered areas display large-amplitude short-wavelength anomalies due to the existence of many shallow contrasts of magnetization in the volcanic substratum. In contrast, the short-wavelength anomaly signal is of very low amplitude in altered areas supporting demagnetization of the shallow volcanic basement. These new geophysical and physical property data are being used to map the distribution of rock density and magnetic properties, model the subsurface geometry of altered areas and investigate the relationship of these areas with structures such as contacts, faults, and fractures that may facilitate the circulation of hydrothermal fluids.

Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.

2010-12-01

176

Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic anomalies. On contrary, the shape of the magnetic anomalies implies to propose magnetized or non-magnetized structures with a width of several meters. To fit completely the shape of the magnetic anomaly, an iterative algorithm is used consisting of modifying the shape of the top of the magnetized layer.

khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

2014-05-01

177

The magnetic field of Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field of Mercury was measured on two fly-bys of the planet by the Mariner 10 space-craft. The presence of a field at Mercury is interesting for what it implies for both the internal and external sources of field. The internal field of the planet is almost certainly generated by an internal dynamo although there remain many puzzles as

D. J. Southwood

1997-01-01

178

The magnetic field of Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field of Mercury was measured on two fly-bys of the planet by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. The presence of a field at Mercury is interesting for what it implies for both the internal and external sources of field. The internal field of the planet is almost certainly generated by an internal dynamo although there remain many puzzles as

D. J. Southwood

1997-01-01

179

Variability in Martian magnetic field topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian crustal magnetic fields form localized mini-magnetosphere structures that extend in some regions well above the Martian ionosphere, interacting directly with the draped external interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In some regions the crustal magnetic field lines are closed, locally shielding the ionosphere from external plasma. In other locations the crustal field lines are open, allowing exchange of plasma between the ionosphere and the surrounding plasma interaction region. The average magnetic topology as a function of geographic location has been mapped previously, using ~7 years of Mars Global Surveyor electron observations recorded at constant altitude and local time. In this previous work, pitch angle distributions of suprathermal electrons were examined for the presence of loss cones to determine whether field lines were open or closed. Here we apply the same technique to describe how magnetic topology varies with four external drivers: solar wind pressure, IMF orientation, solar EUV flux, and Martian season. We see that some locations on Mars change topology frequently depending upon external conditions, while others have a relatively static field topology.

Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Eastwood, J. P.; Ulusen, D.; Lillis, R. J.

2013-12-01

180

Quantitative magnetic susceptibility mapping without phase unwrapping using WASSR  

PubMed Central

The magnetic susceptibility of tissue within and around an image voxel affects the magnetic field and thus the local frequency in that voxel. Recently, it has been shown that spatial maps of frequency can be used to quantify local susceptibility if the contributions of surrounding tissue can be deconvolved. Currently, such quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) methods employ gradient recalled echo (GRE) imaging to measure spatial differences in the signal phase evolution as a function of echo time, from which frequencies can be deduced. Analysis of these phase images, however, is complicated by phase wraps, despite the availability and usage of various phase unwrapping algorithms. In addition, lengthy high-resolution GRE scanning often heats the magnet bore, causing the magnetic field to drift over several Hertz, which is on the order of the frequency differences between tissues. Here, we explore the feasibility of applying the WAter Saturation Shift Referencing (WASSR) method for 3D whole brain susceptibility imaging. WASSR uses direct saturation of water protons as a function of frequency irradiation offset to generate frequency maps without phase wraps, which can be combined with any image or spectroscopy acquisition. By utilizing a series of fast short-echo-time direct saturation images with multiple radiofrequency offsets, a frequency correction for field drift can be applied based on the individual image phases. Regions of interest were delineated with an automated atlas-based method, and the average magnetic susceptibilities calculated from frequency maps obtained from WASSR correlated well with those from the phase-based multi-echo GRE approach at 3 Tesla. PMID:24113625

Lim, Issel Anne L.; Li, Xu; Jones, Craig K.; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; Vikram, Deepti S.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

2013-01-01

181

Quantitative magnetic susceptibility mapping without phase unwrapping using WASSR.  

PubMed

The magnetic susceptibility of tissue within and around an image voxel affects the magnetic field and thus the local frequency in that voxel. Recently, it has been shown that spatial maps of frequency can be used to quantify local susceptibility if the contributions of surrounding tissue can be deconvolved. Currently, such quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) methods employ gradient recalled echo (GRE) imaging to measure spatial differences in the signal phase evolution as a function of echo time, from which frequencies can be deduced. Analysis of these phase images, however, is complicated by phase wraps, despite the availability and usage of various phase unwrapping algorithms. In addition, lengthy high-resolution GRE scanning often heats the magnet bore, causing the magnetic field to drift over several Hertz, which is on the order of the frequency differences between tissues. Here, we explore the feasibility of applying the WAter Saturation Shift Referencing (WASSR) method for 3D whole brain susceptibility imaging. WASSR uses direct saturation of water protons as a function of frequency irradiation offset to generate frequency maps without phase wraps, which can be combined with any image or spectroscopy acquisition. By utilizing a series of fast short-echo-time direct saturation images with multiple radiofrequency offsets, a frequency correction for field drift can be applied based on the individual image phases. Regions of interest were delineated with an automated atlas-based method, and the average magnetic susceptibilities calculated from frequency maps obtained from WASSR correlated well with those from the phase-based multi-echo GRE approach at 3T. PMID:24113625

Lim, Issel Anne L; Li, Xu; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A D; Vikram, Deepti S; van Zijl, Peter C M

2014-02-01

182

Geological modeling of the new CHAMP magnetic anomaly maps using a geographical information system technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable global crustal field anomaly maps produced from magnetic measurements of the CHAMP satellite mission now allow for quantitative geological studies of crustal structure and composition. We have developed a GIS based forward modeling technique to model these anomaly maps. On the basis of the geologic and tectonic maps of the world, laboratory susceptibility values of the occurring rock types,

K. Hemant; S. Maus

2005-01-01

183

Venus Deep Nightside Magnetic Fields Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamined the near-Venus deep nightside magnetic fields observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter(PVO) over two decades ago. This analysis was in part inspired by recent discussions of the possibilities of identifying a weak planetary dynamo or remanent magnetic field, and in part by the availability of numerical simulations of weak field plasma interactions using the BATS-R-US MHD code. The data were first scrutinized for statistically significant regions of radial field in the near-midnight low altitude wake from the prime mission periapsis of ~150km up to about 450 km. Radial field 'maps' were constructed for a range of altitudes in both solar wind interaction and planetary geographical coordinate systems. The results suggested the presence of weak radial fields above ~250km that show a persistent North-South sign bias. This behavior is not seen at the lowest altitudes probed, and is present regardless of the interplanetary magnetic field sector. The MHD simulations provided basic pictures of what might be expected for a hypothetical planet with a weak but still detectable dipole field that is comparable to the solar wind interaction-related draped interplanetary field. These show similar tendencies, illustrating that models are essential to the interpretation of potential weak intrinsic field signatures at planets such as Venus. Further modeling specific to Venus is needed to make further progress.

Villarreal, M. N.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.; Zhang, T.

2011-12-01

184

Observational Test of Coronal Magnetic Field Models I. Comparison with Potential Field Model  

E-print Network

Recent advances have made it possible to obtain two-dimensional line-of-sight magnetic field maps of the solar corona from spectropolarimetric observations of the Fe XIII 1075 nm forbidden coronal emission line. Together with the linear polarization measurements that map the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic field, these coronal vector magnetograms now allow for direct observational testing of theoretical coronal magnetic field models. This paper presents a study testing the validity of potential-field coronal magnetic field models. We constructed a theoretical coronal magnetic field model of active region AR 10582 observed by the SOLARC coronagraph in 2004 by a global potential field extrapolation of the synoptic map of Carrington Rotation 2014. Synthesized linear and circular polarization maps from thin layers of the coronal magnetic field model above the active region along the line of sight are compared with the observed maps. We found that reasonable agreement occurs from layers located just above the sunspot of AR 10582, near the plane of the sky. This result provides the first observational evidence that potential field extrapolation can yield a reasonable approximation of the magnetic field configuration of the solar corona for simple and stable active regions.

Yu Liu; Haosheng Lin

2008-05-16

185

Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While investigating uniformity of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks we find experimentally and analytically that variation in the resistance area product (RA) is more important to monitor as compared to the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is less sensitive to MTJ variability. The standard Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200?mm wafer mapping showing radial as well as asymmetrical variations related to the MTJ deposition conditions.

Kjaer, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Hartmann Henrichsen, Henrik; Chenchen, Jacob Wang; Noergaard, Kristian; Folmer Nielsen, Peter; Hjorth Petersen, Dirch

2015-04-01

186

Preflare magnetic and velocity fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

1986-01-01

187

The magnetic field of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is given of the planetary magnetic field of Neptune based on a spherical harmonic analysis of the observations obtained by the Voyager 2. Generalized inverse techniques are used to partially solve a severely underdetermined inverse problem, and the resulting model is nonunique since the observations are limited in spatial distribution. Dipole, quadrupole, and octupole coefficients are estimated independently of other terms, and the parameters are shown to be well constrained by the measurement data. The large-scale features of the magnetic field including dipole tilt, offset, and harmonic content are found to characterize a magnetic field that is similar to that of Uranus. The traits of Neptune's magnetic field are theorized to relate to the 'ice' interior of the planet, and the dynamo-field generation reflects this poorly conducting planet.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, Mario H.; Ness, Norman F.

1992-01-01

188

Resonant magnetic fields from inflation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a novel scenario to generate primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced by an oscillating coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. This resonant mechanism has two key advantages over previous proposals. First of all, it generates a narrow band of magnetic fields at any required wavelength, thereby allaying the usual problem of a strongly blue spectrum and its associated backreaction. Secondly, it avoids the need for a strong coupling as the coupling is oscillating rather than growing or decaying exponentially. Despite these major advantages, we find that the backreaction is still far too large during inflation if the generated magnetic fields are required to have a strength of O(10{sup ?15} Gauss) today on observationally interesting scales. We provide a more general no-go argument, proving that this problem will apply to any model in which the magnetic fields are generated on subhorizon scales and freeze after horizon crossing.

Byrnes, Christian T. [CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Urban, Federico R., E-mail: cbyrnes@cern.ch, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@unige.ch, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: urban@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-03-01

189

Resonant magnetic fields from inflation  

E-print Network

We propose a novel scenario to generate primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced by an oscillating coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. This resonant mechanism has two key advantages over previous proposals. First of all, it generates a narrow band of magnetic fields at any required wavelength, thereby allaying the usual problem of a strongly blue spectrum and its associated backreaction. Secondly, it avoids the need for a strong coupling as the coupling is oscillating rather than growing or decaying exponentially. Despite these major advantages, we find that the backreaction is still far too large during inflation if the generated magnetic fields are required to have a strength of order 10^{-15} Gauss today on observationally interesting scales. We provide a more general no-go argument, proving that this problem will apply to any model in which the magnetic fields are generated on subhorizon scales and freeze after horizon crossing.

Christian T. Byrnes; Lukas Hollenstein; Rajeev Kumar Jain; Federico R. Urban

2012-03-06

190

Schrödinger operators with magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a large number of results about atoms in constant magnetic field including (i) Asymptotic formula for the ground state energy of Hydrogen in large field, (ii) Proof that the ground state of Hydrogen in an arbitrary constant field hasLz = 0 and of the monotonicity of the binding energy as a function ofB, (iii) Borel summability of Zeeman

J. E. Avron; I. W. Herbst; B. Simon

1981-01-01

191

Mapping global cropland and field size.  

PubMed

A new 1 km global IIASA-IFPRI cropland percentage map for the baseline year 2005 has been developed which integrates a number of individual cropland maps at global to regional to national scales. The individual map products include existing global land cover maps such as GlobCover 2005 and MODIS v.5, regional maps such as AFRICOVER and national maps from mapping agencies and other organizations. The different products are ranked at the national level using crowdsourced data from Geo-Wiki to create a map that reflects the likelihood of cropland. Calibration with national and subnational crop statistics was then undertaken to distribute the cropland within each country and subnational unit. The new IIASA-IFPRI cropland product has been validated using very high-resolution satellite imagery via Geo-Wiki and has an overall accuracy of 82.4%. It has also been compared with the EarthStat cropland product and shows a lower root mean square error on an independent data set collected from Geo-Wiki. The first ever global field size map was produced at the same resolution as the IIASA-IFPRI cropland map based on interpolation of field size data collected via a Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing campaign. A validation exercise of the global field size map revealed satisfactory agreement with control data, particularly given the relatively modest size of the field size data set used to create the map. Both are critical inputs to global agricultural monitoring in the frame of GEOGLAM and will serve the global land modelling and integrated assessment community, in particular for improving land use models that require baseline cropland information. These products are freely available for downloading from the http://cropland.geo-wiki.org website. PMID:25640302

Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; You, Liangzhi; Bun, Andriy; Moltchanova, Elena; Duerauer, Martina; Albrecht, Fransizka; Schill, Christian; Perger, Christoph; Havlik, Petr; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip; Wood-Sichra, Ulrike; Herrero, Mario; Becker-Reshef, Inbal; Justice, Chris; Hansen, Matthew; Gong, Peng; Abdel Aziz, Sheta; Cipriani, Anna; Cumani, Renato; Cecchi, Giuliano; Conchedda, Giulia; Ferreira, Stefanus; Gomez, Adriana; Haffani, Myriam; Kayitakire, Francois; Malanding, Jaiteh; Mueller, Rick; Newby, Terence; Nonguierma, Andre; Olusegun, Adeaga; Ortner, Simone; Rajak, D Ram; Rocha, Jansle; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Schepaschenko, Maria; Terekhov, Alexey; Tiangwa, Alex; Vancutsem, Christelle; Vintrou, Elodie; Wenbin, Wu; van der Velde, Marijn; Dunwoody, Antonia; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

2015-05-01

192

Investigating Magnetic Force Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, the students will investigate the magnetic pull of a bar magnet at varying distances with the use of paper clips. Students will hypothesize, conduct the experiment, collect the data, and draw conclusions that support their data. Each student will record the experiment and their findings in their science journals. As a class, students will compare each groups' data and their interpretation of the results.

Daryl ("Tish") Monjeau, Bancroft Elementary School, Minneapolis, MN

2012-03-18

193

Reconnection of stressed magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that magnetized plasma configurations under magnetic stress relax irreversibly to the state of minimum stress at a rate that is essentially Alfvenic provided a magnetic null is present. The relaxation is effected by the reconnection at the field null and proceeds at a rate proportional to the absolute value of ln(eta) exp-1, where eta is the resistivity. An analytic calculation in the linear regime is presented.

Hassam, A. B.

1992-01-01

194

Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.

Kosovichev, Alexander

2015-02-01

195

The polar heliospheric magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that the polar heliospheric magnetic field, at large heliocentric distances, may deviate considerably from the generally accepted Archimedean spiral. Instead, it is suggested that the large-scale field near the poles may be dominated by randomly-oriented transverse magnetic fields with magnitude much larger than the average spiral. The average vector field is still the spiral, but the average magnitude may be much larger. In addition, the field direction is transverse to the radial direction most of the time instead of being nearly radial. This magnetic-field structure has important consequences for the transport of cosmic rays. Preliminary model calculations suggest changes in the radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays which may improve agreement with observations.

Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

1989-01-01

196

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

197

Longitude perception and bicoordinate magnetic maps in sea turtles.  

PubMed

Long-distance animal migrants often navigate in ways that imply an awareness of both latitude and longitude. Although several species are known to use magnetic cues as a surrogate for latitude, it is not known how any animal perceives longitude. Magnetic parameters appear to be unpromising as longitudinal markers because they typically vary more in a north-south rather than an east-west direction. Here we report, however, that hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from Florida, USA, when exposed to magnetic fields that exist at two locations with the same latitude but on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean, responded by swimming in different directions that would, in each case, help them advance along their circular migratory route. The results demonstrate for the first time that longitude can be encoded into the magnetic positioning system of a migratory animal. Because turtles also assess north-south position magnetically, the findings imply that loggerheads have a navigational system that exploits the Earth's magnetic field as a kind of bicoordinate magnetic map from which both longitudinal and latitudinal information can be extracted. PMID:21353561

Putman, Nathan F; Endres, Courtney S; Lohmann, Catherine M F; Lohmann, Kenneth J

2011-03-22

198

MOURA Martian magnetometer potential for high resolution magnetic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission mapped the magnetic signature all along the Martian globe during its operation between 1996 and 2006. These data shows that Mars does not present an active global magnetic field as the Earth. However, the Martian crust has an overall magnetic signature stronger than the Earth which was inherited from the active magnetic field of the Martian core during its early cooling history. The MGS survey shows plenty of magnetic anomalies located in particular within high lands of its Southern Hemisphere. Several magnetic models have been derived to explain the MGS data considering magnetic dipoles distribution in the Martian crust with moderate to high magnetic intensities and pronounced regional anomalies. However, the origin of major magnetic anomalies remains highly disputed [1]. From the magnetic investigation point of view it would be of major importance to perform near-surface magnetic measurements [2] to compare both surface and in orbit (between 100 and 440 km) data. This would help to comprehend not only the distribution of the magnetic dipoles but also to make progress in the identification of different rock types and understanding of their degree of alteration which could have modified superficial magnetic signatures. In the frame of Finnish-Russian and Spanish MetNet mission, to perform meteorological studies on Martian surface, a miniaturized magnetometer and gradiometer named MOURA was developed with the objective to improve the interpretation of the magnetic anomalies and their origin. In order to test this magnetometer, comparative on Earth magnetic measurements were performed with MOURA and a reference absolute scalar magnetometer (Geometrics 853) in areas with a representative and large variation of magmatic rocks compositions. The final goal is to test the appropriateness of the developed magnetometer for the in situ measurements on Mars. The active continental margin of the Patagonian Andes was used for this case study, since it provides a large variety of mafic to felsic intrusive and extrusive magmatic rocks, partly corresponding to rocks suggested for the Martian crust. As an example, areas with complex intermediate to felsic magmatic intrusions and basaltic dykes as well as their interaction with surrounding crustal sedimentary and metamorphic rocks have been exhaustively mapped. The objective was on the one hand to cover all the range from gabbroid to granitic intrusive rocks including subvolcanic rocks, and on the other hand effusive and explosive volcanic craters. The comparative results of both the MOURA Martian magnetometer and reference scalar magnetometer show a good correlation of the magnetic intensities. MOURA magnetometer has been proven to have resolution enough to differentiate not only between different magmatic rock types but also depict different degree of alteration of primary magnetic minerals in these rocks. Mapping within an active basaltic volcanic field including a transect across a crater and its surroundings indicate that the Moura magnetometer is able to distinguish between effusive and explosive basaltic rocks and their degree of porosity. 1 - Planetary magnetic fields, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 208 (2003) 1-11 2 - Planetary and Space Science 48 (2000) 1231-1247

Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf

2013-04-01

199

The ACE Magnetic Fields Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field experiment on ACE provides continuous measurements of the local magnetic field in the interplanetary medium.\\u000a These measurements are essential in the interpretation of simultaneous ACE observations of energetic and thermal particles\\u000a distributions. The experiment consists of a pair of twin, boom- mounted, triaxial fluxgate sensors which are located 165 inches\\u000a (=4.19 m) from the center of the

C. W. Smith; J. L'Heureux; N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuña; L. F. Burlaga; J. Scheifele

1998-01-01

200

Magnetic resonance in an elliptic magnetic field  

E-print Network

The behaviour of a particle with a spin 1/2 and a dipole magnetic moment in a time-varying magnetic field in the form $(h_0 cn(\\omega t,k), h_0 sn(\\omega t,k), H_0 dn(\\omega t,k))$, where $\\omega$ is the driving field frequency, $t$ is the time, $h_0$ and $H_0$ are the field amplitudes, $cn$, $sn$, $dn$ are Jacobi elliptic functions, $ k$ is the modulus of the elliptic functions has been considered. The variation parameter $k$ from zero to 1 gives rise to a wide set of functions from trigonometric shapes to exponential pulse shapes modulating the field. The problem was reduced to the solution of general Heun' equation. The exact solution of the wave function was found at resonance for any $ k$. It has been shown that the transition probability in this case does not depend on $k$. The present study may be useful for analysis interference experiments, improving magnetic spectrometers and the field of quantum computing.

E. A. Ivanchenko

2004-04-20

201

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

magnetic field can be partly compensated by the receiving coil design and shielding of electromagnetic pick magnetic fields. Common sources of static magnetic fields are super conducting coils, electromagnets, and permanent magnets. The induced magnetization, and thus the signal, is proportional to the magnitude

StepiÂ?nik, Janez

202

Optical sensor of magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

1986-03-25

203

The magnetic field of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 spacecraft encountered Mercury three times in 1974-1975. The first and third encounters provided detailed observations of a well-developed detached bow shock wave which results from the interaction of the solar wind. The planet possesses a global magnetic field and a modest magnetosphere, which deflects the solar wind. The field is approximately dipolar, with orientation in the same sense as earth, tilted 12 deg from the rotation axis. The magnetic moment corresponds to an undistorted equatorial field intensity of 350 gammas, approximately 1% of earth's. The field, while unequivocally intrinsic to the planet, may be due to remanent magnetization acquired from an extinct dynamo or a primordial magnetic field or due to a presently active dynamo. The latter possibility appears more plausible at present. In any case, the existence of the magnetic field provides very strong evidence of a mature differentiated planetary interior with a large core (core radius about 0.7 Mercury radius) and a record of the history of planetary formation in the magnetization of the crustal rocks.

Ness, N. F.

1977-01-01

204

Chiral transition with magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses—taken as functions of the order parameter—can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling constants, and the number of fermions. We show that the critical temperature for the restoration of chiral symmetry monotonically increases from small to intermediate values of the magnetic field and that this temperature is always above the critical temperature for the case when the magnetic field is absent.

Ayala, Alejandro; Hernández, Luis Alberto; Mizher, Ana Júlia; Rojas, Juan Cristóbal; Villavicencio, Cristián

2014-06-01

205

CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Structure of Magnetic  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Chapter 3 Structure of Magnetic Fields Many of the most in Fig. 3.1, the generic structure of the magnetic field can be open (a­c and f) or closed (d,e). In open). The magnetic field structure in closed configurations (d,e) is toroidal in character or topology. That is, its

Callen, James D.

206

Damping of cosmic magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We examine the evolution of magnetic fields in an expanding fluid composed of matter and radiation with particular interest in the evolution of cosmic magnetic fields. We derive the propagation velocities and damping rates for relativistic and non-relativistic fast and slow magnetosonic and Alfv{acute e}n waves in the presence of viscous and heat conducting processes. The analysis covers all magnetohydrodynamics modes in the radiation diffusion and the free-streaming regimes. When our results are applied to the evolution of magnetic fields in the early universe, we find that cosmic magnetic fields are damped from prior to the epoch of neutrino decoupling up to recombination. Similar to the case of sound waves propagating in a demagnetized plasma, fast magnetosonic waves are damped by radiation diffusion on all scales smaller than the radiation diffusion length. The characteristic damping scales are the horizon scale at neutrino decoupling (M{sub {nu}}{approx}10{sup {minus}4}M{sub {circle_dot}} in baryons) and the Silk mass at recombination (M{sub {gamma}}{approx}10{sup 13}M{sub {circle_dot}} in baryons). In contrast, the oscillations of slow magnetosonic and Alfv{acute e}n waves get overdamped in the radiation diffusion regime, resulting in frozen-in magnetic field perturbations. Further damping of these perturbations is possible only if before recombination the wave enters a regime in which radiation free-streams on the scale of the perturbation. The maximum damping scale of slow magnetosonic and Alfv{acute e}n modes is always smaller than or equal to the damping scale of fast magnetosonic waves, and depends on the magnetic field strength and its direction relative to the wave vector. Our findings have multifold implications for cosmology. The dissipation of magnetic field energy into heat during the epoch of neutrino decoupling ensures that most magnetic field configurations generated in the very early universe satisfy big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. Further dissipation before recombination constrains models in which primordial magnetic fields give rise to galactic magnetic fields or density perturbations. Finally, the survival of Alfv{acute e}n and slow magnetosonic modes on scales well below the Silk mass may be of significance for the formation of structure on small scales. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Jedamzik, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Katalinic, V.; Olinto, A.V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

1998-03-01

207

Magnetic Field Generation in Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enormous progress has been made on observing stellar magnetism in stars from the main sequence (particularly thanks to the MiMeS, MAGORI and BOB surveys) through to compact objects. Recent data have thrown into sharper relief the vexed question of the origin of stellar magnetic fields, which remains one of the main unanswered questions in astrophysics. In this chapter we review recent work in this area of research. In particular, we look at the fossil field hypothesis which links magnetism in compact stars to magnetism in main sequence and pre-main sequence stars and we consider why its feasibility has now been questioned particularly in the context of highly magnetic white dwarfs. We also review the fossil versus dynamo debate in the context of neutron stars and the roles played by key physical processes such as buoyancy, helicity, and superfluid turbulence, in the generation and stability of neutron star fields. Independent information on the internal magnetic field of neutron stars will come from future gravitational wave detections. Coherent searches for the Crab pulsar with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) have already constrained its gravitational wave luminosity to be ?2 % of the observed spin-down luminosity, thus placing a limit of ?1016 G on the internal field. Indirect spin-down limits inferred from recycled pulsars also yield interesting gravitational-wave-related constraints. Thus we may be at the dawn of a new era of exciting discoveries in compact star magnetism driven by the opening of a new, non-electromagnetic observational window. We also review recent advances in the theory and computation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence as it applies to stellar magnetism and dynamo theory. These advances offer insight into the action of stellar dynamos as well as processes which control the diffusive magnetic flux transport in stars.

Ferrario, Lilia; Melatos, Andrew; Zrake, Jonathan

2015-03-01

208

Cosmic Structure of Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

The simulations of the formation of cosmological structure allows to determine the spatial inhomogeneity of cosmic magnetic fields. Such simulations, however, do not give an absolute number for the strength of the magnetic field due to insufficient spatial resolution. Combining these simulations with observations of the Rotation Measure to distant radio sources allows then to deduce upper limits for the strength of the magnetic field. These upper limits are of order 0.2 - 2 muG along the filaments and sheets of the galaxy distribution. In one case, the sheet outside the Coma cluster, there is a definitive estimate of the strength of the magnetic field consistent with this range. Such estimates are almost three orders of magnitude higher than hitherto assumed usually. High energy cosmic ray particles can be either focussed or strongly scattered in such magnetic filaments and sheets, depending on the initial transverse momentum. The cosmological background in radio and X-ray wavelengths will have contributions from these intergalactic filaments and sheets, should the magnetic fields really be as high as 0.2 - 2 muG.

Peter L. Biermann; Hyesung Kang; Joerg P. Rachen; Dongsu Ryu

1997-09-25

209

MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.  

SciTech Connect

Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

2004-10-03

210

Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds  

E-print Network

Magnetic fields are believed to play an important role in the evolution of molecular clouds, from their large scale structure to dense cores, protostellar envelopes, and protoplanetary disks. How important is unclear, and whether magnetic fields are the dominant force driving star formation at any scale is also unclear. In this review we examine the observational data which address these questions, with particular emphasis on high angular resolution observations. Unfortunately the data do not clarify the situation. It is clear that the fields are important, but to what degree we don't yet know. Observations to date have been limited by the sensitivity of available telescopes and instrumentation. In the future ALMA and the SKA in particular should provide great advances in observational studies of magnetic fields, and we discuss which observations are most desirable when they become available.

Tyler L. Bourke; Alyssa A. Goodman

2004-01-14

211

Modeling Earth's magnetic field variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the Earth's magnetic field taken at the Earth's surface and at satellite altitude have been combined to construct models of the geomagnetic field and its variation. Lesur et al. (2010) developed a kinematic reconstruction of core field changes that satisfied the frozen-flux constraint. By constraining the field evolution to be entirely due to advection of the magnetic field at the core surface it maintained the spatial complexity of the field morphology imposed by a satellite field model backward in time [Wardinski & Lesur,2012]. In this study we attempt a kinematic construction of future variation in Earth's magnetic field variation. Our approach, first seeks to identify typical time scales of the magnetic field and core surface flows present in decadal and millennial field and flow models. Therefore, the individual spherical harmonic coefficients are treated by methods of time series analysis. The second step employs stochastic modelling of the temporal variability of such spherical harmonic coefficients that represent the field and core surface flow. Difficulties arise due to the non-stationary behavior of the field and core surface flow. However, the broad behavior may consist of some homogeneity, which could be captured by a generalized stochastic model that calls for the d'th difference of the time series to be stationary (ARIMA-Model), or by detrending the coefficient time series. By computing stochastic models, we obtain two sets of field-forecasts, the first set is obtained from stochastic models of the Gauss coefficients. Here, first results suggest that secular variation on time scales shorter than 5 years behaves rather randomly and cannot be described sufficiently well by stochastic models. The second set is derived from forward modeling the secular variation using the diffusion-less induction equation (kinematic construction). This approach has not provide consistent results.

Wardinski, I.

2012-12-01

212

Black holes and magnetic fields  

E-print Network

Stationary axisymmetric magnetic fields are expelled from outer horizons of black holes as they become extremal. Extreme black holes exhibit Meissner effect also within exact Einstein--Maxwell theory and in string theories in higher dimensions. Since maximally rotating black holes are expected to be astrophysically most important, the expulsion of the magnetic flux from their horizons represents a potential threat to an electromagnetic mechanism launching the jets at the account of black-hole rotation.

J. Bicak; V. Karas; T. Ledvinka

2007-04-09

213

The vector structure of active magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations are needed to show the form of the strains introduced into the fields above the surface of the Sun. The longitudinal component alone does not provide the basic information, so that it has been necessary in the past to use the filamentary structure observed in H sub alpha to supplement the longitudinal information. Vector measurements provide the additional essential information to determine the strains, with the filamentary structure available as a check for consistency. It is to be expected, then, that vector measurements will permit a direct mapping of the strains imposed on the magnetic fields of active regions. It will be interesting to study the relation of those strains to the emergence of magnetic flux, flares, eruptive prominences, etc. In particular we may hope to study the relaxation of the strains via the dynamical nonequilibrium.

Parker, E. N.

1985-01-01

214

Observations of Mercury's magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

1975-01-01

215

Random field characteristics of seismic zoning map  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to test the reasonability of the seismic zoning map with probabilistic means is the most concerned problem. So far, there\\u000a were no good methods to test zoning map using actual intensity data. Firstly, the author suggest the concept of random field,\\u000a then proved that the average value of the randomifield is ergodic by using Monte Carlo method, therefor the

Meng-Tan Gao; Hua Pan

1993-01-01

216

Scalar magnetic anomaly maps of Earth derived from POGO and Magsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) scalar magnetic anomaly map at 400 km altitude is presented which consists of spherical harmonics of degree 15-60. On the basis of the common features of this map with two new Magsat anomaly maps, dawn and dusk, two scalar magnetic anomaly maps of the Earth are presented using two selection criteria with different levels of stringency. These selection criteria suppress the noncrustal components of the original maps by different amounts. The more stringent selection criteria seek to eliminate as much contamination as possible, at the expense of suppressing some anomaly signal. This map is represented by spherical harmonics of degree 15-60. The less stringent selection criteria seek to retain as much crustal signal as possible, at the expense of also retaining some contaminating fields. This map is represented by spherical harmonics of degree 15-65. The resulting two maps are highly correlated with degree correlation coefficients greater than 0.8.

Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Langel, Robert A.; Purucker, Mike

1994-12-01

217

Scalar magnetic anomaly maps of Earth derived from POGO and Magsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) scalar magnetic anomaly map at 400 km altitude is presented which consists of spherical harmonics of degree 15-60. On the basis of the common features of this map with two new Magsat anomaly maps, dawn and dusk, two scalar magnetic anomaly maps of the Earth are presented using two selection criteria with different levels of stringency. These selection criteria suppress the noncrustal components of the original maps by different amounts. The more stringent selection criteria seek to eliminate as much contamination as possible, at the expense of suppressing some anomaly signal. This map is represented by spherical harmonics of degree 15-60. The less stringent selection criteria seek to retain as much crustal signal as possible, at the expense of also retaining some contaminating fields. This map is represented by spherical harmonics of degree 15-65. The resulting two maps are highly correlated with degree correlation coefficients greater than 0.8.

Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Langel, Robert A.; Purucker, Mike

1994-01-01

218

Magnetic field tomography, helical magnetic fields and Faraday depolarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-band radio polarization observations offer the possibility to recover information about the magnetic fields in synchrotron sources, such as details of their three-dimensional configuration, that has previously been inaccessible. The key physical process involved is the Faraday rotation of the polarized emission in the source (and elsewhere along the wave's propagation path to the observer). In order to proceed, reliable methods are required for inverting the signals observed in wavelength space into useful data in Faraday space, with robust estimates of their uncertainty. In this paper, we examine how variations of the intrinsic angle of polarized emission ?0 with the Faraday depth ? within a source affect the observable quantities. Using simple models for the Faraday dispersion F(?) and ?0(?), along with the current and planned properties of the main radio interferometers, we demonstrate how degeneracies among the parameters describing the magneto-ionic medium can be minimized by combining observations in different wavebands. We also discuss how depolarization by Faraday dispersion due to a random component of the magnetic field attenuates the variations in the spectral energy distribution of the polarization and shifts its peak towards shorter wavelengths. This additional effect reduces the prospect of recovering the characteristics of the magnetic field helicity in magneto-ionic media dominated by the turbulent component of the magnetic field.

Horellou, C.; Fletcher, A.

2014-07-01

219

Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity that compares the magnetic field of the Earth to the complex magnetic field of the Sun. Using images of the Earth and Sun that have magnets attached in appropriate orientations, learners will use a handheld magnetic field detector to observe the magnetic field of the Earth and compare it to that of the Sun, especially in sunspot areas. For each group of students, this activity requires use of a handheld magnetic field detector, such as a Magnaprobe or a similar device, a bar magnet, and ten small disc magnets.

220

Magnetic Forces and Field Line Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about depicting the relative strength of magnetic fields using field line density. Learners will use the magnetic field line drawing of six magnetic poles created in a previous activity and identify the areas of strong, weak, and medium magnetic intensity using the density of magnetic field lines. This is the fifth activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. How to Draw Magnetic Fields - II in the Magnetic Math booklet must be completed prior to this activity.

221

Flux Transport and the Sun's Global Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun s global magnetic field is produced and evolved through the emergence of magnetic flux in active regions and its transport across the solar surface by the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric convective flows of granulation, supergranulation, and giant cell convection. Maps of the global magnetic field serve as the inner boundary condition for space weather. The photospheric magnetic field and its evolution determine the coronal and solar wind structures through which CMEs must propagate and in which solar energetic particles are accelerated and propagate. Producing magnetic maps which best represent the actual field configuration at any instant requires knowing the magnetic field over the observed hemisphere as well as knowing the flows that transport flux. From our Earth-based vantage point we only observe the front-side hemisphere and each pole is observable for only six months of the year at best. Models for the surface magnetic flux transport can be used to provide updates to the magnetic field configuration in those unseen regions. In this presentation I will describe successes and failures of surface flux transport and present new observations on the structure, the solar cycle variability, and the evolution of the flows involved in magnetic flux transport. I find that supergranules play the dominant role due to their strong flow velocities and long lifetimes. Flux is transported by differential rotation and meridional flow only to the extent that the supergranules participate in those two flows.

Hathaway, David H.

2010-01-01

222

Visualizing and predicting CMEs and geomagnetic storms from solar magnetic fields  

E-print Network

the responses. Existing coronal models include potential field source surface (PFSS), force free, and MHD models maps of the solar magnetic field to study the relation­ ship between coronal field changes and CMEs

Li, Yan

223

The Global Magnetic Field of Mars and Implications for Crustal Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, in nearly circular polar orbit with mean altitude of 400 km, obtained globally-distributed vector magnetic field measurements above the surface of Mars. Observations from March, 1999 through August, 2000 have been compiled to produce the first nearly complete global magnetic field maps of Mars. Mars crustal magnetization appears dichotomized, with intense magnetization mainly confined to

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuña; P. J. Wasilewski; G. Kletetschka; N. F. Ness; J. E. P. Connerney; B. Lin; D. L. Mitchell

2001-01-01

224

Bladder wall thickness mapping for magnetic resonance cystography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical studies have shown evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. Clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high-resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface-fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach.

Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

2013-08-01

225

Bladder Wall Thickness Mapping for Magnetic Resonance Cystography  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have shown the evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. The clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. PMID:23835844

Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

2013-01-01

226

CGPS studies of the Galactic Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) is the largest effort of its kind to study and understand the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF) and Interstellar Medium (ISM) in our Galaxy (see e.g. Taylor et al. 2003). The CGPS has mapped the Galactic plane visible from DRAO on all spatial scales down to arcminute resolution in total intensity and polarized emission at ?obs=1.4 GHz (see Landecker et al. 2010). The latest results invoking Faraday rotation and polarization gradient studies of the CGPS are discussed.

Geisbuesch, Joern; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.

2015-03-01

227

Origin of astrophysical magnetic fields.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields observed in stars and galaxies is the ?-? dynamo, in which a feedback loop involving differential rotation and helical turbulence leads to exponential amplification of a large-scale field. Recently this model has been criticized on the grounds that the Lorentz forces associated with the buildup of small-scale fields by the turbulence prevents the turbulent diffusion of magnetic field that is an essential part of the model. The author discusses the consequences for cosmology if dynamo theory is wrong, and reviews recent criticisms from a new perspective. They suggest new calculations that can help to decide whether the theory is right or wrong.

Field, George B.

228

EXPLORER 10 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements made by means of Explorer 10 over geocentric ; distances of 1.8 to 42.6R\\/sub e\\/ on March 25experiment on the same satellite are ; referenced in interpretations. The close-in data are consistent with the ; existence of a very weak ring current below 3R\\/sub e\\/ along the trajectory, but ; alternative explanations for the field deviations are

J. P. Heppner; N. F. Ness; C. S. Scearce; T. L. Skillman

1963-01-01

229

Effects of magnetic fields on iron electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of magnetic fields (of 0–5 T magnetic flux density) on iron electrodeposition were investigated in terms of current efficiency, morphology and crystal orientation. The AFM images showed that the shape of iron grains was angular in no magnetic field and roundish in magnetic fields. The occurrence of preferred orientation parallel to the substrate plane was influenced by an

H. Matsushima; T. Nohira; I. Mogi; Y. Ito

2004-01-01

230

How to Draw Magnetic Fields - I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about depicting magnetic fields. Learners will observe two provided drawings of magnetic field line patterns for bar magnets in simple orientations of like and unlike polarities and carefully draw the field lines for both orientations. This is the third activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

231

Equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean and the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a by-product of our recent work to build a candidate model over the oceans for the second version of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM), we derived global distributions of the equivalent magnetization in oceanic domains. In a first step, we use classic point source forward modeling on a spherical Earth to build a forward model of the marine magnetic anomalies at sea-surface. We estimate magnetization vectors using the age map of the ocean floor, the relative plate motions, the apparent polar wander path for Africa, and a geomagnetic reversal time scale. We assume two possible magnetized source geometry, involving both a 1 km-thick layer bearing a 10 A/m magnetization either on a regular spherical shell with a constant, 5 km-deep, bathymetry (simple geometry) or following the topography of the oceanic basement as defined by the bathymetry and sedimentary thickness (realistic geometry). Adding a present-day geomagnetic field model allows the computation of our initial magnetic anomaly model. In a second step, we adjust this model to the existing marine magnetic anomaly data, in order to make it consistent with these data. To do so, we extract synthetic magnetic along the ship tracks for which real data are available and we compare quantitatively the measured and computed anomalies on 100, 200 or 400 km-long sliding windows (depending the spreading rate). Among the possible comparison criteria, we discard the maximal range - too dependent on local values - and the correlation and coherency - the geographical adjustment between model and data being not accurate enough - to favor the standard deviation around the mean value. The ratio between the standard deviations of data and model on each sliding window represent an estimate of the magnetization ratio causing the anomalies, which we interpolate to adjust the initial magnetic anomaly model to the data and therefore compute a final model to be included in our WDMAM candidate over the oceanic regions lacking data. The above ratio, after division by the magnetization of 10 A/m used in the model, represents an estimate of the equivalent magnetization under the considered magnetized source geometry. The resulting distributions of equivalent magnetization are further discussed in terms of mid-ocean ridges, presence of hotspots and oceanic plateaus, and the age of the oceanic lithosphere. Global marine magnetic data sets and models represent a useful tool to assess first order magnetic properties of the oceanic lithosphere.

Dyment, Jerome; Choi, Yujin; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Thébault, Erwan; Quesnel, Yoann; Roest, Walter; Lesur, Vincent

2014-05-01

232

Understanding Modern Magnets through Conformal Mapping  

SciTech Connect

When I had to choose, within some narrow range, the topic of this paper, I received great help from a colleague in Berkeley and from Prof. Little when it was suggested that I should pick among the possible subjects of my talk the subject that Prof. Bloch would have enjoyed most. Since Prof. Bloch would prefer a scalpel over a sword every time, I hope and think that most people will approve my choice. When one intends to talk about a subject that is as old as conformal mapping and one does not want to lose the audience in a very short time, it is advisable to start by explaining both the motivation for the talk as well as the goals one has in mind when giving the talk. This particular talk has been motivated by the increasing frequency with which one hears, from people that ought to know better, statements like: 'Conformal mapping is really a thing of the past because of all the marvelous computer programs that we now have'. Even though, or more likely because, I have been intimately involved in the development of some large and widely used computer codes, I am deeply disturbed by such statements since they indicate a severe lack of understanding of the purpose of conformal mapping techniques, computers, and computer codes. In my view, conformal mapping can be an extremely powerful computational technique, and the easy availability of computers has made that aspect even more important now than it has been in the past. Additionally, and more importantly, conformal mapping can give very deep and unique insight into problems, giving often solutions to problems that can not be obtained with any other method, in particular not with computers. Wanting to demonstrate in particular the latter part, I set myself two goals for this talk: (1) I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all. When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw H.Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations (ref. 1). This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to: (2) Show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology. This is followed by a brief summary of the most important properties of functions of a complex variable. When reading this introduction into the relevant mathematics, the reader needs to keep in mind that this is not a mathematics essay, but a demonstration how beautiful and powerful, but not always appreciated, mathematics can be if used by a physicist or engineer to solve some real life problems.

Halbach, K.

1989-10-27

233

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

234

Jupiter's magnetic field and magnetosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the planets of the solar system, Jupiter is unique in connection with its size and its large magnetic moment, second only to the sun's. The Jovian magnetic field was first detected indirectly by radio astronomers who postulated its existence to explain observations of nonthermal radio emissions from Jupiter at decimetric and decametric wavelengths. Since the early radio astronomical studies of the Jovian magnetosphere, four spacecraft have flown by the planet at close distances and have provided in situ information about the geometry of the magnetic field and its strength. The Jovian magnetosphere is described in terms of three principal regions. The inner magnetosphere is the region where the magnetic field created by sources internal to the planet dominates. The region in which the equatorial currents flow is denoted as the middle magnetosphere. In the outer magnetosphere, the field has a large southward component and exhibits large temporal and/or spatial variations in magnitude and direction in response to changes in solar wind pressure.

Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Connerney, J. E. P.

1983-01-01

235

Crystal field and magnetic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

Flood, D. J.

1977-01-01

236

Simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic field in photonic crystal nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The insertion of a metal-coated tip on the surface of a photonic crystal microcavity is used for simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic fields in photonic crystal nanocavities, via the radiative emission of embedded semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The photoluminescence intensity map directly gives the electric field distribution, to which the electric dipole of the QD is coupled. The magnetic field generates, via Faraday's law, a circular current in the apex of the metallized probe that can be schematized as a ring. The resulting magnetic perturbation of the photonic modes induces a blue shift, which can be used to map the magnetic field, within a single near-field scan.

Vignolini, Silvia; Intonti, Francesca; Riboli, Francesco; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt; Balet, Laurent; Li, Lianhe H.; Francardi, Marco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Fiore, Andrea; Gurioli, Massimo

2012-06-01

237

Chaotic electron trajectories in a realizable helical wiggler with axial magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaotic behavior of relativistic electron motion in a free-electron laser with realizable helical wiggler and axial magnetic field is investigated by using Pioncaré maps and Liapunov exponents. It is shown that in the presence of low to medium axial magnetic field, the motion of the electron may be chaotic. The effect of high axial magnetic field on electron dynamics causes

Mahdi Esmaeilzadeh; Mohammad S. Fallah; Joseph E. Willett

2007-01-01

238

Chaotic electron trajectories in a realizable helical wiggler with axial magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaotic behavior of relativistic electron motion in a free-electron laser with realizable helical wiggler and axial magnetic field is investigated by using Pioncare´ maps and Liapunov exponents. It is shown that in the presence of low to medium axial magnetic field, the motion of the electron may be chaotic. The effect of high axial magnetic field on electron dynamics causes

Mahdi Esmaeilzadeh; Mohammad S. Fallah; Joseph E. Willett

2007-01-01

239

A high-field superferric NMR magnet.  

PubMed

Strong, extensive magnetic fringe fields are a significant problem with magnetic resonance imaging magnets. This is particularly acute with 4-T, whole-body research magnets. To date this problem has been addressed by restricting an extensive zone around the unshielded magnet or by placing external unsaturated iron shielding around the magnet. This paper describes a solution to this problem which uses superconducting coils closely integrated with fully saturated iron elements. A 4-T, 30-cm-bore prototype, based on this design principle, was built and tested. The 5 G fringe field is contained within 1 meter of the magnet bore along the z axis. Homogeneity of the raw magnetic field is 10 ppm over 30% of the magnet's diameter after passive shimming. Compared with an unshielded magnet, 20% less superconductor is required to generate the magnetic field. Images and spectra are presented to demonstrate the magnet's viability for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. PMID:8419740

Huson, F R; Bryan, R N; MacKay, W W; Herrick, R C; Colvin, J; Ford, J J; Pissanetzky, S; Plishker, G A; Rocha, R; Schmidt, W

1993-01-01

240

Dust properties and magnetic field geometry towards LDN 1570  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed both optical linear polarimetric and photometric observations of an isolated dark globule LDN 1570 aim to study the dust polarizing and extinction properties and to map the magnetic field geometry so as to understand not only the importance of magnetic fields in formation and evolution of clouds but also the correlation of the inferred magnetic field structure with the cloud structure and its dynamics. Dust size indicators (R V and ? max ) reveal for the presence of slightly bigger dust grains towards the cloud region. The inferred magnetic field geometry, which closely follows the cloud structure revealed by Herschel images, suggest that the cloud could have been formed due to converging material flows along the magnetic field lines.

Eswaraiah, C.; Maheswar, G.; Pandey, A. K.

2015-03-01

241

Magnetic fields in the sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

Mullan, D. J.

1974-01-01

242

Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At ?6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).

Krause, Marita

2015-03-01

243

LARGE-SCALE KINEMATICS, ASTROCHEMISTRY, AND MAGNETIC FIELD STUDIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS THROUGH HC{sub 3}N, HNC, AND C{sub 2}H MAPPINGS  

SciTech Connect

We have mapped 27 massive star-forming regions associated with water masers using three dense gas tracers: HC{sub 3}N 10-9, HNC 1-0, and C{sub 2}H 1-0. The FWHM sizes of HNC clumps and C{sub 2}H clumps are about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher than those of HC{sub 3}N, respectively, which can be explained by the fact that HC{sub 3}N traces more dense gas than HNC and C{sub 2}H. We found evidence for an increase in the optical depth of C{sub 2}H with a 'radius' from the center to the outer regions in some targets, supporting the chemical model of C{sub 2}H. The C{sub 2}H optical depth is found to decline as molecular clouds evolve to a later stage, suggesting that C{sub 2}H might be used as a 'chemical clock' for molecular clouds. The large-scale kinematic structure of clouds was investigated with three molecular lines. All of these sources show significant velocity gradients. The magnitudes of gradient are found to increase toward the inner region, indicating the differential rotation of clouds. Both the ratio of rotational to gravitational energy and the specific angular momentum seem to decrease toward the inner region, implying the obvious angular momentum transfer, which might be caused by magnetic braking. The average magnetic field strength and number density of molecular clouds is derived using the uniform magnetic sphere model. The derived magnetic field strengths range from 3 to 88 {mu}G, with a median value of 13 {mu}G. The mass-to-flux ratio of the molecular cloud is calculated to be much higher than the critical value with derived parameters, which agrees well with numerical simulations.

Li Juan; Wang Junzhi; Gu Qiusheng; Zheng Xingwu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou RD, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Zhiyu, E-mail: ljuan@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2012-01-20

244

Slotless Permanent-Magnet Machines: General Analytical Magnetic Field Calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general analytical model for predicting the magnetic field of slotless permanent-magnet machines. The model takes into account the effect of eddy currents in conductive regions and notably in conductive permanent magnets without neglecting their remanent field. The modeling of this effect is important for the design of very high speed slotless permanent-magnet machines, as the power

Pierre-Daniel Pfister; Yves Perriard

2011-01-01

245

Flow field mapping in data rack model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

Manoch, L.; Mat?cha, J.; Pohan, P.

2013-04-01

246

Wave functions of elliptical quantum dots in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the variational principle to obtain the wave functions of elliptical quantum dots under the influence of an external magnetic field. For the first excited states, whose wave functions have recently been mapped experimentally, we find a simple expression, based on a linear combination of the wave functions in the absence of a magnetic field. The results illustrate how a magnetic field breaks the x-y symmetry and mixes the corresponding eigenstates. The obtained eigenenergies agree well with those obtained by more involved analytical and numerical methods.

Zhou, Daming; Lorke, Axel

2015-03-01

247

Magnetic field of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws of electromagnetism. According to a rule of the left hand: if the magnetic field in a kernel is directed to drawing, electric current are directed to an axis of rotation of the Earth, - a action of force clockwise (to West). Definition of the force causing drift a kernel according to the law of Ampere F = IBlsin. Powerful force 3,5 × 1012 Nyton, what makes drift of the central part of a kernel of the Earth on 0,2 the longitude in year to West, and also it is engine of the mechanism of movement of slabs together with continents. Movement of a core of the Earth carry out around of a terrestrial axis one circulation in the western direction in 2000 of years. Linear speed of rotation of a kernel concerning a mantle on border the mantle a kernel: V = × 3,471 × 10 = 3,818 × 10 m/s = 33 m/day = 12 km/years. Considering greater viscosity of a mantle, the powerful energy at rotation of a kernel seize a mantle and lithospheric slabs and makes their collisions as a result of which there are earthquakes and volcano. Continents Northern and Southern America every year separate from the Europe and Africa on several centimeters. Atlantic ocean as a result of movement of these slabs with such speed was formed for 200 million years, that in comparison with the age of the Earth - several billions years, not so long time. Drift of a kernel in the western direction is a principal cause of delay of speed of rotation of the Earth. Flow of radial electric currents allot according to the law of Joule - Lenz, the quantity of warmth : Q = I2Rt = IUt, of thermal energy 6,92 × 1017 calories/year. This defines heating of a kernel and the Earth as a whole. In the valley of the median-Atlantic ridge having numerous volcanos, the lava flow constantly thus warm up waters of Atlantic ocean. It is a fact the warm current Gulf Stream. Thawing of a permafrost and ices of Arctic ocean, of glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica is acknowledgement: the warmth of earth defines character of thawing of glaciers and a permafrost. This is a global warming. The version of the author: the period

Popov, Aleksey

2013-04-01

248

Advances in high field magnetism at Osaka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in high field magnetism mainly done in the High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Osaka University, are reviewed. Various magnetic and electronic properties are induced in high fields; it is emphasized that the newly developed incommensurate mean field model is effective in understanding complex phase diagrams such as in CeSb, CeBi and PrCo 2Si 2.

Date, M.

1989-03-01

249

LABORATORY V MAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES  

E-print Network

's technology. Magnets are used today to image parts of the body, to explore the mysteries of the human brain to combine magnets to change the magnetic field at any point. You decide to determine the form

Minnesota, University of

250

Magnetic Field Gradient Waveform Monitoring for Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear magnetic field gradients have played a central role in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) since Fourier Transform MRI was proposed three decades ago. Their primary function is to encode spatial information into MR signals. Magnetic field gradients are also used to sensitize the image contrast to coherent and/or incoherent motion, to selectively enhance an MR signal, and to minimize image artifacts. Modern MR imaging techniques increasingly rely on the implementation of complex gradient waveforms for the manipulation of spin dynamics. However, gradient system infidelities caused by eddy currents, gradient amplifier imperfections and group delays, often result in image artifacts and other errors (e.g., phase and intensity errors). This remains a critical problem for a wide range of MRI techniques on modern commercial systems, but is of particular concern for advanced MRI pulse sequences. Measuring the real magnetic field gradients, i.e., characterizing eddy currents, is critical to addressing and remedying this problem. Gradient measurement and eddy current calibration are therefore a general topic of importance to the science of MRI. The Magnetic Field Gradient Monitor (MFGM) idea was proposed and developed specifically to meet these challenges. The MFGM method is the heart of this thesis. MFGM methods permit a variety of magnetic field gradient problems to be investigated and systematically remedied. Eddy current effects associated with MR compatible metallic pressure vessels were analyzed, simulated, measured and corrected. The appropriate correction of eddy currents may enable most MR/MRI applications with metallic pressure vessels. Quantitative imaging (1D/2D) with model pressure vessels was successfully achieved by combining image reconstruction with MFGM determined gradient waveform behaviour. Other categories of MR applications with metallic vessels, including diffusion measurement and spin echo SPI T2 mapping, cannot be realized solely by MFGM guided image reconstruction. A new 'demand compensation' gradient waveform adjustment method was proposed to address this particular challenge. This idea was verified in this thesis. It should also be noted that, in a general sense, this new waveform compensation method will potentially provide a novel solution to a variety of gradient related problems in MRI.

Han, Hui

251

Magnetospheric mapping with quantitative geomagnetic field models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mead-Fairfield geomagnetic field models were used to trace field lines between the outer magnetosphere and the earth's surface. The results are presented in terms of ground latitude and local time contours projected to the equatorial plane and into the geomagnetic tail. With these contours various observations can be mapped along field lines between high and low altitudes. Low altitudes observations of the polar cap boundary, the polar cusp, the energetic electron trapping boundary and the sunward convection region are projected to the equatorial plane and compared with the results of the model and with each other. The results provide quantitative support to the earlier suggestions that the trapping boundary is associated with the last closed field line in the sunward hemisphere, the polar cusp is associated with the region of the last closed field line, and the polar cap projects to the geomagnetic tail and has a low latitude boundary corresponding to the last closed field line.

Fairfield, D. H.; Mead, G. D.

1973-01-01

252

Three-dimensional magnetic and abundance mapping of the cool Ap star HD 24712. II. Two-dimensional magnetic Doppler imaging in all four Stokes parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present a magnetic Doppler imaging study from all Stokes parameters of the cool, chemically peculiar star HD 24712. This is the very first such analysis performed at a resolving power exceeding 105. Methods: The analysis is performed on the basis of phase-resolved observations of line profiles in all four Stokes parameters obtained with the HARPSpol instrument attached at the 3.6 m ESO telescope. We used the magnetic Doppler imaging code invers10, which allowed us to derive the magnetic field geometry and surface chemical abundance distributions simultaneously. Results: We report magnetic maps of HD 24712 recovered from a selection of Fe i, Fe ii, Nd iii, and Na i lines with strong polarization signals in all Stokes parameters. Our magnetic maps successfully reproduce most of the details available from our observation data. We used these magnetic field maps to produce abundance distribution map of Ca. This new analysis shows that the surface magnetic field of HD 24712 has a dominant dipolar component with a weak contribution from higher-order harmonics. The surface abundance distributions of Fe and Ca show enhancements near the magnetic equator with an underabundant patch at the visible (positive) magnetic pole; Nd is highly abundant around the positive magnetic pole. The Na abundance map shows a high overabundance around the negative magnetic pole. Conclusions: Based on our investigation and similar recent magnetic mapping studies that used four Stokes parameters, we present tentative evidence for the hypothesis that Ap stars with dipole-like fields are older than stars with magnetic fields that have more small-scale structures. We find that our abundance maps are inconsistent with recent theoretical calculations of atomic diffusion in presence of magnetic fields. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO programs 084.D-0338, 085.D-0296, 086.D-0240).

Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.

2015-01-01

253

Quantitative estimates of magnetic field reconnection properties from electric and magnetic field measurements  

E-print Network

Quantitative estimates of magnetic field reconnection properties from electric and magnetic field there are positive electric field components tangential to the magnetopause and a magnetic field component normal to it. Because these three components are the smallest of the six electric and magnetic fields

California at Berkeley, University of

254

Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken and we explore two scenarios. Increasing the heat flux through the northern hemisphere of the core-mantle boundary is an obvious choice but is not supported by current models for Mercury's mantle. We find that a combination of internal rather than bottom driving and an increased heat flux through the equatorial region of the core-mantle boundary also promotes the required symmetry breaking and results in very Mercury like fields. The reason is that the imposed heat flux pattern, though being equatorially symmetric, lowers the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of equatorially anti-symmetric convection modes. In both scenarios, a stably stratified layer or a feedback coupling to the magnetospheric field is required for lowering the field strength to Mercury-like values.

Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

2014-05-01

255

Detection of brain magnetic fields with an atomic magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detection of magnetic fields generated by evoked brain activity with an atomic magnetometer. The measurements are performed with a high-density potassium magnetometer operating in a spin-exchange relaxation free regime. Compared to SQUID magnetometers which so far have been the only detectors capable of measuring the magnetic fields from the brain, atomic magnetometers have the advantages of higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, simple multi-channel recording, and no need for cryogenics. Using a multi-channel photodetector array we recorded magnetic fields from the brain correlated with an audio tone administered with a non-magnetic earphone. The spatial map of the magnetic field gives information about the location of the brain region responding to the auditory stimulation. Our results demonstrate the atomic magnetometer as an alternative and low cost technique for brain imaging applications, without using cryogenic apparatus.

Xia, Hui; Hoffman, Dan; Baranga, Andrei; Romalis, Michael

2006-05-01

256

PLANT GROWTH UNDER STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD INFLUENCEê  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already germinated seeds of Zea mays were cultivated in the presence of static magnetic field in order to observe several biochemical changes and stimulation effect on plantlets growth. Magnetic treatment involved the application of five different values of magnetic induction of static magnetic field, ranging between 50 mT and 250 mT, during 14 days. In order to investigate the biochemical

M. RÃCUCIU; D. CREANGÃ; I. HORGA

2008-01-01

257

Field errors in superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence.

Barton, M.Q.

1982-01-01

258

Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

Hagyard, M. J. (editor)

1985-01-01

259

Plasma stability in a dipole magnetic field  

E-print Network

The MHD and kinetic stability of an axially symmetric plasma, confined by a poloidal magnetic field with closed lines, is considered. In such a system the stabilizing effects of plasma compression and magnetic field ...

Simakov, Andrei N., 1974-

2001-01-01

260

Evolution of magnetic field inclination in a forming penumbra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a sunspot penumbra forms, the magnetic field vector at the outer boundary of the protospot undergoes a transformation. We study the changes of the magnetic field vector at this boundary as a penumbral segment forms. We analyze a set of spectropolarimetric maps covering 2 hr during the formation of a sunspot in NOAA 11024. The data were recorded with the GFPI instrument attached to the German VTT. We observe a stationary umbra/quiet Sun boundary, where the magnetic field becomes more horizontal with time. The magnetic field inclination increases by 5°, reaching a maximum value of about 59°. The maximum inclination coincides with the onset of filament formation. In time, the penumbra filaments become longer and the penumbral bright grains protrude into the umbra, where the magnetic field is stronger and more vertical. Consequently, we observe a decrease in the magnetic field inclination at the boundary as the penumbra grows. In summary, in order to initiate the formation of the penumbra, the magnetic field at the umbral (protospot) boundary becomes more inclined. As the penumbra grows, the umbra/penumbra boundary migrates inwards, and at this boundary the magnetic field turns more vertical again, while it remains inclined in the outer penumbra.

Jur?ák, Jan; Bello González, Nazaret; Schlichenmaier, Rolf; Rezaei, Reza

2014-12-01

261

Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208 016 (India)

2013-02-15

262

Minireview: Biological effects of magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The literature about the biological effects of magnetic fields is reviewed. The authors begin by discussing the weak and/or time variable fields, responsible for subtle changes in the circadian rhythms of superior animals, which are believed to be induced by same sort of resonant mechanism. The safety issues related with the strong magnetic fields and gradients generated by clinical NMR magnets are then considered. The last portion summarizes the debate about the biological effects of strong and uniform magnetic fields.

Villa, M.; Mustarelli, P. (Lab. NMR, Pavia (Italy)); Caprotti, M. (Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, Pavia (Italy))

1991-01-01

263

DIVERT: a divertor magnetic field line following code  

SciTech Connect

The computer code DIVERT has been written to trace magnetic field lines in the presence of a divertor. Its purpose is to allow a user to estimate the thickness of the plasma scrapeoff region and to provide a visual mapping of the magnetic field lines near the divertor. Included in the code is the capability to provide auxiliary graphics and compute the field ripple. The code can handle a divertor made up of any arrangement of straight line coil segments and will provide a graph of the field line configuration on output.

Morris, R N; Bateman, G

1980-05-01

264

Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

2012-01-01

265

True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters.  

PubMed

Animals are capable of true navigation if, after displacement to a location where they have never been, they can determine their position relative to a goal without relying on familiar surroundings, cues that emanate from the destination, or information collected during the outward journey. So far, only a few animals, all vertebrates, have been shown to possess true navigation. Those few invertebrates that have been carefully studied return to target areas using path integration, landmark recognition, compass orientation and other mechanisms that cannot compensate for displacements into unfamiliar territory. Here we report, however, that the spiny lobster Panulirus argus oriented reliably towards a capture site when displaced 12-37 km to unfamiliar locations, even when deprived of all known orientation cues en route. Little is known about how lobsters and other animals determine position during true navigation. To test the hypothesis that lobsters derive positional information from the Earth's magnetic field, lobsters were exposed to fields replicating those that exist at specific locations in their environment. Lobsters tested in a field north of the capture site oriented themselves southwards, whereas those tested in a field south of the capture site oriented themselves northwards. These results imply that true navigation in spiny lobsters, and perhaps in other animals, is based on a magnetic map sense. PMID:12511953

Boles, Larry C; Lohmann, Kenneth J

2003-01-01

266

The magnetic fields of accreting T Tauri stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of magnetospheric accretion on to classical T Tauri stars often assume that the stellar magnetic field is a simple dipole. Recent Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies of V2129 Oph and BP Tau have shown however that their magnetic fields are more complex. V2129 Oph is a high mass T Tauri star and despite its young age is believed to have already developed a radiative core. In contrast to this, the lower mass BP Tau is likely to be completely convective. As the internal structure and therefore the magnetic field generation process is different in both stars, it is of particular interest to compare the structure of their magnetic fields obtained by field extrapolation from magnetic surface maps. We compare both field structures to mulitpole magnetic fields, and calculate the disk truncation radius for both systems. We find that by considering magnetic fields with a realistic degree of complexity, the disk is truncated at, or within, the radius obtained for dipole fields.

Gregory, S. G.; Matt, S. P.; Donati, J.-F.; Jardine, M.

2009-02-01

267

Error field and magnetic diagnostic modeling for W7-X  

SciTech Connect

The prediction, detection, and compensation of error fields for the W7-X device will play a key role in achieving a high beta (? = 5%), steady state (30 minute pulse) operating regime utilizing the island divertor system [1]. Additionally, detection and control of the equilibrium magnetic structure in the scrape-off layer will be necessary in the long-pulse campaign as bootstrapcurrent evolution may result in poor edge magnetic structure [2]. An SVD analysis of the magnetic diagnostics set indicates an ability to measure the toroidal current and stored energy, while profile variations go undetected in the magnetic diagnostics. An additional set of magnetic diagnostics is proposed which improves the ability to constrain the equilibrium current and pressure profiles. However, even with the ability to accurately measure equilibrium parameters, the presence of error fields can modify both the plasma response and diverter magnetic field structures in unfavorable ways. Vacuum flux surface mapping experiments allow for direct measurement of these modifications to magnetic structure. The ability to conduct such an experiment is a unique feature of stellarators. The trim coils may then be used to forward model the effect of an applied n = 1 error field. This allows the determination of lower limits for the detection of error field amplitude and phase using flux surface mapping. *Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

Lazerson, Sam A. [PPPL; Gates, David A. [PPPL; NEILSON, GEORGE H. [PPPL; OTTE, M.; Bozhenkov, S.; Pedersen, T. S.; GEIGER, J.; LORE, J.

2014-07-01

268

Magnetic monopole and the nature of the static magnetic field  

E-print Network

We investigate the factuality of the hypothetical magnetic monopole and the nature of the static magnetic field. It is shown from many aspects that the concept of the massive magnetic monopoles clearly is physically untrue. We argue that the static magnetic field of a bar magnet, in fact, is the static electric field of the periodically quasi-one-dimensional electric-dipole superlattice, which can be well established in some transition metals with the localized d-electron. This research may shed light on the perfect unification of magnetic and electrical phenomena.

Xiuqing Huang

2008-12-10

269

Anisotropy of magnetic emulsions induced by magnetic and electric fields  

E-print Network

The anisotropy of magnetic emulsions induced by simultaneously acting electric and magnetic fields is theoretically and experimentally investigated. Due to the anisotropy, the electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of a magnetic emulsion are no longer scalar coefficients, but are tensors. The electric conductivity and magnetic permeability tensors of sufficiently diluted emulsions in sufficiently weak electric and magnetic fields are found as functions of the electric and magnetic intensity vectors. The theoretically predicted induced anisotropy was verified experimentally. The experimental data are analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions. The results of the analysis and comparison are discussed.

Yury I. Dikansky; Alexander N. Tyatyushkin; Arthur R. Zakinyan

2011-09-10

270

Microwave Measurements of Coronal Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field measurements of the solar corona using microwave observation are reviewed. The solar corona is filled with highly ionised plasma and magnetic field. Moving charged particles interact with magnetic field due to Lorentz force. This results in gyration motion perpendicular to the magnetic field and free motion along the magnetic field. Circularly polarized electro-magnetic waves interact with gyrating electrons efficiently and the interaction depends on the sense of circular polarization (right-handed or left-handed). This is the reason why we can measure magnetic field strength through microwave observations. This process does not require complicated quantum physics but the classical treatment is enough. Hence the inversion of measured values to magnetic field strength is simpler than in the case of optical and infrared measurements. There are several methods to measure magnetic field strength through microwave observations. We can divide them into two categories: one is based on emission mechanisms and the other is based on wave propagation. In the case of emission mechanisms, thermal f-f emission, thermal gyro-resonance emission and non-thermal gyro-synchrotron emission can be used to measure magnetic field strength. In the case of wave propagation, polarization reversal due to propagation through quasi-transverse magnetic field region can be used. Examples of distribution of magnetic field strength in the solar corona measured by Nobeyama Radioheliograph will be presented.

Shibasaki, K.

2006-08-01

271

Stokes IQUV magnetic Doppler imaging of Ap stars - III. Next generation chemical abundance mapping of ?2 CVn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper, we presented an updated magnetic field map for the chemically peculiar star ?2 CVn using ESPaDOnS and Narval time-resolved high-resolution Stokes IQUV spectra. In this paper, we focus on mapping various chemical element distributions on the surface of ?2 CVn. With the new magnetic field map and new chemical abundance distributions, we can investigate the interplay between the chemical abundance structures and the magnetic field topology on the surface of ?2 CVn. Previous attempts at chemical abundance mapping of ?2 CVn relied on lower resolution data. With our high-resolution (R = 65 000) data set, we present nine chemical abundance maps for the elements O, Si, Cl, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr, Nd and Eu. We also derive an updated magnetic field map from Fe and Cr lines in Stokes IQUV and O and Cl in Stokes IV. These new maps are inferred from line profiles in Stokes IV using the magnetic Doppler imaging code INVERS10. We examine these new chemical maps and investigate correlations with the magnetic topology of ?2 CVn. We show that chemical abundance distributions vary between elements, with two distinct groups of elements; one accumulates close to the negative part of the radial field, whilst the other group shows higher abundances located where the radial magnetic field is of the order of 2 kG regardless of the polarity of the radial field component. We compare our results with previous works which have mapped chemical abundance structures of Ap stars. With the exception of Cr and Fe, we find no clear trend between what we reconstruct and other mapping results. We also find a lack of agreement with theoretical predictions. This suggests that there is a gap in our theoretical understanding of the formation of horizontal chemical abundance structures and the connection to the magnetic field in Ap stars.

Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

2014-10-01

272

Alignment between Flattened Protostellar Infall Envelopes and Ambient Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 350 ?m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 ?m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15°). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

Chapman, Nicholas L.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Houde, Martin; Kwon, Woojin; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie W.; Matthews, Brenda; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles; Peng, Ruisheng; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.

2013-06-01

273

ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

2013-06-20

274

Faraday Shadows as Probes of Galaxy Magnetic Fields at 0.3 < z < 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the strength and morphology of magnetic fields in spiral galaxies are of fundamental astrophysical interest, not least because they allow us to test the models describing how magnetic fields are generated and maintained in galaxies. Faraday rotation mapping of polarized background radio sources provides a unique probe of intervening spiral galaxies, allowing both the determination of the magnetic

Lisa Harvey-Smith; Bryan Gaensler; Phil Kronberg

2008-01-01

275

Harmonic undulator radiations with constant magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmonic undulators has been analysed in the presence of constant magnetic field along the direction of main undulator field. The spectrum modifications in harmonic undulator radiations and intensity degradation as a function of constant magnetic field magnitude at fundamental and third harmonics have been evaluated with a numerical integration method and generalised Bessel function. The role of harmonic field to overcome the intensity reduction due to constant magnetic field and energy spread in electron beam has also been demonstrated.

Jeevakhan, Hussain; Mishra, G.

2015-01-01

276

FREQUENCY FILTERING OF TORSIONAL ALFVEN WAVES BY CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, we demonstrate how the observation of broadband frequency propagating torsional Alfven waves in chromospheric magnetic flux tubes can provide valuable insight into their magnetic field structure. By implementing a full nonlinear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation with a realistic vortex driver, we demonstrate how the plasma structure of chromospheric magnetic flux tubes can act as a spatially dependent frequency filter for torsional Alfven waves. Importantly, for solar magnetoseismology applications, this frequency filtering is found to be strongly dependent on magnetic field structure. With reference to an observational case study of propagating torsional Alfven waves using spectroscopic data from the Swedish Solar Telescope, we demonstrate how the observed two-dimensional spatial distribution of maximum power Fourier frequency shows a strong correlation with our forward model. This opens the possibility of beginning an era of chromospheric magnetoseismology, to complement the more traditional methods of mapping the magnetic field structure of the solar chromosphere.

Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Verth, G. [School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2011-10-20

277

How to Draw Magnetic Fields - II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about depicting magnetic polarity. Learners will observe several provided drawings of magnetic field line patterns for bar magnets in simple orientations of like and unlike polarities and carefully draw the field lines and depict the polarities for several orientations, including an arrangement of six magnetic poles. This is the fourth activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

2012-08-03

278

Interplanetary magnetic field data book  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

King, J. H.

1975-01-01

279

Magnetic field driven domain-wall propagation in magnetic nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of magnetic field induced magnetic domain-wall (DW) propagation in a nanowire is revealed: A static DW cannot exist in a homogeneous magnetic nanowire when an external magnetic field is applied. Thus, a DW must vary with time under a static magnetic field. A moving DW must dissipate energy due to the Gilbert damping. As a result, the wire has to release its Zeeman energy through the DW propagation along the field direction. The DW propagation speed is proportional to the energy dissipation rate that is determined by the DW structure. The negative differential mobility in the intermediate field is due to the transition from high energy dissipation at low field to low energy dissipation at high field. For the field larger than the so-called Walker breakdown field, DW plane precesses around the wire, leading to the propagation speed oscillation.

Wang, X.R. [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China); Yan, P. [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: yanpeng@ust.hk; Lu, J.; He, C. [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

2009-08-15

280

Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization  

DOEpatents

In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

Doughty, Frank C. (Plano, TX); Spencer, John E. (Plano, TX)

2000-12-19

281

Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration  

SciTech Connect

A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure B{sub r}, B{sub ?}, and B{sub z} at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10?kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.

Velas, K. M. [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States); Milroy, R. D. [Plasma Science and Innovation-Center, William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Innovation-Center, William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

2014-01-15

282

Magnetic fluid flow phenomena in DC and rotating magnetic fields  

E-print Network

An investigation of magnetic fluid experiments and analysis is presented in three parts: a study of magnetic field induced torques in magnetorheological fluids, a characterization and quantitative measurement of properties ...

Rhodes, Scott E. (Scott Edward), 1981-

2004-01-01

283

Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Errors in the flip angle have to be corrected in many magnetic resonance imaging applications, especially for T1 quantification. However, the existing methods of B1 mapping fail to measure lower values of the flip angle despite the fact that these are extensively used in dynamic acquisition and 3D imaging. In this study, the nonlinearity of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain, especially for very low flip angles, is investigated and a simple method is proposed to accurately determine both the gain of the RF transmitter and the B1 field map for low flip angles. The method makes use of the spoiled gradient echo sequence with long repetition time (TR), such as applied in the double-angle method. It uses an image acquired with a flip angle of 90° as a reference image that is robust to B1 inhomogeneity. The ratio of the image at flip angle alpha to the image at a flip angle of 90° enables us to calculate the actual value of alpha. This study was carried out at 1.5 and 4.7 T, showing that the linearity of the RF supply system is highly dependent on the hardware. The method proposed here allows us to measure the flip angle from 1° to 60° with a maximal uncertainty of 10% and to correct T1 maps based on the variable flip angle method. PMID:21941028

Balezeau, Fabien; Eliat, Pierre-Antoine; Cayamo, Alejandro Bordelois; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé

2011-10-21

284

Behavior of the magnetic structures of the magnetic fluid film under tilted magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of the magnetic structure of the magnetic fluid thin film under tilted magnetic fields were taken to investigate the behavior of magnetic structures. The tilted angle ? is the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and the normal line of the film. In our previous work, a nearly perfect ordered hexagonal structure in magnetic fluid thin

H. C Yang; I. J Jang; H. E Horng; J. M Wu; Y. C Chiou; Chin-Yih Hong

1999-01-01

285

Behavior of the magnetic structures of the magnetic fluid film under tilted magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of the magnetic structure of the magnetic fluid thin film under tilted magnetic fields were taken to investigate the behavior of magnetic structures. The tilted angle theta is the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and the normal line of the film. In our previous work, a nearly perfect ordered hexagonal structure in magnetic fluid thin

H. C. Yang; I. J. Jang; H. E. Horng; J. M. Wu; Y. C. Chiou; Chin-Yih Hong

1999-01-01

286

Quantitative model of the magnetospheric magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative representations of the magnetic fields associated with the magnetopause currents and the distributed currents (tail and quiet time ring currents) have been developed. These fields are used together with a dipole representation of the main field of the earth to model the total vector magnetospheric magnetic field. The model is based on quiet time data averaged over all 'tilt

W. P. Olson; K. A. Pfitzer

1974-01-01

287

Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.

Harris, Patrick K.

2003-01-01

288

Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

1986-05-01

289

Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals.

Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

2014-12-01

290

Full 180° magnetization reversal with electric fields.  

PubMed

Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

Wang, J J; Hu, J M; Ma, J; Zhang, J X; Chen, L Q; Nan, C W

2014-01-01

291

Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

1991-01-01

292

Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields  

PubMed Central

Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

2014-01-01

293

Limits on the possible intrinsic magnetic field of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field measurements obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter at low altitudes in the solar wind wake region are examined for possible surface-correlated features and any possible intrinsic magnetic moment. The field variations observed in the wake do not resemble those expected for a solar wind interaction with even a weak intrinsic magnetic field. Little orbit-to-orbit persistence of features is found in the magnetic records. The magnetic field measurements in the wake are averaged in 10 deg x 10 deg bins to minimize the effects of external field sources. In these 37 bins, the average fields appear to be randomly oriented and consistent with zero mean in the region mapped. Using these 37 averaged vector fields, a maximum intrinsic magnetic dipole moment is obtained of 4.3 + or - 2.0 x 10 to the 21st G cu cm, approximately an order of magnitude less than previous estimates. It is noted that a more conservative estimate of the probable error of the mean is 5.5 x 10 to the 21st G cu cm. The Pioneer Venus measurements are thus consistent with zero planetary moment. The present measurements are found to be far below estimates made on the basis of angular momentum, the so-called magnetic Bode's law, and far below the dynamo scaling law of Busse.

Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Slavin, J. A.

1980-01-01

294

Chaotic electron trajectories in a realizable helical wiggler with axial magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Chaotic behavior of relativistic electron motion in a free-electron laser with realizable helical wiggler and axial magnetic field is investigated by using Pioncare maps and Liapunov exponents. It is shown that in the presence of low to medium axial magnetic field, the motion of the electron may be chaotic. The effect of high axial magnetic field on electron dynamics causes the motion to become regular and nonchaotic. The chaotic behavior of electron motion in the absence of self-fields and axial magnetic field is due to the spatial inhomogeneities of the realizable helical wiggler magnetic field.

Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi; Fallah, Mohammad S.; Willett, Joseph E. [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2007-01-15

295

Magnetic field calculation and measurement of active magnetic bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Bearings are typical devices in which electric energy and mechanical energy convert mutually. Magnetic Field indicates the relationship between 2 of the most important parameters in a magnetic bearing - current and force. This paper presents calculation and measurement of the magnetic field distribution of a self-designed magnetic bearing. Firstly, the static Maxwell's equations of the magnetic bearing are presented and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is found to solve the equations and get post-process results by means of ANSYS software. Secondly, to confirm the calculation results a Lakeshore460 3-channel Gaussmeter is used to measure the magnetic flux density of the magnetic bearing in X, Y, Z directions accurately. According to the measurement data the author constructs a 3D magnetic field distribution digital model by means of MATLAB software. Thirdly, the calculation results and the measurement data are compared and analyzed; the comparing result indicates that the calculation results are consistent with the measurement data in allowable dimension variation, which means that the FEA calculation method of the magnetic bearing has high precision. Finally, it is concluded that the magnetic field calculation and measurement can accurately reflect the real magnetic distribution in the magnetic bearing and the result can guide the design and analysis of the magnetic bearing effectively.

Ding, Guoping; Zhou, Zude; Hu, Yefa

2006-11-01

296

Diluted magnetic semiconductors: Novel properties in high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diluted magnetic semiconductors, II-VI and IV-VI compounds in which the cation is partially replaced by a magnetic ion such as Mn or a rare earth, combine interesting semiconducting and magnetic properties. At zero applied field, the materials behave like normal semiconductors or semimetals with energy gaps that can be varied with the composition of the magnetic ion. In the presence of an applied field, however, novel properties are observed. These include large field-induced splittings of energy levels, leading to strong Faraday rotations and the possibility of energy-gap tuning by magnetic field, field and temperature-dependent g-factors, large negative magnetoresistance followed at higher fields by a slowly varying positive magnetoresistance, and large paramagnetism with coupling of the magnetic ions by superexchange. Not only can these properties be observed in bulk crystal, but also they suggest promising physics and applications in artificially structured materials.

Anderson, J. R.

1990-06-01

297

Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

2011-01-01

298

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

299

Magnetic field waves at Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the physics of collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks in plasmas are capable of 'reflecting' a fraction of the incoming thermal particle distribution and directing the resulting energetic particle motion back into the upstream region. Once within the upstream region, the backward streaming energetic particles convey information of the approaching shock to the supersonic flow. This particle population is responsible for the generation of upstream magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations known as 'upstream waves', for slowing the incoming wind prior to the formation of the shock ramp, and for heating of the upstream plasma. The waves produced at Uranus not only differed in several regards from the observations at other planetary bow shocks, but also gave new information regarding the nature of the reflected particle populations which were largely unmeasurable by the particle instruments. Four distinct magnetic field wave types were observed upstream of the Uranian bow shock: low-frequency Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves excited by energetic protons originating at or behind the bow shock; whistler wave bursts driven by gyrating ion distributions within the shock ramp; and two whistler wave types simultaneously observed upstream of the flanks of the shock and argued to arise from resonance with energetic electrons. In addition, observations of energetic particle distributions by the LECP experiment, thermal particle populations observed by the PLS experiment, and electron plasma oscillations recorded by the PWS experiment proved instrumental to this study and are included to some degree in the papers and presentations supported by this grant.

Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

1994-01-01

300

COORDINATES FOR MAPPING THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETICALLY TRAPPED PARTICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipole representations of the earth's magnetic field have insufficient ; accuracy for the study of magnetically trapped particles. A coordinate system ; consisting of the magnitude of the magnetic field B and the integral invariant I ; was organized adequately, measurements made at different geographic locations. A ; parameter L = f(B,I) is defined that retains most of the desirable

Carl E. McIlwain

1961-01-01

301

Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

2015-03-01

302

Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.  

PubMed

We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

2015-01-01

303

Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence  

PubMed Central

We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

2015-01-01

304

Digital Technology for Geological Field Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of time that students and professionals spend in the field has reduced over the past 25 years (Gibbs, 2012). Recent advances in technology are changing the way students and professionals are able to conduct geological field study. Applications such as Midland Valley Exploration's FieldMove Clino now allow the geologist to use their smartphone as a fast, georeferenced measuring device compared with a traditional compass-clinometer. Although we support the view that an understanding of field mapping and model building, taught at university level, is essential to give the geologist the ability to think in three and four dimensions, new technologies that automate the ability to digitise and visualise data in the field lead to a better appreciation of the geometry, scale, and evolution of geological structures and trapping mechanisms that will be encountered during a career in industry. The majority of future industry professionals own a smartphone or tablet device: A recent study found that four-fifths of new students own a smartphone and one-fifth own a tablet device (UCAS Media, 2013). This figure is increasing with each new intake of geoscience students. With the increased availability and affordability of smartphone and tablet devices, new techniques are being examined for digital data collection in the field. If the trend continues that geoscience students are likely to spend less time in the field than their predecessors, then the time available must be spent as effectively as possible. Digital devices allow students and professionals alike to optimise the time spent in the field, allowing more time to think about geological relationships, and highlighting areas of uncertainty that can be studied further. This poster will examine the use of new digital smartphone and tablet devices for the collection of geological field data.

Rourke, Peter; Smith, Stuart; Vaughan, Alan; Ellis, Jenny

2014-05-01

305

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOEpatents

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

306

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOEpatents

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25

307

Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic anomaly map of the Arctic (to 60 degrees N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international effort to compile Circum-Arctic geophysical and bedrock data has been conducted by several national agencies (Russia-VSEGEI and VNIIO, Sweden-SGU, Finland-GTK, Denmark-GEUS, USA-USGS, Canada-GSC, Germany-BGR and Norway-NGU) since 2005. This project aims to produce an atlas that will comprise geological and geophysical digital maps at a scale of 1: 5 million scale for the Arctic region limited by the 60 degree North latitude. New published and classified magnetic anomaly gridded data from each participant group were gathered and converted to a common datum (WGS84) and format. The Greenland region magnetic anomaly grid (Verhoef et al., 1996) has been updated with new aeromagnetic surveys performed in West Greenland between 1992-2001 (Rasmussen, 2002), and in the Nares Strait area (Damaske & Oakey, 2006; Oakey & Damaske, 2006). The oceanic area east of Greenland (NE Atlantic) contains most of the aeromagnetic data used in the Verhoef et al., (1996)'s compilation (pre-1990) plus new aeromagnetic surveys over offshore Norway collected up to 2007 (Olesen et al., 1997; Olesen et al., 2007; Gernigon et al., 2008). The gridded data has been upward continued to 1 km above ground or sea-level and trimmed around the areas of major overlaps. The Alaska USGS aeromagnetic compilation has been used as the "master grid" for merging the major gridded data sets together and the downward continued lithospheric magnetic field model MF6 derived from satellite data (Maus et al., 2008) has been used as a regional reference surface. We have used a blending function over the area of overlap in order to smooth the transition from one grid to the other (GridKnit, GEOSOFT). The resulting grid has been re-sampled to a 2 km grid cell. In order to construct the final Circum-Arctic magnetic anomaly grid (CAMP-M) we have adopted the approach used by several research groups for compiling the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) and used near-surface magnetic data for the short wavelength component of the compilation and the satellite derived magnetic anomalies for the long wavelength (Hemant et al., 2007; Maus et al., 2007). MF6 extends to spherical harmonics degree 120 (333 km wavelength) and therefore it is able to provide consistent long wavelength information between 300 and 400 km. This information is mainly related to regional deeper and/or thicker portions of the magnetic sources within the crust. We have prepared two versions for the CAMP-M magnetic anomaly grid. The first one combines short wavelength components of regional grids (less than 400 km) with long wavelengths (400 km) of the MF6 model. The second one combines short wavelengths of regional datasets (obtained by filtering with a cosine squared taper to remove the wavelengths in the waveband between 307 and 333 km and larger, with the MF6 model (to degree 120). We have selected Model 1 as the new Circum-Arctic Magnetic Anomaly Map.

Gaina, Carmen

2010-05-01

308

Exploring Magnetic Fields in Your Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about measuring magnetic field directions of Earth and in the environment. First, learners go outside, far away from buildings, power lines, or anything electrical or metal, and use compasses to identify magnetic North. Next, they use the compasses to probe whether there are any sources of magnetic fields in the local environment, including around electronic equipment such as a CD player and speakers. This is the first lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

309

Large scale magnetic susceptibility soil mapping: a proxy for geological mapping and exploration from Bogoso (Ghana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of magnetic susceptibility measurements on a set of nearly 3000 soil samples (one sample per km2) collected for geochemical analyses within the framework of a geological mapping program in Ghana. The result is a map of soil magnetic susceptibility which has been compared with other maps. There is a good consistency with geological domains and lithologies, as well as with some of the geochemical soil analyses and also partly with the aeromagnetic data. In the tropical, deeply weathered lateritic context of the study area, soil magnetic susceptibility reveals similarities with magnetic and/or geochemical survey results, suggesting this rapid and easy to use technique can be an effective tool for exploration and geological mapping programs.

Théveniaut, Hervé; Clarke, Brendan

2013-01-01

310

Quantitative imaging of stray fields and magnetization distributions in hard magnetic element arrays  

E-print Network

of interaction between the probe and the sample, the different magnetic imaging methods usually either map circu- lar dichroism XMCD 9,10 is able to probe bulk magnetiza- tion. In contrast, different of the Faraday ef- fect. The MOIF sensors can be calibrated with known exter- nal stray fields to achieve

Johansen, Tom Henning

311

Observational testing of magnetospheric magnetic field models at geosynchronous orbit  

SciTech Connect

Empirical mode which estimate the magnetic field direction and magnitude at any point within the magnetosphere under a variety of conditions play an important role in space weather forecasting. We report here on a number of different studies aimed at quantitatively evaluating these models, and in particular the Tsyganenko T89a model. The models are evaluated in two basic ways: (1) by comparing the range of magnetic field tilt angles observed at geosynchronous orbit with the ranges predicted for the same locations by the models; and (2) by comparing the observed magnetic field mapping between the ionosphere and geosynchronous orbit (using two-satellite magnetic field conjunctions) with the model predictions at the same locations. We find that while the T89a model predicts reasonably well the basic variation in tilt angle with local time and permits a range of field inclinations adequate to encompass the majority of observed angles on the dawn, dusk, and night sides, it is unable to reproduce the range of inclinations on the dayside. The model also predicts a smaller magnetic latitude range of geosynchronous field line footpoints than the observed two-satellite mapping indicate. Together, these results suggest that the next generation of field models should allow a greater range of stretching, especially in local time sectors away from midnight. It is important to note, however, that any increased range should encompass less-stretched configurations: although there are certainly cases where the models are not sufficiently stretched, we find that on average all magnetic field models tested, including T89a, are too stretched. Finally, in investigating how well the observed degree of field stretch was ordered by various magnetospheric indices, we find that the tilt of the field at geosynchronous orbit is a promising candidate for the incorporation into future models.

Weiss, L.A.; Thomsen, M.F.; Reeves, G.D.; McComas, D.J.

1996-09-01

312

Doppler-Zeeman mapping of magnetic CP stars: The case of the CP star HD 215441  

E-print Network

When using a recently developed method of Doppler-Zeeman mapping (Vasilchenko et al., 1996) for analysis of a real star and real observational data, we are confronted with limitations due to the model simplifications and unavoidable errors in observed spectra. We discuss the errors introduced by probable inaccurracies of the mathematical model: analytical fit of the local Stokes parameters, influence of magneto-optical effect, ignorance of the true atmosphere model to compute local Stokes profiles, non-uniform surface brightness. The magnetic field configuration is found in the form of arbitrarily shifted dipole and sum of dipole and quadrupole, along with the distribution of Si, Ti, Cr and Fe over the surface of the star. Lines of different elements lead to the same magnetic field configuration, which is reliably determined for the part of the stellar surface which faces the observer. This allows to compare the magnetic field and chemical maps of the surface of HD 215441. A large-scale ring structure with the magnetic pole at its center is clearly seen on the abundance maps. Si, Cr and Ti are highly deficient where the magnetic field lines are vertical (near the magnetic pole) while Fe is highly overabundant there.

V. L. Khokhlova; D. V. Vasilchenko; V. V. Stepanov; V. V. Tsymbal

1998-05-07

313

Magnetic field mapping of the Belle solenoid N. Tan a M. Akatsu b A. Bozek c,2 K. Fujimoto b J. Haba c,1  

E-print Network

of Industrial Science and Technology, Science University of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 Japan of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan fDepartment of Physics, Faculty of Science to their nominal field values. To cope with g* *eomet- rical constraints, we developed a novel moving mechanism

314

DC-based magnetic field controller  

DOEpatents

A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID); Morgan, John P,. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

315

Representation of magnetic fields in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

Stern, D. P.

1975-01-01

316

DC-based magnetic field controller  

DOEpatents

A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

1994-05-31

317

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively

Boozer

1986-01-01

318

Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

2001-01-01

319

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS B. Fornberg,2  

E-print Network

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS N. Flyer,1 B Axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields external to a unit sphere are studied as solutions to boundary value total azimuthal flux with a power-law distribution over the poloidal field. Particular attention is paid

Fornberg, Bengt

320

Lithospheric field recovery from CHAMP satellite magnetic measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellites in low-Earth orbit (LEO) provide the most effective means of mapping the long wavelengths of the magnetic field caused by the magnetization of the Earth's lithosphere. Initial satellite magnetic anomaly maps were produced in the 1970s from POGO satellite measurements and in the 1980s from Magsat, the first satellite to carry a science-quality vector magnetometer with accurate attitude determination. However, the Magsat mission lasted only for half a year and this during magnetically-disturbed solar maximum conditions. The CHAMP satellite (launched in July 2000) has provided an exceptional data basis for lithospheric field mapping. Salient features of CHAMP are (1) an order of magnitude improvement in magnetometer accuracy, (2) the long mission lifetime at low orbital altitudes leading to excellent spatial and temporal data coverage, (3) the high orbital inclination of 87.3° which minimizes the polar gap, and (4) the lucky coincidence that the lowest altitudes before re-entry coincide with the quietest period of the solar cycle. Here, we will characterize the spatial information content of the CHAMP data, discuss lithospheric field modeling approaches and present the resulting field models.

Maus, Stefan; Lühr, Hermann

2010-05-01

321

Large-Scale Kinematics, Astrochemistry and Magnetic Field Studies of Massive Star-forming Regions through HC3N, HNC and C2H Mappings  

E-print Network

We have mapped 27 massive star-forming regions associated with water masers using three dense gas tracers: HC3N 10-9, HNC 1-0 and C2H 1-0. The FWHM sizes of HNC clumps and C2H clumps are about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher than those of HC3N, respectively, which can be explained by the fact that HC3N traces more dense gas than HNC and C2H. We found evidence for increase in optical depth of C2H with `radius' from center to outer regions in some targets, supporting the chemical model of C2H. The C2H optical depth is found to decline as molecular clouds evolve to later stage, suggesting that C2H might be used as "chemical clock" for molecular clouds. Large-scale kinematic structure of clouds was investigated with three molecular lines. All these sources show significant velocity gradients. The magnitudes of gradient are found to increase towards the inner region, indicating differential rotation of clouds. Both the ratio of rotational to gravitational energy and specific angular momentum seem to decrease toward the i...

Li, Juan; Gu, Qiusheng; Zhang, Zhi-yu; Zheng, Xingwu

2011-01-01

322

Magnetic field waves at Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

1991-01-01

323

Offshore wind resource estimation from satellite SAR wind field maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind resource estimation study based on a series of 62 satellite wind field maps is presented. The maps were retrieved from imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The wind field maps were used as input to the software RWT, which calculates the offshore wind resource based on spatial averaging (footprint modelling) of the wind statistic in each satellite image.

C. B. Hasager; M. Nielsen; P. Astrup; R. Barthelmie; E. Dellwik; N. O. Jensen; B. H. Jørgensen; S. C. Pryor; O. Rathmann; B. R. Furevik

2005-01-01

324

Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method.

Kanamaru, Y. (Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921 (JP)); Amemiya, Y. (Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan))

1991-09-01

325

Near-field microscopy maps semiconductors Near-field microscopy maps semiconductors  

E-print Network

acquisition, and image processing are all computer-controlled. A topographic map is made of the chip or wafer distribution of individual devices on a semiconductor wafer. Bennett B. Goldberg and M. Selim �nlü, professors for the near-field imaging are created by tapering multimode chalcogenide glass with an absorption of less than

326

Spectra of magnetic fields injected during baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Helical magnetic fields are injected into the cosmic medium during cosmological baryogenesis and can potentially provide a useful probe of the early universe. We construct a model to study the injection process during a first order phase transition and to determine the power spectra of the injected magnetic field. By Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate the Fourier space symmetric and helical power spectra of the magnetic field at the time the phase transition completes. The spectra are peaked at the scale given by the inverse size of bubbles at percolation and with a comparable width. These injected magnetic fields set the initial conditions for further cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical evolution.

Ng Yifung [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Vachaspati, Tanmay [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2010-07-15

327

Flow Transitions in a Rotating Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical Rayleigh numbers have been measured in a liquid metal cylinder of finite height in the presence of a rotating magnetic field. Several different stability regimes were observed, which were determined by the values of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. For weak rotating magnetic fields and small Rayleigh numbers, the experimental observations can be explained by the existence of a single non-axisymmetric meridional roll rotating around the cylinder, driven by the azimuthal component of the magnetic field. The measured dependence of rotational velocity on magnetic field strength is consistent with the existence of laminar flow in this regime.

Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

1996-01-01

328

Magnetic Fields in the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents a review of observational studies to determine the magnetic field in the Milky Way, both in the disk and in the halo, focused on recent developments and on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar medium. I discuss some terminology which is confusingly or inconsistently used and try to summarize current status of our knowledge on magnetic field configurations and strengths in the Milky Way. Although many open questions still exist, more and more conclusions can be drawn on the large-scale and small-scale components of the Galactic magnetic field. The chapter is concluded with a brief outlook to observational projects in the near future.

Haverkorn, Marijke

329

Magnetic fields in anisotropic relativistic stars  

E-print Network

Relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized anisotropic fluid are studied. For such configurations, we obtain static equilibrium solutions with an axisymmetric, poloidal magnetic field produced by toroidal electric currents. The presence of such a field results in small deviations of the shape of the configuration from spherical symmetry. This in turn leads to the modification of an equation for the current and correspondingly to changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field for the systems supported by the anisotropic fluid, in contrast to the case of an isotropic fluid, where such deviations do not affect the magnetic field.

Vladimir Folomeev; Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

2015-02-28

330

Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

2002-07-29

331

Magnetic fields in anisotropic relativistic stars  

E-print Network

Relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized anisotropic fluid are studied. For such configurations, we obtain static equilibrium solutions with an axisymmetric, poloidal magnetic field produced by toroidal electric currents. The presence of such a field results in small deviations of the shape of the configuration from spherical symmetry. This in turn leads to the modification of an equation for the current and correspondingly to changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field for the systems supported by the anisotropic fluid, in contrast to the case of an isotropic fluid, where such deviations do not affect the magnetic field.

Folomeev, Vladimir

2015-01-01

332

Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model  

E-print Network

It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of this phenomenon can be traced to the mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in the finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying a variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that a corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected by experiment.

A. S. Bakry; D. G. Pak; P. M. Zhang; L. P. Zou

2014-10-03

333

Generation of the magnetic field in jets  

E-print Network

We consider dynamo action under the combined influence of turbulence and large-scale shear in sheared jets. Shear can stretch turbulent magnetic field lines in such a way that even turbulent motions showing mirror symmetry become suitable for generation of a large-scale magnetic field. We derive the integral induction equation governing the behaviour of the mean field in jets. The main result is that sheared jets may generate a large-scale magnetic field if shear is sufficiently strong. The generated mean field is mainly concentrated in a magnetic sheath surrounding the central region of a jet, and it exhibits sign reversals in the direction of the jet axis. Typically, the magnetic field in a sheath is dominated by the component along the jet that can reach equipartition with the kinetic energy of particles, The field in the central region of jets has a more disordered structure.

V. Urpin

2006-05-22

334

Regularities in the Distribution of Solar Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the distribution and concentration of the solar magnetic fields from the Wilcox observatory synoptic charts for the whole period of their existence (May 1976 -- February 2006). We divided them into four latitudinal zones, studying the changes of their various structures, density, etc. These sets of maps demonstrate striking regularities in the photospheric magnetic field distribution with time, continuous existence of characteristic longitudes of magnetic field concentration and their longitudinal shift with three main rotational periods of 26.8, 28.2, and 27.14 days. They show formation of specific structures of background weaker fields, connected with the development of activity complexes, polarity alternation, etc. We mention the possible sources of found regularities in the solar activity modulation.

Bumba, V.; Klva?a, M.; Garcia, A.

2007-05-01

335

Chromospheric magnetic fields of an active region filament  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament are co-spatially and co-temporally mapped in photosphere and upper chromosphere, by using spectro-polarimetric observations made by Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). A Zeeman-based ME inversion is performed on the full Stokes vectors of both the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the chromospheric He I 1083.0 nm lines. We found that the strong magnetic fields, with the field strength of 600 - 800 G in the He I line formation height, are not uncommon among AR filaments. But such strong magnetic field is not always found in AR filaments.

Xu, Z.; Solanki, S.; Lagg, A.

2012-06-01

336

Intrinsic Signal Changes Accompanying Sensory Stimulation: Functional Brain Mapping with Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that visual stimulation produces an easily detectable (5-20%) transient increase in the intensity of water proton magnetic resonance signals in human primary visual cortex in gradient echo images at 4-T magnetic-field strength. The observed changes predominantly occur in areas containing gray matter and can be used to produce high-spatial-resolution functional brain maps in humans. Reducing the image-acquisition echo

Seiji Ogawa; David W. Tank; Ravi Menon; Jutta M. Ellermann; Seong-Gi Kim; Hellmut Merkle; Kamil Ugurbil

1992-01-01

337

Polymer gel dosimetry of an electron beam in the presence of a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a strong external magnetic field on 4 MeV electron beam was measured with polymer gel dosimetry. The measured entrance dose distribution was compared with a calculated fluence map. The magnetic field was created by use of two permanent Neodymium (NdFeB) magnets that were positioned perpendicular to the electron beam. The magnetic field between the magnets was measured with Hall sensors. Based on the magnetic field measurement and the law of Biot-Savart, the magnetic field distribution was extrapolated. Electron trajectories were calculated using a relativistic Lorentz force operator. Although the simplified computational model that was applied, the shape and position of the calculated entrance fluence map are found to be in good agreement with the measured dose distribution in the first layer of the phantom. In combination with the development of low density polymer gel dosimeters, these preliminary results show the potential of 3D gel dosimetry in MRI-linac applications.

Vandecasteele, J.; De Deene, Y.

2013-06-01

338

Solar magnetic fields measurements with a magneto-optical filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of a magnetic field at different levels inside the sun has crucial implications for helioseismology. The solar oscillation observing program carried out since 1983 at Mt. Wilson with Cacciani magneto-optical filter has recently been modified to acquire full-disk magnetograms with 2 arcsec spatial resolution. A method for the correct determination of magnetic maps which are free of contamination by velocity signal is presented. It is shown that no cross-talk exists between the Doppler and Zeeman shifts of the Na D lines, provided that instrumental polarization effects are taken into account. The observed line-of-sight photospheric field was used to map the vector field in the inner corona, above active regions, in the current free approximation.

Cacciani, A.; Ricci, D.; Rosati, P.; Rhodes, E. J.; Smith, E.

1990-01-01

339

Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

2010-01-01

340

The AGN origin of cluster magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters is one of the most fascinating but challenging problems in astrophysics. In this dissertation, the possibility of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) origin of cluster magnetic fields is studied through state of the art simulations of magnetic field evolution in large scale structure formation using a newly developed cosmological Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code -- EnzoMHD. After presenting a complete but concise description and verification of the code, we discuss the creation of magnetic fields through the Biermann Battery effect during first star formation and galaxy cluster formation. We find that magnetic fields are produced as predicted by theory in both cases. For the first star formation, we obtain a lower limit of (~ 10 -9 G) for magnetic fields when the first generation stars form. On the other hand, we find that the magnetic energy is amplified 4 orders of magnitude within ~ 10 Gyr during cluster formation. We then study magnetic field injection from AGN into the Intra- Cluster Medium (ICM) and their impact on the ICM. We reproduce the X-ray cavities as well as weak shocks seen in observations in the simulation, and further confirm the idea that AGN outburst must contain lots of magnetic energy (up to 10 61 ergs) and the magnetic fields play an important part in the formation of jet/lobe system. We present high resolution simulations of cluster formation with magnetic fields injected from high redshift AGN. We find that these local magnetic fields are spread quickly throughout the whole cluster by cluster mergers. The ICM is in a turbulent state with a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum. Magnetic fields are amplified to and maintained at the observational level of a few mG by bulk flows at large scale and the ICM turbulence at small scale. The total magnetic energy increases about 25 times to ~ 1.2 × 10^61 ergs at the present time. We conclude that magnetic fields from AGN at high redshift may provide sufficient initial magnetic fields to magnetize the whole cluster.

Xu, Hao

341

A field-sweep/field-lock system for superconducting magnets--Application to high-field EPR.  

PubMed

We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of +/-0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10(-5) T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR. PMID:17027306

Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G

2006-12-01

342

Detecting ultra-low magnetic fields with common magnetic minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing volume of extraterrestrial material is being used to analyze magnetic paleo-intensities. They are important for estimation of paleo-fields that once existed in extraterrestrial environment. The extraterrestrial field can be several orders of magnitudes weaker than a terrestrial field. The data demonstrating that the TRM linear acquisition is valid for such low fields are virtually not existent. We tested the

G. Kletetschka; P. J. Wasilewski; T. Kohout; E. Herrero-Bervera; M. D. Fuller

2004-01-01

343

Quark antiscreening at strong magnetic field and inverse magnetic catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of the QCD coupling constant with a strong magnetic field and the implications for the critical temperature of the chiral phase transition are investigated. It is found that the coupling constant becomes anisotropic in a strong magnetic field and that the quarks, confined by the field to the lowest Landau level where they pair with antiquarks, produce an antiscreening effect. These results lead to inverse magnetic catalysis, providing a natural explanation for the behavior of the critical temperature in the strong-field region.

Ferrer, E. J.; de la Incera, V.; Wen, X. J.

2015-03-01

344

The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

1989-01-01

345

Magnetic Braiding and Parallel Electric Fields  

E-print Network

The braiding of the solar coronal magnetic field via photospheric motions - with subsequent relaxation and magnetic reconnection -- is one of the most widely debated ideas of solar physics. We readdress the theory in the light of developments in three-dimensional magnetic reconnection theory. It is known that the integrated parallel electric field along field lines is the key quantity determining the rate of reconnection, in contrast with the two-dimensional case where the electric field itself is the important quantity. We demonstrate that this difference becomes crucial for sufficiently complex magnetic field structures. A numerical method is used to relax a braided magnetic field to an ideal force-free equilibrium; that equilibrium is found to be smooth, with only large- scale current structures. However, the equilibrium is shown to have a highly filamentary integrated parallel current structure with extremely short length- scales. An analytical model is developed to show that, in a coronal situation, the length scales associated with the integrated parallel current structures will rapidly decrease with increasing complexity, or degree of braiding, of the magnetic field. Analysis shows the decrease in these length scales will, for any finite resistivity, eventually become inconsistent with the stability of a force- free field. Thus the inevitable consequence of the magnetic braiding process is shown to be a loss of equilibrium of the coronal field, probably via magnetic reconnection events.

A. L. Wilmot-Smith; G. Hornig; D. I. Pontin

2008-10-08

346

Magnetic Field Seeding through Supernova Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar feedback occurring at small-scales can significantly impact the evolution of galaxies at much larger scales. For example, an appropriate feedback mechanism, including thermal and radiative components, can help regulate star formation, particularly in low-mass galaxies. While feedback models are generally prevalent in numerical simulations, the magnetic component is often neglected. However, measurements of galaxies indicate the presence of fields with a strength on the order of µG. Previous studies have demonstrated the formation of these fields through the amplification of a primordial magnetic field. Here, we describe a self-consistent prescription where magnetic fields are injected in supernova injections, calibrated by observations of magnetic fields in supernova remnants. These fields will then become seeds that evolve by way of mixing and turbulence to result in galactic-scale magnetic fields. As a proof of concept, we apply this method to model the supernova of a single Population III star and trace the evolution of the injected magnetic field. Future studies will apply this prescription to study not only the effects of magnetic fields on galaxy formation and evolution, but also the growth of the magnetized bubbles that form in the IGM.

Koh, Daegene; Wise, John

2015-01-01

347

Graphene Nanoribbon in Sharply Localized Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

We study the effect of a sharply localized magnetic field on the electron transport in a strip (ribbon) of graphene sheet, which allows to give results for the transmission and reflection probability through magnetic barriers. The magnetic field is taken as a single and double delta type localized functions, which are treated later as the zero width limit of gaussian fields. For both field configurations, we evaluate analytically and numerically their transmission and reflection coefficients. The possibility of spacial confinement due to the inhomogeneous field configuration is also investigated.

Abdulaziz D. Alhaidari; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

2013-03-20

348

Coronal magnetic fields produced by photospheric shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magneto-frictional method is used for computing force free fields to examine the evolution of the magnetic field of a line dipole, when there is relative shearing motion between the two polarities. It found that the energy of the sheared field can be arbitrarily large compared with the potential field. It is also found that it is possible to fit the magnetic energy, as a function of shear, by a simple functional form.

Sturrock, P. A.; Yang, W.-H.

1987-01-01

349

Control of magnetism by electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

2015-03-01

350

Control of magnetism by electric fields.  

PubMed

The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field. PMID:25740132

Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

2015-03-01

351

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the DNA synthesis  

PubMed Central

Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the rate of DNA synthesis catalysed by polymerases ? with isotopic ions 24Mg2+, 25Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ in the catalytic sites were detected. No difference in enzymatic activity was found between polymerases ? carrying 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions with spinless, non-magnetic nuclei 24Mg and 26Mg. However, 25Mg2+ ions with magnetic nucleus 25Mg were shown to suppress enzymatic activity by two to three times with respect to the enzymatic activity of polymerases ? with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions. Such an isotopic dependence directly indicates that in the DNA synthesis magnetic mass-independent isotope effect functions. Similar effect is exhibited by polymerases ? with Zn2+ ions carrying magnetic 67Zn and non-magnetic 64Zn nuclei, respectively. A new, ion–radical mechanism of the DNA synthesis is suggested to explain these effects. Magnetic field dependence of the magnesium-catalysed DNA synthesis is in a perfect agreement with the proposed ion–radical mechanism. It is pointed out that the magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects may be used for medicinal purposes (trans-cranial magnetic treatment of cognitive deceases, cell proliferation, control of the cancer cells, etc). PMID:23851636

Buchachenko, Anatoly L.; Orlov, Alexei P.; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A.; Breslavskaya, Natalia N.

2013-01-01

352

Lithological and pedological influences on the magnetic susceptibility of soil: their consideration in magnetic pollution mapping.  

PubMed

Magnetic susceptibility measurements are widely used to map and monitor the heavy metal pollution of soils. However, the magnetic properties of soils are influenced significantly by the bedrock lithology and soil-forming processes. Therefore, a main challenge in the data interpretation is to filter out the anthropogenic pollution signal. In this study we address this problem by analysing susceptibility values, heavy metal concentrations, as well as pedological parameters in a large soil data set from the eastern segment of Austria, covering a wide range of different lithologies and soil types. The statistic assessment demonstrates an influence of lithology and soil type on the magnetic susceptibility signal. Therefore anomalies are defined in sub sets of different soil types separately. Three different methods were applied to detect susceptibility anomalies: the median absolute deviation method, the boxplot method, and the population modelling method. These methods evaluate topsoil data only and can therefore also be applied to field measurements of magnetic susceptibility. The results were compared to the conventional method of calculating the difference of topsoil and subsoil susceptibility. All three approaches identify the main anomalies in the study area and are successful in circumventing the problem of erroneous anomaly definition due to pedological processes. However, knowledge of the lithological background is still necessary for a meaningful interpretation and can only be substituted by a large amount of data. The tested methods lead to thresholds of different height and therefore act as filters of different strength for the definition of anomalies. PMID:17509666

Hanesch, Monika; Rantitsch, Gerd; Hemetsberger, Sigrid; Scholger, Robert

2007-09-01

353

Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

1974-01-01

354

Protein crystals orientation in a magnetic field.  

PubMed

Nucleation and crystal growth of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase were carried out in the presence of a magnetic field of 1.25 T produced by small permanent magnets. Crystals were oriented in the magnetic field, except when heterogeneous nucleation occurred. The orientation of protein crystals in the presence of a magnetic field can be attributed to the anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of proteins resulting from the large anisotropy of the alpha-helices due to the axial alignment of the peptide bonds. PMID:9761881

Astier, J P; Veesler, S; Boistelle, R

1998-07-01

355

Neutron spin polarization in strong magnetic fields  

E-print Network

The effects of strong magnetic fields on the inner crust of neutron stars are investigated after taking into account the anomalous magnetic moments of nucleons. Energy spectra and wave functions for protons and neutrons in a uniform magnetic field are provided. The particle spin polarizations and the yields of protons and neutrons are calculated in a free Fermi gas model. Obvious spin polarization occurs when $B\\geq10^{14}$G for protons and $B\\geq10^{17}$G for neutrons, respectively. It is shown that the neutron spin polarization depends solely on the magnetic field strength.

H. Wen; L. S. Kisslinger; Walter Greiner; G. Mao

2006-01-09

356

High concentration ferronematics in low magnetic fields  

E-print Network

We investigated experimentally the magneto-optical and dielectric properties of magnetic-nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals (ferronematics). Our studies focus on the effect of the very small orienting bias magnetic field $B_{bias}$, and that of the nematic director pretilt at the boundary surfaces in our systems sensitive to low magnetic fields. Based on the results we assert that $B_{bias}$ is not necessarily required for a detectable response to low magnetic fields, and that the initial pretilt, as well as the aggregation of the nanoparticles play an important (though not yet explored enough) role.

T. Tóth-Katona; P. Salamon; N. Éber; N. Tomašovi?ová; Z. Mitróová; P. Kop?anský

2014-09-05

357

Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (?) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low ? and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers' turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

2014-12-01

358

Alignment of magnetic uniaxial particles in a magnetic field: Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical investigations of the process of alignment of magnetically uniaxial Nd-Fe-B powders in an applied magnetic field were carried out using the discrete element method (DEM). It is shown that magnetic alignment of ensemble of spherical particles provides extremely high degree of alignment, which is achieved in low magnetic fields. A model of formation of anisotropic particles as a combination of spherical particles is suggested. The influence of the shape anisotropy and friction coefficient on the alignment degree was analyzed. The increase in the friction coefficient leads to a decrease in the alignment degree; the simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental dependences. It is shown that in magnetic fields higher than 5 T, the calculated field dependences of the alignment degree quantitatively render the experimental data. The increase of about 6% in the alignment degree in the experiments with addition of internal lubricant can be explained by the decrease of 14% in friction coefficient.

Golovnia, O. A.; Popov, A. G.; Sobolev, A. N.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

2014-09-01

359

Two-axis magnetic field sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.

Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

360

Astrophysical magnetic fields and nonlinear dynamo theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current understanding of astrophysical magnetic fields is reviewed, focusing on their generation and maintenance by turbulence. In the astrophysical context this generation is usually explained by a self-excited dynamo, which involves flows that can amplify a weak ‘seed’ magnetic field exponentially fast. Particular emphasis is placed on the nonlinear saturation of the dynamo. Analytic and numerical results are discussed

Axel Brandenburg; Kandaswamy Subramanian

2005-01-01

361

Space Quantization in a Gyrating Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonadiabatic transitions which a system with angular momentum J makes in a magnetic field which is rotating about an axis inclined with respect to the field are calculated. It is shown that the effects depend on the sign of the magnetic moment of the system. We therefore have an absolute method for measuring the sign and magnitude of the

I. I. Rabi

1937-01-01

362

Magnetic fields, branes, and noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a simple physical model of a particle moving on the infinite noncommutative 2-plane. The model consists of a pair of opposite charges moving in a strong magnetic field. In addition, the charges are connected by a spring. In the limit of large magnetic field, the charges are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. Interactions of such particles include

Daniela Bigatti; Leonard Susskind

2000-01-01

363

Appendix E: Software MEASURING CONSTANT MAGNETIC FIELD  

E-print Network

, and the Guide Box, shown below. The Guide Box will give you directions and tasks to perform. It will also tell "degree" will make a plot of magnetic field strength as a function of angle (B vs. ). Click "OK" when you. This process is called "zeroing the Hall probe" in the Guide Box. Place the magnetic field sensor wand

Minnesota, University of

364

CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS Eric Priest  

E-print Network

CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS Eric Priest Mathematics Institute, St Andrews University the structure of the magnetic field (in the pho­ tosphere, chromosphere and corona) and the dynamics, so that a corona lay above spherical shells of tran­ sition region, chromosphere and photosphere

Priest, Eric

365

CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS Eric Priest  

E-print Network

CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS Eric Priest Mathematics Institute, St Andrews University the structure of the magnetic field (in the pho- tosphere, chromosphere and corona) and the dynamics, so that a corona lay above spherical shells of tran- sition region, chromosphere and photosphere

Priest, Eric

366

Statistical analysis of magnetic-field spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated and statistically analyzed the magnetic-field spectrum (the B spectrum) at fixed electron Fermi energy for two quantum dot systems with classically chaotic shape. This problem arises naturally in transport measurements where the incoming electron has a fixed energy while one tunes the magnetic field to obtain resonance conductance patterns. The B spectrum, defined as the collection of

Jian Wang; Hong Guo

1998-01-01

367

On the origins of galactic magnetic fields  

E-print Network

We present a five dimensional unified theory of gravity and electromagnetism which leads to modified Maxwell equations, suggesting a new origin for galactic magnetic fields. It is shown that a region with nonzero scalar curvature would amplify the magnetic fields under certain conditions.

A. Borzou; H. R. Sepangi; R. Yousefi; A. H. Ziaie

2009-11-18

368

Manipulation of molecular structures with magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present thesis deals with the use of magnetic fields as a handle to manipulate matter at a molecular level and as a tool to probe molecular properties or inter molecular interactions. The work consists of in situ optical studies of (polymer) liquid crystals and molecular aggregates in high magnetic fields up to 20T, together with a description of the

Marius Iosif Boamfa

2003-01-01

369

Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

2014-01-01

370

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole  

DOEpatents

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

Tatchyn, Roman O. (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01

371

Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

Blackman, Eric G.

2014-04-01

372

Inverse field-based approach for simultaneous B1 mapping at high fields - A phantom based study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on computational electromagnetics and multi-level optimization, an inverse approach of attaining accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity of radiofrequency coils is presented. This paper extends our previous study of inverse methods of receptivity mapping at low fields, to allow accurate mapping of RF magnetic fields (B1) for high-field applications. Accurate receive sensitivity mapping is essential to image domain parallel imaging methods, such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE), to reconstruct high quality images. Accurate transmit sensitivity mapping will facilitate RF-shimming and parallel transmission techniques that directly address the RF inhomogeneity issue, arguably the most challenging issue of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The inverse field-based approach proposed herein is based on computational electromagnetics and iterative optimization. It fits an experimental image to the numerically calculated signal intensity by iteratively optimizing the coil-subject geometry to better resemble the experiments. Accurate transmit and receive sensitivities are derived as intermediate results of the optimization process. The method is validated by imaging studies using homogeneous saline phantom at 7T. A simulation study at 300 MHz demonstrates that the proposed method is able to obtain receptivity mapping with errors an order of magnitude less than that of the conventional method. The more accurate receptivity mapping and simultaneously obtained transmit sensitivity mapping could enable artefact-reduced and intensity-corrected image reconstructions. It is hoped that by providing an approach to the accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity, the proposed method will facilitate a range of applications in high-field MRI and parallel imaging.

Jin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Zuo, Zhentao; Xue, Rong; Li, Mingyan; Li, Yu; Weber, Ewald; Crozier, Stuart

2012-04-01

373

Magnetic shielding of an inhomogeneous magnetic field source by a bulk superconducting tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk type-II irreversible superconductors can act as excellent passive magnetic shields, with a strong attenuation of low frequency magnetic fields. Up to now, the performances of superconducting magnetic shields have mainly been studied in a homogenous magnetic field, considering only immunity problems, i.e. when the field is applied outside the tube and the inner field should ideally be zero. In this paper, we aim to investigate experimentally and numerically the magnetic response of a high-Tc bulk superconducting hollow cylinder at 77 K in an emission problem, i.e. when subjected to the non-uniform magnetic field generated by a source coil placed inside the tube. A bespoke 3D mapping system coupled with a three-axis Hall probe is used to measure the magnetic flux density distribution outside the superconducting magnetic shield. A finite element model is developed to understand how the magnetic field penetrates into the superconductor and how the induced superconducting shielding currents flow inside the shield in the case where the emitting coil is placed coaxially inside the tube. The finite element modelling is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Results show that a concentration of the magnetic flux lines occurs between the emitting coil and the superconducting screen. This effect is observed both with the modelling and the experiment. In the case of a long tube, we show that the main features of the field penetration in the superconducting walls can be reproduced with a simple analytical 1D model. This model is used to estimate the maximum flux density of the emitting coil that can be shielded by the superconductor.

Hogan, K.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Wéra, L.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

2015-03-01

374

Experimentation with a transcranial magnetic stimulation system for functional brain mapping.  

PubMed

We describe functional brain mapping experiments using a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device. This device, when placed on a subject's scalp, stimulates the underlying neurons by generating focused magnetic field pulses. A brain mapping is then generated by measuring responses of different motor and sensory functions to this stimulation. The key process in generating this mapping is the association of the 3-D positions and orientations of the TMS probe on the scalp to a 3-D brain reconstruction such as is feasible with a magnetic resonance image (MRI). We have developed a registration system which not only generates functional brain maps using such a device, but also provides real-time feedback to guide the technician in placing the probe at appropriate points on the head to achieve the desired map resolution. Functional areas we have mapped are the motor and visual cortex. Validation experiments focus on repeatability tests for mapping the same subjects several times. Applications of the technique include neuroanatomy research, surgical planning and guidance, treatment and disease monitoring, and therapeutic procedures. PMID:10646759

Ettinger, G J; Leventon, M E; Grimson, W E; Kikinis, R; Gugino, L; Cote, W; Sprung, L; Aglio, L; Shenton, M E; Potts, G; Hernandez, V L; Alexander, E

1998-06-01

375

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

PubMed

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

376

Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod mangle. The concentric Halbach cylinder design is found to be the best performing design, i.e. the design that provides the most magnetic flux density using the least amount of magnet material. A concentric Halbach cylinder has been constructed and the magnetic flux density, the homogeneity and the direction of the magnetic field are measured and compared with numerical simulation and a good agrement is found.

Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Smith, A.; Pryds, N.

2010-11-01

377

Chaotic magnetic fields: Particle motion and energization  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field line equations correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system, so the features of a Hamiltonian systems can easily be adopted for discussing some essential features of magnetic field lines. The integrability of the magnetic field line equations are discussed by various authors and it can be shown that these equations are, in general, not integrable. We demonstrate several examples of realistic chaotic magnetic fields, produced by asymmetric current configurations. Particular examples of chaotic force-free field and non force-free fields are shown. We have studied, for the first time, the motion of a charged particle in chaotic magnetic fields. It is found that the motion of a charged particle in a chaotic magnetic field is not necessarily chaotic. We also showed that charged particles moving in a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field are energized. Such energization processes could play a dominant role in particle energization in several astrophysical environments including solar corona, solar flares and cosmic ray propagation in space.

Dasgupta, Brahmananda [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Ram, Abhay K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Li, Xiaocan [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2014-02-11

378

Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

Viganò, Daniele; Miralles, Juan A; Rea, Nanda

2015-01-01

379

Lake-based magnetic mapping of urban-sourced contaminated sediment, Lake Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of toxic sediments in harbours and urban waterways requires detailed mapping of contaminated sediment distribution and thickness. Conventional methods rely on interpolation of pollutant concentrations from widely spaced core samples but can lead to significant errors in estimating sediment distribution. An improved approach, as demonstrated by recent work in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, is to estimate pollutant levels from 'proxy' measurements of sediment magnetic properties. Measurements from 40 core samples collected within the harbour show that the magnetic susceptibility of a contaminated upper layer of sediment is one to two orders of magnitude greater than in the underlying uncontaminated 'pre-colonial' sediments. The susceptibility contrast results from elevated levels of urban-sourced magnetic oxides and is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 5-40 nT) that can be measured with a towed magnetometer. Systematic lake-based magnetic surveying (> 500 line km) of the harbour using a towed Overhauser marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from total field data show a close spatial correspondence with core-derived susceptibility values and provide a means for identifying areas of urban impacted sediments. Detection of low amplitude magnetic anomalies is dependent upon a closely spaced survey grid (< 70 m line spacing) and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity.

Boyce, J. I.; Pozza, M. R.; Morris, W. A.

2003-04-01

380

Extension of the VITESS polarized neutron suite towards the use of imported magnetic field distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latest developments of the polarized neutron suite in the VITESS simulation package allowed for simulations of time-dependent spin handling devices (e.g. radio-frequency (RF) flippers, adiabatic gradient RF-flippers) and the instrumentation built upon them (NRSE, SESANS, MIEZE, etc.). However, till now the magnetic field distribution in such devices have been considered as "ideal" (sinusoidal, triangular or rectangular), when the main practical interest is in the use of arbitrary magnetic field distributions (either obtained by the field mapping or by FEM calculations) that may significantly influence the performance of real polarized neutron instruments and is the key issue in the practical use of the simulation packages. Here we describe modified VITESS modules opening the possibility to load the magnetic field 3-dimensional space map from an external source (file). Such a map can be either obtained by direct measurements or calculated by dedicated FEM programs (such as ANSYS, MagNet, Maxwell or similar). The successful use of these new modules is demonstrated by a very good agreement of neutron polarimetric experiments with performance of the spin turner with rotating magnetic field and an adiabatic gradient RF-flipper simulated by VITESS using calculated 3-dimensional field maps (using MagNet) and magnetic field mapping, respectively.

Manoshin, S.; Rubtsov, A.; Bodnarchuk, V.; Mattauch, S.; Ioffe, A.

2014-07-01

381

Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

Piccinelli, Gabriella [Centro Tecnológico, FES Aragón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Rancho Seco S/N, Bosques de Aragón, Nezahualcóyotl, Estado de México 57130 (Mexico)] [Centro Tecnológico, FES Aragón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Rancho Seco S/N, Bosques de Aragón, Nezahualcóyotl, Estado de México 57130 (Mexico); Sánchez, Ángel [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)] [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

2013-07-23

382

Magnetosheath parameter profiles under different magnetic field orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 6-year Themis measurements of plasma and magnetic field parameters in the magnetosheath and constructed a map of their averaged values. To creation of map profiles, the Jelinek et al. (2012) model of both the bow shock and magnetopause was applied. We present the changes of the magnetosheath spatial profiles under various interplanetary magnetic field orientations. An advantage of the procedure is that the same spacecraft measurements were used for construction of model boundaries and for determination of averaged profiles of plasma parameters and that our large data set includes one-half of solar cycle. Moreover, we compare profiles of the plasma density, velocity and temperature with those obtained from the Spreiter et al. (1966) and MHD (BATS-R-US) models. We discuss deviations between experimental and predicted profiles for different conditions along one-half solar cycle.

Jelinek, Karel; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Samsonov, Andrey

383

Scanning magnetic tunnel junction microscope for high-resolution imaging of remanent magnetization fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning magnetic microscopy is a new methodology for mapping magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and field sensitivity. An important goal has been to develop high-performance instruments that do not require cryogenic technology due to its high cost, complexity, and limitation on sensor-to-sample distance. Here we report the development of a low-cost scanning magnetic microscope based on commercial room-temperature magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors that typically achieves spatial resolution better than 7?µm. By comparing different bias and detection schemes, optimal performance was obtained when biasing the MTJ sensor with a modulated current at 1.0 kHz in a Wheatstone bridge configuration while using a lock-in amplifier in conjunction with a low-noise custom-made preamplifier. A precision horizontal (x-y) scanning stage comprising two coupled nanopositioners controls the position of the sample and a linear actuator adjusts the sensor-to-sample distance. We obtained magnetic field sensitivities better than 150 nT/Hz1/2 between 0.1 and 10?Hz, which is a critical frequency range for scanning magnetic microscopy. This corresponds to a magnetic moment sensitivity of 10-14 A m2, a factor of 100 better than achievable with typical commercial superconducting moment magnetometers. It also represents an improvement in sensitivity by a factor between 10 and 30 compared to similar scanning MTJ microscopes based on conventional bias-detection schemes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument, two polished thin sections of representative geological samples were scanned along with a synthetic sample containing magnetic microparticles. The instrument is usable for a diversity of applications that require mapping of samples at room temperature to preserve magnetic properties or viability, including paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, nondestructive evaluation of materials, and biological assays.

Lima, E. A.; Bruno, A. C.; Carvalho, H. R.; Weiss, B. P.

2014-10-01

384

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Spatially complicated magnetic fields are frequently treated as the sum of a large, slowly varying, mean field and a small, rapidly varying, field. The primary effect of the small field is to modify the Ohm's law of the mean field. A set of plausible assumptions leads to a form of the mean field Ohm's law which is fundamentally different from the conventional alpha effect of dynamo theory.

Boozer, A.H.

1984-11-01

385

Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985. PMID:23787954

Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

2014-04-01

386

Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

387

Protein detection with magnetic nanoparticles in a rotating magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detection scheme based on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) dynamics in a rotating magnetic field for a quantitative and easy-to-perform detection of proteins is illustrated. For the measurements, a fluxgate-based setup was applied, which measures the MNP dynamics, while a rotating magnetic field is generated. The MNPs exhibit single iron oxide cores of 25 nm and 40 nm diameter, respectively, as well as a protein G functionalized shell. IgG antibodies were utilized as binding target molecules for the physical proof-of-concept. The measurement results were fitted with a theoretical model describing the magnetization dynamics in a rotating magnetic field. The established detection scheme allows quantitative determination of proteins even at a concentration lower than of the particles. The observed differences between the two MNP types are discussed on the basis of logistic functions.

Dieckhoff, Jan; Lak, Aidin; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

2014-01-01

388

External-field-free magnetic biosensor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6?dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8?nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200?nm?×?200?nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3?dB is achieved for 30??l magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30?nm iron oxide particles, 1?mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-03-24

389

Lake-based magnetic mapping of contaminated sediment distribution, Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remediation of toxic sediment in harbours and urban waterways requires detailed mapping of contaminated sediment distribution and thickness. Conventional methods rely on interpolation of pollutant concentrations from widely spaced core samples but can lead to significant errors in estimating sediment distribution. An improved approach, as demonstrated by recent work in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, is to estimate pollutant levels from proxy measurements of sediment magnetic properties. Measurements from 40 core samples collected within the harbour show that the magnetic susceptibility of a contaminated upper layer of sediment is one to two orders of magnitude greater than in the underlying uncontaminated 'pre-colonial' sediments. The susceptibility contrast results from elevated levels of urban-source magnetic oxides and is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 5-40 nT) that can be measured with a towed magnetometer. Systematic lake-based magnetic surveying (>500 line km) of the harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer identifies well-defined positive magnetic anomalies that coincide with mapped accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Forward modelling of the anomalies shows that the magnetic response is consistent with a contaminated upper layer thickness of up to 5 m. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from magnetic survey data show a close spatial correspondence with core-derived magnetic susceptibilities and provide a rapid means for classifying contaminated sediments. Detection of shallow magnetic anomalies is dependent upon a closely spaced survey grid (<75 m line spacing) and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity.

Pozza, M. R.; Boyce, J. I.; Morris, W. A.

2004-12-01

390

Theory of magnetic superconductors in an external magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of Abrikosov and Gor'kov has been extended to study superconducting systems containing a lattice of magnetic ions. Differential equations have been set up for the Green's-function matrices which describe a magnetic superconductor in the presence of local-spin--conduction-electron exchange and external magnetic field. The self-consistent gap equation for the system has been formulated in terms of normal-state Green's functions.

Narayan C. Das

1984-01-01

391

Theory of magnetic superconductors in an external magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of Abrikosov and Gor'kov has been extended to study superconducting systems containing a lattice of magnetic ions. Differential equations have been set up for the Green's-function matrices which describe a magnetic superconductor in the presence of local-spin-conduction-electron exchange and external magnetic field. The self-consistent gap equation for the system has been formulated in terms of normal-state Green's functions.

Narayan C. Das

1984-01-01

392

Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter. In clinical analysis of peripheral regions of the body (legs, arms, foot, knee, etc.) it would be better to adopt much less expensive magnets leaving the most expensive instruments to applications that require the insertion of the patient in the magnet (head, thorax, abdomen, etc.). These "dedicated" apparati could be smaller and based on resistive magnets that are manufactured and operated at very low cost, particularly if they utilize an iron yoke to reduce power requirements. In order to obtain good field uniformity without the use of a set of shimming coils, we propose both particular construction of a dedicated magnet, using four independently controlled pairs of coils, and an optimization-based strategy for computing, a posteriori, the optimal current values. The optimization phase could be viewed as a low-cost shimming procedure for obtaining the desired magnetic field configuration. Some experimental measurements, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach (construction and optimization), have also been reported. In particular, it has been shown that the adoption of the proposed optimization based strategy has allowed the achievement of good uniformity of the magnetic field in about one fourth of the magnet length and about one half of its bore. On the basis of the good experimental results, the dedicated magnet can be used for MRI of peripheral regions of the body and for animal experimentation at very low cost.

Sciandrone, M.; Placidi, G.; Testa, L.; Sotgiu, A.

2000-03-01

393

Colour superconductivity in a strong magnetic field  

E-print Network

We explore the effects of an applied strong external magnetic field in a three flavour massless colour superconductor. The long-range component of the B field that penetrates the superconductor enhances some quark condensates, leading to a different condensation pattern. The external field also reduces the flavour symmetries in the system, and thus it changes drastically the corresponding low energy physics. Our considerations are relevant for the study of highly magnetized compact stars.

Efrain J. Ferrer; Vivian de la Incera; Cristina Manuel

2005-11-30

394

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

Boozer, A.H.

1986-05-01

395

Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small-amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions, it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the

A. H. Boozer

1986-01-01

396

Magnetic field corrections to solar oscillation frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is argued that the frequencies of both the solar p- and g-modes of oscillation are modified by a magnetic field. In particular, the decrease in p-mode frequencies is attributed to a magnetic field within the solar interior evolving over the solar cycle. Field strengths at the base of the convection zone of at least 500,000 G are required.

Roberts, B.; Campbell, W. R.

1986-01-01

397

Thermodynamics of the Magnetic-Field-Induced \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

High magnetic fields are used to kill superconductivity and probe what happens to system when it cannot reach the ideal ground state, i.e. what is the normal-state ground state? Early work in High-Tc, where the application of magnetic field destroyed the zero resistance state and recovered a resistivity value that connected continuously with the zero field curve, lead people to

Scott Chandler Riggs

2010-01-01

398

Magnetic field homogeneity perturbations in finite Halbach dipole magnets.  

PubMed

Halbach hollow cylinder dipole magnets of a low or relatively low aspect ratio attract considerable attention due to their applications, among others, in compact NMR and MRI systems for investigating small objects. However, a complete mathematical framework for the analysis of magnetic fields in these magnets has been developed only for their infinitely long precursors. In such a case the analysis is reduced to two-dimensions (2D). The paper details the analysis of the 3D magnetic field in the Halbach dipole cylinders of a finite length. The analysis is based on three equations in which the components of the magnetic flux density Bx, By and Bz are expanded to infinite power series of the radial coordinate r. The zeroth term in the series corresponds to a homogeneous magnetic field Bc, which is perturbed by the higher order terms due to a finite magnet length. This set of equations is supplemented with an equation for the field profile B(z) along the magnet axis, presented for the first time. It is demonstrated that the geometrical factors in the coefficients of particular powers of r, defined by intricate integrals are the coefficients of the Taylor expansion of the homogeneity profile (B(z)-Bc)/Bc. As a consequence, the components of B can be easily calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. In order to describe perturbations of the field due to segmentation, two additional equations are borrowed from the 2D theory. It is shown that the 2D approach to the perturbations generated by the segmentation can be applied to the 3D Halbach structures unless r is not too close to the inner radius of the cylinder ri. The mathematical framework presented in the paper was verified with great precision by computations of B by a highly accurate integration of the magnetostatic Coulomb law and utilized to analyze the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the magnet with the accuracy better than 1 ppm. PMID:24316186

Turek, Krzysztof; Liszkowski, Piotr

2014-01-01

399

Theory of Passive Magnetic Field Transport  

E-print Network

In recent years, our knowledge of photospheric magnetic fields went through a thorough transformation--nearly unnoticed by dynamo theorists. It is now practically certain that the overwhelming majority of the unsigned magnetic flux crossing the solar surface is in turbulent form (intranetwork and hidden fields). Furthermore, there are now observational indications (supported by theoretical arguments discussed in this paper) that the net polarity imbalance of the turbulent field may give a significant or even dominant contribution to the weak large-scale background magnetic fields outside unipolar network areas. This turbulent magnetic field consists of flux tubes with magnetic fluxes below 1e10 Wb (1e18 Mx). The motion of these thin tubes is dominated by the drag of the surrounding flows, so the transport of this component of the solar magnetic field must fully be determined by the kinematics of the turbulence (i.e. it is "passive"), and it can be described by a one-fluid model like mean-field theory (MFT). This paper reviews the theory of passive magnetic field transport using mostly first (and occasionally higher) order smoothing formalism; the most important transport effects are however also independently derived using Lagrangian analysis for a simple two-component flow model. Solar applications of the theory are also presented. Among some other novel findings it is proposed that the observed unsigned magnetic flux density in the photosphere requires a small-scale dynamo effect operating in the convective zone and that the net polarity imbalance in turbulent (and, in particular, hidden) fields may give a major contribution to the weak large-scale background magnetic fields on the Sun.

Kristof Petrovay

1997-03-25

400

Is there Hamiltonian Chaos in a Tokamak's Magnetic field?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vacuum magnetic field in a tokamak can (typically) be expressed as a near-integrable Hamiltonian system. Many have modeled this system using simple area preserving maps of the plane,(R. Balescu, M. Vlad, and F. Spineanu, Phys. Rev. E 58) 951 (1998). which have exhibited the classical signatures of Hamiltonian chaos. Instead, we study an existing model for an intrinsically nonaxisymmetric tokamak using a field line tracing code that make no assumption about the symmetry of the perturbation spectrum.(T.E. Evans, Proc. 18th EPS Conf. on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Berlin, Germany, 1991, Vol. 15C (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, 1992) p. 65.) Using this code, we calculate the ``actual" Poincaré map of the system. We investigate the existence of homo(hetero)-clinic tangles and the transport derived from the map and compare these features to previous models. ^2001 National Undergraduate Fusion Fellow.

Roeder, R. K. W.; Evans, T. E.; Rapoport, B.

2001-10-01

401

Magnetic reconnection at the edge of Uranus's magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new modeling study sheds light on how the magnetosphere of Uranus compares to those of other planets. Magnetospheres around the inner planets Mercury and Earth are primarily driven by the solar wind—the charged particles spewed out from the Sun—through magnetic reconnection, in which the planet's magnetic field lines break and reconnect, releasing energy in the process.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-09-01

402

Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps  

SciTech Connect

The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius.

Schermer, R.I.

1987-01-01

403

Earth-directed ICME magnetic field configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the geoeffectiveness of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) depends on their magnetic field configuration. However, it remains unclear how the ICME interactions with the solar wind or other solar transient structures affect their magnetic configuration through, say, distortion of their cross-section, or deformation of their front. Obviously, precise space weather forecasting is depended on precise understanding of the evolution of the ICME internal magnetic topology.The goal of this study is to identify the ambient solar wind parameters that affect the flux-rope geometry and magnetic field configuration.

Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Vourlidas, Angelos; Szabo, Adam; Savani, Neel; Mays, M. Leila; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Wenyuan, Yu

2015-04-01

404

3D analysis of applied field effect on trapped magnetic field during pulsed field magnetization of bulk superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External applied field effect in magnetization process by pulsed field (PFM) method of rectangular bulk superconductor is analysed by solving the A-V magnetic equation coupled to the thermal one in order to show the influence of the amplitude of the external field on the trapped magnetic field of bulk superconductor. A numerical model based on the control volume method (CVM) has been developed, which uses a power-law model with temperature dependency and magnetic field dependence on critical current density. For low cooling temperature Tco = 20 K, a good distribution of the trapped magnetic field of the bulk superconductor is obtained when we applied high external field.

Lotfi Khene, Mohamed; Alloui, Lotfi; Mimoune, Souri Mohamed; Bouillault, Frédéric; Feliachi, Mouloud

2014-04-01

405

The Measurement of Magnetic Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five experimental methods used by senior high school students to provide an accurate calibration curve of magnet current against the magnetic flux density produced by an electromagnet. Compares the relative merits of the five methods, both as measurements and from an educational viewpoint. (JR)

Berridge, H. J. J.

1973-01-01

406

Superconducting tubular wires in transverse magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic response of a round tubular wire of superconducting film to a transverse magnetic field is investigated theoretically. For a superconducting tubular wire (STW) in which the thickness d of the superconducting layer is much smaller than the radius R of the wire, analytical expressions for the magnetic-field and current distributions are obtained on the basis of the critical state model with constant critical current density jc. When an applied transverse magnetic field Ha increases monotonically from zero, the penetration of the magnetic field into an STW occurs in two stages: for 0magnetic field in the interior of an STW is shielded, whereas for Ha>jcd/2 the magnetic field extends into the interior. Analytical expressions of the hysteretic ac loss Qtube of an STW in a transverse ac magnetic field of amplitude H0 are also obtained, and Qtube(H0) is found to have an abrupt change at H0?jcd/2.

Mawatari, Yasunori

2011-04-01

407

Influence of Magnetic Fields on Magneto-Aerotaxis  

PubMed Central

The response of cells to changes in their physico-chemical micro-environment is essential to their survival. For example, bacterial magnetotaxis uses the Earth's magnetic field together with chemical sensing to help microorganisms move towards favoured habitats. The studies of such complex responses are lacking a method that permits the simultaneous mapping of the chemical environment and the response of the organisms, and the ability to generate a controlled physiological magnetic field. We have thus developed a multi-modal microscopy platform that fulfils these requirements. Using simultaneous fluorescence and high-speed imaging in conjunction with diffusion and aerotactic models, we characterized the magneto- aerotaxis of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. We assessed the influence of the magnetic field (orientation; strength) on the formation and the dynamic of a micro-aerotactic band (size, dynamic, position). As previously described by models of magnetotaxis, the application of a magnetic field pointing towards the anoxic zone of an oxygen gradient results in an enhanced aerotaxis even down to Earth's magnetic field strength. We found that neither a ten-fold increase of the field strength nor a tilt of 45° resulted in a significant change of the aerotactic efficiency. However, when the field strength is zeroed or when the field angle is tilted to 90°, the magneto-aerotaxis efficiency is drastically reduced. The classical model of magneto-aerotaxis assumes a response proportional to the cosine of the angle difference between the directions of the oxygen gradient and that of the magnetic field. Our experimental evidence however shows that this behaviour is more complex than assumed in this model, thus opening up new avenues for research. PMID:24983865

Bennet, Mathieu; McCarthy, Aongus; Fix, Dmitri; Edwards, Matthew R.; Repp, Felix; Vach, Peter; Dunlop, John W. C.; Sitti, Metin; Buller, Gerald S.; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

2014-01-01

408

Evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Remote observations of magnetic field topologies in the solar corona and in situ observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in interplanetary space are used to examine the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of open and closed field regions emanating from the Sun. The simple ``open`` configuration of inward and outward pointing sectors in the IMF is periodically disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from previously closed magnetic field regions in the corona into interplanetary space. At 1 AU, CMEs contain counterstreaming halo electrons which indicate their distinct magnetic topologies. This topology is generally thought to be: plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; magnetic ``bottles,`` still tied to the corona at both ends; or flux ropes which are only partially disconnected. Fully disconnected plasmoids would have no long term effect on the amount of open flux; however, both in situ observations of details of the halo electron distributions and remote coronagraph observations of radial fields following CMEs indicate that CMEs generally do retain at least partial attached to the Sun. Both the magnetic-bottle and flux rope geometries require some mitigating process to close off previously open fields in order to avoid a flux catastrophe. In addition, the average amount of magnetic flux observed in interplanetary space varies over the solar cycle, also indicating that there must be ways in which new flux is opened and previously open flux is closed off. The most likely scenario for closing off open magnetic fields is for reconnection to occurs above helmet streamers, where oppositely directed field regions are juxtaposed in the corona. These events would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open, U-shaped structures into the solar wind.

McComas, D.J.

1993-05-01

409

Evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Remote observations of magnetic field topologies in the solar corona and in situ observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in interplanetary space are used to examine the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of open and closed field regions emanating from the Sun. The simple open'' configuration of inward and outward pointing sectors in the IMF is periodically disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from previously closed magnetic field regions in the corona into interplanetary space. At 1 AU, CMEs contain counterstreaming halo electrons which indicate their distinct magnetic topologies. This topology is generally thought to be: plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; magnetic bottles,'' still tied to the corona at both ends; or flux ropes which are only partially disconnected. Fully disconnected plasmoids would have no long term effect on the amount of open flux; however, both in situ observations of details of the halo electron distributions and remote coronagraph observations of radial fields following CMEs indicate that CMEs generally do retain at least partial attached to the Sun. Both the magnetic-bottle and flux rope geometries require some mitigating process to close off previously open fields in order to avoid a flux catastrophe. In addition, the average amount of magnetic flux observed in interplanetary space varies over the solar cycle, also indicating that there must be ways in which new flux is opened and previously open flux is closed off. The most likely scenario for closing off open magnetic fields is for reconnection to occurs above helmet streamers, where oppositely directed field regions are juxtaposed in the corona. These events would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open, U-shaped structures into the solar wind.

McComas, D.J.

1993-01-01

410

Magnetic Field Measurement with Ground State Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational studies of magnetic fields are crucial. We introduce a process "ground state alignment" as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1 G ? B ? 10^{-15} G). In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this chapter, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields in the Epoch of Reionization.

Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.

411

ASYMMETRIC DIFFUSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES  

SciTech Connect

Stochasticity of magnetic field lines is important for particle transport properties. Magnetic field lines separate faster than diffusively in turbulent plasma, which is called superdiffusion. We discovered that this superdiffusion is pronouncedly asymmetric, so that the separation of field lines along the magnetic field direction is different from the separation in the opposite direction. While the symmetry of the flow is broken by the so-called imbalance or cross-helicity, the difference between forward and backward diffusion is not directly due to imbalance, but a non-trivial consequence of both imbalance and non-reversibility of turbulence. The asymmetric diffusion perpendicular to the mean magnetic field entails a variety of new physical phenomena, such as the production of parallel particle streaming in the presence of perpendicular particle gradients. Such streaming and associated instabilities could be significant for particle transport in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas.

Beresnyak, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-04-20

412

The magnetic field of Mercury, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An updated analysis and interpretation is presented of the magnetic field observations obtained during the Mariner 10 encounter with the planet Mercury. The combination of data relating to position of the detached bow shock wave and magnetopause, and the geometry and magnitude of the magnetic field within the magnetosphere-like region surrounding Mercury, lead to the conclusion that an internal planetary field exists with dipole moment approximately 5.1 x 10 the 22nd power Gauss sq cm. The dipole axis has a polarity sense similar to earth's and is tilted 7 deg from the normal to Mercury's orbital plane. The magnetic field observations reveal a significant distortion of the modest Hermean field (350 Gamma at the equator) by the solar wind flow and the formation of a magnetic tail and neutral sheet which begins close to the planet on the night side. The composite data is not consistent with a complex induction process driven by the solar wind flow.

Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

1974-01-01

413

Normal glow discharge in axial magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory and results of mathematical modeling of a glow discharge in a parallel-plate configuration with axial magnetic field is presented. The model consists of continuity equations for electron and ion fluids, the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field. Numerical simulation results are presented for two-dimensional glow discharge at various initial conditions. The results are obtained for molecular nitrogen at pressure 1–5 Torr, emf of power supply 1–2 kV, and magnetic field induction B = 0–0.5 T. It is shown that in the presence of the axial magnetic field the glow discharge is rotated around its axis of symmetry. Nevertheless it is shown that in the investigated range of discharge parameters in an axial magnetic field the law of the normal current density is retained.

Surzhikov, S.; Shang, J.

2014-10-01

414

Magnetic Fields in the Milky Way Halo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the Milky Way halo magnetic field, determined from observations of Faraday rotation measure (RM) of extragalactic radio sources (EGS) in Galactic longitude range 100°-117° within 30° of the Galactic plane. We find negative median RMs in both the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres for |b|>15°, outside the latitude range where the disk field dominates. This suggest that the halo magnetic field towards the outer Galaxy does not reverse direction across the mid-plane. An azimuthal magnetic field at heights 0.8-2 kpc above/below the Galactic plane between the local and the Perseus spiral arm can reproduce the observed trend of RM against Galactic latitude. We propose that the Milky Way could have a halo magnetic field similar to that observed in M51.

Mao, S. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Brown, J. C.; van Eck, C. L.; Haverkorn, M.; Kronberg, P. P.; Stil, J. M.; Shukurov, A.; Taylor, A. R.

2015-03-01

415

Chern band insulators in a magnetic field.  

PubMed

The effect of a magnetic field on a two-dimensional Chern band insulator is discussed. It is shown that, unlike the trivial insulator, an anomalous Hall insulator with Chern number C becomes a metal when a magnetic field is applied at constant particle density, for any C > 0. For a time-reversal invariant topological insulator with a spin Chern resolved number, C? = ?C? = C, the magnetic field induces a spin polarized spin Hall insulator. We consider also the effect of a superlattice potential and extend previous results for the quantization of the Hall conductance of filled Hofstadter bands to this problem. PMID:24627894

Araújo, Miguel A N; Castro, Eduardo V

2014-02-19

416

Quantum Electrodynamics in a Uniform Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

A systematic formalism for quantum electrodynamics in a classical uniform magnetic field is discussed. The first order radiative correction to the ground state energy of an electron is calculated. This then leads to the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron without divergent integrals. Thorough analyses of this problem are given for the weak magnetic field limit. A new expression for the radiative correction to the ground state energy is obtained. This contains only one integral with an additional summation with respect to each Landau level. The importance of this formalism is also addressed in order to deal with quantum electrodynamics in an intense external field.

Jun Suzuki

2005-12-28

417

Magnetic field quality analysis using ANSYS  

SciTech Connect

The design of superconducting magnets for particles accelerators requires a high quality of the magnetic field. This paper presents an ANSYS 4.4A Post 1 macro that computes the field quality performing a Fourier analysis of the magnetic field. The results show that the ANSYS solution converges toward the analytical solution and that the error on the multipole coefficients depends linearly on the square of the mesh size. This shows the good accuracy of ANSYS in computing the multipole coefficients. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Dell'Orco, D.; Chen, Y.

1991-03-01

418

Environmental magnetic fields: Influences on early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

A 10-mG, 50 to 60-Hz magnetic field is in the intensity and frequency range that people worldwide are often exposed to in homes and in the workplace. St