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Sample records for magnetic field probe

  1. Probing Magnetic Fields with GALFACTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S. J.; Stil, J. M.; Andrecut, M.; Taylor, A. R.

    2012-09-01

    GALFACTS is a large-area spectro-polarimetric survey on the Arecibo Radio telescope. It uses the seven-beam focal plane feed array receiver system (ALFA) to carry out an imaging survey project of the 12,700 square degrees of sky visible from Arecibo at 1.4 GHz with 8192 spectral channels over a bandwidth of 300 MHz sampled at 1 millisecond. The aggregate data rate is 875 MB/s. GALFACTS observations will create full-Stokes image cubes at an angular resolution of 3.5' with a band-averaged sensitivity of 90 μJy, allowing sensitive imaging of polarized radiation and Faraday Rotation Measure from both diffuse emission and extragalactic sources. GALFACTS is a scientific pathfinder to the SKA in the area of cosmic magnetism. Key to magnetism science with the SKA is the technique of RM synthesis. The technique of RM synthesis is introduced and we discuss practical aspects of RM synthesis including efficient computational techniques and detection thresholds in the resulting Faraday spectrum. We illustrate the use of the technique by presenting the current development of the RM synthesis pipeline for GALFACTS and present early results.

  2. Probe induced voids at high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Spencer; Thomas, Edward

    2015-11-01

    The presence of voids (dust free regions) in dusty plasmas has been considered for some time. Early studies include the observation of the ``great void mode'' in a laboratory experiment with growing dust grains and self-generated voids in microgravity experiments generated by a balance of an outward ion drag force and an inward electrostatic force acting upon the dust grains. In addition to self-generated void structures, there have also been studies of void regions formed around biased probes in dusty plasmas. In the presence of a magnetic field, it is anticipated that the ion drag force will become modified as the transport of ions in the plasma becomes constrained to magnetic field lines. As a result, the balance between the electrostatic and ion drag forces may be modified, leading to changes in void formation and geometry. This presentation will discuss an experimental study of the modification of the void region around a negatively biased probe in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field. A method for characterizing the void shape will be presented. The effects of the magnetic field, plasma generation, and biasing on void size and eccentricity are investigated.

  3. Behavior of a Single Langmuir Probe in a Magnetic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytlinski, J. T.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate the influence of a magnetic field on the behavior of a single Langmuir probe. The experiment introduces the student to magnetically supported plasma and particle behavior in a magnetic field. (GA)

  4. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques.

  5. Magnetic probe array with high sensitivity for fluctuating field.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Yuki; Gota, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Kayoko; Ikeyama, Taeko; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2007-03-01

    A magnetic probe array is constructed to measure precisely the spatial structure of a small fluctuating field included in a strong confinement field that varies with time. To exclude the effect of the confinement field, the magnetic probes consisting of figure-eight-wound coils are prepared. The spatial structure of the fluctuating field is obtained from a Fourier analysis of the probe signal. It is found that the probe array is more sensitive to the fluctuating field with a high mode number than that with a low mode number. An experimental demonstration of the present method is attempted using a field-reversed configuration plasma, where the fluctuating field with 0.1% of the confinement field is successfully detected. PMID:17411230

  6. Magnetic field measurements using the transient internal probe (TIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the internal magnetic field profile in hot plasmas is fundamental to understanding the structure and behavior of the current profile. The transient internal probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Initial development of the diagnostic is complete. Results of magnetic field measurements conducted at 2 km/s will be presented. Helium muzzle gas introduction to the plasma chamber has been limited to less than 0.4 Torr-{ell}. Magnetic field resolution of 40 Gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz.

  7. Analysis of magnetic field plasma interactions using microparticles as probes.

    PubMed

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between a magnetic field and plasma close to a nonconductive surface is of interest for both science and technology. In space, crustal magnetic fields on celestial bodies without atmosphere can interact with the solar wind. In advanced technologies such as those used in fusion or spaceflight, magnetic fields can be used to either control a plasma or protect surfaces exposed to the high heat loads produced by plasma. In this paper, a method will be discussed for investigating magnetic field plasma interactions close to a nonconductive surface inside a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell employing dust particles as probes. To accomplish this, a magnet covered by a glass plate was exposed to a low power argon plasma. The magnetic field was strong enough to magnetize the electrons, while not directly impacting the dynamics of the ions or the dust particles used for diagnostics. In order to investigate the interaction of the plasma with the magnetic field and the nonconductive surface, micron-sized dust particles were introduced into the plasma and their trajectories were recorded with a high-speed camera. Based on the resulting particle trajectories, the accelerations of the dust particles were determined and acceleration maps over the field of view were generated which are representative of the forces acting on the particles. The results show that the magnetic field is responsible for the development of strong electric fields in the plasma, in both horizontal and vertical directions, leading to complex motion of the dust particles. PMID:26382535

  8. Analysis of magnetic field plasma interactions using microparticles as probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between a magnetic field and plasma close to a nonconductive surface is of interest for both science and technology. In space, crustal magnetic fields on celestial bodies without atmosphere can interact with the solar wind. In advanced technologies such as those used in fusion or spaceflight, magnetic fields can be used to either control a plasma or protect surfaces exposed to the high heat loads produced by plasma. In this paper, a method will be discussed for investigating magnetic field plasma interactions close to a nonconductive surface inside a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell employing dust particles as probes. To accomplish this, a magnet covered by a glass plate was exposed to a low power argon plasma. The magnetic field was strong enough to magnetize the electrons, while not directly impacting the dynamics of the ions or the dust particles used for diagnostics. In order to investigate the interaction of the plasma with the magnetic field and the nonconductive surface, micron-sized dust particles were introduced into the plasma and their trajectories were recorded with a high-speed camera. Based on the resulting particle trajectories, the accelerations of the dust particles were determined and acceleration maps over the field of view were generated which are representative of the forces acting on the particles. The results show that the magnetic field is responsible for the development of strong electric fields in the plasma, in both horizontal and vertical directions, leading to complex motion of the dust particles.

  9. Pulsars as probes for the Galactic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jinlin

    2008-01-10

    There are several kinds of probes for the Galactic magnetic fields. Among them, pulsars are the best. In the Galactic disk, from the rotation measures (RMs) of a large number of newly discovered pulsars, the large-scale magnetic fields along the spiral arms have been delineated in a much larger region than ever before, with alternating directions in the arm and interarm regions. The RM data of extragalactic radio sources are consistent with such magnetic field directions in the tangential regions. The strength of large-scale fields obtained from pulsar RM data has been found to increase exponentially towards the Galactic center. Since pulsar RMs are an integration of electron density and magnetic fields along the lines of sight from pulsars to us, which contain the information of magnetic field fluctuation on different scales for pulsars with different distances. We derived the spatial magnetic field energy spectrum from pulsar RM data, which shows a shallow broken spectrum compared to the steep Kolmogorov spectrum of magnetic energy at small scales.

  10. Probing Extragalactic Magnetic Fields and their Role in Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizani, N.

    2013-09-01

    VLA total intensity and polarization observations at L-, C and X-band have been taken to study the environment of powerful radio galaxies in terms of depolarization and external magnetic field. We have found a strong Laing-Garrington depolarization asymmetry between the two sides of the radio emission, which could be explained using the relativistic beaming model as a simple geometric effect. We have fitted a 'cooling flow model' to the X-ray surface brightness profile and a two-power law model to the Faraday dispersion ƒ-profile obtained from the radio data. We found that the extragalactic magnetic field is decreasing with radius with a central value of 3 <= B(ÏG) <= 9. We also probe their role in the acceleration of Cosmic Rays.

  11. Magnetic field measurement techniques with heavy ion beam probes

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.P.

    1988-08-01

    Spatially (0.1 cm/sup 3/) and temporally (1 ..mu..s) resolved magnetic field measurement techniques using a heavy ion beam probe as a test particle source are described. The measurement of both steady-state and time-varying fields is discussed. The plasma flux function can be determined by measuring the toroidal velocity of the beam ion in an axisymmetric device, because the canonical angular momentum of a particle, P/sub phi/ = qpsi+M..nu../sub phi/R, is conserved in an axisymmetric system. Corrections due to nonaxisymmetry can be significant in tokamaks and must be taken into account for the current profile and fluctuation measurements. The requirements and design of a toroidal velocity detector are discussed. The signals expected in experiments using the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) heavy ion beam probe with a velocity detector have been calculated, and they are at least two orders of magnitude higher than the amplifier noise for dc measurements of poloidal and ergodic magnetic limiter fields and for sawtooth and MHD oscillations. Low-level turbulence is expected to produce signals below the noise level.

  12. Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    2014-01-15

    A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure B{sub r}, B{sub θ}, and B{sub z} at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10 kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.

  13. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.; Turchi, Peter J.; Burton, Rodney L.; Messer, Sarah; Lovberg, Ralph H.; Hallock, Ashley K.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are often employed to perform field measurements in electric propulsion applications where there are time-varying fields. Magnetic field probes provide the means to measure these magnetic fields and can even be used to measure the plasma current density indirectly through the application of Ampere's law. Measurements of this type can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. Results of the development of a standard for B-dot probe measurements are presented, condensing the available literature on the subject into an accessible set of rules, guidelines, and techniques to standardize the performance and presentation of future measurements.

  14. NMR probing of quantum electron solids in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhone, Trevor David

    2015-03-01

    In the presence of a high magnetic field, a two dimensional electron system (2DES) is expected to manifest Wigner crystal phases. Over thirty years ago, the search for the Wigner solid led to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). Since then, with the advent of GaAs quantum wells with increasingly high mobility, 2DESs in the quantum Hall regime have proved to be a hunting ground for exceedingly rich many-body physics. Incompressible liquid FQHE states were found to occur in the first Landau level at several fractional filling factors v with odd-denominator. The sequence of FQHE states is truncated by the formation of a Wigner crystal of electrons at very low filling factors, the transition being affected by disorder. In the second Landau level, composite fermions, the quasiparticles of the FQHE, can pair to yield a remarkable even-denominator FQHE state, whose properties are at the forefront of investigation. More recently, electron solid phases have been shown to emerge around integer quantum Hall states. In this talk, I will discuss a new tool, resistively detected NMR, which serves as a direct local probe of in-plane charge density modulations in the 2DES. In our recent work [1] we probe the local charge density landscape of Wigner solids in the vicinity of v = 2 and v<1/3 revealing quantum correlations. This unprecedented access to the microscopic behavior of these exotic solid phases opens up new venues in FQH studies. Furthermore, our NMR technique can probe in-plane charge density fluctuations due to disorder, allowing increased access to understanding roles of disorder in quantum Hall systems. In addition, our latest NMR measurements reveal evidence for charge inhomogeneity in the third Landau level which leads to the possibility of studying bubble and stripe phases in this regime. Future directions may find our NMR technique applied to other exotic phases such as quasiparticle solid phases, which have been proposed to emerge near the v = 1/3 and 5/2 FQHE states. L. Tiemann(*), T.D. Rhone(*), N. Shibata, K. Muraki, Nature Physics 10, 648 (2014). [*- equal contribution

  15. Pulsed field probe of real time magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, T.; Syed, M.; Taplin, T.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in biotechnology. These applications rely on magnetic properties that are a keen function of MNP size, distribution, and shape. Various magneto-optical techniques, including Faraday Rotation (FR), Cotton-Mouton Effect, etc., have been employed to characterize magnetic properties of MNPs. Generally, these measurements employ AC or DC fields. In this work, we describe the results from a FR setup that uses pulsed magnetic fields and an analysis technique that makes use of the entire pulse shape to investigate size distribution and shape anisotropy. The setup employs a light source, polarizing components, and a detector that are used to measure the rotation of light from a sample that is subjected to a pulsed magnetic field. This magnetic field "snapshot" is recorded alongside the intensity pulse of the sample's response. This side by side comparison yields useful information about the real time magnetization dynamics of the system being probed. The setup is highly flexible with variable control of pulse length and peak magnitude. Examining the raw data for the response of bare Fe3O4 and hybrid Au and Fe3O4 nanorods reveals interesting information about Brownian relaxation and the hydrodynamic size of these nanorods. This analysis exploits the self-referencing nature of this measurement to highlight the impact of an applied field on creating a field induced transparency for a longitudinal measurement. Possible sources for this behavior include shape anisotropy and field assisted aggregate formation.

  16. Probing electric field control of magnetism using ferromagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziyao; Trassin, Morgan; Gao, Ya; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Diana; Ashraf, Khalid; Nan, Tianxiang; Yang, Xi; Bowden, S R; Pierce, D T; Stiles, M D; Unguris, J; Liu, Ming; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Salahuddin, S; Ramesh, R; Sun, Nian X

    2015-01-01

    Exchange coupled CoFe/BiFeO3 thin-film heterostructures show great promise for power-efficient electric field-induced 180° magnetization switching. However, the coupling mechanism and precise qualification of the exchange coupling in CoFe/BiFeO3 heterostructures have been elusive. Here we show direct evidence for electric field control of the magnetic state in exchange coupled CoFe/BiFeO3 through electric field-dependent ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and nanoscale spatially resolved magnetic imaging. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis images reveal the coupling of the magnetization in the CoFe layer to the canted moment in the BiFeO3 layer. Electric field-dependent ferromagnetic resonance measurements quantify the exchange coupling strength and reveal that the CoFe magnetization is directly and reversibly modulated by the applied electric field through a ~180° switching of the canted moment in BiFeO3. This constitutes an important step towards robust repeatable and non-volatile voltage-induced 180° magnetization switching in thin-film multiferroic heterostructures and tunable RF/microwave devices. PMID:25631924

  17. Refractory clad transient internal probe for magnetic field measurements in high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyundae; Cellamare, Vincent; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    2005-05-15

    The transient internal probe (TIP) is a diagnostic for local internal field measurements in high temperature plasmas. A verdet material, which rotates the polarization angle of the laser light under magnetic fields, is launched into a plasma at about 1.8 km/s. A linearly polarized Ar{sup +} laser illuminates the probe in transit and the light retroreflected from the probe is analyzed to determine the local magnetic field profiles. The TIP has been used for magnetic field measurements on the helicity injected torus where electron temperature T{sub e}{<=}80 eV. In order to apply the TIP in higher temperature plasmas, refractory clad probes have been developed utilizing a sapphire tube, rear disc, and a MgO window on the front. The high melting points of these refractory materials should allow probe operation at plasma electron temperatures up to T{sub e}{approx}300 eV. A retroreflecting probe has also been developed using 'catseye' optics. The front window is replaced with a plano-convex MgO lens, and the back surface of the probe is aluminized. This approach reduces spurious polarization effects and provides refractory cladding for the probe entrance face. In-flight measurements of a static magnetic field demonstrate the ability of the clad probes to withstand gun-launch acceleration, and provide high accuracy measurements of magnetic field.

  18. Refractory clad transient internal probe for magnetic field measurements in high temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyundae; Cellamare, Vincent; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    2005-05-01

    The transient internal probe (TIP) is a diagnostic for local internal field measurements in high temperature plasmas. A verdet material, which rotates the polarization angle of the laser light under magnetic fields, is launched into a plasma at about 1.8km/s. A linearly polarized Ar+ laser illuminates the probe in transit and the light retroreflected from the probe is analyzed to determine the local magnetic field profiles. The TIP has been used for magnetic field measurements on the helicity injected torus where electron temperature Te⩽80eV. In order to apply the TIP in higher temperature plasmas, refractory clad probes have been developed utilizing a sapphire tube, rear disc, and a MgO window on the front. The high melting points of these refractory materials should allow probe operation at plasma electron temperatures up to Te˜300eV. A retroreflecting probe has also been developed using "catseye" optics. The front window is replaced with a plano-convex MgO lens, and the back surface of the probe is aluminized. This approach reduces spurious polarization effects and provides refractory cladding for the probe entrance face. In-flight measurements of a static magnetic field demonstrate the ability of the clad probes to withstand gun-launch acceleration, and provide high accuracy measurements of magnetic field.

  19. The transient internal probe: A novel method for measuring internal magnetic field profilesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet, M. A.; Galambos, J. P.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Spanjers, G. G.

    1995-02-01

    The transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic is designed to permit internal magnetic field measurements in hot, high density plasmas. A small probe is fired through the plasma at high velocities and magnetic field measurements are accomplished using Faraday rotation within the Verdet glass probe. Magnetic field resolution of ±40 G and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz. Ablative effects are avoided by minimizing both the probe size and the time the probe spends in the plasma. A two-stage light-gas gun is used to accelerate the probe (held by a sabot) to 2.2 km/s. The sabot is removed using gas dynamic forces and a gas interface system prevents the helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber. Work is underway to integrate the TIP diagnostic with laboratory plasma experiments.

  20. The transient internal probe: A novel method for measuring internal magnetic field profiles (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet, M. A.; Galambos, J. P.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Spanjers, G. G.

    1995-01-01

    The transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic is designed to permit internal magnetic field measurements in hot, high density plasmas. A small probe is fired through the plasma at high velocities and magnetic field measurements are accomplished using Faraday rotation within the Verdet glass probe. Magnetic field resolution of ±40 G and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz. Ablative effects are avoided by minimizing both the probe size and the time the probe spends in the plasma. A two-stage light-gas gun is used to accelerate the probe (held by a sabot) to 2.2 km/s. The sabot is removed using gas dynamic forces and a gas interface system prevents the helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber. Work is underway to integrate the TIP diagnostic with laboratory plasma experiments.

  1. Magnification bias as a novel probe for primordial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, S.; Fedeli, C.; Moscardini, L.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate magnetic fields generated in the early Universe. These fields are important candidates at explaining the origin of astrophysical magnetism observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters, whose genesis is still by and large unclear. Compared to the standard inflationary power spectrum, intermediate to small scales would experience further substantial matter clustering, were a cosmological magnetic field present prior to recombination. As a consequence, the bias and redshift distribution of galaxies would also be modified. Hitherto, primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) have been tested and constrained with a number of cosmological observables, e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation, galaxy clustering and, more recently, weak gravitational lensing. Here, we explore the constraining potential of the density fluctuation bias induced by gravitational lensing magnification onto the galaxy-galaxy angular power spectrum. Such an effect is known as magnification bias. Compared to the usual galaxy clustering approach, magnification bias helps in lifting the pathological degeneracy present amongst power spectrum normalisation and galaxy bias. This is because magnification bias cross-correlates galaxy number density fluctuations of nearby objects with weak lensing distortions of high-redshift sources. Thus, it takes advantage of the gravitational deflection of light, which is insensitive to galaxy bias but powerful in constraining the density fluctuation amplitude. To scrutinise the potentiality of this method, we adopt a deep and wide-field spectroscopic galaxy survey. We show that magnification bias does contain important information on primordial magnetism, which will be useful in combination with galaxy clustering and shear. We find we shall be able to rule out at 95.4% CL amplitudes of PMFs larger than 5 × 10-4 nG for values of the PMF power spectral index nB ~ 0.

  2. Magnification bias as a novel probe for primordial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Camera, S.; Fedeli, C.; Moscardini, L. E-mail: cosimo.fedeli@oabo.inaf.it

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate magnetic fields generated in the early Universe. These fields are important candidates at explaining the origin of astrophysical magnetism observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters, whose genesis is still by and large unclear. Compared to the standard inflationary power spectrum, intermediate to small scales would experience further substantial matter clustering, were a cosmological magnetic field present prior to recombination. As a consequence, the bias and redshift distribution of galaxies would also be modified. Hitherto, primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) have been tested and constrained with a number of cosmological observables, e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation, galaxy clustering and, more recently, weak gravitational lensing. Here, we explore the constraining potential of the density fluctuation bias induced by gravitational lensing magnification onto the galaxy-galaxy angular power spectrum. Such an effect is known as magnification bias. Compared to the usual galaxy clustering approach, magnification bias helps in lifting the pathological degeneracy present amongst power spectrum normalisation and galaxy bias. This is because magnification bias cross-correlates galaxy number density fluctuations of nearby objects with weak lensing distortions of high-redshift sources. Thus, it takes advantage of the gravitational deflection of light, which is insensitive to galaxy bias but powerful in constraining the density fluctuation amplitude. To scrutinise the potentiality of this method, we adopt a deep and wide-field spectroscopic galaxy survey. We show that magnification bias does contain important information on primordial magnetism, which will be useful in combination with galaxy clustering and shear. We find we shall be able to rule out at 95.4% CL amplitudes of PMFs larger than 5 × 10{sup −4} nG for values of the PMF power spectral index n{sub B} ∼ 0.

  3. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using μ-distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2014-08-01

    The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called μ-distortion. We can calculate the correlation (μ T) of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy T of the CMB to search for a correlation ( B{sup 2}ζ) between the magnetic field B and the curvature perturbation ζ; knowing the ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the μ-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of ( B{sup 2}ζ), which is naturally parameterized by b{sub NL} (a parameter defined analogously to f{sub NL}). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise S/N≈ 1.0 × b{sub NL} ( B-tilde {sub μ}/10nG){sup 2}, where B-tilde {sub μ} is the magnetic field's strength on μ-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with b{sub NL}=O(1). However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum (ζ{sup 3}) induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal ( B{sup 2} ζ) will dominate, but for B-tilde {sub μ}∼> 1 nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

  4. Miniature-probe measurements of electric fields induced by 60 Hz magnetic fields in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields interact with an animal by inducing internal electric fields, which represent the internal dose from an external exposure. In this study, an electric field probe of approximately 2 mm resolution was used to measure fields induced in rate carcasses by a 60 Hz magnetic field at 1 mT. With the rat lying on its side, the probe was inserted through a small hole in the body wall, and scanned at 5 mm increments from the side with frontal and axial exposure (field horizontal) and from the front with lateral exposure (field vertical). The induced electric field declined from a maximum at the entrance to the abdomen and crossed zero to negative (180{degree} phase shift) values within the body as expected. In general, the magnitudes of the measurements inside the abdomen were less than expected from whole-body calculations that used homogeneous-ellipsoidal models of a rate in the three orientations. The low measurements did not appear to be explained by perpendicular field components, by conductivity differences between the tissue and the probe path, or by air in the lungs. The low measurements probably result from inhomogeneities in actual rats that include conductivity differences between tissues and biological membranes. For example, an alternative model considered the abdominal cavity to be electrically isolated from the body by the diaphragm and the peritoneum and calculations from this model were in better agreement with the measurements inside the abdomen (than were the whole-body calculations). Therefore, inhomogeneities in conductivity and biomembranes such as the peritoneum should be considered in order to fully understand ELF-induced field dosimetry.

  5. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di; Clemens, D. P.; Krco, Marko

    2011-11-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A{sub V} {approx} 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 {mu}G and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales ({approx}2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  6. Inductive probe to measure the Earth’s magnetic field: a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This experiment provides ‘hands-on’ experience of Faraday’s law. By flipping a coil of wire (the probe) in a horizontal or vertical plane the two components of the Earth’s magnetic field are determined. The signal from the probe is recorded by a Picoscope ADC100.

  7. Magnetic field probe for measuring surface current distributions on millimetre wave microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, R. R.; Bansal, R.

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic field probe for measuring surface current distributions on millimeter wave microstrip antennas has been designed and fabricated. This current probe was tested by measuring the surface current distributions of printed microstrip dipole antennas. The current distributions obtained compared well with the theoretically expected distributions.

  8. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are useful for performing measurements in electric space thrusters and various plasma accelerator applications where a time-varying magnetic field is present. Magnetic field probes have proven to be a mainstay in diagnosing plasma thrusters where changes occur rapidly with respect to time, providing the means to measure the magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents and even an indirect measure of the plasma current density through the application of Ampère's law. Examples of applications where this measurement technique has been employed include pulsed plasma thrusters and quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. The Electric Propulsion Technical Committee (EPTC) of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) was asked to assemble a Committee on Standards (CoS) for Electric Propulsion Testing. The assembled CoS was tasked with developing Standards and Recommended Practices for various diagnostic techniques used in the evaluation of plasma thrusters. These include measurements that can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. This paper presents a summary of the standard, describing the preferred methods for fabrication, calibration, and usage of inductive magnetic field probes for use in diagnosing plasma thrusters. Inductive magnetic field probes (also called B-dot probes throughout this document) are commonly used in electric propulsion (EP) research and testing to measure unsteady magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents. The B-dot probe is relatively simple in construction, and requires minimal cost, making it a low-cost technique that is readily accessible to most researchers. While relatively simple, the design of a B-dot probe is not trivial and there are many opportunities for errors in probe construction, calibration, and usage, and in the post-processing of data that is produced by the probe. There are typically several ways in which each of these steps can be approached, and different applications may require more or less vigorous attention to various issues.

  9. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  10. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; S??guin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ß~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  11. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Town, R. P. J.

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  12. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  13. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.; Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K.; Dantelle, G.; Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S.

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  14. 2H transmit-receive NMR probes for magnetic field monitoring in MRI.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Pekka; Greding, Sebastian; Wachutka, Gerhard; Wiesinger, Florian

    2011-05-01

    Measuring image encoding fields in real time and applying the information in postprocessing offer improved image quality for MRI, particularly for applications that are intrinsically sensitive to gradient imperfections. For this task, a stand-alone magnetometer system based on multiple (2)H transmit-receive NMR probes has been developed. The conceptual advantages of changing to (2)H NMR probes for (1)H magnetic field monitoring are elucidated here, and the practical design of the probes is described. In comparison to previous (1)H NMR probe-based designs, (2)H probes are perfectly decoupled from standard (1)H imaging. Utilization of RF shielding or other nonoptimal decoupling schemes is therefore not needed. Probes based on (2)H nuclei are also more easily miniaturized for high-resolution imaging. This is particularly important for diffusion tensor and phase-contrast imaging, which rely on strong motion-sensitizing gradients. The presented (2)H NMR probes have been shown to fulfill the requirements for accurate (1)H imaging down to image resolutions of 0.2 mm. Using susceptibility matching techniques, the probe's B(0) inhomogeneity-induced signal dephasing is reduced and monitoring periods beyond 200 msec are achieved. The benefit of real time magnetic field monitoring is highlighted for phase-contrast and non-Cartesian multishot imaging. PMID:21254204

  15. Modeling magnetic fields measured by surface probes embedded in a cylindrical flux conserver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.

    2007-03-01

    Calculating magnetic fields at the surface of a flux conserver, perfect conductor, for displaced plasma currents is useful for understanding modes of a Z-pinch. The magnetic fields measured at the flux conserver are a sum of the magnetic fields from the plasma current and the eddy currents which form in the walls to keep the flux constant. While the magnetic field at the wall from the plasma current alone is easily calculated using the Biot-Savart law, finding the eddy currents in the flux conserver which satisfy the boundary conditions can be a tedious process. A simple method of calculating the surface magnetic field for a given Z-pinch displacement off-axis is derived for a cylindrical flux conserver. This relationship does not require the explicit calculation of the eddy currents, saving time when analyzing surface magnetic probe measurements. Analytic expressions can be used to describe the surface magnetic field which increase the understanding of the magnetic probe measurements.

  16. Internal magnetic field measurements on the Helicity Injected Tokamak (HIT) using the Transient Internal Probe (TIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the laser light reflected from the moving probe. Currently, internal magnetic profile measurements are being conducted on the Helicity Injected tokamak (HIT). HIT is a low aspect ratio (A = 1.5) tokamak designed to investigate steady state current drive using coaxial helicity injection. Operating parameters are T{sub e} {approx} 100, n{sub e} {approx} 5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} and I{sub p} = 250 kA. Internal magnetic field profile data will be presented. The TIP diagnostic has a spatial resolution of 1 cm and 20 gauss magnetic field resolution. System frequency response is 10 MHz.

  17. Design and Application of Hybrid Magnetic Field-Eddy Current Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Simpson, John

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of magnetic field sensors into eddy current probes can result in novel probe designs with unique performance characteristics. One such example is a recently developed electromagnetic probe consisting of a two-channel magnetoresistive sensor with an embedded single-strand eddy current inducer. Magnetic flux leakage maps of ferrous materials are generated from the DC sensor response while high-resolution eddy current imaging is simultaneously performed at frequencies up to 5 megahertz. In this work the design and optimization of this probe will be presented, along with an application toward analysis of sensory materials with embedded ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles. The sensory material is designed to produce a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the FSMA particles under strain. Mapping of the stray magnetic field and eddy current response of the sample with the hybrid probe can thereby image locations in the structure which have experienced an overstrain condition. Numerical modeling of the probe response is performed with good agreement with experimental results.

  18. Rotating field eddy current probe for characterization of cracking in non-magnetic tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Capobianco, T.E.

    1998-07-01

    A rotating field eddy current probe was built and tested for use in small diameter, non-magnetic tubing. The rotating field probe is a driver/pickup style with two orthogonally wound drive coils and a pancake pickup coil. The driver coils are excited by two sine waves 90{degree} out of phase with each other. The physical arrangement of the drive coils and the 90{degree} phase shift of the excitation waveforms creates a field which rotates in the test piece under the drive coils. Preliminary tests on electrical discharge machined (EDM) notches show that phased based estimates of notch depth are possible. Probes currently used for detection of cracks in tubing produce responses that have proven unreliable for estimating defect depths. This recently developed version of the rotating field eddy current probe produces a bipolar response in the presence of a crack or a notch. Typically, the phase angle of a bipolar eddy current response is easily identified and measured and is used extensively for estimating depths of volumetric defects. Data are shown relating the phase angle of the rotating field probe`s bipolar response to the depth of circumferential EDM notches.

  19. Dust as In-Situ Probes for Plasma Magnetic Field Interactions in a Dusty Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    A series of experiments were conducted inside a GEC rf reference cell to map the forces in three dimensions above a magnet placed in a dusty plasma and employing both horizontal and vertical orientations. Micron sized dust particles were used as in-situ probes to investigate the interaction between the low-temperature plasma produced and a magnetic field close to a non-conductive surface. Dust particles were dropped into the plasma where they obtained a negative charge leading to trajectories, which were strongly influenced by both electric and ion drag forces. By recording the trajectories of the particles, which were illuminated by a vertical laser plane, the forces onto the particles were determined. A strong influence of the magnetic field onto the plasma sheath was observed. Given the electrons are strongly magnetized by the magnet while ions remain comparatively unaffected by the magnet a charge separation takes place, which leads to strong electric fields. As a result the sheath thickness varies significantly within the magnetic field, showing strong horizontal force components. Based on these observations, analogies to the interaction of the lunar plasma with known lunar magnetic anomalies will be drawn to contribute to the explanation of the formation of lunar swirls.

  20. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; S??guin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ß~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore » and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  1. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore » and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  2. Quantitatively probing the magnetic behavior of individual nanoparticles by an AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Lu, Wei; Song, Yiming; Wang, Yuxin; Chen, Aiying; Yan, Biao; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Despite decades of advances in magnetic imaging, obtaining direct, quantitative information with nanometer scale spatial resolution remains an outstanding challenge. Current approaches, for example, Hall micromagnetometer and nitrogen-vacancy magnetometer, are limited by highly complex experimental apparatus and a dedicated sample preparation process. Here we present a new AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and report the local and quantitative measurements of the magnetic information of individual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which is one of the most iconic objects of nanomagnetism. This technique provides simultaneously a direct visualization of the magnetization process of the individual MNPs, with spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of about 4.8 nm and 1.85 × 10-20 A m2, respectively, enabling us to separately estimate the distributions of the dipolar fields and the local switching fields of individual MNPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetization moment of individual MNPs can be routinely obtained using MFM signals. Therefore, it underscores the power of the AC field-modulated MFM for biological and biomedical applications of MNPs and opens up the possibility for directly and quantitatively probing the weak magnetic stray fields from nanoscale magnetic systems with superior spatial resolution.

  3. Quantitatively probing the magnetic behavior of individual nanoparticles by an AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Lu, Wei; Song, Yiming; Wang, Yuxin; Chen, Aiying; Yan, Biao; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of advances in magnetic imaging, obtaining direct, quantitative information with nanometer scale spatial resolution remains an outstanding challenge. Current approaches, for example, Hall micromagnetometer and nitrogen-vacancy magnetometer, are limited by highly complex experimental apparatus and a dedicated sample preparation process. Here we present a new AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and report the local and quantitative measurements of the magnetic information of individual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which is one of the most iconic objects of nanomagnetism. This technique provides simultaneously a direct visualization of the magnetization process of the individual MNPs, with spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of about 4.8 nm and 1.85 × 10(-20) A m(2), respectively, enabling us to separately estimate the distributions of the dipolar fields and the local switching fields of individual MNPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetization moment of individual MNPs can be routinely obtained using MFM signals. Therefore, it underscores the power of the AC field-modulated MFM for biological and biomedical applications of MNPs and opens up the possibility for directly and quantitatively probing the weak magnetic stray fields from nanoscale magnetic systems with superior spatial resolution. PMID:26932357

  4. Quantitatively probing the magnetic behavior of individual nanoparticles by an AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Lu, Wei; Song, Yiming; Wang, Yuxin; Chen, Aiying; Yan, Biao; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of advances in magnetic imaging, obtaining direct, quantitative information with nanometer scale spatial resolution remains an outstanding challenge. Current approaches, for example, Hall micromagnetometer and nitrogen-vacancy magnetometer, are limited by highly complex experimental apparatus and a dedicated sample preparation process. Here we present a new AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and report the local and quantitative measurements of the magnetic information of individual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which is one of the most iconic objects of nanomagnetism. This technique provides simultaneously a direct visualization of the magnetization process of the individual MNPs, with spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of about 4.8 nm and 1.85 × 10−20 A m2, respectively, enabling us to separately estimate the distributions of the dipolar fields and the local switching fields of individual MNPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetization moment of individual MNPs can be routinely obtained using MFM signals. Therefore, it underscores the power of the AC field-modulated MFM for biological and biomedical applications of MNPs and opens up the possibility for directly and quantitatively probing the weak magnetic stray fields from nanoscale magnetic systems with superior spatial resolution. PMID:26932357

  5. Analysis of Van Allen Probes Data Showing Nonlinear Electric Field Feedback During a Magnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Katus, R. M.; Smith, L. K.; Skoug, R. M.; Niehof, J. T.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Smith, C. W.; Kletzing, C.; Ilie, R.; Ganushkina, N.

    2013-12-01

    Van Allen Probes data was examined to assess the role of nonlinear feedback in relationship to the spatial structure of hot ions in the inner magnetosphere. During the magnetic storm that peaked on June 1, 2013, localized electric field perturbations from the EFW instrument were observed in relationship to the plasma pressure peak (as identified by the HOPE H+ and O+ fluxes in the 1-40 keV range, as well as magnetic field perturbations from EMFISIS) with a systematic sinusoidal perturbation. Near apogee, it takes the Van Allen Probes 30-60 minutes to traverse a peak in the ion fluxes. Therefore, the electric field was averaged over several minutes to remove the higher-frequency wave oscillations, revealing the longer-baseline perturbation associated with the pressure peak. While the fluxes indicate that the satellite is passing through a pressure peak, the magnetic field perturbation reveals the spatial location of the pressure extrema relative to the spacecraft location. The pattern of these electric fields relative to the location of the plasma pressure peak is in agreement with the hypothesis based on theory and numerical simulation results that an azimuthally localized pressure peak should create a systematic and predictable small-scale reconfiguration of the electric field. This electric field modification is because the field-aligned currents near each end of the pressure crescent close via Pedersen currents, perturbing the electric field in this region, as regulated by the ionospheric conductance. The level of this reconfiguration, relative to the expected dawn-dusk electric field within the magnetosphere, indicates the intensity of the nonlinear feedback.

  6. Probing Mars' crustal magnetic field and ionosphere with the MGS Electron Reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D.; Lin, R.; Lee, C.; Chou, S.; Reme, H.; Cloutier, P.; Connerney, J.; Acuna, M.; Ness, N.

    Mars' magnetic field is dominated by remanent magnetization of the crust, which is distributed non-uniformly over the surface. In the northern hemisphere, crustal magnetic fields are so weak that the solar wind interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere in a manner similar to Venus and active comets. The Electron R flectometer (ER) onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) detected ae persistent boundary between the ionosphere and the solar wind as the latter is diverted around and past the planet. Above this boundary the 10-1000 eV electron population is dominated by solar wind electrons, while below it is dominated by ionospheric photoelectrons. Photoelectron energy spectra exhibit a broad feature from 20 to 50 eV, which likely results from a blend of unresolved photoionization peaks, and a feature at ~500 eV due to oxygen Auger electrons. The shape of the photoelectron spectrum remains fairly constant above ~180 km, but changes significantly at lower altitudes, probably because of approach to the exobase. The "photoelectron boundary", or PEB, was observed at altitudes ranging from 180 km to over 800 km, with a m dian of 380 km. The PEB altitude is highly variablee and sensitive to changes in the ionospheric thermal pressure and the solar wind dynamic pressure. Moreover, the PEB is systematically higher over crustal magnetic anomalies, which can exert significant magnetic pressure at ionospheric altitudes. Crustal fields as weak as a few nanoteslas at 400 km altitude cause a detectable bias in the PEB height. In the most strongly magnetized regions of the southern hemisphere, the crustal field is strong and coherent enough to stand off the solar wind up to altitudes of ~800 km, forming localized "magnetocylinders," which are elongated in the east-west direction following the pattern of magnetization. The ER probes the topology of these magnetocylinders by measuring the energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons traveling along the c ustal field lines.r Ionospheric plasma is trapped on closed magnetic field lines that are anchored to the crust. Where the crustal field has a nearly radial orientation, there is a tendency for the field lines to reconnect with the solar wind magnetic field, forming cusps.

  7. Open Clusters as Probes of the Galactic Magnetic Field. I. Cluster Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoq, Sadia; Clemens, D. P.

    2015-10-01

    Stars in open clusters are powerful probes of the intervening Galactic magnetic field via background starlight polarimetry because they provide constraints on the magnetic field distances. We use 2MASS photometric data for a sample of 31 clusters in the outer Galaxy for which near-IR polarimetric data were obtained to determine the cluster distances, ages, and reddenings via fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color-magnitude diagrams. The fitting approach uses an objective χ2 minimization technique to derive the cluster properties and their uncertainties. We found the ages, distances, and reddenings for 24 of the clusters, and the distances and reddenings for 6 additional clusters that were either sparse or faint in the near-IR. The derived ranges of log(age), distance, and E(B-V) were 7.25-9.63, ˜670-6160 pc, and 0.02-1.46 mag, respectively. The distance uncertainties ranged from ˜8% to 20%. The derived parameters were compared to previous studies, and most cluster parameters agree within our uncertainties. To test the accuracy of the fitting technique, synthetic clusters with 50, 100, or 200 cluster members and a wide range of ages were fit. These tests recovered the input parameters within their uncertainties for more than 90% of the individual synthetic cluster parameters. These results indicate that the fitting technique likely provides reliable estimates of cluster properties. The distances derived will be used in an upcoming study of the Galactic magnetic field in the outer Galaxy.

  8. Roles of Atomic Injection Rate and External Magnetic Field on Optical Properties of Elliptical Polarized Probe Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, R.; S. H., Asadpour; Batebi, S.; H. Rahimpour, Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the optical properties of an open four-level tripod atomic system driven by an elliptically polarized probe field in the presence of the external magnetic field and compare its properties with the corresponding closed system. Our result reveals that absorption, dispersion and group velocity of probe field can be manipulated by adjusting the phase difference between the two circularly polarized components of a single coherent field, magnetic field and cavity parameters i.e. the atomic exit rate from cavity and atomic injection rates. We show that the system can exhibit multiple electromagnetically induced transparency windows in the presence of the external magnetic field. The numerical result shows that the probe field in the open system can be amplified by appropriate choice of cavity parameters, while in the closed system with introduce appropriate phase difference between fields the probe field can be enhanced. Also it is shown that the group velocity of light pulse can be controlled by external magnetic field, relative phase of applied fields and cavity parameters. By changing the parameters the group velocity of light pulse changes from subluminal to superluminal light propagation and vice versa.

  9. BLAZAR HALOS AS PROBE FOR EXTRAGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELDS AND MAXIMAL ACCELERATION ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dolag, K.; Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Tomas, R.

    2009-09-20

    High-energy photons from blazars interact within tens of kpc with the extragalactic photon background, initiating electromagnetic pair cascades. The charged component of such cascades is deflected by extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMFs), leading to halos even around initially point-like sources. We calculate the intensity profile of the resulting secondary high-energy photons for different assumptions on the initial source spectrum and the strength of the EGMF, employing also fields found earlier in a constrained simulation of structure formation including magnetohydrodynamics processes. We find that the observation of halos around blazars like Mrk 180 probes an interesting range of EGMF strengths and acceleration models: in particular, blazar halos test if the photon energy spectrum at the source extends beyond {approx}100 TeV and how anisotropic this high-energy component is emitted.

  10. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  11. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the anisotropy properties of the extragalactic gamma-ray background, through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thus inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that the two extreme cases (zero IGMF and IGMF strong enough to completely isotropize cascade photons) would be separable by ten years of Fermi observations and reasonable model parameters for the gamma-ray background. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  12. Thermonuclear Supernovae: Probing Magnetic Fields by Positrons and Late-time IR Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R.; Hoeflich, P.

    2014-11-01

    We show the importance of ? and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 ?m, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M Ch) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 109 G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a ?-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 ?m can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M Ch mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central 56Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M Ch. Good time coverage is required to separate the effects of optical depth, the size and morphology of B, and the aspect angle of the observer. The spectra require a resolution of about 500 km s-1 and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 20%. Two other strong near-IR spectral features at about 1.5 and 1.8 ?m are used to demonstrate the importance of line blending, which may invalidate a kinematic interpretation of emission lines. Flat-topped line profiles between 300 and 400 days have been observed and reported in the literature. They lend support for M Ch mass explosions in at least some cases and require magnetic fields equal to or in excess of 106 G. We briefly discuss the effects of the size and morphology of B on light curves, as well as limitations. We argue that line profiles are a more direct measurement of B than light curves because they measure both the distribution of 56Ni and the redistribution of the energy input by positrons rather than the total energy input. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for the formation of high B-fields and the limitations of our analysis.

  13. Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Jefferson; Castro, Matthieu; Petit, Pascal; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.

    2015-08-01

    It is know that lithium is element easily destroyed in stellar interior, the existence of lithium rich stars means a great challenge in stellar evolution. In this context our observations ravels the serendipitous discovery of an unusually high lithium abundance star. This is a K0III HD 150050, which has strong deepening on lithium line (6707.8 Å) this means lithium abundance of 2.81 0.2 dex, therefore this star belong a rare group called super Li-Rich stars. A possible source of the non-standard episodes required to produce Li-rich stars were identified in magneto-thermohaline mixing accounted by models of extra-mixing induced by magnetic buoyancy. However to better understand this is necessary more observational data. In last three decades several studies has showed that late type red giant stars presents a remarkable modifications in these outer atmosphere layers when they become late type star in HR diagram. These changes are founded through X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Chromospheric activity analyses, and then we can establish the called “Dividing lines”. We made spectropalarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS@CFHT to achieve two main objectives: analyze the influence of magnetic field in the Li-rich giant stars, and understand how works the magnetic field in late type giants and supergiants across the “dividing line”.

  14. Analysis of magnetic probe signals including effect of cylindrical conducting wall for field-reversed configuration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nemoto, Yuuichi; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A confinement field is disturbed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) motions of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma in a cylindrical conductor. The effect of the conductor should be included to obtain a spatial structure of the disturbed field with a good precision. For this purpose, a toroidal current in the plasma and an eddy current on a conducting wall are replaced by magnetic dipole and image magnetic dipole moments, respectively. Typical spatial structures of the disturbed field are calculated by using the dipole moments for such MHD motions as radial shift, internal tilt, external tilt, and n =2 mode deformation. Then, analytic formulas for estimating the shift distance, tilt angle, and deformation rate of the MHD motions from magnetic probe signals are derived. It is estimated from the calculations by using the dipole moments that the analytic formulas include an approximately 40% error. Two kinds of experiment are carried out to investigate the reliability of the calculations. First, a magnetic field produced by a circular current is measured in an aluminum pipe to confirm the replacement of the eddy current with the image magnetic dipole moments. The measured fields coincide well with the calculated values including the image magnetic dipole moments. Second, magnetic probe signals measured from the FRC plasma are substituted into the analytic formulas to obtain shift distance and deformation rate. The experimental results are compared to the MHD motions measured by using a radiation from the plasma. If the error included in the analytic formulas and the difference between the magnetic and optical structures in the plasma are considered, the results of the radiation measurement support well those of the magnetic analysis.

  15. Thermoremanent magnetization as a probe of the field-quenched states in spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenning, G. G.; Joh, Y. G.; Chu, D.; Orbach, R.

    1995-08-01

    The aging process for spin glasses has been characterized by barrier hopping between states of similar magnetization, with the maximum barrier height surmounted proportional to the logarithm of the waiting time tw. We investigate the microscopic nature of the decay of the irreversible component of the magnetization upon a change in magnetic field. In particular, we examine transitions between states with magnetizations associated with the initial and final values of the magnetic field, and their related barrier heights. We employ a field cycling protocol during the waiting time to determine which states (barriers) are occupied upon a change of magnetic field. We find that the rapid component of magnetization change is associated with transitions between states of low barrier heights (we surmise of energy less than the change in overall Zeeman energy), and the slow component of magnetization change [decay of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM)] is associated with diffusion from states at larger barrier heights to the ``sink'' associated with the (rapid) small barrier height transitions. The transitions between states of differing magnetization are limited to transitions between states of similar (small) barrier heights. We believe these observations account for the microscopics of spin-glass dynamics during the time decay of the TRM.

  16. High-Resolution B Dot Probe for Measuring 3D Magnetic Fields in the MOCHI Labjet Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuara Rosales, Manuel; von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    The MOCHI Labjet experiment will use a triple electrode planar plasma gun to explore canonical helicity transport in laboratory astrophysical jets. Canonical helicity transport suggests that destabilizing magnetic energy can be converted into stabilizing shear flows at two-fluid spatial scales li ~c/wpi . A high-resolution . B probe array, capable of measuring magnetic field dynamics at length and time scales important to canonical helicity transport is being built. The probe array consists of three tridents, made of 5 . 13 mm OD and 4 . 32 mm ID stainless steel tubes of 102 cm length, enclosing a total of 1215 commercial inductor chips with a three axis spatial resolution of 11 mm. The average value for the effective NA of each inductor chip is 1 . 21 .10-4 m2. The probe array lays in a plane perpendicular to the jet, and is axially translatable. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  17. Magnetic TRAnsition Region Probe (MTRAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Davis, John; Hathaway, David; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MTRAP (Magnetic Transition Region Probe) will reveal the fine-scale physical processes in the Sun's magnetic transition region, the complex layer from the upper photosphere to the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. In the magnetic transition region plasma forces and magnetic forces are of comparable strength, which results in complex interplay of the two, which interplay governs the coupling of the convectively-driven deeper layers to the magnetically-driven upper transition region and inner corona. The fine-scale magnetic structure, processes, and events in the magnetic transition region are key to the genesis of the Sun's entire hot, dynamic outer atmosphere and to the initiation of large eruptive events. MTRAP will be a single spacecraft in Sun-synchronous Earth orbit. Because MTRAP will probe and measure the 3-D structure and dynamics of the magnetic field and plasma in the chromosphere and transition region with unprecedented resolution, the required telescope size and telemetry rates dictate that MTRAP be in Earth orbit, not in deep space. The observations will feature visible and infrared maps of vector magnetic and velocity fields in the magnetic transition region and photosphere. These will have large field of view (greater than 100,000 km), high resolution (greater than 100 km), and high sensitivity (greater than 30 G in transverse field). These observations of the lower atmosphere will be complemented by UV maps of the structure, velocity, and magnetic field (including the full vector field if technically feasible) higher up, in the upper chromosphere and lower transition region. MTRAP will also have an EUV imaging spectrograph observing coronal structure and dynamics in the same field of view with comparable resolution. Specific phenomena to be analyzed include spicules, bright points, jets, the base of plumes, and the triggering of eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave background As a Probe for early Universe magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duorah, H. L.

    2015-08-01

    The cosmic background radiation is the remnant of the Big Bang stretched into the microwave region characterized by a temperature of 2.725K. The fluctuation in the background produces anisotropies and it is detected with amplitude of △T/T≈10-5 . Various effects like the Sachs-Wolfe effect, Sunyaev-Zel’ dovich effect are imprinted in this background. The effect of a primordial magnetic field in the plasma at the last scattering surface is examined here. The high magnetic field generated during the phase transition in the early universe is found to be too small to produce the observed anisotropy. However it can be surmised that the magnetic field being ubiquitous can be found in the plasma at the last scattering surface to contribute to the anisotropy. A magnetic field of about 10-2G may produce the desired effect.

  19. Optically Detected Scanned Probe Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Christopher; Bhallamudi, Vidya; Wang, Hailong; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei; Adur, Rohan; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for studying magnetic properties and dynamics of spin systems. Scanned magnetic probes can induce spatially localized resonance due to the strong magnetic field and gradient near the magnetic tip., Nitrogen vacancy centers (NV) in diamond provide a sensitive means of measuring magnetic fields at the nanoscale. We report preliminary results towards using the high sensitivity of NV detection with a scanned magnetic probe to study local magnetic phenomena. This work is supported by the Center for Emergent Materials at The Ohio State University, a NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (DMR-0820414).

  20. Magnetic field effects on spectrally resolved lifetime of on-line oxygen monitoring using magneto-optic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermut, O.; Gallant, P.; Le Bouch, N.; Leclair, S.; Noiseux, I.; Vernon, M.; Morin, J.-F.; Diamond, K.; Patterson, M. S.; Samkoe, K.; Pogue, B.

    2009-02-01

    Multimodal agents that serve as both probes for contrast and light-activated effectors of cellular processes in diseased tissue were developed. These agents were introduced into multicellular tumor spheroids (3D tissue models) and in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken embryo. The luminescence decay was examined using a novel technique involving a spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime apparatus integrated with a weak electromagnet. A spectrallyresolved lifetime setup was used to identify magneto-optic species sensitive to magnetic field effects and distinguish from background emissions. We demonstrate that the applied magnetic fields can alter reaction rates and product distribution of some dyes detected by time- and spectrally-resolved luminescence changes. We will discuss the use of exogenous magneto-optical probes taken up in tumors to both induce phototoxicity, a process that is governed by complex and dynamically evolving mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, and monitor treatment progress. The magnetic field enhancement, measured over a range of weak fields (0-300 mT) is correlated to oxygenation and may be used to monitor dynamic changes occurring due to oxygen consumption over the course of photodynamic therapy. Such online measurements provide the possibility to derive real-time information about response to treatment via monitoring magnetic field enhancement/suppression of the time-resolved, spectrally-resolved luminescence of the probe at the site of the treatment directly. Magnetic perturbation of lifetime can serve as a status reporter, providing optical feedback of oxygen-mediated treatments in situ and allowing for real-time adjustment of a phototherapy treatment plan.

  1. A new probe of the magnetic field power spectrum in cosmic web filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2015-08-01

    Establishing the properties of magnetic fields on scales larger than galaxy clusters is critical for resolving the unknown origin and evolution of galactic and cluster magnetism. More generally, observations of magnetic fields on cosmic scales are needed for assessing the impacts of magnetism on cosmology, particle physics, and structure formation over the full history of the Universe. However, firm observational evidence for magnetic fields in large scale structure remains elusive. In an effort to address this problem, we have developed a novel statistical method to infer the magnetic field power spectrum in cosmic web filaments using observation of the two-point correlation of Faraday rotation measures from a dense grid of extragalactic radio sources. Here we describe our approach, which embeds and extends the pioneering work of Kolatt (1998) within the context of Information Field Theory (a statistical theory for Bayesian inference on spatially distributed signals; Enfllin et al., 2009). We describe prospects for observation, for example with forthcoming data from the ultra-deep JVLA CHILES Con Pol survey and future surveys with the SKA.

  2. Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes is an established technique for rapid prototyping and automated maskless fabrication of nanostructured devices. In this review, we present the primary types of near-field probes and their physical processing mechanisms. Highlights of recent developments include improved resolution by optimizing the probe shape, incorporation of surface plasmonics in probe design, broader use in biological and magnetic storage applications, and increased throughput using probe arrays as well as high speed writing and patterning. PMID:22713756

  3. Probe of the solar magnetic field using the "cosmic-ray shadow" of the sun.

    PubMed

    Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Chen, T L; Chen, W Y; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; Hakamada, K; He, H H; He, Z T; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Jia, H Y; Jiang, L; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, H J; Li, W J; Liu, C; Liu, J S; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Munakata, K; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ozawa, S; Qian, X L; Qu, X B; Saito, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Shao, J; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, H; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yang, Z; Yasue, S; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhai, L M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X

    2013-07-01

    We report on a clear solar-cycle variation of the Sun’s shadow in the 10 TeV cosmic-ray flux observed by the Tibet air shower array during a full solar cycle from 1996 to 2009. In order to clarify the physical implications of the observed solar cycle variation, we develop numerical simulations of the Sun’s shadow, using the potential field source surface model and the current sheet source surface (CSSS) model for the coronal magnetic field. We find that the intensity deficit in the simulated Sun’s shadow is very sensitive to the coronal magnetic field structure, and the observed variation of the Sun’s shadow is better reproduced by the CSSS model. This is the first successful attempt to evaluate the coronal magnetic field models by using the Sun’s shadow observed in the TeV cosmic-ray flux. PMID:24027782

  4. Probing the Role of Magnetic Fields in Star Formation with BLAST-Pol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; BLAST-Pol Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Polarimetry is a powerful tool for studying the importance of magnetic fields in the star formation process. However, at present there are very few submm/mm polarimetry observations of large scale fields within molecular clouds. BLAST-Pol, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry, maps linearly polarized dust emission at 250, 350 and 500 microns; it has the unique combination of sensitivity to large scale magnetic fields, and arcminute resolution necessary to trace fields into prestellar cores and dense filaments. In this presentation I will give a brief overview of the instrument, its performance during the first BLAST-Pol science flight completed in January 2011, and plans for future flights. I will also show preliminary maps from the first science flight and explain how these maps will be used to study the relationship between large and small scale magnetic fields in molecular clouds, the degree of order in the field, and the relationship between the magnetic field structure and the morphology of filaments and cores within the clouds. The BLAST-Pol collaboration gratefully acknowledges the support of NASA, NSF Office of Polar Programs, the CSA (Canada), the STFC (UK), NSERC (Canada), and the Leverhulme Trust (UK).

  5. Current-modulating magnetic force microscope probe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Frank Z.; Helian, Na; Clegg, Warwick W; Windmill, James F. C.; Jenkins, David

    2001-06-01

    A new current-modulating probe for the magnetic force microscope (MFM) is proposed in this article. The magnetic field, which will be used to interact with a magnetic specimen{close_quote}s stray field, is induced on the sharp tip of the conical magnetic core surrounded by a microfabricated single turn conductive coil. The reciprocity principle is used to obtain the force acting on the probe due to the specimen{close_quote}s stray field when scanned over a magnetic specimen. The magnetic field intensity is adjustable by control of the applied current. Images of specimens have been modeled using this probe. The suitability to different specimens is seen to be the biggest advantage of this scheme over the conventional probe designs. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Hall probe measurements of the poloidal magnetic field in Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, B A; Knowlton, S F; Hartwell, G J; Hanson, J D; Maurer, D A

    2014-09-01

    A linear array of 16 Hall effect sensors has been developed to directly measure the poloidal magnetic field inside the boundary of a non-axisymmetric hybrid torsatron/tokamak plasma. The array consists of miniature gallium arsenide Hall sensor elements mounted 8 mm apart on a narrow, rotatable printed circuit board inserted into a re-entrant stainless steel tube sheathed in boron nitride. The sensors are calibrated on the bench and in situ to provide accurate local measurements of the magnetic field to aid in reconstructing the equilibrium plasma current density profiles in fully three-dimensional plasmas. Calibrations show that the sensor sensitivities agree with the nominal manufacturers specifications of 1.46 V/T. Poloidal fields measured with the Hall sensor array are found to be within 5% of poloidal fields modeled with a Biot-Savart code. PMID:25273721

  7. Hall probe measurements of the poloidal magnetic field in Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, B. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hanson, J. D.; Maurer, D. A.

    2014-09-01

    A linear array of 16 Hall effect sensors has been developed to directly measure the poloidal magnetic field inside the boundary of a non-axisymmetric hybrid torsatron/tokamak plasma. The array consists of miniature gallium arsenide Hall sensor elements mounted 8 mm apart on a narrow, rotatable printed circuit board inserted into a re-entrant stainless steel tube sheathed in boron nitride. The sensors are calibrated on the bench and in situ to provide accurate local measurements of the magnetic field to aid in reconstructing the equilibrium plasma current density profiles in fully three-dimensional plasmas. Calibrations show that the sensor sensitivities agree with the nominal manufacturers specifications of 1.46 V/T. Poloidal fields measured with the Hall sensor array are found to be within 5% of poloidal fields modeled with a Biot-Savart code.

  8. Hall probe measurements of the poloidal magnetic field in Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, B. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J. Hanson, J. D.; Maurer, D. A.

    2014-09-15

    A linear array of 16 Hall effect sensors has been developed to directly measure the poloidal magnetic field inside the boundary of a non-axisymmetric hybrid torsatron/tokamak plasma. The array consists of miniature gallium arsenide Hall sensor elements mounted 8 mm apart on a narrow, rotatable printed circuit board inserted into a re-entrant stainless steel tube sheathed in boron nitride. The sensors are calibrated on the bench and in situ to provide accurate local measurements of the magnetic field to aid in reconstructing the equilibrium plasma current density profiles in fully three-dimensional plasmas. Calibrations show that the sensor sensitivities agree with the nominal manufacturers specifications of 1.46 V/T. Poloidal fields measured with the Hall sensor array are found to be within 5% of poloidal fields modeled with a Biot-Savart code.

  9. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds with Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego Soler, Juan

    2015-08-01

    The Planck observations of intensity and polarization of thermal emission from Galactic dust over the whole sky, and down to scales that probe the interiors of nearby molecular clouds, constitute an unprecedented data set for the study of the morphology of the magnetic field.Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould Belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, NH. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analyzed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called "Histogram of Relative Orientations".Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing NH, from preferentially parallel or having no preferred orientation to preferentially perpendicular.In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvnic or sub-Alfvnic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck.We compare the deduced plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method and with the line-of-sight magnetic field strengths derived from Zeeman splitting observations towards some of the studied regions.Finally, we discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.This work is presented on behalf of the Planck Collaboration.

  10. A challenge for probing the statistics of interstellar magnetic fields: beyond the Planck resolution with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Andrea; André, Philippe; Boulanger, Francois

    2015-08-01

    The recent Planck results in polarization at sub-mm wavelengths allow us to gain insight into the Galactic magnetic field topology, revealing its statistical correlation with matter, from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), to molecular clouds (MCs) (Planck intermediate results. XXXII, XXXIII, XXXV). This correlation has a lot to tell us about the dynamics of the turbulent ISM, stressing the importance of considering magnetic fields in the formation of structures, some of which eventually undergo gravitational collapse producing new star-forming cores.Investigating the early phases of star formation has been a fundamental scope of the Herschel Gould Belt survey collaboration (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr), which, in the last years, has thoroughly characterized, at a resolution of few tens of arcseconds, the statistics of MCs, such as their filamentary structure, kinematics and column density.Although at lower angular resolution, the Planck maps of dust emission at 353GHz, in intensity and polarization, show that all MCs are complex environments, where we observe a non-trivial correlation between the magnetic field and their density structure. This result opens new perspectives on their formation and evolution, which we have started to explore.In this talk, I will present first results of a comparative analysis of the Herschel-Planck data, where we combine the high resolution Herschel maps of some MCs of the Gould Belt with the Planck polarization data, which sample the structure of the field weighted by the density.In particular, I will discuss the large-scale envelopes of the selected MCs, and, given the correlation between magnetic field and matter, I will show how to make use of the high resolution information of the density structure provided by Herschel to investigate the statistics of interstellar magnetic fields in the Planck data.

  11. Terahertz probes of magnetic field induced spin reorientation in YFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Ma, Guohong; Jin, Zuanming; Wang, Dongyang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2015-03-02

    Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate the spin reorientation of a canted antiferromagnetic YFeO{sub 3} single crystal, by evaluating the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resonant frequency and amplitude for the quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes (AFM), a deeper insight into the dynamics of spin reorientation in rare-earth orthoferrites is established. Due to the absence of 4f-electrons in Y ion, the spin reorientation of Fe sublattices can only be induced by the applied magnetic field, rather than temperature. In agreement with the theoretical predication, the frequency of FM mode decreases with magnetic field. In addition, an obvious step of spin reorientation phase transition occurs with a relatively large applied magnetic field of 4 T. By comparison with the family members of RFeO{sub 3} (R = Y{sup 3+} or rare-earth ions), our results suggest that the chosen of R would tailor the dynamical rotation properties of Fe ions, leading to the designable spin switching in the orthoferrite antiferromagnetic systems.

  12. Parameterized least-squares attitude history estimation and magnetic field observations of the auroral spatial structures probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, Ryan J.

    Terrestrial auroras are visible-light events caused by charged particles trapped by the Earth's magnetic field precipitating into the atmosphere along magnetic field lines near the poles. Auroral events are very dynamic, changing rapidly in time and across large spatial scales. Better knowledge of the flow of energy during an aurora will improve understanding of the heating processes in the atmosphere during geomagnetic and solar storms. The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe is a sounding rocket campaign to observe the middle-atmosphere plasma and electromagnetic environment during an auroral event with multipoint simultaneous measurements for fine temporal and spatial resolution. The auroral event in question occurred on January 28, 2015, with liftoff of the rocket at 10:41:01 UTC. The goal of this thesis is to produce clear observations of the magnetic field that may be used to model the current systems of the auroral event. To achieve this, the attitude of ASSP's 7 independent payloads must be estimated, and a new attitude determination method is attempted. The new solution uses nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation with a rigid-body dynamics simulation to determine attitude with an estimated accuracy of a few degrees. Observed magnetic field perturbations found using the new attitude solution are presented, where structures of the perturbations are consistent with previous observations and electromagnetic theory.

  13. A biased probe analysis of potential well formation in an electron only, low beta Polywell magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Matthew; Khachan, Joe

    2013-05-15

    Orbital limited motion theory has been applied to two biased probes in a low beta Polywell. The cases studied include electron injection, magnetic field scaling, Polywell bias scaling, and radial position profiles. Langmuir's original orbital limited motion results for a monoenergetic electron beam are shown to be in excellent agreement for electron injection into the Polywell. A distribution function is proposed for the electron plasma characteristics in the centre of the magnetic null and confirmed with experimental results. A translational stage was used to measure the radial plasma potential profile. In other experiments, two probes were used to simultaneously measure the profiles in both the null and a position halfway along a corner cusp. The results confirm a radial potential well created by electron trapping in the device. In addition, we present preliminary results of the potential well scaling with the magnetic field, Polywell bias voltage, and the injected beam current. The electron population was found to maintain non-equilibrium in all cases studied.

  14. SQUID readout and ultra-low magnetic fields for Gravity Probe-B (GP-B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, James M.

    1986-01-01

    The superconducting readout system to be used for resolving 0.001 arcsec changes in the gyroscope spin direction in the Relativity Gyroscope (GP-B) experiment is described. This system couples the London magnetic moment flux of the spinning gyro to a low noise superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detector. Resolution limits and noise performance of the detection system are discussed, and improvements obtained and expected with advanced SQUIDs are presented. Also described is the novel use of superconducting magnetic shielding techniques to obtain a 250 dB attenuation of the earth's magnetic field at the location of the gyroscopes. In this approach, expanded superconducting foil shields are coupled with fixed cylindrical superconducting shields and special geometric considerations to obtain the extremely high attenuation factor required. With these shielding techniques, it appears that the 0.5-Gauss earth field (which appears to the gyroscopes as an ac field at the satellite roll rate) can be reduced to the 10 to the -13th G level required by the experiment. Recent results concerning improvements in the performance of the superconducting foil techniques obtained with the use of a new computer-controlled cooling system are presented.

  15. A novel method to measure 3 components of magnetic fields with submicron resolution using Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy/Gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ahmet; Dede, Munir; Akram, Rizwan

    2009-03-01

    We present the development of a new 4-lead hall gradiometer and a novel method to measure 3 components( Bx, By & Bz) of magnetic fields on specimen surfaces with submicron resolution using Scanning Hall probe Microscope[1] and gradiometer. We used a 1μm size P-HEMT Hall sensor, operated in gradiometer configuration to image Bx, By and Bz distribution of a hard disk sample surface at 77K. The SHPM was used in Quartz Crystal AFM tracking mode[2]. This simple and quick novel method shows ˜40 better spatial resolution compared to previously developed techniques[3] and can be improved even further, down to sub 50nm resolution. 1. Chang, A.M., et al., Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 1992. 61(16): p. 1974-1976. 2. Dede, M., et al., Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2008. 8(2): p. 619-622. 3. Gregusova, D., et al., Fabrication of a vector Hall sensor for magnetic microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 2003. 82(21): p. 3704-3706.

  16. The FIELDS Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus - Measuring the Coronal Plasma and Magnetic Field, Plasma Waves and Turbulence, and Radio Signatures of Solar Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S. D.; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P. R.; Turin, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Ergun, R. E.; MacDowall, R. J.; Pulupa, M.; Andre, M.; Bolton, M.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Bowen, T. A.; Burgess, D.; Cattell, C. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Chaston, C. C.; Chen, C. H. K.; Choi, M. K.; Connerney, J. E.; Cranmer, S.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Donakowski, W.; Drake, J. F.; Farrell, W. M.; Fergeau, P.; Fermin, J.; Fischer, J.; Fox, N.; Glaser, D.; Goldstein, M.; Gordon, D.; Hanson, E.; Harris, S. E.; Hayes, L. M.; Hinze, J. J.; Hollweg, J. V.; Horbury, T. S.; Howard, R. A.; Hoxie, V.; Jannet, G.; Karlsson, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kien, M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Krucker, S.; Lynch, J. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Malaspina, D. M.; Marker, S.; Martin, P.; Martinez-Oliveros, J.; McCauley, J.; McComas, D. J.; McDonald, T.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Moncuquet, M.; Monson, S. J.; Mozer, F. S.; Murphy, S. D.; Odom, J.; Oliverson, R.; Olson, J.; Parker, E. N.; Pankow, D.; Phan, T.; Quataert, E.; Quinn, T.; Ruplin, S. W.; Salem, C.; Seitz, D.; Sheppard, D. A.; Siy, A.; Stevens, K.; Summers, D.; Szabo, A.; Timofeeva, M.; Vaivads, A.; Velli, M.; Yehle, A.; Werthimer, D.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.

  17. PROBING THE SHALLOW CONVECTION ZONE: RISING MOTION OF SUBSURFACE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Ilonidis, Stathis; Sekii, Takashi

    2013-06-10

    In this Letter, we present a seismological detection of a rising motion of magnetic flux in the shallow convection zone of the Sun, and show estimates of the emerging speed and its decelerating nature. In order to evaluate the speed of subsurface flux that creates an active region, we apply six Fourier filters to the Doppler data of NOAA AR 10488, observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager, to detect the reduction of acoustic power at six different depths from -15 to -2 Mm. All the filtered acoustic powers show reductions, up to 2 hr before the magnetic flux first appears at the visible surface. The start times of these reductions show a rising trend with a gradual deceleration. The obtained velocity is first several km s{sup -1} in a depth range of 15-10 Mm, then {approx}1.5 km s{sup -1} at 10-5 Mm, and finally {approx}0.5 km s{sup -1} at 5-2 Mm. If we assume that the power reduction is actually caused by the magnetic field, the velocity of the order of 1 km s{sup -1} is well in accordance with previous observations and numerical studies. Moreover, the gradual deceleration strongly supports the theoretical model that the emerging flux slows down in the uppermost convection zone before it expands into the atmosphere to build an active region.

  18. Planck intermediate results. XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Guillet, V.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hennebelle, P.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, NH. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from NH≈ 1021 to1023 cm-2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called "histogram of relative orientations". Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, i.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing NH, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.

  19. Triaxial Probe Magnetic Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, Kimberly; Whittlesey, Albert; Narvaez, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The Triaxial Magnetic Moment Analysis software uses measured magnetic field test data to compute dipole and quadrupole moment information from a hardware element. It is used to support JPL projects needing magnetic control and an understanding of the spacecraft-generated magnetic fields. Evaluation of the magnetic moment of an object consists of three steps: acquisition, conditioning, and analysis. This version of existing software was extensively rewritten for easier data acquisition, data analysis, and report presentation, including immediate feedback to the test operator during data acquisition. While prior JPL computer codes provided the same data content, this program has a better graphic display including original data overlaid with reconstructed results to show goodness of fit accuracy and better appearance of the report graphic page. Data are acquired using three magnetometers and two rotations of the device under test. A clean acquisition user interface presents required numeric data and graphic summaries, and the analysis module yields the best fit (least squares) for the magnetic dipole and/or quadrupole moment of a device. The acquisition module allows the user to record multiple data sets, selecting the best data to analyze, and is repeated three times for each of the z-axial and y-axial rotations. In this update, the y-axial rotation starting position has been changed to an option, allowing either the x- or z-axis to point towards the magnetometer. The code has been rewritten to use three simultaneous axes of magnetic data (three probes), now using two "rotations" of the device under test rather than the previous three rotations, thus reducing handling activities on the device under test. The present version of the software gathers data in one-degree increments, which permits much better accuracy of the fit ted data than the coarser data acquisition of the prior software. The data-conditioning module provides a clean data set for the analysis module. For multiple measurements at a given degree, the first measurement is used. For omitted measurements, the missing field is estimated by linear interpolation between the two nearest measurements. The analysis module was rewritten for the dual rotation, triaxial probe measurement process and now has better moment estimation accuracy, based on the finer one degree of data acquisition resolution. The magnetic moments thus computed are used as an input to summarize the total spacecraft field.

  20. Probing the Buried Magnetic Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqing; Zhou, Qionghua; Chen, Qian; Niu, Daxin; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yongbing; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jinlan; van der Laan, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Understanding magnetism in ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor (FM/SC) heterostructures is important to the development of the new-generation spin field-effect transistor. Here, we report an element-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of the interfacial magnetic moments for two FM/SC model systems, namely, Co/GaAs and Ni/GaAs, which was enabled using a specially designed FM1/FM2/SC superstructure. We observed a robust room temperature magnetization of the interfacial Co, while that of the interfacial Ni was strongly diminished down to 5 K because of hybridization of the Ni d(eg) and GaAs sp(3) states. The validity of the selected method was confirmed by first-principles calculations, showing only small deviations (<0.02 and <0.07 μB/atom for Co/GaAs and Ni/GaAs, respectively) compared to the real FM/SC interfaces. Our work proved that the electronic structure and magnetic ground state of the interfacial FM2 is not altered when the topmost FM2 is replaced by FM1 and that this model is applicable generally for probing the buried magnetic interfaces in the advanced spintronic materials.. PMID:26887429

  1. Magnetic Field Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Joe; Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Waterman, Dave; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar; Dunn, Jonathan Hunter

    2007-01-19

    A magnetic field measurement system was designed, built and installed at MAX Lab, Sweden for the purpose of characterizing the magnetic field produced by Insertion Devices (see Figure 1). The measurement system consists of a large granite beam roughly 2 feet square and 14 feet long that has been polished beyond laboratory grade for flatness and straightness. The granite precision coupled with the design of the carriage yielded minimum position deviations as measured at the probe tip. The Hall probe data collection and compensation technique allows exceptional resolution and range while taking data on the fly to programmable sample spacing. Additional flip coil provides field integral data.

  2. Probing the magnetic field of the nearby galaxy pair Arp 269

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Soida, M.; Urbanik, M.; Knapik, J.

    2016-02-01

    We present a multiwavelength radio study of the nearby galaxy pair Arp 269 (NGC 4490/85). High sensitivity to extended structures gained by using the merged interferometric and single dish maps allowed us to reveal a previously undiscovered extension of the radio continuum emission. Its direction is significantly different from that of the neutral gas tail, suggesting that different physical processes might be involved in their creation. The population of radio-emitting electrons is generally young, signifying an ongoing, vigorous star formation - this claim is supported by strong magnetic fields (over 20 μG), similar to the ones found in much larger spiral galaxies. From the study of the spectral energy distribution we conclude that the electron population in the intergalactic bridge between member galaxies originates from the disk areas, and therefore its age (app. 3.7-16.9 Myrs, depending on the model used) reflects the timescale of the interaction. We have also discovered an angularly near Compact Steep Source - which is a member of a different galaxy pair - at a redshift of approximately 0.125.

  3. Note: Fiber optic transport probe for Hall measurements under light and magnetic field at low temperatures: Case study of a two dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, P. P. S.; Gupta, Anurag; Kumar, Pramod; Dogra, Anjana; Budhani, R. C.

    2015-05-15

    A fiber optic based probe is designed and developed for electrical transport measurements in presence of quasi-monochromatic (360–800 nm) light, varying temperature (T = 1.8–300 K), and magnetic field (B = 0–7 T). The probe is tested for the resistivity and Hall measurements performed on a LaAlO{sub 3}–SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface system with a conducting two dimensional electron gas.

  4. Stray field nuclear magnetic resonance of soil water: development of a new, large probe and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kinchesh, P; Samoilenko, A A; Preston, A R; Randall, E W

    2002-01-01

    Development, characterization, and preliminary results of a recent technique capable of local measurements of pore-size distribution by a spatially resolved low resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are described. Potential environmental uses include studying the change in pore-size distribution caused by surface compaction, which influences surface runoff, and obtaining information on the physical state of non-aqueous compounds in porous materials, which should aid the selection of appropriate soil remediation methods. Stray field (STRAFI) imaging is an NMR technique that allows distortion-free imaging of materials with short NMR relaxation times. The sample is placed in the strong axial fringe field gradient of a superconducting NMR magnet. We report on a new, unique, large 5-cm-diameter STRAFI probe, and its use for three preliminary test cases: water in ceramics of known pore size, paraffin wax and oil in sandstone rock, and water in soil at different matric potentials. The imaging is confined to one dimension with a spatial resolution of the order of 100 microm for protons. The optimum position for imaging occurs at 2.62 T and a gradient of 12.1 T/m. Water relaxation decay curves can be measured at any position in the 8-cm-long sample. These curves are decomposed into a series of terms each corresponding to a different pore size. Preliminary results show continuum fits to decay curves for a soil drained to three different matric potentials. Such information will be useful for interpreting water retention curves and will lead to understanding of the behavior of fluids in the vadose zone. PMID:11931439

  5. Improvements on the Belief Time and Magnetic Field Resolution of the Transient Internal Probe (TIP) Plasma Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellamare, V.; Mattick, A. T.; Jarboe, T. R.

    1999-11-01

    TIP is a unique diagnostic used for direct measurement of core plasma B fields at both high spatial (on the order of 1 cm) and temporal (1 μs) resolution. A glass verdet probe illuminated by a 514.5 nm, polarized laser traverses a plasma at a speed of approximately 2 km/s, causing rotation of the polarization angle by an amount proportional to the local B field component along the transit, due to the Faraday effect. For the probe to survive transit of a dense plasma with temperatures above about 100 eV, a refractory cladding is necessary. This paper presents results of tests on probes clad with sapphire and accelerated with the TIP gas gun. Data documenting their structural integrity at an average speed of 1.6 km/s will be shown, along with computations of their belief times inside the SSPX, DIII--D, and NSTX plasmas. Probe response to applied fields will also be measured, for demonstration of an absolute B field resolution on the order of 20 G. Finally, ray-tracing analyses and lab calibrations of a ``cat's eye'' optical system will be presented, as an alternative sapphire clad probe design for improved retro-reflection of the laser to the TIP ellipsometer.

  6. A novel magnetic field probing technique for determining state of health of sealed lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeta; Singh, Pritpal; Vassiliou, John K.

    2012-11-01

    State of Health (SOH) is a critical index for a Sealed Lead-Acid (SLA) battery diagnostic which provides the information about battery replacement and aging effects. SOH is a complex function of chemical parameters of a battery such as stratification in electrolyte, electrode structure (sulfation and hard sulfation) in addition to electrical parameters of a battery. This paper describes a method of online determination of stratification, electrode structure, electrode polarization and current profile within the battery under the influence of a magnetic field. An AC magnetic field is used as a noninvasive tool during battery cycles. An induced emf in a secondary coil (SCV) is used as a measure of change in the magnetic field. The H+ proton density varies with change in sulfuric acid (electrolyte) concentration during battery cycles. The magnetic flux lines are affected by the density of H+ protons whose magnetic dipole moments try to align along the magnetic flux lines. The stratification is seen by a 12% decrease in magnetic flux linking from the top to the bottom of the electrolyte in a battery. Additional experimental results demonstrate the variation in magnetic flux linking which correlates with current profile across the electrode and electrode structure.

  7. The use of magnetic field effects on photosensitizer luminescence as a novel probe for optical monitoring of oxygen in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermut, O.; Diamond, K. R.; Cormier, J.-F.; Gallant, P.; Hô, N.; Leclair, S.; Marois, J.-S.; Noiseux, I.; Morin, J.-F.; Patterson, M. S.; Vernon, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on the steady-state and time-resolved optical emission of a custom fullerene-linked photosensitizer (PS) in liposome cell phantoms was studied at various oxygen concentrations (0.19-190 µM). Zeeman splitting of the triplet state and hyperfine coupling, which control intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states, are altered in the presence of low magnetic fields (B < 320 mT), perturbing the luminescence intensity and lifetime as compared to the triplet state at B = 0. Measurements of the luminescence intensity and lifetime were performed using a time-domain apparatus integrated with a magnet. We propose that by probing magnet-affected optical emissions, one can monitor the state of oxygenation throughout the course of photodynamic therapy. Since the magnetic field effect (MFE) operates primarily by affecting the radical ion pairs related to type I photodynamic action, the enhancement or suppression of the MFE can be used as a measure of the dynamic equilibrium between the type I and II photodynamic pathways. The unique photo-initiated charge-transfer properties of the PS used in this study allow it to serve as both cytotoxic agent and oxygen probe that can provide in situ dosimetric information at close to real time.

  8. Probing the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot via full counting statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Chen, Jingzhe; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-15

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through a quantum dot weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads, in which an effective nuclear-spin magnetic field originating from the configuration of nuclear spins is considered. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied eigenstates and the spin polarization of two ferromagnetic leads play an important role in the formation of super-Poissonian noise. In particular, the orientation and magnitude of the effective field have a significant influence on the variations of the values of high-order cumulants, and the variations of the skewness and kurtosis values are more sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective field than the shot noise. Thus, the high-order cumulants of transport current can be used to qualitatively extract information on the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot. - Highlights: • The effective nuclear-spin magnetic field gives rise to the off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix of single QD. • The off-diagonal elements of reduced density matrix of the QD have a significant impact on the high-order current cumulants. • The high-order current cumulants are sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field. • The FCS can be used to detect the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single QD.

  9. Leptogenesis and primordial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Andrew J.; Sabancilar, Eray; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: eray.sabancilar@asu.edu

    2014-02-01

    The anomalous conversion of leptons into baryons during leptogenesis is shown to produce a right-handed helical magnetic field; in contrast, the magnetic field produced during electroweak baryogenesis is known to be left-handed. If the cosmological medium is turbulent, the magnetic field evolves to have a present day coherence scale ∼ 10 pc and field strength ∼ 10{sup −18} Gauss. This result is insensitive to the energy scale at which leptogenesis took place. Observations of the amplitude, coherence scale, and helicity of the intergalactic magnetic field promise to provide a powerful probe of physics beyond the Standard Model and the very early universe.

  10. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1991-12-31

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid.

  11. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid.

  12. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  13. A new method of measuring the poloidal magnetic and radial electric fields in a tokamak using a laser-accelerated ion-beam trace probe

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. Y.; Chen, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J.; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    Both the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) and radial electric field (E{sub r}) are significant in magnetic confinement devices. In this paper, a new method was proposed to diagnose both B{sub p} and E{sub r} at the same time, which was named Laser-accelerated Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP). This method based on the laser-accelerated ion beam, which has three properties: large energy spread, short pulse lengths, and multiple charge states. LITP can provide the 1D profiles, or 2D images of both B{sub p} and E{sub r}. In this paper, we present the basic principle and some preliminary theoretical results.

  14. Magnetic field gradient measurement on magnetic cards using magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Leib, J.; Jiles, D. C.; Chedister, W. C.

    2002-05-01

    The magnetic field gradients of magnetic stripe cards, which are developed for classifying magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspections, have been measured using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The magnetic force exerted on a MFM probe by the stray field emanating from the card was measured to determine the field gradients. The results are in good agreement with the field gradients estimated from the magnetizing field strengths used in the encoding process.

  15. OH MASER SOURCES IN W49N: PROBING MAGNETIC FIELD AND DIFFERENTIAL ANISOTROPIC SCATTERING WITH ZEEMAN PAIRS USING THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Avinash A.; Goss, W. M.; Mendoza-Torres, J. E. E-mail: mgoss@aoc.nrao.edu

    2013-09-20

    Our analysis of a Very Long Baseline Array 12 hr synthesis observation of the OH masers in the well-known star-forming region W49N has yielded valuable data that enable us to probe distributions of magnetic fields in both the maser columns and the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). The data, consisting of detailed high angular resolution images (with beam width ∼20 mas) of several dozen OH maser sources, or spots, at 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz, reveal anisotropic scatter broadening with typical sizes of a few tens of milliarcseconds and axial ratios between 1.5 and 3. Such anisotropies have been reported previously by Desai et al. and have been interpreted as being induced by the local magnetic field parallel to the Galactic plane. However, we find (1) apparent angular sizes of, on average, a factor of about 2.5 less than those reported by Desai et al., indicating significantly less scattering than inferred previously, and (2) a significant deviation in the average orientation of the scatter-broadened images (by ∼10°) from that implied by the magnetic field in the Galactic plane. More intriguingly, for a few Zeeman pairs in our set, significant differences (up to 6σ) are apparent in the scatter-broadened images for the two hands of circular polarization, even when the apparent velocity separation is less than 0.1 km s{sup –1}. This may possibly be the first example of a Faraday rotation contribution to the diffractive effects in the ISM. Using the Zeeman pairs, we also study the distribution of the magnetic field in the W49N complex, finding no significant trend in the spatial structure function. In this paper, we present the details of our observations and analysis leading to these findings, discuss implications of our results for the intervening anisotropic magneto-ionic medium, and suggest possible implications for the structure of magnetic fields within this star-forming region.

  16. Probing Interfacial Friction and Dissipation in Granular Gold­ Nickel Alloys with a Quartz Crystal Oscillator in an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K. M.; Krim, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present here a quartz crystal microbalance study of two-phase gold nickel alloys whose internal granular properties are probed by exposure to a fluctuating external magnetic field. The work is motivated by prior studies demonstrating that granular two-phase materials exhibited lower friction and wear than solid solution alloys with identical compositions. In particular, we report a ``flexing'' effect which appears when an external magnetic field is applied, and is manifested as a decrease in the magnitude of oscillation amplitude that is synchronized with the applied field; the effect is not seen on the complimentary solid solution samples. The effect is consistent with internal interfacial friction between nickel and gold grains, indicating a degree of freedom which may decrease friction even in the absence of an external magnetic field. This is supported through analysis of energy dissipation in the system, using the Butterworth­-Van Dyke equivalent circuit model. Data and interpretation are also presented that rule out alternate explanations such as giant magnetoresistance and/or other resistive phenomenon within the film. Funding provided by NSF DMR0805204. Thanks to L. Pan for sample preparation.

  17. Hyperfine field distribution in the Heusler compound Co2FeAl probed by 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurmehl, Sabine; Kohlhepp, Jürgen T.; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2008-06-01

    The Heusler compound Co2FeAl is reported to occur in various structures ranging from the completely ordered L21 to the completely disordered A2 structure type. In this work, we use spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to probe the local structure of Co2FeAl bulk samples. The study of Co2FeAl bulk samples provides the unique possibility to verify the intrinsic generic structural properties. The 59Co NMR measurements reveal a distribution of Fe and Al not only in the first neighbouring shells of the 59Co nuclei but also in more distant shells. The analysis of 59Co NMR main resonance lines with an underlying sub-structure confirms that the local structure of the as-cast Co2FeAl bulk samples consists of a B2 type structure with contributions of the L21 type structure of about 10%. The observed sub-lines, which are attributed to a distribution of Fe and Al atoms in more distant shells, were previously not resolved in NMR spectra of Co2FeAl thin films, pointing to better long range order in bulk material than in thin films. We also show that the individual contributions of the structure types can be influenced by annealing.

  18. Dichotomy between the Hole and Electron Behavior in Multiband Superconductor FeSe Probed by Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Watson, M D; Yamashita, T; Kasahara, S; Knafo, W; Nardone, M; Béard, J; Hardy, F; McCollam, A; Narayanan, A; Blake, S F; Wolf, T; Haghighirad, A A; Meingast, C; Schofield, A J; Löhneysen, H v; Matsuda, Y; Coldea, A I; Shibauchi, T

    2015-07-10

    Magnetoresistivity ρ(xx) and Hall resistivity ρ(xy) in ultrahigh magnetic fields up to 88 T are measured down to 0.15 K to clarify the multiband electronic structure in high-quality single crystals of superconducting FeSe. At low temperatures and high fields we observe quantum oscillations in both resistivity and the Hall effect, confirming the multiband Fermi surface with small volumes. We propose a novel approach to identify from magnetotransport measurements the sign of the charge carriers corresponding to a particular cyclotron orbit in a compensated metal. The observed significant differences in the relative amplitudes of the quantum oscillations between the ρ(xx) and ρ(xy) components, together with the positive sign of the high-field ρ(xy), reveal that the largest pocket should correspond to the hole band. The low-field magnetotransport data in the normal state suggest that, in addition to one hole and one almost compensated electron band, the orthorhombic phase of FeSe exhibits an additional tiny electron pocket with a high mobility. PMID:26207500

  19. Dichotomy between the Hole and Electron Behavior in Multiband Superconductor FeSe Probed by Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, M. D.; Yamashita, T.; Kasahara, S.; Knafo, W.; Nardone, M.; Béard, J.; Hardy, F.; McCollam, A.; Narayanan, A.; Blake, S. F.; Wolf, T.; Haghighirad, A. A.; Meingast, C.; Schofield, A. J.; v. Löhneysen, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Coldea, A. I.; Shibauchi, T.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoresistivity ρx x and Hall resistivity ρx y in ultrahigh magnetic fields up to 88 T are measured down to 0.15 K to clarify the multiband electronic structure in high-quality single crystals of superconducting FeSe. At low temperatures and high fields we observe quantum oscillations in both resistivity and the Hall effect, confirming the multiband Fermi surface with small volumes. We propose a novel approach to identify from magnetotransport measurements the sign of the charge carriers corresponding to a particular cyclotron orbit in a compensated metal. The observed significant differences in the relative amplitudes of the quantum oscillations between the ρx x and ρx y components, together with the positive sign of the high-field ρx y, reveal that the largest pocket should correspond to the hole band. The low-field magnetotransport data in the normal state suggest that, in addition to one hole and one almost compensated electron band, the orthorhombic phase of FeSe exhibits an additional tiny electron pocket with a high mobility.

  20. Magnetic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynamical hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth's core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypothesis passes the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth's core, this yields a generalized Stevenson-McLeod spectrum for the core-source field, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale range. In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at length-scale 1/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy-overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small-scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magnetogeostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core-mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core-source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order 120 years is pseudo-scale-invariant. Magnetic spectra of other planets may differ; however, if a transition to non-conducting fluid hydrogen in Jupiter acts as a barrier to vertical flow, as well as current, then the shape of the jovi-magnetic spectrum could be remarkably Earth-like.

  1. Magnetic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynmcal hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth's core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypothes pass the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth's core, this yields a generalized Stevenson-McLeod spectrum for the core-source field, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale change. In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at lentgh-scale l/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy- overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magneto-geostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core- mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core-source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order l20 years is pseudo-scale-invarient. Magnetic spectra of other planets may differ; however, if a transition to non-conductmg fluid hydrogen in Jupiter acts as barrier to vertical flow, as well as current, then the shape of the jovi-magnetic spectrum could be remarkably Earth-like.

  2. Probe of the Band Structure of MBE Grown p-Type InMnAs at Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Kyrychenko, F. V.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Kono, J.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Munekata, H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on electronic and magneto-optical properties of p-type paramagnetic InMnAs dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) alloys in ultrahigh (> 100 T) external magnetic fields (B). Theoretical calculations are based on an 8-band Pidgeon-Brown model which is generalized to include the wavevector dependence of the electronic states along B as well as s-d and p-d exchange interactions with localized Mnd-electrons. The spin-dependent electronic structure as a function of Mn doping is computed and the dependence of the valence band structure on parameters such as the sp-d exchange interaction strength and effective masses in paramagnetic p-InMnAs alloys are examined. The cyclotron resonance (CR) and magneto-optical properties of InMnAs are calculated using Fermi's golden rule. Two strong CR peaks are observed in p-type InMnAs alloys which correspond to the transitions within either heavy-hole (HH) or light-hole (LH) Landau levels. Furthermore, we also observed strong resonance absorption for electron-active polarization which can occur in p-type semiconductors originating from transitions between the light and heavy hole Landau levels.

  3. Contributions of the electronic spin and orbital current to the CoCl{sub 4}{sup 2-} magnetic field probed in polarised neutron diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cassam-Chenaie, Patrick; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2012-08-14

    Polarised neutron diffraction experiments conducted at 4.2 K on Cs{sub 3}CoCl{sub 5} crystals have been analysed by using a four-dimensional model Hilbert space made of ab initio n-electron wave functions of the CoCl{sub 4}{sup 2-} molecular ion. Two spin-orbit mixing coefficients and several configuration interaction coefficients have been optimized by fitting calculated magnetic structure factors to experimental ones, to obtain the best ensemble density operator that is representable in the model space. A goodness of fit, {chi}{sup 2}, less then 1 has been obtained for the first time for the two experimental data sets available. In the present article, the optimized density operators are used to calculate the magnetic field densities that are the genuine observables probed in neutron diffraction experiments. Density maps of such observables are presented for the first time and numerical details are provided. The respective contributions of spin density and orbital current to the magnetic field density are analyzed.

  4. Using ACE Observations of Interplanetary Particles and Magnetic Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog interplanetary events arriving at Earth including interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries, interplanetary shocks, and interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of interplanetary energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do interplanetary field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.

  5. Molecules as magnetic probes of starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afram, N.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Stellar dynamo processes can be explored by measuring the magnetic field. This is usually obtained using the atomic and molecular Zeeman effect in spectral lines. While the atomic Zeeman effect can only access warmer regions, the use of molecular lines is of advantage for studying cool objects. The molecules MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH are suited to probe stellar magnetic fields, each one for a different range of spectral types, by considering the signal that is obtained from modeling various spectral types. Aims: We have analyzed the usefulness of different molecules (MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH) as diagnostic tools for studying stellar magnetism on active G-K-M dwarfs. We investigate the temperature range in which the selected molecules can serve as indicators for magnetic fields on highly active cool stars and present synthetic Stokes profiles for the modeled spectral type. Methods: We modeled a star with a spot size of 10% of the stellar disk and a spot comprising either only longitudinal or only transverse magnetic fields and estimated the strengths of the polarization Stokes V and Q signals for the molecules MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH. We combined various photosphere and spot models according to realistic scenarios. Results: In G dwarfs, the molecules MgH and FeH show overall the strongest Stokes V and Q signals from the starspot, whereas FeH has a stronger Stokes V signal in all G dwarfs with a spot temperature of 3800 K. In K dwarfs, CaH signals are generally stronger, and the TiO signature is most prominent in M dwarfs. Conclusions: Modeling synthetic polarization signals from starspots for a range of G-K-M dwarfs leads to differences in the prominence of various molecular signatures in different wavelength regions, which helps to efficiently select targets and exposure times for observations.

  6. An emerging population of BL Lacs with extreme properties: towards a class of EBL and cosmic magnetic field probes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Sbarrato, T.

    2015-07-01

    High-energy observations of extreme BL Lac objects, such as 1ES 0229+200 or 1ES 0347-121, recently focused interest both for blazar and jet physics and for the implication on the extragalactic background light and intergalactic magnetic field estimate. However, the number of these extreme highly peaked BL Lac objects (EHBL) is still rather small. Aiming at increase their number, we selected a group of EHBL candidates starting from the BL Lac sample of Plotkin et al. (2011), considering those undetected (or only barely detected) by the Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi and characterized by a high X-ray versus radio flux ratio. We assembled the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the resulting nine sources, profiting of publicly available archival observations performed by Swift, GALEX, and Fermi satellites, confirming their nature. Through a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model we estimate the expected very high energy flux, finding that in the majority of cases it is within the reach of present generation of Cherenkov arrays or of the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  7. Bimodal magnetic-fluorescent probes for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Jańczewski, Dominik; Zhang, Yan; Das, Gautom Kumar; Yi, Dong Kee; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescent optical probes have been intensively used in the area of bio-imaging. In this review article, we describe the recent advancements in the synthesis and application of bimodal magnetic-fluorescent probes for bioimaging. The bimodal probes consist of fluorescent [semiconducting quantum dots (e.g., CdSe/ZnS) or rare-earth doped (e.g., NaYF(4) :Yb,Er)] nanoparticles (NPs) and magnetic (iron oxide or gadolinium based) NPs for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. PMID:20734412

  8. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  9. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  10. Spin-lattice coupling in uranium dioxide probed by magnetostriction measurements at high magnetic fields (P08358-E001-PF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gofryk, K.; Jaime, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our preliminary magnetostriction measurements have already shown a strong interplay of lattice dynamic and magnetism in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states, and give unambiguous evidence of strong spin- phonon coupling in uranium dioxide. Further studies are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in magnetic and paramagnetic states and details of the spin-phonon coupling.

  11. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwong, P.; Higgins, J. S.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2014-06-15

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (J{sub c}) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ?0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J{sub c} measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I{sub max}) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b{sup ?}), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T{sub max}). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI{sub max}/A=[1.46D{sup ?0.18}L{sup 0.4}(T{sub max}?300){sup 0.25D{sup ?{sup 0{sup .{sup 0{sup 9}}}}}}+750(b{sup ?}/I{sub max})D{sup 10{sup ?{sup 3I{sub m}{sub a}{sub x}?2.87b{sup ?}}}}] 10{sup 6}A m{sup ?1} where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm{sup 2} is obtained when I{sub max} = 1000 A, T{sub max} = 400 K, D = 0.2, b{sup ?} = 0.3 l?h{sup ?1} and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l?h{sup ?1}. When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I{sub max?} ? (1.35 10{sup ?3})D{sup 0.41} l?h{sup ?1}?A{sup ?1}. A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in our high-field horizontal magnet. The variable-temperature system is based on the use of an inverted insulating cup that operates above 4.2 K in liquid helium and above 77.4 K in liquid nitrogen, with a stability of 80 mK to 150 mK. Uniaxial strains of ?1.4% to 1.0% can be applied to the sample, with a total uncertainty of better than 0.02%, using a modified bending beam apparatus which includes a copper beryllium springboard-shaped sample holder.

  12. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  13. Intense magnetic field phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.

    1994-12-31

    This article surveys three of the many challenging problems involving quantum phenomena in plasmas with magnetic fields B in the range 10{sup 8}--10{sup 10} Gauss: magnetic white dwarf stars, spectroscopic effects of motional (v {times} B) electric fields, and statistical models of many-electron atoms in strong B fields. It has proved difficult to make progress in this regime of field strengths, where Coulomb and magnetic interactions are comparable.

  14. High-Resolution and Frequency, Printed Miniature Magnetic Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Picard, Julian

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a technique to significantly reduce the cost and development time of producing magnetic field diagnostics. EHT is designing probes that can be printed on flexible PCBs thereby allowing for extremely small coils to be produced while essentially eliminating the time to wind the coils. The coil size can be extremely small when coupled with the EHT Hybrid Integrator, which is capable of high bandwidth measurements over short and long pulse durations. This integrator is currently being commercialized with the support of a DOE SBIR. Additionally, the flexible PCBs allow probes to be attached to complex surface and/or probes that have a complex 3D structure to be designed and fabricated. During the Phase I, EHT will design and construct magnetic field probes on flexible PCBs, which will be tested at the University of Washington's HIT-SI experiment and in EHT's material science plasma reactor. Funding provided by DOE SBIR/STTR Program.

  15. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2011-08-01

    The origin and evolution of magnetic fields in the Universe is a cosmological problem. Although exotic mechanisms for magneotgenesis cannot be ruled out, galactic magnetic fields could have been seeded by magnetic fields from stars and accretion disks, and must be continuously regenerated due to the ongoing replacement of the interstellar medium. Unlike stellar dynamos, galactic dynamos operate in a multicomponent gas at low collisionality and high magnetic Prandtl number. Their background turbulence is highly compressible, the plasma β ~ 1, and there has been time for only a few large exponentiation times at large scale over cosmic time. Points of similarity include the importance of magnetic buoyancy, the large range of turbulent scales and tiny microscopic scales, and the coupling between the magnetic field and certain properties of the flow. Understanding the origin and maintenance of the large scale galactic magnetic field is the most challenging aspect of the problem.

  16. Probing magnetic and electric optical responses of silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakov, Dmitry; Sinev, Ivan; Markovich, Dmitry; Samusev, Anton; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.; Luk'yanchuk, Boris S.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-04-27

    We study experimentally both magnetic and electric optically induced resonances of silicon nanoparticles by combining polarization-resolved dark-field spectroscopy and near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements. We reveal that the scattering spectra exhibit strong sensitivity of electric dipole response to the probing beam polarization and attribute the characteristic asymmetry of measured near-field patterns to the excitation of a magnetic dipole mode. The proposed experimental approach can serve as a powerful tool for the study of photonic nanostructures possessing both electric and magnetic optical responses.

  17. Magnetic-field-dependent assembly of silica-coated magnetite nanoclusters probed by Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Vikash; Suthar, Kamleshkumar J.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Colloidal suspension of the silica coated magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) was used to study the magnetic field mediated assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. The spatial arrangement of these MNCs in colloidal suspension was studied using the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) technique with magnetic field applied in directions orthogonal and parallel to the scattering vector. In situ magnetic field analysis of the USAXS scattering measurement showed anisotropic behavior that can be attributed to the formation of colloidal crystals. During magnetization, the clustered magnetic core induces a large dipole moment, and the thickness of the silica shell helps keep distance between the neighboring particles. The assembly of these hybrid nanostructured particles was found to be dependent on the strength and orientation of this external magnetic field. The dipolar chains formed of MNCs arranged themselves into colloidal crystals formed by two-dimensional magnetic sheets. The structure factor calculations suggested that the lattice parameters of these colloidal crystals can be tuned by changing the strength of the external magnetic field. These experiments shed light on the stimuli-responsive assembly of magnetic colloidal nanoparticles that leads to the creation of tunable photonic crystals.

  18. Magnetic microwire probes for the magnetic rod interfacial stress rheometer.

    PubMed

    Tajuelo, J; Pastor, J M; Martínez-Pedrero, F; Vázquez, M; Ortega, F; Rubio, R G; Rubio, M A

    2015-02-01

    The magnetic needle interfacial shear rheometer is a valuable tool for the study of the mechanical properties of thin fluid films or monolayers. However, it is difficult to differentiate the interfacial and subphase contributions to the drag on the needle. In principle, the problem can be addressed by decreasing the needle diameter, which decreases the bulk contribution while the interfacial contribution remains essentially the same. Here we show the results obtained when using a new type of needle, that of magnetic microwires with diameter approximately 10 times thinner than for commercial needles. We show that the lower inertia of the microwires calls for a new calibration procedure. We propose such a new calibration procedure based on the flow field solution around the needle introduced in refs 1 and 2. By measuring thin silicone oil films with well-controlled interfacial viscosities as well as eicosanol (C20) and pentadecanoic acid (PDA, C15) Langmuir monolayers, we show that the new calibration method works well for standard needles as well as for the microwire probes. Moreover, we show that the analysis of the force terms contributing to the force on the needle helps to ascertain whether the measurements obtained are reliable for given surface shear viscosity values. We also show that the microwire probes have at least a 10-fold-lower resolution limit, allowing one to measure interfacial viscosities as low as 10(-7) N·m/s. PMID:25495270

  19. Magnetic field generator

    DOEpatents

    Krienin, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  20. A magneto-optic probe for magnetic fluctuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, W S; Ellis, J; Thakur, S Chakraborty; Hansen, A; Hardin, R A; Sears, S; Scime, E E

    2009-10-01

    Results from a proof-of-principle experiment are presented that demonstrate it is possible to construct a completely optical, robust, and compact probe capable of spatially resolved measurements of magnetic field fluctuations smaller than 1 G over a frequency range of 1 Hz-8 MHz in a plasma. In contrast to conventional coil probes, the signal strength is independent of fluctuation frequency and the measurement technique is immune to electrostatic pickup. The probe consists of a high Verdet constant crystal, two polarizers, optical fibers, and a photodetector. PMID:19895059

  1. A magneto-optic probe for magnetic fluctuation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, W. S.; Ellis, J.; Thakur, S. Chakraborty; Hansen, A.; Hardin, R. A.; Sears, S.; Scime, E. E.

    2009-10-01

    Results from a proof-of-principle experiment are presented that demonstrate it is possible to construct a completely optical, robust, and compact probe capable of spatially resolved measurements of magnetic field fluctuations smaller than 1 G over a frequency range of 1 Hz-8 MHz in a plasma. In contrast to conventional coil probes, the signal strength is independent of fluctuation frequency and the measurement technique is immune to electrostatic pickup. The probe consists of a high Verdet constant crystal, two polarizers, optical fibers, and a photodetector.

  2. On Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields are present in all astrophysical media. However, many models and interpretations of observations often ignore them, because magnetic fields are difficult to handle and because they produce complicated morphological features. Here we will comment on the basic intuitive properties, which even if not completely true, provide a first guiding insight on the physics of a particular astrophysical problem. These magnetic properties are not mathematically demonstrated here. How magnetic fields evolve and how they introduce dynamical effects are considered, also including a short comment on General Relativity Magnetohydrodynamics. In a second part we consider some audacious and speculative matters. They are answers to three questions: a) How draw a cube without lifting the pencil from the paper so that when the pen passes through the same side do in the same direction? B) Are MILAGRO anisotropies miraculous? C) Do cosmic magnetic lenses exist?. The last two questions deal with issues related with the interplay between magnetic fields and cosmic ray propagation.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for pulsed high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benno; Kohlrautz, Jonas; Haase, Jürgen; Braun, Marco; Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Kampert, Erik; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Wosnitza, Joachim

    2012-08-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields is described. The magnetic field pulses created together with various magnet coils determine the requirements such an apparatus has to fulfill to be operated successfully in pulsed fields. Independent of the chosen coil it is desirable to operate the entire experiment at the highest possible bandwidth such that a correspondingly large temporal fraction of the magnetic field pulse can be used to probe a given sample. Our apparatus offers a bandwidth of up to 20 MHz and has been tested successfully at the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden, even in a very fast dual coil magnet that has produced a peak field of 94.2 T. Using a medium-sized single coil with a significantly slower dependence, it is possible to perform advanced multi-pulse nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. As an example we discuss a Carr-Purcell spin echo sequence at a field of 62 T. PMID:22938280

  4. Harmonic phases of the nanoparticle magnetization: An intrinsic temperature probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaio, Eneko; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plazaola, Fernando; Sandre, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia is a promising cancer therapy in which magnetic nanoparticles act as heat sources activated by an external AC magnetic field. The nanoparticles, located near or inside the tumor, absorb energy from the magnetic field and then heat up the cancerous tissues. During the hyperthermia treatment, it is crucial to control the temperature of different tissues: too high temperature can cause undesired damage in healthy tissues through an uncontrolled necrosis. However, the current thermometry in magnetic hyperthermia presents some important technical problems. The widely used optical fiber thermometers only provide the temperature in a discrete set of spatial points. Moreover, surgery is required to locate these probes in the correct place. In this scope, we propose here a method to measure the temperature of a magnetic sample. The approach relies on the intrinsic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles because it is based on monitoring the thermal dependence of the high order harmonic phases of the nanoparticle dynamic magnetization. The method is non-invasive and it does not need any additional probe or sensor attached to the magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, this method has the potential to be used together with the magnetic particle imaging technique to map the spatial distribution of the temperature.

  5. Probing Gravitational Sensitivity in Biological Systems Using Magnetic Body Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James; Guevorkian, Karine; Wurzel, Samuel; Mihalusova, Mariana

    2003-03-01

    We have commissioned a superconducting solenoid based apparatus designed to exert strong magnetic body forces on biological specimens and other organic materials in ambient environmental conditions for extended periods. In its room temperature bore, it can produce a maximum magnetic field-field gradient product of 16 T^2-cm-1 which is sufficient to levitate frog embryos Xenopus Laevis[1]. We will discuss how we are applying these magnetic body forces to probe the known influences of gravitational forces on frog embryos and the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. In the process, we will describe a novel method for measuring the diamagnetic susceptibilities of specimens such as paramecia.

  6. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The maximum difference between relevant and low magnitude tests was 21.5%.

  7. Specialized probes with nanowhisker structures for high resolution magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, M. V.; Belousov, K. I.; Mozharov, A. M.; Mukhin, I. S.; Golubok, A. O.

    2015-11-01

    Creation and study of specialized nanowhisker probes with magnetic coating are performed for high-precision imaging of various objects by means of atomic force and magnetic force microscopy. Thin layers of Ni and Co are deposited on the surface of nanowhisker structures to perform visualization of magnetic fields on the sample surface, in particular, structure of pits on a hard disk drive (HDD). It is revealed that probes with nanowhisker structures covered with magnetic coating due to their high aspect ratio demonstrate a higher spatial resolution and contrast of magnetic fields visualization in comparison with standard magnetic probes.

  8. Mach Probe Wakes are Important in Weakly Magnetized, Collisional Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Jordan James; Thakur, Saikat; Sears, Stephanie; McKee, John; Scime, Earl; Tynan, George

    2015-11-01

    Mach probes are often used as the diagnostic for flow in the scrape off layer (SOL) of tokamaks and in linear devices because of their low cost and ease of construction. However, proper interpretation of the Mach number has been debated, and interpretation methods use different calibration factors for different plasma parameters. The Controlled Shear Decorrelation eXperiment (CSDX) operates in an intermediate magnetization regime. To validate theories in this regime, measurements of the parallel ion velocity were made with Mach probes and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) at magnetic fields from 400 to 1600 gauss. We find that Mach probe measurements indicate higher velocities than LIF at fields above 400 gauss. Reduced downstream plasma density due to probe shadowing is a strong candidate for the cause of the discrepancy. An advective-diffusive model for the geometric shadowing and downstream plasma density is presented. When the model for the density drop is included, the Mach probe results agree with the LIF data. This result should be included by groups using Mach probes to measure parallel velocities in plasmas where the ion-neutral mean free path is shorter than the probe shadow length, Lps = a2Cs /Dperp in linear devices, the SOL, or divertor region of tokamaks. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Awards Number DE-FG02-07ER54912.

  9. A modified Katsumata probe--Ion sensitive probe for measurement in non-magnetized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Čada, M; Hubička, Z; Adámek, P; Olejníček, J; Kment, Š; Adámek, J; Stöckel, J

    2015-07-01

    A modified Katsumata probe has been developed for measurement of ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) in technological non-magnetized plasmas. A simple construction of the modified Katsumata probe consists of adding a pair of permanent Sm-Co magnets in front of Katsumata probe. A comparative study regarding IVDF measurement in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering system operating in pure argon atmosphere by means of developed modified Katsumata probe and commercially available gridded retarding field analyzer (RFA) has been carried out. A time-resolved measurement of IVDF for two different pressures whilst other plasma conditions have been kept unchanged has revealed that the main advantage of the modified Katsumata probe compared to the RFA consists in significantly smaller angular aperture of entrance orifice of modified Katsumata probe being approximately 15° in comparison with a commercial RFA having angular aperture more than 160°. It leads in much better velocity resolution in measured IVDF since the transversal part of velocity vector is much more suppressed compared to RFA. Furthermore, the modified Katsumata probe less suffers from collisions of ions in the space charge sheath in front or inside of the probe compared to the RFA. PMID:26233386

  10. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields are a major agent in the interstellar medium. They contribute significantly to the total pressure which balances the gas disk against gravitation. They affect the gas flows in spiral arms (Gómez and Cox, 2002). The effective sound speed of the gas is increased by the presence of strong fields which reduce the shock strength. The interstellar fields are closely connected to gas clouds. They affect the dynamics of the gas clouds (Elmegreen, 1981; de Avillez and Breitschwerdt, 2004). The stability and evolution of gas clouds are also influenced by magnetic fields, but it is not understood how (Crutcher, 1999; see Chap. 7). Magnetic fields are essential for the onset of star formation as they enable the removal of angular momentum from the protostellar cloud during its collapse (magnetic braking, Mouschovias, 1990). Strong fields may shift the stellar mass spectrum towards the more massive stars (Mestel, 1990). MHD turbulence distributes energy from supernova explosions within the ISM (Subramanian, 1998) and regenerates the field via the dynamo process (Wielebinski, R., Krause, 1993, Beck et al., 1996; Sect. 6). Magnetic reconnection is a possible heating source for the ISM and halo gas (Birk et al., 1998). Magnetic fields also control the density and distribution of cosmic rays in the ISM. A realistic model for any process in the ISM needs basic information about the magnetic field which has to be provided by observations.

  11. Field mapping system for cyclotron magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. G.; Kim, D. E.; Kang, B. K.; Yoon, M.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, Y. S.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a Hall probe mapping system for measuring a cyclotron magnet, which has been fabricated for the 13 MeV cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. Two Hall probes are mounted on a precision mechanical x- y stage and map magnetic field in the Cartesian coordinate system. The mapping system uses the 'flying' mode field mapping method to reduce data-acquisition time. The time required for mapping the whole gap-area of the cyclotron magnet is ˜60 min. The relative measurement error for the averaged magnetic field along beam orbit is less than 0.02%. The cyclotron magnet has been corrected using field measurement data, and the achieved total phase excursion of the cyclotron after correction is less than ±15°, which is within the tolerance of ±20° for the total phase excursion.

  12. Manipulating Cells with Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, J. M.; Guevorkian, K.

    2005-07-01

    We review our investigations of the use of static magnetic fields, B, for manipulating cells and cellular processes. We describe how B fields modify the cell division pattern of frog embryos and consequently can be used to probe the pattern determinants. We also observe that magnetic fields modify the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. We describe these modifications and their potential application to investigations of their swimming behavior.

  13. The FIELDS experiment for Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S.; Spp/Fields Team

    2010-12-01

    Many of our basic ideas on the plasma physics of acceleration, energy flow, and dissipation, and structure of the solar wind have never been rigorously confronted by direct experimental measurements in the region where these processes are actually occurring. Although Alfven waves, shocks, and magnetic reconnection are often invoked as heating mechanisms, there have never been any direct measurements of Alfvenic waves nor the associated Poynting flux nor any measurements of ion or electron kinetic energy flux in the region from 10 R_s to 30 R_s where the final stages of wind acceleration are believed to occur. The radial profiles of both slow and fast solar wind acceleration are based on remote-sensing measurements and have been obtained for only a few selected events. Thus, the spatial radial and perpendicular scales of the acceleration process have been averaged by line-of-sight effects and the possibility of intense localized acceleration cannot be ruled out. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission calls for the high quality fields and particles measurements required to solve the coronal heating and wind acceleration problem. The SPP 'FIELDS' experiment measures the electric and magnetic fields fundamental to the plasma physics of the structured and turbulent solar wind, flux ropes, collisionless shocks, and magnetic reconnection. FIELDS will make the first-ever measurements of the DC/Low-Frequency electric field inside of 1 AU allowing for in situ, high cadence measurements of the Poynting vector, the Elsasser variables, and E/B diagnostics of the wave spectrum to fce in the solar wind. SPP/FIELDS measures the radio wave (type III and II) signatures of microflares, energized electrons, and CME propagation. SPP/ FIELDS measures the plasma electron density to ~2% accuracy and the core electron temperature to ~5-10% accuracy more than 90% of the time at perihelion. FIELDS will also measure the in situ density fluctuation spectrum and structures at a very high cadence (≤ 10 kHz) and provide definitive signatures of the turbulent nature and heating of the solar wind plasma. Furthermore, SPP/FIELDS measures the impact rate and sig- natures of dust from micron- to nano-scales, by measuring the voltage signature of dust impacts on the spacecraft. FIELDS will also measure the floating potential of the SPP spacecraft, which is essential for correcting in situ electron data. The SPP/FIELDS experiment combines four (4) deployable electric antennas, fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and the associated signal processing electronics into a scientifically and technically integrated package. SPP/FIELDS makes very high cadence measurements of fields and density and employs an internal burst memory for intelligent data selection. FIELDS is required to measure very large plasma potentials and electric fields (~10V) and uses floating ground (+/- 100V) power preamplifiers. The SPP/FIELDS team has performed 3D plasma simulations of the SPP spacecraft plasma environ- ment, which reveal enormous voltage fluctuation levels in the plasma wake behind the spacecraft. This voltage noise dominates the true signal by orders of magnitude in the critical DC/LF frequency range. Therefore, we are proposing a design which places the four (4) electric antennas in front of the spacecraft ahead of the heat shield.

  14. Polar magnetic field reversal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevolenskaya, E. E.

    2006-08-01

    The polar magnetic fields on the Sun have been an attractive subject for solar researches since Babcocks measured them in solar cycle 19 (Babcock and Babcock, 1955). One of the remarkable features of the polar magnetic fields is their reversal during the maxima of 11-year sunspot cycles (Babcock and Livingston, 1958; Babcock, 1959). I have present results of the investigations of the polar magnetic field using MDI data. It is found, that the polar magnetic field reversal is detected with SOHO/MDI data for polar region within 78deg - 88deg. The North Pole has changed polarity in CR1975 (April 2001). The South reversed later in CR1980 (September 2001). The total unsigned magnetic flux does not show the dramatic decreasing during the polar reversals due to omnipresent bi-polar small-scale magnetic elements (Severnyi 1965, Lin et al. 1994, Benevolenskaya 2004). The observational and theoretical aspects of the polar magnetic field reversals are discussed. References Babcock, H. W., and Babcock, H. D. 1955, ApJ, 121, 349 Babcock, H. W., Livingston W. C., 1958, Science, 127, 1058 Babcock, H. D., 1959, ApJ, 130, 364 Benevolenskaya, E. E. 2004, Astron. Astrophys., 428, L5 Lin, H., Varsik, J., Zirin, H., 1994, Solar Phys., 155, 243 Severnyi A. B., 1965, Soviet Astron. Letters, 9, 171

  15. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  16. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi

    The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.

  17. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  18. Probing multiferroicity and spin-spin interactions via angular dependent dielectric measurements on Y-doped HoMnO3 in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Relja; Zhou, Haidong; Wiebe, Chris; Brooks, James

    2007-03-01

    Dielectric measurements are used to characterize magnetic phase transitions in the doped ferrielectric oxides Ho1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1). The T-B-θ phase diagram of the ferrielectric material Ho1-xYxMnO3 has been determined from the dielectric constant angular dependence between the crystallographic c-axis and applied magnetic field. The re-entrant temperature-magnetic field phase transitions which involve in- plane Mn spin rotations in the antiferromagnetic state below the N'eel temperature are driven by the interaction with the Ho subsystem. We describe this behavior in terms of the interaction of the Ho sublattice spin system with the underlying, robust YMnO3 antiferromagnetic triangular lattice, where the Ho-spin interactions are highly sensitive to Y concentration and field direction. The magnetic field anisotropy study is an important step towards understanding of magnetic and electric phase competition in the diluted 4f system by non-magnetic Yttrium(Y).

  19. Magnetic fields at neptune.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1989-12-15

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the supersonic solar wind flow was detected upstream at 34.9 Neptune radii (R(N)), and the magnetopause boundary was tentatively identified at 26.5 R(N) near the planet-sun line (1 R(N) = 24,765 kilometers). A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10(-5) gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R(N). The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R(N) can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R(N) and inclined by 47 degrees with respect to the rotation axis. The OTD dipole moment is 0.133 gauss-R(N)(3). Within 4 R(N), the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. The obliquity of Neptune and the phase of its rotation at encounter combined serendipitously so that the spacecraft entered the magnetosphere at a time when the polar cusp region was directed almost precisely sunward. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an "oblique" rotator. PMID:17756002

  20. Mapping the magnetic field vector in a fountain clock

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsvolf, Marina; Marmet, Louis

    2011-12-15

    We show how the mapping of the magnetic field vector components can be achieved in a fountain clock by measuring the Larmor transition frequency in atoms that are used as a spatial probe. We control two vector components of the magnetic field and apply audio frequency magnetic pulses to localize and measure the field vector through Zeeman spectroscopy.

  1. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal sources cannot be distinguished from core fields, nor cleanly separated from external fields. I will report on recent data acquired at altitudes as low as 25 km that have the potential to resolve these issues. The presence of remanent crustal fields would have profound implications for Mercury's thermal and dynamical histories.

  2. Eruptive solar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    The quasi-steady evolution of solar magnetic fields in response to gradual photospheric changes is considered, with particular attention given to the threshold of a sudden eruption in the solar atmosphere. The formal model of an evolving, force-free field dependent on two Cartesian coordinates is extended to a field which is not force free but in static equilibrium with plasma pressure and gravity. The basic physics is illustrated through the evolution of a loop-shaped electric current sheet enclosing a potential bipolar field with footpoints rooted in the photosphere. A free-boundary problem is posed and then solved for the equilibrium configuration of the current sheet in a hydrostatically supported isothermal atmosphere. As the footpoints move apart to spread a constant photospheric magnetic flux over a larger region, the equilibria available extend the field to increasing heights.

  3. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, their strength and structure in intergalactic space, their first occurrence in young galaxies, and their dynamical importance for galaxy evolution remain widely unknown. Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized radio synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 μG) and in central starburst regions (50-100 μG). Such fields are dynamically important; they can affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized radio emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, generated from isotropic turbulent fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 μG strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered (anisotropic turbulent) fields are also observed at the inner edges of the spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Irregular galaxies host isotropic turbulent fields often of similar strength as in spiral galaxies, but only weak ordered fields. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several galaxies reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field α -Ω dynamo. So far no indications were found in external galaxies of large-scale field reversals, like the one in the Milky Way. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. In the outflow cone above a starburst region of NGC 253, RM data indicate a helical magnetic field.

  4. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  5. Magnetic field emission gun with zirconiated emitter.

    PubMed

    Troyon, M

    1989-03-01

    A magnetic-field-superimposed field emission gun with low aberrations and equipped with a zirconiated tungsten emitter has been developed for applications where very stable high probe currents are required. It has been tested on a conventional electron microscope at 10 kV and on an electron beam testing system at 1 kV. Probe current i = 250 nA in a probe size d = 0.4 micron is obtained at 10 kV; at 1 kV the resolution is 0.1 micron with i = 5 nA, and 0.4 micron with i = 30 nA. For these probe currents, the spatial broadening effect due to electron-electron interactions in the beam is the preponderant factor limiting the probe size. PMID:2723800

  6. Magnetic Probe to Study Plasma Jets for Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Daniel; Hsu, Scott C.

    2012-08-16

    A probe has been constructed to measure the magnetic field of a plasma jet generated by a pulsed plasma rail-gun. The probe consists of two sets of three orthogonally-oriented commercial chip inductors to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector at two separate positions in order to give information about the magnetic field evolution within the jet. The strength and evolution of the magnetic field is one of many factors important in evaluating the use of supersonic plasma jets for forming imploding spherical plasma liners as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion.

  7. Magnetic and Langmuir Probe Measurements on the Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelfgen, Syri J.; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Martin, Adam; Hawk, Clark W.; Fimognan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX) operates by inductively producing plasmoids in a conical theta-pinch coil and ejecting them at high velocity. A plasmoid is a plasma with an imbedded closed magnetic field structure. The shape and magnetic field structure of the translating plasmoids have been measured with of an array of magnetic field probes. Six sets of two B-dot probes were constructed for measuring B(sub z) and B(sub theta), the axial and azimuthal components of the magnetic field. The probes are wound on a square G10 form, and have an average (calibrated) NA of 9.37 x l0(exp -5) square meters, where N is the number of turns and A is the cross-sectional area. The probes were calibrated with a Helmholtz coil, driven by a high-voltage pulser to measure NA, and by a signal generator to determine the probe's frequency response. The plasmoid electron number density n(sub e) electron temperature T(sub e), and velocity ratio v/c(sub m), (where v is the bulk plasma flow velocity and c(sub m), is the ion thermal speed) have also been measured with a quadruple Langmuir probe. The Langmuir probe tips are 10 mm long, 20-mil diameter stainless steel wire, housed in a 6-inch long 4-bore aluminum rod. Measurements on PTX with argon and hydrogen from the magnetic field probes and quadruple Langmuir probe will be presented in this paper.

  8. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  9. Micromachined near-field probe arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Pradeep; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.; Papautsky, Ian

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication of cantilevered arrays of tapered near-field probes with pyramidal, sub-micrometer tips that are micromachined from glass substrates. High density data storage and page-oriented retrieval are the potential applications of the described microdevice. Heating and pulling or chemical etching of optic fibers are the common approaches to sub-wavelength aperture fabrication necessary to probe the near-field. Arrays have been previously formed by chemical etching of or film deposition on an opaque substrate and were later coupled to optical fibers for use as near-field probes though; alignment of optical fibers with the apertures for guiding the light to the detector in the far-field is not trivial. Probe arrays described in this work were initially fabricated by dicing a 175-μm thick borosilicate glass substrate using a 250-μm thick resinoid blade and were subsequently tapered and sharpened in a two-step chemical etch process performed at room temperature. The tips were then metallized using a 100nm thick coating of aluminum. Arrays of upto eight 1cm to 2.5 cm long probes with center-to-center spacing of 450 μm and tip sizes of approximately 200 nm were fabricated. Roughness on the vertical sidewall was characterized and the dependence of optical loss coefficients of the light guiding bulk on etch duration was investigated.

  10. Magnetic probing of the solar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic field patterns in the region beneath the solar photosphere is determined. An approximate method for downward extrapolation of line of sight magnetic field measurements taken at the solar photosphere was developed. It utilizes the mean field theory of electromagnetism in a form thought to be appropriate for the solar convection zone. A way to test that theory is proposed. The straightforward application of the lowest order theory with the complete model fit to these data does not indicate the existence of any reasonable depth at which flux conservation is achieved.

  11. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  12. Probing and manipulating magnetization at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarth, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    Combining semiconductors with magnetism in hetero- and nano-structured geometries provides a powerful means of exploring the interplay between spin-dependent transport and nanoscale magnetism. We describe two recent studies in this context. First, we use spin-dependent transport in ferromagnetic semiconductor thin films to provide a new window into nanoscale magnetism [1]: here, we exploit the large anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor as a nanoscale probe of the reversible elastic behavior of magnetic domain walls and gain insight into regimes of domain wall behavior inaccessible to more conventional optical techniques. Next, we describe novel ways to create self-assembled hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnet core-shell nanowires [2] and show how magnetoresistance measurements in single nanowires, coupled with micromagnetic simulations, can provide detailed insights into the magnetization reversal process in nanoscale ferromagnets [3]. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Andrew Balk, Jing Liang, Nicholas Dellas, Mark Nowakowski, David Rench, Mark Wilson, Roman Engel-Herbert, Suzanne Mohney, Peter Schiffer and David Awschalom. This work is supported by ONR, NSF and the NSF-MRSEC program.[4pt] [1] A. L. Balk et al., Phys. Rev.Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).[0pt] [2] N. J. Dellas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 072505 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. Liang et al., in preparation.

  13. High Magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Fulkerson, S; Bower, J; Satariano, J; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2006-05-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system suppling 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  14. High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2006-11-15

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  15. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

    2013-06-01

    The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

  16. Measuring Magnetic Field Evolution in SSPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. C.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.

    2006-10-01

    A magnetic probe with two linear arrays of chip inductors is being designed and fabricated to investigate magnetic field evolution at SSPX in LLNL. The design is based on a previous design already implemented at SSPX. The same entry port on the side of the flux conserver, including vacuum hardware to insert or retract the probe, will be reused from the previous design. The new design consists of two probe arms each fitted with a linear array of three-axis chip inductor clusters. The probe arms are designed to be opened and closed at various angles, and to be rotated 180 degrees about the tubular axis. Due to the harsh plasma environment inside the flux conserver, precautions are being taken to eliminate metal-to-metal contact, taking into account durability issues as well. Moveable mechanisms include formed and welded bellows, and custom-made bearing systems fabricated out of metal and macor.

  17. Secondary resonance magnetic force microscopy using an external magnetic field for characterization of magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongzi; Mo, Kangxin; Ding, Xidong; Zhao, Liangbing; Lin, Guocong; Zhang, Yueli; Chen, Dihu

    2015-09-01

    A bimodal magnetic force microscopy (MFM) that uses an external magnetic field for the detection and imaging of magnetic thin films is developed. By applying the external modulation magnetic field, the vibration of a cantilever probe is excited by its magnetic tip at its higher eigenmode. Using magnetic nanoparticle samples, the capacity of the technique which allows single-pass imaging of topography and magnetic forces is demonstrated. For the detection of magnetic properties of thin film materials, its signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity are demonstrated to be superior to conventional MFM in lift mode. The secondary resonance MFM technique provides a promising tool for the characterization of nanoscale magnetic properties of various materials, especially of magnetic thin films with weak magnetism.

  18. Electric field tuning of magnetic properties in FeGa films on ferroelastic Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films probed by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luykx, Arun; Lofland, Samuel; Anbusathaiah, Varatharajan; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kartawidjaja, Fransiska; Wang, John; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of fabricating electric field tunable thin film magnetic devices using a multiferroic transduction effect, we have patterned Fe0.7Ga0.3 (FeGa) films sputter-deposited on PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3 (PZT(30/70))/PbZr0.7Ti0.3O3 (PZT(70/30)) tetragonal/rhombohedral bilayers on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si wafers. Previous piezoforce microscopy studies have shown that the PZT bilayers exhibit presence of ferroelastic domains where the fraction of the local c/a domain ratio can be tuned by an applied electric field. The FeGa top layer was patterned into 20 μm x 20 μm capacitor devices in order to apply electric field to the multilayers, and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements at 9.2 GHz were performed. Typically, a relatively sharp FMR signal observed before application of the electric field would get substantially broadened after initial application of +4 kV/cm. Angular dependent FMR indicates that magnetic anisotropy in the FeGa is indeed affected by application of electric field.

  19. Calibration of magnetic probes in the vicinity of a conducting well

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S. J.; Horton, R. D.; Hwang, D. Q.; Evans, R. W.; Brockington, S. J.

    2008-02-15

    Measuring magnetic fields near the edge of a plasma device can be complicated by the geometric effects of the ports through which such measurements are made. The primary effect is an attenuation of the magnetic field at the probe coil due to the field expanding into the finite sized conducting well of the port. In addition, it is possible to determine the correspondence between the location of a field line as it intersects the probe coil inside the well, with its location far from the perturbation of the well. Here we explore several methods of experimentally characterizing the magnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetic probe ports of a vacuum vessel, with the aim of improving the interpretation of magnetic measurements needed for experiments in plasma physics.

  20. Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

  1. Progesterone-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Determination of progesterone receptor (PR) status in hormone-dependent diseases is essential in ascertaining disease prognosis and monitoring treatment response. The development of a noninvasive means of monitoring these processes would have significant impact on early detection, cost, repeated measurements, and personalized treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely recognized as a technique that can produce longitudinal studies, and PR-targeted MR probes may address a clinical problem by providing contrast enhancement that reports on PR status without biopsy. Commercially available MR contrast agents are typically delivered via intravenous injection, whereas steroids are administered subcutaneously. Whether the route of delivery is important for tissue accumulation of steroid-modified MRI contrast agents to PR-rich tissues is not known. To address this question, modification of the chemistry linking progesterone with the gadolinium chelate led to MR probes with increased water solubility and lower cellular toxicity and enabled administration through the blood. This attribute came at a cost through lower affinity for PR and decreased ability to cross the cell membrane, and ultimately it did not improve delivery of the PR-targeted MR probe to PR-rich tissues or tumors in vivo. Overall, these studies are important, as they demonstrate that targeted contrast agents require optimization of delivery and receptor binding of the steroid and the gadolinium chelate for optimal translation in vivo. PMID:25019183

  2. Magnetization dynamics using ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosa, Ioan

    Very short and well shaped magnetic field pulses can be generated using ultra-relativistic electron bunches at Stanford Linear Accelerator. These fields of several Tesla with duration of several picoseconds are used to study the response of magnetic materials to a very short excitation. Precession of a magnetic moment by 90 degrees in a field of 1 Tesla takes about 10 picoseconds, so we explore the range of fast switching of the magnetization by precession. Our experiments are in a region of magnetic excitation that is not yet accessible by other methods. The current table top experiments can generate fields longer than 100 ps and with strength of 0.1 Tesla only. Two types of magnetic were used, magnetic recording media and model magnetic thin films. Information about the magnetization dynamics is extracted from the magnetic patterns generated by the magnetic field. The shape and size of these patterns are influenced by the dissipation of angular momentum involved in the switching process. The high-density recording media, both in-plane and perpendicular type, shows a pattern which indicates a high spin momentum dissipation. The perpendicular magnetic recording media was exposed to multiple magnetic field pulses. We observed an extended transition region between switched and non-switched areas indicating a stochastic switching behavior that cannot be explained by thermal fluctuations. The model films consist of very thin crystalline Fe films on GaAs. Even with these model films we see an enhanced dissipation compared to ferromagnetic resonance studies. The magnetic patterns show that damping increases with time and it is not a constant as usually assumed in the equation describing the magnetization dynamics. The simulation using the theory of spin-wave scattering explains only half of the observed damping. An important feature of this theory is that the spin dissipation is time dependent and depends on the large angle between the magnetization and the magnetic field.

  3. Axially Inserted Magnetic/Langmuir Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannum, David; Bergerson, W.; Fiksel, G.; Forest, C. B.; Hegna, C.; Kendrick, R.; Oliva, S.; Sarff, J.

    2006-10-01

    A new probe has been designed to provide internal magnetic and Langmuir diagnostics throughout the rotating wall machine. The machine is a linear screw-pinch built to study the role of different wall boundary conditions on the resistive wall mode (RWM). Individual mode stability depends on the value of the safety factor at the plasma edge (qa). The plasma is produced by an array of nineteen guns, creating a column one meter in length and up to 20 cm in diameter. The central guns in the array can be biased to individually discharge 1 kA of plasma current. Different instabilities are studied by changing the current and density profiles of the guns. But profile measurement has been limited to the top and bottom of the plasma column by radial port access. The new axially-inserted Q-Tip probe can travel along the entire span of the column. The Q-Tip combines ten pickup loops with four triplets of electrodes for simultaneous magnetic and Langmuir measurements. The edge a and safety factor q of the plasma can now be found for different instabilities seen along the column. This poster tracks the change of ne, Te, φp, and q throughout the plasma.

  4. Shimming of a Magnet for Calibration of NMR Probes for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielajew, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    The Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the anomalous magnetic moment aμ ≡ (g-2)/2 of the muon to the precision of 0.14 parts per million. This experimental value of aμ can then be compared to the similarly precise theoretical predictions of the Standard Model in order to test the completeness of the model. The value of aμ is extracted from muons precessing in a magnetic field. The magnetic field will be measured with a set of 400 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes, which have the ability to measure the field to a precision of tens of parts per billion. Before the Muon g-2 Experiment can take place, new NMR probes must be designed, built, and tested using a 1.45 Tesla test magnet at the University of Washington Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics (CENPA). In order to achieve a significant signal from NMR probes, the magnetic field in which the probes are immersed must be extremely uniform. The existing magnet at CENPA has an approximately linear gradient in magnetic field of about 1 Gauss per centimeter in the smoothest direction. A pair of adjacent square Helmholtz coils was designed and built to create a linear gradient in order to cancel the existing gradient. The length of the NMR signals improved with the implementation of the coils. The results of the addition of the coils to the magnet on the signals from the NMR probes will be presented.

  5. Magnetic-probe diagnostics for railgun plasma armatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1989-06-01

    Magnetic probes were employed on the first plasma armature railgun experiments, and they have been used continuously since then for position determination and qualitative determination of the armature current. In the last few years, improvements in experimental technique and analysis have permitted more accurate measurements of the plasma-armature current distribution. This paper reviews the various probe configurations in use today and presents analytic approximations for the dependence of the probe signal on probe location and railgun geometry. Rail current and armature current probes are compared and contrasted with respect to resolution and accuracy. Further improvements in measurement accuracy are predicted for close-spaced magnetic-probe arrays.

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE GEOMETRY OF ASTROPHYSICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2010-08-01

    Faraday rotation measurements have provided an invaluable technique for probing the properties of astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Unfortunately, typical observations provide information only about the density-weighted average of the magnetic field component parallel to the line of sight. As a result, the magnetic field geometry along the line of sight, and in many cases even the location of the rotating material, is poorly constrained. Frequently, interpretations of Faraday rotation observations are dependent upon underlying models of the magnetic field being probed (e.g., uniform, turbulent, equipartition). However, we show that at sufficiently low frequencies, specifically below roughly 13(RM/1 rad m{sup -2}){sup 1/4}(B/1 G){sup 1/2} MHz, the character of Faraday rotation changes, entering what we term the 'super-adiabatic regime' in which the rotation measure (RM) is proportional to the integrated absolute value of the line-of-sight component of the field. As a consequence, comparing RMs at high frequencies with those in this new regime provides direct information about the geometry of the magnetic field along the line of sight. Furthermore, the frequency defining the transition to this new regime, {nu}{sub SA}, depends directly upon the local electron density and magnetic field strength where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the line of sight, allowing the unambiguous distinction between Faraday rotation within and in front of the emission region. Typical values of {nu}{sub SA} range from 10 kHz (below the ionospheric cutoff, but above the heliospheric cutoff) to 10 GHz, depending upon the details of the Faraday rotating environment. In particular, for resolved active galactic nuclei, including the black holes at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*) and M81, {nu}{sub SA} ranges from roughly 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and thus can be probed via existing and up-coming ground-based radio observatories.

  7. Heat Capacity Measurements in Pulsed Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jaime, M.; Movshovich, R.; Sarrao, J.L.; Kim, J.; Stewart, G.; Beyermann, W.P.; Canfield, P.C.

    1998-10-23

    The new NHMFL 60T quasi-continuous magnet produces a flat-top field for a period of 100 ms at 60 Tesla, and for longer time at lower fields, e.g. 0.5 s at 45 Tesla. We have developed for the first time the capability to measure heat capacity at very high magnetic fields in the NHMFL 60T quasi-continuous magnet at LANL, using a probe built out of various plastic materials. The field plateau allows us to utilize a heat-pulse method to obtain heat capacity data. Proof-of-principle heat capacity experiments were performed on a variety of correlated electron systems. Both magnet performance characteristics and physical properties of various materials studied hold out a promise of wide application of this new tool.

  8. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-12-10

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  9. Radial magnetic field in magnetic confinement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hao; Liu, Ming-Hai; Chen, Ming; Rao, Bo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Quan; Xiao, Jin-Shui; Hu, Xi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The intrinsic radial magnetic field (Br) in a tokamak is explored by the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation in axisymmetric configurations through an expansion of the four terms of the magnetic surfaces. It can be inferred from the simulation results that at the core of the device, the tokamak should possess a three-dimensional magnetic field configuration, which could be reduced to a two-dimensional one when the radial position is greater than 0.6a. The radial magnetic field and the amzimuthal magnetic field have the same order of magnitude at the core of the device. These results can offer a reference for the analysis of the plasma instability, the property of the core plasma, and the magnetic field measurement. Project supported by the Special Domestic Program of ITER, China (Grant No. 2009GB105003).

  10. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.

  11. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  12. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  13. Review of MFTF yin-yang magnet displacement and magnetic field measurements and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.L.; Myall, J.O.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1983-11-21

    During the recent testing of the MFTF yin-yang magnet, measurements of coil position, structural case strain, and magnetic field were made to verify calculated values. Measurements to detect magnet movement were taken throughout cooldown and during the operation of the magnet. The magnetic field at the mirror points was measured by Hall-effect probes. The magnet position, structural case strain, and magnetic field measurements indicated a reasonably close correlation with calculated values. Information obtained from the yin-yang test has been very useful in setting realistic mechanical alignment values for the new MFTF-B magnet system.

  14. Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection. PMID:27005472

  15. Seismic probes of solar interior magnetic structure.

    PubMed

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent; Tromp, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    Sun spots are prominent manifestations of solar magnetoconvection, and imaging their subsurface structure is an outstanding problem of wide physical importance. Travel times of seismic waves that propagate through these structures are typically used as inputs to inversions. Despite the presence of strongly anisotropic magnetic waveguides, these measurements have always been interpreted in terms of changes to isotropic wave speeds and flow-advection-related Doppler shifts. Here, we employ partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization to determine the appropriate parametrization of the structural properties of the magnetic interior. Seven different wave speeds fully characterize helioseismic wave propagation: the isotropic sound speed, a Doppler-shifting flow-advection velocity, and an anisotropic magnetic velocity. The structure of magnetic media is sensed by magnetoacoustic slow and fast modes and Alfvén waves, each of which propagates at a different wave speed. We show that even in the case of weak magnetic fields, significant errors may be incurred if these anisotropies are not accounted for in inversions. Translation invariance is demonstrably lost. These developments render plausible the accurate seismic imaging of magnetoconvection in the Sun. PMID:23005276

  16. Suppression of probe background signals via B1 field inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jian; Reimer, Jeffrey

    2011-01-27

    A new approach combining a long pulse with the DEPTH sequence (Cory and Ritchey, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1988) greatly improves the efficiency for suppressing probe background signals arising from spinning modules. By applying a long initial excitation pulse in the DEPTH sequence, instead of a {pi}/2 pulse, the inhomogeneous B{sub 1} fields outside the coil can dephase the background coherence in the nutation frame. The initial long pulse and the following two consecutive EXORCYCLE {pi} pulses function complementarily and prove most effective in removing background signals from both strong and weak B{sub 1} fields. Experimentally, the length of the long pulse can be optimized around odd multiples of the {pi}/2 pulse, depending on the individual probe design, to preserve signals inside the coil while minimizing those from probe hardware. This method extends the applicability of the DEPTH sequence to probes with small differences in B{sub 1} field strength between the inside and outside of the coil, and can readily combine with well-developed double resonance experiments for quantitative measurement. In general, spin systems with weak internal interactions are required to attain efficient and uniform excitation for powder samples, and the principles to determine the applicability are discussed qualitatively in terms of the relative strength of spin interactions, r.f. power and spinning rate.

  17. Polar Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.

  18. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  19. High sensitivity piezomagnetic force microscopy for quantitative probing of magnetic materials at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian Nataly; Ma, Feiyue; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Yuanming; Proksch, Roger; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-07-01

    Accurate scanning probing of magnetic materials at the nanoscale is essential for developing and characterizing magnetic nanostructures, yet quantitative analysis is difficult using the state of the art magnetic force microscopy, and has limited spatial resolution and sensitivity. In this communication, we develop a novel piezomagnetic force microscopy (PmFM) technique, with the imaging principle based on the detection of magnetostrictive response excited by an external magnetic field. In combination with the dual AC resonance tracking (DART) technique, the contact stiffness and energy dissipation of the samples can be simultaneously mapped along with the PmFM phase and amplitude, enabling quantitative probing of magnetic materials and structures at the nanoscale with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PmFM has been applied to probe magnetic soft discs and cobalt ferrite thin films, demonstrating it as a powerful tool for a wide range of magnetic materials. PMID:23720016

  20. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  1. Probing the Innermost Regions of AGN Jets and Their Magnetic Fields with RadioAstron. I. Imaging BL Lacertae at 21 Microarcsecond Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, José L.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Bruni, Gabriele; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Bach, Uwe; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Anderson, James M.; Galindo, Pablo; Kardashev, Nikolay S.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first polarimetric space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging observations at 22 GHz. BL Lacertae was observed in 2013 November 10 with the RadioAstron space VLBI mission, including a ground array of 15 radio telescopes. The instrumental polarization of the space radio telescope is found to be less than 9%, demonstrating the polarimetric imaging capabilities of RadioAstron at 22 GHz. Ground-space fringes were obtained up to a projected baseline distance of 7.9 Earth diameters in length, allowing us to image the jet in BL Lacertae with a maximum angular resolution of 21 μas, the highest achieved to date. We find evidence for emission upstream of the radio core, which may correspond to a recollimation shock at about 40 μas from the jet apex, in a pattern that includes other recollimation shocks at approximately 100 and 250 μas from the jet apex. Polarized emission is detected in two components within the innermost 0.5 mas from the core, as well as in some knots 3 mas downstream. Faraday rotation analysis, obtained from combining RadioAstron 22 GHz and ground-based 15 and 43 GHz images, shows a gradient in rotation measure and Faraday-corrected polarization vector as a function of position angle with respect to the core, suggesting that the jet in BL Lacertae is threaded by a helical magnetic field. The intrinsic de-boosted brightness temperature in the unresolved core exceeds 3× {10}12 K, suggesting, at the very least, departure from equipartition of energy between the magnetic field and radiating particles.

  2. USING COORDINATED OBSERVATIONS IN POLARIZED WHITE LIGHT AND FARADAY ROTATION TO PROBE THE SPATIAL POSITION AND MAGNETIC FIELD OF AN INTERPLANETARY SHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Ying D.; Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A.; Owens, Mathew J.; Davis, Chris J.

    2013-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub ∥} and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression I∝r {sup –3}. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r{sub sheath} and the mass of plasma at that position M{sub sheath} can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B{sub ∥sheath} at r{sub sheath} can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and magnetic field properties.

  3. Reconnection of Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Priest, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1.1 The Sun E. R. Priest; 1.2 Earth's magnetosphere J. Birn; Part II. Basic Theory of MHD Reconnection: 2.1 Classical theory of two-dimensional reconnection T. G. Forbes; 2.2 Fundamental concepts G. Hornig; 2.3 Three-dimensional reconnection in the absence of magnetic null points G. Hornig; 2.4 Three-dimensional reconnection at magnetic null points D. Pontin; 2.5 Three-dimensional flux tube reconnection M. Linton; Part III. Basic Theory of Collisionless Reconnection: 3.1 Fundamentals of collisionless reconnection J. Drake; 3.2 Diffusion region physics M. Hesse; 3.3 Onset of magnetic reconnection P. Pritchett; 3.4 Hall-MHD reconnection A. Bhattacharjee and J. Dorelli; 3.5 Role of current-aligned instabilities J. Büchner and W. Daughton; 3.6 Nonthermal particle acceleration M. Hoshino; Part IV. Reconnection in the Magnetosphere: 4.1 Reconnection at the magnetopause: concepts and models J. G. Dorelli and A. Bhattacharjee; 4.2 Observations of magnetopause reconnection K.-H. Trattner; 4.3 On the stability of the magnetotail K. Schindler; 4.4 Simulations of reconnection in the magnetotail J. Birn; 4.5 Observations of tail reconnection W. Baumjohann and R. Nakamura; 4.6 Remote sensing of reconnection M. Freeman; Part V. Reconnection in the Sun's Atmosphere: 5.1 Coronal heating E. R. Priest; 5.2 Separator reconnection D. Longcope; 5.3 Pinching of coronal fields V. Titov; 5.4 Numerical experiments on coronal heating K. Galsgaard; 5.5 Solar flares K. Kusano; 5.6 Particle acceleration in flares: theory T. Neukirch; 5.7 Fast particles in flares: observations L. Fletcher; 6. Open problems J. Birn and E. R. Priest; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Observations of galactic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields are enchored in gas clouds. Field lines are tangled in spiral arms, but highly regular between the arms. The similarity of pitch angles between gaseous and magnetic arms suggests a coupling between the density wave and the magnetic wave. Observations of large-scale patterns in Faraday rotation favour a dynamo origin of the regular fields. Fields in barred galaxies do not reveal the strong shearing shocks observed in the cold gas, but swing smoothly from the upstream region into the bar. Magnetic fields are important for the dynamcis of gas clouds, for the formation of spiral structures, bars and halos, and for mass and angular momentum transport in central regions.

  5. The magnetic fields of young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao

    2009-06-01

    The T Tauri stars (TTSs) are young, solar-type stars which display many spectral pecularities. Understanding the magnetic properties of TTSs is a key to make sense of their curious behaviors. First, high resolution optical and infrared (IR) echelle spectra are analyzed to measure the surface magnetic field of the classical T Tauri star (CTTS) TW Hydrae. Key stellar parameters are determined from detailed spectrum synthesis of atomic and molecular absorption features in the optical, and then modeling the line profiles of the four magnetically sensitive Ti I lires in the K band yields the average magnetic field on TW Hydrae. Extensive Monté Carlo tests are performed to quantify systematic errors in the analysis technique, finding that reasonable errors in the effective temperature or surface gravity produce around 10% uncertainty in the magnetic field measurements. Then a similar analysis technique is applied to detect strong magnetic fields on 5 additional stars in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA) as well as 14 TTSs in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We combine these measurements with previous measurements of 14 stars in Taurus to study the potential evolution of magnetic field properties during the first 10 million years of stellar evolution. In addition, to probe the magnetic geometry on the surface of TW Hydrae, high resolution circular spectropolarimetry of this star is analyzed to measure the net longitudinal magnetic field. Significant polarization is detected on the final night of six consecutive nights of observing, but no net polarization is seen on other nights. This longitudinal field detection is still much lower than that which would be consistent with a dipole geometry on the stellar suface. On the other hand, strong circular polarization is detected in the He I l5876 and Ca II l8498 emission lines, indicating a strong field in the line forming regions of these features. Overall, strong magnetic fields of kG level are commonly found among TTSs and the magnetic configuration is probably not a simple dipole as current magnetospheric accretion theories assume. With magnetic pressure likely dominating over gas pressure in the stellar photospheres, the entire stellar surfaces could be covered with magnetic fields, and this might be responsible for the underproduction of the X-ray emission of TTSs. It is also suggested that these large-scale magnetic fields could be of a primordial origin.

  6. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  7. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  8. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  9. Real time probing of magnetization switching in magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittienne, Ph.; Gravier, L.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    2002-09-01

    Time-resolved anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements of the irreversible switching of the magnetization were performed on isolated Ni nanowires. The magnetization reversal was triggered by injection of high current densities in a static magnetic field. The detection was achieved by means of a Wheatstone bridge with a 1 GHz bandwidth. Time-resolved switching was obtained in single shot measurements. Nanowires with diameter of about 100 nm that present a uniform rotation in the reversible regime detected in quasistatic AMR measurements are found to have switching in about 14 ns. This value can be accounted for in the framework of an uniform rotation model with value of the Gilbert damping coefficient of 0.005-0.01. Nanowires with larger diameters (typ. 200 nm) that manifest inhomogeneous magnetization in quasistatic AMR measurements have a switching time of about 37 ns.

  10. Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

  11. Measuring magnetic field vector by stimulated Raman transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenli; Dong, Richang; Wei, Rong; Lin, Jinda; Zou, Fan; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for measuring the magnetic field vector in an atomic fountain by probing the line strength of stimulated Raman transitions. The relative line strength for a Λ-type level system with an existing magnetic field is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field vector measured by our proposed method is consistent well with that by the traditional bias magnetic field method with an axial resolution of 6.1 mrad and a radial resolution of 0.16 rad. Dependences of the Raman transitions on laser polarization schemes are also analyzed. Our method offers the potential advantages for magnetic field measurement without requiring additional bias fields, beyond the limitation of magnetic field intensity, and extending the spatial measurement range. The proposed method can be widely used for measuring magnetic field vector in other precision measurement fields.

  12. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  13. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate. PMID:25646869

  14. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  15. Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, Th; Van Den Berg, H A M; Hohlfeld, J; Bär, L; Rasing, Th

    2002-08-01

    Since the invention of the first magnetic memory disk in 1954, much effort has been put into enhancing the speed, bit density and reliability of magnetic memory devices. In the case of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices, fast coherent magnetization rotation by precession of the entire memory cell is desired, because reversal by domain-wall motion is much too slow. In principle, the fundamental limit of the switching speed via precession is given by half of the precession period. However, under-critically damped systems exhibit severe ringing and simulations show that, as a consequence, undesired back-switching of magnetic elements of an MRAM can easily be initiated by subsequent write pulses, threatening data integrity. We present a method to reverse the magnetization in under-critically damped systems by coherent rotation of the magnetization while avoiding any ringing. This is achieved by applying specifically shaped magnetic field pulses that match the intrinsic properties of the magnetic elements. We demonstrate, by probing all three magnetization components, that reliable precessional reversal in lithographically structured micrometre-sized elliptical permalloy elements is possible at switching times of about 200 ps, which is ten times faster than the natural damping time constant. PMID:12152072

  16. Magnetic Quantization of Exfoliated Graphene Probed with Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Gregory M.; Jung, Suyong; Klimov, Nikolai N.; Newell, David B.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    2010-03-01

    Recent scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies have shown the excellent magnetic quantization of Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene on SiC [1]. Landau level lifetimes of 0.4 ps were observed, indicating the high mobility of these graphene samples. In this talk, we compare the magnetic quantization properties of exfoliated graphene to what was previously measured for epitaxial graphene [1]. The exfoliated graphene sample was made by removing graphene layers from natural graphite, then placing them onto a SiO2/Si substrate. A gold electrode, used for the tunneling bias, was deposited using a shadow mask technique. Magnetic quantization of the graphene is then probed with both the application of an external magnetic field and with an external gate voltage applied to the Si substrate below the graphene. Through the electric field effect, the external gate voltage will change the carrier density in the graphene, giving us new information about the screening and carrier dependence of the Landau level lifetimes. [4pt] [1] D. L. Miller et al., Science 324, 924 (2009).

  17. Magnetic fields in early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, Jason H.; Neiner, Coralie

    2015-10-01

    For several decades we have been cognizant of the presence of magnetic fields in early-type stars, but our understanding of their magnetic properties has recently (over the last decade) expanded due to the new generation of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS at CFHT, Narval at TBL, HARPSpol at ESO). The most detailed surface magnetic field maps of intermediate-mass stars have been obtained through Doppler imaging techniques, allowing us to probe the small-scale structure of these stars. Thanks to the effort of large programmes (e.g. the MiMeS project), we have, for the first time, addressed key issues regarding our understanding of the magnetic properties of massive (M > 8 M ⊙) stars, whose magnetic fields were only first detected about fifteen years ago. In this proceedings article we review the spectropolarimetric observations and statistics derived in recent years that have formed our general understanding of stellar magnetism in early-type stars. We also discuss how these observations have furthered our understanding of the interactions between the magnetic field and stellar wind, as well as the consequences and connections of this interaction with other observed phenomena.

  18. Intrinsic Bispectra of Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Iain A.

    2011-06-01

    Forthcoming data sets from the Planck experiment and others are in a position to probe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) non-Gaussianity with higher accuracy than has yet been possible, and potentially open a new window into the physics of the very early universe. However, a signal need not necessarily be inflationary in origin, and possible contaminants should be examined in detail. One such is provided by early universe magnetic fields, which can be produced by a variety of models including during an inflationary phase, at phase transitions, or seeded by cosmic defects. Should such fields have been extant in the early universe, they would provide a natural source of CMB non-Gaussianity. Knowledge of the CMB angular bispectrum requires the complete Fourier-space (or "intrinsic") bispectrum. In this paper, I consider in detail the intrinsic bispectra of an early-universe magnetic field for a range of power-law magnetic spectra.

  19. Measurements of Electric Field Fluctuations Using a Capacitive Probe on the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Mingsheng; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S.; McCollam, K. J.; Triana, J. C.; Li, H.; Ding, W. X.; Liu, W.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental measurements and extended MHD computation reveal that both flow and current density fluctuations are important for the magnetic relaxation of RFP plasmas via tearing fluctuations. Motivated by these results, we have developed a multi-electrode capacitive probe for radial profile measurements of the electrostatic potential deep in the plasma. The capacitive probe measures the ac plasma potential via electrodes insulated from the plasma using an annular boron nitride dielectric (also the particle shield), provided the secondary emission is sufficiently large (Te>20 eV). The probe has ten sets of four capacitors with 1.5 cm radial separation. At each radius, four capacitors are arranged on a 1.3 cm square grid. This probe has been inserted up to 15 cm from the wall in 200 kA deuterium plasmas. The fluctuation amplitudes increase during the sawtooth crash and the power spectrum broadens (similar to the behavior of magnetic field fluctuations). The frequency bandwidth allows measurements of the radial coherence and phase of the fluctuations associated with rotating tearing modes up to the Alfvénic range. A next-step goal is measurement of the total dynamo emf, ~ < E ~ . B ~ > /B0 , to complement ongoing measurements of the Hall dynamo emf, < J ~ × B ~ > / ne , using a deep-insertion magnetic probe. M. Tan is supported by ITER-China Program. Work is supported by US DOE.

  20. Parametric study of a pin-plane probe in moderately magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binwal, S.; Gandhi, S.; Kabariya, H.; Karkari, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of a planar Langmuir probe in magnetized plasma is found to be problematic due to significant perturbation of plasma along the magnetic field lines intercepting the probe surface. This causes the Ampere-Volts ‘I e(U)’ characteristics of the probe to deviate from its usual exponential law; in conjunction the electron saturation current I es is significantly reduced. Moreover estimating the electron temperature T e by considering the entire semi-log plot of I e(U) gives ambiguous values of T e. To address this problem, Pitts and Stangeby developed a formula for the reduction factor for I es. This formula depends on a number of uncertain parameters, namely; the ion temperature T +, electron cross-field diffusion coefficient {{D}\\bot ,\\text{e}} and the local potential hill V h estimated by applying a floating pin probe in the vicinity of the planar probe. Due to implicit dependence of these parameters on T e, the resulting analysis is not straightforward. This paper presents a parametric study of different parameters that influence the characteristics of a planar probe in magnetized plasma. For this purpose a pin-plane probe is constructed and applied in the magnetized plasma column. A comprehensive discussion is presented that highlights the practical methodology of using this technique for extracting useful information of plasma parameters in magnetized plasmas.

  1. The Sun's global magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Duncan H

    2012-07-13

    Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

  2. Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P; Zee, David S

    2015-04-01

    Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice, and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662

  3. Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662

  4. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of time-varying magnetic fields from therapeutic devices

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bhatia, Vivek; Prem-Kumar, Krishan; Ulfarsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging of static magnetic fields generated by external probes has been previously demonstrated, there is an unmet need to image time-varying magnetic fields, such as those generated by transcranial magnetic stimulators or radiofrequency hyperthermia probes. A method to image such time-varying magnetic fields is introduced in this work. This article presents the theory behind the method and provides proof of concept by imaging time-varying magnetic fields generated by a figure-eight coil inside simple phantoms over a range of frequencies and intensities, using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. The method is able to reconstruct the three-dimensional components of the oscillating magnetic field vector. PMID:23355446

  6. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.

    2014-04-01

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

  7. Theory of fossil magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudorov, Alexander E.; Khaibrakhmanov, Sergey A.

    2015-02-01

    Theory of fossil magnetic field is based on the observations, analytical estimations and numerical simulations of magnetic flux evolution during star formation in the magnetized cores of molecular clouds. Basic goals, main features of the theory and manifestations of MHD effects in young stellar objects are discussed.

  8. Magnetic and Langmuir Probe Measurements on the Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelfgen, Syri J.; Eskridge, Richard; Fimognari, Peter; Hawk, Clark W.; Lee, Mike; Martin, Adam

    2004-01-01

    The Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX) operates by inductively producing plasmoids in a conical theta-pinch coil and subsequently ejecting them at high velocity. An overview of PTX is described in a companion paper. The shape and magnetic field structure of the translating plasmoids will be measured with of an array of inductive magnetic field probes. Six sets of two B-dot probes (for a total of twelve probes) have been constructed for measuring B(sub z) and B(sub theta), the axial and azimuthal components of the magnetic field. The probes were calibrated with a Helmholtz coil, driven alternately by a high-voltage pulser or a signal generator. The probes are wound on a G-10 form, and have an average (calibrated) NA of 9.37 x 10(exp -5) square meters, where N is the number of turns and A is cross-sectional area. The frequency response of the probes was measured over the range from 1 kHz to 10 MHZ. The electron number density n(sub e), electron temperature T(sub e) and velocity v will be determined from measurements taken with a quadruple Langmuir probe, situated in the exhaust chamber. Three of the four probes on the quadruple probe sample the current-voltage characteristic, and from this yield measurements of T(sub e) and n(sub e). The fourth probe provides a measurement of plasma flow velocity. A 6-inch long alumina rod, hollowed with four holes to house the probe wires, is being used to construct the quadruple probe. A variety of propellants will be used, including hydrogen, nitrogen and argon. From the measurements of the plasmoid mass, density, temperature, and velocity, the basic propulsion characteristics of PTX will be evaluated.

  9. A platform for designing hyperpolarized magnetic resonance chemical probes

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Hata, Ryunosuke; Doura, Tomohiro; Nishihara, Tatsuya; Kumagai, Keiko; Akakabe, Mai; Tsuda, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Sando, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarization is a highly promising technique for improving the sensitivity of magnetic resonance chemical probes. Here we report [15N, D9]trimethylphenylammonium as a platform for designing a variety of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance chemical probes. The platform structure shows a remarkably long 15N spin–lattice relaxation value (816 s, 14.1 T) for retaining its hyperpolarized spin state. The extended lifetime enables the detection of the hyperpolarized 15N signal of the platform for several tens of minutes and thus overcomes the intrinsic short analysis time of hyperpolarized probes. Versatility of the platform is demonstrated by applying it to three types of hyperpolarized chemical probes: one each for sensing calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and enzyme activity (carboxyl esterase). All of the designed probes achieve high sensitivity with rapid reactions and chemical shift changes, which are sufficient to allow sensitive and real-time monitoring of target molecules by 15N magnetic resonance. PMID:24022444

  10. ANOMALOUS COSMIC RAYS AS PROBES OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Reames, D. V.; Kahler, S. W.; Tylka, A. J.

    2009-08-01

    We report, for the first time, the observation near the Earth of anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) particles throughout the interiors of interplanetary magnetic clouds (MCs) at the same intensity as outside the MCs. ACRs, accelerated in the outer heliosphere, have unique elemental abundances making their identity unambiguous as they probe these clouds from the outside. Thus, MCs, carried out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are seen to contain no structures that are magnetically closed to the penetration of ions with energies above a few MeV amu{sup -1}. As the MCs expand outward, they must fill their increasing volume with ACRs dynamically, to the same degree as neighboring 'open' field lines. These observations cast doubt on conventional ideas about the closed field topologies of MCs and the cross-field transport of energetic particles. The ACR observations conflict with some reports of significant exclusion from MCs of solar energetic particles (SEPs) of comparable energy and rigidity. A process that allows cross-field transport of ACRs may also allow similar transport of SEPs late in events, causing the large spatial extent and uniformity of SEPs in 'invariant spectral regions' extending far behind CME-driven shock waves.

  11. Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)  G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)  GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

  12. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 < Ø < 56, 45 < Ø < 50, 40 < Ø < 45 and Ø < 40micron of nanocrystalline alloy of brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  13. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Probe compensation in cylindrical near-field scanning: A novel simulation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1993-01-01

    Probe pattern compensation is essential in near-field scanning geometry, where there is a great need to accurately know far-field patterns at wide angular range. This paper focuses on a novel formulation and computer simulation to determine the precise need for and effect of probe compensation in cylindrical near-field scanning. The methodology is applied to a linear test array antenna and the NASA scatterometer radar antenna. The formulation is based on representing the probe by its equivalent tangential magnetic currents. The interaction between the probe equivalent aperture currents and the test antenna fields is obtained with the application of a reciprocity theorem. This allows us to obtain the probe vector output pickup integral which is proportional to the amplitude and phase of the electric field induced in the probe aperture with respect to its position to the test antenna. The integral is evaluated for each probe position on the required sampling point on a cylindrical near-field surface enclosing the antenna. The use of a hypothetical circular-aperture probe with a different radius permits us to derive closed-form expressions for its far-field radiation patterns. These results, together with the probe vector output pickup, allow us to perform computer simulated synthetic measurements. The far-field patterns of the test antenna are formulated based on cylindrical wave expansions of both the probe and test antenna fields. In the limit as the probe radius becomes very small, the probe vector output is the direct response of the near-field at a point, and no probe compensation is needed. Useful results are generated to compare the far-field pattern of the test antenna constructed from the knowledge of the simulated near-field with and without probe pattern compensation and the exact results. These results are important since they clearly illustrate the angular range over which probe compensation is needed. It has been found that a probe with an aperture radius of 0.25(lambda), 0.5(lambda), and 1(lambda) needs a little probe compensation, if any, near the test antenna main beam. In addition, a probe with low directivity may provide a better signal-to-noise ratio than a highly directive one. This is evident in test antenna patterns without probe compensation at wide angles.

  15. THE OUTER MAGNETIC FIELD OF L183

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.

    2012-03-20

    The L183 (= L134N) dark molecular cloud has been probed using deep near-infrared imaging polarimetry of stars to beyond 14 mag in H band (1.6 {mu}m), using the Mimir instrument on the 1.83 m Perkins Telescope. Nearly 400 arcmin{sup 2} were surveyed, including the dense core in L183, as seen in WISE Band 3 (12 {mu}m) extinction, and the near surroundings, revealing 35 stars with either detected polarizations or significant upper limits. Stars with detected polarizations are reddened if closer than 8 arcmin (0.25 pc at the 110 pc cloud distance) and unreddened beyond. The polarimetric sample probes as close to the core as 3 arcmin (0.1 pc), where A{sub V} {approx} 14 mag. Compared to the relatively unextincted surrounding stars, the reddened stars show no increase in polarization with extinction, suggesting that all of the polarization is induced in the outer layers of the cloud. This 0.25 pc radius envelope magnetic field does show a strong interaction with the L183 dark cloud. The envelope field is also virtually perpendicular, on the plane of the sky, to the field seen at 850 {mu}m, though more closely aligned with the rotation axis of the dense gas core. The physical size scale at which the envelope and the core magnetic fields either decouple from each other or strongly modify their directions must be inside the 0.1 pc region probed here.

  16. Magnetic fields in young galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Åke; Rögnvaldsson, Örnólfur

    We have studied the fate of initial magnetic fields in the hot halo gas out of which the visible parts of galaxies form, using three-dimensional numerical MHD-experiments. The halo gas undergoes compression by several orders of magnitude in the subsonic cooling flow that forms the cold disk. The magnetic field is carried along and is amplified considerably in the process, reaching μG levels for reasonable values of the initial ratio of magnetic to thermal energy density.

  17. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  18. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  19. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  20. The Magnetic Field in Tapia's Globule 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Carretti, Ettore; Bhat, Ramesh; Robishaw, Timothy; Crutcher, Richard; Vaillancourt, John

    2014-04-01

    We propose to measure the magnetic field in the Southern Coalsack using the Zeeman effect in OH at 1665 and 1667 MHz. This is motivated by (1) the measurement of a large magnetic field (B~90 uG) in the Coalsack region from optical and near infrared polarimetry and (2) a very low magnetic field (B~1 uG) measured ~30' from the cloud edge using pulsar Faraday rotation measurements. While the derived field strength in the cloud is significantly larger than usually seen in the interstellar medium, the existence of an X-ray emitting envelope around the cloud that contains significant amounts of O VI ions puts the magnetic pressure at approximate equipartition with the thermal pressure of such gas. A chain of observational results indicate that the Coalsack might be a unique, nearby example of externally triggered star formation. This chain starts with the passage of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus super bubble over the cloud, eventually causing triggered star formation. Probing the high magnetic field strength and providing accurate constraints for the interpretation of the observations of the cloud is therefore of great importance for testing this hypothesis.

  1. Reionization constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Sethi, Shiv K.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    We study the impact of the extra density fluctuations induced by primordial magnetic fields on the reionization history in the redshift range: 6 < z < 10. We perform a comprehensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) physical analysis allowing the variation of parameters related to primordial magnetic fields (strength, B0, and power-spectrum index n_{B}), reionization and Λ cold dark matter cosmological model. We find that magnetic field strengths in the range: B0 ≃ 0.05-0.3 nG (for nearly scale-free power spectra) can significantly alter the reionization history in the above redshift range and can relieve the tension between the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and quasar absorption spectra data. Our analysis puts upper limits on the magnetic field strength B0 < 0.358, 0.120 and 0.059 nG (95 per cent c.l.) for n_{B} = -2.95, -2.9 and -2.85, respectively. These represent the strongest magnetic field constraints among those available from other cosmological observables.

  2. Magnetic Compton scattering: A reliable probe to investigate magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, B. L.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic Compton scattering (MCS) is an ideal technique for the study of magnetic properties of ferro/ferrimagnetic materials because this method reveals the spin-polarized electron momentum density and yields the absolute and site dependent spin moments. The quantity measured in the MCS, so called magnetic Compton profile, is defined as the difference in the one-dimensional projection of the spin-polarized electron momentum density for majority and minority spin bands. In MCS, the Doppler broadening of the scattered radiation provides information on the correlation between the spin moment and the spin-polarized electron states of the valence electrons. It can also distinguish the spin polarization of itinerant electrons, because their momentum is narrow around the center of the profile. In this paper, temperature and field dependent spin momentum densities in Zn doped Ni ferrite namely, Ni1-xZnxFe2O4(x = 0.0,0.1,0.2), hole doped manganites like La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xAlxO3(x = 0,0.02and0.06) and half Heusler alloys Cu1-xNixMnSb(x = 0.17,0.22) are reviewed. The decomposition of profiles in terms of site specific magnetic moments and their role in the formation of total spin moment is also discussed.

  3. Magnetic field depression within electron holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A. V.; Jovanovic, D.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze electron holes that are spikes of the electrostatic field (up to 500 mV/m) observed by Van Allen Probes in the outer radiation belt. The unexpected feature is the magnetic field depression of about several tens of picotesla within many of the spikes. The earlier observations showed amplification or negligible perturbations of the magnetic field within the electron holes. We suggest that the observed magnetic field depression is due to the diamagnetic current of hot and highly anisotropic population of electrons trapped within the electron holes. The required trapped population should have a density up to 65% of the background plasma density, a temperature up to several keV, and a temperature anisotropy T⊥/T∥˜2. We argue that the observed electron holes could be generated due to injections of highly anisotropic plasma sheet electrons into the outer radiation belt. These electron holes may present a source of the seed population due to transport of trapped electrons to higher latitudes and can be potentially used for distant probing of plasma properties in their source region.

  4. Estimation of fluctuating magnetic fields by an atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Vivi; Moelmer, Klaus

    2006-10-15

    We present a theoretical procedure to estimate with an atomic magnetometer the time dependence of a magnetic field that fluctuates according to an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The magnetometer applies the detected polarization rotation of an optical probe to measure a collective atomic spin, which precesses due to the magnetic field. Based on the noisy optical detection record, our consistent Gaussian update formalism provides an estimator for the magnetic fields, and we identify analytically the steady-state performance of this estimator. We show that the estimate of the current value of the magnetic field is further improved if noisy measurement data obtained also at later times are taken into account.

  5. PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

    2012-06-20

    Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

  6. Magnetization precession of magnetic thin films studied by all optical pump-probe technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Steven A.

    The study of magnetization dynamics such as magnetization precession and precessional damping provides insights into the behavior of complex magnetic systems, and indeed may lead to a better understanding of the fundamental limits of magnetic reversal process. In this work, a time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect system (TRMOKE) was developed to study magnetization dynamics: Precession and damping. The system uses a femtosecond laser in a pump-probe experiment with direct optical excitation, very similar to the method introduced by Ganping Ju and coworkers. Also, a model based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG) was developed and used to interpret and analyze the experimental magnetization precession data of a single magnetic layer. The model can be used to predict the precession frequencies with and without damping, the eigenvectors of the magnetization and allows the Gilbert damping parameter (alpha) to be determined. The model is extended to a system of two magnetic layers coupled through a nonmagnetic spacer layer. The capabilities of the TRMOKE system and the LLG models, were demonstrated by studying the magnetization dynamics of Ni/Pt bilayers. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled magnetic layers have been investigated by magneto-optical measurements. The samples are [Pt/Co] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) exchange-coupled to a Co layer with in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The exchange is indirect, realized and tuned by an intervening Pt layer of varying thickness. Both the strength and the angle of an external applied magnetic field were varied and for many samples, two modes with two distinct precession frequencies were observed in the precession measurements. The frequencies of both modes depend on the strength and the angle of the applied magnetic field. The LLG model predicts two precessional modes ("acoustic" and "optic") whose behaviors depend on the strength and sign of the exchange coupling. The model is in good qualitative agreement with the data and allows us to estimate the magnitude of the exchange coupling between the two layers.

  7. Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.

  8. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  9. The magnetic field of Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, Mario H.; Ness, Norman F.

    1992-01-01

    A model is given of the planetary magnetic field of Neptune based on a spherical harmonic analysis of the observations obtained by the Voyager 2. Generalized inverse techniques are used to partially solve a severely underdetermined inverse problem, and the resulting model is nonunique since the observations are limited in spatial distribution. Dipole, quadrupole, and octupole coefficients are estimated independently of other terms, and the parameters are shown to be well constrained by the measurement data. The large-scale features of the magnetic field including dipole tilt, offset, and harmonic content are found to characterize a magnetic field that is similar to that of Uranus. The traits of Neptune's magnetic field are theorized to relate to the 'ice' interior of the planet, and the dynamo-field generation reflects this poorly conducting planet.

  10. Low-Magnetic-Field Magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turolla, Roberto; Esposito, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars are the observational manifestations of magnetars, i.e. sources powered by their own magnetic energy. This view was supported by the fact that these "magnetar candidates" exhibited, without exception, a surface dipole magnetic field (as inferred from the spin-down rate) in excess of the electron critical field (≃ 4.4×1013 G). The recent discovery of fully qualified magnetars, SGR 0418+5729 and Swift J1822.3-1606, with dipole magnetic field well in the range of ordinary radio pulsars posed a challenge to the standard picture, showing that a very strong field is not necessary for the onset of magnetar activity (chiefly bursts and outbursts). Here we summarize the observational status of the low-magnetic-field magnetars and discuss their properties in the context of the mainstream magnetar model and its main alternatives.

  11. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  12. Magnetic Field of Strange Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The generation of a magnetic field in a strange quark star owing to differential rotation of the superfluid and superconducting quark core relative to the normal electron-nuclear crust of the star is examined. The maximum possible magnetic field on the surface is estimated for various models of strange dwarfs. Depending on the configuration parameters, i.e., the mass M and radius R of the star, a range of 103-105 G is found. These values of the magnetic field may be an additional condition for identification of strange dwarfs among the extensive class of observed white dwarfs.

  13. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  14. Magnetoconvection in sheared magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, N. H.; Garcia, O. E.

    2008-10-15

    The development of magnetoconvection in a sheared magnetic field is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field B{sub 0} is horizontal and its orientation varies linearly along the vertical axis. Preliminary consideration of the transition from the inertial to the viscous regime of the gravitational resistive interchange instability, reveals that the latter is characterized by the existence of viscoresistive boundary layers of vertical width which scales as Q{sup -1/6}, where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in magnetically confined laboratory plasmas, where convective flows are constrained by the magnetic shear to develop in boundary layers located around resonant magnetic surfaces in order to fulfill the 'interchange condition'k{center_dot}B{sub 0}=0, where k is the wave vector of the magnetic perturbation. It follows that when the effect of thermal diffusion is taken into account in the process, convection can only occur above a certain critical value of the Rayleigh number which scales as Q{sup 2/3} for large Q. At the onset, the convection pattern is a superposition of identically thin convective rolls everywhere aligned with the local magnetic field lines and which therefore adopt the magnetic field geometry, a situation also reminiscent of the penumbra of sunspots. Using this degeneracy, equations describing the weakly nonlinear state are obtained and discussed. A reduced magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetoconvection is introduced. Since it is valid for arbitrary magnetic field configurations, it allows a simple extension to the case where there exists an inclination between the direction of gravity and the plane spanned by the equilibrium magnetic field. These reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations are proposed as a powerful tool for further investigations of magnetoconvection in more complex field line geometries.

  15. Ion beam probing of electrostatic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, H.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of a cylindrically symmetric, time-independent electrostatic potential V in a magnetic field B with the same symmetry by measurements of the deflection of a primary beam of ions is analyzed and substantiated by examples. Special attention is given to the requirements on canonical angular momentum and total energy set by an arbitrary, nonmonotone V, to scaling laws obtained by normalization, and to the analogy with ionospheric sounding. The inversion procedure with the Abel analysis of an equivalent problem with a one-dimensional fictitious potential is used in a numerical experiment with application to the NASA Lewis Modified Penning Discharge. The determination of V from a study of secondary beams of ions with increased charge produced by hot plasma electrons is also analyzed, both from a general point of view and with application to the NASA Lewis SUMMA experiment. Simple formulas and geometrical constructions are given for the minimum energy necessary to reach the axis, the whole plasma, and any point in the magnetic field. The common, simplifying assumption that V is a small perturbation is critically and constructively analyzed; an iteration scheme for successively correcting the orbits and points of ionization for the electrostatic potential is suggested.

  16. Magnetic Field Generation in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Lilia; Melatos, Andrew; Zrake, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Enormous progress has been made on observing stellar magnetism in stars from the main sequence (particularly thanks to the MiMeS, MAGORI and BOB surveys) through to compact objects. Recent data have thrown into sharper relief the vexed question of the origin of stellar magnetic fields, which remains one of the main unanswered questions in astrophysics. In this chapter we review recent work in this area of research. In particular, we look at the fossil field hypothesis which links magnetism in compact stars to magnetism in main sequence and pre-main sequence stars and we consider why its feasibility has now been questioned particularly in the context of highly magnetic white dwarfs. We also review the fossil versus dynamo debate in the context of neutron stars and the roles played by key physical processes such as buoyancy, helicity, and superfluid turbulence, in the generation and stability of neutron star fields.

  17. Static Magnetic Field Effects on Amphibian Early Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James M., Jr.

    1998-03-01

    The question of whether static magnetic fields affect biological systems has been the subject of many investigations. Results often seem contradictory. It is likely that the inherently weak forces and torques that magnetic fields can exert on the diamagnetic features in cells leads to effects that are very sensitive to cell size and to the orientation or timing of the applied magnetic field. With this in mind, we have performed investigations of the response of embryos of the frog, Xenopus laevis, to strong static magnetic fields. These embryos are relatively large and they assume a unique orientation in the presence of gravity. I will describe how we have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve Magnetic Field Gradient Levitation of the embryos, i.e. exert forces comparable to gravity, using existing high magnetic field solenoids. I will compare the levitated state to an ideal low gravity state and discuss how large inhomogeneous magnetic fields might be used to probe gravitationally sensitive phenomena in biological specimens. Also, I will describe two well defined types of magnetic field induced anomalies in the early development of the embryos that depend systematically on applied magnetic field strength and orientation. First, the early cell cleavages tend to align with a magnetic field. Second, magnetic fields greater than 0.5 Tesla applied to an embryo during its first three cleavages can lead to severe gastrulation abnormalities much later in development. I will propose possible mechanisms for these effects.

  18. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  19. The polar heliospheric magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the polar heliospheric magnetic field, at large heliocentric distances, may deviate considerably from the generally accepted Archimedean spiral. Instead, it is suggested that the large-scale field near the poles may be dominated by randomly-oriented transverse magnetic fields with magnitude much larger than the average spiral. The average vector field is still the spiral, but the average magnitude may be much larger. In addition, the field direction is transverse to the radial direction most of the time instead of being nearly radial. This magnetic-field structure has important consequences for the transport of cosmic rays. Preliminary model calculations suggest changes in the radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays which may improve agreement with observations.

  20. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  1. Observation of low magnetic field density peaks in helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C.

    2013-04-15

    Single density peak has been commonly observed in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges. In this paper, we report the observations of multiple density peaks in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges produced in the linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. Experiments are carried out using argon gas with m = +1 right helical antenna operating at 13.56 MHz by varying the magnetic field from 0 G to 100 G. The plasma density varies with varying the magnetic field at constant input power and gas pressure and reaches to its peak value at a magnetic field value of {approx}25 G. Another peak of smaller magnitude in density has been observed near 50 G. Measurement of amplitude and phase of the axial component of the wave using magnetic probes for two magnetic field values corresponding to the observed density peaks indicated the existence of radial modes. Measured parallel wave number together with the estimated perpendicular wave number suggests oblique mode propagation of helicon waves along the resonance cone boundary for these magnetic field values. Further, the observations of larger floating potential fluctuations measured with Langmuir probes at those magnetic field values indicate that near resonance cone boundary; these electrostatic fluctuations take energy from helicon wave and dump power to the plasma causing density peaks.

  2. Pattern Formation in a Complex Plasma in High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, M.; Konopka, U.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-05-27

    Low-pressure room-temperature neon, argon, krypton, and air plasmas were studied in magnetic fields up to flux densities of 2.3 T. Filaments appeared parallel to the magnetic field lines, and patterns such as spirals and concentric circles formed in the perpendicular direction. We link these effects to the magnetization of the ions. We also used a layer of embedded microparticles as probes in the plasma. Their motion changed dramatically from a collective rotation of the whole ensemble in moderate magnetic fields to a rotation in several small vortices centered at the filaments.

  3. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander.

  4. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T L; Baumjohann, W; Russell, C T; Luhmann, J G; Xiao, S D

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth's twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234

  5. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234

  6. Magnetic fields on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Synoptic observations of solar magnetic fields are discussed. Seen in long-term averages, the magnetic fields of the Sun show distinctive behavior. The active-region latitudes are characterized by magnetic fields of preceding polarity. The flow of following polarity fields to make up the polar fields is episodic, not continuous. This field motion is a directed poleward flow and is not due to diffusion. The total magnetic flux on the solar surface, which is related linearly to the calcium emission in integrated sunlight, varies from activity minimum to maximum by a factor of 2 or 3. Nearly all this flux is seen at active-region latitudes-only about 1% is at the poles. The total flux of the Sun disappears from the surface at a very rapid rate and is replaced by new flux. All the field and flux patterns that we see originate in active-region latitudes. The polar magnetic fields of the Sun were observed to change polarity recently. The variations of the full-disk solar flux are shown to lead to the proper rotation rate of the Sun, but the phase of the variations is constant for only a year or two at most.

  7. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  8. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos.

    PubMed

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x-y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples. PMID:24387560

  9. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with forthcoming radio telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array.

  10. Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the axial fields in high-latitude quiescent prominences is considered. The fact that almost all quiescent prominences obey the same hemisphere-dependent rule strongly suggests that the solar differential rotation plays an important role in producing the axial fields. However, the observations are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the axial fields are produced by differential rotation acting on an existing coronal magnetic field. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. The possibility that the sign of the axial field depends on the topology of the magnetic field in which the prominence is embedded is examined, as is the possibility that the neutral line is tilted with respect to the east-west direction, so that differential rotation causes the neutral line also to rotate with time. The possibility that the axial fields of quiescent prominences have their origin below the solar surface is also considered.

  11. Internal magnetic field measurement on C-2 field-reversed configuration plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gota, H; Thompson, M C; Knapp, K; Van Drie, A D; Deng, B H; Mendoza, R; Guo, H Y; Tuszewski, M

    2012-10-01

    A long-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma has been produced in the C-2 device by dynamically colliding and merging two oppositely directed, highly supersonic compact toroids (CTs). The reversed-field structure of the translated CTs and final merged-FRC state have been directly verified by probing the internal magnetic field structure using a multi-channel magnetic probe array near the midplane of the C-2 confinement chamber. Each of the two translated CTs exhibits significant toroidal fields (B(t)) with opposite helicity, and a relatively large B(t) remains inside the separatrix after merging. PMID:23126880

  12. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; MakJurkauskas, Melody L.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (?w) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (?e/?l), being ?660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (?5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanismsthe Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in ?w and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments. PMID:18266416

  13. A new probe for measuring small electric fields in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    A dipolar double probe has been developed for in situ measurements of small electric fields in laboratory plasmas. The probe measures dc to ac electric fields (f values between 0 and 20 MHz) with high sensitivity (Emin about 10 microV/cm) and responds to both space charge electric fields and inductive electric fields. Using voltage-to-frequency conversion, the probe signal is obtained free of errors and loading effects by a transmission line. Various examples of useful applications for the new probe are presented, such as measurements of dc ambipolar fields, ac space-charge fields of ion acoustic waves, ac inductive fields of whistler waves, and mixed inductive and space-charge electric fields in current-carrying magnetoplasmas.

  14. The magnetic field of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the magnetic field observations and their analyses relating to the determination of the Mercury magnetic field. Methods of analyzing data included: (1) comparison of bow shock and magnetopause relative positions at Mercury to the earth, (2) direct spherical harmonic analysis, (3) magnetosphere modeling by an image dipole, and (4) scaling of a mathematical model for the terrestrial magnetosphere. Dipole moments were determined using partial quadrupole and octupole terms to improve the least-square fit of models to observations; analyses by method (2) yield a convergent series of dipole moments values considered to best represent the intrinsic planetary field. Finally, it is suggested that the origin of the magnetic field of Mercury cannot be uniquely determined, but the sources of convective energy may be radiogenic decay and heat release, gravitational settling, and differentiation of processional torques.

  15. Dynamical Field Line Connectivity in Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, D. J.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Point-to-point magnetic connectivity has a stochastic character whenever magnetic fluctuations cause a field line random walk, with observable manifestations such as dropouts of solar energetic particles and upstream events at Earth's bow shock. This can also change due to dynamical activity. Comparing the instantaneous magnetic connectivity to the same point at two different times, we provide a nonperturbative analytic theory for the ensemble average perpendicular displacement of the magnetic field line, given the power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations. For simplicity, the theory is developed in the context of transverse turbulence, and is numerically evaluated for two specific models: reduced magnetohydrodynanmics (RMHD), a quasi-two dimensional model of anisotropic turbulence that is applicable to low-beta plasmas, and two-dimensional (2D) plus slab turbulence, which is a good parameterization for solar wind turbulence. We take into account the dynamical decorrelation of magnetic fluctuations due to wave propagation, nonlinear distortion, random sweeping, and convection by a bulk wind flow relative to the observer. The mean squared time-differenced displacement increases with time and with parallel distance, becoming twice the field line random walk displacement at long distances and/or times, corresponding to a pair of uncorrelated random walks. These results are relevant to a variety of astrophysical processes, such as electron transport and heating patterns in coronal loops and the solar transition region, changing magnetic connection to particle sources near the Sun or at a planetary bow shock, and thickening of coronal hole boundaries. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund, the US NSF (AGS-1063439 and SHINE AGS-1156094), NASA (Heliophysics Theory NNX11AJ44G), and by the Solar Probe Plus Project through the ISIS Theory team.

  16. Magnetic field in holographic superconductor with dark matter sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakonieczny, Łukasz; Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.

    2015-02-01

    Based on the analytical technique the effect of the static magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductor with dark matter sector of U (1 )-gauge field type coupled to the Maxwell field has been examined. In the probe limit, we obtained the mean value of the condensation operator. The nature of the condensate in an external magnetic field as well as the behavior of the critical field close to the transition temperature has been revealed. The obtained upturn of the critical field curves as a function of temperature, both in four and five spacetime dimensions, is a fingerprint of the strong coupling approach.

  17. Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kabakova, I V; de Hoogh, A; van der Wel, R E C; Wulf, M; le Feber, B; Kuipers, L

    2016-01-01

    Near-field imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the complex structure of light at the nanoscale. Recent advances in near-field imaging have indicated the possibility for the complete reconstruction of both electric and magnetic components of the evanescent field. Here we study the electro-magnetic field structure of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating along subwavelength gold nanowires by performing phase- and polarization-resolved near-field microscopy in collection mode. By applying the optical reciprocity theorem, we describe the signal collected by the probe as an overlap integral of the nanowire's evanescent field and the probe's response function. As a result, we find that the probe's sensitivity to the magnetic field is approximately equal to its sensitivity to the electric field. Through rigorous modeling of the nanowire mode as well as the aperture probe response function, we obtain a good agreement between experimentally measured signals and a numerical model. Our findings provide a better understanding of aperture-based near-field imaging of the nanoscopic plasmonic and photonic structures and are helpful for the interpretation of future near-field experiments. PMID:26947124

  18. A modified Katsumata probe—Ion sensitive probe for measurement in non-magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čada, M.; Hubička, Z.; Adámek, P.; Olejníček, J.; Kment, Š.; Adámek, J.; Stöckel, J.

    2015-07-01

    A modified Katsumata probe has been developed for measurement of ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) in technological non-magnetized plasmas. A simple construction of the modified Katsumata probe consists of adding a pair of permanent Sm-Co magnets in front of Katsumata probe. A comparative study regarding IVDF measurement in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering system operating in pure argon atmosphere by means of developed modified Katsumata probe and commercially available gridded retarding field analyzer (RFA) has been carried out. A time-resolved measurement of IVDF for two different pressures whilst other plasma conditions have been kept unchanged has revealed that the main advantage of the modified Katsumata probe compared to the RFA consists in significantly smaller angular aperture of entrance orifice of modified Katsumata probe being approximately 15° in comparison with a commercial RFA having angular aperture more than 160°. It leads in much better velocity resolution in measured IVDF since the transversal part of velocity vector is much more suppressed compared to RFA. Furthermore, the modified Katsumata probe less suffers from collisions of ions in the space charge sheath in front or inside of the probe compared to the RFA.

  19. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

  20. Probing the magnetic behavior of single nanodots.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alexander; Thnnissen, Carsten; Frauen, Axel; Hesse, Simon; Meyer, Andreas; Oepen, Hans Peter

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a method is presented that has the sensitivity to measure magnetization behavior of single nanostructures. It is demonstrated that the technique gives the ability to separate different signals of single nanodots from a small ensemble of structures. Our method is based on the anomalous Hall-Effect and allows for resolving signals from spherical nanoparticles with diameter down to 3.5 nm. The method gives access to magnetic properties of particles in a wide thermal and dynamical range. The potential of the technique is demonstrated utilizing particles that are created from Co films sandwiched by Pt layers. PMID:23557292

  1. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws of electromagnetism. According to a rule of the left hand: if the magnetic field in a kernel is directed to drawing, electric current are directed to an axis of rotation of the Earth, - a action of force clockwise (to West). Definition of the force causing drift a kernel according to the law of Ampere F = IBlsin. Powerful force 3,5 × 1012 Nyton, what makes drift of the central part of a kernel of the Earth on 0,2 the longitude in year to West, and also it is engine of the mechanism of movement of slabs together with continents. Movement of a core of the Earth carry out around of a terrestrial axis one circulation in the western direction in 2000 of years. Linear speed of rotation of a kernel concerning a mantle on border the mantle a kernel: V = × 3,471 × 10 = 3,818 × 10 m/s = 33 m/day = 12 km/years. Considering greater viscosity of a mantle, the powerful energy at rotation of a kernel seize a mantle and lithospheric slabs and makes their collisions as a result of which there are earthquakes and volcano. Continents Northern and Southern America every year separate from the Europe and Africa on several centimeters. Atlantic ocean as a result of movement of these slabs with such speed was formed for 200 million years, that in comparison with the age of the Earth - several billions years, not so long time. Drift of a kernel in the western direction is a principal cause of delay of speed of rotation of the Earth. Flow of radial electric currents allot according to the law of Joule - Lenz, the quantity of warmth : Q = I2Rt = IUt, of thermal energy 6,92 × 1017 calories/year. This defines heating of a kernel and the Earth as a whole. In the valley of the median-Atlantic ridge having numerous volcanos, the lava flow constantly thus warm up waters of Atlantic ocean. It is a fact the warm current Gulf Stream. Thawing of a permafrost and ices of Arctic ocean, of glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica is acknowledgement: the warmth of earth defines character of thawing of glaciers and a permafrost. This is a global warming. The version of the author: the periods of inversion of a magnetic field of the Earth determine cycles of the Ice Age. At inversions of a magnetic field when B=0, radial electric currents are small or are absent, excretion of thermal energy minimally or an equal to zero,it is the beginning of the cooling the Earth and offensive of the Ice Age. Disappearance warm current Gulf Stream warming the north of the Europe and Canada. Drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in a rotation the opposite to rotation of the Earth, is acknowledgement of drift of a kernel of the Earth in a rotation the opposite to rotation of the Earth and is acknowledgement of the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth ». The author continues to develop the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth » and invites geophysicists to accept in it participation in it.

  2. Probing of multiple magnetic responses in magnetic inductors using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjae; Seo, Hosung; Seol, Daehee; Yoon, Young-Hwan; Kim, Mi Yang; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Even though nanoscale analysis of magnetic properties is of significant interest, probing methods are relatively less developed compared to the significance of the technique, which has multiple potential applications. Here, we demonstrate an approach for probing various magnetic properties associated with eddy current, coil current and magnetic domains in magnetic inductors using multidimensional magnetic force microscopy (MMFM). The MMFM images provide combined magnetic responses from the three different origins, however, each contribution to the MMFM response can be differentiated through analysis based on the bias dependence of the response. In particular, the bias dependent MMFM images show locally different eddy current behavior with values dependent on the type of materials that comprise the MI. This approach for probing magnetic responses can be further extended to the analysis of local physical features. PMID:26852801

  3. Probing of multiple magnetic responses in magnetic inductors using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjae; Seo, Hosung; Seol, Daehee; Yoon, Young-Hwan; Kim, Mi Yang; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Even though nanoscale analysis of magnetic properties is of significant interest, probing methods are relatively less developed compared to the significance of the technique, which has multiple potential applications. Here, we demonstrate an approach for probing various magnetic properties associated with eddy current, coil current and magnetic domains in magnetic inductors using multidimensional magnetic force microscopy (MMFM). The MMFM images provide combined magnetic responses from the three different origins, however, each contribution to the MMFM response can be differentiated through analysis based on the bias dependence of the response. In particular, the bias dependent MMFM images show locally different eddy current behavior with values dependent on the type of materials that comprise the MI. This approach for probing magnetic responses can be further extended to the analysis of local physical features. PMID:26852801

  4. Probing of multiple magnetic responses in magnetic inductors using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongjae; Seo, Hosung; Seol, Daehee; Yoon, Young-Hwan; Kim, Mi Yang; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-02-01

    Even though nanoscale analysis of magnetic properties is of significant interest, probing methods are relatively less developed compared to the significance of the technique, which has multiple potential applications. Here, we demonstrate an approach for probing various magnetic properties associated with eddy current, coil current and magnetic domains in magnetic inductors using multidimensional magnetic force microscopy (MMFM). The MMFM images provide combined magnetic responses from the three different origins, however, each contribution to the MMFM response can be differentiated through analysis based on the bias dependence of the response. In particular, the bias dependent MMFM images show locally different eddy current behavior with values dependent on the type of materials that comprise the MI. This approach for probing magnetic responses can be further extended to the analysis of local physical features.

  5. Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y. X.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field effects have been a successful tool for studying carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors as the weak spin-orbit coupling in these materials gives rise to long spin relaxation times. As the spin-orbit coupling is strong in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are promising materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, magnetic field effects are expected to be negligible in these optoelectronic devices. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent, magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence responses in hybrid perovskite devices and thin films, where the amplitude and shape are correlated to each other through the electron-hole lifetime, which depends on the perovskite film morphology. We attribute these responses to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs with different g-factors--the Δg model. We validate this model by measuring large Δg (~ 0.65) using field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence, and electron-hole pair lifetime using picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  6. Observations of Mercury's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

  7. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Fletcher, A.

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible. In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later chapters address the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies and galaxy clusters. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in astronomy and physics and will serve as an entry point for those starting their first research projects in the field.

  8. Analysis of the Distribution of Magnetic Fluid inside Tumors by a Giant Magnetoresistance Probe

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Kurnicki, Adam; Yamada, Sotoshi; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas C.; Kosel, Jrgen

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy uses the magnetic component of electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency spectrum to couple energy to magnetic nanoparticles inside tumors. In MFH therapy, magnetic fluid is injected into tumors and an alternating current (AC) magnetic flux is applied to heat the magnetic fluid- filled tumor. If the temperature can be maintained at the therapeutic threshold of 42C for 30 minutes or more, the tumor cells can be destroyed. Analyzing the distribution of the magnetic fluid injected into tumors prior to the heating step in MFH therapy is an essential criterion for homogenous heating of tumors, since a decision can then be taken on the strength and localization of the applied external AC magnetic flux density needed to destroy the tumor without affecting healthy cells. This paper proposes a methodology for analyzing the distribution of magnetic fluid in a tumor by a specifically designed giant magnetoresistance (GMR) probe prior to MFH heat treatment. Experimental results analyzing the distribution of magnetic fluid suggest that different magnetic fluid weight densities could be estimated inside a single tumor by the GMR probe. PMID:24312280

  9. Mars Crustal Magnetic Field Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The radial magnetic field measured is color coded on a global perspective view that shows measurements derived from spacecraft tracks below 200 km overlain on a monochrome shaded relief map of the topography.

    This image shows especially strong Martian magnetic fields in the southern highlands near the Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum regions, centered around 180 degrees longitude from the equator to the pole. It is where magnetic stripes possibly resulting from crustal movement are most prominent. The bands are oriented approximately east - west and are about 100 miles wide and 600 miles long, although the longest band stretches more than 1200 miles.

    The false blue and red colors represent invisible magnetic fields in the Martian crust that point in opposite directions. The magnetic fields appear to be organized in bands, with adjacent bands pointing in opposite directions, giving these stripes a striking similarity to patterns seen in the Earth's crust at the mid-oceanic ridges.

    These data were compiled by the MGS Magnetometer Team led by Mario Acuna at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

  10. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  11. The magnetic field of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Mark J.

    Models of the magnetic field configuration of the Milky Way are reviewed. Current analyses of rotation measure data suggest that the Milky Way possesses a bisymmetric-like spiral magnetic field, that field reversals among spiral arms exist, and that the magnetic spiral may not closely match the mass spiral structure. Zeeman measurements of OH masers may provide alternative magnetic field information.

  12. Magnetically insulated baffled probe for real-time monitoring of equilibrium and fluctuating values of space potentials, electron and ion temperatures, and densities

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. I.; Koepke, M. E.; Raitses, Y.

    2010-10-15

    By restricting the electron-collection area of a cold Langmuir probe compared to the ion-collection area, the probe floating potential can become equal to the space potential, and thus conveniently monitored, rather than to a value shifted from the space potential by an electron-temperature-dependent offset, i.e., the case with an equal-collection-area probe. This design goal is achieved by combining an ambient magnetic field in the plasma with baffles, or shields, on the probe, resulting in species-selective magnetic insulation of the probe collection area. This permits the elimination of electron current to the probe by further adjustment of magnetic insulation which results in an ion-temperature-dependent offset when the probe is electrically floating. Subtracting the floating potential of two magnetically insulated baffled probes, each with a different degree of magnetic insulation, enables the electron or ion temperature to be measured in real time.

  13. Detecting Solar Axions Using Earth's Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2006-10-06

    We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy <{omega}>{approx_equal}4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m{sub a}(less-or-similar sign)10{sup -4} eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}, pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10{sup -11} GeV{sup -1}, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

  14. Helical Magnetic Fields from Sphaleron Decay and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Copi, Craig J.; Ferrer, Francesc; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Achucarro, Ana

    2008-10-24

    Many models of baryogenesis rely on anomalous particle physics processes to give baryon number violation. By numerically evolving the electroweak equations on a lattice, we show that baryogenesis in these models creates helical cosmic magnetic fields, though the helicity created is smaller than earlier analytical estimates. After a transitory period, electroweak dynamics is found to conserve the Chern-Simons number and the total electromagnetic helicity. We argue that baryogenesis could lead to magnetic fields of nano-Gauss strength today on astrophysical length scales. In addition to being astrophysically relevant, such helical magnetic fields can provide an independent probe of baryogenesis and CP violation in particle physics.

  15. Jovian magnetic fields is complex, Pioneer 11 shows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.; Waller, P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the magnetic field of the planet Jupiter is presented. The data are based on the information returned by Pioneer 11 space probe. It was determined that the magnetic field stretches across 9 million miles of space at some times and shrinks in volume by three-fourths or more at other times. It was also determined that electrons trapped in the magnetic field of Jupiter are 10,000 times more intense than those in the Van Allen radiation belts which circle the earth. Additional data were obtained on the polar regions, atmospheric circulation, and the nature of the moons.

  16. Coherent population oscillation produced by saturating probe and pump fields on the intercombination line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafafard, A.; Mahmoudi, M.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the experiments on coherent population oscillations and coherent population trapping on the intercombination line of 174Yb. The transition involves a change of the spin and thus can not be interpreted in terms of an effective lambda system. The reported experiments are done in the regime where both pump and probe fields can saturate the transition. We demonstrate, by both numerical and analytical calculations, the appearance of the interference minimum as both pump and probe start saturating the transition. We present an analytical result for the threshold probe power required for the interference minimum to appear. We also present a detailed study of the appearance of the interference minimum when magnetic fields are applied. The magnetic fields not only create Zeeman splittings, but in addition make the system open because of the couplings to other levels. We show the possibility of interference minimums at the position of subharmonic resonances.

  17. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N.R., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

  18. Advances in Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Tsv K.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Kovačič, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Pedrosa, M. A.; López-Bruna, D.; Hidalgo, C.

    2016-06-01

    Advanced Langmuir probe techniques for evaluating the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function (EEDF) in magnetized plasma are reviewed. It is shown that when the magnetic field applied is very weak and the electrons reach the probe without collisions in the probe sheath the second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula can be used for EEDF evaluation. At low values of the magnetic field, an extended second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula yields reliable results, while at higher values of the magnetic field, the first-derivative probe technique is applicable for precise evaluation of the plasma potential and the EEDF. There is an interval of intermediate values of the magnetic field when both techniques—the extended second-derivative and the first-derivative one—can be used. Experimental results from probe measurements in different ranges of magnetic field are reviewed and discussed: low-pressure argon gas discharges in the presence of a magnetic field in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 T, probe measurements in circular hydrogen plasmas for high-temperature fusion (magnetic fields from 0.45 T to 1.3 T) in small ISTTOK and CASTOR tokamaks, D-shape COMPASS tokamak plasmas, as well as in the TJ-II stellarator. In the vicinity of the last closed flux surface (LCFS) in tokamaks and in the TJ-II stellarator, the EEDF obtained is found to be bi-Maxwellian, while close to the tokamak chamber wall it is Maxwellian. The mechanism of the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is discussed. Comparison of the results from probe measurements with those obtained from calculations using the ASTRA and EIRENE codes shows that the main reason for the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is the ionization of the neutral atoms.

  19. Probing Gravitational Sensitivity in Biological Systems Using Magnetic Body Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Wurzel, Sam; Mihalusova, Mariana; Valles, Jim

    2003-01-01

    At Brown University, we are developing the use of magnetic body forces as a means to simulate variable gravity body forces on biological systems. This tool promises new means to probe gravi-sensing and the gravi-response of biological systems. It also has the potential as a technique for screening future systems for space flight experiments.

  20. Magnetic fields around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our Newtonian results are excellent approximations for slowly spinning black holes. We proceed to address the issue of the spin dependence of the Blandford & Znajek power. The result we choose to highlight is our finding that given the validity of our assumption for the dynamical behavior of the so-called plunge region in black hole accretors, rotating black holes produce maximum Poynting flux via the Blandford & Znajek process for a black hole spin parameter of about a [approximate] 0.8. This is contrary to the conventional claim that the maximum electromagnetic flux is achieved for highest black hole spin.

  1. Sensor probes and phantoms for advanced transcranial magnetic stimulation system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Patel, Prashil; Trivedi, Sudhir; Du, Xiaoming; Hong, Elliot; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become one of the most widely used noninvasive method for brain tissue stimulation and has been used as a treatment tool for various neurological and psychiatric disorders including migraine, stroke, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tinnitus and depression. In the process of developing advanced TMS deep brain stimulation tools, we need first to develop field measurement devices like sensory probes and brain phantoms, which can be used to calibrate the TMS systems. Currently there are commercially available DC magnetic or electric filed measurement sensors, but there is no instrument to measure transient fields. In our study, we used a commercial figure-8 shaped TMS coil to generate transient magnetic field and followed induced field and current. The coil was driven by power amplified signal from a pulse generator with tunable pulse rate, amplitude, and duration. In order to obtain a 3D plot of induced vector electric field, many types of probes were designed to detect single component of electric-field vectors along x, y and z axis in the space around TMS coil. We found that resistor probes has an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) near 3k ohm but it signal output is too weak compared with other techniques. We also found that inductor probes can have very high output for Curl E measurement, but it is not the E-field distribution we are interested in. Probes with electrical wire wrapped around iron coil can directly measure induced E-field with high sensitivity, which matched computer simulation results.

  2. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yang; Zou, Sheng

    2014-06-01

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz(1/2), which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield. PMID:24985800

  3. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2014-06-15

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield.

  4. Crystal field and magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

  5. Jupiter's magnetic field and magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Among the planets of the solar system, Jupiter is unique in connection with its size and its large magnetic moment, second only to the sun's. The Jovian magnetic field was first detected indirectly by radio astronomers who postulated its existence to explain observations of nonthermal radio emissions from Jupiter at decimetric and decametric wavelengths. Since the early radio astronomical studies of the Jovian magnetosphere, four spacecraft have flown by the planet at close distances and have provided in situ information about the geometry of the magnetic field and its strength. The Jovian magnetosphere is described in terms of three principal regions. The inner magnetosphere is the region where the magnetic field created by sources internal to the planet dominates. The region in which the equatorial currents flow is denoted as the middle magnetosphere. In the outer magnetosphere, the field has a large southward component and exhibits large temporal and/or spatial variations in magnitude and direction in response to changes in solar wind pressure.

  6. Internal toroidal field measurements on the helicity injected tokamak using the transient internal probe

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the local toroidal magnetic field have been achieved on the helicity injected tokamak (HIT) using the transient internal probe (TIP). HIT is a low aspect (a=1.5, R=0.35 m) ratio tokamak designed to study steady state current drive. The TIP diagnostic involves accelerating a small diamond clad magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities ({approximately}2 km/s) using a light gas gun. The local field is obtained by illuminating the probe with a laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Measurements were conducted using unclad magneto-optic probes directed along a chord tangent to the toroidal field. Plasma conditions were typically n{sub e}{approximately}7{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} and T{sub e}{approximately}40{endash}80 eV. Measurement uncertainty is less than 2{percent}. No changes in plasma parameters were observed during the first 200 ms ({approximately}40 cm) of probe travel in the plasma. A temporary dip in plasma current, probably due to ablation of the retroreflecting material on the probe, is observed as the probe exits the plasma. Density is unaffected by the presence of the probe in the plasma. No long term deleterious effects to tokamak performance were observed as the TIP diagnostic was found to be quite compatible with the tokamak. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Internal toroidal field measurements on the helicity injected tokamak using the transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galambos, J. P.; Bohnet, M. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the local toroidal magnetic field have been achieved on the helicity injected tokamak (HIT) using the transient internal probe (TIP). HIT is a low aspect (a=1.5, R=0.35 m) ratio tokamak designed to study steady state current drive. The TIP diagnostic involves accelerating a small diamond clad magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (˜2 km/s) using a light gas gun. The local field is obtained by illuminating the probe with a laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Measurements were conducted using unclad magneto-optic probes directed along a chord tangent to the toroidal field. Plasma conditions were typically ne˜7×1019 m-3 and Te˜40-80 eV. Measurement uncertainty is less than 2%. No changes in plasma parameters were observed during the first 200 ms (˜40 cm) of probe travel in the plasma. A temporary dip in plasma current, probably due to ablation of the retroreflecting material on the probe, is observed as the probe exits the plasma. Density is unaffected by the presence of the probe in the plasma. No long term deleterious effects to tokamak performance were observed as the TIP diagnostic was found to be quite compatible with the tokamak.

  8. Wall scanning probe for high-field side plasma measurements on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Smick, Noah; LaBombard, Brian

    2009-02-15

    A new, high-field side scanning probe has been added to Alcator C-Mod's complement of edge diagnostics. The wall scanning probe is designed to provide all the benefits of a linear plunge, multielectrode scanning probe while working from the confined space of the inner tokamak wall. The drive mechanism is an embedded coil which produces a torque with the ambient toroidal magnetic field when energized, thus allowing the probe to plunge to different preprogramed depths at different times during a plasma discharge. The probe tip is designed for easy replacement and is presently configured to operate as a modified, high heat-flux ''Gundestrup-type'' probe with four tungsten electrodes. The probe has demonstrated the ability to obtain cross-field profiles for electron temperature, density, floating potential, and plasma flow information (parallel and perpendicular to B) up to a depth of a few millimiters inside the last-closed flux surface in standard C-Mod discharges. The tungsten-tipped probe has proved very robust and shows little or no damage though it routinely handles surface heat fluxes on the order of 100 MW/m{sup 2} at peak insertion.

  9. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  10. The Humboldt high magnetic field center at Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ortenberg, M.; Puhlmann, N.; Stolpe, I.; Mueller, H.-U.; Kirste, A.; Portugall, O.

    2001-01-01

    The “Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center” is operated by the chair for “Magnetotransport in Solids” at the Institute of Physics of the Humboldt University at Berlin. Three different kinds of magnetic field generators cover the range up to 300 T. All field generators are intended for operation in temperatures ranging between 0.3 K and room temperature. Magnetization measurements use both Faraday rotation and compensated pick-up coils. To probe spin and charge carrier systems electromagnetic radiation sources from the visible part of the spectrum to mm-waves are available. Special emphasis is laid on sophisticated measuring- and data acquisition techniques enabling us to obtain a sensitivity in transmission experiments in megagauss fields that is usually achieved only in DC-fields applying multi-sampling methods. The installations of the “Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center” are open to all interested scientists on a mutual cooperation basis.

  11. Probing magnetic microstructures with quasi-ballistic Hall crosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasbender, S.; Schluck, J.; Cerchez, M.; Heinzel, T.; Sievers, S.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.

    2016-03-01

    Hall sensing is performed on a localized magnetic field pattern using a quasi-ballistic Hall cross device. The Hall resistance shows a pronounced peak as a function of the magnetic field amplitude which is absent in the magnetization hysteresis loop. This non-monotonic response exemplifies qualitatively the failure of conventional Hall sensing. It is demonstrated how, by using a numerical simulation based on the Landauer-Büttiker model, the amplitude of the magnetic field profile can be determined from such measurements.

  12. X-Ray Detected Magnetic Resonance: A Unique Probe of the Precession Dynamics of Orbital Magnetization Components

    PubMed Central

    Goulon, Jośe; Rogalev, Andrei; Goujon, Gérard; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Ben Youssef, Jamal; Gros, Claude; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Guilard, Roger

    2011-01-01

    X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance (XDMR) is a novel spectroscopy in which X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) is used to probe the resonant precession of local magnetization components in a strong microwave pump field. We review the conceptual bases of XDMR and recast them in the general framework of the linear and nonlinear theories of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Emphasis is laid on the information content of XDMR spectra which offer a unique opportunity to disentangle the precession dynamics of spin and orbital magnetization components at given absorbing sites. For the sake of illustration, we focus on selected examples in which marked differences were found between FMR and XDMR spectra simultaneously recorded on ferrimagnetically ordered iron garnets. With pumping capabilities extended up to sub-THz frequencies, high-field XDMR should allow us to probe the precession of orbital magnetization components in paramagnetic organometallic complexes with large zero-field splitting. Even more challenging, we suggest that XDMR spectra might be recorded on selected antiferromagnetic crystals for which orbital magnetism is most often ignored in the absence of any supporting experimental evidence. PMID:22272105

  13. X-ray detected magnetic resonance: a unique probe of the precession dynamics of orbital magnetization components.

    PubMed

    Goulon, Jośe; Rogalev, Andrei; Goujon, Gérard; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Ben Youssef, Jamal; Gros, Claude; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Guilard, Roger

    2011-01-01

    X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance (XDMR) is a novel spectroscopy in which X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) is used to probe the resonant precession of local magnetization components in a strong microwave pump field. We review the conceptual bases of XDMR and recast them in the general framework of the linear and nonlinear theories of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Emphasis is laid on the information content of XDMR spectra which offer a unique opportunity to disentangle the precession dynamics of spin and orbital magnetization components at given absorbing sites. For the sake of illustration, we focus on selected examples in which marked differences were found between FMR and XDMR spectra simultaneously recorded on ferrimagnetically ordered iron garnets. With pumping capabilities extended up to sub-THz frequencies, high-field XDMR should allow us to probe the precession of orbital magnetization components in paramagnetic organometallic complexes with large zero-field splitting. Even more challenging, we suggest that XDMR spectra might be recorded on selected antiferromagnetic crystals for which orbital magnetism is most often ignored in the absence of any supporting experimental evidence. PMID:22272105

  14. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Marita

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At λ6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).

  15. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  16. Practical method using superposition of individual magnetic fields for initial arrangement of undulator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Shioya, T.

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a practical method for determining an excellent initial arrangement of magnetic arrays for a pure-magnet Halbach-type undulator. In this method, the longitudinal magnetic field distribution of each magnet is measured using a moving Hall probe system along the beam axis with a high positional resolution. The initial arrangement of magnetic arrays is optimized and selected by analyzing the superposition of all distribution data in order to achieve adequate spectral quality for the undulator. We applied this method to two elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), called U#16-2 and U#02-2, at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The measured field distribution of the undulator was demonstrated to be excellent for the initial arrangement of the magnet array, and this method saved a great deal of effort in adjusting the magnetic fields of EPUs.

  17. Practical method using superposition of individual magnetic fields for initial arrangement of undulator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, K.; Shioya, T.

    2015-04-15

    We have developed a practical method for determining an excellent initial arrangement of magnetic arrays for a pure-magnet Halbach-type undulator. In this method, the longitudinal magnetic field distribution of each magnet is measured using a moving Hall probe system along the beam axis with a high positional resolution. The initial arrangement of magnetic arrays is optimized and selected by analyzing the superposition of all distribution data in order to achieve adequate spectral quality for the undulator. We applied this method to two elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), called U#16-2 and U#02-2, at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The measured field distribution of the undulator was demonstrated to be excellent for the initial arrangement of the magnet array, and this method saved a great deal of effort in adjusting the magnetic fields of EPUs.

  18. The magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned mainly with the intrinsic planetary field which dominates the inner magnetosphere up to a distance of 10 to 12 Jovian radii where other phenomena, such as ring currents and diamagnetic effects of trapped charged particles, become significant. The main magnetic field of Jupiter as determined by in-situ observations by Pioner 10 and 11 is found to be relatively more complex than a simple offset tilted dipole. Deviations from a simple dipole geometry lead to distortions of the charged particle L shells and warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Io and Amalthea are predicted. The results are consistent with the conclusions derived from extensive radio observations at decimetric and decametric wavelengths for the planetary field.

  19. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Ivan I; Kozlov, Gleb G; Smirnov, Dmitrii S; Glazov, Mikhail M; Efimov, Yurii P; Eliseev, Sergei A; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A; Petrov, Vladimir V; Kavokin, Kirill V; Kavokin, Alexey V; Zapasskii, Valerii S

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new - magnetometric - potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This "optical field" is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  20. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.; and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  1. Does the Earth's Magnetic Field Influence Climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.; Gallet, Y.; Le Mouel, J.; Genevey, A.

    2006-12-01

    Much of the observed increase in global surface temperature over the past 150 years occurred prior to the 1940's and after the 1980's. The main agents which are invoked are solar variability, changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas content or sulfur, due to natural or anthropogenic action, or internal variability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Magnetism has seldom been invoked, and evidence for connections between climate and magnetic field variations have received little attention. We review evidence for such connections, starting with suggested correlations, on three time scales: recent secular variation (10-100 years), historical and archeomagnetic change (100-5000 years) and excursions and reversals (1000-1 million years). We attempt to suggest which mechanisms could account for observed correlations. Evidence for correlations in field intensity changes, excursions and reversals, which invoke Milankovic forcing in the core, either directly or through changes in ice distribution and moments of inertia of the Earth, is still tenuous. Correlation between decadal changes in amplitude of geomagnetic variations of external origin, solar irradiance and global temperature is stronger. The correlation applies until the 1980's, suggesting that solar irradiance is the prime forcing function of climate until then, when the correlation breaks and anomalous warming may emerge from the signal. Indeed, only solar flux of energy and particles can jointly explain parallel variations in temperature and external magnetic field. The most intriguing feature may be recently proposed archeomagnetic jerks (see abstract by Gallet et al). These seem to correlate with significant climatic events. A proposed mechanism involves tilt of the dipole to low latitudes, resulting in enhanced cosmic-ray induced nucleation of clouds. Intense data acquisition over a broad range of durations is required to further probe these indications that the Earth's and Sun's magnetic fields may have significant bearing on climate change at various time scales.

  2. Novel rotating field probe for inspection of tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, J.; Tarkleson, E.; Lei, N.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. S.

    2012-05-17

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants is extremely critical for safe operation of the power plant. In the nuclear industry, steam generator tube inspection using eddy current techniques has evolved over the years from a single bobbin coil, to rotating probe coil (RPC) and array probe, in an attempt to improve the speed and reliability of inspection. The RPC probe offers the accurate spatial resolution but involves complex mechanical rotation. This paper presents a novel design of eddy current probes based on rotating fields produced by three identical coils excited by a balanced three-phase supply. The sensor thereby achieves rotating probe functionality by electronic means and eliminates the need for mechanical rotation. The field generated by the probe is largely radial that result in induced currents that flow circularly around the radial axis and rotating around the tube at a synchronous speed effectively producing induced eddy currents that are multidirectional. The probe will consequently be sensitive to cracks of all orientations in the tube wall. The finite element model (FEM) results of the rotating fields and induced currents are presented. A prototype probe is being built to validate simulation results.

  3. Novel rotating field probe for inspection of tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, J.; Tarkleson, E.; Lei, N.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants is extremely critical for safe operation of the power plant. In the nuclear industry, steam generator tube inspection using eddy current techniques has evolved over the years from a single bobbin coil, to rotating probe coil (RPC) and array probe, in an attempt to improve the speed and reliability of inspection. The RPC probe offers the accurate spatial resolution but involves complex mechanical rotation. This paper presents a novel design of eddy current probes based on rotating fields produced by three identical coils excited by a balanced three-phase supply. The sensor thereby achieves rotating probe functionality by electronic means and eliminates the need for mechanical rotation. The field generated by the probe is largely radial that result in induced currents that flow circularly around the radial axis and rotating around the tube at a synchronous speed effectively producing induced eddy currents that are multidirectional. The probe will consequently be sensitive to cracks of all orientations in the tube wall. The finite element model (FEM) results of the rotating fields and induced currents are presented. A prototype probe is being built to validate simulation results.

  4. Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

  5. Survey of the frequency dependent latitudinal distribution of the fast magnetosonic wave mode from Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science waveform receiver plasma wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Wygant, John R.; Kurth, William S.; Averkamp, Terrance F.; Bounds, Scott R.; Green, Jim L.; De Pascuale, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We present a statistical survey of the latitudinal structure of the fast magnetosonic wave mode detected by the Van Allen Probes spanning the time interval of 21 September 2012 to 1 August 2014. We show that statistically, the latitudinal occurrence of the wave frequency (f) normalized by the local proton cyclotron frequency (fcP) has a distinct funnel-shaped appearance in latitude about the magnetic equator similar to that found in case studies. By comparing the observed E/B ratios with the model E/B ratio, using the observed plasma density and background magnetic field magnitude as input to the model E/B ratio, we show that this mode is consistent with the extra-ordinary (whistler) mode at wave normal angles (θk) near 90°. Performing polarization analysis on synthetic waveforms composed from a superposition of extra-ordinary mode plane waves with θk randomly chosen between 87 and 90°, we show that the uncertainty in the derived wave normal is substantially broadened, with a tail extending down to θk of 60°, suggesting that another approach is necessary to estimate the true distribution of θk. We find that the histograms of the synthetically derived ellipticities and θk are consistent with the observations of ellipticities and θk derived using polarization analysis. We make estimates of the median equatorial θk by comparing observed and model ray tracing frequency-dependent probability occurrence with latitude and give preliminary frequency dependent estimates of the equatorial θk distribution around noon and 4 RE, with the median of ~4 to 7° from 90° at f/fcP = 2 and dropping to ~0.5° from 90° at f/fcP = 30. The occurrence of waves in this mode peaks around noon near the equator at all radial distances, and we find that the overall intensity of these waves increases with AE*, similar to findings of other studies.

  6. Optical probe, local fields, and Lorentz factor in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, L. M.; Lazarev, V. V.; Palto, S. P.; Yudin, S. G.

    2014-06-01

    An optical probe is suggested that allows measurements of the local field and Lorentz factor ( L) in ferroelectric medium. The copolymer poly (vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) is mixed with Pd-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP-Pd) that has a very narrow absorption band. Thus, TPP-Pd serves as a molecular optical probe of the local field. During the switching of the electric field lower than the coercive one the factor L of an unpolarized ferroelectric mixture is found to be of about 1/3 that corresponds to the random distribution of molecular dipoles in the ferroelectric. With increasing field, the dipole orientation acquires a lower symmetry and L tends to zero as predicted by lattice sum calculations for vinylidene fluoride. The knowledge of the field dependence of L and the usage of the optical probe makes it possible to measure directly the local and macroscopic fields in the individual elements of various ferroelectric-dielectric heterostructures.

  7. Bacterial Growth in Weak Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina

    2015-03-01

    We study the growth of bacteria in a weak magnetic field. Computational analysis of experimental data shows that the growth rate of bacteria is affected by the magnetic field. The effect of magnetic field depends on the strength and type of magnetic field. It also depends on the type of bacteria. We mainly study gram positive and gram negative bacteria of rod type as well as spherical bacteria. Preliminary results show that the weak magnetic field enhances the growth of rod shape gram negative bacteria. Gram positive bacteria can be even killed in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

  8. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new - magnetometric - potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates.

  9. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  10. Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken and we explore two scenarios. Increasing the heat flux through the northern hemisphere of the core-mantle boundary is an obvious choice but is not supported by current models for Mercury's mantle. We find that a combination of internal rather than bottom driving and an increased heat flux through the equatorial region of the core-mantle boundary also promotes the required symmetry breaking and results in very Mercury like fields. The reason is that the imposed heat flux pattern, though being equatorially symmetric, lowers the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of equatorially anti-symmetric convection modes. In both scenarios, a stably stratified layer or a feedback coupling to the magnetospheric field is required for lowering the field strength to Mercury-like values.

  11. Thermomagnetism with external and internal magnetic field quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Gama, Sergio; Vuarnoz, Didier

    2015-07-01

    In magnetism literature, usually the applied or external field H0 is taken to present the results of an investigation. But for certain purposes, it is advantageous to work with the internal magnetic field H that occurs inside a magnetic body. It is well-known that the susceptibility of the material and the demagnetization effect, given by the geometry of a body, link the two usually different fields under consideration. If a probe is a long needle with the external magnetic field and the magnetization in the probe parallel to the axis of the slender body, the two fields are identical. But when building thermomagnetic machines, other demands may require also other shapes (porous materials, particle beds, wavy structures, etc.) of the magnetized material and then a correct distinction of these fields becomes important and in some cases also laborious if one of them must be theoretically determined from the other. This article shows how—from a theoretical point of view—the most important physical properties of thermomagnetism/magnetocalorics, namely, the adiabatic entropy change, the effective specific heat capacity, and the adiabatic temperature change must be transformed. Furthermore, this theory reveals the invariants of magnetocalorics, which are combinations of these three most important properties.

  12. Field errors in superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence.

  13. Magnetic fields in irregular galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzy, Krzysztof T.

    Radio data of large irregular galaxies reveal some extended synchrotron emission with a substantial degree of polarization. In the case of NGC 4449 strong galaxy-scale regular magnetic fields were found, in spite of the lack of ordered rotation required for the conventional dynamo action. The rigidly rotating large irregular NGC 55 shows vertical polarized spurs connected with a network of ionized gas filaments. Small dwarf irregulars show only isolated polarized spots.

  14. High Steady Magnetic Field Processing of Functional Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoirard, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    The materials science community has been enriched for some decades now by the "magneto-science" approach, which consists of applying a magnetic field during material processing. The development of anisotropic properties by applying a steady magnetic field is now a well-established effect in the material processing of magnetic substances, which benefits from the unidirectional and static nature of the field delivered by superconducting magnets. Among other effects, magnetic anisotropy in functional magnetic materials, which arises from the alignment of magnetic moments under external field, can be developed at various structural scales. Magnetic ordering, magnetic patterning, and texturation are at the origin of this anisotropy development. Texture is developed in materials from magnetic orientation due to magnetic forces and torques or from stored energy. In metals and alloys, for instance, this effect can occur either in their liquid state or during solid-state thermomagnetic treatments and can thus impact significantly the material functional magnetic properties. Today's improved superconducting magnet technology allows higher field intensities to be delivered more easily (1 T up to several tens of Teslas) and enables researchers to gather evidence on magnetic field effects that were formerly thought to be negligible. The magneto-thermodynamic effect is one of them and involves the magnetization energy as an additional parameter to tailor microstructures. Control of functional properties can thus result from magnetic monitoring of the phase transformation, and kinetics can be impacted by the magnetic energy contribution.

  15. Quantum Probe and Design for a Chemical Compass with Magnetic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianming

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic fields as weak as Earth’s may affect the outcome of certain photochemical reactions that go through a radical pair intermediate. When the reaction environment is anisotropic, this phenomenon can form the basis of a chemical compass and has been proposed as a mechanism for animal magnetoreception. Here, we demonstrate how to optimize the design of a chemical compass with a much better directional sensitivity simply by a gradient field, e.g., from a magnetic nanostructure. We propose an experimental test of these predictions, and suggest design principles for a hybrid metallic-organic chemical compass. In addition to the practical interest in designing a biomimetic weak magnetic field sensor, our result shows that gradient fields can serve as powerful tools to probe spin correlations in radical pair reactions.

  16. A dipole probe for electric field measurements in the LVPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Ravi, G.; Kumar, Sunil; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and calibration of an electric dipole probe and demonstrates its capability by presenting results on the measurement of electric field excited by a ring electrode in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). It measures the electric field in vacuum and plasma conditions in a frequency range lying between 1-10 \\text{MHz} . The results show that it measures electric field ≥slant 2 mV cm-1 for frequency ≤slant 10 \\text{MHz} . The developed dipole probe works on the principle of amplitude modulation. The probe signal is transmitted through a carrier of 418 MHz, a much higher frequency than the available sources of noise present in the surrounding environment. The amplitude modulation concept of signal transmission is used to make the measurement; it is qualitatively better and less corrupted as it is not affected by the errors introduced by ac pickups. The probe is capable of measuring a variety of electric fields, namely (1) space charge field, (2) time varying field, (3) inductive field and (4) a mixed field containing both space charge and inductive fields. This makes it a useful tool for measuring electric fields in laboratory plasma devices.

  17. Forced Magnetic Reconnection and Field Penetration of an Externally Applied Rotating Helical Magnetic Field in the TEXTOR Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Y.; Finken, K. H.; Jakubowski, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lehnen, M.; Liang, Y.; Reiser, D.; Wolf, R. C.; Zimmermann, O.; Bock, M. F. M. de; Jaspers, R.; Matsunaga, G.

    2006-08-25

    The magnetic field penetration process into a magnetized plasma is of basic interest both for plasma physics and astrophysics. In this context special measurements on the field penetration and field amplification are performed by a Hall probe on the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) on the TEXTOR tokamak and the data are interpreted by a two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED field is accompanied by a change of the plasma fluid rotation. The differential rotation frequency between the DED field and the plasma plays an important role in the process of the excitation of tearing modes. The momentum input from the rotating DED field to the plasma is interpreted by both a ponderomotive force at the rational surface and a radial electric field modified by an edge ergodization.

  18. Testing a sheath-compensated Langmuir probe in geometrically and magnetically expanding plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Higashiyama, Hiroki; Takaki, Koichi; Ando, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A sheath expansion around the Langmuir probe is known to give a significantly overestimated plasma density. Here, the sheath expansion effect suggested by Sheridan [Phys. Plasmas 7, 3084 (2000)] is successfully incorporated with no cumbersome analysis of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the planar probe by measuring local plasma potential, floating potential, and ion saturation current. The probe consists of an emissive probe and two planar Langmuir probes, and is tested in low-pressure geometrically and magnetically expanding plasmas. The electron temperature estimated from the difference between the local plasma and floating potentials in the geometrically expanding plasma is in good agreement with that obtained from a classical analysis of the I-V characteristics. The plasma density computed with taking into account the sheath expansion effect shows significantly lower values than that obtained from the classical density estimation. The measurements in the magnetically expanding plasma successfully reproduce both the presence of the high-temperature population of electrons near the last field lines intersecting the radial wall at the open source exit and the presence of cold electrons outside the last field lines. The presently proposed method will lead to easy access to the two- and/or three-dimensional diagnoses of the low-pressure plasma structures.

  19. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  20. Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

    1999-06-24

    Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

  1. Variability in Martian Magnetic Field Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Eastwood, J. P.; Ulusen, D.; Lillis, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    We have determined the locations of open and closed magnetic field lines at Mars as a function of four different controlling influences: solar wind magnetic field direction, solar wind pressure, martian season, and solar EUV flux.

  2. Current Density Distribution in 2G HTS Tape in an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Bykovsky, N. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Zubko, V. V.; Vysotsky, V. S.

    This paper describes the method of study of the critical current density distribution across a tape in a background magnetic field. We measured the current distribution by the scanning Hall probe method. Then we measured field across a tape by a set of 10 Hall probes placed on a single substrate. By comparison of data from these two experiments we determined positions of Hall probes at a tape. Then we measured the current distribution of current density across a tape inside a magnet in parallel and perpendicular magnetic field of 30 mT. The details of measuring method and results are presented.

  3. Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.

  4. Parametric Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Unconstrained Spin Magnetization Precession in the Shallow Barrier Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the parametric excitation of high orders of magnetization precession in ultrathin films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We observe that for a given driving field amplitude the harmonic generation can be increased by lowering the barrier with the application of an in-plane magnetic field in the manner of the Smit-Beljers effect. In this effect, the magnetic stiffness is reduced not by lowering the magnitude of the magnetic field upon which the spins precess, but rather by effectively releasing the field's "anchoring" point. This results in a shallow energy barrier where the electrons' spin is locally unconstrained. While the observation is unveiled in the form of nonlinear high harmonic generation, we believe that the physics whereby the barrier is suppressed by an external magnetic field may apply to other phenomena associated with ultrathin films. In these cases, such unconstrained motion may serve as a sensitive probe of the torques associated with proximate spin currents. Moreover, our approach may be used as a model system for the study of phase transitions in the field of nonlinear dynamics.

  5. Parametric Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Unconstrained Spin Magnetization Precession in the Shallow Barrier Limit.

    PubMed

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-01-29

    We study the parametric excitation of high orders of magnetization precession in ultrathin films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We observe that for a given driving field amplitude the harmonic generation can be increased by lowering the barrier with the application of an in-plane magnetic field in the manner of the Smit-Beljers effect. In this effect, the magnetic stiffness is reduced not by lowering the magnitude of the magnetic field upon which the spins precess, but rather by effectively releasing the field's "anchoring" point. This results in a shallow energy barrier where the electrons' spin is locally unconstrained. While the observation is unveiled in the form of nonlinear high harmonic generation, we believe that the physics whereby the barrier is suppressed by an external magnetic field may apply to other phenomena associated with ultrathin films. In these cases, such unconstrained motion may serve as a sensitive probe of the torques associated with proximate spin currents. Moreover, our approach may be used as a model system for the study of phase transitions in the field of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:26871356

  6. High RF Magnetic Field Near-Field Microwave Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tamin; Mircea, Dragos I.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2010-03-01

    Near-field microwave microscopes have been developed to quantitatively image RF and microwave properties of a variety of materials on deep sub-wavelength scales [1]. Microscopes that develop high-RF magnetic fields on short length scales are useful for examining the fundamental electrodynamic properties of superconductors [2]. We are creating a new class of near-field microwave microscopes that develop RF fields on the scale of 1 Tesla on sub-micron length scales. These microscopes will be employed to investigate defects that limit the RF properties of bulk Nb materials used in accelerator cavities, and the nonlinear Meissner effect in novel superconductors. Work funded by the US Department of Energy. [1] S. M. Anlage, V. V. Talanov, A. R. Schwartz, ``Principles of Near-Field Microwave Microscopy,'' in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Electrical and Electromechanical Phenomena at the Nanoscale, Volume 1, edited by S. V. Kalinin and A. Gruverman (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2007), pp. 215-253. [2] D. I. Mircea, H. Xu, S. M. Anlage, ``Phase-sensitive Harmonic Measurements of Microwave Nonlinearities in Cuprate Thin Films,'' Phys. Rev. B 80, 144505 (2009).

  7. Measuring Magnetic Fields Near and Far with the SKA via the Zeeman Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robishaw, T.; Green, J.; Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Richards, A. M. S.; Etoka, S.; Bourke, T.; Fish, V.; Gray, M. D.; Imai, H.; Kramer, B.; McBride, J.; Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    The measurement of Zeeman splitting in spectral lines---both in emission and absorption---can provide direct estimates of the magnetic field strength and direction in atomic and molecular clouds, both in our own Milky Way and in external galaxies. This method will probe the magnetic field in the warm and cold neutral components of the interstellar medium, providing a complement to the extensive SKA Faraday studies planning to probe the field in the ionized components.

  8. Compressing magnetic fields with high-energy lasersa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Gotchev, O. V.; Chang, P. Y.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Polomarov, O.; Betti, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sguin, F. H.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-driven magnetic-field compression producing a magnetic field of tens of megaGauss is reported for the first time. A shock wave formed during the implosion of a cylindrical target traps an initial (seed) magnetic field that is amplified via conservation of magnetic flux. Such large fields are expected to magnetize the electrons in the hot, central plasma, leading to a cyclotron frequency exceeding the collision frequency. The Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] was used to implode cylindrical CH targets filled with deuterium gas and seeded with an external field (>50 kG) from a magnetic pulse generator. This seed field is trapped and rapidly compressed by the imploding shell, minimizing the effect of resistive flux diffusion. The compressed field was probed via proton deflectrometry using 14.7 MeV protons from the D+H3e fusion reaction emitted by an imploding glass microballoon. Line-averaged magnetic fields of the imploded core were measured to between 30 and 40 MG. Experimental data were analyzed with both a magnetohydrodynamic version of the one-dimensional hydrocode LILAC [J. Delettrez et al., Phys. Rev. A 36, 3926 (1987); N. W. Jang et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 51, 144 (2006)] and the particle propagation code GEANT4 [S. Agostinelli et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 250 (2003)].

  9. Phosphate vibrations probe local electric fields and hydration in biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Nicholas M; Bolte, Erin E; Miller, Carrie S; Corcelli, Steven A; Boxer, Steven G

    2011-08-31

    The role of electric fields in important biological processes such as binding and catalysis has been studied almost exclusively by computational methods. Experimental measurements of the local electric field in macromolecules are possible using suitably calibrated vibrational probes. Here we demonstrate that the vibrational transitions of phosphate groups are highly sensitive to an electric field and show how that sensitivity can be quantified, allowing electric field measurements to be made in phosphate-containing biological systems without chemical modification. PMID:21809829

  10. Phosphate vibrations probe local electric fields and hydration in biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Nicholas M.; Bolte, Erin E.; Miller, Carrie S.

    2011-01-01

    The role of electric fields in important biological processes like binding and catalysis has been studied almost exclusively by computational methods. Experimental measurements of the local electric field in macromolecules are possible using suitably calibrated vibrational probes. Here we demonstrate that the vibrational transitions of phosphate groups are highly sensitive to an electric field and quantify that sensitivity, allowing local electric field measurements to be made in phosphate-containing biological systems without chemical modification. PMID:21809829

  11. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  12. Circularly polarized Magnetic Field of Whistler Wave during Fast Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xiang; Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Bellan, Paul; Bellan Group Team

    2014-10-01

    Obliquely propagating whistler waves are expected to have circularly polarized magnetic components and to be associated with fast magnetic reconnection. In the Caltech plasma jet experiment, a current-carrying collimated jet is created from the merging of eight plasma-filled flux ropes. Fast magnetic reconnection occurs during the merging process. When the current- carrying jet undergoes fast kink instability, a lateral Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurs on the jet surface and induces another fast magnetic reconnection event. A capacitive coupling probe placed near the jet has measured fast electric field fluctuations at 15MHz which is in the whistler regime for this plasma. A 3D fast Bdot probe with good electrostatic rejection has been specifically designed to measure the 3D magnetic components of the whistler wave. Preliminary results have revealed a 3D 15 MHz magnetic fluctuation. Work is underway to increase the sensitivity of the induction probe and also to reduce electrostatic pickup. With the improved probe, the polarization property of the magnetic component of the whistler wave is expected to be resolved if it exists.

  13. Toroidal Field Profile Measurements on SSPX Using the Transient Internal Probe Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Cellamare, V.; Hill, D.; Hooper, E. B.; Wood, R.

    1999-11-01

    The TIP diagnostic will be used on SSPX to directly measure internal spheromak toroidal fields. This will provide F as a function of R, which will be used along with p ( R ) from multi-point Thomson scattering, to obtain flux surfaces using a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium code. These will be spatially resolved measurements along a chord from the flux conserver through the predicted magnetic axis. The diagnostic relies on the Faraday effect, in which the polarization of light is rotated in proportion to the component of the magnetic field along its propagation direction. A 1-cm long probe made of a Faraday effect-sensitive Verdet material encased in sapphire for protection is fired through the spheromak at 1.8 km/s by a light gas gun. The probe is illuminated by a 514-nm laser throughout the trajectory. This light is retro-reflected from the probe back to an ellipsometer (polarization detector), thus determining the component of the magnetic field along the flight path. An expansion tank with fast mechanical and gate valves separates the high gun pressures from the experiment vacuum. The high speed of the probe and the cladding guards against plasma perturbation, ablation, and sputtering. In addition, we will look for the n=1 rotating mode that is often observed in spheromaks.

  14. Penetration of plasma across a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Neff, S.; Haboub, A.

    2009-08-01

    Experiments were performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility to investigate the plasma penetration across an externally applied magnetic field. In experiment, a short-pulse laser ablates a polyethylene laser target, producing a plasma which interacts with an external magnetic field. The mechanism which allows the plasma to penetrate the applied magnetic field in experiment will be discussed.

  15. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanuelidu, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for high resolution magnetic imaging based on its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities afforded by long spin coherence times. Although the NV center has been successfully implemented as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at room temperature, it has remained an outstanding challenge to extend this capability to cryogenic temperatures, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. In this talk, we present NV magnetic imaging at T = 6 K, first benchmarking the technique with a magnetic hard disk sample, then utilizing the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with Tc = 30 K. In addition, we discuss other candidate solid-state systems that can benefit from the high spatial resolution and field sensitivity of the scanning NV magnetometer.

  16. Ground state alignment as a tracer of interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate a new way of studying interplanetary magnetic field -- spectropolarimetry based on ground state alignment. Ground state alignment is a new promising way of sub-gausian magnetic fields in radiation-dominated environment. The polarization of spectral lines that are pumped by the anisotropic radiation from the sun is influenced by the magnetic alignment, which happens for sub-gausian magnetic field. As a result, the linear polarization becomes an excellent tracer of the embedded magnetic field. The method is illustrated by our synthetic obser- vation of the Jupiter's Io and comet Halley. A uniform density distribution of Na was considered and polar- ization at each point was then constructed. Both spa- tial and temporal variations of turbulent magnetic field can be traced with this technique as well. Instead of sending thousands of space probes, ground state alignment allows magnetic mapping with any ground telescope facilities equipped with spectrometer and polarimeter. For remote regions like the the boundary of interstellar medium, ground state alignment provides a unique diagnostics of magnetic field, which is crucial for understanding the physical processes such as the IBEX ribbons.

  17. Superposition of DC magnetic fields by cascading multiple magnets in magnetic loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2015-09-01

    A novel method that can effectively collect the DC magnetic field produced by multiple separated magnets is proposed. With the proposed idea of a magnetic loop, the DC magnetic field produced by these separated magnets can be effectively superimposed together. The separated magnets can be cascaded in series or in parallel. A novel nested magnetic loop is also proposed to achieve a higher DC magnetic field in the common air region without increasing the DC magnetic field in each magnetic loop. The magnetic loop can be made by a magnetic hose, which is designed by transformation optics and can be realized by the combination of super-conductors and ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Interplanetary magnetic field data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

  19. The Giotto magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.

  20. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  1. Batch-fabrication of cantilevered magnets on attonewton-sensitivity mechanical oscillators for scanned-probe nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Steven A.; Moore, Eric W.; Lee, SangGap; Longenecker, Jonilyn G.; Wright, Sarah J.; Harrell, Lee E.; Marohn, John A.

    2015-01-01

    We have batch-fabricated cantilevers with ~100 nm diameter nickel nanorod tips and force sensitivities of a few attonewtons at 4.2 kelvin. The magnetic nanorods were engineered to overhang the leading edge of the cantilever and, consequently, the cantilevers experience what we believe is the lowest surface noise ever achieved in a scanned probe experiment. Cantilever magnetometry indicated that the tips were well magnetized, with a ≤ 20 nm dead layer; the composition of the dead layer was studied by electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In what we believe is the first demonstration of scanned probe detection of electron-spin resonance from a batch fabricated tip, the cantilevers were used to observe electron-spin resonance from nitroxide spin labels in a film via force-gradient-induced shifts in cantilever resonance frequency. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetic resonance signal suggests a non-uniform tip magnetization at an applied field near 0.6 T. PMID:21082863

  2. The large-scale magnetic field in the solar wind. [interplanetary magnetic fields/solar activity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    A large-scale, three dimensional magnetic field in the interplanetary medium with an expected classical spiral pattern to zeroth order is discussed. Systematic and random deviations which are expected are treated. The sector structure which should be evident at high latitudes is examined. Interplanetary streams are discussed as determining the patterns of magnetic field intensity. It was proposed that the large-scale spiral field can induce a meridional flow which might alter the field geometry somewhat. The nonuniformities caused by streams will probably significantly influence the motion of solar and galactic particles. It was concluded that knowledge of the 3-dimensional field and its dynamical effects can be obtained by in situ measurements by a probe which goes over the sun's poles. Diagrams of the magnetic fields are given.

  3. Safety concerns related to magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda K Andriola; Silva, Erica L; Egito, E Sócrates T; Carriço, Artur S

    2006-11-01

    The recent development of superconducting magnets has resulted in a huge increase in human exposure to very large static magnetic fields of up to several teslas (T). Considering the rapid advances in applications and the great increases in the strength of magnetic fields used, especially in magnetic resonance imaging, safety concerns about magnetic field exposure have become a key issue. This paper points out some of these safety concerns and gives an overview of the findings about this theme, focusing mainly on mechanisms of magnetic field interaction with living organisms and the consequent effects. PMID:17021785

  4. DC Electric Field Measurement by the Double Probe System Aboard Geotail and its Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Y.; Hayakawa, H.; Ishisaka, K.; Okada, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Mukai, T.; Okada, M.

    2005-12-01

    We summarize the characteristics of the DC electric field measurement by the double probe system, PANT and EFD-P, aboard Geotail. The accuracy and correction factors for the gain (effective length) and off-set, which depends on ambient plasma conditions, are provided. Accurate measurements of electric fields are essential for space plasma studies, for example, plasma convection, wave-particle interactions, violation of MHD approximation, etc. One typical measurement techniques is the 'Double Probe method', identical to that of a voltmeter: the potential difference between two top-hat probes [cf. Pedersen et al., 1984]. This method can measure electric fields passively and continuously in all plasma conditions. However, the accuracy of the measured electric field values is limited. The probe measurement is also subjected to the variable gain (effective length) of the probe antenna and the artificial offset of the measured values. Those depend on a) the disturbance from ambient plasma and b) the disturbance from the spacecraft and the probe itself. In this paper, we show the results of the characteristics of DC electric field measurement by the PANT probe and the EFD-P (Electric Field Detector - Probe technique) receiver aboard Geotail [Tsuruda et al., 1994], in order to evaluate the accuracy, gain, and offset controlled by ambient plasmas. We conclude that the Geotail electric field measurement by the double probe system has the accuracy 0.4 mV/m for Ex and 0.3 mV/m for Ey, after the correction of the gain and offset. In better conditions, accuracy of Ey is 0.2 mV/m. The potential accuracy would be better because those values are limited by the accuracy of the particle measurement especially in low density conditions. In practical use, the corrections by long-term variation and spacecraft potential are effective to refine the electric field data. The characteristics of long-term variation and the dependences on ambient plasma are not fully understood well, yet. Further works will be needed based on the calibrated LEP data after 1998. It will also cover the conditions rejected in this paper, i.e., low density regions, potential controlled period, electric field quasi-parallel to magnetic field, etc. The comparison with EFD-B (EFD - Beam technique) data will also be included in order to reject the ambiguity in particle observations. In addition, we are trying to establish the numerical model of the double probe system for the full-quantitative understanding of the effect of potential structure and photoelectron distributions. Those will be the basis for planned experiments, BepiColombo to Mercury, ERG to the inner magnetosphere, and the multi-spacecraft magnetospheric mission SCOPE.

  5. Probing electric fields within organic transistors by nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Paulo B.; Motti, Silvia G.; Gomes, Douglas J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are important building blocks in many organic devices, but further improvements in their performance will require a detailed knowledge of their operation mechanism. Thus mapping the electric fields in OFETs, both in the active organic layer and inside the gate dielectric, will allow a direct comparison with theoretical OFET models and guide advances in device engineering. The nonlinear optical processes of sum-frequency generation (SFG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) may be used to probe electric fields in OFETs. With a proper choice of pump wavelength, SHG can selectively probe the field component along the OFET channel, inside the organic semiconductor. In contrast, SFG may probe the field within any organic material by selecting a specific molecular vibration and monitoring the field-enhanced SFG signal. Here we investigate OFETs fabricated with a polythiophene derivative (P3HT) on silicon substrates and with the insulating polymer PMMA for the dielectric layer. Both the strength and sign of the electric field in PMMA can be determined, yielding a direct probe of charge accumulation along the OFET channel. An extension of this technique to map the spatial distribution of accumulated charge along the channel will also be discussed. Work funded by FAPESP and CNPq (Brazil).

  6. Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabakova, I. V.; de Hoogh, A.; van der Wel, R. E. C.; Wulf, M.; Le Feber, B.; Kuipers, L.

    2016-03-01

    Near-field imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the complex structure of light at the nanoscale. Recent advances in near-field imaging have indicated the possibility for the complete reconstruction of both electric and magnetic components of the evanescent field. Here we study the electro-magnetic field structure of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating along subwavelength gold nanowires by performing phase- and polarization-resolved near-field microscopy in collection mode. By applying the optical reciprocity theorem, we describe the signal collected by the probe as an overlap integral of the nanowire’s evanescent field and the probe’s response function. As a result, we find that the probe’s sensitivity to the magnetic field is approximately equal to its sensitivity to the electric field. Through rigorous modeling of the nanowire mode as well as the aperture probe response function, we obtain a good agreement between experimentally measured signals and a numerical model. Our findings provide a better understanding of aperture-based near-field imaging of the nanoscopic plasmonic and photonic structures and are helpful for the interpretation of future near-field experiments.

  7. Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kabakova, I. V.; de Hoogh, A.; van der Wel, R. E. C.; Wulf , M.; le Feber, B.; Kuipers, L.

    2016-01-01

    Near-field imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the complex structure of light at the nanoscale. Recent advances in near-field imaging have indicated the possibility for the complete reconstruction of both electric and magnetic components of the evanescent field. Here we study the electro-magnetic field structure of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating along subwavelength gold nanowires by performing phase- and polarization-resolved near-field microscopy in collection mode. By applying the optical reciprocity theorem, we describe the signal collected by the probe as an overlap integral of the nanowire’s evanescent field and the probe’s response function. As a result, we find that the probe’s sensitivity to the magnetic field is approximately equal to its sensitivity to the electric field. Through rigorous modeling of the nanowire mode as well as the aperture probe response function, we obtain a good agreement between experimentally measured signals and a numerical model. Our findings provide a better understanding of aperture-based near-field imaging of the nanoscopic plasmonic and photonic structures and are helpful for the interpretation of future near-field experiments. PMID:26947124

  8. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Chen, H. H.; Deng, R. D.; Yan, Q. X.

    2016-02-01

    A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  9. Magnetic field sources and their threat to magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic storage media (tapes, disks, cards, etc.) may be damaged by external magnetic fields. The potential for such damage has been researched, but no objective standard exists for the protection of such media. This paper summarizes a magnetic storage facility standard, Publication 933, that ensures magnetic protection of data storage media.

  10. Suppression of magnetic relaxation by a transverse alternating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.; Fisher, L. M. Yampol'skii, V. A.

    2007-07-15

    The evolution of the spatial distribution of the magnetic induction in a superconductor after the action of the alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the trapped magnetic flux has been analyzed. The observed stabilization of the magnetic induction profile is attributed to the increase in the pinning force, so that the screening current density becomes subcritical. The last statement is corroborated by direct measurements.

  11. Numerical Techniques for Removing Instrumental Noise in the Solar Probe Plus/FIELDS Search Coil Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, T. A.; Bale, S. D.; Larson, D. E.; Dudok de Wit, T.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The science goals for NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission require broadband measurements of magnetic and electric fields in the inner heliosphere. The FIELDS instrument suite will provide SPP with high cadence vector measurements of the coronal magnetic field using two flux gate magnetometers (MAGs) and a single search coil magnetometer (SCM). The SPP spacecraft design places significant limitations on the length of the magnetometer boom. We demonstrate that the short separation distance between the magnetometers causes contaminated measurements of the magnetic field made by the SCM. A source of this contamination is the drive frequency, and harmonics, of the MAGs. We explore the use of numerical techniques, primarily based in Fourier transforms, to quantify and remove this noise from the SCM data.

  12. Mapping magnetism with atomic resolution using aberrated electron probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Rusz, Ján; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we report a direct experimental real-space mapping of magnetic circular dichroism with atomic resolution in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an aberrated electron probe with customized phase distribution, we reveal with electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The aberrated probes allow the collection of EEL spectra using the transmitted beam, which results in a magnetic circular dichroic signal with intrinsically larger signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained via nanodiffraction techniques (where most of the transmitted electrons are discarded). The novel experimental setup presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution. This research was supported by DOE SUFD MSED, by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US DOE, and by the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (NSC center)

  13. The synchronous orbit magnetic field data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic field at synchronous orbit is the result of superposition of fields from many sources such as the earth, the magnetopause, the geomagnetic tail, the ring current and field-aligned currents. In addition, seasonal changes in the orientation of the earth's dipole axis causes significant changes in each of the external sources. Main reasons for which the synchronous orbit magnetic field data set is a potentially valuable resource are outlined. The primary reason why synchronous magnetic field data have not been used more extensively in magnetic field modeling is the presence of absolute errors in the measured fields. Nevertheless, there exists a reasonably large collection of synchronous orbit magnetic field data. Some of these data can be useful in quantitative modeling of the earth's magnetic field. A brief description is given of the spacecraft, the magnetometers, the standard graphical data displays, and the digital data files.

  14. Microarrays of near-field optical probes with adjustable dimensions.

    PubMed

    Chovin, A; Garrigue, P; Pecastaings, G; Saadaoui, H; Manek-Hönninger, I; Sojic, N

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication and the characterization of high-density microarrays comprising thousands of near-field optical probes. Two types of microarrays have been prepared by adapting the SNOM methodology: arrays of uncoated fiber nanotips (i.e. apertureless probes) and arrays of apertures with adjustable subwavelength dimensions. Such arrays were fabricated by retaining the coherent structure of monomode optical fiber bundles and therefore keeping their imaging properties. The size of the apertures in a microarray was tuned at the nanometer scale by modifying the fabrication parameters. Far-field characterization of these near-field probe arrays shows completely different behavior depending both on their architecture and on their characteristic size. The angular distribution of the far-field intensity transmitted through the aperture arrays is used to determine the optical size of such diffracting apertures. Aperture radii ranging from 95 to 250 nm were found in good agreement with SEM data. Furthermore, each nanoaperture of the array is optically independent in the far-field regime. Eventually, this study demonstrates potential applications of these imaging arrays as parallel near-field optical probes in both configurations (apertureless and with apertures). PMID:16182448

  15. A multichannel magnetic probe system for analysing magnetic fluctuations in helical axis plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haskey, S. R.; Blackwell, B. D.; Seiwald, B.; Hole, M. J.; Pretty, D. G.; Howard, J.; Wach, J.

    2013-09-15

    The need to understand the structure of magnetic fluctuations in H-1NF heliac [S. Hamberger et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 123 (1990)] plasmas has motivated the installation of a sixteen former, tri-axis helical magnetic probe Mirnov array (HMA). The new array complements two existing poloidal Mirnov arrays by providing polarisation information, higher frequency response, and improved toroidal resolution. The helical placement is ideal for helical axis plasmas because it positions the array as close as possible to the plasma in regions of varying degrees of favourable curvature in the magnetohydrodynamic sense, but almost constant magnetic angle. This makes phase variation with probe position near linear, greatly simplifying the analysis of the data. Several of the issues involved in the design, installation, data analysis, and calibration of this unique array are presented including probe coil design, frequency response measurements, mode number identification, orientation calculations, and mapping probe coil positions to magnetic coordinates. Details of specially designed digitally programmable pre-amplifiers, which allow gains and filters to be changed as part of the data acquisition initialisation sequence and stored with the probe signals, are also presented. The low shear heliac geometry [R. Jiménez-Gómez et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 033001 (2011)], flexibility of the H-1NF heliac, and wealth of information provided by the HMA create a unique opportunity for detailed study of Alfvén eigenmodes, which could be a serious issue for future fusion reactors.

  16. Field induced anisotropic cooperativity in a magnetic colloidal glass.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, E; Chushkin, Y; Dubois, E; Dupuis, V; Robert, A; Perzynski, R

    2015-09-28

    The translational dynamics of a repulsive colloidal glass-former is probed by time-resolved X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. In this dense dispersion of charge-stabilized and magnetic nanoparticles, the interaction potential can be tuned, from quasi-isotropic to anisotropic by applying an external magnetic field. This powerful control parameter finely tunes the anisotropy of the intricate energy landscape in the colloidal glass-former, which is seen here as a new tunable model-system to probe the dynamical heterogeneities at the approach of the glass transition. Both structural and dynamical anisotropies are reported on interparticle lengthscales associated with highly anisotropic cooperativity, almost two orders of magnitude larger in the field direction than in the perpendicular direction and in zero field. PMID:26255958

  17. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOEpatents

    Doughty, Frank C.; Spencer, John E.

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  18. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Song, Justin C W; Rudner, Mark S

    2016-04-26

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons-chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)-for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron-electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands. PMID:27071090

  19. Dynamics of positive probes in underdense, strongly magnetized, E×B drifting plasma: Particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Cooke, David L.

    2013-09-15

    Electron trapping, electron heating, space-charge wings, wake eddies, and current collection by a positive probe in E×B drifting plasma were studied in three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. In these simulations, electrons and ions were magnetized with respect to the probe and the plasma was underdense (ω{sub pe}<ω{sub ce}). A large drift velocity (Mach 4.5 with respect to the ion acoustic speed) between the plasma and probe was created with background electric and magnetic fields. Four distinct regions developed in the presences of the positive probe: a quasi-trapped electron region, an electron-depletion wing, an ion-rich wing, and a wake region. We report on the observations of strong electron heating mechanisms, space-charge wings, ion cyclotron charge-density eddies in the wake, electron acceleration due to a magnetic presheath, and the current-voltage relationship.

  20. Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies: NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Wilcots, E. M.; Robishaw, T.; Heiles, C.; Zweibel, E.

    2006-12-01

    Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium of galaxies. They provide support, transfer energy from supernovae, provide a possible heating mechanism, and channel gas flows (Beck 2004). Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, it is not well known what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in galaxies. The magnetic fields may be especially important in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be great enough for the field to be dynamically important. However, only four irregular galaxies besides the LMC and the SMC have observed magnetic field structures. The goal of our project is to significantly increase the number of irregular galaxies with observed magnetic field structure. Here we present preliminary results for one of the galaxies in our sample: NGC 4214. Using the VLA and the GBT, we have obtained 3cm, 6cm, and 20cm radio continuum polarization observations of this well-studied galaxy. Our observations allow us to investigate the effects of NGC 4214's high star formation rate, slow rotation rate, and weak bar on the structure of its magnetic field. We find that NGC 4214's magnetic field has an S-shaped structure, with the central field following the bar and the outer edges curving to follow the shape of the arms. The mechanism for generating these fields is still uncertain. A. Kepley is funded by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  1. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1994-01-01

    The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the physics of collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks in plasmas are capable of 'reflecting' a fraction of the incoming thermal particle distribution and directing the resulting energetic particle motion back into the upstream region. Once within the upstream region, the backward streaming energetic particles convey information of the approaching shock to the supersonic flow. This particle population is responsible for the generation of upstream magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations known as 'upstream waves', for slowing the incoming wind prior to the formation of the shock ramp, and for heating of the upstream plasma. The waves produced at Uranus not only differed in several regards from the observations at other planetary bow shocks, but also gave new information regarding the nature of the reflected particle populations which were largely unmeasurable by the particle instruments. Four distinct magnetic field wave types were observed upstream of the Uranian bow shock: low-frequency Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves excited by energetic protons originating at or behind the bow shock; whistler wave bursts driven by gyrating ion distributions within the shock ramp; and two whistler wave types simultaneously observed upstream of the flanks of the shock and argued to arise from resonance with energetic electrons. In addition, observations of energetic particle distributions by the LECP experiment, thermal particle populations observed by the PLS experiment, and electron plasma oscillations recorded by the PWS experiment proved instrumental to this study and are included to some degree in the papers and presentations supported by this grant.

  2. Magnetic fields from the electroweak phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Tornkvist, O.

    1998-02-01

    I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.

  3. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  4. ESA's Magnetic Field Mission Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haagmans, R.; Kern, M.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and climate. The mission is nominally scheduled for launch in 2010. After release from a single launcher, a side-by-side flying slowly decaying lower pair of satellites will be released at an initial altitude of about 490 km together with a third satellite that will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations that are required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field. At present the project is in the development phase. The current project status, planned products and performances, and on-going scientific studies will be given special attention during the presentation. There will also be outlook to the next planned Swarm workshop.

  5. Magnetic switching in ultrashort field pulses (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, C. H.; Weller, D.; Heidmann, J.; Mauri, D.; Garwin, E. L.; Siegmann, H. C.

    1997-04-01

    The Ginzburg-Landau-Lifshitz (GLL) equation, which describes the time dependence of spin precesssion in an external magnetic field1 relates the minimal field required to reverse the magnetization at fixed pulse length to the anisotropy field of the sample.23 We have systematically varied this parameter between 1.3 and about 5.0 T in a series of perpendicularly magnetized Co/Pt multilayer films and studied the magnetization reversal in picosecond in plane field pulses. Such pulses of several Tesla field strength and ultrashort duration were obtained in the final focus test beam section of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The resulting magnetization pattern, which is reminiscent of the field during exposure, is subsequently analyzed with Kerr microscopy2 (see Fig. 1). As a prominent feature, we observe a beam field related switching radius from up to down magnetization which we compare to the theoretically expected field within the GLL formalism.

  6. Does the earth's magnetic field influence climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Fluteau, F.; Gallet, Y.; Le Mouel, J.

    2007-05-01

    The main agents which are invoked are solar variability, changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas content, or internal variability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Evidences for connections between climate and magnetic field variations have received less attention and will be reviewed. On the 10-100yr timescale, that of recent secular variation, there appears to be a rather good correlation between decadal changes in amplitude of geomagnetic variations of external origin, solar irradiance and global temperature. The correlation applies until the 1980's, suggesting that solar irradiance may be a key forcing function of climate until then, when the correlation breaks and (anomalous?) warming may emerge from the signal (this is the subject of separate, ongoing work). Indeed, only solar flux of energy and particles can jointly explain such parallel variations in temperature and external magnetic field. On the 100-5000yr timescale, that of historical and archeomagnetic change, intriguing features are the recently proposed archeomagnetic jerks, i.e. fairly abrupt (~100 yr long) geomagnetic field variations found at irregular intervals over the past few millennia, using the archeological record from Europe to the Middle East. These seem to correlate with significant climatic events in the eastern North Atlantic region. A proposed mechanism involves variations in the geometry of the geomagnetic field (f.i. tilt of the dipole to lower latitudes), resulting in enhanced cosmic-ray induced nucleation of clouds. On the 103-106 yr timescale, that of excursions and reversals, evidence for correlations in field intensity changes, excursions and reversals, which invoke Milankovic forcing in the core, either directly or through changes in ice distribution and moments of inertia of the Earth, is proposed but is still rather tenuous. In conclusion, no forcing factor, be it changes in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere or changes in cosmic ray flux modulated by solar activity and geomagnetism, or possibly other factors, can at present be neglected or shown to be the overwhelming single driver of climate change in the past century. Intensive data acquisition is required to further probe indications that the Earth's and Sun's magnetic fields may have significant bearing on climate change at time scales going from years to millennia, and more.

  7. Mapping the magnetic hyperfine field in GdCo5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. I.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Delyagin, N. N.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) in ferrimagnetic GdCo5 compound has been investigated as a function of temperature by Mössbauer effect (ME) spectroscopy and perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 119Sn and 111Cd probe nuclei, respectively. Results show that the non-magnetic probe atoms 119Sn and 111Cd substitute all three non-equivalent positions in GdCo5: Gd, CoI, and CoII. For 119Sn and 111Cd probes at Gd sites, the saturation magnetic hyperfine fields are very different with values of Bhf1 = 57.0(1) T and Bhf1= 20.7(1) T, respectively. For 119Sn and 111Cd atoms localized at CoI and CoII sites the magnetic hyperfine fields are practically identical and, in saturation, reach the values of Bhf2 = 11.6(1) T and Bhf2 = 11.1(2) T, and Bhf3 = 14.8(1) T and Bhf3 = 14.4(2) T, respectively.

  8. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  9. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  10. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this

  11. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary

  12. [Analysis of peculiarities of magnetic field effect].

    PubMed

    Macheret, Ie L; Murashko, N K

    2003-01-01

    In the article is analyzed the influence of a magnetic field of the Earth on human, state of his health and necessity of magnetic diagnostics. The magnetic fields is an effective preventive and tentative method in case of an early development of diseases. PMID:14723128

  13. Magnetic field effect on charged Brownian swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, M.; Velasco, R. M.; Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the effective diffusion of a spherical self-propelled charged particle swimming at low Reynolds number, and subject to a time-dependent magnetic field and thermal agitation. We find that the presence of an external magnetic field may reduce or enhance (depending on the type of swimming and magnetic field applied) the swimmer's effective diffusion, hence we get another possible strategy to control its displacement. For swimmers performing reciprocal motion, and under an oscillating time-dependent magnetic field, mechanical resonance appears when the swimmer and magnetic frequencies coincide, thus enhancing the particle's effective diffusion. Our analytical results are compared with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement.

  14. Baryon onset in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Alexander; Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The critical baryon chemical potential for the onset of nuclear matter is a function of the vacuum mass and the binding energy. Both quantities are affected by an external magnetic field. We show within two relativistic mean-field models - including magnetic catalysis, but omitting the anomalous magnetic moment - that a magnetic field increases both the vacuum mass and the binding energy. For sufficiently large magnetic fields, the effect on the vacuum mass dominates and as a result the critical baryon chemical potential is increased.

  15. Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

  16. Design and calibration of high-frequency magnetic probes for the SUNIST spherical tokamak.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangqing; Tan, Yi; Pan, Ou; Ke, Rui; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-11-01

    A new high-frequency magnetic diagnostic system is designed, installed, and calibrated in the Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) to investigate Alfvn waves (AWs). The system consists of a fixed toroidal array and a movable radial array of high-frequency magnetic probes (HFMPs) with 21 and 60 probes, respectively. Based on the method of vacuum enameled wire wound on ceramic bobbins, the fixed toroidal array is located as near as possible to the plasma and carefully shielded to reduce the attenuation of high-frequency magnetic field. Meanwhile, by using the technology of commercial chip inductors mounted on printed circuit boards, the movable radial array is inserted into a thin quartz tube that allows positioning along radial direction. A Helmholtz coil is utilized to calibrate the effective areas as well as the frequency response of each HFMP. The calibration results are consistent with the calculated results of an equivalent probe-and-cable circuit model. High-frequency magnetic signals related to AW are detected with these HFMPs. These HFMPs are expected to play a key role in analyzing Alfvn eigenmodes excited by AW antenna in the SUNIST. PMID:25430367

  17. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Doran D; Alexson, Dimitri A; Garbini, Joseph L

    2013-09-01

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 μm diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner. PMID:24089869

  18. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Garbini, Joseph L.

    2013-09-01

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 μm diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

  19. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Garbini, Joseph L.

    2013-09-15

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 μm diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

  20. CoMP linear polarization as a probe of coronal magnetic topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Sarah; Bak-Steslicka, Urszula; de Toma, Giuliana; Rachmeler, Laurel A.; Zhang, Mei

    2016-05-01

    New data from HAO’s Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) have allowed us for the first time to obtain daily polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere, providing unique constraints on coronal magnetic models. However, due to the relatively-small size of the telescope, polarization observations are currently limited to linear polarization measurements, which depend upon the plane-of-sky magnetic field direction but not its magnitude. Despite this limitation, and despite the fact that the linearly polarized light measured is optically thin and so integrated over the line of sight, CoMP linear polarization has proved useful as a probe of a range of magnetic topologies. In particular, we will use forward modeling in comparison to CoMP data to show how linear polarization diagnoses magnetic flux ropes, null points, pseudostreamers, non-radial expansion factor, and solar cycle evolution.

  1. Magnetic field distribution inside the aperture of a steerer magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriţă, Ionel; Dan, Daniel; Tănase, Nicolae

    2015-11-01

    The High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), an important part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) international project [1], which will be set up in Darmstadt in the next years, contains, among other magnets, several corrector magnets used for vertical and horizontal beam deviation. A prototype of a 2mrad vertical steerer magnet was designed by National Institute for R&D in Electrical Engineering (ICPE-CA) Romania in close cooperation with Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany [2] and then manufactured and tested by ICPE-CA [3], Romanian Institute for Electrical Engineering—Advanced Research. Magnetic field measurements using a 3D Hall probe were performed. Measured data and their analysis are presented. The system used for Hall probe positioning and data acquisition is also described.

  2. Magnetically filtered Faraday probe for measuring the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Walker, Mitchell L.R.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2006-01-15

    The ability of a magnetically filtered Faraday probe (MFFP) to obtain the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster is investigated. The MFFP is designed to eliminate the collection of low-energy, charge-exchange (CEX) ions by using a variable magnetic field as an ion filter. In this study, a MFFP, Faraday probe with a reduced acceptance angle (BFP), and nude Faraday probe are used to measure the ion current density profile of a 5 kW Hall thruster operating over the range of 300-500 V and 5-10 mg/s. The probes are evaluated on a xenon propellant Hall thruster in the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility at operating pressures within the range of 4.4x10{sup -4} Pa Xe (3.3x10{sup -6} Torr Xe) to 1.1x10{sup -3} Pa Xe (8.4x10{sup -6} Torr Xe) in order to study the ability of the Faraday probe designs to filter out CEX ions. Detailed examination of the results shows that the nude probe measures a greater ion current density profile than both the MFFP and BFP over the range of angular positions investigated for each operating condition. The differences between the current density profiles obtained by each probe are attributed to the ion filtering systems employed. Analysis of the results shows that the MFFP, operating at a +5 A solenoid current, provides the best agreement with flight-test data and across operating pressures.

  3. Magnetically filtered Faraday probe for measuring the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of a magnetically filtered Faraday probe (MFFP) to obtain the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster is investigated. The MFFP is designed to eliminate the collection of low-energy, charge-exchange (CEX) ions by using a variable magnetic field as an ion filter. In this study, a MFFP, Faraday probe with a reduced acceptance angle (BFP), and nude Faraday probe are used to measure the ion current density profile of a 5kW Hall thruster operating over the range of 300-500V and 5-10mg/s. The probes are evaluated on a xenon propellant Hall thruster in the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility at operating pressures within the range of 4.4×10-4Pa Xe (3.3×10-6Torr Xe) to 1.1×10-3Pa Xe (8.4×10-6Torr Xe) in order to study the ability of the Faraday probe designs to filter out CEX ions. Detailed examination of the results shows that the nude probe measures a greater ion current density profile than both the MFFP and BFP over the range of angular positions investigated for each operating condition. The differences between the current density profiles obtained by each probe are attributed to the ion filtering systems employed. Analysis of the results shows that the MFFP, operating at a +5A solenoid current, provides the best agreement with flight-test data and across operating pressures.

  4. Can we probe the conductivity of the lithosphere and upper mantle using satellite tidal magnetic signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.

    2015-05-01

    A few studies convincingly demonstrated that the magnetic fields induced by the lunar semidiurnal (M2) ocean flow can be identified in satellite observations. This result encourages using M2 satellite magnetic data to constrain subsurface electrical conductivity in oceanic regions. Traditional satellite-based induction studies using signals of magnetospheric origin are mostly sensitive to conducting structures because of the inductive coupling between primary and induced sources. In contrast, galvanic coupling from the oceanic tidal signal allows for studying less conductive, shallower structures. We perform global 3-D electromagnetic numerical simulations to investigate the sensitivity of M2 signals to conductivity distributions at different depths. The results of our sensitivity analysis suggest it will be promising to use M2 oceanic signals detected at satellite altitude for probing lithospheric and upper mantle conductivity. Our simulations also suggest that M2 seafloor electric and magnetic field data may provide complementary details to better constrain lithospheric conductivity.

  5. Near-Field Photothermal Heating with a Plasmonic Nanofocusing Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Dong, Biqing; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2016-03-01

    Noble metal nanostructures support plasmon resonances—collective oscillation of charge carriers at optical frequencies—and serve as effective tools to create bright light sources at the nanoscale. These sources are useful in broad application areas including, super-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, nanolithography, and near-field optomechanical transducers. The feasibility of these applications relies on efficient conversion of free-space propagating light to plasmons. Recently, we demonstrated a hybrid nanofocusing scheme for efficient coupling of light to plasmons at the apex of a scanning probe. In the approach, free-space light is coupled to propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the tapered shaft of the scanning probe. The SPPs propagate adiabatically towards the probe tip where they are coupled to localized plasmons (LSPs). The nanofocusing scheme was explored in a near-field scanning optical microscope for super-resolution imaging, near-field transduction of nanomechanical vibrations, and local detection of ultrasound. Owing to the strong concentration of light at the probe, significant heating of the tip and a sample positioned in the optical near-field is expected. This paper investigates the local heating produced by the plasmonic nanofocusing probe under steady-state conditions using the tip-enhanced Raman scattering approach. In addition, a finite element model is explored to study the coupling of free propagating light to LSPs, and to estimate the temperature rise expected in a halfspace heated by absorption of the LSPs. This study has implications for exploring the plasmonic nanofocusing probe in heat-assisted nanofabrication and fundamental studies of nanoscale heat transport in materials.

  6. Atom probe field ion microscopy of high resistivity materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrandij, S.J.; Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    1998-02-01

    Over the last 30 years the atom probe has proved to be a powerful tool for studying nanometer-sized compositional fluctuations in a wide range of metallic alloys but has had only limited applications to semiconductors and ceramics. One of the primary reasons for this difference is the higher resistivity of semiconducting and ceramic specimens. Because of this high resistivity, the high voltage field evaporation pulse is attenuated before it reaches the apex of the specimen thereby making the pulse ineffective for field evaporation. Experiments have demonstrated that both variants of the voltage-pulsed atom probe (i.e., those instruments in which the field evaporation pulse is applied directly to the specimen and those in which the negative pulse is applied to a counter electrode in front of the specimen) are equally affected. In this overview, the limits of applicability of the voltage-pulsed atom probe to high resistivity materials are examined. In this study, a wide range of materials have been examined to determine whether field ion microscopy and voltage-pulsed field evaporation can be achieved and the results are summarized in the report. Field ion microscopy including dc field evaporation was possible for all materials except bulk ceramic insulators and glasses. Field ion microscopy requires some conductivity both to achieve a high electric field at the apex of the specimen, and also to support the field ion current. In contrast, voltage-pulsed field evaporation requires transmission of the pulse to the apex of the specimen. All metallic alloys including high resistance alloys and metallic glasses were successfully field evaporated with a voltage pulse. Specimens that were produced from bulk material of several conducting ceramics including MoSi, TiB and TiC were also successfully field evaporated with a voltage pulse.

  7. Probing Magnetic Configurations in Buried Cobalt/Copper Multilayered Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai

    2009-03-01

    Multilayered magnetic nanowires have been a model system for heterostructured junctions that exhibit a host of fascinating perpendicular spin transport phenomena, such as giant and tunneling magnetoresistance (MR), and spin-transfer torque effects. Due to the extremely small physical dimensions the magnetic components in these nanowires or junctions often exhibit complex magnetization reversal behaviors, which are difficult to probe by magnetic imaging since the entities are buried deep inside a matrix. Conventional hysteresis loop measurement alone cannot reliably distinguish the reversal mechanisms either. In this work we have captured magnetic and MR ``fingerprints'' of Co nanodiscs in Co/Cu multilayered nanowires as they undergo a single domain to vortex state transition, using a first-order reversal curve (FORC) method [1]. The nanowires have been electrochemically deposited into nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. In 50 nm diameter [Co(5nm)/Cu(8nm)]400 nanowires, a 10% MR effect is observed at 300 K. In 200 nm diameter nanowires, the magnetic configurations can be tuned by adjusting the Co nanodisc aspect ratio. Nanowires with thinnest Co exhibit single domain behavior. Those with thicker Co exhibit vortex states, where the irreversible nucleation and annihilation of the vortices are manifested as butterfly-like features in the FORC distributions, similar to those observed in arrays of Fe nanodots [2]. They also show a superposition of giant and anisotropic magnetoresistance, which corresponds to the specific magnetic configurations of the Co nanodiscs. [4pt] [1] J. E. Davies, et al, Phys. Rev. B 70, 224434 (2004); Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 262503 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 77, 014421 (2008).[0pt] [2] R. K. Dumas, et al, Phys. Rev. B 75, 134405 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202501 (2007).

  8. Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, Savka I; Huo, Fengwei; Lee, Jae-Seung; Mirkin, Chad A

    2005-11-01

    A method for synthesizing composite nanoparticles with a gold shell, an Fe3O4 inner shell, and a silica core has been developed. The approach utilizes positively charged amino-modified SiO2 particles as templates for the assembly of negatively charged 15 nm superparamagnetic water-soluble Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The SiO2-Fe3O4 particles electrostatically attract 1-3 nm Au nanoparticle seeds that act in a subsequent step as nucleation sites for the formation of a continuous gold shell around the SiO2-Fe3O4 particles upon HAuCl4 reduction. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, but the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. PMID:16262387

  9. Magnetometer measures orthogonal components of magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Driven magnetometer accurately measures the components of a low strength magnetic field in each of three mutually perpendicular directions. To accomplish this, it employs the principle of magnetic resonance in optically pumped rubidium vapor.

  10. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  11. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  12. Probe Station and Near-Field Scanner for Testing Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Lee, Richard Q.; Darby, William G.; Barr, Philip J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A facility that includes a probe station and a scanning open-ended waveguide probe for measuring near electromagnetic fields has been added to Glenn Research Center's suite of antenna-testing facilities, at a small fraction of the cost of the other facilities. This facility is designed specifically for nondestructive characterization of the radiation patterns of miniaturized microwave antennas fabricated on semiconductor and dielectric wafer substrates, including active antennas that are difficult to test in traditional antenna-testing ranges because of fragility, smallness, or severity of DC-bias or test-fixture requirements. By virtue of the simple fact that a greater fraction of radiated power can be captured in a near-field measurement than in a conventional far-field measurement, this near-field facility is convenient for testing miniaturized antennas with low gains.

  13. Magnetic Field Measurements As A Tool For Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, B.; Mandea, M.; Menvielle, M.; Tarits, P.; Sotin, C.

    2005-12-01

    In the absence of surface observations, magnetic measurements on-board orbiting satellites provide a unique tool for investigating planetary properties, such as interaction with the solar wind, internal structure, or nature of the magnetic sources. Modelling and interpreting the magnetic fields and and their sources are essential to determine and understand the dynamical properties of planets, as illustrated by the example of the Earth. The core and lithospheric sources of the geomagnetic field can be quite easily separated, considering the knee of the magnetic spectra around degree 13. Assuming that the magnetic sources lie below the core-mantle boundary, a rough estimate of the radius of the outer, liquid core can be computed. Using IGRF-10 model, we find a core radius within 1% of the commonly adopted seismological value. This method is applied to Ganymede and to Mercury. Ganymede's magnetic environment was explored by the Galileo spacecraft. The Jovian satellite was found to possess an internal magnetic field, which origin is still controversial. The origin of the Hermean magnetic field is still not fully confirmed. The Messenger (launch: 2004) and the BepiColombo (launch: 2012) probe measurements are thus eagerly awaited for. The first measurements by these satellites will undoubtedly reveal the nature of the magnetic field. If the internal origin is confirmed, direct conclusion will be the presence of a liquid, conductive, convecting layer inside Mercury. Additional measurements will allow the structure and the temporal variations of the Hermean magnetic field to be modelled. In practice, the measured field by the spacecraft is the sum of the planetary field (of internal and external sources) and on-board generated magnetic fields. Here, we first synthesize different on-board generated magnetic fields as a function of the distance to the satellite body. We then predict what would be the Hermean magnetic field, assuming a fixed value for the liquid core radius. We then add the planetary and satellite contributions, considering different lengths for the magnetometer boom. We finally compute magnetic models, and compare the output to the initial hypothesis.

  14. Application peculiarities of magnetic materials for protection from magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, P.; Dmitrenko, V.; Grabchikov, S.; Vlasik, K.; Novikov, A.; Petrenko, D.; Trukhanov, V.; Ulin, S.; Uteshev, Z.; Chernysheva, V.; Shustov, A.

    2016-02-01

    In different materials for magnetic shields, the maximum permeability is achieved for different values of the magnetic field. This determines the choice of material. So for protection from magnetic fields strength of 10 - 150 A/m it is advisable to apply the amorphous ribbon 84KXCP. For stronger fields (more than 400 A/m) it is recommended to use MFS based on Ni20Fe80. Use of these materials allows creating an effective shield working in a wide range of magnetic field strengths.

  15. Magnetic Field Topology of Sigmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J. H.; Canfield, R. C.; Acton, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Sigmoids are studied due to their eruptive nature, which affects the Earth and the space atmosphere. The shape of the sigmoid (S-shaped or inverse S-shaped) is an indicator of eruption. The origin of this shape has been the topic of many research papers. One such paper by Fan and Gibson, The Emergence of a Twisted Magnetic Flux Tube Into a Preexisting Coronal Arcade, appeared in 2003. Fan and Gibson argue that a sigmoid with left-handed twist has left-handed writhe, which gives the sigmoid its S-shape and right-handed twist the inverse S-shape. Our study determined that there is no correlation between a sigmoid's handedness and shape as claimed in the paper by Fan and Gibson. Doing a statistical study observing the topology of the sigmoid using the data from Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope, we classified each sigmoid by its shape, twist, and magnetic field lines. We found that 23% of our data was right-handed and S-shaped, 33% was left-handed and S-shaped, 22% was right-handed and inverse S-shaped, and 22% was left-handed and inverse-S shaped. Thus, we found no systematic relationship between the handedness and shape of the sigmoid -- in disagreement with Fan and Gibson.

  16. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  17. Probing the electromagnetic field distribution within a metallic nanodisk.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Rodríguez, David; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; Prieto, Patricia; Anguita, José; González, María U; García-Martín, José M; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles, Gaspar

    2011-12-01

    A Co nanolayer is used as a local probe to evaluate the vertical inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic (EM) field within a resonant metallic nanodisk. Taking advantage of the direct relation between the magneto-optical activity and the electromagnetic field intensity in the Co layer, it is shown that the nonuniform EM distribution within the nanodisk under plasmon resonant conditions has maximum values close to the upper and lower flat faces, and a minimum value in the middle. PMID:21972067

  18. Connecting Photospheric Magnetic Fields and Transition Temperature Plasma Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The connectivity of quiet sun magnetic fields is not well understood. One observational obstacle to probe this question has been the sparse spectral observations spanning the transition temperatures (3×104 K< T < 1×105K) between the chromosphere and corona. The Si IV lines observed by IRIS provide a rich dataset to address the structure of the cool quiet sun. We use over 900 deep exposures from IRIS to map the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations. Ultimately, our aim is to discern the topology and energetic equilibrium of the magnetic structures that span the quiet sun. We use both a potential field model and a snapshot of the Bifrost 3D MHD simulation to interpret our emission data. In a broad sense, we find there is a clear correlation between magnetic fields and strong Si IV emission. However, more pointed statistics suggest that the relationship is quite complex. We do not find evidence for cool loops longer than 3 Mm in length, but we see ubiquitous, smooth emission nearly everywhere in the quiet sun. Emission voids on scales larger than 8 Mm cannot be well explained by their proximity to magnetic fields. This evidence suggests that weak-field transition-temperature loops contribute significantly to quiet sun transition-temperature emission measure, and evolutionary effects likely play a role in structuring the magnetic atmosphere.

  19. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  20. Magnetic Field Evolution in the Burning Layer of an Accreting Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, A.; Zweibel, E. G.

    2003-03-01

    Type I X-ray burst oscillations are a promising probe of the magnetic field strength and geometry in accreting neutron stars. Cumming and Bildsten showed that a field as weak as 106G could play a dynamical role during a burst. Key to interpreting the observations is understanding the evolution of the magnetic field in the outer layers of the neutron star. We show that thermomagnetic drift operates strongly in the accumulating layer, leading to growth of the magnetic field between bursts. We discuss the saturation and geometry of the magnetic field, its relation to the underlying stellar field, and the implications for the dynamics of flows during Type I bursts.

  1. Design and validation of the ball-pen probe for measurements in a low-temperature magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bousselin, G.; Cavalier, J.; Pautex, J. F.; Heuraux, S.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.

    2013-01-15

    Ball-pen probes have been used in fusion devices for direct measurements of the plasma potential. Their application in low-temperature magnetized plasma devices is still subject to studies. In this context, a ball-pen probe has been recently implemented on the linear plasma device Mirabelle. Produced by a thermionic discharge, the plasma is characterized by a low electron temperature and a low density. Plasma confinement is provided by an axial magnetic field that goes up to 100 mT. The principle of the ball-pen probe is to adjust the saturation current ratio to 1 by reducing the electron current contribution. In that case, the floating potential of the probe is close to the plasma potential. A thorough study of the ball-pen probe operation is performed for different designs of the probe over a large set of plasma conditions. Comparisons between ball-pen, Langmuir, and emissive probes are conducted in the same plasma conditions. The ball-pen probe is successfully measuring the plasma potential in these specific plasma conditions only if an adapted electronics and an adapted probe size to the plasma characteristic lengths ({lambda}{sub D}, {rho}{sub ce}) are used.

  2. Design and validation of the ball-pen probe for measurements in a low-temperature magnetized plasma.

    PubMed

    Bousselin, G; Cavalier, J; Pautex, J F; Heuraux, S; Lemoine, N; Bonhomme, G

    2013-01-01

    Ball-pen probes have been used in fusion devices for direct measurements of the plasma potential. Their application in low-temperature magnetized plasma devices is still subject to studies. In this context, a ball-pen probe has been recently implemented on the linear plasma device Mirabelle. Produced by a thermionic discharge, the plasma is characterized by a low electron temperature and a low density. Plasma confinement is provided by an axial magnetic field that goes up to 100 mT. The principle of the ball-pen probe is to adjust the saturation current ratio to 1 by reducing the electron current contribution. In that case, the floating potential of the probe is close to the plasma potential. A thorough study of the ball-pen probe operation is performed for different designs of the probe over a large set of plasma conditions. Comparisons between ball-pen, Langmuir, and emissive probes are conducted in the same plasma conditions. The ball-pen probe is successfully measuring the plasma potential in these specific plasma conditions only if an adapted electronics and an adapted probe size to the plasma characteristic lengths (λ(D), ρ(ce)) are used. PMID:23387648

  3. Long-pulse magnetic field facility at Zaragoza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarabel, P. A.; del Moral, A.; Martín, C.; Serrate, D.; Tokarz, W.

    2006-11-01

    The long-pulse magnetic field facility of the Laboratorio de Magnetismo - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC) produces magnetic fields up to 31, with a pulse duration of 2.2s. Experimental set-ups for measurements of magnetization, magnetostriction and magnetoresistance are available. The temperature can be controlled between 1.4 and 335 K, being the inner bore of the He cryostat of 22.5 mm. Magnetization is measured using the mutual induction technique, the magnetostriction is determined with the strain-gage and the capacitive cantilever methods, and the magnetoresistance is measured by means of the aclock-in technique in the 4-probes geometry. An overview of the facility will be presented and the presently available experimental techniques will be discussed.

  4. Probing arrays of circular magnetic microdots by ferromagnetic resonance.

    SciTech Connect

    Kakazei, G. N.; Mewes, T.; Wigen, P. E.; Hammel, P. C.; Slavin, A. N.; Pogorelov, Y. G.; Costa, M. D.; Golub, V. O.; Guslienko, K. Y.; Novosad, V.

    2008-06-01

    X-band ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) was used to characterize in-plane magnetic anisotropies in rectangular and square arrays of circular nickel and Permalloy microdots. In the case of a rectangular lattice, as interdot distances in one direction decrease, the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy field increases, in good agreement with a simple theory of magnetostatically interacting uniformly magnetized dots. In the case of a square lattice a four-fold anisotropy of the in-plane FMR field H(r) was found when the interdot distance a gets comparable to the dot diameter D. This anisotropy, not expected in the case of uniformly magnetized dots, was explained by a non-uniform magnetization m(r) in a dot in response to dipolar forces in the patterned magnetic structure. It is well described by an iterative solution of a continuous variation procedure. In the case of perpendicular magnetization multiple sharp resonance peaks were observed below the main FMR peak in all the samples, and the relative positions of these peaks were independent of the interdot separations. Quantitative description of the observed multiresonance FMR spectra was given using the dipole-exchange spin wave dispersion equation for a perpendicularly magnetized film where in-plane wave vector is quantized due to the finite dot radius, and the inhomogenetiy of the intradot static demagnetization field in the nonellipsoidal dot is taken into account. It was demonstrated that ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy (FMRFM) can be used to determine both local and global properties of patterned submicron ferromagnetic samples. Local spectroscopy together with the possibility to vary the tip-sample spacing enables the separation of those two contributions to a FMRFM spectrum. The global FMR properties of circular submicron dots determined using magnetic resonance force microscopy are in a good agreement with results obtained using conventional FMR and with theoretical descriptions.

  5. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  6. Representation of magnetic fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic field depression in electron holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We analyze spikes of the electrostatic field observed by Van Allen Probes in the outer radiation belt. These spikes exhibit the classical signatures of electron holes, i.e. a positive hump of the electrostatic potential (depleted electron density) and a propagation velocity of the order of an electron thermal velocity. The characteristic amplitude, velocity and spatial scale of these electron holes are several tens of mV/m, several thousand of km/s and about several km, respectively. The unexpected feature is the magnetic field depression of about several tens of pT within the observed electron holes. We suggest that this depression is due to the diamagnetic current of an electron population trapped within the electron hole. We estimate that the trapped population has a density up to 50% of the background plasma density, a temperature of about hundreds of eV and a high temperature anisotropy, T⊥/T||~ 3.5. We argue that the observed electron holes could be generated due to the injection of the highly-anisotropic plasma into the outer radiation belts.

  8. Magnetic field effects on plasma ionization balance

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Magnetic fields give rise to several phenomena that can significantly affect ionization balance in a plasma. Theoretical models commonly used to determine the charge state distribution (viz., ) of ions in non-magnetized plasmas are reviewed first, for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations. Then, after a brief survey of laboratory and cosmic plasmas with strong fields, B > 10{sup 6} Gauss, some of the ways such magnetic fields influence are highlighted. Most key problems have yet to be tackled.

  9. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  10. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  11. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  12. A scanning Hall probe microscope for high resolution magnetic imaging down to 300 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Khotkevych, V. V.; Bending, S. J.; Milosevic, M. V.

    2008-12-15

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a low-temperature scanning Hall probe microscope with submicron lateral resolution and a large scanning range. The detachable microscope head is mounted on the cold flange of a commercial {sup 3}He-refrigerator (Oxford Instruments, Heliox VT-50) and operates between room temperature and 300 mK. It is fitted with a three-axis slip-stick nanopositioner that enables precise in situ adjustment of the probe location within a 6x6x7 mm{sup 3} space. The local magnetic induction at the sample surface is mapped with an easily changeable microfabricated Hall probe [typically GsAs/AlGaAs or AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs Hall sensors with integrated scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) tunneling tips] and can achieve minimum detectable fields {>=}10 mG/Hz{sup 1/2}. The Hall probe is brought into very close proximity to the sample surface by sensing and controlling tunnel currents at the integrated STM tip. The instrument is capable of simultaneous tunneling and Hall signal acquisition in surface-tracking mode. We illustrate the potential of the system with images of superconducting vortices at the surface of a Nb thin film down to 372 mK, and also of labyrinth magnetic-domain patterns of an yttrium iron garnet film captured at room temperature.

  13. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  14. Measurement of magnetic fields in stars

    SciTech Connect

    Landstreet, J.D.

    1980-05-01

    A review is presented of techniques of measuring magnetic fields in nondegenerate stars. The strengths and limitations of the classical photographic field measurement technique are compared to those of various photoelectric methods developed during the past decade, particularly the Balmer-line Zeeman analyzer technique. The problem of modeling magnetic data to infer the magnetic field geometry of an observed star is discussed. In the few cases where sufficient data are available to test the centered dipole geometry, it is found to be inadequate. It appears that most magnetic stars have field geometries at least as complex as the oblique decentered dipole (or dipole plus parallel linear quadrupole) model.

  15. Quark matter in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarty, S.

    1996-07-01

    The effect of a strong magnetic field on the stability and gross properties of bulk as well as quasibulk quark matter is investigated using the conventional MIT bag model. Both the Landau diamagnetism and the paramagnetism of quark matter are studied. How the quark hadron phase transition is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field is also investigated. The equation of state of strange quark matter changes significantly in a strong magnetic field. It is also shown that the thermal nucleation of quark bubbles in a compact metastable state of neutron matter is completely forbidden in the presence of a strong magnetic field. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Flow Transitions in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical Rayleigh numbers have been measured in a liquid metal cylinder of finite height in the presence of a rotating magnetic field. Several different stability regimes were observed, which were determined by the values of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. For weak rotating magnetic fields and small Rayleigh numbers, the experimental observations can be explained by the existence of a single non-axisymmetric meridional roll rotating around the cylinder, driven by the azimuthal component of the magnetic field. The measured dependence of rotational velocity on magnetic field strength is consistent with the existence of laminar flow in this regime.

  17. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  18. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  19. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-03-01

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ˜2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ˜9.5 mN for magnetic field above ˜2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ˜50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  20. Pulsed magnetic field magnetic force microscope and evaluation of magnetic properties of soft magnetic tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yangdong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Egawa, Genta; Zheng, Fu; Kinoshita, Yukinori; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    A pulsed magnetic field magnetic force microscope (PMF-MFM) is developed for evaluation of the magnetic properties of nano-scale materials and devices, as well as the characteristics of MFM tips. We present the setup of the PMF-MFM system, and focus on the evaluation of a FeCo soft magnetic tip by PMF-MFM. We find a new theoretical method to calculate tip magnetization curves (M-H curves) using MFM phase signals. We measure the MFM phase and amplitude signals for the FeCo tip during the presence of the pulsed magnetic fields oriented parallel and antiparallel to the initial tip magnetization direction, and acquire the tip coercivity H c ~ 1.1?kOe. The tip M-H curves are also calculated using the MFM phase signals data. We obtain the basic features of the tip magnetic properties from the tip M-H curves.

  1. Beyond Solar-B: MTRAP, the Magnetic Transition Region Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hathaway, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of solar missions will reveal and measure fine-scale solar magnetic fields and their effects in the solar atmosphere at heights, small scales, sensitivities, and fields of view well beyond the reach of Solar-B. The necessity for, and potential of, such observations for understanding solar magnetic fields, their generation in and below the photosphere, and their control of the solar atmosphere and heliosphere, were the focus of a science definition workshop, 'High-Resolution Solar Magnetography from Space: Beyond Solar-B,' held in Huntsville Alabama in April 2001. Forty internationally prominent scientists active in solar research involving fine-scale solar magnetism participated in this Workshop and reached consensus that the key science objective to be pursued beyond Solar-B is a physical understanding of the fine-scale magnetic structure and activity in the magnetic transition region, defined as the region between the photosphere and corona where neither the plasma nor the magnetic field strongly dominates the other. The observational objective requires high cadence (less than 10s) vector magnetic field maps, and spatially resolved spectra from the IR, visible, vacuum UV, to the EUV at high resolution (less than 50km) over a large FOV (approximately 140,000 km). A polarimetric resolution of one part in ten thousand is required to measure transverse magnetic fields of less than 30G. The latest SEC Roadmap includes a mission identified as MTRAP to meet these requirements. Enabling technology development requirements include large, lightweight, reflecting optics, large format sensors (16K x 16K pixels) with high QE at 150 nm, and extendable spacecraft structures. The Science Organizing Committee of the Beyond Solar-B Workshop recommends that: (1) Science and Technology Definition Teams should be established in FY04 to finalize the science requirements and to define technology development efforts needed to ensure the practicality of MTRAP's observational goals; (2) The necessary technology development funding should be included in Code S budgets for FY06 and beyond to prepare MTRAP for a new start no later than the nominal end of the Solar-B mission, around 2010.

  2. Magnetized quark matter with a magnetic-field dependent coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Feng; Yang, Li; Wen, Xin-Jian; Peng, Guang-Xiong

    2016-03-01

    It was recently derived that the QCD running coupling is a function of the magnetic field strength under the strong magnetic field approximation. Inspired by this progress and based on the self-consistent solutions of gap equations, the properties of two-flavor and three-flavor quark matter are studied in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a magnetic-field-dependent running coupling. We find that the dynamical quark masses as functions of the magnetic field strength are not monotonous in the fully chirally broken phase. Furthermore, the stability of magnetized quark matter with the running coupling is enhanced by lowering the free energy per baryon, which is expected to be more stable than that of the conventional constant coupling case. It is concluded that the magnetized strange quark matter described by running coupling can be absolutely stable.

  3. The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe: Exploring Small-Scale High-Latitude Electric Field Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, D.; Weston, C.; Nelson, W.; Stromberg, E. M.; Byers, B.; Frazier, C.; Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Carrick, B.; Neilsen, T. L.; Hidalgo, J. M.; Cox, W.; Evans, T.; Vangeison, V.; Perkins, C.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the late January 2014 time frame that will be used to study both the spatial and temporal small scale variation of the electric and magnetic fields during active aurora and just before the onset of an auroral sub-storm. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of small payloads that separate relative to each other throughout a sounding rocket flight. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow image) observations. In this way we will address the main scientific objective of this mission which is: What are the contributions of small spatial scale and rapid temporal scale fluctuations of electric fields relative to the larger-scale electrodynamic processes? The high altitude rocket will be launched along the magnetic field line and carry six sub-payloads to be ejected from the main payload at high velocity. The sub-payloads will be deployed both along the flight path and perpendicular to the flight path so that both spatial features and temporal-spatial ambiguities can be explored. The low-mass sub-payloads will achieve at least a 35 km separation by the end of the flight and are key to observational success. Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of double-probe sensors to measure in-situ electric fields, a three axis magnetometer, a Langmuir probe and a GPS receiver. In this poster we review the ASSP science, mission, and design, and present instrument calibration and testing results.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic mode identification from magnetic probe signals via a matched filter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, Dana H.; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bogatu, Ioan N.; Humphreys, David A.; Turnbull, Alan D.

    2002-04-01

    A matched filter analysis has been developed to identify the amplitude and phase of magnetohydrodynamic modes in DIII-D tokamak plasmas using magnetic probe signals (δBp). As opposed to conventional Fourier spatial analysis of toroidally spaced probes, this analysis includes data from both toroidally and poloidally spaced magnetic probe arrays. Using additional probes both improves the statistics of the analysis and more importantly incorporates poloidal information into the mode analysis. The matched filter is a numeric filter that matches signals from the magnetic probes with numerically predicted signals for the mode. The numerical predictions are developed using EFIT equilibrium reconstruction data as input to the stability code GATO and the vacuum field code VACUUM. Changes is the plasma equilibrium that occur on the same time scale as the mode are taken into account by modeling simple matched filter vectors corresponding to changes in total plasma current, plus vertical and horizontal plasma shifts. The matched filter method works well when there is good understanding of a mode and good modeling of its structure. Matched filter analysis results for a fast growing ideal kink mode, where equilibrium change effects are minimal, show the effectiveness of this method. A slow growing resistive-wall mode (RWM) is also analyzed using the matched filter method. The method gives good results for identifying the amplitude and phase of the RWM but the simple equilibrium vectors are insufficient for complete elimination of equilibrium changes on this time scale. An analysis of the computational requirements of the scheme indicates that real-time application of the matched filter for RWM identification will be possible.

  5. Properties of a hairpin probe in a strongly magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkari, S. K.; Gogna, G. S.; Boilson, D.

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of the physics in the filter field region of a neutral beam injection source for ITER under development is very important, as this region is where the negative ions are generated and extracted. For accurately determining electron densities in this complex plasma, a floating hairpin probe is applied on the KAMABOKO III ion source, at the MANTIS test bed at CEA Cadarache. The technique is based on measuring the probes resonance frequency (few GHz) shift in plasma with respect to that obtained in vacuum. The resonance frequency is proportional to the permittivity of the medium filling the space between the wires of the hairpin resonator. Using this technique we obtained the electron density variation as function of discharge power and on the external grid bias in front of the plasma grid.

  6. Soil gas carbon dioxide probe: laboratory testing and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P

    2013-05-01

    An automated semi-continuous on-line instrument has been developed to measure CO2 gas concentrations in the vadose zone. The instrument uses semi-permeable polymer tubing (CO2 probe) for diffusion based sampling, coupled to an infra red sensor. The system operated automatically by intermittently purging the CO2 probe, which was installed in the vadose zone, with a non-CO2 gas at a low flow rate. The gas exiting the CO2 probe was monitored at the ground surface using a miniature infra red sensor and the response related to the vadose zone soil gas CO2 concentration. The in situ CO2 probes provided a reliable monitoring technique under long-term (18 months) aggressive and dynamic field conditions, with no interference observed from non-CO2 gases and volatile organic compounds. The probes provided data that were comparable to conventional grab sampling techniques without the labour-intensive sample collection and processing associated with these conventional techniques. Also, disturbance to vadose zone CO2 profiles from repeated grab samples during long-term semi-continuous monitoring could potential be reduced by using the diffusion based sampling technique. PMID:23563305

  7. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  8. Magnetic Field Structure in Molecular Clouds by Polarization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. P.; Su, B. H.; Eswaraiah, C.; Pandey, A. K.; Wang, C. W.; Lai, S. P.; Tamura, M.; Sato, S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.

  9. Magnetic field evolution in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzazga, R. T.; Chyży, K. T.; Jurusik, W.; Wiórkiewicz, K.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: Violent gravitational interactions can change the morphologies of galaxies and, by means of merging, transform them into elliptical galaxies. We aim to investigate how they affect the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. Methods: We selected 16 systems of interacting galaxies with available VLA archive radio data at 4.86 and 1.4 GHz and compared their radio emission and estimated magnetic field strengths with their star-forming activity, far-infrared emission, and the stage of tidal interaction. Results: The estimated mean of total magnetic field strength for our sample of interacting galaxies is 14 ± 5 μG, which is larger than for the non-interacting objects. The field regularity (of 0.27 ± 0.09) is lower than in typical spirals and indicates enhanced production of random magnetic fields in the interacting objects. We find a general evolution of magnetic fields: for weak interactions the strength of magnetic field is almost constant (10-15 μG) as interaction advances, then it increases up to 2× , peaks at the nuclear coalescence (25 μG), and decreases again, down to 5-6 μG, for the post-merger remnants. The main production of magnetic fields in colliding galaxies thus terminates somewhere close to the nuclear coalescence, after which magnetic field diffuses. The magnetic field strength for whole galaxies is weakly affected by the star formation rate (SFR), while the dependence is higher for galactic centres. We show that the morphological distortions visible in the radio total and polarized emission do not depend statistically on the global or local SFRs, while they do increase (especially in the polarization) with the advance of interaction. The constructed radio-far-infrared relations for interacting and non-interacting galaxies display a similar balance between the generation of cosmic rays, magnetic fields, and the production of the thermal energy and dust radiation. Conclusions: The regular magnetic fields are much more sensitive to morphological distortions induced by tidal interactions than are the random fields. As a result the polarized emission could be yet another indicator of an ongoing merging process. The found evolution of magnetic field with advancing interaction would definitely imply a stronger effect of magnetic fields on the galaxy surroundings in the earlier cosmological epochs. The process of strong gravitational interactions can efficiently magnetize the merger's surroundings, having a similar magnetizing effect on intergalactic medium as supernova explosions or galactic winds. If interacting galaxies generate some ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), the disk or magnetized outflows can deflect them (up to 23°), and make an association of the observed UHECRs with the sites of their origin very uncertain.

  10. Cosmic Magnetic Fields (IAU S259)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Beckman, John E.

    2009-06-01

    Preface K. G. Strassmeier, A. G. Kosovichev and J. E. Beckman; Organising committee; Conference photograph; Conference participants; Session 1. Interstellar magnetic fields, star-forming regions and the Death Valley Takahiro Kudoh and Elisabeta de Gouveia Dal Pino; Session 2. Multi-scale magnetic fields of the Sun; their generation in the interior, and magnetic energy release Nigel O. Weiss; Session 3. Planetary magnetic fields and the formation and evolution of planetary systems and planets; exoplanets Karl-Heinz Glassmeier; Session 4. Stellar magnetic fields: cool and hot stars Swetlana Hubrig; Session 5. From stars to galaxies and the intergalactic space Dimitry Sokoloff and Bryan Gaensler; Session 6. Advances in methods and instrumentation for measuring magnetic fields across all wavelengths and targets Tom Landecker and Klaus G. Strassmeier; Author index; Object index; Subject index.

  11. Si nanowire probe with Nd-Fe-B magnet for attonewton-scale force detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yong-Jun; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a 210 nm-wide and 32 µm-long silicon nanowire probe with a silicon mirror using a silicon-on-insulator wafer in order to improve sensitivity of force detection for magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). Additionally, a Nd-Fe-B magnet has been integrated at the end of the nanowire. The fabricated nanowire probe shows a resonance frequency of 11.256 kHz and a factor of 12 800 after annealing at 800 °C for 2 h in forming gas. The probe exhibits attonewton sensitivity, and the measurement of force mapping based on electron spin resonance is demonstrated for 3D imaging of radicals. The detected force and magnetic field gradient are approximately 82 aN and ~70.1 G μm-1 at room temperature. The radical density is calculated as 4.6  ×  1018 spins cm-3.

  12. Magnetic field optimization of permanent magnet undulators for arbitrary polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.; Englisch, U.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques for improving the magnetic field quality of APPLE II undulators are discussed. Individual block characterization including the inhomogeneities of the magnetization permits a precise prediction of field integrals as required for sorting. Specific shimming procedures adapted to the magnetic design of APPLE II undulators have to be employed in order to meet the stringent requirements of insertion devices in third generation synchrotron radiation sources as demonstrated for BESSY.

  13. Direct magnetic field measurement of flow dynamics in magnetized coaxial accelerator channels

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Caress, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature magnetic probe array, consisting of ten spatially separated coils, has been used to obtain profile information on the time-varying magnetic field within the 2.54 cm wide flow channel of the Coaxial Plasma Source experiment (CPS-1) [R. M. Mayo {ital et al.}, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. {bold 4}, 47 (1995)] at the North Carolina State University. Two-dimensional (2-D) current profiles within the annular flow channel, which were constructed from the time-varying magnetic field data, reveal several complex features reflecting the influence of gun inductance, the Hall effect, and the applied magnetic field. When an external, electrode linking magnetic field is applied, the evolution of the 2-D current profile shows evidence of an ionizing shock front identified by a narrow current sheet propagating through the channel during the first few microseconds of the discharge. The thickness of this current sheet is on the same order as both the collisional mean-free path and the ion electromagnetic skin depth. In this applied field case, the plasma is prevented from advancing ahead of the current sheet by the applied magnetic field, which turns the ions and electrons without collisions. In the absence of an applied field, plasma is able to advance ahead of the current sheet, where it may initiate ionization downstream before the advance of the ionization front. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Investigation of the Arcjet near Field Plume Using Electrostatic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plume of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in.) and 15 cm (5.9 in.) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in.) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in.) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  15. Investigation of the arcjet plume near field using electrostatic probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plum of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in) and 15 cm (5.9 in) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  16. The CASSIOPE/e-POP Magnetic Field Instrument (MGF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, D. D.; Miles, D. M.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.; Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-06-01

    Field-aligned currents couple energy between the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere and are responsible for driving both micro and macro motions of plasma and neutral atoms in both regimes. These currents are believed to be a contributing energy source for ion acceleration in the polar ionosphere and may be detected via measurements of magnetic gradients along the track of a polar orbiting spacecraft, usually the north-south gradients of the east-west field component. The detection of such gradients does not require observatory class measurements of the geomagnetic field. The Magnetic Field instrument (MGF) measures the local magnetic field onboard the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite by using two ring-core fluxgate sensors to characterize and remove the stray spacecraft field. The fluxgate sensors have their heritage in the MAGSAT design, are double wound for reduced mass and cross-field dependence, and are mounted on a modest 0.9 m carbon-fiber boom. The MGF samples the magnetic field 160 times per sec (˜50 meters) to a resolution of 0.0625 nT and outputs data at 1952 bytes per second including temperature measurements. Its power consumption is 2.2 watts, and its noise level is 7 pT per root Hz at 1 Hz.

  17. Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection with a magnetic molecular beacon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shichao; Yao, Cuicui; Wei, Shuoming; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Han, Qing; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hongming

    2008-12-01

    Toxoplasma Gondii infection is widespread in humans worldwide and reported infection rates range from 3%-70%, depending on the populations or geographic areas, and it has been recognized as a potential food safety hazard in our daily life. A magnetic molecular beacon probe (mMBP), based on theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), was currently reported to detect Toxoplasma Gondii DNA. Nano-sized Fe3O4 were primarily prepared by coprecipitation method in aqueous phase with NaOH as precipitator, and was used as magnetic core. The qualified coreshell magnetic quantum dots (mQDs), i.e. CdTe(symbol)Fe3O4, were then achieved by layer-by-layer method when mol ratio of Fe3O4/CdTe is 1/3, pH at 6.0, 30 °C, and reactant solution was refluxed for 30 min, the size of mQDs were determined to be 12-15 nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Over 70% overlap between emission spectrum of mQDs and absorbance spectrum of BHQ-2 was observed, this result suggests the synthesized mQDs and BHQ-2 can be utilized as energy donor and energy acceptor, respectively. The sensing probe was fabricated and a stem-loop Toxoplasma Gondii DNA oligonucleotide was labeled with mQDs at the 5' end and BHQ-2 at 3' end, respectively. Target Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected under conditions of 37 °C, hybridization for 2h, at pH8.0 in Tris-HCl buffer. About 30% recovery of fluorescence intensity was observed via fluorescence spectrum (FS) after the Toxoplasma gondii DNA was added, which suggested that the Toxoplasma Gondii DNA was successfully detected. Specificity investigation of the mMBP indicated that relative low recovery of fluorescence intensity was obtained when the target DNA with one-base pair mismatch was added, this result indicated the high specificity of the sensing probe. Our research simultaneously indicated that mMBP can be conveniently separated from the unhybridized stem-loop DNA and target DNA, which will be meaningful in DNA sensing and purification process.

  19. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  20. Magnetic field measurements for study of fast electron transport in magnetized HED plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Griffin, Brandon; Presura, Radu; Haque, Showera; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Interaction of megagauss magnetic fields with high energy density (HED) plasma is of great interest in the field of magnetized plasma. The field changes fundamental properties of the HED plasma such as thermal and magnetic diffusion. A coupled capability utilizing the 1.0 MA Zebra pulsed power generator and the 50 TW Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility enables to create such a condition for studies of magnetized plasma properties. We have conducted an experiment to measure magnetic fields generated by a 1.0 MA, 100 ns Zebra pulsed current in stainless steel coils. Using a 532 nm continuous laser from a single longitudinal mode laser system, the temporal change in the magnetic field was measured with the Faraday rotation in F2 glass. The probe laser passing through the 1.5 mm in radius and 1.75 mm thick glass placed in the vicinity of the inductive coils was split with a Glan-Taylor prism to measure vertical and horizontal polarization components with photodiodes. We will present the analysis of the experimental result and a design of a coupled experiment for study of fast electron transport in the magnetized plasma.

  1. Cantilever magnetometry in pulsed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, M. J.; Ulmet, J. P.; Narjis, A.; Askenazy, S.; Chaparala, M. V.; Hope, A. P.

    1997-11-01

    The technique of cantilever magnetometry is shown to be functional in pulsed magnetic fields. Employing micromachined single crystal silicon cantilevers and capacitance detection, we demonstrated a utilizable sensitivity to magnetic moment of 2.510-12 Am2 in magnetic fields to 36 T, representing an improvement of more than a factor of 10 over competing technologies. Torque magnetization measurements on microcrystals of anisotropic superconductors are presented as evidence of the feasibility of the technique in long pulse magnets of pulse duration 0.1-1 s.

  2. The measurement of geodesic acoustic mode magnetic field oscillations in J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, T.; Wu, J.; Shen, H. G.; Deng, T. J.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Chen, Z. P.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-10-01

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) magnetic field oscillations have been investigated using three-dimension magnetic probe and Langmuir probe arrays in the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. The probe arrays are placed on the two top windows of tokamak, separated toroidally. Inside the LCFS, GAM shows apparent oscillations in floating potential. In contrast, GAM magnetic field oscillations are not significant in raw magnetic fields signals. Using toroidal correlation technique, the GAM magnetic field oscillations are distinguished from ambient magnetic field. The amplitudes of three dimension GAM magnetic field fluctuations, as well as the dependence with local plasma parameters such as safety factor and plasma beta, are coincident with theoretical predictions. And its toroidal symmetry mode structure, i.e. n = 0, is identified. Furthermore, the GAM current sheet, in which GAM oscillates, is firstly verified with magnetic probes arrays in different radial positions, which may help us to understand the radial structure of GAM. Supported by NNSFC (Nos. 10990210, 10990211, 10335060, 10905057 and 11375188), CPSF (No. 20080440104), YIF (No. WK2030040019) and KIPCAS (No. kjcx-yw-n28).

  3. Seeing the corona with the solar probe plus mission: the wide-field imager for solar probe+ (WISPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, Angelos; Howard, Russell A.; Plunkett, Simon P.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Carter, Michael T.; Thernisien, Arnaud F. R.; Chua, Damien H.; Van Duyne, Peter; Socker, Dennis G.; Linton, Mark G.; Liewer, Paulett C.; Hall, Jeffrey R.; Morrill, Jeff S.; DeJong, Eric M.; Mikic, Zoran; Rochus, Pierre L. P. M.; Bothmer, Volker; Rodman, Jens; Lamy, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission scheduled for launch in 2018, will orbit between the Sun and Venus with diminishing perihelia reaching as close as 7 million km (9.86 solar radii) from Sun center. In addition to a suite of in-situ probes for the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particles, SPP will be equipped with an imager. The Wide-field Imager for the Solar PRobe+ (WISPR), with a 95° radial by 58° transverse field of view, will image the fine-scale coronal structure of the corona, derive the 3D structure of the large-scale corona, and determine whether a dust-free zone exists near the Sun. Given the tight mass constrains of the mission, WISPR incorporates an efficient design of two widefield telescopes and their associated focal plane arrays based on novel large-format (2kx2k) APS CMOS detectors into the smallest heliospheric imaging package to date. The flexible control electronics allow WISPR to collect individual images at cadences up to 1 second at perihelion or sum several of them to increase the signal-to-noise during the outbound part of the orbit. The use of two telescopes minimizes the risk of dust damage which may be considerable close to the Sun. The dependency of the Thomson scattering emission of the corona on the imaging geometry dictates that WISPR will be very sensitive to the emission from plasma close to the spacecraft in contrast to the situation for imaging from Earth orbit. WISPR will be the first `local' imager providing a crucial link between the large scale corona and the in-situ measurements.

  4. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Y. N.; Semerikov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting on to a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the superconducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of r width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density ρ, r ∝ ρ-1/4. Accordingly, the magnetic field B in the tube increases with the depth, B∝ρ1/2, and reaches the value of about 1017 Gauss in the core. It destroys superconducting vortices in the core of a star in the narrow region of the size of the order of 10 cm. Because of generated density gradient of vortices, they constantly flow into this dead zone and the number of vortices decreases, the magnetic field of a star decreases as well. The attenuation of the magnetic field is exponential, B = B0(1 + t/τ)-1. The characteristic time of decreasing of the magnetic field τ is equal to τ ≃ 103 yr. Thus, the magnetic field of accreted neutron stars decreases to values of 108-109 Gauss during 107-106 yr.

  5. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  6. Magnetic field shielding project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, D.; Whittemore, T.R.; Feero, W.E.; Hoburg, J.F.; Olsen, R.G.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic field management research at EPRI has had three major components: transmission, distribution, and shielding. Shielding people and equipment from 60-Hz magnetic fields provided a particularly challenging objective. Although much was known and the science was well developed for shielding radio frequency fields, little was known about shielding power frequency fields. EPRI mounted a large research effort that reviewed basic principles; developed theory and practice; performed tests and verifications; and produced software and guides for design of effective shields.

  7. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Spies, G.O. ); Li, J. )

    1994-09-01

    The extension of the theory of relaxed plasmas to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the wall is concisely formulated and then applied to the Extrap experiment [J. R. Drake, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion [bold 26], 387 (1984)]. It is found that the external octupole field, though not affecting the phenomenon of current saturation, inhibits field reversal at parts of the wall if it is sufficiently strong to generate magnetic x points within the plasma.

  8. Simultaneous poloidal measurements using new magnetically driven reciprocating probes in COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejarnac, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Dimitrova, M.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saragosti-Chausy, C.; Tamain, P.; the COMPASS team

    2016-03-01

    Particles and heat transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks is not yet fully understood. COMPASS is a small-size tokamakp where the edge plasma is well diagnosed in view of studying the competition between the parallel and the cross-field transport in the SOL. In order to better characterize SOL dynamics, in particular the poloidal asymmetry of the main parameters' radial profiles, two new in-situ magnetically driven reciprocating manipulators have been recently installed in COMPASS. These manipulators, the so-called pecker probes, are two additional poloidal measurement points to the existing two (vertical and horizontal) reciprocating manipulators. The pecker probes are located at the low field side of COMPASS at ±47.5o with respect to the outer mid-plane and are equipped with identical tunnel probe heads, providing simultaneous measurements of the ion saturation current density Jsat, the electron temperature Te and the parallel Mach number M// with high temporal resolution. In this paper, a detailed description of the pecker probe system in COMPASS is described and first measurements are presented.

  9. Diffusion of magnetic field via turbulent reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos de Lima, Reinaldo; Lazarian, Alexander; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Cho, Jungyeon

    2010-05-01

    The diffusion of astrophysical magnetic fields in conducting fluids in the presence of turbulence depends on whether magnetic fields can change their topology via reconnection in highly conducting media. Recent progress in understanding fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence is reassuring that the magnetic field behavior in computer simulations and turbulent astrophysical environments is similar, as far as magnetic reconnection is concerned. This makes it meaningful to perform MHD simulations of turbulent flows in order to understand the diffusion of magnetic field in astrophysical environments. Our studies of magnetic field diffusion in turbulent medium reveal interesting new phenomena. First of all, our 3D MHD simulations initiated with anti-correlating magnetic field and gaseous density exhibit at later times a de-correlation of the magnetic field and density, which corresponds well to the observations of the interstellar media. While earlier studies stressed the role of either ambipolar diffusion or time-dependent turbulent fluctuations for de-correlating magnetic field and density, we get the effect of permanent de-correlation with one fluid code, i.e. without invoking ambipolar diffusion. In addition, in the presence of gravity and turbulence, our 3D simulations show the decrease of the magnetic flux-to-mass ratio as the gaseous density at the center of the gravitational potential increases. We observe this effect both in the situations when we start with equilibrium distributions of gas and magnetic field and when we follow the evolution of collapsing dynamically unstable configurations. Thus the process of turbulent magnetic field removal should be applicable both to quasi-static subcritical molecular clouds and cores and violently collapsing supercritical entities. The increase of the gravitational potential as well as the magnetization of the gas increases the segregation of the mass and magnetic flux in the saturated final state of the simulations, supporting the notion that the reconnection-enabled diffusivity relaxes the magnetic field + gas system in the gravitational field to its minimal energy state. This effect is expected to play an important role in star formation, from its initial stages of concentrating interstellar gas to the final stages of the accretion to the forming protostar.

  10. High concentration ferronematics in low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth-Katona, T.; Salamon, P.; Éber, N.; Tomašovičová, N.; Mitróová, Z.; Kopčanský, P.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated experimentally the magneto-optical and dielectric properties of magnetic-nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals (ferronematics). Our studies focus on the effect of the very small orienting bias magnetic field Bbias, and that of the nematic director pretilt at the boundary surfaces in our systems sensitive to low magnetic fields. Based on the results we assert that Bbias is not necessarily required for a detectable response to low magnetic fields, and that the initial pretilt, as well as the aggregation of the nanoparticles play an important (though not yet explored enough) role.

  11. Two-axis magnetic field sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.

  12. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (τ) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low τ and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  13. Using Jupiter’s gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-03-01

    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection.

  14. Using Jupiter’s gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection. PMID:27005472

  15. Magnetization measurements reveal the local shear stiffness of hydrogels probed by ferromagnetic nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The local mechanical coupling of ferromagnetic nanorods in hydrogels was characterized by magnetization measurements. Nickel nanorods were synthesized by the AAO-template method and embedded in gelatine hydrogels with mechanically soft or hard matrix properties determined by the gelatine weight fraction. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field during gelation the nanorods were aligned along the field resulting in uniaxially textured ferrogels. The magnetization curves of the soft ferrogel exhibited not only important similarities but also characteristic differences as compared to the hard ferrogel. The hystereses measured in a field parallel to the texture axis were almost identical for both samples indicating effective coupling of the nanorods with the polymer network. By contrast, measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the texture axis revealed a much higher initial susceptibility of the soft as compared to the hard ferrogel. This difference was attributed to the additional rotation of the nanorods allowed by the reduced shear modulus in the soft ferrogel matrix. Two methods for data analysis were presented which enabled us to determine the shear modulus of the gelatine matrix which was interpreted as a local rather than macroscopic quantity in consideration of the nanoscale of the probe particles.

  16. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockley, Jeremiah A.

    The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.

  17. Modeling the evolution of galactic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yar-Mukhamedov, D.

    2015-04-15

    An analytic model for evolution of galactic magnetic fields in hierarchical galaxy formation frameworks is introduced. Its major innovative components include explicit and detailed treatment of the physics of merger events, mass gains and losses, gravitational energy sources and delays associated with formation of large-scale magnetic fields. This paper describes the model, its implementation, and core results obtained by its means.

  18. General magnetic field on convective stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachinda, S.

    2004-10-01

    The presence of weak general magnetic field for 21 stars with vigorous convection (spectral types F9-M3 and luminosity classes I-V) is detected. Variation of the general magnetic field as a function of stellar rotation is determined for two solar-like stars: ξ Boo A and 61 Cyg A.

  19. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  20. Magnetic fields in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, D.; Rubinstein, H. R.

    2001-07-01

    This review concerns the origin and the possible effects of magnetic fields in the early Universe. We start by providing the reader with a short overview of the current state of the art of observations of cosmic magnetic fields. We then illustrate the arguments in favor of a primordial origin of magnetic fields in the galaxies and in the clusters of galaxies. We argue that the most promising way to test this hypothesis is to look for possible imprints of magnetic fields on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). With this purpose in mind, we provide a review of the most relevant effects of magnetic fields on the CMBR. A long chapter of this review is dedicated to particle-physics-inspired models which predict the generation of magnetic fields during the early Universe evolution. Although it is still unclear if any of these models can really explain the origin of galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields, we show that interesting effects may arise anyhow. Among these effects, we discuss the consequences of strong magnetic fields on the big-bang nucleosynthesis, on the masses and couplings of the matter constituents, on the electroweak phase transition, and on the baryon and lepton number violating sphaleron processes. Several intriguing common aspects, and possible interplay, of magnetogenesis and baryogenesis are also discussed.

  1. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O.

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  2. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.

    1997-01-21

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

  3. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

  4. Pigtailed electro-optic probes for vectorial electric field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warzecha, Adriana; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Ruaro, Mickael; Duvillaret, Lionel; Lassere, Jean-Louis

    2010-04-01

    Electro-optic measurement (EO) constitutes an efficient technique to characterize electrical (E) fields : indeed, the Pockel's effect properties (linear modification of refractive indices of some non-centrosymetric crystals induced by the E-field)1 leads to a vectorial measurement. Thus, it allows to map the E-field vector and its transient evolution, either in free space or inside guiding structures. Pigtailed EO sensors are naturally becoming a reliable and consistent mean of characterization for many applications, e.g. high power microwaves (HPM), electromagnetic interference (EMI), on chip diagnostic, bio-electromagnetism (e.g. influence of mobile phones on the human body). Even if these non-invasive sensors provide a greater temporal and spatial resolution (femtosecond and sub-millimeter, respectively) than commonly used sensors (antennas, bolometers), it remains temperature dependant and quite low sensitive. EO probes are based on the modification of a laser beam (either its polarization, phase or amplitude) crossing an EO crystal. We demonstrate here the last developments and improvements for EO probes as well as for whole EO setups, exploiting polarization state or amplitude modulation. The sensor is constituted by a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber carrying the beam to the crystal and taking it back once modulated, gradient index lense(s) managing the shape of the beam, half or quarter wave plate controlling the input and output polarizations and a crystal (either anisotropic: LiTaO3, LiNb03, DAST, KTP or isotropic : ZnTe, InP) converting the E-field into a modulation. Our probes are fully dielectric and cylindrically shaped (length ~ 1 cm and diameter ~ 2-3 mm). The setup is made of a 1.5 μm DFB laser, some photodiodes (low and high speed) added with a polarization state analyser arrangement in case of EO probes based on polarization state modulation scheme. The measurement bench is fully automated and compensate/measure the temperature deviation simultaneously. Sensitivity of our EO probe reaches 0.7 V.m-1Hz-1/2, the bandwidth covers an ultra wide frequency band (kHz - and more than 20 GHz), the selectivity (orthogonal E-field components rejection) is about 25 dB, and a spatial resolution greater than 100 μm is achieved. Transient and frequency measurements and 2D E-field mapping will be presented during the conference.

  5. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Smith, A.; Pryds, N.

    2010-11-01

    A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod mangle. The concentric Halbach cylinder design is found to be the best performing design, i.e. the design that provides the most magnetic flux density using the least amount of magnet material. A concentric Halbach cylinder has been constructed and the magnetic flux density, the homogeneity and the direction of the magnetic field are measured and compared with numerical simulation and a good agrement is found.

  6. Levitation of a magnet by an alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, W.; Hunt, M. O.; Summerskill, W. S. H.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment is described in which a small strong cylindrical magnet is levitated by a vertical non-uniform alternating magnetic field. Surprisingly, no superimposed constant field is necessary, but the levitation can be explained when the vertical motion of the magnet is taken into account. The theoretical mean levitation force is (0.26 0.06) N, which is in good agreement with the levitated weight of (0.239 0.001) N. This experiment is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory, particularly as a final year project. Students have found it interesting, and it sharpens up knowledge of basic magnetism.

  7. Processing of polymers in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, E.P.; Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Earls, J.D.; Priester, R.D. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    Many organic molecules and polymers have an anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility, and thus can be aligned in high magnetic fields. The presence of liquid crystallinity allows cooperative motions of the individual molecules, and thus the magnetic energy becomes greater than the thermal energy at experimentally obtainable field strengths. This work has determined the effect of magnetic field alignment on the thermal expansion and mechanical properties of liquid crystalline thermosets in the laboratory. Further advances in magnet design are needed to make magnetic field alignment a commercially viable approach to polymer processing. The liquid crystal thermoset chosen for this study is the diglycidyl ether of dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene cured with the diamine sulfamilamide. This thermoset has been cured at field strengths up to 18 Tesla.

  8. Bi and InSb Nano-Hall Probes for direct magnetic imaging with Room Temperature Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy(RT-SHPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ahmet; Dede, Munir; Sandhu, Adarsh; Masuda, Hiroshi; Bending, Simon J.

    2002-03-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM)[1] is a quantitative and non-invasive technique to image magnetic samples with high spatial and magnetic field resolution: ~ 120nm & 60mG/Hz^1/2 at room temperature. A nano-Hall probe is scanned over the sample surface to measure the surface magnetic fields using conventional scanning tunneling microscopy-positioning techniques. We have developed new down to ~120x120nm size Bi and InSb Hall probes machined FIB milling. 120nm Bi sensors[2] have a sensitivity of 3.3x10-4 Ω/G and a noise level of 7.2 G/Hz^1/2 . The new InSb sensors have a sensitivity of 0.03 Ω/G and a noise level of 8 mG/Hz^1/2 at room temperature. This corresponds to ×8 better noise performance compared to conventional GaAs, based sensors used in RT-SHPM. We used these new sensors to study magnetic domain structures of crystalline garnet films and Ni_80Fe_20 rectangular permalloy microstructures microfabricated by lift-off technique. Bi and InSb nano-Hall probes are shown to be high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and low noise alternatives to GaAs sensors for RT-SHPM. There seems to be more room for improving the spatial resolution down to <50nm and the noise of Hall probes to 1mG/Hz^1/2 at room temperature. [1] A. Oral et. al. Appl. Phys. Lett., 69, 1324 (1996), A. Sandhu et. al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(5B), L524 (2001) [2] A. Sandhu, H. Masuda, K. Kurosawa K, A. Oral and S.J. Bending, Electronics Letters 37 (22), 1335-1336 (2001).

  9. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  10. Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2014-02-01

    The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity Equation. Among these approaches, image-plane off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope has acquired a prominent role thanks to its quantitative capabilities and broad range of applicability. After a brief overview of the main ideas and methods behind field mapping, we focus on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p-n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors and magnetization topographies in nanoparticles and other magnetic materials) and electron-optical geometries (including multiple biprism, amplitude and mixed-type set-ups). We conclude by highlighting the emerging perspectives of (i) three-dimensional field mapping using electron holographic tomography and (ii) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.

  11. Chaotic magnetic fields: Particle motion and energization

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Ram, Abhay K.; Li, Gang; Li, Xiaocan

    2014-02-11

    Magnetic field line equations correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system, so the features of a Hamiltonian systems can easily be adopted for discussing some essential features of magnetic field lines. The integrability of the magnetic field line equations are discussed by various authors and it can be shown that these equations are, in general, not integrable. We demonstrate several examples of realistic chaotic magnetic fields, produced by asymmetric current configurations. Particular examples of chaotic force-free field and non force-free fields are shown. We have studied, for the first time, the motion of a charged particle in chaotic magnetic fields. It is found that the motion of a charged particle in a chaotic magnetic field is not necessarily chaotic. We also showed that charged particles moving in a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field are energized. Such energization processes could play a dominant role in particle energization in several astrophysical environments including solar corona, solar flares and cosmic ray propagation in space.

  12. Measurement of AC magnetic field distribution using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ider, Y Z; Muftuler, L T

    1997-10-01

    Electric currents are applied to body in numerous applications in medicine such as electrical impedance tomography, cardiac defibrillation, electrocautery, and physiotherapy. If the magnetic field within a region is measured, the currents generating these fields can be calculated using the curl operator. In this study, magnetic fields generated within a phantom by currents passing through an external wire is measured using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. A pulse sequence that is originally designed for mapping static magnetic field inhomogeneity is adapted. AC current in the form of a burst sine wave is applied synchronously with the pulse sequence. The frequency of the applied current is in the audio range with an amplitude of 175-mA rms. It is shown that each voxel value of sequential images obtained by the proposed pulse sequence is modulated similar to a single tone broadband frequency modulated (FM) waveform with the ac magnetic field strength determining the modulation index. An algorithm is developed to calculate the ac magnetic field intensity at each voxel using the frequency spectrum of the voxel signal. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be used to calculate ac magnetic field distribution within a conducting sample that is placed in an MRI system. PMID:9368117

  13. How do galaxies get their magnetic fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Alexander; Dolag, Klaus; Lesch, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in high-redshift and present-day galaxies is a long-standing problem. In this talk, we present a model for the seeding and evolution of magnetic fields in protogalaxies. Supernova (SN) explosions during the assembly of a protogalaxy self-consistently provide magnetic seed fields, which are subsequently amplified by compression, shear flows and random motions.Our model explains the origin of strong magnetic fields of $\\mu$G amplitude within the first starforming protogalactic structures shortly after the first stars have formed.We present cosmological simulations with the GADGET code of Milky Way-like galactic halo formation using a standard LCDM cosmology and analyse the strength and distribution of the evolving magnetic field.Within starforming regions and given typical dimensions and magnetic field strengths in canonical SN remnants, we inject a dipole-shape magnetic field at a rate of nG/Gyr. Subsequently, the magnetic field strength increases exponentially on timescales of a few ten million years within the innermost regions of the halo.Furthermore, turbulent diffusion, shocks and gas motions transport the magnetic field towards the halo outskirts. At redshift z=0, the entire galactic structures are magnetized and the field amplitude is of the order of a few microG in the center of the halo and nG at the virial radius. Additionally, we analyse the intrinsic rotation measure (RM) of the forming galactic halo over redshift. The mean halo intrinsic RM peaks between redshifts z=4 and z=2 and reaches absolute values around 1000 rad/m^2. Towards redshift z=0, the intrinsic RM values decline to a mean value below 10 rad/m^2. At high redshifts, the distribution of individual starforming and thus magnetized regions is widespread leading to a widespread distribution of large intrinsic RMs. Our model for the evolution of galactic magnetic fields solves the joint problem of magnetic field seeding and subsequent amplification and distribution. The magnetic fields in galaxies are a direct consequence of the very basic processes of star and galaxy formation.

  14. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, Brian R.; Kaushik, Sumanth

    1999-01-01

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations.

  15. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, B.R.; Kaushik, S.

    1999-05-18

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below is disclosed. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations. 8 figs.

  16. The Measurement of Magnetic Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, H. J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses five experimental methods used by senior high school students to provide an accurate calibration curve of magnet current against the magnetic flux density produced by an electromagnet. Compares the relative merits of the five methods, both as measurements and from an educational viewpoint. (JR)

  17. The magnetic field of ζ Orionis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2015-10-01

    Context. ζ Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field. Methods: Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the least-squares deconvolution technique to extract the magnetic information. Results: We confirm that ζ Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component ζ Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a period of 6.829 d. This is the only magnetic O supergiant known as of today. With an oblique dipole field model of the Stokes V profiles, we show that the polar field strength is ~140 G. Because the magnetic field is weak and the stellar wind is strong, ζ Ori Aa does not host a centrifugally supported magnetosphere. It may host a dynamical magnetosphere. Its companion ζ Ori Ab does not show any magnetic signature, with an upper limit on the undetected field of ~300 G. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Finite element modeling of magnetic bias eddy current probe interaction with ferromagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements to demonstrate eddy current inspection capabilities for inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power generation stations are becoming more rigorous. One method to support qualification of an existing, modified, or new eddy current probe design is to model the probe response to various degradation modes and tube artifacts with a finite element approach. Magnetic-bias probes are used to inspect for defects in conditions where material magnetic permeability effects are a concern, such as in the presence of ferromagnetic tubes, deposits, or supports. In this paper, a transient finite element modeling approach was used to model the interaction of magnetic-bias eddy current probes with ferromagnetic materials.

  19. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985. PMID:23787954

  20. On the magnetic fields in voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A. M.; Hanasz, M.; Lesch, H.; Remus, R.-S.; Stasyszyn, F. A.

    2013-02-01

    We study the possible magnetization of cosmic voids by void galaxies. Recently, observations revealed isolated star-forming galaxies within the voids. Furthermore, a major fraction of a voids volume is expected to be filled with magnetic fields of a minimum strength of about 10-15 G on Mpc scales. We estimate the transport of magnetic energy by cosmic rays (CR) from the void galaxies into the voids. We assume that CRs and winds are able to leave small isolated void galaxies shortly after they assembled, and then propagate within the voids. For a typical void, we estimate the magnetic field strength and volume-filling factor depending on its void galaxy population and possible contributions of strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs) which border the voids. We argue that the lower limit on the void magnetic field can be recovered, if a small fraction of the magnetic energy contained in the void galaxies or void bordering AGNs is distributed within the voids.

  1. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices. PMID:23364687

  2. Non-linear magnetization dynamics probed with X-rays: 1. Broken cylindrical symmetry of uniform modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulon, J.; Brouder, Ch.; Rogalev, A.; Goujon, G.; Wilhelm, F.

    2014-10-01

    We discuss how X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) may complement each other to probe the nonlinear nature of the resonant precession of either spin or orbital magnetization components in aligned ferro-, ferri- or even antiferro-magnets. The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is solved in a rotating frame locked to the microwave pump field, while treating as time-dependent perturbations the terms which, in the formulation of the free energy density, break down the cylindrical symmetry of precession. Concretely, we analyze the time-oscillating deviations of the magnetization from the steady-state solutions of the LLG equation hereafter called SS-modes. At any perturbation order, one may derive magnetic dipole components which oscillate at harmonic frequencies of the pump frequency and could be probed with XMCD. Under bichromatic pumping, frequency mixing arises from a time-dependent Zeeman coupling between two rotating frames locked to each individual pump field. Similarly, we expect magnetic quadrupole components to oscillate at the same frequencies. For consistency, their derivation requires a perturbation calculation up to second order. The latter time-reversal even, rank-2 magnetic tensor components can be probed only with XMLD. Beyond the (reciprocal) linear dichroism classically measured in ferri- or antiferromagnetic samples, a non-reciprocal XMLD signal is to be expected when space parity is lost. Nonlinear effects strongly depend upon the relative orientations of the external bias field and of the pump field with respect to the symmetry axes of the magnetic system. This holds true for the foldover lineshape distortions, harmonic generation, frequency mixing or multiquanta excitations.

  3. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-11-01

    Spatially complicated magnetic fields are frequently treated as the sum of a large, slowly varying, mean field and a small, rapidly varying, field. The primary effect of the small field is to modify the Ohm's law of the mean field. A set of plausible assumptions leads to a form of the mean field Ohm's law which is fundamentally different from the conventional alpha effect of dynamo theory.

  4. Modeling solar force-free magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, B. C.; Lou, Y. Q.

    1990-03-01

    A class of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields is presented, described in terms of the solutions to a second-order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation. These magnetic fields are three-dimensional, filling the infinite half-space above a plane where the lines of force are anchored. They model the magnetic fields of the sun over active regions with a striking geometric realism. The total energy and the free energy associated with the electric current are finite and can be calculated directly from the magnetic field at the plane boundary using the virial theorem. In the study of solar magnetic fields with data from vector magnetographs, there is a long-standing interest in devising algorithms to extrapolate for the force-free magnetic field in a given domain from prescribed field values at the boundary. The closed-form magnetic fields of this paper open up an opportunity for testing the reliability and accuracy of algorithms that claim the capability of performing this extrapolation. The extrapolation procedure as an ill-posed mathematical problem is discussed.

  5. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  6. Polarized Radiation Observables for Probing the Magnetism of the Outer Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2014-10-01

    The basic idea of optical pumping, for which Alfred Kastler received the 1966 Nobel Prize in Physics, is that the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation can produce population imbalances and quantum coherence among the magnetic substates of atomic levels. The degree of this radiatively-induced atomic level polarization, which is very sensitive to the presence of magnetic fields, can be determined by observing the polarization of the scattered or transmitted spectral line radiation. The most important point for solar physics is that the outer solar atmosphere is an optically pumped vapor and that the polarization of the emergent spectral line radiation can be exploited to obtain quantitative information on the strength and/or geometry of magnetic fields within the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. Here we review some recent investigations of the polarization produced by optical pumping in selected IR, FUV, and EUV spectral lines, showing that their magnetic sensitivity is suitable for probing the magnetism of the outer solar atmosphere.

  7. Origin of magnetic fields in galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven

    2010-03-15

    Microgauss magnetic fields are observed in all galaxies at low and high redshifts. The origin of these intense magnetic fields is a challenging question in astrophysics. We show here that the natural plasma fluctuations in the primordial Universe (assumed to be random), predicted by the fluctuation -dissipation theorem, predicts {approx}0.034 {mu}G fields over {approx}0.3 kpc regions in galaxies. If the dipole magnetic fields predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem are not completely random, microgauss fields over regions > or approx. 0.34 kpc are easily obtained. The model is thus a strong candidate for resolving the problem of the origin of magnetic fields in < or approx. 10{sup 9} years in high redshift galaxies.

  8. Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.

  9. Swinging reciprocating Mach probes for the high field side scrape-off layer in DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, C. K.; Taussig, D. A.; Watkins, M. G.; Boivin, R. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2012-10-01

    A new pair of in situ reciprocating Mach probes termed swing probes has been deployed on the DIII-D centerpost for the 2012 experimental campaign. When not deployed, the entire assembly is housed in a <5 cm space underneath the centerpost tiles. This design is unique in that the probe swings vertically through the edge plasma, taking measurements along a 180° arc with a 20 cm radius. The motion is powered by actuator coils that interact with the tokamak's magnetic field. Two electrodes maintain a Mach-pair orientation throughout the swing and provide measurements of saturation current, electron temperature, and parallel flow speeds up to the separatrix.

  10. Swinging reciprocating Mach probes for the high field side scrape-off layer in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, C. K.; Stangeby, P. C.; Taussig, D. A.; Watkins, M. G.; Boivin, R. L.

    2012-10-15

    A new pair of in situ reciprocating Mach probes termed swing probes has been deployed on the DIII-D centerpost for the 2012 experimental campaign. When not deployed, the entire assembly is housed in a <5 cm space underneath the centerpost tiles. This design is unique in that the probe swings vertically through the edge plasma, taking measurements along a 180 Degree-Sign arc with a 20 cm radius. The motion is powered by actuator coils that interact with the tokamak's magnetic field. Two electrodes maintain a Mach-pair orientation throughout the swing and provide measurements of saturation current, electron temperature, and parallel flow speeds up to the separatrix.

  11. Preliminary Results of Performance Measurements on a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.

  12. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  13. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of magnetic vortices in very underdoped yttrium-barium-copper-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guikema, Janice Wynn

    Since their discovery by Bednorz and Muller in 1986, high-temperature cuprate superconductors have been the subject of intense research. Despite this effort, agreement on the mechanism of high- Tc has not been reached. Many theories make their strongest predictions for underdoped superconductors with very low superfluid density ns/m*. I implemented a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and used it to study magnetic vortices in newly available single crystals of very underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x . These studies have disproved a promising theory of spin-charge separation, measured the apparent vortex size (an upper bound on the penetration depth lambda ab), and revealed an intriguing phenomenon of "split" vortices. SHPM is a non-invasive and direct method for magnetic field imaging. It is one of the few techniques capable of submicron spatial resolution coupled with sub-phi0 (flux quantum) sensitivity, and it operates over a wide temperature range. Chapter 2 introduces the variable temperature scanning microscope and discusses the scanning Hall probe set-up and scanner characterizations. Chapter 3 details my fabrication of submicron GaAs/AlGaAs Hall probes and discusses noise studies for a range of probe sizes, which suggest that sub-100 nm probes could be made without compromising flux sensitivity. The subsequent chapters detail SHPM (and SQUID) studies of very underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x crystals with T c ≤ 15 K. Chapter 4 describes two experimental tests for visons, essential excitations of a spin-charge separation theory proposed by Senthil and Fisher. We searched for predicted hc/ e vortices and a vortex memory effect with null results, placing upper bounds on the vison energy inconsistent with the theory. Chapter 5 discusses imaging of isolated vortices as a function of Tc. Vortex images were fit with theoretical magnetic field profiles in order to extract the apparent vortex size. The data for the lowest Tc 's (5 and 6.5 K) show some inhomogeneity and suggest that lambda ab might be larger than predicted by the Tc ∝ ns(0)/m* Uemura relation for underdoped cuprates. Finally, Chapter 6 examines observations of apparent "partial vortices" in the crystals. My studies of these features indicate that they are likely split pancake vortex stacks. Collectively these magnetic imaging studies deepen our knowledge of cuprate superconductivity, especially in the important regime of low superfluid density.

  14. Polarized radiation diagnostics of stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Gautier

    The main techniques used to diagnose magnetic fields in stars from polarimetric observations are presented. First, a summary of the physics of spectral line formation in the presence of a magnetic field is given. Departures from the simple case of linear Zeeman effect are briefly considered: partial Paschen-Back effect, contribution of hyperfine structure, and combined Stark and Zeeman effects. Important approximate solutions of the equation of transfer of polarized light in spectral lines are introduced. The procedure for disk-integration of emergent Stokes profiles, which is central to stellar magnetic field studies, is described, with special attention to the treatment of stellar rotation. This formalism is used to discuss the determination of the mean longitudinal magnetic field (through the photographic technique and through Balmer line photopolarimetry). This is done within the specific framework of Ap stars, which, with their unique large-scale organized magnetic fields, are an ideal laboratory for studies of stellar magnetism. Special attention is paid to those Ap stars whose magnetically split line components are resolved in high-dispersion Stokes I spectra, and to the determination of their mean magnetic field modulus. Various techniques of exploitation of the information contained in polarized spectral line profiles are reviewed: the moment technique (in particular, the determination of the crossover and of the mean quadratic field), Zeeman-Doppler imaging, and least-squares deconvolution. The prospects that these methods open for linear polarization studies are sketched. The way in which linear polarization diagnostics complement their Stokes I and V counterparts is emphasized by consideration of the results of broad band linear polarization measurements. Illustrations of the use of various diagnostics to derive properties of the magnetic fields of Ap stars are given. This is used to show the interest of deriving more physically realistic models of the geometric structure of these fields. How this can possibly be achieved is briefly discussed. An overview of the current status of polarimetric studies of magnetic fields in non-degenerate stars of other types is presented. The final section is devoted to magnetic fields of white dwarfs. Current knowledge of magnetic fields of isolated white dwarfs is briefly reviewed. Diagnostic techniques are discussed, with particular emphasis on the variety of physical processes to be considered for understanding of spectral line formation over the broad range of magnetic field strengths encountered in these stars.

  15. Prospects for using neutrons to probe nuclear magnetic resonance signal

    SciTech Connect

    Granroth, Garrett E

    2008-01-01

    The prospect of neutron spectrometers with magnetic fields up to 40 T makes neutron measurement of the nuclear Zeeman splitting feasible. The Zeeman splitting is observed by a neutron spectrometer as an incoherent line with an energy transfer equal to the Zeeman energy. This energy scale is small enough that fields around 15 T are required to sufficiently separate this line from other incoherent processes. Once the Zeeman splitting is observed, a perturbation of the system is required to enable measurement of the nuclear spin relaxation time; the physical quantity measured in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiment. The proposed perturbation is a pulsed field of 10 T. The relaxation of the Zeeman splitting back to the 15 T condition is then recorded as a function of time. The resultant data is the aforementioned measure of the relaxation time. This contribution will describe the requirements for the magnet and neutron spectrometer on a spallation source. These requirements will be illustrated by calculations for an H2O sample. The advantages of using this approach, as compared to decay from complete polarization at low temperatures, will be discussed too.

  16. Magnetic probe (B-dot) measurements in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP): Techniques and results

    SciTech Connect

    Piejak, R.B.

    1998-12-31

    There has been a considerable amount of study of ICP sources in recent years because these discharges have been found to be useful in plasma processing and light source applications. In view of their practical relevance, the authors have made a fairly extensive experimental study of ICP sources using B-dot (dB/dt) probes to measure the magnitude and phase of the magnetic field (as well as Langmuir probes to measure the electron energy distribution function). The measurements span gas pressures ranging between 0.3 and 300 mTorr, discharge powers ranging between 25 and 200W and include three driving frequencies: 3.39, 6.78 and 13.56 MHz. This talk is based mainly upon these measurements.

  17. Detection of electron energy distribution function anisotropy in a magnetized electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using a directional Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Kitaoka, H.

    2014-07-15

    Anisotropy in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma with magnetized electrons and weakly magnetized ions is experimentally investigated using a directional Langmuir probe. Under an assumption of independent EEDFs in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, the directional variation of the EEDF is evaluated. In the measured EEDFs, a significantly large population density of electrons with energies larger than 30 eV is found in one of the cross-field directions depending on the magnetic field direction. With the aid of an electron trajectory calculation, it is suggested that the observed anisotropic electrons originate from the EEDF anisotropy and the cross-field electron drift.

  18. Quantitative modeling of planetary magnetospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Three new quantitative models of the earth's magnetospheric magnetic field have recently been presented: the Olson-Pfitzer model, the Tsyganenko model, and the Voigt model. The paper reviews these models in some detail with emphasis on the extent to which they have succeeded in improving on earlier models. The models are compared with the observed field in both magnitude and direction. Finally, the application to other planetary magnetospheres of the techniques used to model the earth's magnetospheric magnetic field is briefly discussed.

  19. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

  20. Surface magnetic fields across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, John D.

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen remarkable advances in spectropolarimetric instrumentation that have allowed us, for the first time, to identify some magnetic stars in most major stages of stellar evolution. We are beginning to see the broad outline of how such fields change during stellar evolution, to confront theoretical hypotheses and models of magnetic field structure and evolution with detailed data, and to understand more of the ways in which the presence of a field in turn affects stellar structure and evolution.