Sample records for magnetic field probe

  1. Spin ensembles as sensitive probes of environmental magnetic field noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Abraham; Wolfowicz, Gary; Morton, John J. L.; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Environmental magnetic field noise makes quantum control of electron and nuclear spins difficult. Conversely, the sensitivity of spins to small magnetic fields implies that they can be used as sensitive probes of magnetic field fluctuations. We report spin resonance measurements of donors in silicon showing that the phase information in single-shot measurements of spin ensembles combined with quadrature detection can yield useful information about environmental noise. By measuring the accumulated phase statistics with time, we extract the power spectrum of the environmental magnetic field noise. The range of noise frequencies probed in this way is set by the magnetic moment of the spins. We measure the noise power spectrum at high frequencies (100 Hz - 10 kHz) using electron spins and at low frequencies (1 - 100 Hz) using nuclear spins. We also show that a broadband measurement of the noise power spectrum can be obtained by tuning the magnetic moment of electron spins in bismuth donors over a wide range from 0.01 to 1 electron magnetic moment. Our method, which uses the full statistics of the accumulated phase, can be viewed as complementary to existing dynamical decoupling schemes which use filter functions to probe the noise power spectrum.

  2. Scattering effects of electric and magnetic field probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgard, John D.; Sega, Ronald M.; Harrison, Michael; Pesta, Anthony; Seifert, Mike

    1989-12-01

    Many electromagnetic measurements of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) interactions with electronic systems use B-dot and D-dot probes. The effect of the measurement probe on the field distribution being measured is considered. An infrared measurement technique is used to determine the field distributions with and without the presence of electric- or magnetic-field probes. Two-dimensional thermogram images of the scattered field patterns are measured. The scattering effects of various probes in the frequency range from 1 to 10 GHz are presented. This frequency range can be used to scale-model many EMP and high-power microwave (HPM) effects. It is shown that wide variations in the response of a probe can occur due to resonant frequency and mutual-coupling effects. These effects are due, in part, to the different measurement configurations of the probe relative to the direction of propagation and polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave to be measured. These differences can be significant at certain frequencies and separation distances for the various probe measurement configurations.

  3. PROBING PRIMORDIAL MAGNETIC FIELDS USING Ly{alpha} CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Sethi, Shiv K. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)] [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2013-01-01

    From previous studies of the effect of primordial magnetic fields on early structure formation, we know that the presence of primordial magnetic fields during early structure formation could induce more perturbations at small scales (at present 1-10 h {sup -1} Mpc) as compared to the usual {Lambda}CDM theory. Matter power spectra over these scales are effectively probed by cosmological observables such as shear correlation and Ly{alpha} clouds. In this paper we discuss the implications of primordial magnetic fields on the distribution of Ly{alpha} clouds. We simulate the line-of-sight density fluctuation including the contribution coming from the primordial magnetic fields. We compute the evolution of Ly{alpha} opacity for this case and compare our theoretical estimates of Ly{alpha} opacity with the existing data to constrain the parameters of the primordial magnetic fields. We also discuss the case when the two density fields are correlated. Our analysis yields an upper bound of roughly 0.3-0.6 nG on the magnetic field strength for a range of nearly scale-invariant models, corresponding to a magnetic field power spectrum index n {approx_equal} -3.

  4. Characterization of magnetic force microscopy probe tip remagnetization for measurements in external in-plane magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno [Institute of Physics and Centre for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Krug, Ingo [DSM IRAMIS SPCSI, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Hoeink, Volker; Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenter [Department of Physics, Thin Films and Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, P.O. Box 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    A quantitative analysis of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) images taken in external in-plane magnetic fields is difficult because of the influence of the magnetic field on the magnetization state of the magnetic probe tip. We prepared calibration samples by ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning with a topographically flat magnetic pattern magnetically stable in a certain external magnetic field range for a quantitative characterization of the MFM probe tip magnetization in point-dipole approximation.

  5. NMR probes for measuring magnetic fields and field dynamics in MR systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola De Zanche; Christoph Barmet; Jurek A. Nordmeyer-Massner; Klaas P. Pruessmann

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field probes based on pulsed liquid- state NMR are presented. Static field measurements with an error of 10 nanotesla or less at 3 tesla are readily obtained in 100 ms. The further ability to measure dynamic magnetic fields results from using small (! 1 ! L) droplets of MR-active liquid surrounded by susceptibility-matched materials. The conse- quent high

  6. Point Probes: a new generation of magnetic sensors for the measurement of local magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Amiri, M.; Szielasko, K.; Altpeter, I.; Boller, C.; Fischer, D.; Hahn, J.

    2012-02-01

    In several magnetic Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods, the local measurement of the magnetic field inside the material is required. Moreover, looking at difficult part geometries, magnetic field sensors have to be small enough in order to reach the measuring position. The most-used magnetic field sensors are coils, Hall-effect sensors, flux gates and magnetoresistive sensors. However, regarding the industrial application, those sensors are often packaged and cannot be placed close enough to the measuring position. As part of an ongoing research project funded by the German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), a new kind of magnetic field sensor was developed and used in order to measure the strength of remanent magnetic field spots. This so-called 'Point Probe' is based upon a needle-shaped ferromagnetic core having a primary coil as a magnetic field source and a secondary coil as an inductive pick-up. This contribution describes the details of the sensor design and its operating principle. The sensitivity of the measured signals for local magnetic fields is described. Finally, a method for nondestructive hardness estimation of materials by using the Point Probe is presented. The results show a high correlation between hardness and a new coercivity-dependent testing parameter.

  7. Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Velas, K. M. [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States); Milroy, R. D. [Plasma Science and Innovation-Center, William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Innovation-Center, William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Box 352250, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure B{sub r}, B{sub ?}, and B{sub z} at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10?kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.

  8. Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure Br, B?, and Bz at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10 kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.

  9. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.; Turchi, Peter J.; Burton, Rodney L.; Messer, Sarah; Lovberg, Ralph H.; Hallock, Ashley K.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are often employed to perform field measurements in electric propulsion applications where there are time-varying fields. Magnetic field probes provide the means to measure these magnetic fields and can even be used to measure the plasma current density indirectly through the application of Ampere's law. Measurements of this type can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. Results of the development of a standard for B-dot probe measurements are presented, condensing the available literature on the subject into an accessible set of rules, guidelines, and techniques to standardize the performance and presentation of future measurements.

  10. Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields with the 21cm Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Hiroyuki Tashiro; Naoshi Sugiyama

    2006-07-10

    Primordial magnetic fields possibly generated in the very early universe are one of the candidates for the origin of magnetic fields observed in many galaxies and galaxy clusters. After recombination, the dissipation process of the primordial magnetic fields increases the baryon temperature. The Lorentz force acts on the residual ions and electrons to generate density fluctuations. These effects are imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) brightness temperature fluctuations produced by the neutral hydrogen 21cm line. We calculate the angular power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations for the model with the primordial magnetic fields of a several nano Gauss strength and a power-law spectrum. It is found that the overall amplitude and the shape of the brightness temperature fluctuations depend on the strength and the spectral index of the primordial magnetic fields. Therefore, it is expected that the observations of the CMB brightness temperature fluctuations give us a strong constraint on the primordial magnetic fields.

  11. Pulsed field probe of real time magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, T.; Syed, M.; Taplin, T.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in biotechnology. These applications rely on magnetic properties that are a keen function of MNP size, distribution, and shape. Various magneto-optical techniques, including Faraday Rotation (FR), Cotton-Mouton Effect, etc., have been employed to characterize magnetic properties of MNPs. Generally, these measurements employ AC or DC fields. In this work, we describe the results from a FR setup that uses pulsed magnetic fields and an analysis technique that makes use of the entire pulse shape to investigate size distribution and shape anisotropy. The setup employs a light source, polarizing components, and a detector that are used to measure the rotation of light from a sample that is subjected to a pulsed magnetic field. This magnetic field "snapshot" is recorded alongside the intensity pulse of the sample's response. This side by side comparison yields useful information about the real time magnetization dynamics of the system being probed. The setup is highly flexible with variable control of pulse length and peak magnitude. Examining the raw data for the response of bare Fe3O4 and hybrid Au and Fe3O4 nanorods reveals interesting information about Brownian relaxation and the hydrodynamic size of these nanorods. This analysis exploits the self-referencing nature of this measurement to highlight the impact of an applied field on creating a field induced transparency for a longitudinal measurement. Possible sources for this behavior include shape anisotropy and field assisted aggregate formation.

  12. Solar energetic electron probes of magnetic cloud field line lengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Kahler; S. Krucker; A. Szabo

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are large interplanetary coronal mass ejections of enhanced and low-variance fields with rotations indicative of magnetic flux ropes originally connected to the Sun. The MC flux rope models require field lines with larger pitch angles and longer lengths with increasing distance from the MC axis. While the models can provide good fits to the in situ solar

  13. Refractory clad transient internal probe for magnetic field measurements in high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyundae; Cellamare, Vincent; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The transient internal probe (TIP) is a diagnostic for local internal field measurements in high temperature plasmas. A verdet material, which rotates the polarization angle of the laser light under magnetic fields, is launched into a plasma at about 1.8 km/s. A linearly polarized Ar{sup +} laser illuminates the probe in transit and the light retroreflected from the probe is analyzed to determine the local magnetic field profiles. The TIP has been used for magnetic field measurements on the helicity injected torus where electron temperature T{sub e}{<=}80 eV. In order to apply the TIP in higher temperature plasmas, refractory clad probes have been developed utilizing a sapphire tube, rear disc, and a MgO window on the front. The high melting points of these refractory materials should allow probe operation at plasma electron temperatures up to T{sub e}{approx}300 eV. A retroreflecting probe has also been developed using 'catseye' optics. The front window is replaced with a plano-convex MgO lens, and the back surface of the probe is aluminized. This approach reduces spurious polarization effects and provides refractory cladding for the probe entrance face. In-flight measurements of a static magnetic field demonstrate the ability of the clad probes to withstand gun-launch acceleration, and provide high accuracy measurements of magnetic field.

  14. NMR probes for measuring magnetic fields and field dynamics in MR systems.

    PubMed

    De Zanche, Nicola; Barmet, Christoph; Nordmeyer-Massner, Jurek A; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2008-07-01

    High-resolution magnetic field probes based on pulsed liquid-state NMR are presented. Static field measurements with an error of 10 nanotesla or less at 3 tesla are readily obtained in 100 ms. The further ability to measure dynamic magnetic fields results from using small ( approximately 1 microL) droplets of MR-active liquid surrounded by susceptibility-matched materials. The consequent high field homogeneity allows free induction decay signals lasting 100 ms or more to be readily achieved. The small droplet dimensions allow the magnetic field to be measured even in the presence of large gradients. Highly sensitive detection yields sufficient SNR to follow the relevant field evolution without signal averaging and at bandwidths up to hundreds of kHz. Transient, nonreproducible effects and drifts are thus readily monitored. The typical application of k-space trajectory mapping has been demonstrated. Potential further applications include characterization, tuning, and maintenance of gradient systems as well as the mapping of the static field distribution of MRI magnets. Connection of the probes to a standard MR spectrometer is similar to that used for imaging coils. PMID:18581363

  15. Probing Solar Open Magnetic Fields With Near-relativistic Electron Beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis K. Haggerty; D. Rust; N. R. Sheeley; Y. Wang

    2006-01-01

    To achieve better understanding of our Sun-Earth environment, NASA's Living with a Star (LWS) program addresses question that cut across discipline boundaries. We present preliminary results on probing solar open magnetic fields with near-relativistic electron beams. This effort is directed at the major question: What determines the topology and evolution of the magnetic fields that stretch from the surface of

  16. Miniature-probe measurements of electric fields induced by 60 Hz magnetic fields in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields interact with an animal by inducing internal electric fields, which represent the internal dose from an external exposure. In this study, an electric field probe of approximately 2 mm resolution was used to measure fields induced in rate carcasses by a 60 Hz magnetic field at 1 mT. With the rat lying on its side, the probe was inserted through a small hole in the body wall, and scanned at 5 mm increments from the side with frontal and axial exposure (field horizontal) and from the front with lateral exposure (field vertical). The induced electric field declined from a maximum at the entrance to the abdomen and crossed zero to negative (180{degree} phase shift) values within the body as expected. In general, the magnitudes of the measurements inside the abdomen were less than expected from whole-body calculations that used homogeneous-ellipsoidal models of a rate in the three orientations. The low measurements did not appear to be explained by perpendicular field components, by conductivity differences between the tissue and the probe path, or by air in the lungs. The low measurements probably result from inhomogeneities in actual rats that include conductivity differences between tissues and biological membranes. For example, an alternative model considered the abdominal cavity to be electrically isolated from the body by the diaphragm and the peritoneum and calculations from this model were in better agreement with the measurements inside the abdomen (than were the whole-body calculations). Therefore, inhomogeneities in conductivity and biomembranes such as the peritoneum should be considered in order to fully understand ELF-induced field dosimetry.

  17. Modified pulsar current analysis: probing magnetic field evolution

    E-print Network

    Igoshev, A P

    2014-01-01

    We use a modified pulsar current analysis to study magnetic field decay in radio pulsars. In our approach we analyse the flow, not along the spin period axis as has been performed in previous studies, but study the flow along the direction of growing characteristic age, $\\tau=P/(2\\dot P)$. We perform extensive tests of the method and find that in most of the cases it is able to uncover non-negligible magnetic field decay (more than a few tens of per cent during the studied range of ages) in normal radio pulsars for realistic initial properties of neutron stars. However, precise determination of the magnetic field decay timescale is not possible at present. The estimated timescale may differ by a factor of few for different sets of initial distributions of neutron star parameters. In addition, some combinations of initial distributions and/or selection effects can also mimic enhanced field decay. We apply our method to the observed sample of radio pulsars at distances $<10$ kpc in the range of characteristi...

  18. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are useful for performing measurements in electric space thrusters and various plasma accelerator applications where a time-varying magnetic field is present. Magnetic field probes have proven to be a mainstay in diagnosing plasma thrusters where changes occur rapidly with respect to time, providing the means to measure the magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents and even an indirect measure of the plasma current density through the application of Ampère's law. Examples of applications where this measurement technique has been employed include pulsed plasma thrusters and quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. The Electric Propulsion Technical Committee (EPTC) of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) was asked to assemble a Committee on Standards (CoS) for Electric Propulsion Testing. The assembled CoS was tasked with developing Standards and Recommended Practices for various diagnostic techniques used in the evaluation of plasma thrusters. These include measurements that can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. This paper presents a summary of the standard, describing the preferred methods for fabrication, calibration, and usage of inductive magnetic field probes for use in diagnosing plasma thrusters. Inductive magnetic field probes (also called B-dot probes throughout this document) are commonly used in electric propulsion (EP) research and testing to measure unsteady magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents. The B-dot probe is relatively simple in construction, and requires minimal cost, making it a low-cost technique that is readily accessible to most researchers. While relatively simple, the design of a B-dot probe is not trivial and there are many opportunities for errors in probe construction, calibration, and usage, and in the post-processing of data that is produced by the probe. There are typically several ways in which each of these steps can be approached, and different applications may require more or less vigorous attention to various issues.

  19. Small, high frequency probe for internal magnetic field measurements in high temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, J. T.; Miller, K. E.

    2001-01-01

    In previous experiments on high temperature (>50 eV), high density (>1020m-3) plasmas such as the field-reversed configuration (FRC), it has not been possible to obtain direct information of the internal field structure in a nondestructive way. The probe surface would vaporize due to high electron thermal transport as well as ablate due to high energy ion bombardment. To minimize these processes, the smallest possible probes made from materials with the longest thermal time to melting were constructed and tested. In order to measure fast magnetic field changes (˜several MHz), as well as not influence the FRC internal electric fields, the probe wall material was constructed from a nonconducting material. Of several insulating materials tested, beryllia was the only material that was found to be suitable. The probe wall consisted of a 0.3-m-long 2-mm-diam beryllia tube bored out to 1.5 mm. Inside the small bore, a "chain" probe of 24 loops was constructed out of 50-?m-diam magnet wire. The two axis probe measured axial and azimuthal FRC magnetic fields as small as a few gauss with centimeter resolution and a frequency response of 1 MHz or better. With the probe inserted, no changes in FRC confinement or behavior were observed over the entire 1 ms lifetime of the discharge.

  20. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore »and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  1. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, C. K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)] (ORCID:000000016289858X); Igumenshchev, I. [University of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Seguin, F. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Town, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Stoeckl, C. [University of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Glebov, V. [University of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258834054)

    2015-04-01

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  2. Probing magnetic order in CuFeO2 through nuclear forward scattering in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohm, C.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Handayani, I. P.; Roth, T.; Detlefs, C.; van der Linden, P. J. E. M.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2013-08-01

    Determining the magnetic order of solids in high magnetic fields is technologically challenging. Here we probe the cascade of magnetic phase transitions in frustrated multiferroic CuFeO2 using nuclear forward scattering (NFS) in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30 T. Our results are in excellent agreement with detailed neutron diffraction experiments, currently limited to 15 T, while providing experimental confirmation of the proposed higher field phases for both H?c and H?c. We thus establish NFS as a valuable tool for spin structure studies in very high fields, both complementing and expanding on the applicability of existing techniques.

  3. Modeling magnetic fields measured by surface probes embedded in a cylindrical flux conserver.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P

    2007-03-01

    Calculating magnetic fields at the surface of a flux conserver, perfect conductor, for displaced plasma currents is useful for understanding modes of a Z-pinch. The magnetic fields measured at the flux conserver are a sum of the magnetic fields from the plasma current and the eddy currents which form in the walls to keep the flux constant. While the magnetic field at the wall from the plasma current alone is easily calculated using the Biot-Savart law, finding the eddy currents in the flux conserver which satisfy the boundary conditions can be a tedious process. A simple method of calculating the surface magnetic field for a given Z-pinch displacement off-axis is derived for a cylindrical flux conserver. This relationship does not require the explicit calculation of the eddy currents, saving time when analyzing surface magnetic probe measurements. Analytic expressions can be used to describe the surface magnetic field which increase the understanding of the magnetic probe measurements. PMID:17411182

  4. Design and application of hybrid magnetic field-eddy current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Simpson, John

    2014-02-01

    The incorporation of magnetic field sensors into eddy current probes can result in novel probe designs with unique performance characteristics. One such example is a recently developed electromagnetic probe consisting of a twochannel magnetoresistive sensor with an embedded single-strand eddy current inducer. Magnetic flux leakage maps of ferrous materials are generated from the DC sensor response while high-resolution eddy current imaging is simultaneously performed at frequencies up to 5 MHz. In this work the design and optimization of this probe will be presented, along with an application toward analysis of sensory materials with embedded ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles. The sensory material is designed to produce a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the FSMA particles under strain. Mapping of the stray magnetic field and eddy current response of the sample with the hybrid probe can thereby image locations in the structure which have experienced an overstrain condition. Numerical modeling of the probe response is performed with good agreement with experimental results.

  5. Magnetically driven filament probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; Maraschek, M.; Mueller, H. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    A radially movable probe has been developed for studies of filamentary transport in ASDEX Upgrade during edge localized modes (ELMs) by means of Langmuir tips and magnetic pickup coils. The probe is permanently installed at the low field side in the ASDEX Upgrade vacuum vessel and is not subject to limitations in probe size, as, for example, probes on a shared manipulator are. The probe is moved by a magnetic drive, which allows for easy installation in the vessel, and has moderate machine requirements, as it will only require an electric feedthrough and an external power supply. The drive gives a linear motion with a radial range of 5 cm within 50 ms, where range and velocity can be largely scaled according to experimental requirements. The probe has been installed in the outer midplane of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel, where ELM filaments are expected to have their maximum amplitude. Filaments are coherent substructures within an ELM, carrying a fraction of the ELM released energy towards the wall. The new probe allows to measure the structure of these filaments, in particular, parameters such as filament rotation (by time delay measurements) and size (by peak width analysis). Activating the drive moves the probe from a safe position behind the limiter to a position in front of the limiters, i.e., exposes the Langmuir pins to the scrape-off layer plasma.

  6. PROBING THE LARGE-SCALE TOPOLOGY OF THE HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD USING JOVIAN ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, M. J.; Horbury, T. S. [Space and Atmospheric Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arge, C. N. [Air Force Research Laboratory/Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM 87117 (United States)

    2010-05-10

    Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a point source of near-relativistic electrons within the heliosphere. In this study, three solar cycles of Jovian electron data in near-Earth space are examined. Jovian electron intensity is found to peak for an ideal Parker spiral connection, but with considerable spread about this point. Assuming the peak in Jovian electron counts indicates the best magnetic connection to Jupiter, we find a clear trend for fast and slow solar wind to be over- and under-wound with respect to the ideal Parker spiral, respectively. This is shown to be well explained in terms of solar wind stream interactions. Thus, modulation of Jovian electrons by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) may primarily be the result of changing magnetic connection, rather than CIRs acting as barriers to cross-field diffusion. By using Jovian electrons to remote sensing magnetic connectivity with Jupiter's magnetosphere, we suggest that they provide a means to validate solar wind models between 1 and 5 AU, even when suitable in situ solar wind observations are not available. Furthermore, using Jovian electron observations as probes of heliospheric magnetic topology could provide insight into heliospheric magnetic field braiding and turbulence, as well as any systematic under-winding of the heliospheric magnetic field relative to the Parker spiral from footpoint motion of the magnetic field.

  7. Fiber bursts as 3D coronal magnetic field probe in postflare loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurass, H.; Rausche, G.; Mann, G.; Hofmann, A.

    2005-06-01

    Fiber bursts appear in some complex solar radio bursts as a continuum fine structure in the frequency range of 150\\cdots3000 MHz. We present and test a new method to use fiber bursts as a probe of the magnetic field strength and the 3D field structure in postflare loops. Thereby we assume that fiber bursts are driven by whistler waves ascending in the postflare loops which act as magnetic traps for nonthermal flare electrons. For a selected event (1997 April 07) we derive from dynamic radio spectra (Potsdam) and Nançay Radio Heliograph imaging data of fiber bursts the coronal magnetic field strength within the fiber burst source. We compare the fiber burst source positions and field strength estimates with the extrapolated potential magnetic field above the flaring active region NOAA 8027 using SOHO-MDI photospheric field data. The field strength from fiber bursts are within a factor of 0.6 to 1.4 of the field strength of the selected subset of potential field lines and give preference to a 3.5 times Newkirk (1961, ApJ, 133, 983) coronal density model within the evolving postflare loops. We find independent proof of the physical significance of considering selected potential field lines as postflare loop field information regarding topology and field strength over a time interval of one hour after the impulsive flare phase. We conclude that radio decimeter and meter wave spectra and radio imaging at two representative frequencies are sufficient for a reliable estimate of the (otherwise not measurable) coronal magnetic field strength in postflare loops. This can be an important field sounding method using the forthcoming FASR (Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope) instrument.

  8. Probing the solar magnetic field with a Sun-grazing comet.

    PubMed

    Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A; Mikií, Zoran; Riley, Pete; Schrijver, Carolus J; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    On 15 and 16 December 2011, Sun-grazing comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy) passed deep within the solar corona, effectively probing a region that has never been visited by spacecraft. Imaged from multiple perspectives, extreme ultraviolet observations of Lovejoy's tail showed substantial changes in direction, intensity, magnitude, and persistence. To understand this unique signature, we combined a state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona and a model for the motion of emitting cometary tail ions in an embedded plasma. The observed tail motions reveal the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the solar corona. We show how these motions constrain field and plasma properties along the trajectory, and how they can be used to meaningfully distinguish between two classes of magnetic field models. PMID:23744941

  9. Optical probe of spin-orbit fields in metallic magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Wong, Kin L.; Lang, Murong; Fan, Yabin; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Schwartz, Robert N.; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel self-consistent optical approach based on magneto-optical Kerr effect to directly and quantitatively probe the spin-orbit fields of magnetic devices with 1um diffraction limited spatial resolution. The optical probe is exemplified by investigating the spin-orbit fields in a magnetic stack of Ta(5 nm)/CoFeB(1.1 nm)/MgO(2.0 nm)/TaOx with enhanced perpendicular anisotropy. Both field-like and damping-like contributions were measured independently and their coefficients are quantified at 3 . 3 ×10-6 and - 2 . 0 ×10-6 Oe / A . cm-2 respectively. A detailed comparison with standard transport technique is presented in which a very good agreement were found. Our results establish the relevance of the optical methods for studying spin-orbit torque related physics. We acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation (DMR-1411085) and the FAME Center, one of the six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  10. The effect of external magnetic field on mark size during field emission assisted magnetic probe recording on CoNi\\/Pt multilayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang; J. A. Bain; Jian-Gang Zhu; L. Abelmann; T. Onoue

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we characterize a heat-assisted magnetic recording process potentially suitable for proposed probe-based storage systems. A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is used to locally heat a uniformly magnetized perpendicular recording medium via field emission current. The recording medium is a 30 nm thick CoNi\\/Pt multilayer film (HC = 100 kA\\/m [1.2 kOe], MS = 360 kA\\/m) with a

  11. Probing the internal magnetic field of slowly pulsating B-stars through g modes

    E-print Network

    S. S. Hasan; J. -P. Zahn; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard

    2005-11-16

    We suggest that high-order g modes can be used as a probe of the internal magnetic field of SPB (slowly pulsating B) stars. The idea is based on earlier work by the authors which analytically investigated the effect of a vertical magnetic field on p and g modes in a plane-parallel isothermal stratified atmosphere. It was found that even a weak field can significantly shift the g-mode frequencies -- the effect increases with mode order. In the present study we adopt the classical perturbative approach to estimate the internal field of a 4 solar mass SPB star by looking at its effect on a low-degree ($l=1$) and high-order ($n=20$) g mode with a period of about 1.5 d. We find that a polar field strength of about 110 kG on the edge of the convective core is required to produce a frequency shift of 1%. Frequency splittings of that order have been observed in several SPB variables, in some cases clearly too small to be ascribed to rotation. We suggest that they may be due to a poloidal field with a strength of order 100 kG, buried in the deep interior of the star.

  12. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting

    E-print Network

    Hampshire, Damian

    Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 AIP Conf. Proc. 711, 612 (2004); 10.1063/1.1774621 A probe for investigating the effects

  13. Spectral functions in a magnetic field as a probe of spin-charge separation in a Luttinger liquid

    E-print Network

    Silvio Rabello; Qimiao Si

    2003-02-07

    We show that the single-particle spectral functions in a magnetic field can be used to probe spin-charge separation of a Luttinger liquid. Away from the Fermi momentum, the magnetic field splits both the spinon peak and holon peak; here the spin-charge separation nature is reflected in the different magnitude of the two splittings. At the Fermi momentum, the magnetic field splits the zero-field peak into {\\it four} peaks. The feasibility of experimentally studying this effect is discussed.

  14. Spectral functions in a magnetic field as a probe of spin-charge separation in a Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello, Silvio; Si, Qimiao

    2000-10-01

    We show that the single-particle spectral functions in a magnetic field can be used to probe spin-charge separation of a Luttinger liquid. Away from the Fermi momentum, the magnetic field splits both the spinon peak and holon peak; here the spin-charge separation nature is reflected in the different magnitude of the two splittings. At the Fermi momentum, the magnetic field splits the zero-field peak into four. The feasibility of studying this effect using angle-resolved photoemission and momentum-resolved tunneling is discussed.

  15. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  16. Spin dynamics in a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well studied by pump-probe absorption spectroscopy: Magnetic-field-induced suppression of electron-spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, A.; Seo, K.; Nishibayashi, K.; Souma, I.; Oka, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Exciton spin dynamics is studied in a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well of Cd0.95Mn0.05Te by pump-probe absorption spectroscopy under magnetic fields. The time dependences of the saturated absorbance for the higher- and lower-energy spin states of heavy-hole (hh) excitons clarify the following exciton-spin relaxation process in magnetic fields: ultrafast hh-spin relaxation with the formation of dark excitons and subsequent electron-spin relaxation. The electron-spin relaxation due to the s-d exchange mechanism involving Mn spins is suppressed in a high magnetic field by field-induced pinning of the Mn spins.

  17. Using the morphology and magnetic fields of tailed radio galaxies as environmental probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Dehghan, S.; Pratley, L.

    2015-03-01

    Bent-tailed (BT) radio sources have long been known to trace over densities in the Universe up to z ~ 1 and there is increasing evidence this association persists out to redshifts of 2. The morphology of the jets in BT galaxies is primarily a function of the environment that they have resided in and so BTs provide invaluable clues as to their local conditions. Thus, not only can samples of BT galaxies be used as signposts of large-scale structure, but are also valuable for obtaining a statistical measurement of properties of the intra-cluster medium including the presence of cluster accretion shocks & winds, and as historical anemometers, preserving the dynamical history of their surroundings in their jets. We discuss the use of BTs to unveil large-scale structure and provide an example in which a BT was used to unlock the dynamical history of its host cluster. In addition to their use as density and dynamical indicators, BTs are useful probes of the magnetic field on their environment on scales which are inaccessible to other methods. Here we discuss a novel way in which a particular sub-class of BTs, the so-called `corkscrew' galaxies might further elucidate the coherence lengths of the magnetic fields in their vicinity. Given that BTs are estimated to make up a large population in next generation surveys we posit that the use of jets in this way could provide a unique source of environmental information for clusters and groups up to z = 2.

  18. Probing of field-induced structures and tunable rheological properties of surfactant capped magnetically polarizable nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Felicia, Leona J; Philip, John

    2013-01-01

    Oil-based nanofluid containing surfactant-capped magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple coprecipitation approach, and their magnetorheological properties are studied for different magnetic field strengths and volume fractions. We observe a distinct "plateau-like region" in the shear thinning viscosity curve, under an external magnetic field, possibly due to a peculiar alignment of the chains with respect to the field direction where the structure is stable against fragmentation. The observed plateau regime is reminiscent to that of kinetically arrested gel networks. Interestingly, such a plateau regime has been observed only above certain critical magnetic field when the dipolar interaction strength is much greater than the thermal energy where the aggregation becomes a nonequilibrium transport-limited process. The good collapse of specific viscosity data against Mason number for different magnetic field strengths onto a single curve suggests the dominance of hydrodynamic and magnetic forces on thermal force above a certain magnetic field strength. The observed increase in both static and dynamic yield stresses under the magnetic field confirms the formation of columnar structures that hinder the flow behavior. The hysteresis observed in the magnetic sweep experiments shows the inability of the chains to relax within the measurement time. The dynamic measurements confirm that the field-induced structures impart elastic behavior to the dispersion, which is found to increase with magnetic field and saturates at higher field strengths. PMID:23210900

  19. Optically Detected Scanned Probe Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Christopher; Bhallamudi, Vidya; Wang, Hailong; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei; Adur, Rohan; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for studying magnetic properties and dynamics of spin systems. Scanned magnetic probes can induce spatially localized resonance due to the strong magnetic field and gradient near the magnetic tip., Nitrogen vacancy centers (NV) in diamond provide a sensitive means of measuring magnetic fields at the nanoscale. We report preliminary results towards using the high sensitivity of NV detection with a scanned magnetic probe to study local magnetic phenomena. This work is supported by the Center for Emergent Materials at The Ohio State University, a NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (DMR-0820414).

  20. Applicability of Electron Emissive Probes for Plasma Potential and Electric Field Measurements in Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Adámek, J.; Balan, P.; Cabral, J. A.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H. F. C.; Hidalgo, C.; Hron, M.; IoniÅ£?, C.; Martines, E.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Stöckel, J.; Tichý, M.; Van Oost, G.; Varandas, C.

    2003-06-01

    In the edge region of magnetised fusion experiments hitherto mainly cold probes were used in order to determine the plasma potential and thereby parameters like electric field turbulence. However, this method causes problems when the electron temperature varies and when the electrons are drifting. We have therefore used electron-emissive probes in (i) the tokamak ISTTOK in Lisbon, Portugal, (ii) the CASTOR tokamak in Prague, Czech Republic, and (iii) the TJ-II stellarator in Madrid, Spain. Our method has the advantage that in principle the electron emission current compensates temperature variations and electron drifts. We discuss the applicability, the advantages and the limits of emissive probes for measurements of the plasma potential and the electric field, taking into account especially the effect of a space charge around the probe wire, formed by the emitted electrons.

  1. High-Resolution B Dot Probe for Measuring 3D Magnetic Fields in the MOCHI Labjet Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuara Rosales, Manuel; von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    The MOCHI Labjet experiment will use a triple electrode planar plasma gun to explore canonical helicity transport in laboratory astrophysical jets. Canonical helicity transport suggests that destabilizing magnetic energy can be converted into stabilizing shear flows at two-fluid spatial scales li ~c/wpi . A high-resolution . B probe array, capable of measuring magnetic field dynamics at length and time scales important to canonical helicity transport is being built. The probe array consists of three tridents, made of 5 . 13 mm OD and 4 . 32 mm ID stainless steel tubes of 102 cm length, enclosing a total of 1215 commercial inductor chips with a three axis spatial resolution of 11 mm. The average value for the effective NA of each inductor chip is 1 . 21 .10-4 m2. The probe array lays in a plane perpendicular to the jet, and is axially translatable. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  2. Using the morphology and magnetic fields of tailed radio galaxies as environmental probes

    E-print Network

    Johnston-Hollitt, M; Pratley, L

    2014-01-01

    Bent-tailed (BT) radio sources have long been known to trace over densities in the Universe up to z ~ 1 and there is increasing evidence this association persists out to redshifts of 2. The morphology of the jets in BT galaxies is primarily a function of the environment that they have resided in and so BTs provide invaluable clues as to their local conditions. Thus, not only can samples of BT galaxies be used as signposts of large-scale structure, but are also valuable for obtaining a statistical measurement of properties of the intra-cluster medium including the presence of cluster accretion shocks & winds, and as historical anemometers, preserving the dynamical history of their surroundings in their jets. We discuss the use of BTs to unveil large-scale structure and provide an example in which a BT was used to unlock the dynamical history of its host cluster. In addition to their use as density and dynamical indicators, BTs are useful probes of the magnetic field on their environment on scales which are...

  3. Nanoscale x-ray magnetic circular dichroism probing of electric-field-induced magnetic switching in multiferroic nanostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Zhao; A. Scholl; F. Zavaliche; H. Zheng; M. Barry; A. Doran; K. Lee; M. P. Cruz; R. Ramesh

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic structure as well as its response to an external electric field were studied in ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in an epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 film using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Magnetic switching was observed in both Co and Fe magnetic sublattices after application of an electric field. About 50% of the CoFe2O4 nanopillars were measured

  4. Planck intermediate results. XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    E-print Network

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Guillet, V; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oppermann, N; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould Belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, $N_H$. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analyzed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool Histogram of Relative Orientations. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing $N_H$ from preferentially parallel or no preferred orientation to preferentially perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfv\\'enic or sub-Alfv\\'enic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength w...

  5. Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students visualize the magnetic field of a strong permanent magnet using a compass. The lesson begins with an analogy to the effect of the Earth's magnetic field on a compass. Students see the connection that the compass simply responds to the Earth's magnetic field since it is the closest, strongest field, and thus the compass responds to the field of the permanent magnets, allowing them the ability to map the field of that magnet in the activity. This information will be important in designing a solution to the grand challenge in activity 4 of the unit.

  6. Electron and ion currents to a planar probe oriented at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field in a cesium Q machine plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinlay, Michael J.; Harding, Sean M.; Merlino, Robert L.

    2014-10-01

    Current collection to a planar Langmuir probe in a magnetized Q machine plasma was investigated. The Q machine was operated in the single-ended mode with cesium ions having densities in the range of 1014 to 1015 m-3, electron and ion temperatures, Te ~Ti ~ 0 . 2 eV, and magnetic fields from 0.06 T to 0.48 T. The probe was a disk of 9.5 mm diameter, and the side facing away from the plasma source was insulated. The effect of varying the angle between the magnetic field and the probe's surface normal vector on the ion and electron saturation currents and the floating potential was the focus of this study. The effect of varying the probe normal-magnetic field angle on the excitation and quenching of current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves was also observed. Supported by DOE and NSF.

  7. Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  8. Hall probe measurements of the poloidal magnetic field in Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, B. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hanson, J. D.; Maurer, D. A.

    2014-09-01

    A linear array of 16 Hall effect sensors has been developed to directly measure the poloidal magnetic field inside the boundary of a non-axisymmetric hybrid torsatron/tokamak plasma. The array consists of miniature gallium arsenide Hall sensor elements mounted 8 mm apart on a narrow, rotatable printed circuit board inserted into a re-entrant stainless steel tube sheathed in boron nitride. The sensors are calibrated on the bench and in situ to provide accurate local measurements of the magnetic field to aid in reconstructing the equilibrium plasma current density profiles in fully three-dimensional plasmas. Calibrations show that the sensor sensitivities agree with the nominal manufacturers specifications of 1.46 V/T. Poloidal fields measured with the Hall sensor array are found to be within 5% of poloidal fields modeled with a Biot-Savart code.

  9. Hall probe measurements of the poloidal magnetic field in Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, B. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J., E-mail: hartwell@physics.auburn.edu; Hanson, J. D.; Maurer, D. A. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A linear array of 16 Hall effect sensors has been developed to directly measure the poloidal magnetic field inside the boundary of a non-axisymmetric hybrid torsatron/tokamak plasma. The array consists of miniature gallium arsenide Hall sensor elements mounted 8 mm apart on a narrow, rotatable printed circuit board inserted into a re-entrant stainless steel tube sheathed in boron nitride. The sensors are calibrated on the bench and in situ to provide accurate local measurements of the magnetic field to aid in reconstructing the equilibrium plasma current density profiles in fully three-dimensional plasmas. Calibrations show that the sensor sensitivities agree with the nominal manufacturers specifications of 1.46?V/T. Poloidal fields measured with the Hall sensor array are found to be within 5% of poloidal fields modeled with a Biot-Savart code.

  10. Hall probe measurements of the poloidal magnetic field in Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, B A; Knowlton, S F; Hartwell, G J; Hanson, J D; Maurer, D A

    2014-09-01

    A linear array of 16 Hall effect sensors has been developed to directly measure the poloidal magnetic field inside the boundary of a non-axisymmetric hybrid torsatron/tokamak plasma. The array consists of miniature gallium arsenide Hall sensor elements mounted 8 mm apart on a narrow, rotatable printed circuit board inserted into a re-entrant stainless steel tube sheathed in boron nitride. The sensors are calibrated on the bench and in situ to provide accurate local measurements of the magnetic field to aid in reconstructing the equilibrium plasma current density profiles in fully three-dimensional plasmas. Calibrations show that the sensor sensitivities agree with the nominal manufacturers specifications of 1.46?V/T. Poloidal fields measured with the Hall sensor array are found to be within 5% of poloidal fields modeled with a Biot-Savart code. PMID:25273721

  11. A biased probe analysis of potential well formation in an electron only, low beta Polywell magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Matthew; Khachan, Joe

    2013-05-01

    Orbital limited motion theory has been applied to two biased probes in a low beta Polywell. The cases studied include electron injection, magnetic field scaling, Polywell bias scaling, and radial position profiles. Langmuir's original orbital limited motion results for a monoenergetic electron beam are shown to be in excellent agreement for electron injection into the Polywell. A distribution function is proposed for the electron plasma characteristics in the centre of the magnetic null and confirmed with experimental results. A translational stage was used to measure the radial plasma potential profile. In other experiments, two probes were used to simultaneously measure the profiles in both the null and a position halfway along a corner cusp. The results confirm a radial potential well created by electron trapping in the device. In addition, we present preliminary results of the potential well scaling with the magnetic field, Polywell bias voltage, and the injected beam current. The electron population was found to maintain non-equilibrium in all cases studied.

  12. A novel method to measure 3 components of magnetic fields with submicron resolution using Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy/Gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ahmet; Dede, Munir; Akram, Rizwan

    2009-03-01

    We present the development of a new 4-lead hall gradiometer and a novel method to measure 3 components( Bx, By & Bz) of magnetic fields on specimen surfaces with submicron resolution using Scanning Hall probe Microscope[1] and gradiometer. We used a 1?m size P-HEMT Hall sensor, operated in gradiometer configuration to image Bx, By and Bz distribution of a hard disk sample surface at 77K. The SHPM was used in Quartz Crystal AFM tracking mode[2]. This simple and quick novel method shows ˜40 better spatial resolution compared to previously developed techniques[3] and can be improved even further, down to sub 50nm resolution. 1. Chang, A.M., et al., Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 1992. 61(16): p. 1974-1976. 2. Dede, M., et al., Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2008. 8(2): p. 619-622. 3. Gregusova, D., et al., Fabrication of a vector Hall sensor for magnetic microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 2003. 82(21): p. 3704-3706.

  13. High Magnetic Field Characterization of Cu-Sn Alloys for Distortion-free MRI Probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. A. Peprah; E. S. Knowles; M. W. Meisel; G. W. Astary; T. H. Mareci; C. R. Fisher; R. L. Stewart; M. V. Manuel

    2011-01-01

    For a wide-range of reasons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain activity is now exploiting minituraized electrodes and cannulas. However, common construction materials such as stainless steel cause significant distortion of the MRI signals. ootnotetextF.M. Martinez-Santiesteban et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52 (2007) 2073. With the goal of developing brain-susceptibility-matched electrodes and cannula for distortion-free MRI in fields up to

  14. Magnetic circuitry mutual coupling probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Development of magnetic probe for nondestructive testing of multilayer printed circuit boards to determine existence of opens or shorts is reported. Components of probe are described and procedures for operation are discussed. Two illustrations are provided to show magnetic circuits and principles of operation.

  15. Note: Fiber optic transport probe for Hall measurements under light and magnetic field at low temperatures: Case study of a two dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadauria, P. P. S.; Gupta, Anurag; Kumar, Pramod; Dogra, Anjana; Budhani, R. C.

    2015-05-01

    A fiber optic based probe is designed and developed for electrical transport measurements in presence of quasi-monochromatic (360-800 nm) light, varying temperature (T = 1.8-300 K), and magnetic field (B = 0-7 T). The probe is tested for the resistivity and Hall measurements performed on a LaAlO3-SrTiO3 heterointerface system with a conducting two dimensional electron gas.

  16. Magnetic Field Safety Magnetic Field Safety

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Magnetic Field Safety Training #12;Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain fields will rapidly accelerate any magnetic material towards the magnet. § Magnetic material is commonly

  17. Superconducting magnet for probing eddy currents in dynamic models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. I. Gorskiy; V. A. Dzenzerskiy; V. Y. Vorovskiy

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting magnet was built for probing the electromagnetic interaction of strong magnetic fields and moving current conductors. Its main feature is a successful solution to the complex problem of force transmission from the induced magnetic field and the secondary magnetic field in a conductor to the surrounding cryostat walls. Stability of its operation without extra coolant flow is ensured

  18. Using Tailed Radio Galaxies to Probe the Environment and Magnetic Field of Galaxy Clusters in the SKA Era

    E-print Network

    Johnston-Hollitt, M; Pratley, L

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of tailed radio galaxies is an invaluable source of environmental information, in which a history of the past interactions in the intra-cluster medium, such as complex galaxy motions and cluster merger shocks, are preserved. In recent years, the use of tailed radio galaxies as environmental probes has gained momentum as a method for galaxy cluster detection, examining the dynamics of individual clusters, measuring the density and velocity flows in the intra-cluster medium, and for probing cluster magnetic fields. To date instrumental limitations in terms of resolution and sensitivity have confined this research to the local (z < 0.7) Universe. The advent of SKA1 surveys however will allow detection of roughly 1,000,000 tailed radio galaxies and their associated galaxy clusters out to redshifts of 2 or more. This is in fact ten times more than the current number of known clusters in the Universe. Additionally between 50,000 and 100,000 tailed radio galaxies will be sufficiently polarized to a...

  19. Magnetic fields and fluxes probed by coherent low-energy electron beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Degiovanni; Jacques Bardon; Vincent Georges; Roger Morin

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization of a nanometer size Ni needle is observed using the coherent electron beam originating from an electron point source. This at one and the same time displays the local (Lorentz force) and the nonlocal (Aharonov-Bohm phase shift) magnetic effects. The experiments are performed at three orders of magnitude lower electron energy than previous nonlocal effects observations. These experiments

  20. A new probe of magnetic fields during high-mass star formation: Zeeman splitting of 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    E-print Network

    W. H. T. Vlemmings

    2008-04-07

    Context: The role of magnetic fields during high-mass star formation is a matter of fierce debate, yet only a few direct probes of magnetic field strengths are available. Aims: The magnetic field is detected in a number of massive star-forming regions through polarization observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. Although these masers are the most abundant of the maser species occurring during high-mass star formation, most magnetic field measurements in the high-density gas currently come from OH and H2 O maser observations. Methods: The 100-m Effelsberg telescope was used to measure the Zeeman splitting of 6.7 GHz methanol masers for the first time. The observations were performed on a sample of 24 bright northern maser sources. Results: Significant Zeeman splitting is detected in 17 of the sources with an average magnitude of 0.56 m/s . Using the current best estimate of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser Zeeman splitting coefficient and a geometrical correction, this corresponds to an absolute magnetic field strength of 23 mG in the methanol maser region. Conclusions: The magnetic field is dynamically important in the dense maser regions. No clear relation is found with the available OH maser magnetic field measurements. The general sense of direction of the magnetic field is consistent with other Galactic magnetic field measurements, although a few of the masers display a change of direction between different maser features. Due to the abundance of methanol masers, measuring their Zeeman splitting provides the opportunity to construct a comprehensive sample of magnetic fields in high-mass star-forming regions.

  1. Probe Diagnostics on the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Spencer; Dubois, Ami; Cianciosa, Mark; Konopka, Uwe; Thomas, Edward

    2014-10-01

    The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) has recently begun operation at Auburn University. The MDPX device uses a superconducting magnet system to study plasmas at high magnetic field strengths of up to 4 Tesla. As a newly operating plasma experiment, it is essential to have careful measurements of the plasma parameters. However, the performance of in-situ plasma diagnostics at high magnetic fields strengths is not well understood. In order to characterize the plasma, initial measurements will be performed using single and triple cylindrical Langmuir probes without a magnetic field. These probes, in addition to a disk shaped probe, will then be used to make plasma measurements with increasing magnetic field strength. Understanding the measurements obtained from these diagnostics will be essential in order to study the charging properties of a plasma as particles are magnetized, as well as the evolution of a dusty plasma containing magnetic particles. This presentation will summarize the probe measurements obtained without magnetic fields and make comparisons with the probe performance at increasing magnetic field strengths. It will be shown that at high magnetic field strengths, the probes are strongly impacted by flux-tube limited collection. This work is supported from funding from DOE and NSF.

  2. Nanometer Scale Distance Measurements for Biological Systems using Gd^3+-based Spin Probes at High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Devin; Goldfarb, Daniella; Han, Songi; Sherwin, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Determination of nanometer-scale distances is critical for understanding structure and dynamics of proteins. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), primarily below 1 T, is used to complement other structural techniques by quantifying sparse distances up to 8 nm in biomolecules labeled with nitroxide-based radicals. EPR becomes more powerful with increasing magnetic fields and frequencies. At 95 GHz (3.5 T), Gd^3+ ions have shown clear advantages over nitroxide probes (Potapov, JACS 2010). We show that these advantages are even more dramatic at 240 GHz (8.5 T). The width of Gd^3+'s central EPR transition narrows with increasing average distance between Gd^3+ ions out to distances as long as 5 nm. This doubles the distances accessible with nitroxides in continuous wave measurements, which can be carried out above the 200K protein-glass transition and with broad distance distributions. Temperature-dependent measurements of the phase memory times at 8.5 T and low temperatures show distance dependence out to 10 nm. Measurements of Gd^3+ labeled Proteorhodopsin confirm that phase memory times remain long enough to observe distance dependence in a spin-labeled protein. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Binational Science Foundation.

  3. Elasticity of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals probed by director reorientation in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Nastishin, Yu A; Omelchenko, M M; Tortora, L; Nazarenko, V G; Boiko, O P; Ostapenko, T; Hu, T; Almasan, C C; Sprunt, S N; Gleeson, J T; Lavrentovich, O D

    2012-07-20

    Using a magnetic Frederiks transition technique, we measure the temperature and concentration dependences of splay K1, twist K2, and bend K3 elastic constants for the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal sunset yellow formed through noncovalent reversible aggregation of organic molecules in water. K1 and K3 are comparable to each other and are an order of magnitude higher than K2. At higher concentrations and lower temperatures, K1 and the ratios K1/K3 and K1/K2 increase, which is attributed to elongation of self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal aggregates, a feature not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals formed by covalently bound units of a fixed length. PMID:22861899

  4. Elasticity of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals Probed by Director Reorientation in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuang; Nastishin, Yu. A.; Omelchenko, M. M.; Tortora, L.; Nazarenko, V. G.; Boiko, O. P.; Ostapenko, T.; Hu, T.; Almasan, C. C.; Sprunt, S. N.; Gleeson, J. T.; Lavrentovich, O. D.

    2012-07-01

    Using a magnetic Frederiks transition technique, we measure the temperature and concentration dependences of splay K1, twist K2, and bend K3 elastic constants for the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal sunset yellow formed through noncovalent reversible aggregation of organic molecules in water. K1 and K3 are comparable to each other and are an order of magnitude higher than K2. At higher concentrations and lower temperatures, K1 and the ratios K1/K3 and K1/K2 increase, which is attributed to elongation of self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal aggregates, a feature not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals formed by covalently bound units of a fixed length.

  5. The cage elasticity and under-field structure of concentrated magnetic colloids probed by small angle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    angle X-ray scattering E. Wandersman,ab A. C¯ebers,c E. Dubois,a G. M´eriguet,a A. Robertde and R by small angle X-ray scattering. The electrostatically stabilized nanoparticles experience a repulsive, we show that nanoparticles are trapped under-field in oblate cages formed by their first neighbours

  6. Probing the dynamics of pressure- and magnetic field-tuned transitions in strongly-correlated electron systems: Raman scattering studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clark Sheldon Snow

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I present data on pressure- and magnetic field-tuned phase transitions and the melting of self-organized structures in three different strongly-coupled systems. I have built a unique high-pressure cell (0--100 kbar) that allows in-situ pressure control while at low-temperatures (3.5--300 K) and in a magnetic field (0--8T). First, I report a Raman scattering study of the pressure-induced collapse

  7. Extending the distance range accessed with continuous wave EPR with Gd3+ spin probes at high magnetic fields†

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Devin T.; Ma, Zhidong; Meade, Thomas J.; Goldfarb, Daniella; Han, Songi

    2014-01-01

    Interspin distances between 0.8 nm and 2.0 nm can be measured through the dipolar broadening of the continuous wave (cw) EPR spectrum of nitroxide spin labels at X-band (9.4 GHz, 0.35 T). We introduce Gd3+ as a promising alternative spin label for distance measurements by cw EPR above 7 Tesla, where the |?1/2? to |1/2? transition narrows below 1 mT and becomes extremely sensitive to dipolar broadening. To estimate the distance limits of cw EPR with Gd3+, we have measured spectra of frozen solutions of GdCl3 at 8.6 T (240 GHz) and 10 K at concentrations ranging from 50 mM to 0.1 mM, covering a range of average interspin distances. These experiments show substantial dipolar broadening at distances where line broadening cannot be observed with nitroxides at X-band. This data, and its agreement with calculated dipolar-broadened lineshapes, show Gd3+ to be sensitive to distances as long as ~3.8 nm. Further, the linewidth of a bis-Gd3+ complex with a flexible ~1.6 nm bridge is strongly broadened as compared to the mono-Gd3+ complex, demonstrating the potential for application to pairwise distances. Gd-DOTA-based chelates that can be functionalized to protein surfaces display linewidths narrower than aqueous GdCl3, implying they should be even more sensitive to dipolar broadening. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of tailored Gd3+ labels and high magnetic fields can extend the longest interspin distances measurable by cw EPR from 2.0 nm to 3.8 nm. cw EPR data at 260 K demonstrate that the line broadening remains clear out to similar average interspin distances, offering Gd3+ probes as promising distance rulers at temperatures higher than possible with conventional pulsed EPR distance measurements. PMID:23732863

  8. Extending the distance range accessed with continuous wave EPR with Gd3+ spin probes at high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Devin T; Ma, Zhidong; Meade, Thomas J; Goldfarb, Daniella; Han, Songi; Sherwin, Mark S

    2013-07-21

    Interspin distances between 0.8 nm and 2.0 nm can be measured through the dipolar broadening of the continuous wave (cw) EPR spectrum of nitroxide spin labels at X-band (9.4 GHz, 0.35 T). We introduce Gd(3+) as a promising alternative spin label for distance measurements by cw EPR above 7 Tesla, where the |-1/2? to |1/2? transition narrows below 1 mT and becomes extremely sensitive to dipolar broadening. To estimate the distance limits of cw EPR with Gd(3+), we have measured spectra of frozen solutions of GdCl3 at 8.6 T (240 GHz) and 10 K at concentrations ranging from 50 mM to 0.1 mM, covering a range of average interspin distances. These experiments show substantial dipolar broadening at distances where line broadening cannot be observed with nitroxides at X-band. This data, and its agreement with calculated dipolar-broadened lineshapes, show Gd(3+) to be sensitive to distances as long as ?3.8 nm. Further, the linewidth of a bis-Gd(3+) complex with a flexible ?1.6 nm bridge is strongly broadened as compared to the mono-Gd(3+) complex, demonstrating the potential for application to pairwise distances. Gd-DOTA-based chelates that can be functionalized to protein surfaces display linewidths narrower than aqueous GdCl3, implying they should be even more sensitive to dipolar broadening. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of tailored Gd(3+) labels and high magnetic fields can extend the longest interspin distances measurable by cw EPR from 2.0 nm to 3.8 nm. cw EPR data at 260 K demonstrate that the line broadening remains clear out to similar average interspin distances, offering Gd(3+) probes as promising distance rulers at temperatures higher than possible with conventional pulsed EPR distance measurements. PMID:23732863

  9. Role of incoherent pumping field on absorption-dispersion properties of probe pulse in a graphene nanostructure under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Hamedi, H. R.; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of weak probe light based on quantum coherence and interference in Landau-quantized graphene nanostructure driven by two coherent fields and incoherent pumping field is investigated. The linear dynamical properties of the graphene by means of density matrix method and perturbation theory are discussed. It is found that under certain condition and for appropriate choosing the parameters of the medium, the absorption, dispersion, group index of the weak probe light can be controlled. Moreover, it is shown that by means of incoherent pumping field the superluminal light propagation in the system is accompanied by amplification to make sure that the probe field is amplified as it passes through the system. Moreover, it is observed that the probe amplification can be obtained in the presence or absence of population inversion by properly choosing of system's parameters. We hope that these results may have useful in the future quantum communicational system and networks.

  10. The effect of external magnetic field on mark size in heat-assisted probe recording on CoNi/Pt multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Bain, James A.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Abelmann, Leon; Onoue, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    A method of heat-assisted magnetic recording potentially suitable for probe-based storage systems is characterized. In this work, field-emission current from a scanning tunneling microscope tip is used as the heating source. Pulse voltages of 2-7 V were applied to a CoNi/Pt multilayered film. During heating, various external magnetic fields were applied. Experimental results show that a positive magnetic field increases mark size while a negative field decreases mark size, compared to the case of writing without an external field in which an average mark size of 170 nm was achieved. In addition, a positive field reduces the threshold voltage of writing as well. A synthesized model is built to quantitatively simulate the experimental results. It includes the model of emission current, heat transfer, and dynamics of magnetic domains in the film. Simulation results show that the calculated mark size in various cases is consistent with experimental results. Based on this model, we will be able to figure out the proposals to achieve small marks for the goal of 1 Tbit/in.2 recording density.

  11. Probing the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot via full counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Chen, Jingzhe; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through a quantum dot weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads, in which an effective nuclear-spin magnetic field originating from the configuration of nuclear spins is considered. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied eigenstates and the spin polarization of two ferromagnetic leads play an important role in the formation of super-Poissonian noise. In particular, the orientation and magnitude of the effective field have a significant influence on the variations of the values of high-order cumulants, and the variations of the skewness and kurtosis values are more sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective field than the shot noise. Thus, the high-order cumulants of transport current can be used to qualitatively extract information on the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot.

  12. Molecules as magnetic probes of starspots

    E-print Network

    Afram, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Stellar dynamo processes can be explored by measuring the magnetic field. This is usually obtained using the atomic and molecular Zeeman effect in spectral lines. While the atomic Zeeman effect can only access warmer regions, the use of molecular lines is of advantage for studying cool objects. The molecules MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH are suited to probe stellar magnetic fields, each one for a different range of spectral types, by considering the signal that is obtained from modeling various spectral types. We have analyzed the usefulness of different molecules (MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH) as diagnostic tools for studying stellar magnetism on active G-K-M dwarfs. We investigate the temperature range in which the selected molecules can serve as indicators for magnetic fields on highly active cool stars and present synthetic Stokes profiles for the modeled spectral type. We modeled a star with a spot size of 10% of the stellar disk and a spot comprising either only longitudinal or only transverse magnetic fields and es...

  13. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  14. A new method of measuring the poloidal magnetic and radial electric fields in a tokamak using a laser-accelerated ion-beam trace probe

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. Y.; Chen, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J., E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Labaratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, M. [Center for Fusion Science of Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Both the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) and radial electric field (E{sub r}) are significant in magnetic confinement devices. In this paper, a new method was proposed to diagnose both B{sub p} and E{sub r} at the same time, which was named Laser-accelerated Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP). This method based on the laser-accelerated ion beam, which has three properties: large energy spread, short pulse lengths, and multiple charge states. LITP can provide the 1D profiles, or 2D images of both B{sub p} and E{sub r}. In this paper, we present the basic principle and some preliminary theoretical results.

  15. OH MASER SOURCES IN W49N: PROBING MAGNETIC FIELD AND DIFFERENTIAL ANISOTROPIC SCATTERING WITH ZEEMAN PAIRS USING THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Avinash A. [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Mendoza-Torres, J. E., E-mail: desh@rri.res.in, E-mail: mgoss@aoc.nrao.edu, E-mail: mend@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico)

    2013-09-20

    Our analysis of a Very Long Baseline Array 12 hr synthesis observation of the OH masers in the well-known star-forming region W49N has yielded valuable data that enable us to probe distributions of magnetic fields in both the maser columns and the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). The data, consisting of detailed high angular resolution images (with beam width ?20 mas) of several dozen OH maser sources, or spots, at 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz, reveal anisotropic scatter broadening with typical sizes of a few tens of milliarcseconds and axial ratios between 1.5 and 3. Such anisotropies have been reported previously by Desai et al. and have been interpreted as being induced by the local magnetic field parallel to the Galactic plane. However, we find (1) apparent angular sizes of, on average, a factor of about 2.5 less than those reported by Desai et al., indicating significantly less scattering than inferred previously, and (2) a significant deviation in the average orientation of the scatter-broadened images (by ?10°) from that implied by the magnetic field in the Galactic plane. More intriguingly, for a few Zeeman pairs in our set, significant differences (up to 6?) are apparent in the scatter-broadened images for the two hands of circular polarization, even when the apparent velocity separation is less than 0.1 km s{sup –1}. This may possibly be the first example of a Faraday rotation contribution to the diffractive effects in the ISM. Using the Zeeman pairs, we also study the distribution of the magnetic field in the W49N complex, finding no significant trend in the spatial structure function. In this paper, we present the details of our observations and analysis leading to these findings, discuss implications of our results for the intervening anisotropic magneto-ionic medium, and suggest possible implications for the structure of magnetic fields within this star-forming region.

  16. Magnetic fields in astrophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

    1983-01-01

    The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

  17. Computational inhomogeneities in sputtered Co-Cr magnetic thin films studied by atom probe field ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hono, K.; Maeda, Y.; Babu, S. S.; Sakurai, T.

    1994-12-01

    Compositional inhomogeneities in Co-22 at.% Cr sputtered thin films have been studied qunatitatively using atom probe field ion microscopy. For comparison, a Co-22 at.% Cr bulk alloy specimen has also been examined. As predicted from the recently published phase diagram, a solution treated Co-Cr bulk alloy specimen does not contain detectable chemical inhomogeneities. On the other hand, the Co-22 at.% Cr thin film sputter deposited at 200 C consists of two distinct phases with different Cr concentrations. The size of each phase is in the order of 8 nm which is significantly smaller than the grain size of the specimen; however, the film that was sputter deposited at ambient temperature exhibited a significantly lower level of compositional inhomogeneity. Based on these results, it is concluded that the phase separation progresses when thin films are deposited on heated substrates.

  18. Energetic secondary electrons and the nonthermal galactic radio background - A probe of the magnetic field in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Brown, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A previous analysis of the manifestations of charged-pion-decay secondary electrons in interstellar cloud material is extended to include those contributions to the Galactic radio and soft gamma-ray backgrounds that are directly attributable to energetic secondaries. The equilibrium distribution of secondary electrons in dense interstellar clouds is calculated, synchrotron emissivity from isolated interstellar clouds is examined, and it is shown how the value of the magnetic field in these clouds may be determined by observing the radio emission in their directions. The contribution that such clouds make to the integrated radio background is evaluated, and the Galactic distribution of bremsstrahlung gamma rays that arise from interactions of secondary electrons with thermal material in dense clouds is computed. The results indicate that a magnetic field of no more than 80 microgauss is characteristic of dense clouds and that the integrated synchrotron radiation from secondary electrons in interstellar clouds will contribute a significant fraction of the nonthermal brightness along the Galactic equator even if the mean cloud field is as low as 35 microgauss.

  19. Exploring Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."

  20. Probing the local strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic nanocomposites by magnetic field-assisted piezoresponse force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Caruntu, Gabriel; Yourdkhani, Amin; Vopsaroiu, Marian; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2012-05-21

    The magnetoelectric effect that occurs in multiferroic materials is fully described by the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient induced either electrically or magnetically. This is rather well understood in bulk multiferroics, but it is not known whether the magnetoelectric coupling properties are retained at nanometre length scales in nanostructured multiferroics. The main challenges are related to measurement difficulties of the coupling at nanoscale, as well as the fabrication of suitable nano-multiferroic samples. Addressing these issues is an important prerequisite for the implementation of multiferroics in future nanoscale devices and sensors. In this paper we report on the local measurement of the magnetoelectric coefficient in bilayered ceramic nanocomposites from the variation in the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of the electrostrictive layer in the presence of a magnetic field. The experimental data were analyzed using a theoretical relationship linking the piezoelectric coefficient to the magneto-electric coupling coefficient. Our results confirm the presence of a measurable magnetoelectric coupling in bilayered nanocomposites constructed by a perovskite as the electrostrictive phase and two different ferrites (cubic spinel and hexagonal) as the magnetic phases. The reported experimental values as well as our theoretical approach are both in good agreement with previously published data for bulk and nanostructure magnetoelectric multiferroics. PMID:22522318

  1. Electric and magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Maracas

    1994-01-01

    Increasing electrification brings increased human exposures to electric and magnetic fields, commonly called EMFs, and growing evidence suggests that exposure to even low frequency, low energy, electric and magnetic fields may be related to adverse health effects. This paper focuses on magnetic fields and strategies that address them. The challenges faced by scientists in understanding magnetic field interactions with humans,

  2. Molecules as magnetic probes of starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afram, N.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Stellar dynamo processes can be explored by measuring the magnetic field. This is usually obtained using the atomic and molecular Zeeman effect in spectral lines. While the atomic Zeeman effect can only access warmer regions, the use of molecular lines is of advantage for studying cool objects. The molecules MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH are suited to probe stellar magnetic fields, each one for a different range of spectral types, by considering the signal that is obtained from modeling various spectral types. Aims: We have analyzed the usefulness of different molecules (MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH) as diagnostic tools for studying stellar magnetism on active G-K-M dwarfs. We investigate the temperature range in which the selected molecules can serve as indicators for magnetic fields on highly active cool stars and present synthetic Stokes profiles for the modeled spectral type. Methods: We modeled a star with a spot size of 10% of the stellar disk and a spot comprising either only longitudinal or only transverse magnetic fields and estimated the strengths of the polarization Stokes V and Q signals for the molecules MgH, TiO, CaH, and FeH. We combined various photosphere and spot models according to realistic scenarios. Results: In G dwarfs, the molecules MgH and FeH show overall the strongest Stokes V and Q signals from the starspot, whereas FeH has a stronger Stokes V signal in all G dwarfs with a spot temperature of 3800 K. In K dwarfs, CaH signals are generally stronger, and the TiO signature is most prominent in M dwarfs. Conclusions: Modeling synthetic polarization signals from starspots for a range of G-K-M dwarfs leads to differences in the prominence of various molecular signatures in different wavelength regions, which helps to efficiently select targets and exposure times for observations.

  3. Magnetically insulated baffled probe for measurements in complex magnetized plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenggang; Yevgeny, Raitses; Demidov, Vladimir

    2013-09-01

    When the magnetic field is parallel to the probe surface, the electron-repelling sheath can be significantly reduced as the magnetic field also impedes the cross-field electron flow and therefore, a smaller sheath voltage is needed to maintain the zero current balance to the floating probe. This is the basic idea of the magnetically insulated baffled (MIB) probe, which offers the advantages of direct measurements of the plasma potential in magnetized plasmas while being non-emitting and electrically floating. A simplified MIB probe was constructed by retracting the conducting pin of a classical Langmuir probe inside an insulating tube placed perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. The retracting distance of the collector inside the ceramic tube was calculated assuming classical and anomalous mechanisms of the electron cross-field diffusion and taking into account particles losses inside the tube. The results of MIB probe measurements in a Penning-type cross-field discharge are presented. When the magnetic field is parallel to the probe surface, the electron-repelling sheath can be significantly reduced as the magnetic field also impedes the cross-field electron flow and therefore, a smaller sheath voltage is needed to maintain the zero current balance to the floating probe. This is the basic idea of the magnetically insulated baffled (MIB) probe, which offers the advantages of direct measurements of the plasma potential in magnetized plasmas while being non-emitting and electrically floating. A simplified MIB probe was constructed by retracting the conducting pin of a classical Langmuir probe inside an insulating tube placed perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. The retracting distance of the collector inside the ceramic tube was calculated assuming classical and anomalous mechanisms of the electron cross-field diffusion and taking into account particles losses inside the tube. The results of MIB probe measurements in a Penning-type cross-field discharge are presented. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes; Operational Modes and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounds, S. R.; Kletzing, C.; Crawford, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Connerney, J. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Smith, C. W.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), is an integrated set of instruments consisting of a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) and a Waves instrument which includes a tri-axial search coil magnetometer (MSC). These wave measurements include AC electric and magnetic fields from 10Hz to 400 kHz. AC Electric field signals are provided, on board, by the Electric Field and Waves Suite (EFW). All the instrument components are controlled by a Central Data Processing Unit (CDPU), which provides versatility in capturing data in a variety of modes. The system is designed to provide a standard cadence of survey products through the entire orbit, and burst data capture of higher cadenced data at opportune times in the orbit. A description and examples of all the operational modes are presented. Descriptions of the data products and how to access them is also presented. Data from the suite is located at a central Science Operation Center (SOC) maintained at the University of Iowa. EMFISIS data are organized to be easily viewed utilizing the freeware data visualization tool, Autoplot.

  5. Magnetic Fields Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

  6. Exploring Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

  7. Probe of the Band Structure of MBE Grown p-Type InMnAs at Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Kyrychenko, F. V.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Kono, J.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Munekata, H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on electronic and magneto-optical properties of p-type paramagnetic InMnAs dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) alloys in ultrahigh (> 100 T) external magnetic fields (B). Theoretical calculations are based on an 8-band Pidgeon-Brown model which is generalized to include the wavevector dependence of the electronic states along B as well as s-d and p-d exchange interactions with localized Mnd-electrons. The spin-dependent electronic structure as a function of Mn doping is computed and the dependence of the valence band structure on parameters such as the sp-d exchange interaction strength and effective masses in paramagnetic p-InMnAs alloys are examined. The cyclotron resonance (CR) and magneto-optical properties of InMnAs are calculated using Fermi's golden rule. Two strong CR peaks are observed in p-type InMnAs alloys which correspond to the transitions within either heavy-hole (HH) or light-hole (LH) Landau levels. Furthermore, we also observed strong resonance absorption for electron-active polarization which can occur in p-type semiconductors originating from transitions between the light and heavy hole Landau levels.

  8. What are Magnetic Fields?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

  9. Visualizing Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students take the age old concept of etch-a-sketch a step further. Using iron filings, students begin visualizing magnetic field lines. To do so, students use a compass to read the direction of the magnet's magnetic field. Then, students observe the behavior of iron filings near that magnet as they rotate the filings about the magnet. Finally, students study the behavior of iron filings suspended in mineral oil which displays the magnetic field in three dimensions.

  10. Magnetic fields of galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandr A. Ruzmaikin; Dmitrii D. Sokolov; Anvar M. Shukurov

    1988-01-01

    The current state of the understanding of the magnetic fields of galaxies is reviewed. A simple model of the turbulent dynamo is developed which explains the main observational features of the global magnetic fields of spiral galaxies. The generation of small-scale chaotic magnetic fields in the interstellar medium is also examined. Attention is also given to the role of magnetic

  11. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  12. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID); Morgan, John P,. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  13. Probing multiferroicity and spin-spin interactions via dielectric measurements on Y-doped HoMnO3 in high magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    in high magnetic fields R. Vasic, H. D. Zhou, E. Jobiliong, C. R. Wiebe, and J. S. Brooks Department of Physics and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 The magnetic field dependent phase diagrams of the ferrielectric material Ho1-xYxMnO3 have been inves- tigated

  14. An emerging population of BL Lacs with extreme properties: towards a class of EBL and cosmic magnetic field probes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Sbarrato, T.

    2015-07-01

    High-energy observations of extreme BL Lac objects, such as 1ES 0229+200 or 1ES 0347-121, recently focused interest both for blazar and jet physics and for the implication on the extragalactic background light and intergalactic magnetic field estimate. However, the number of these extreme highly peaked BL Lac objects (EHBL) is still rather small. Aiming at increase their number, we selected a group of EHBL candidates starting from the BL Lac sample of Plotkin et al. (2011), considering those undetected (or only barely detected) by the Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi and characterized by a high X-ray versus radio flux ratio. We assembled the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the resulting nine sources, profiting of publicly available archival observations performed by Swift, GALEX, and Fermi satellites, confirming their nature. Through a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model we estimate the expected very high energy flux, finding that in the majority of cases it is within the reach of present generation of Cherenkov arrays or of the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  15. Probing Intergalactic Magnetic Fields in the GLAST Era through Pair Echo Emission from TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Takahashi, Keitaro; Inoue, Susumu; Ichiki, Kiyomoto; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2008-10-01

    More than a dozen blazars are known to be emitters of multi-TeV gamma rays, often with strong and rapid flaring activity. By interacting with photons of the cosmic microwave and infrared backgrounds, these gamma rays inevitably produce electron-positron pairs, which in turn radiate secondary inverse Compton gamma rays in the GeV-TeV range with a characteristic time delay that depends on the properties of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). For sufficiently weak IGMF, such ``pair echo'' emission may be detectable by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), providing valuable information on the IGMF. We perform detailed calculations of the time-dependent spectra of pair echoes from flaring TeV blazars such as Mrk 501 and PKS 2155-304, taking proper account of the echo geometry and other crucial effects. In some cases, the presence of a weak but nonzero IGMF may enhance the detectability of echo. We discuss the quantitative constraints that can be imposed on the IGMF from GLAST observations, including the case of nondetections.

  16. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  17. High-Resolution and Frequency, Printed Miniature Magnetic Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Picard, Julian

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a technique to significantly reduce the cost and development time of producing magnetic field diagnostics. EHT is designing probes that can be printed on flexible PCBs thereby allowing for extremely small coils to be produced while essentially eliminating the time to wind the coils. The coil size can be extremely small when coupled with the EHT Hybrid Integrator, which is capable of high bandwidth measurements over short and long pulse durations. This integrator is currently being commercialized with the support of a DOE SBIR. Additionally, the flexible PCBs allow probes to be attached to complex surface and/or probes that have a complex 3D structure to be designed and fabricated. During the Phase I, EHT will design and construct magnetic field probes on flexible PCBs, which will be tested at the University of Washington's HIT-SI experiment and in EHT's material science plasma reactor. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a technique to significantly reduce the cost and development time of producing magnetic field diagnostics. EHT is designing probes that can be printed on flexible PCBs thereby allowing for extremely small coils to be produced while essentially eliminating the time to wind the coils. The coil size can be extremely small when coupled with the EHT Hybrid Integrator, which is capable of high bandwidth measurements over short and long pulse durations. This integrator is currently being commercialized with the support of a DOE SBIR. Additionally, the flexible PCBs allow probes to be attached to complex surface and/or probes that have a complex 3D structure to be designed and fabricated. During the Phase I, EHT will design and construct magnetic field probes on flexible PCBs, which will be tested at the University of Washington's HIT-SI experiment and in EHT's material science plasma reactor. Funding provided by DOE SBIR/STTR Program.

  18. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwong, P.; Higgins, J. S.; Hampshire, D. P. [Superconductivity Group, Centre for Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (J{sub c}) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ?0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J{sub c} measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I{sub max}) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b{sup ?}), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T{sub max}). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI{sub max}/A=[1.46D{sup ?0.18}L{sup 0.4}(T{sub max}?300){sup 0.25D{sup ?{sup 0{sup .{sup 0{sup 9}}}}}}+750(b{sup ?}/I{sub max})D{sup 10{sup ?{sup 3I{sub m}{sub a}{sub x}?2.87b{sup ?}}}}]× 10{sup 6}A m{sup ?1} where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm{sup 2} is obtained when I{sub max} = 1000 A, T{sub max} = 400 K, D = 0.2, b{sup ?} = 0.3 l?h{sup ?1} and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l?h{sup ?1}. When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I{sub max?} ? (1.35 × 10{sup ?3})D{sup 0.41} l?h{sup ?1}?A{sup ?1}. A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in our high-field horizontal magnet. The variable-temperature system is based on the use of an inverted insulating cup that operates above 4.2 K in liquid helium and above 77.4 K in liquid nitrogen, with a stability of ±80 mK to ±150 mK. Uniaxial strains of ?1.4% to 1.0% can be applied to the sample, with a total uncertainty of better than ±0.02%, using a modified bending beam apparatus which includes a copper beryllium springboard-shaped sample holder.

  19. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet.

    PubMed

    Sunwong, P; Higgins, J S; Hampshire, D P

    2014-06-01

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (Jc) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ~0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J(c) measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I(max)) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b'), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T(max)). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI(max)/A = [1.46D(-0.18)L(0.4)(T(max) - 300)(0.25D(-0.09)) + 750(b'/I(max))D(10(-3)I(max)-2.87b') × 10? A m?¹ where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm(2) is obtained when I(max) = 1000 A, T(max) = 400 K, D = 0.2, b' = 0.3 l?h(-1) and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l?h(-1). When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I(max)? ? (1.35 × 10(-3))D(0.41) l?h(?1)?A(-1). A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in our high-field horizontal magnet. The variable-temperature system is based on the use of an inverted insulating cup that operates above 4.2 K in liquid helium and above 77.4 K in liquid nitrogen, with a stability of ±80 mK to ±150 mK. Uniaxial strains of -1.4% to 1.0% can be applied to the sample, with a total uncertainty of better than ±0.02%, using a modified bending beam apparatus which includes a copper beryllium springboard-shaped sample holder. PMID:24985856

  20. The Declining Magnetic Field

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about the declining strength of Earth's magnetic field. Learners will review a graph of magnetic field intensity and calculate the amount by which the field has changed its intensity in the last century, the rate of change of its intensity, and when the field should decrease to zero strength at the current rate of change. Learners will also use evidence from relevant sources to create a conjecture on the effects on Earth of a vanished magnetic field. Access to information sources about Earth's magnetic field strength is needed for this activity. This is Activity 7 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide.

  1. Exploring Magnetic Fields in Your Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about measuring magnetic field directions of Earth and in the environment. First, learners go outside, far away from buildings, power lines, or anything electrical or metal, and use compasses to identify magnetic North. Next, they use the compasses to probe whether there are any sources of magnetic fields in the local environment, including around electronic equipment such as a CD player and speakers. This is the first lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

  2. Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet produces a magnetic field, B Set up a B field two ways: Moving electrically charged particles Current in a wire Intrinsic magnetic field Basic characteristic of elementary particles such as an electron #12;Magnetic Fields Magnetic field lines Direction

  3. The Square Kilometre Array: A new probe of cosmic magnetism

    E-print Network

    Bryan M. Gaensler

    2006-03-02

    Magnetic fields are a fundamental part of many astrophysical phenomena, but the evolution, structure and origin of magnetic fields are still unresolved problems in physics and astrophysics. When and how were the first fields generated? Are present-day magnetic fields the result of standard dynamo action, or do they represent rapid or recent field amplification through other processes? What role do magnetic fields play in turbulence, cosmic ray acceleration and structure formation? I explain how the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a next-generation radio telescope, can deliver stunning new data-sets that will address these currently unanswered issues. The foundation for these experiments will be an all-sky survey of rotation measures, in which Faraday rotation toward >10^7 background sources will provide a dense grid for probing magnetism in the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, and in distant galaxies, clusters and protogalaxies. Using these data, we can map out the evolution of magnetized structures from redshifts z > 3 to the present, can distinguish between different origins for seed magnetic fields in galaxies, and can develop a detailed model of the magnetic field geometry of the intergalactic medium and of the overall Universe. In addition, the SKA will certainly discover new magnetic phenomena beyond what we can currently predict or imagine.

  4. The Magnetic Field

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Barker

    This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

  5. Electricity and Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    The grand challenge for this legacy cycle unit is for students to design a way to help a recycler separate aluminum from steel scrap metal. In previous lessons, they have looked at how magnetism might be utilized. In this lesson, students think about how they might use magnets and how they might confront the problem of turning the magnetic field off. Through the accompanying activity students explore the nature of an electrically induced magnetic field and its applicability to the needed magnet.

  6. Drawing Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students use a compass and a permanent magnet to trace the magnetic field lines produced by the magnet. By positioning the compass in enough spots around the magnet, the overall magnet field will be evident from the collection of arrows representing the direction of the compass needle. In activities 3 and 4 of this unit, students will use this information to design a way to solve the grand challenge of separating metal for a recycling company.

  7. A magneto-optic probe for magnetic fluctuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, W S; Ellis, J; Thakur, S Chakraborty; Hansen, A; Hardin, R A; Sears, S; Scime, E E

    2009-10-01

    Results from a proof-of-principle experiment are presented that demonstrate it is possible to construct a completely optical, robust, and compact probe capable of spatially resolved measurements of magnetic field fluctuations smaller than 1 G over a frequency range of 1 Hz-8 MHz in a plasma. In contrast to conventional coil probes, the signal strength is independent of fluctuation frequency and the measurement technique is immune to electrostatic pickup. The probe consists of a high Verdet constant crystal, two polarizers, optical fibers, and a photodetector. PMID:19895059

  8. A magneto-optic probe for magnetic fluctuation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, W. S.; Ellis, J.; Thakur, S. Chakraborty; Hansen, A.; Hardin, R. A.; Sears, S.; Scime, E. E.

    2009-10-01

    Results from a proof-of-principle experiment are presented that demonstrate it is possible to construct a completely optical, robust, and compact probe capable of spatially resolved measurements of magnetic field fluctuations smaller than 1 G over a frequency range of 1 Hz-8 MHz in a plasma. In contrast to conventional coil probes, the signal strength is independent of fluctuation frequency and the measurement technique is immune to electrostatic pickup. The probe consists of a high Verdet constant crystal, two polarizers, optical fibers, and a photodetector.

  9. Near-field microwave probe for local ferromagnetic resonance characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mircea, Dragos I.; Clinton, T. W.

    2007-04-01

    A local ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique using a thin-film microwave probe fabricated on coaxial transmission line is presented. Some key features of this probe are its micron-scale size coupled with broadband FMR characterization and mobility: a small area of any location on a magnetic medium can be probed. Permeability of Permalloy (Py) films has been measured, where the authors extract physical parameters, such as FMR frequency, anisotropy field, damping, and spin wave exchange constant, in excellent agreement with independent measurements. Samples of arbitrary shape and size can be measured with a spatial resolution that scales with the size of the probe "tip."

  10. Circuits and Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students use the same method as in the activity from lesson 2 of this unit to explore the magnetism due to electric current instead of a permanent magnet. Students use a compass and circuit to trace the magnetic field lines induced by the electric current moving through the wire. Students develop an understanding of the effect of the electrical current on the compass needle through the induced magnetic field and understand the complexity of a three dimensional field system.

  11. Magnetic fields at Neptune

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; L. F. Burlaga; J. E. P. Connerney; R. P. Lepping; F. M. Neubauer

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10⁻⁵ gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a

  12. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The maximum difference between relevant and low magnitude tests was 21.5%.

  13. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  14. Magnetic Field Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You may drag either magnet and double-click anywhere inside the animation to add a magnetic field line, and mouse-down to read the magnitude of the magnetic field at that point.

  15. Properties of Electromagnetic Field Focusing Probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Yamanashi; Nabil A. Yassa; Deborah L. Hill; Angelo A. Patil; Patrick D. Lester

    1988-01-01

    The electromagnetic field focusing (EFF) apparatus consists of a radio fre quency generator, solenoidal coil, and a hand-held or catheter probe. Applica tions such as aneurysm treatment, angioplasty, and neurosurgery in various models have been reported. The probe is operated in the near field (within one wavelength of an electromagnetic field source) of a coil inducing eddy currents in biological

  16. Mapping Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

  17. Magnetic-field-dependent assembly of silica-coated magnetite nanoclusters probed by Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Vikash; Suthar, Kamleshkumar J.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Colloidal suspension of the silica coated magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) was used to study the magnetic field mediated assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. The spatial arrangement of these MNCs in colloidal suspension was studied using the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) technique with magnetic field applied in directions orthogonal and parallel to the scattering vector. In situ magnetic field analysis of the USAXS scattering measurement showed anisotropic behavior that can be attributed to the formation of colloidal crystals. During magnetization, the clustered magnetic core induces a large dipole moment, and the thickness of the silica shell helps keep distance between the neighboring particles. The assembly of these hybrid nanostructured particles was found to be dependent on the strength and orientation of this external magnetic field. The dipolar chains formed of MNCs arranged themselves into colloidal crystals formed by two-dimensional magnetic sheets. The structure factor calculations suggested that the lattice parameters of these colloidal crystals can be tuned by changing the strength of the external magnetic field. These experiments shed light on the stimuli-responsive assembly of magnetic colloidal nanoparticles that leads to the creation of tunable photonic crystals.

  18. The Magnetic Field

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Windows to the Universe

    1997-12-03

    This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

  19. Melatonin and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Karasek, Michal; Lerchl, Alexander

    2002-04-01

    There is public health concern raised by epidemiological studies indicating that extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by electric power distribution systems in the environment may be hazardous. Possible carcinogenic effects of magnetic field in combination with suggested oncostatic action of melatonin lead to the hypothesis that the primary effects of electric and magnetic fields exposure is a reduction of melatonin synthesis which, in turn, may promote cancer growth. In this review the data on the influence of magnetic fields on melatonin synthesis, both in the animals and humans, are briefly presented and discussed. PMID:12019358

  20. Magnetic Probe Construction using Thick-film Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Sakakibara, S.; Kubota, Y.; and Yamada, H.

    2001-02-02

    Thick-film technology has been successfully adapted for the design and fabrication of magnetic probes of a new type suitable for use in the simultaneous ultra-high vacuum and high-temperature environment of a nuclear fusion device. The maximum usable temperature is expected to be around 900 degrees C. This new probe has a specific sensitivity (coupling area per unit volume) an order of magnitude higher than a conventional coil. The new probe in one implementation is capable of simultaneously measuring magnetic field in three orthogonal directions about a single spatial point and in two frequency ranges. Low-frequency coils have a measured coupling area of 296-323 cm squared and a frequency response of about 300 kHz. High-frequency coils have a design coupling area of 12-15 cm squared.

  1. Magnetic Field Viewing Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanim, Stephen; Thompson, John R.

    2005-09-01

    For some years now laminated cards containing a green, magnetically sensitive film have been available from science education suppliers. When held near a magnet, these cards appear dark green in regions where the field is perpendicular to the card and light green where the field is parallel to the card. The cards can be used to explore the magnetic field near a variety of magnets as well as near wire loops. In this paper we describe how to make these cards and how we have used them in our physics classrooms and labs.

  2. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained.

  3. Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Dal Pino

    2006-01-01

    Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources

  4. Magnetic Fields Classroom Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reinhart, Rose

    In this lesson from Math Machines, students will learn about the effects of magnetic fields on moving, electrically charged particles. The activity consists of two exercises. The first involves analyzing how a robot is controlled in a magnetic field. The second has students design and test a "magnetic bottle."A participant handout (including worksheets) and facilitator notes are made available for download in DOC file format. A link to a required calculator program is also provided.

  5. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields are a major agent in the interstellar medium. They contribute significantly to the total pressure which balances the gas disk against gravitation. They affect the gas flows in spiral arms (Gómez and Cox, 2002). The effective sound speed of the gas is increased by the presence of strong fields which reduce the shock strength. The interstellar fields are closely connected to gas clouds. They affect the dynamics of the gas clouds (Elmegreen, 1981; de Avillez and Breitschwerdt, 2004). The stability and evolution of gas clouds are also influenced by magnetic fields, but it is not understood how (Crutcher, 1999; see Chap. 7). Magnetic fields are essential for the onset of star formation as they enable the removal of angular momentum from the protostellar cloud during its collapse (magnetic braking, Mouschovias, 1990). Strong fields may shift the stellar mass spectrum towards the more massive stars (Mestel, 1990). MHD turbulence distributes energy from supernova explosions within the ISM (Subramanian, 1998) and regenerates the field via the dynamo process (Wielebinski, R., Krause, 1993, Beck et al., 1996; Sect. 6). Magnetic reconnection is a possible heating source for the ISM and halo gas (Birk et al., 1998). Magnetic fields also control the density and distribution of cosmic rays in the ISM. A realistic model for any process in the ISM needs basic information about the magnetic field which has to be provided by observations.

  6. Internal Magnetic Field Measurements in STX Generated FRCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Andreason; Ken Miller; John Slough

    1999-01-01

    The internal magnetic field probes installed in the STX experiment at the Redmond Plasma Physics laboratory are designed to provide a one dimensional internal magnetic field profile of a 25 eV 10^19 m-3 FRC. The probe consists of 24 1cm × 1mm 8 turn coils interconnected like a chain to provide information on the RMF field components. This probe can

  7. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mendez, J.

    This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, provides information and a graphical exercise for students regarding the interaction between magnetic field lines and a plasma. The activity involves tracing a typical interplanetary magnetic field line, dragged out of a location on the Sun by the radial flow of the solar wind. This illustrates the way magnetic field lines are "frozen to the plasma" and the wrapping of field lines due to the rotation of the sun. This is part of the work "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". A Spanish translation is available.

  8. The outer magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Suess, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic field of the sun extends outward through the photosphere into the corona. The resulting coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields therefore respond to and evolve with the solar cycle, as well as on shorter and longer time scales. These fields are modeled using photospheric magnetic field observations under the assumption that the coronal field is current free, becomes radial at a 'source surface' placed at 2.5 solar radii from the center of the sun, and is passively advected by the solar wind beyond the source surface. This review covers the computation of such models and their applications to characterize the morphology, evolution, and rotation of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields using data collected between 1976 and the present at the Wilcox Solar Observatory.

  9. Measuring magnetic dipole fields using Hall effects sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Benadero; J. A. Gorri; J. Villar; A. Albareda; E. Toribio; R. Perez

    1991-01-01

    The way in which a Hall effect transducer is made appropriate for measuring magnetic fields is described. The aim of this is to provide a thermally well compensated probe that gives precise orientation and positioning for taking measurements. This probe is used in the checking of far fields generated by magnetic dipoles.

  10. Magnetic Probe to Study Plasma Jets for Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-16

    A probe has been constructed to measure the magnetic field of a plasma jet generated by a pulsed plasma rail-gun. The probe consists of two sets of three orthogonally-oriented commercial chip inductors to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector at two separate positions in order to give information about the magnetic field evolution within the jet. The strength and evolution of the magnetic field is one of many factors important in evaluating the use of supersonic plasma jets for forming imploding spherical plasma liners as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion.

  11. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi

    The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.

  12. Detecting Exoplanetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetries in exoplanet transits are proving to be a useful tool for furthering our understanding of magnetic activity on both stars and planets outside our Solar System.Near-UV observations of the WASP-12 system have revealed asymmetries in the timing of the transit when compared with the optical light curve. A number of possible explanations have been suggested for this variation, including the presence of a magnetospheric bow shock arising from the interaction of the planet's magnetic field with the stellar wind from it's host star. Such observations provide the first method for directly detecting the presence of a magnetic field on exoplanets.The shape and size of such asymmetries is highly dependent on the structure of the host stars magnetic field at the time of observation. This implies we may observe highly varying near-UV transit light curves for the same system. These variations can then be used to learn about the geometry of the host star's magnetic field.In this presentation I will show modelling a bow shock around an exoplanet can help us to not only detect, but also also place constraints on the magnetic field strength of hot Jupiters. For some systems, such as HD 189733, we have maps of the surface magnetic field of the star at various epochs. I will also show how incorporating these maps into a stellar wind model, I can model the formation of a bow shock around the planet and hence demonstrate the variability of the near-UV transits.

  13. Mapping the magnetic field vector in a fountain clock

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsvolf, Marina; Marmet, Louis [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    We show how the mapping of the magnetic field vector components can be achieved in a fountain clock by measuring the Larmor transition frequency in atoms that are used as a spatial probe. We control two vector components of the magnetic field and apply audio frequency magnetic pulses to localize and measure the field vector through Zeeman spectroscopy.

  14. Mapping Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding a coil of wire that is connected to a battery. This activity requires a large coil or spool of wire, a source of electricity such as 3 D-cell batteries or an AC to DC power adapter, alligator-clipped wire, and magnetic compasses. This is the third lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

  15. Design and Performance of a Five-Section Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for Aligning Precision Laboratory Electromagnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanton B. Hillier

    1961-01-01

    A special five-section nuclear magnetic resonance probe was developed to facilitate the alignment of precision laboratory electromagnets. A description of the probe and its associated equipment is given along with a discussion of the actual use of the system to obtain detailed information about the magnetic field symmetry of a particular electromagnet. A discussion of accuracies obtainable with the probe

  16. Probes of strong-field gravity

    E-print Network

    Stein, Leo Chaim

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I investigate several ways to probe gravity in the strong-field regime. These investigations focus on observables from the gravitational dynamics, i.e. when time derivatives are large: thus I focus on sources ...

  17. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  18. Characteristics of magnetic probes for identifying sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ookubo, Tetsu; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Mashiko, Yusuke; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes that cause tumor metastasis is important in breast cancer therapy. The detection of magnetic fluid accumulating in the lymph nodes using a magnetic probe allows surgeons to identify the lymph nodes. In this study, we carried out numerical simulations and experiments to investigate the sensitivity and basic characteristics of a magnetic probe consisting of a permanent magnet and a small magnetic sensor. The measured magnetic flux density arising from the magnetic fluid agreed well with the numerical results. In addition, the results helped realize an appropriate probe configuration for achieving high sensitivity to magnetic fluid. A prototype probe detected magnetic fluid located 30 mm from the probe head. PMID:24110978

  19. Shimming of a Magnet for Calibration of NMR Probes for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielajew, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    The Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the anomalous magnetic moment a? ? (g-2)/2 of the muon to the precision of 0.14 parts per million. This experimental value of a? can then be compared to the similarly precise theoretical predictions of the Standard Model in order to test the completeness of the model. The value of a? is extracted from muons precessing in a magnetic field. The magnetic field will be measured with a set of 400 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes, which have the ability to measure the field to a precision of tens of parts per billion. Before the Muon g-2 Experiment can take place, new NMR probes must be designed, built, and tested using a 1.45 Tesla test magnet at the University of Washington Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics (CENPA). In order to achieve a significant signal from NMR probes, the magnetic field in which the probes are immersed must be extremely uniform. The existing magnet at CENPA has an approximately linear gradient in magnetic field of about 1 Gauss per centimeter in the smoothest direction. A pair of adjacent square Helmholtz coils was designed and built to create a linear gradient in order to cancel the existing gradient. The length of the NMR signals improved with the implementation of the coils. The results of the addition of the coils to the magnet on the signals from the NMR probes will be presented.

  20. Magnetic Field Problem: Current

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    A cross section of a circular wire loop carrying an unknown current is shown above. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You can double-click in the animation to add magnetic field lines, click-drag the center of the loop to reposition it, and click-drag the top or bottom of the loop to change its size.

  1. High Angular Resolution Measurement of Ion and Neutral Spectra as a Probe of the Magnetic Field Structure in DR21(OH)

    E-print Network

    Shih-Ping Lai; T. Velusamy; W. D. Langer

    2003-09-04

    It has been suggested that under average interstellar field strengths the cyclotron interaction between ions and magnetic fields is strong enough to narrow the linewidth and suppress the line wings in the ion spectra. We present evidence for the cyclotron interaction effect at arcsec scale on the velocity dispersions in the spectra of ion/neutral molecular species in DR21(OH) observed with the OVRO-MMA. Using a spatial resolution $\\sim$ 3 times higher than previous CSO observations by Houde et al. (2002), we show that H$^{13}$CO$^+$ and H$^{13}$CN are coexistent at the scale of our observations (6\\arcsec). In the eastern parts of the DR21(OH) core where the dynamics is simple, the ion linewidths are indeed narrower than the neutral linewidths with an average ion-to-neutral linewidth ratio of 0.82$\\pm$0.04. We use our results, along with the existing Zeeman and dust/CO polarization data on small scales, to derive the 3-D magnetic field structure. We obtain a field strength of $0.44\\pm$0.12 mG with inclination of 36\\deg to the line of sight, directed toward the observer, and a position angle of $-$75\\deg in the plane of the sky. With the full magnetic field strength derived here, we are able to conclude that the MM1 core of DR21(OH) is magnetically supercritical; although turbulence provides the dominant support.

  2. Probing and manipulating magnetization at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarth, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    Combining semiconductors with magnetism in hetero- and nano-structured geometries provides a powerful means of exploring the interplay between spin-dependent transport and nanoscale magnetism. We describe two recent studies in this context. First, we use spin-dependent transport in ferromagnetic semiconductor thin films to provide a new window into nanoscale magnetism [1]: here, we exploit the large anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor as a nanoscale probe of the reversible elastic behavior of magnetic domain walls and gain insight into regimes of domain wall behavior inaccessible to more conventional optical techniques. Next, we describe novel ways to create self-assembled hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnet core-shell nanowires [2] and show how magnetoresistance measurements in single nanowires, coupled with micromagnetic simulations, can provide detailed insights into the magnetization reversal process in nanoscale ferromagnets [3]. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Andrew Balk, Jing Liang, Nicholas Dellas, Mark Nowakowski, David Rench, Mark Wilson, Roman Engel-Herbert, Suzanne Mohney, Peter Schiffer and David Awschalom. This work is supported by ONR, NSF and the NSF-MRSEC program.[4pt] [1] A. L. Balk et al., Phys. Rev.Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).[0pt] [2] N. J. Dellas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 072505 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. Liang et al., in preparation.

  3. Bi and InSb Nano-Hall Probes for direct magnetic imaging with Room Temperature Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy(RT-SHPM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Oral; Munir Dede; Adarsh Sandhu; Hiroshi Masuda; Simon J. Bending

    2002-01-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM)[1] is a quantitative and non-invasive technique to image magnetic samples with high spatial and magnetic field resolution: ~ 120nm & 60mG\\/Hz^1\\/2 at room temperature. A nano-Hall probe is scanned over the sample surface to measure the surface magnetic fields using conventional scanning tunneling microscopy-positioning techniques. We have developed new down to ~120x120nm size Bi and

  4. Probing hyperfine interactions in 53Cr(III) doped Al 2O 3 by spectral hole-burning in low magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Riesen; Alex Szabo

    2010-01-01

    We report transient spectral hole-burning experiments conducted in the R1(±1\\/2) line of 53-chromium(III) doped Al2O3 in zero field and low magnetic fields B?c at 3 K. These facile experiments enable, in principle, the simultaneous determination of the hyperfine coupling parameters for both the 4A2 ground state and the E?(E2) excited state, and in both directions to the crystal caxis. In

  5. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  6. Probing the magnetic states in a ferromagnet using a superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Leyi; Chen, Tingyong; Chien, Chia-Ling

    2009-03-01

    In a superconductor (S)/ferromagnet (F) bilayer, the superconducting properties of the S layer are sensitive to the domain pattern in the adjacent F layer.[1-2] We exploit this effect to investigate Ni films, which instead of retaining in-plane anisotropy as usual, unexpectedly acquire perpendicular anisotropy when the thickness is above a critical value. Using Ni/Nb bilayers, the perpendicular magnetization component can be sensitively probed by the measurements of the superconducting transition of Nb in a magnetic field, which alters the domain pattern in Ni. Above the critical Ni thickness, an in-plane magnetic field can manipulate the stripe domains in Ni between parallel stripes and random labyrinth states resulting in as much as 90 mK in the transition temperature of the Nb layer. This clearly demonstrates that superconductor is a sensitive probe of the magnetic domain state of a ferromagnet. In turn, the results also show that along the parallel stripe domains, superconductivity is less detrimental. [1]. A. Yu. Rusanov, M. Hesselberth, J. Aarts, and A. I. Buzdin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 057002 (2004). [2]. L. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Chen, and C. L. Chien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 017004 (2008).

  7. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torusa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  8. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y S

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device. PMID:23126895

  9. HMI Magnetic Field Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Jon T.; HMI Magnetic Field Team

    2013-07-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO has measured magnetic field, velocity, and intensity in the photosphere over the full disk continuously since May 2010 with arc-second resolution. Scalar images are measured every 45 seconds. From these basic observables the pipeline automatically identifies and tracks active regions on the solar disk. The vector magnetic field and a variety of summary quantities are determined every 720s in these tracked Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPS). Synoptic and synchronic maps are constructed daily and after each Carrington Rotation Most data products are available with definitive scientific calibration after a few day deal at and in a quick-look near-real-time version a few minutes after the observations are made. Uncertainties are determined for the derived products. All of the magnetic field products along with movies and images suitable for browsing are available at http:://Hmi.stanford.edu/magnetic. Other products, e.g. coronal field over active regions, can be computed on demand.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN FERROUS COMPONENTS BY MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY MEASUREMENTS USING A HALL EFFECT SENSOR ARRAY PROBE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. H. Lo

    2011-01-01

    A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In

  11. Characterization of Residual Stresses in Ferrous Components by Magnetic Anisotropy Measurements Using a Hall Effect Sensor Array Probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. H. Lo

    2011-01-01

    A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In

  12. Magnetic Fields in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, their strength and structure in intergalactic space, their first occurrence in young galaxies, and their dynamical importance for galaxy evolution remain widely unknown. Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized radio synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important; they can affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized radio emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, generated from isotropic turbulent fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered (anisotropic turbulent) fields are also observed at the inner edges of the spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Irregular galaxies host isotropic turbulent fields often of similar strength as in spiral galaxies, but only weak ordered fields. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several galaxies reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field ? -? dynamo. So far no indications were found in external galaxies of large-scale field reversals, like the one in the Milky Way. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. In the outflow cone above a starburst region of NGC 253, RM data indicate a helical magnetic field.

  13. Probing the Role of Magnetic-Field Variations in NOAA AR 8038 in Producing a Solar Flare and CME on 12 May 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajmal; Awasthi, Arun K.; Chandel, Babita; Bharti, Lokesh; Hanaoka, Y.; Kiplinger, A. L.

    2011-07-01

    We carried out a multi-wavelength study of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and an associated flare, occurring on 12 May 1997. We present a detailed investigation of magnetic-field variations in NOAA Active Region 8038 which was observed on the Sun during 7 - 16 May 1997. This region was quiet and decaying and produced only a very small flare activity during its disk passage. However, on 12 May 1997 it produced a CME and associated medium-size 1B/C1.3 flare. Detailed analyses of H? filtergrams and SOHO/MDI magnetograms revealed continual but discrete surge activity, and emergence and cancellation of flux in this active region. The movie of these magnetograms revealed the two important results that the major opposite polarities of pre-existing region as well as in the emerging-flux region were approaching towards each other and moving magnetic features (MMF) were ejected from the major north polarity at a quasi-periodicity of about ten hours during 10 - 13 May 1997. These activities were probably caused by magnetic reconnection in the lower atmosphere driven by photospheric convergence motions, which were evident in magnetograms. The quantitative measurements of magnetic-field variations such as magnetic flux, gradient, and sunspot rotation revealed that in this active region, free energy was slowly being stored in the corona. Slow low-layer magnetic reconnection may be responsible for the storage of magnetic free energy in the corona and the formation of a sigmoidal core field or a flux rope leading to the eventual eruption. The occurrence of EUV brightenings in the sigmoidal core field prior to the rise of a flux rope suggests that the eruption was triggered by the inner tether-cutting reconnection, but not the external breakout reconnection. An impulsive acceleration, revealed from fast separation of the H ? ribbons of the first 150 seconds, suggests that the CME accelerated in the inner corona, which is also consistent with the temporal profile of the reconnection electric field. Based on observations and analysis we propose a qualitative model, and we conclude that the mass ejections, filament eruption, CME, and subsequent flare were connected with one another and should be regarded within the framework of a solar eruption.

  14. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Seongsoo [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Samarth, Nitin [Physics Department, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lozanne, Alex de [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  15. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Henrichsen

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as

  16. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  17. High sensitivity piezomagnetic force microscopy for quantitative probing of magnetic materials at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian Nataly; Ma, Feiyue; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Yuanming; Proksch, Roger; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-07-01

    Accurate scanning probing of magnetic materials at the nanoscale is essential for developing and characterizing magnetic nanostructures, yet quantitative analysis is difficult using the state of the art magnetic force microscopy, and has limited spatial resolution and sensitivity. In this communication, we develop a novel piezomagnetic force microscopy (PmFM) technique, with the imaging principle based on the detection of magnetostrictive response excited by an external magnetic field. In combination with the dual AC resonance tracking (DART) technique, the contact stiffness and energy dissipation of the samples can be simultaneously mapped along with the PmFM phase and amplitude, enabling quantitative probing of magnetic materials and structures at the nanoscale with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PmFM has been applied to probe magnetic soft discs and cobalt ferrite thin films, demonstrating it as a powerful tool for a wide range of magnetic materials. PMID:23720016

  18. Developing the technique of measurements of magnetic field in the CMS steel yoke elements with flux-loops and Hall probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Klyukhin; D. Campi; B. Cure; A. Gaddi; H. Gerwig; J. P. Grillet; A. Herve; R. Loveless; R. P. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Compact muon solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the

  19. Electric Field and Structural Phase Transition Induced Magnetization Effects in BaTiO3 -FeRh Heterostructures Probed using Polarized Neutron Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Steven; Ward, Thomas; Biegalski, Michael; Wong, Tony; Liu, Zhiqi; Ambaye, Haile; Glavic, Artur

    2015-03-01

    The ability to change the magnetic state of a material with an electric field opens up a plethora of possible devices in spintronics and memory applications. A strong candidate material for such a control is FeRh, whose magneto-structural phase transition from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) at T ~350K, has shown to be controllably changed by an electric field when grown on ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO). It has been suggested that this shift is largely due to the -0.47% in plane compressive strain induced by the piezoelectric BTO. Here we show a sharp repeatable change in magnetization as the system is heated/cooled through the tetragonal to orthorhombic (280-290K) and orthorhombic to rhombohedral (180-205K) crystalline phase transitions of BTO. To further characterize the effect polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) was used to evolve the depth profile of magnetization in FeRh within the temperature vicinity of these transitions with and without the application of electric field. This work was carried out at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) supported by the Scientific User Facilities Divisions, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE.

  20. A fast recovery probe and receiver for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Lowe; C. E. Tarr

    1968-01-01

    A single coil probe and receiver for use in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are described. The impedance transformation properties of a one-quarter wavelength line are used to protect the receiver during the radio-frequency pulse. The probe is very efficient in its use of r.f. power to create an oscillating magnetic field, and the overall system has a fast recovery

  1. Revisiting holographic superconductor with Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Momeni, Davood

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of the bulk magnetic field (charge) on scalar condensation using an analytical approach of matching. An AdS-magnetized black hole solution has been used as a probe solution of normal phase of a strongly coupled condensed matter system on boundary. In the zero temperature limit of the black hole and infinite temperature, we show that there exists a critical magnetic field and so, the Meissner's effect presented. We compare this analytical result with our previous variational approach. By studying the different between heat capacities of the normal and superconducting phases near the critical point, we show that this thermodynamic quantity becomes divergent as the Rutgers formula predicted. Mathematical pole of Rutgers formula gives us a maximum for magnetic field which at this value, the system backs to the normal phase. In zero temperature we investigate exact series solutions of the field equations using an appropriate boundary conditions set. We show that conformal dimension is fixed by ...

  2. The Earth's Magnetic Field

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere), including detailed information about the aurora borealis, magnets, and solar wind. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  3. High Angular Resolution Measurement of Ion and Neutral Spectra as a Probe of the Magnetic Field Structure in DR21(OH)

    E-print Network

    Lai, S P; Langer, W D; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that under average interstellar field strengths the cyclotron interaction between ions and magnetic fields is strong enough to narrow the linewidth and suppress the line wings in the ion spectra. We present evidence for the cyclotron interaction effect at arcsec scale on the velocity dispersions in the spectra of ion/neutral molecular species in DR21(OH) observed with the OVRO-MMA. Using a spatial resolution $\\sim$ 3 times higher than previous CSO observations by Houde et al. (2002), we show that H$^{13}$CO$^+$ and H$^{13}$CN are coexistent at the scale of our observations (6\\arcsec). In the eastern parts of the DR21(OH) core where the dynamics is simple, the ion linewidths are indeed narrower than the neutral linewidths with an average ion-to-neutral linewidth ratio of 0.82$\\pm$0.04. We use our results, along with the existing Zeeman and dust/CO polarization data on small scales, to derive the 3-D magnetic field structure. We obtain a field strength of $0.44\\pm$0.12 mG with inclination ...

  4. CRRES electric field\\/Langmuir probe instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wygant; P. R. Harvey; D. Pankow; F. S. Mozer; N. Maynard; H. Singer; M. Smiddy; W. Sullivan; P. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    The CRRES spacecraft's electric field\\/Langmuir probe instruments, which consist of a main electronics package on the body of the spacecraft and two pairs of orthogonal sensors with a 100-m separation on the spin-plane of the spacecraft, measures the quasi-static 2D electric field in this spin plane at 32 samples\\/sec. Sensitivity is 0.1 mV\\/m, over a dynamic range of 1000 mV\\/m.

  5. On-tip sub-micrometer Hall probes for magnetic microscopy prepared by AFM lithography.

    PubMed

    Gregusová, D; Martaus, J; Fedor, J; Kúdela, R; Kostic, I; Cambel, V

    2009-07-01

    We developed a technology of sub-micrometer Hall probes for future application in scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). First, the Hall probes of approximately 9-mum dimensions are prepared on the top of high-aspect-ratio GaAs pyramids with an InGaP/AlGaAs/GaAs active layer using wet-chemical etching and non-planar lithography. Then we show that the active area of planar Hall probes can be downsized to sub-micrometer dimensions by local anodic oxidation technique using an atomic force microscope. Such planar probes are tested and their noise and magnetic field sensitivity are evaluated. Finally, the two technologies are combined to fabricate sub-micrometer Hall probes on the top of high-aspect ratio mesa for future SHPM and MFM techniques. PMID:19359099

  6. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  7. Simulation of lightning magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yazhou; Wu Xiaorong; Liu Shanghe; Zhang Feizhou

    2002-01-01

    The lightning magnetic field is simulated when a pulse current is injected into the loop from the lightning surge generator. Different waveforms of lightning magnetic field can be simulated by regulating the parameters of the loop according to the relation between the parameters of the loop and the simulated wave. The dot loop is made to measure the magnetic field

  8. The WIND magnetic field investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Lepping; M. H. Ac?na; L. F. Burlaga; W. M. Farrell; J. A. Slavin; K. H. Schatten; F. Mariani; N. F. Ness; F. M. Neubauer; Y. C. Whang; J. B. Byrnes; R. S. Kennon; P. V. Panetta; J. Scheifele; E. M. Worley

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and

  9. AC Magnetic Field Survey Report

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    AC Magnetic Field Survey Report of Literature Building - 3000 University of California San Diego:..........................................................................................................2 ELF OR AC MAGNETIC FIELD CHARACTERISTICS:...............................................2 UNITS of California San Diego La Jolla, California PROJECT: AC Magnetic Field Survey SCOPE: The scope of this project

  10. Stray Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zick

    1994-01-01

    In many applications of magnetic resonance imaging large linewidths means that to achieve useful resolution in the image large magnetic field gradients should be employed. This paper outlines the principles of stray field imaging that utilises the large gradients intrinsic to the fringe field of superconducting solenoidal magnets. Examples of images from strongly broadened everyday objects are given.

  11. Observation of an Effective Magnetic field for Light

    E-print Network

    Tzuang, Lawrence D; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Photons are neutral particles that do not interact directly with a magnetic field. However, recent theoretical work has shown that an effective magnetic field for photons can exist if the phase of light would change with its propagating direction. This direction-dependent phase indicates the presence of an effective magnetic field as shown for electrons experimentally in the Aharonov-Bohm experiment. Here we replicate this experiment using photons. In order to create this effective magnetic field, we construct an on-chip silicon-based Ramsey-type interferometer. This interferometer has been traditionally used to probe the phase of atomic states, and here we apply it to probe the phase of photonic states. We experimentally observe a phase change, i.e. an effective magnetic field flux from 0 to 2pi. In an Aharonov-Bohm configuration for electrons, considering the device geometry, this flux corresponds to an effective magnetic field of 0.2 Gauss.

  12. Magnetic and Langmuir Probe Measurements on the Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelfgen, Syri J.; Eskridge, Richard; Fimognari, Peter; Hawk, Clark W.; Lee, Mike; Martin, Adam

    2004-01-01

    The Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX) operates by inductively producing plasmoids in a conical theta-pinch coil and subsequently ejecting them at high velocity. An overview of PTX is described in a companion paper. The shape and magnetic field structure of the translating plasmoids will be measured with of an array of inductive magnetic field probes. Six sets of two B-dot probes (for a total of twelve probes) have been constructed for measuring B(sub z) and B(sub theta), the axial and azimuthal components of the magnetic field. The probes were calibrated with a Helmholtz coil, driven alternately by a high-voltage pulser or a signal generator. The probes are wound on a G-10 form, and have an average (calibrated) NA of 9.37 x 10(exp -5) square meters, where N is the number of turns and A is cross-sectional area. The frequency response of the probes was measured over the range from 1 kHz to 10 MHZ. The electron number density n(sub e), electron temperature T(sub e) and velocity v will be determined from measurements taken with a quadruple Langmuir probe, situated in the exhaust chamber. Three of the four probes on the quadruple probe sample the current-voltage characteristic, and from this yield measurements of T(sub e) and n(sub e). The fourth probe provides a measurement of plasma flow velocity. A 6-inch long alumina rod, hollowed with four holes to house the probe wires, is being used to construct the quadruple probe. A variety of propellants will be used, including hydrogen, nitrogen and argon. From the measurements of the plasmoid mass, density, temperature, and velocity, the basic propulsion characteristics of PTX will be evaluated.

  13. Spectral functions of the Luttinger liquid in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello, Silvio; Si, Qimiao

    2000-03-01

    We study the single-particle properties of the one-dimensional Luttinger model in the presence of a magnetic field. The single-particle spectral functions are calculated and it is shown that the magnetic field induce shifts on both the spinon and holon peak positions, but with different magnitude. From these results, we discuss the possibility of using angular-resolved photoemission in a magnetic field to probe spin-charge separation.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticle motion in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Liubimov, B. Ya

    2015-07-01

    A set of equations describing the motion of a free magnetic nanoparticle in an external magnetic field in a vacuum, or in a medium with negligibly small friction forces is postulated. The conservation of the total particle momentum, i.e. the sum of the mechanical and the total spin momentum of the nanoparticle is taken into account explicitly. It is shown that for the motion of a nanoparticle in uniform magnetic field there are three different modes of precession of the unit magnetization vector and the director that is parallel the particle easy anisotropy axis. These modes differ significantly in the precession frequency. For the high-frequency mode the director points approximately along the external magnetic field, whereas the frequency and the characteristic relaxation time of the precession of the unit magnetization vector are close to the corresponding values for conventional ferromagnetic resonance. On the other hand, for the low-frequency modes the unit magnetization vector and the director are nearly parallel and rotate in unison around the external magnetic field. The characteristic relaxation time for the low-frequency modes is remarkably long. This means that in a rare assembly of magnetic nanoparticles there is a possibility of additional resonant absorption of the energy of alternating magnetic field at a frequency that is much smaller compared to conventional ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The scattering of a beam of magnetic nanoparticles in a vacuum in a non-uniform external magnetic field is also considered taking into account the precession of the unit magnetization vector and director.

  15. Shear angle of magnetic fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanping, Lü; Wang, Jingxiu; Wang, Huaning

    1993-11-01

    The authors introduce a new parameter, the shear angle of vector magnetic fields, ??, to describe the non-potentiality of magnetic fields in active regions, which is defined as the angle between the observed vector magnetic field and its corresponding current-free field. In the case of highly inclined field configurations, this angle is approximately equal to the "angular shear", ??, defined by Hagyard et al. (1984). ?? can be considered as the projection of the shear angle, ??, on the photosphere. For the active region studied, the shear angle, ??, seems to have a better and neater correspondence with flare activity than does ??. It gives a clearer explanation of the non-potentiality of magnetic fields. It is a better measure of the deviation of the observed magnetic field from a potential field, and is directly related to the magnetic free energy stored in non-potential fields.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of time-varying magnetic fields from therapeutic devices

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bhatia, Vivek; Prem-Kumar, Krishan; Ulfarsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging of static magnetic fields generated by external probes has been previously demonstrated, there is an unmet need to image time-varying magnetic fields, such as those generated by transcranial magnetic stimulators or radiofrequency hyperthermia probes. A method to image such time-varying magnetic fields is introduced in this work. This article presents the theory behind the method and provides proof of concept by imaging time-varying magnetic fields generated by a figure-eight coil inside simple phantoms over a range of frequencies and intensities, using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. The method is able to reconstruct the three-dimensional components of the oscillating magnetic field vector. PMID:23355446

  17. (version 6/26/06) Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    (version 6/26/06) Magnetic Fields GOALS (1) To visualize the magnetic fields produced by several to trace out the magnetic field lines of a single bar magnet on a large sheet of paper. (3) To calculate where the magnetic fields of the Earth and the bar magnet sum to zero. INTRODUCTION A magnetic field

  18. ANOMALOUS COSMIC RAYS AS PROBES OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Reames, D. V. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, RVBXS, 29 Randolph Rd., Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Tylka, A. J. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: dvreames@umd.edu

    2009-08-01

    We report, for the first time, the observation near the Earth of anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) particles throughout the interiors of interplanetary magnetic clouds (MCs) at the same intensity as outside the MCs. ACRs, accelerated in the outer heliosphere, have unique elemental abundances making their identity unambiguous as they probe these clouds from the outside. Thus, MCs, carried out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are seen to contain no structures that are magnetically closed to the penetration of ions with energies above a few MeV amu{sup -1}. As the MCs expand outward, they must fill their increasing volume with ACRs dynamically, to the same degree as neighboring 'open' field lines. These observations cast doubt on conventional ideas about the closed field topologies of MCs and the cross-field transport of energetic particles. The ACR observations conflict with some reports of significant exclusion from MCs of solar energetic particles (SEPs) of comparable energy and rigidity. A process that allows cross-field transport of ACRs may also allow similar transport of SEPs late in events, causing the large spatial extent and uniformity of SEPs in 'invariant spectral regions' extending far behind CME-driven shock waves.

  19. Magnetic Classification of Meteorites and Asteroid Probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Chevrier, V.; Consolmagno, G.; Denise, M.; Folco, L.; Osete, M.; Pesonen, L.

    Magnetic susceptibility (X) provides a versatile rapid and non destructive way to quan- tify the amount of magnetic minerals (FeNi metal, magnetic oxides and sulfides) on large volume of material. As petrological studies of meteorites suggest that this param- eter should be quite discriminant, we assembled a database of measurements on about 1000 stony meteorites from various European collections: Helsinki, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Roma, Siena, Vatican, and other smaller collections. From 1 to >20 pieces and 1 to >100 cc per meteorite allow to define a representative mean value, using a large coil (8 cm) Kappabridge. For ordinary chondrites, it appears that weathering is responsible for a systematic bias toward low logc for Antarctic (Frontier Mountain) and non Antarctic (mainly from Sahara) finds. Once only falls are considered a quite narrow range of logc is observed for a given class, with no effect of petrological grade except for LL. High grade LLs (heated above 400C) develop the weakly magnetic antitaenite-tetrataenite phases [3] during slow cooling, explaining the difference with low grade taenite-bearing LLs. Outliers from H and L classes are grade 6 material (showing metal segregation) or intermediate types: H/L and L/LL. Once these out- liers are excluded, well defined means for H and L are observed with no overlap at 2 s.d.; this agrees with the lack of overlap on metal amount. The standard deviation for all falls of a given class is only slightly higher than the averaged standard deviation for multiple pieces of the same fall. This supports the hypothesis that all falls from a given ordinary chondrite class (H or L) may come from the same homogeneous par- ent body. For non ordinary chondrites and achondrites, weakly magnetic classes are HED, Aubrites and SNC (below LL), strongly ones are E (above H) and Ureilites (in the L-H range), while C chondrites are spread in the whole range, again with each class showing restricted variation. On objects without intrinsic magnetic field the only way to measure X is to use a lander able to apply a small coil on the surface to mea- sure. Existing pocket susceptometer with a 25 mm radius loop and penetration depth of 30 mm are easily adaptable to such a purpose with a payload of less than 50 g (not counting the mobile arm). Such a petrophysical tool would have the advantage of its penetration depth with respect to all other chemical and mineralogical analysers that obtain essentially surface information prone to bias by space weathering. It should allow to attribute the asteroid to a meteorite class.

  20. Near-field microwave probe for local ferromagnetic resonance characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragos I. Mircea; T. W. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    A local ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique using a thin-film microwave probe fabricated on coaxial transmission line is presented. Some key features of this probe are its micron-scale size coupled with broadband FMR characterization and mobility: a small area of any location on a magnetic medium can be probed. Permeability of Permalloy (Py) films has been measured, where the authors extract

  1. The external magnetic field environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Calculations were made to predict magnetic field intensities surrounding an aircraft following a lightning strike. Aircraft design and aircraft structural geometry were considered in the computations. A wire grid aircraft model was used to aid in magnetic flux estimation.

  2. Magnetic fields of degenerate stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanmugam, G.

    The magnetic fields of degenerate stars are discussed with emphasis on such basic issues as how their magnetic field strengths are determined, their origin, and evolution. The magnetic fields of both white dwarfs and neutron stars are discussed together, and it is speculated that the origin and evolution of their fields may be related. It is also suggested that it may be possible to apply and test models for the evolution of the magnetic fields in neutron stars by using white dwarfs and vice versa.

  3. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  4. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  5. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  6. Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

  7. The origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2015-01-01

    The universe is magnetized on all scales probed so far. On the largest scales, galaxies and galaxy clusters host magnetic fields at the micro Gauss level coherent on scales up to ten kpc. Recent observational evidence suggests that even the intergalactic medium in voids could host a weak $\\sim 10^{-16}$ Gauss magnetic field, coherent on Mpc scales. An intriguing possibility is that these observed magnetic fields are a relic from the early universe, albeit one which has been subsequently amplified and maintained by a dynamo in collapsed objects. We review here the origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields. After a brief summary of magnetohydrodynamics in the expanding universe, we turn to magnetic field generation during inflation and other phase transitions. We trace the linear and nonlinear evolution of the generated primordial fields through the radiation era, including viscous effects. Sensitive observational signatures of primordial magnetic fields on the cosmic microwave background, ...

  8. Cyclical magnetic field flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasci, T. O.; Johnson, W. P.; Gale, B. K.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a new magnetic field flow fractionation (FFF) system was designed and modeled by using finite element simulations. Other than current magnetic FFF systems, which use static magnetic fields, our system uses cyclical magnetic fields. Results of the simulations show that our cyclical magnetic FFF system can be used effectively for the separation of magnetic nanoparticles. Cyclical magnetic FFF system is composed of a microfluidic channel (length = 5 cm, height = 30 ?m) and 2 coils. Square wave currents of 1 Hz (with 90 deg of phase difference) were applied to the coils. By using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a, magnetic field profile and corresponding magnetic force exerted on the magnetite nanoparticles were calculated. The magnetic force data were exported from Comsol to Matlab. In Matlab, a parabolic flow profile with maximum flow speed of 0.4 mL/h was defined. Particle trajectories were obtained by the calculation of the particle speeds resulted from both magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. Particle trajectories of the particles with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm were simulated and elution times of the particles were calculated. Results show that there is a significant difference between the elution times of the particles so that baseline separation of the particles can be obtained. In this work, it is shown that by the application of cyclical magnetic fields, the separation of magnetic nanoparticles can be done efficiently.

  9. Magnetic field fluctuations in SC dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Shiltsev et al.

    2001-08-15

    Magnetic field fluctuations at the betatron frequency can lead to emittance growth in circular accelerators. Tolerances are extremely tight for large hadron colliders like LHC and VLHC[1]. We performed experimental studies of the fluctuations in a stand-alone superconducting Tevatron magnet. Here we give a general description of the experimental set-up, present main results and discuss consequences for the colliders.

  10. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  11. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  12. Plasma Parameters, Fluctuations and Kinetics in a Magnetic Field Line Reconnection Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Craven Wild Jr.; N. C. Jr

    1983-01-01

    The processes associated with reconnecting magnetic field lines have been studied in a large experimental laboratory plasma. Detailed time- and space-resolved probe measurements of the plasma density, temperature, potential and electric and magnetic fields are discussed. Plasma currents are seen to modify the vacuum magnetic field topology. A flat neutral sheet develops along the separatrix where magnetic flux is transferred

  13. (Revised December 30, 2013) Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    (Revised December 30, 2013) Magnetic Fields GOALS (1) To visualize the magnetic fields produced compasses to trace out the magnetic field lines of a single bar magnet on a large sheet of paper. (3 of the points where the magnetic fields of the Earth and the bar magnet sum to zero. INTRODUCTION A magnetic

  14. On sunspot magnetic field diffusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivodubskij, V. N.

    The efficiency of different mechanisms of sunspot magnetic field dissipation depending on the stage of sunspot decay and optical depth is investigated. The highest rate of the magnetic field diffusion has place at the initial stage of sunspot decay, when the turbulence motion in the sunspot umbra takes a two-dimensional structure due to the strong magnetic field (B ? 3000 G). The turbulence degeneracy withdraws at the later stage of the sunspot decay (B ? 2000 G) and the dissipation slows down.

  15. Ferrofilm in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Randy; Beckham, J. Regan

    2012-10-01

    A vertically draining thin ferrofilm under the influence of gravity and a nonuniform magnetic field is considered. It is observed experimentally that the presence of the magnetic field greatly alters the drainage of the film. A mathematical model is developed to describe the behavior. Experiments are conducted for multiple magnetic field configurations. The model is solved for two different sets of boundary conditions and results are compared to experiments. It is shown that the magnetic field structure, the concentration of magnetite in the solution, and the boundary conditions all have noticeable affects on the evolution of the thinning film. Good qualitative agreement between the model and the experiments is observed.

  16. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Garbini, Joseph L.

    2013-09-01

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 ?m diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

  17. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)] [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Garbini, Joseph L. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 ?m diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

  18. Probes for measuring fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses in the edge of the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pincha...

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Torus reversed field pinch RFP . The magnetic probe is composed of six magnetic pickup coil triplets denoted by ¯ , and took the component par- allel to the equilibrium magnetic field. The pressure gradient, we present design of several probes de- veloped for measuring the fluctuation-induced Maxwell

  19. Miniaturized endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography with a tiny magnet driving device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes an endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT) applying on side-imaging of internal organs. The probe consists of single-mode fiber, a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, and a mirror of cylindrical wedge shape attaching to a magnetized metal piece by epoxy with a short steel wire. For OCT scanning, we use magnetic field generated by a larger magnet externally to drive the rotation of the magnetized metal. Compare with other probes, our probe design has two distinct advantages: 1) The exit beam will be unobstructed during 360 degree circumference scanning because there are no connecting wires in the scanning part. 2) In principle, the probe can be made very tiny because of the simple structure consisting only the single-mode fiber, GRIN lens, reflection mirror and the magnetized metal piece. The OCT system has axial resolution of 14µm and SNR of 98.6 dB. The probe prototype we made has an outer diameter of 1.4 mm.

  20. ANCHORING MAGNETIC FIELD IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huabai; Goodman, Alyssa [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Darren Dowell, C. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hildebrand, Roger [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Novak, Giles, E-mail: hli@cfa.harvard.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2009-10-20

    One of the key problems in star formation research is to determine the role of magnetic fields. Starting from the atomic intercloud medium which has density n {sub H} approx 1 cm{sup -3}, gas must accumulate from a volume several hundred pc across in order to form a typical molecular cloud. Star formation usually occurs in cloud cores, which have linear sizes below 1 pc and densities n {sub H2} > 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. With current technologies, it is hard to probe magnetic fields at scales lying between the accumulation length and the size of cloud cores, a range corresponds to many levels of turbulent eddy cascade, and many orders of magnitude of density amplification. For field directions detected from the two extremes, however, we show here that a significant correlation is found. Comparing this result with molecular cloud simulations, only the sub-Alfvenic cases result in field orientations consistent with our observations.

  1. The Sun's global magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Duncan H

    2012-07-13

    Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

  2. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  3. Axial magnetic field contacts with nonuniform distributed axial magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongqian Shi; Shenli Jia; Jun Fu; Zheng Wang

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that axial magnetic fields (AMFs) can keep vacuum arc in diffuse mode at high current. According to our recent research and other published papers, it has been found that vacuum arc can be maintained in high-current diffuse mode at much higher current if nonuniform AMF is applied, that the axial magnetic field is higher at contact

  4. Probing the magnetic ground state of the molecular Dysprosium triangle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Salman; S. R. Giblin; Y. Lan; A. K. Powell; R. Scheuermann; R. Tingle; R. Sessoli

    2010-01-01

    We present zero field muon spin lattice relaxation measurements of a\\u000aDysprosium triangle molecular magnet. The local magnetic fields sensed by the\\u000aimplanted muons indicate the coexistence of static and dynamic internal\\u000amagnetic fields below $T^* ~35$ K. Bulk magnetization and heat capacity\\u000ameasurements show no indication of magnetic ordering below this temperature. We\\u000aattribute the static fields to the

  5. Low-Cost Miniature Probes used in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cylinder, D.; Terry, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Whitney, J.

    2002-11-01

    The need for low-cost and low perturbing diagnostic probes in the MRX experiment has led to the development of miniature probes. Attention has been paid to material selection, using off-the-shelf products, and especially to perfecting the techniques involved in building tiny and delicate instruments. These design and fabrication principles have been applied to the construction of the ninety and sixty channel 2D magnetic field mapping probes, electrostatic probes with distal end in probe noise reduction amplifiers, Mach probes for plasma flow velocity, and a streamlined version of an Ion Dynamics Spectroscopic Probe (IDSP) device used in MRX. Motivated by a theory on a possible mechanism for fast reconnection, construction is underway of a probe array to measure magnetic structures on the order of the electron skin depth (a few millimeters). Millimeter scale induction coils are being fabricated for a sixty-coil probe array. The coils are 160 turns of 46-gauge wire with a diameter of 0.97 millimeters. They are designed for a frequency response of up to 100MHz. Detailed descriptions and sample results will be presented.

  6. The Magnetic Field in Tapia's Globule 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Carretti, Ettore; Bhat, Ramesh; Robishaw, Timothy; Crutcher, Richard; Vaillancourt, John

    2014-04-01

    We propose to measure the magnetic field in the Southern Coalsack using the Zeeman effect in OH at 1665 and 1667 MHz. This is motivated by (1) the measurement of a large magnetic field (B~90 uG) in the Coalsack region from optical and near infrared polarimetry and (2) a very low magnetic field (B~1 uG) measured ~30' from the cloud edge using pulsar Faraday rotation measurements. While the derived field strength in the cloud is significantly larger than usually seen in the interstellar medium, the existence of an X-ray emitting envelope around the cloud that contains significant amounts of O VI ions puts the magnetic pressure at approximate equipartition with the thermal pressure of such gas. A chain of observational results indicate that the Coalsack might be a unique, nearby example of externally triggered star formation. This chain starts with the passage of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus super bubble over the cloud, eventually causing triggered star formation. Probing the high magnetic field strength and providing accurate constraints for the interpretation of the observations of the cloud is therefore of great importance for testing this hypothesis.

  7. Laboratory Measurements of Astrophysical Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. D.; Miniati, F.; Edwards, M.; Mithen, J.; Bell, A. R.; Constantin, C.; Everson, E.; Schaeffer, D.; Niemann, C.; Ravasio, A.; Brambrink, E.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Gregory, C.; Woolsey, N.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ryutov, D.; Bingham, R.; Gargate, L.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gregori, G.

    2010-11-01

    It has been proposed that high Mach number collisionless shocks propagating in an initially unmagnetized plasma play a major role in the magnetization of large scale structures in the Universe. A detailed study of the experimental configuration necessary to scale such environments down to laboratory dimensions will be presented. We will show initial results from preliminary experiments conducted at the Phoenix laser (UCLA) and the LULI laser (Ecole Polytechnique) where collisionless shocks are generated by the expansion of exploding foils driven by energetic laser beams. The time evolution of the magnetic field is probed with induction coils placed at 10 cm from the laser focus. We will discuss various mechanisms of magnetic field generation and compare them with the experimental results.

  8. Lower hybrid plasma heating in a magnetic-mirror field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Da C. Rapozo; A. S. de Assis; A. Serbeto; L. T. Carneiro

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir and magnetic probes and a Faraday cup are used to study plasma heating by radio frequency waves (RF) in the lower hybrid frequency range using a LISA mirror magnetic-field device. It is shown that, in the LISA device, the RF wave of 28 MHz is absorbed because of the lower hybrid resonance. The RF energy is thermalized very close

  9. CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Structure of Magnetic

    E-print Network

    Callen, James D.

    CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Chapter 3 Structure of Magnetic Fields Many of the most interesting plasmas are permeated by or imbedded in magnetic fields.1 As shown in Fig. 3.1, the magnetic field properties of magnetic fields in plasmas can be discussed without specifying a model for the plasma

  10. Catheter based magnetic resonance compatible perfusion probe

    E-print Network

    Toretta, Cara Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Neurosurgeons are using a thermal based technique to quantify brain perfusion. The thermal diffusion probe (TDP) technology measures perfusion in a relatively small volume of brain tissue. The neurosurgeon chooses the ...

  11. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-06-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  13. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  14. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  15. Effect of Ge substitution for Si on the magnetic hyperfine field in LaMn2Si2 compound measured by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy with 140Ce as probe nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Santos, B.; Carbonari, A. W.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Costa, M. S.; Saxena, R. N.

    2013-05-01

    The effect of substitution of Ge for Si in LaMn2Si2 compound on the magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) has been investigated by perturbed ? -? angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 140La(140Ce) as probe nuclei. This compound exhibits antiferromagnetism followed by a ferromagnetic ordering when temperature decreases. The behavior of the ferromagnetic transition when Ge gradually replaces Si, with concentrations of 20%, 40%, 80%, and 100% is discussed. PAC measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 15 K to 325 K. Results for LaMn2Si2 compound showed that the dependence of Bhf with temperature follows the expected behavior for the host magnetization and could be fitted by a Brillouin function for JMn = 5/2. However, the temperature dependence of Bhf for compounds when Si is gradually replaced by Ge showed a deviation from such a behavior, which gradually increases up to a strong deviation observed for LaMn2Ge2. This striking behavior was ascribed to the hybridization of d band of the host and f band of the Ce impurities, which is stronger when the unit cell volume increase as Si ions are substituted by Ge atoms.

  16. Non-Gaussianity from Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Iain Brown; Robert Crittenden

    2005-09-22

    Magnetic fields in the early universe could have played an important role in sourcing cosmological perturbations. While not the dominant source, even a small contribution might be traceable through its intrinsic non-Gaussianity. Here we calculate analytically the one, two and three point statistics of the magnetic stress energy resulting from tangled Gaussian fields, and confirm these with numerical realizations of the fields. We find significant non-Gaussianity, and importantly predict higher order moments that will appear between the scalar, vector and tensor parts of the stress energy (e.g. scalar-tensor-tensor moments). Such higher order cross correlations are a generic feature of non-linear theories and could prove to be an important probe of the early universe.

  17. Time-dependent meson melting in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, M.; Charmchi, F.; Davody, A.; Ebrahim, H.; Shahkarami, L.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of a probe D7-brane in an asymptotically anti-de Sitter-Vaidya background has been investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field. Holographically, this is dual to the dynamical meson melting in the N =2 super Yang-Mills theory. If the final temperature of the system is large enough, the probe D7-brane will dynamically cross the horizon (the black hole embedding). By turning on the external magnetic field and raising it sufficiently, the final embedding of the corresponding D7-brane changes to a Minkowski embedding. On the field theory side, this means that the mesons which melt due to the raise in the temperature will form bound states again by applying an external magnetic field. We also show that the evolution of the system to its final equilibrium state is postponed due to the presence of the magnetic field.

  18. Time-Dependent Meson Melting in External Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    M. Ali-Akbari; F. Charmchi; A. Davody; H. Ebrahim; L. Shahkarami

    2015-03-15

    The dynamics of a probe D7-brane in an asymptotically AdS-Vaidya background has been investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field. Holographically, this is dual to the dynamical meson melting in the N = 2 super Yang-Milles theory. If the final temperature of the system is large enough, the probe D7-brane will dynamically cross the horizon (black hole embedding). By turning on the external magnetic field and raising it sufficiently, the final embedding of the corresponding D7-brane changes to Minkowski embedding. In the field theory side, this means that the mesons which melt due to the raise in the temperature, will form bound states again by applying an external magnetic field. We will also show that the evolution of the system to its final equilibrium state is postponed due to the presence of the magnetic field.

  19. High latitude solar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Kitt Peak magnetograms are used to measure polar magnetic fields. The polar mean absolute field increases at the same time as the polar mean field decreases. That is, the polar mean absolute field varies in phase with solar activity, in contrast to the out of phase variation of the mean polar field. It is found that the polar fields have a large bipolar component even at solar minimum, with a magnitude equal to that found at low latitudes outside the active latitude bands.

  20. High magnetic fields in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Laurence J.; Parkin, Don E.; Crow, Jack E.; Schneider-Muntau, Hans J.; Sullivan, Neil S.

    During the past thirty years research using high magnetic fields has technically evolved in the manner, but not the magnitude, of the so-called big science areas of particle physics, plasma physics, neutron scattering, synchrotron light scattering, and astronomy. Starting from the laboratories of individual researchers it moved to a few larger universities, then to centralized national facilities with research and maintenance staffs, and, finally, to joint international ventures to build unique facilities, as illustrated by the subject of this conference. To better understand the nature of this type of research and its societal justification it is helpful to compare it, in general terms, with the aforementioned big-science fields. High magnetic field research differs from particle physics, plasma physics, and astronomy in three respects: (1) it is generic research that cuts across a wide range of scientific disciplines in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering; (2) it studies materials and processes that are relevant for a variety of technological applications and it gives insight into biological processes; (3) it has produced, at least, comparably significant results with incomparably smaller resources. Unlike neutron and synchrotron light scattering, which probe matter, high magnetic fields change the thermodynamic state of matter. This change of state is fundamental and independent of other state variables, such as pressure and temperature. After the magnetic field is applied, various techniques are then used to study the new state.

  1. Magnetic and Electric Field Diagnostic for High Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Cellamare, V.; Mattick, A. T.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2000-10-01

    A Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic has been developed for precise (<= 15 G), high resolution (1 cm, 1 MHz) measurements of magnetic fields in plasmas, and has been used to determine the internal field in the Helicity Injected Torus where T <= 80 eV.( T.R. Jarboe, M.A. Bohnet, A.T. Mattick, B.A. Nelson, and D.J. Orvis, ``Results from current drive on the Helicity Injected Torus,'' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998) ) The basis of measurement is the rotation of polarization of laser light by a magneto-optic probe launched through the plasma at ~ 2 km/sec. In order to survive and provide useful information in higher temperature plasmas, the probe must be protected by a refractory cladding. This paper discusses design of a TIP probe clad with sapphire, and presents results of measurements of B-fields using a clad probe traversing a static magnetic field at 2 km/sec. Unlike previous designs, the probe utilizes ``catseye'' optics to retroreflect the illuminating laser beam back to an ellipsometer for polarization analysis. The design incorporates an MgO lens to eliminate polarization effects, and is expected to be capable of measuring B-fields over a ~ 1/2 meter chord in plasmas with temperatures up to 300 eV. Design and preliminary tests of an electro-optic probe for measuring plasma E-fields will also be discussed.

  2. MST probes for electromagnetic fields measurements for EMC applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Azaro; S. Caorsi

    2001-01-01

    The use of modulated scattering technique (MST) probes for electromagnetic fields measurements for some EMC applications is proposed. The main advantage deriving from the use of this measurement technique is related to the very limited perturbations introduced by a MST based field probe in the electromagnetic field under measurement. In the paper the theoretical basis of the MST is briefly

  3. Si nanowire probe with Nd–Fe–B magnet for attonewton-scale force detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yong-Jun; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a 210?nm-wide and 32?µm-long silicon nanowire probe with a silicon mirror using a silicon-on-insulator wafer in order to improve sensitivity of force detection for magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). Additionally, a Nd–Fe–B magnet has been integrated at the end of the nanowire. The fabricated nanowire probe shows a resonance frequency of 11.256?kHz and a factor of 12?800 after annealing at 800?°C for 2?h in forming gas. The probe exhibits attonewton sensitivity, and the measurement of force mapping based on electron spin resonance is demonstrated for 3D imaging of radicals. The detected force and magnetic field gradient are approximately 82?aN and ~70.1?G??m?1 at room temperature. The radical density is calculated as 4.6? × ?1018?spins?cm?3.

  4. Electron current to a probe in a magnetized, collisional plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charro, M.; Sanmartín, J. R.

    2000-06-01

    A collisional analysis of electron collection by a probe in a strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasma is carried out. A solution to the complete set of macroscopic equations with classical transport coefficients that is wholly consistent in the domain 1?R2/le?2?(mi/me)3/2 is determined; R and le? are probe radius and electron gyroradius, respectively. If R2/le?2 is large compared with mi/3me (probe large compared with ion gyroradius), ion-electron energy exchange—rather than electron heat diffusion—keeps electrons isothermal. For smaller probes at negative bias, however, electron cooling occurs in the plasma beyond the sheath, with a potential overshoot lying well away from it. The probe characteristic in the electron-retarding range may then mimic the characteristic for a two electron-temperature plasma and lead to an overestimate of electron temperature; the validity of these results for other transport models is discussed.

  5. A magnetically driven reciprocating probe for tokamak scrape-off layer measurements.

    PubMed

    Gunn, J P; Pascal, J-Y

    2011-12-01

    A new in situ reciprocating probe system has been developed to provide scrape-off layer measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak. The probe motion is provided by the rotation of an energized coil in the tokamak magnetic field. Simple analytic approximations to the exact numerical model were used to identify the important parameters that govern the dynamics of the system, and optimize the coil geometry, the electrical circuit, and the stiffness of the retaining spring. The linear speed of the probe is directly proportional to the current induced by the coil's rotation; its integral gives the coil position, providing a means to implement real-time feedback control of the probe motion. Two probes were recently mounted on a movable outboard antenna protection limiter in Tore Supra and provided automatic measurements during the 2011 experimental campaign. PMID:22225216

  6. An analysis and optimization of elliptical RF probes used in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Lawrence K.; Crozier, Stuart; Doddrell, David M.

    1996-09-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging of the entire body, it is often desirable to use an elliptical RF probe, rather than a circular one. As an ellipse more closely conforms to the anatomical cross section of the human thorax and head, better filling factors and therefore improved signal-to-noise ratios may be achieved by the use of elliptical RF coils. The probe is usually of bird-cage type, but the rungs are of finite width due to the high-frequency signals involved. This paper presents a method for computing the magnetic fields produced inside elliptical probes, and the current distributions on the rungs. A slotted shield is assumed to surround the probe, and its influence on field homogeneity is studied. In particular, the currents in a 16-runged unshielded elliptical coil of practical interest were determined optimally in one case, using simulated annealing to optimize the homogeneity of the magnetic field within the probe. The effects of a segmented shield of both elliptical and circular cross section on this coil are discussed, and the results are confirmed by experiment.

  7. Analysis of the Distribution of Magnetic Fluid inside Tumors by a Giant Magnetoresistance Probe

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Kurnicki, Adam; Yamada, Sotoshi; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas C.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy uses the magnetic component of electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency spectrum to couple energy to magnetic nanoparticles inside tumors. In MFH therapy, magnetic fluid is injected into tumors and an alternating current (AC) magnetic flux is applied to heat the magnetic fluid- filled tumor. If the temperature can be maintained at the therapeutic threshold of 42°C for 30 minutes or more, the tumor cells can be destroyed. Analyzing the distribution of the magnetic fluid injected into tumors prior to the heating step in MFH therapy is an essential criterion for homogenous heating of tumors, since a decision can then be taken on the strength and localization of the applied external AC magnetic flux density needed to destroy the tumor without affecting healthy cells. This paper proposes a methodology for analyzing the distribution of magnetic fluid in a tumor by a specifically designed giant magnetoresistance (GMR) probe prior to MFH heat treatment. Experimental results analyzing the distribution of magnetic fluid suggest that different magnetic fluid weight densities could be estimated inside a single tumor by the GMR probe. PMID:24312280

  8. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  9. Low-magnetic-field magnetars

    E-print Network

    Turolla, R

    2013-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars are the observational manifestations of magnetars, i.e. sources powered by their own magnetic energy. This view was supported by the fact that these `magnetar candidates' exhibited, without exception, a surface dipole magnetic field (as inferred from the spin-down rate) in excess of the electron critical field (~4.4E+13 G). The recent discovery of fully-qualified magnetars, SGR 0418+5729 and Swift J1822.3-1606, with dipole magnetic field well in the range of ordinary radio pulsars posed a challenge to the standard picture, showing that a very strong field is not necessary for the onset of magnetar activity (chiefly bursts and outbursts). Here we summarize the observational status of the low-magnetic-field magnetars and discuss their properties in the context of the mainstream magnetar model and its main alternatives.

  10. Low-Magnetic-Field Magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turolla, Roberto; Esposito, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars are the observational manifestations of magnetars, i.e. sources powered by their own magnetic energy. This view was supported by the fact that these "magnetar candidates" exhibited, without exception, a surface dipole magnetic field (as inferred from the spin-down rate) in excess of the electron critical field (? 4.4×1013 G). The recent discovery of fully qualified magnetars, SGR 0418+5729 and Swift J1822.3-1606, with dipole magnetic field well in the range of ordinary radio pulsars posed a challenge to the standard picture, showing that a very strong field is not necessary for the onset of magnetar activity (chiefly bursts and outbursts). Here we summarize the observational status of the low-magnetic-field magnetars and discuss their properties in the context of the mainstream magnetar model and its main alternatives.

  11. Primordial Magnetic Fields in Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Iain A. Brown

    2008-12-09

    Magnetic fields have been observed in galaxies, clusters of galaxies and probably in superclusters. While mechanisms exist to generate these in the late universe, it is possible that magnetic fields have existed since very early times. This thesis is concerned with methods to predict the form of such imprints. We review in detail a standard, linearised cosmology before introducing an electromagnetic field. We then consider the intrinsic statistics of the magnetic stresses in two ways, analytically and via static realisations. We construct the power spectra, some of which we present for the first time. At the one- and three-point level we find significant intrinsic non-Gaussianities. Finally we turn to the observable impacts a primordial magnetic field. Assuming coherence, the statistics of the source can be mapped onto the CMB in a simple manner. We demonstrate that our approach is valid by reproducing the signals for Gaussian power law fields on the microwave sky. [ABRIDGED

  12. Demonstration of current drive by a rotating magnetic dipole field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giersch, L.; Slough, J. T.; Winglee, R.

    2007-04-01

    Abstract.A dipole-like rotating magnetic field was produced by a pair of circular, orthogonal coils inside a metal vacuum chamber. When these coils were immersed in plasma, large currents were driven outside the coils: the currents in the plasma were generated and sustained by the rotating magnetic dipole (RMD) field. The peak RMD-driven current was at roughly two RMD coil radii, and this current (60 kA m-) was sufficient to reverse the ambient magnetic field (33 G). Plasma density, electron temperature, magnetic field and current probes indicated that plasma formed inside the coils, then expanded outward until the plasma reached equilibrium. This equilibrium configuration was adequately described by single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium, wherein the cross product of the driven current and magnetic filed was approximately equal to the pressure gradient. The ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure, ?, was locally greater than unity.

  13. Monitoring and Diagnosis for the DC–DC Converter Using the Magnetic Near Field Waveform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Chen; Xuejun Pei; Songsong Nie; Yong Kang

    2011-01-01

    A new diagnostic method for the dc-dc converter, which utilizes the magnetic near field as the diagnostic criterion, is proposed in this paper. The magnetic near field of the con- verter is captured using a loop magnetic near field probe. The frequency information in the measured waveform is extracted by the fast Fourier transfer; the interested low-order harmonic com- ponents

  14. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yang; Zou, Sheng

    2014-06-01

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz(1/2), which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield. PMID:24985800

  15. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtaowt@aspe.buaa.edu.cn; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Li, Yang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng [School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield.

  16. Magnetic field in holographic superconductor with dark matter sector

    E-print Network

    L. Nakonieczny; M. Rogatko; K. I. Wysokinski

    2015-02-09

    Based on the analytical technique the effect of the static magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductor with dark matter sector of U(1)-gauge field type coupled to the Maxwell field has been examined. In the probe limit, we obtained the mean value of the condensation operator. The nature of the condensate in an external magnetic field as well as the behaviour of the critical field close to the transition temperature has been revealed. The obtained upturn of the critical field curves as a function of temperature, both in four and five spacetime dimensions, is a fingerprint of the strong coupling approach.

  17. Tracing ultrafast dynamics of strong fields at plasma-vacuum interfaces with longitudinal proton probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Koschitzki, Ch.; Andreev, A. A.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.; Schnürer, M.

    2014-07-01

    If regions of localized strong fields at plasma-vacuum interfaces are probed longitudinally with laser accelerated proton beams their velocity distribution changes sensitively and very fast. Its measured variations provide indirectly a higher temporal resolution as deduced from deflection geometries which rely on the explicit temporal resolution of the proton beam at the position of the object to probe. With help of reasonable models and comparative measurements changes of proton velocity can trace the field dynamics even at femtosecond time scale. In longitudinal probing, the very low longitudinal emittance together with a broad band kinetic energy distribution of laser accelerated protons is the essential prerequisite of the method. With a combination of energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution, we resolve fast field changes down to 100 fs. The used pump probe setup extends previous schemes and allows discriminating simultaneously between electric and magnetic fields in their temporal evolution.

  18. Ion beam probing of electrostatic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, H.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of a cylindrically symmetric, time-independent electrostatic potential V in a magnetic field B with the same symmetry by measurements of the deflection of a primary beam of ions is analyzed and substantiated by examples. Special attention is given to the requirements on canonical angular momentum and total energy set by an arbitrary, nonmonotone V, to scaling laws obtained by normalization, and to the analogy with ionospheric sounding. The inversion procedure with the Abel analysis of an equivalent problem with a one-dimensional fictitious potential is used in a numerical experiment with application to the NASA Lewis Modified Penning Discharge. The determination of V from a study of secondary beams of ions with increased charge produced by hot plasma electrons is also analyzed, both from a general point of view and with application to the NASA Lewis SUMMA experiment. Simple formulas and geometrical constructions are given for the minimum energy necessary to reach the axis, the whole plasma, and any point in the magnetic field. The common, simplifying assumption that V is a small perturbation is critically and constructively analyzed; an iteration scheme for successively correcting the orbits and points of ionization for the electrostatic potential is suggested.

  19. Internal probe array for the measurement of radial electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreason, Samuel P.; Slough, John T.

    2004-10-01

    A multipoint radial electric field probe, paired with a Langmuir triple probe has been operated on a RF sustained field reversed configuration. Langmuir probe measurements confirm the approximation that Te(r)˜constant, allowing for simpler interpretation of the floating potential, and the probe array was implemented with nonemissive, floating probes. Due to the large antenna potentials (multi-kilovolts), the electric field probe was designed taking advantage of the development of inexpensive, multichannel, portable digital storage oscilloscopes. This also made it possible to operate the internal plasma diagnostic with a minimum of electrical design work and fewer calibration issues. The diagnostic was electrically isolated (floated) separate from experiment ground, and has been used to measure transient electric fields as large as 2.5 kV/m.

  20. Investigating Magnetic Force Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daryl ("Tish") Monjeau, Bancroft Elementary School, Minneapolis, MN

    2012-03-18

    In this classroom activity, the students will investigate the magnetic pull of a bar magnet at varying distances with the use of paper clips. Students will hypothesize, conduct the experiment, collect the data, and draw conclusions that support their data. Each student will record the experiment and their findings in their science journals. As a class, students will compare each groups' data and their interpretation of the results.

  1. Magnetic field properties of the ISABELLE Project superconducting dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, H.G.; Engelmann, R.; Herrera, J.; Jaeger, K.; Robins, K.; Willen, E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of prototype superconducting dipole magnets have been constructed and tested as part of the ISABELLE Project research and development program. Results of magnetic field measurements are presented with emphasis placed on the DC and AC components of the main field. Magnetization and the effects of the magnetic fields at the ends of the magnet are displayed.

  2. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  3. Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Novotny; D. W. Pohl; B. Hecht

    1995-01-01

    A novel light-emitting probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy is investigated theoretically. The three- dimensional vectorial Helmholtz equation is solved for the new probe geometry by using the multiple multipole method. The novel probe consists of a dielectric tip that is entirely metal coated. It provides a single near-field spot that can be smaller than 20 nm (FWHM). The dependence

  4. A Review of Maser Polarization and Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    W. H. T. Vlemmings

    2007-05-07

    Through polarization observations masers are unique probes of the magnetic field in a variety of different astronomical objects, with the different maser species tracing different physical conditions. In recent years maser polarization observations have provided insights in the magnetic field strength and morphology in, among others, the envelopes around evolved stars, Planetary Nebulae (PNe), massive star forming regions and supernova remnants. More recently, maser observations have even been used to determine the magnetic field in megamaser galaxies. This review will present an overview of maser polarization observations and magnetic field determinations of the last several years and discuss the implications of the magnetic field measurements for several important fields of study, such as aspherical PNe creation and massive star formation.

  5. Vortex telegraph noise in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shung, E.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Coppersmith, S.N. [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1997-11-01

    We cool untwinned single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} with columnar defects down to liquid-He temperatures and study the development of pinning in the strongly interacting Bose glass with local Hall-probe magnetometry. We are able to resolve discrete fluctuations in the local vortex density resulting from reconfigurations of the vortex assembly between metastable states nearby in energy. By varying the applied magnetic field, and therefore the mean vortex density, we gain microscopic information about vortex-vortex interactions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Precision absolute measurements of strong and highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Honig, A; Moroz, M

    1978-02-01

    The low-temperature ([similar or less than]4 K) dependence of the photoconductance in n-type silicon on the conduction electron and bound donor electron spin state serves as the basis of a high-precision, wide-range magnetic field measuring probe, which by virtue of its very small dimensions is well suited for spatial mapping of highly inhomogeneous fields produced by superconducting magnets. The probe may also be adapted to power and frequency measurement of microwave sources operating at approximately mW power levels and frequencies up to approximately 500 GHz. PMID:18699056

  7. Probing axions with radiation from magnetic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Dong; Heyl, Jeremy [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    Recent experiments suggest that polarized photons may couple significantly to pseudoscalar particles such as axions. We study the possible observational signatures of axion-photon coupling for radiation from magnetic stars, with particular focus on neutron stars. We present general methods for calculating the axion-photon conversion probability during propagation through a varying magnetized vacuum as well as across an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Partial axion-photon conversion may take place in the vacuum region outside the neutron star. Strong axion-photon mixing occurs due to a resonance in the atmosphere and, depending on the axion coupling strength and other parameters, significant axion-photon conversion can take place at the resonance. Such conversions may produce observable effects on the radiation spectra and polarization signals from the star. We also apply our results to axion-photon propagation in the Sun and in magnetic white dwarfs. We find that there is no appreciable conversion of solar axions to photons during the propagation.

  8. The magnetic field of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft encountered Mercury three times in 1974-1975. The first and third encounters provided detailed observations of a well-developed detached bow shock wave which results from the interaction of the solar wind. The planet possesses a global magnetic field and a modest magnetosphere, which deflects the solar wind. The field is approximately dipolar, with orientation in the same sense as earth, tilted 12 deg from the rotation axis. The magnetic moment corresponds to an undistorted equatorial field intensity of 350 gammas, approximately 1% of earth's. The field, while unequivocally intrinsic to the planet, may be due to remanent magnetization acquired from an extinct dynamo or a primordial magnetic field or due to a presently active dynamo. The latter possibility appears more plausible at present. In any case, the existence of the magnetic field provides very strong evidence of a mature differentiated planetary interior with a large core (core radius about 0.7 Mercury radius) and a record of the history of planetary formation in the magnetization of the crustal rocks.

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; Mak–Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (?w) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (?e/?l), being ?660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (?5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanisms—the Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in ?w and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments. PMID:18266416

  10. Probing Gravitational Sensitivity in Biological Systems Using Magnetic Body Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Wurzel, Sam; Mihalusova, Mariana; Valles, Jim

    2003-01-01

    At Brown University, we are developing the use of magnetic body forces as a means to simulate variable gravity body forces on biological systems. This tool promises new means to probe gravi-sensing and the gravi-response of biological systems. It also has the potential as a technique for screening future systems for space flight experiments.

  11. Primordial Magnetic Fields and Causality

    E-print Network

    Ruth Durrer; Chiara Caprini

    2003-10-29

    We discuss the implications of causality on a primordial magnetic field. We show that the residual field on large scales is much more suppressed than usually assumed and that a helical component is even more reduced. Due to this strong suppression, even maximal primordial fields generated at the electroweak phase transition can just marginally seed the fields in clusters, but they cannot leave any detectable imprint on the cosmic microwave background.

  12. X-Ray Detected Magnetic Resonance: A Unique Probe of the Precession Dynamics of Orbital Magnetization Components

    PubMed Central

    Goulon, Jo?e; Rogalev, Andrei; Goujon, Gérard; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Ben Youssef, Jamal; Gros, Claude; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Guilard, Roger

    2011-01-01

    X-ray Detected Magnetic Resonance (XDMR) is a novel spectroscopy in which X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) is used to probe the resonant precession of local magnetization components in a strong microwave pump field. We review the conceptual bases of XDMR and recast them in the general framework of the linear and nonlinear theories of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Emphasis is laid on the information content of XDMR spectra which offer a unique opportunity to disentangle the precession dynamics of spin and orbital magnetization components at given absorbing sites. For the sake of illustration, we focus on selected examples in which marked differences were found between FMR and XDMR spectra simultaneously recorded on ferrimagnetically ordered iron garnets. With pumping capabilities extended up to sub-THz frequencies, high-field XDMR should allow us to probe the precession of orbital magnetization components in paramagnetic organometallic complexes with large zero-field splitting. Even more challenging, we suggest that XDMR spectra might be recorded on selected antiferromagnetic crystals for which orbital magnetism is most often ignored in the absence of any supporting experimental evidence. PMID:22272105

  13. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra, E-mail: bidhanchandra.bag@visva-bharati.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  14. Analytical Methods for Characterizing Magnetic Resonance Probes

    PubMed Central

    Manus, Lisa M.; Strauch, Renee C.; Hung, Andy H.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The efficiency of Gd(III) contrast agents in magnetic resonance image enhancement is governed by a set of tunable structural parameters. Understanding and measuring these parameters requires specific analytical techniques. This Feature describes strategies to optimize each of the critical Gd(III) relaxation parameters for molecular imaging applications and the methods employed for their evaluation. PMID:22624599

  15. Damping of cosmic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Katalinic, V.; Olinto, A.V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    We examine the evolution of magnetic fields in an expanding fluid composed of matter and radiation with particular interest in the evolution of cosmic magnetic fields. We derive the propagation velocities and damping rates for relativistic and non-relativistic fast and slow magnetosonic and Alfv{acute e}n waves in the presence of viscous and heat conducting processes. The analysis covers all magnetohydrodynamics modes in the radiation diffusion and the free-streaming regimes. When our results are applied to the evolution of magnetic fields in the early universe, we find that cosmic magnetic fields are damped from prior to the epoch of neutrino decoupling up to recombination. Similar to the case of sound waves propagating in a demagnetized plasma, fast magnetosonic waves are damped by radiation diffusion on all scales smaller than the radiation diffusion length. The characteristic damping scales are the horizon scale at neutrino decoupling (M{sub {nu}}{approx}10{sup {minus}4}M{sub {circle_dot}} in baryons) and the Silk mass at recombination (M{sub {gamma}}{approx}10{sup 13}M{sub {circle_dot}} in baryons). In contrast, the oscillations of slow magnetosonic and Alfv{acute e}n waves get overdamped in the radiation diffusion regime, resulting in frozen-in magnetic field perturbations. Further damping of these perturbations is possible only if before recombination the wave enters a regime in which radiation free-streams on the scale of the perturbation. The maximum damping scale of slow magnetosonic and Alfv{acute e}n modes is always smaller than or equal to the damping scale of fast magnetosonic waves, and depends on the magnetic field strength and its direction relative to the wave vector. Our findings have multifold implications for cosmology. The dissipation of magnetic field energy into heat during the epoch of neutrino decoupling ensures that most magnetic field configurations generated in the very early universe satisfy big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. Further dissipation before recombination constrains models in which primordial magnetic fields give rise to galactic magnetic fields or density perturbations. Finally, the survival of Alfv{acute e}n and slow magnetosonic modes on scales well below the Silk mass may be of significance for the formation of structure on small scales. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Safety concerns related to magnetic field exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda K. Andriola Silva; Érica L. Silva; E. Sócrates T. Egito; Artur S. Carriço

    2006-01-01

    The recent development of superconducting magnets has resulted in a huge increase in human exposure to very large static magnetic fields of up to several teslas (T). Considering the rapid advances in applications and the great increases in the strength of magnetic fields used, especially in magnetic resonance imaging, safety concerns about magnetic field exposure have become a key issue.

  17. Electric and magnetic field exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Sussman

    1988-01-01

    The possible health hazards of low-level, power line frequency (50\\/60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields are considered. The historical background to this concern is briefly discussed. The types of studies being carried out and the results so far are summarized. It is concluded that while the scientific evidence on field effects is inconclusive, inferences of health effects justify further evaluation

  18. Magnetic fields and coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Maxson, C.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.; Serio, S.

    1980-01-01

    General considerations concerning the scaling properties of magnetic-field-related coronal heating mechanisms are used to build a two-parameter model for the heating of closed coronal regions. The model predicts the way in which coronal temperature and electron density are related to photospheric magnetic field strength and the size of the region, using the additional constraint provided by the scaling law of Rosner, Tucker, and Vaiana. The model duplicates the observed scaling of total thermal energy content with total longitudinal flux; it also predicts a relation between the coronal energy density (or pressure) and the longitudinal field strength modified by the region scale size.

  19. Magnetic fields in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Daniele

    2013-09-01

    This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

  20. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

    2004-10-03

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

  1. Probing magnetization dynamics of strongly interacting magnetic nanoparticles through magnetoresistive current noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Nurit; Markovich, Gil

    2010-12-01

    The dependence of tunnelling current fluctuations on temperature and magnetic field was studied in an organically capped magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystal (NC) array deposited between 30 nm spaced gold electrodes. Low-frequency Lorentzian (random telegraph) noise was observed around the magnetization freezing temperature due to magnetic moment switching of the NCs under zero magnetic fields, diminishing with a saturating magnetic field. The temperature dependence of current fluctuations followed the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility. This work offers a new tool for locally studying collective magnetization dynamics in strongly interacting magnetic NC arrays.

  2. Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy omega approximately 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m(a) less, similar10(-4) eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10(4) cm(2), pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10(-11) GeV-1, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits. PMID:17155238

  3. Magnetic shielding by soft magnetic materials in alternating magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Okazaki; Kiyoshi Ueno

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic shielding effect of an alternating field up to 20 kHz was examined in 3% Si steel sheets and amorphous ribbons. Not only the permeability but also the domain configuration was found to affect the shielding effects. The annealed Fe-based amorphous shield without field showed exceedingly high shielding effectiveness for higher frequencies.

  4. Theorem on magnet fringe field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Wei; R. Talman

    1995-01-01

    Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b{sub n}) and skew (a{sub n}) multipoles, B{sub y} + iBâ = â(b{sub n} + ia{sub n})(x + iy)ⁿ, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the

  5. Observations of Mercury's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

  6. Tunneling in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NanoCenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78000 Mexico

    2006-05-15

    Quantum tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field is very sensitive to an analytical form of the potential barrier. Depending on that, the oscillatory structure of the modulus of the wave function can be formed in the direction of tunneling. Due to an underbarrier interference, the probability of tunneling through a higher barrier can be larger than through a lower one. For some barriers the quantum interference of underbarrier cyclotron paths results in a strong enhancement of tunneling. This occurs in the vicinity of the certain magnetic field and is referred to as Euclidean resonance. This strongly contrasts to the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin type tunneling which occurs with no magnetic field.

  7. Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Harald Lesch; Masashi Chiba

    1994-11-17

    We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields ($\\ge 1 \\mu$G) in high redshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving protogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic seed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and incorporated into a spherical "top-hat" model and tidal torque theory for the fate of a forming galaxy in an expanding universe. Very weak fields $10^{-19} \\sim 10^{-23}$G created in an expanding over-dense region are strongly enhanced due to the dissipative disk formation by a factor $\\sim 10^4$, and subsequently amplified by strong non-axisymmetric flow by a factor $\\sim 10^{6-10}$, depending on the cosmological parameters and the epoch of galaxy formation. The resulting field strength at $z \\sim 0.395$ can be of the order of a few $\\mu$G and be close to this value at $z \\sim 2$.

  8. Magnetic Forces and Field Line Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about depicting the relative strength of magnetic fields using field line density. Learners will use the magnetic field line drawing of six magnetic poles created in a previous activity and identify the areas of strong, weak, and medium magnetic intensity using the density of magnetic field lines. This is the fifth activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. How to Draw Magnetic Fields - II in the Magnetic Math booklet must be completed prior to this activity.

  9. Simulations of magnetic fields in filaments

    E-print Network

    M. Bruggen; M. Ruszkowski; A. Simionescu; M. Hoeft; C. Dalla Vecchia

    2005-08-10

    The intergalactic magnetic field within filaments should be less polluted by magnetised outflows from active galaxies than magnetic fields in clusters. Therefore, filaments may be a better laboratory to study magnetic field amplification by structure formation than galaxy clusters which typically host many more active galaxies. We present highly resolved cosmological AMR simulations of magnetic fields in the cosmos and make predictions about the evolution and structure of magnetic fields in filaments. Comparing our results to observational evidence for magnetic fields in filaments suggests that amplification of seed fields by gravitational collapse is not sufficient to produce IGM fields. Finally, implications for cosmic ray transport are discussed.

  10. Origin of primordial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    Magnetic fields of intensities similar to those in our galaxy are also observed in high redshift galaxies, where a mean field dynamo would not have had time to produce them. Therefore, a primordial origin is indicated. It has been suggested that magnetic fields were created at various primordial eras: during inflation, the electroweak phase transition, the quark-hadron phase transition (QHPT), during the formation of the first objects, and during reionization. We suggest here that the large-scale fields {approx}{mu}G, observed in galaxies at both high and low redshifts by Faraday rotation measurements (FRMs), have their origin in the electromagnetic fluctuations that naturally occurred in the dense hot plasma that existed just after the QHPT. We evolve the predicted fields to the present time. The size of the region containing a coherent magnetic field increased due to the fusion of smaller regions. Magnetic fields (MFs) {approx}10 {mu}G over a comoving {approx}1 pc region are predicted at redshift z{approx}10. These fields are orders of magnitude greater than those predicted in previous scenarios for creating primordial magnetic fields. Line-of-sight average MFs {approx}10{sup -2} {mu}G, valid for FRMs, are obtained over a 1 Mpc comoving region at the redshift z{approx}10. In the collapse to a galaxy (comoving size {approx}30 kpc) at z{approx}10, the fields are amplified to {approx}10 {mu}G. This indicates that the MFs created immediately after the QHPT (10{sup -4} s), predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, could be the origin of the {approx}{mu}G fields observed by FRMs in galaxies at both high and low redshifts. Our predicted MFs are shown to be consistent with present observations. We discuss the possibility that the predicted MFs could cause non-negligible deflections of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and help create the observed isotropic distribution of their incoming directions. We also discuss the importance of the volume average magnetic field predicted by our model in producing the first stars and in reionizing the Universe.

  11. Magnetic field tomography, helical magnetic fields and Faraday depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horellou, C.; Fletcher, A.

    2014-07-01

    Wide-band radio polarization observations offer the possibility to recover information about the magnetic fields in synchrotron sources, such as details of their three-dimensional configuration, that has previously been inaccessible. The key physical process involved is the Faraday rotation of the polarized emission in the source (and elsewhere along the wave's propagation path to the observer). In order to proceed, reliable methods are required for inverting the signals observed in wavelength space into useful data in Faraday space, with robust estimates of their uncertainty. In this paper, we examine how variations of the intrinsic angle of polarized emission ?0 with the Faraday depth ? within a source affect the observable quantities. Using simple models for the Faraday dispersion F(?) and ?0(?), along with the current and planned properties of the main radio interferometers, we demonstrate how degeneracies among the parameters describing the magneto-ionic medium can be minimized by combining observations in different wavebands. We also discuss how depolarization by Faraday dispersion due to a random component of the magnetic field attenuates the variations in the spectral energy distribution of the polarization and shifts its peak towards shorter wavelengths. This additional effect reduces the prospect of recovering the characteristics of the magnetic field helicity in magneto-ionic media dominated by the turbulent component of the magnetic field.

  12. Lower hybrid plasma heating in a magnetic-mirror field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapozo, C. Da C.; de Assis, A. S.; Serbeto, A.; Carneiro, L. T.

    1992-05-01

    Langmuir and magnetic probes and a Faraday cup are used to study plasma heating by radio frequency waves (RF) in the lower hybrid frequency range using a LISA mirror magnetic-field device. It is shown that, in the LISA device, the RF wave of 28 MHz is absorbed because of the lower hybrid resonance. The RF energy is thermalized very close to the resonance layer due to Landau and collisional damping. As a result, a clear plasma potential drop is identified.

  13. Reduced MHD in Nearly Potential Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Hank

    Reduced MHD in Nearly Potential Magnetic Fields H.R. Strauss Courant Institute of Mathematical that the magnetic field is close to a potential field. The potential field can have an arbitrary three dimensional of equations have essentially the same structure. The main time dependent variables are the magnetic field

  14. Bosonic Casimir effect in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.; Negrão, M. R.; Tort, A. C.

    1999-06-01

    We compute the influence of an external magnetic field on the Casimir energy of a massive charged scalar field confined between two parallel infinite plates. For this case the obtained result shows that the magnetic field inhibits the Casimir effect.

  15. A silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor Hall bar for scanning Hall probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Saito, Hiromasa; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Miyajima, Hideki; Matsumoto, Satoru; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate successful operation of a scanning Hall probe microscope with a few micron-size resolution by using a silicon metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (Si-MOSFET) Hall bar, which is designed to improve not only the mechanical strength but also the temperature stability. The Si-MOSFET micro-Hall probe is cheaper than the current micro-Hall probes and is found to be as sensitive as a micro-Hall probe with GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure or an epitaxial InSb two-dimensional electron gas. This was used to magnetically image the surface of a Sm(2)Co(17) permanent magnet during the magnetization reversal process as a function of an external magnetic field below 1.5 T. This revealed firm evidence of the presence of the inverse magnetic seed as theoretically predicted earlier. Magnetically pinned centers, with a typical size 80 mum, are observed to persist even under a high magnetic field, clearly indicating the robustness of the Si Hall probe against the field application as well as the repetition of the measurement. PMID:19044353

  16. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N.R., Jr. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

  17. Dynamic Pressure Probes Developed for Supersonic Flow-Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    A series of dynamic flow-field pressure probes were developed for use in large-scale supersonic wind tunnels at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These flow-field probes include pitot and static pressure probes that can capture fast-acting flow-field pressure transients occurring on a millisecond timescale. The pitot and static probes can be used to determine local Mach number time histories during a transient event. The flow-field pressure probe contains four major components: 1) Static pressure aerodynamic tip; 2) Pressure-sensing cartridge assembly; 3) Pitot pressure aerodynamic tip; 4) Mounting stem. This modular design allows for a variety of probe tips to be used for a specific application. Here, the focus is on flow-field pressure measurements in supersonic flows, so we developed a cone-cylinder static pressure tip and a pitot pressure tip. Alternatively, probe tips optimized for subsonic and transonic flows could be used with this design. The pressure-sensing cartridge assembly allows the simultaneous measurement of steady-state and transient pressure which allows continuous calibration of the dynamic pressure transducer.

  18. Probing multiple magnetic transitions and phase coexistence in mixed phase manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, M. H.; Bingham, N. S.; Srikanth, H.; Zhang, C. L.; Cheong, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    La 5 / 8 - y Pr y Ca 3/8 Mn O3 (LPCMO) manganites exhibit a complex phase diagram due to coexisting and competing magnetic and electronic phases. A complete understanding of the origin of phase coexistence and separation in this system has remained elusive. To resolve this, it is essential to employ experimental methods that allow detailed investigations of the temperature and magnetic field response of the different phases. In this study we introduce magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and radio-frequency transverse susceptibility (TS) experiments as being ideally suited for this purpose. While MCE is generally considered in the community as an ``applied'' measurement tool to characterize magnetic refrigerant materials, we demonstrate that it is actually a very useful probe of magnetic transitions and ground state magnetic properties in LPCMO. TS experiments probe a phase conversion between the charge-ordered and ferromagnetic phases and magnetic field-induced kinetic arrest. Our studies provide an important understanding of the phase coexistence and separation in mixed phase systems like LPCMO.

  19. How to Draw Magnetic Fields - I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about depicting magnetic fields. Learners will observe two provided drawings of magnetic field line patterns for bar magnets in simple orientations of like and unlike polarities and carefully draw the field lines for both orientations. This is the third activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

  20. Measuring Magnetic Fields Near and Far with the SKA via the Zeeman Effect

    E-print Network

    Robishaw, Timothy; Surcis, Gabriele; Vlemmings, Wouter; Richards, A M S; Etoka, Sandra; Bourke, Tyler; Fish, Vincent; Gray, Malcolm; Imai, Hiroshi; Kramer, Busaba; McBride, James; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sarma, Anuj; Zijlstra, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of Zeeman splitting in spectral lines---both in emission and absorption---can provide direct estimates of the magnetic field strength and direction in atomic and molecular clouds, both in our own Milky Way and in external galaxies. This method will probe the magnetic field in the warm and cold neutral components of the interstellar medium, providing a complement to the extensive SKA Faraday studies planning to probe the field in the ionized components.

  1. Study of mechanisms for magnetic field diffusion into an expanding laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bessarab, A. V.; Bondarenko, G. A.; Dolgoleva, G. V.; Zhmailo, V. A.; Kunin, A. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Novikova, E. A.; Statsenko, V. P.; Sungatullin, R. R. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    The interaction of plasma clouds generated during laser irradiation of a spherical target in a background gas with a magnetic field was studied on the MKV-4 test bench of the Iskra-5 facility. The dynamics of the plasma cloud expansion in a 300- to 500-Oe magnetic field was investigated using magnetic and probe diagnostics. The results obtained are compared with calculations by different models of laser plasma diffusion in a magnetic field.

  2. Batch-fabrication of cantilevered magnets on attonewton-sensitivity mechanical oscillators for scanned-probe nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Steven A.; Moore, Eric W.; Lee, SangGap; Longenecker, Jonilyn G.; Wright, Sarah J.; Harrell, Lee E.; Marohn, John A.

    2015-01-01

    We have batch-fabricated cantilevers with ~100 nm diameter nickel nanorod tips and force sensitivities of a few attonewtons at 4.2 kelvin. The magnetic nanorods were engineered to overhang the leading edge of the cantilever and, consequently, the cantilevers experience what we believe is the lowest surface noise ever achieved in a scanned probe experiment. Cantilever magnetometry indicated that the tips were well magnetized, with a ? 20 nm dead layer; the composition of the dead layer was studied by electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In what we believe is the first demonstration of scanned probe detection of electron-spin resonance from a batch fabricated tip, the cantilevers were used to observe electron-spin resonance from nitroxide spin labels in a film via force-gradient-induced shifts in cantilever resonance frequency. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetic resonance signal suggests a non-uniform tip magnetization at an applied field near 0.6 T. PMID:21082863

  3. EXPLORER 10 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Heppner; N. F. Ness; C. S. Scearce; T. L. Skillman

    1963-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements made by means of Explorer 10 over geocentric ; distances of 1.8 to 42.6R\\/sub e\\/ on March 25experiment on the same satellite are ; referenced in interpretations. The close-in data are consistent with the ; existence of a very weak ring current below 3R\\/sub e\\/ along the trajectory, but ; alternative explanations for the field deviations are

  4. Internal Magnetic Field Measurements in STX Generated FRCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreason, Samuel; Miller, Ken; Slough, John

    1999-11-01

    The internal magnetic field probes installed in the STX experiment at the Redmond Plasma Physics laboratory are designed to provide a one dimensional internal magnetic field profile of a 25 eV 10^19 m-3 FRC. The probe consists of 24 1cm × 1mm 8 turn coils interconnected like a chain to provide information on the RMF field components. This probe can be swept through the vacuum chamber to provide field information for different points throughout the FRC. The coils themselves are made with one mil magnet wire (half mil insulation). Structural and thermal support for the field coils is provided by a 53 mil ID × 78 mil OD berylium oxide tube capped with a boron nitride tip. Berylium oxide is an insulator with good thermal diffusivity/ablation properties. Calculations and test results indicate minimal perturbations to the plasma caused by the probe. Information on the construction methods employed as well as physical and external electrical design will be presented along with representative experimental results. This work is funded by the USDOE. www.aa.washington.edu/AERP/RPPL

  5. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  6. Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Kim; J. W. Flamma; E. S. Ten Have; M. F. Garcia-Parajo; Hulst van N. F; J. Brugger

    2001-01-01

    The inexpensive fabrication of high-quality probes for near- field optical applications is still unsolved although several methods for integrated fabrication have been proposed in the past. A further drawback is the intensity loss of the transmitted light in the 'cut-off' region near the aperture in tapered optical fibres typically used as near-field probes. As a remedy for these limitations we

  7. Polymer dispersed liquid crystal fiber optic electric field probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrys M. Lacquet; Pieter L. Swart; Stephanus J. Spammer

    1997-01-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal inserted between two multimode optical fiber end faces forms the basis of an electric field probe. This probe has an active volume of about 0.001 mm3 and approximates a point measurement. The linear relation between detector output and electric field in the 600 V\\/cm to 800 V\\/cm range is adequate for most electric power distribution systems.

  8. Levin and Ernst, DC Magnetic Field Effects on Development Applied DC Magnetic Fields Cause Alterations in the

    E-print Network

    Levin, Michael

    Levin and Ernst, DC Magnetic Field Effects on Development Applied DC Magnetic Fields Cause urchin, static magnetic field, gastrulation, development, mitotic cycle, teratogenic effects running title: static Magnetic Field Effects on Development #12;Levin and Ernst, DC Magnetic Field Effects

  9. The incidence of magnetic fields in cool DZ white dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Hollands, Mark; Koester, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence of magnetic fields among the coolest white dwarfs. Their spectra usually do not exhibit any absorption lines as the bound-bound opacities of hydrogen and helium are vanishingly small. Probing these stars for the presence of magnetic fields is therefore extremely challenging. However, external pollution of a cool white dwarf by, e.g., planetary debris, leads to the appearance of metal lines in its spectral energy distribution. These lines provide a unique tool to identify and measure magnetism in the coolest and oldest white dwarfs in the Galaxy. We report the identification of 7 strongly metal polluted, cool (T_eff white dwarfs with magnetic field strengths ranging from 1.9 to 9.6 MG. An analysis of our larger magnitude-limited sample of cool DZ yields a lower limit on the magnetic incidence of 13+/-4 percent, noticeably much higher than among hot DA white dwarfs.

  10. The incidence of magnetic fields in cool DZ white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, M. A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the incidence of magnetic fields among the coolest white dwarfs. Their spectra usually do not exhibit any absorption lines as the bound-bound opacities of hydrogen and helium are vanishingly small. Probing these stars for the presence of magnetic fields is therefore extremely challenging. However, external pollution of a cool white dwarf by, e.g. planetary debris, leads to the appearance of metal lines in its spectral energy distribution. These lines provide a unique tool to identify and measure magnetism in the coolest and oldest white dwarfs in the Galaxy. We report the identification of seven strongly metal polluted, cool (Teff < 8000 K) white dwarfs with magnetic field strengths ranging from 1.9 to 9.6 MG. An analysis of our larger magnitude-limited sample of cool DZ yields a lower limit on the magnetic incidence of 13 ± 4 per cent, noticeably much higher than among hot DA white dwarfs.

  11. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  12. Circularly polarized Magnetic Field of Whistler Wave during Fast Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xiang; Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Bellan, Paul; Bellan Group Team

    2014-10-01

    Obliquely propagating whistler waves are expected to have circularly polarized magnetic components and to be associated with fast magnetic reconnection. In the Caltech plasma jet experiment, a current-carrying collimated jet is created from the merging of eight plasma-filled flux ropes. Fast magnetic reconnection occurs during the merging process. When the current- carrying jet undergoes fast kink instability, a lateral Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurs on the jet surface and induces another fast magnetic reconnection event. A capacitive coupling probe placed near the jet has measured fast electric field fluctuations at 15MHz which is in the whistler regime for this plasma. A 3D fast Bdot probe with good electrostatic rejection has been specifically designed to measure the 3D magnetic components of the whistler wave. Preliminary results have revealed a 3D 15 MHz magnetic fluctuation. Work is underway to increase the sensitivity of the induction probe and also to reduce electrostatic pickup. With the improved probe, the polarization property of the magnetic component of the whistler wave is expected to be resolved if it exists.

  13. Optical probe, local fields, and Lorentz factor in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, L. M.; Lazarev, V. V.; Palto, S. P.; Yudin, S. G.

    2014-06-01

    An optical probe is suggested that allows measurements of the local field and Lorentz factor ( L) in ferroelectric medium. The copolymer poly (vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) is mixed with Pd-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP-Pd) that has a very narrow absorption band. Thus, TPP-Pd serves as a molecular optical probe of the local field. During the switching of the electric field lower than the coercive one the factor L of an unpolarized ferroelectric mixture is found to be of about 1/3 that corresponds to the random distribution of molecular dipoles in the ferroelectric. With increasing field, the dipole orientation acquires a lower symmetry and L tends to zero as predicted by lattice sum calculations for vinylidene fluoride. The knowledge of the field dependence of L and the usage of the optical probe makes it possible to measure directly the local and macroscopic fields in the individual elements of various ferroelectric-dielectric heterostructures.

  14. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Marita

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At ?6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).

  15. An investigation of receiver probe development for magnetic resonance microscopy 

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Jeffrey Scott

    1995-01-01

    Much research in Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been directed toward the development of new hardware systems that can obtain high resolution images, typically on the order of tens of microns, for small field-of-views, ...

  16. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  17. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according as the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 G. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  18. Field induced anisotropic cooperativity in a magnetic colloidal glass

    E-print Network

    E Wandersman; Y Chushkin; E Dubois; V Dupuis; A Robert; R Perzynski

    2015-02-03

    The translational dynamics in a repulsive colloidal glass-former is probed by time-resolved X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. In this dense dispersion of charge-stabilized and magnetic nanoparticles, the interaction potential can be tuned, from quasi-isotropic to anisotropic by applying an external magnetic field. Structural and dynamical anisotropies are reported on interparticle lengthscales associated with highly anisotropic cooperativity, almost two orders of magnitude larger in the field direction than in the perpendicular direction and in zero field.

  19. Using ring-shaped and magnetically coated tungsten wire as the probe of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    E-print Network

    Lin, Minn-Tsong

    of the probe magnetization. To solve this problem, a method using magnetically soft material as STM probe to realize stable SP-STS experiment.5 However, the probe of soft magnetic material cannot be flashed be in attaining domain contrast. By coating the probe surface with different magnetic materials, SP-STM with out

  20. Magnetic Field Line Simulation Using a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a computer simulation of magnetic field lines. Discusses properties of magnetic fields and the calculation of magnetic fields at points. Provides a program listing (additional programs and teaching notes available from the author) and gives examples of several field plots. (JM)

  1. A new approach for highly accurate, remote temperature probing using magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jing; Liu, Wenzhong; Kong, Li; Morais, Paulo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report on a new approach for remote temperature probing that provides accuracy as good as 0.017°C (0.0055% accuracy) by measuring the magnetisation curve of magnetic nanoparticles. We included here the theoretical model construction and the inverse calculation method, and explored the impact caused by the temperature dependence of the saturation magnetisation and the applied magnetic field range. The reported results are of great significance in the establishment of safer protocols for the hyperthermia therapy and for the thermal assisted drug delivery technology. Likewise, our approach potentially impacts basic science as it provides a robust thermodynamic tool for noninvasive investigation of cell metabolism. PMID:25315470

  2. Development of internal magnetic probe for current density profile measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, J. W.; Jung, B. K.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    An internal magnetic probe using Hall sensors to measure a current density profile directly with perturbation of less than 10% to the plasma current is successfully operated for the first time in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). An appropriate Hall sensor is chosen to produce sufficient signals for VEST magnetic field while maintaining the small size of 10 mm in outer diameter. Temperature around the Hall sensor in a typical VEST plasma is regulated by blown air of 2 bars. First measurement of 60 kA VEST ohmic discharge shows a reasonable agreement with the total plasma current measured by Rogowski coil in VEST.

  3. Development of internal magnetic probe for current density profile measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Lee, J W; Jung, B K; Chung, K J; Hwang, Y S

    2014-11-01

    An internal magnetic probe using Hall sensors to measure a current density profile directly with perturbation of less than 10% to the plasma current is successfully operated for the first time in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). An appropriate Hall sensor is chosen to produce sufficient signals for VEST magnetic field while maintaining the small size of 10 mm in outer diameter. Temperature around the Hall sensor in a typical VEST plasma is regulated by blown air of 2 bars. First measurement of 60 kA VEST ohmic discharge shows a reasonable agreement with the total plasma current measured by Rogowski coil in VEST. PMID:25430222

  4. Behaviour of compact toroid injected into an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, M.; Fukumoto, N.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, T.; Uehara, K.; Niimi, H.; Shibata, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Miura, Y.; Kayukawa, N.; Uyama, T.; Kimura, H.; JFT-2M Group

    2001-11-01

    The interactions of a compact toroid (CT) plasma with an external magnetic field and a tokamak plasma have been studied experimentally on the FACT and JFT-2M devices. Fast framing camera and soft X ray emission profile measurements indicate shift and/or reflection motions of the CT plasma. New electrostatic probe measurements indicate that the CT plasma reaches at least up to the separatrix for discharges with toroidal field strengths of 1.0-1.4 T and that there exists a trailing plasma behind the CT. A large amplitude fluctuation on the ion saturation current and magnetic coil signals is observed. Power spectrum analysis suggests that this fluctuation is related to magnetic reconnection between the CT plasmoid and the toroidal field. The CT, including much of the trailing plasma, may be able to move across the external magnetic field more easily in the drift region of the injector owing to the Hall effect.

  5. The Link between Magnetic Fields and Cloud/Star Formation

    E-print Network

    Li, Hua-bai; Sridharan, T K; Houde, Martin; Li, Zhi-Yun; Novak, Giles; Tang, Kwok Sun

    2014-01-01

    The question whether magnetic fields play an important role in the processes of molecular cloud and star formation has been debated for decades. Recent observations have revealed a simple picture that may help illuminate these questions: magnetic fields have a tendency to preserve their orientation at all scales that have been probed - from 100-pc scale inter-cloud media down to sub-pc scale cloud cores. This ordered morphology has implications for the way in which self-gravity and turbulence interact with magnetic fields: both gravitational contraction and turbulent velocities should be anisotropic, due to the influence of dynamically important magnetic fields. Such anisotropy is now observed. Here we review these recent observations and discuss how they can improve our understanding of cloud/star formation.

  6. Cosmic microwave background trispectrum and primordial magnetic field limits.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pranjal; Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2012-06-01

    Primordial magnetic fields will generate non-gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as magnetic stresses and the temperature anisotropy they induce depend quadratically on the magnetic field. We compute a new measure of magnetic non-gaussianity, the CMB trispectrum, on large angular scales, sourced via the Sachs-Wolfe effect. The trispectra induced by magnetic energy density and by magnetic scalar anisotropic stress are found to have typical magnitudes of approximately a few times 10(-29) and 10(-19), respectively. Observational limits on CMB non-gaussianity from WMAP data allow us to conservatively set upper limits of a nG, and plausibly sub-nG, on the present value of the primordial cosmic magnetic field. This represents the tightest limit so far on the strength of primordial magnetic fields, on Mpc scales, and is better than limits from the CMB bispectrum and all modes in the CMB power spectrum. Thus, the CMB trispectrum is a new and more sensitive probe of primordial magnetic fields on large scales. PMID:23003943

  7. Effect of magnetic field on ball milled hard magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuncevahir, B.; Poudyal, N.; Chakka, V. M.; Chen, K. H.; Black, T. D.; Liu, T. D.

    2004-03-01

    In this investigation, the powder particles of NdFeB and SmCo based alloys prepared by the ball milling in a uniform magnetic field are compared to those milled without an applied magnetic field. The ball milling was carried out for a total of 100 hours, and the powders were sampled every 25 hours. The particle size after 100 hours of milling was around 100 nm and the grain size in the particles was below 20 nm. The particles were then aligned in a magnetic field in hardening epoxy. It was found that the remanence ratios of the samples milled in an applied magnetic field were remarkably higher than those milled without field. XRD patterns also showed that the powder milled in magnetic field has better alignment than those milled without magnetic field. This technique is a novel approach to preparing anisotropic magnetic nanoparticles and has potential for producing high energy-product nanocomposite permanent magnets.

  8. Cytoplasmic motions, rheology, and structure probed by a novel magnetic particle method

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The motions of magnetic particles contained within organelles of living cells were followed by measuring magnetic fields generated by the particles. The alignment of particles was sensed magnetometrically and was manipulated by external fields, allowing non-invasive detection of particle motion as well as examination of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity. Motility and rheology data are presented for pulmonary macrophages isolated from lungs of hamsters 1 d after the animals had breathed airborne gamma-Fe2O3 particles. The magnetic directions of particles within phagosomes and secondary lysosomes were aligned, and the weak magnetic field produced by the particles was recorded. For dead cells, this remanent field was constant, but for viable macrophages, the remanent field decreased rapidly so that only 42% of its initial magnitude remained 5 min after alignment. A twisting field was applied perpendicular to the direction of alignment and the rate at which particles reoriented to this new direction was followed. The same twisting was repeated for particles suspended in a series of viscosity standards. Based on this approach, the low-shear apparent intracellular viscosity was estimated to be 1.2-2.7 X 10(3) Pa.s (1.2-2.7 X 10(4) poise). Time-lapse video microscopy confirmed the alignment of ingested particles upon magnetization and showed persistent cellular motility during randomization of alignment. Cytochalasin D and low temperature both reduced cytoplasmic activity and remanent-field decay, but affected rheology differently. Magnetic particles were observed in association with the microtubule organizing center by immunofluorescence microscopy; magnetization did not affect microtubule distribution. However, both vimentin intermediate filaments and f-actin reorganized after magnetization. These data demonstrate that magnetometry of isolated phagocytic cells can probe organelle movements, rheology, and physical properties of the cytoskeleton in living cells. PMID:4040136

  9. B > 1 T low mass magnetic field sweep assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieu, F. J.; Caldwell, Charmane; Griffin, John; von Molnar, S.

    1997-04-01

    When making linear or nonlinear conductivity measurements it is often desirable to apply a high magnetic field locally to a sample. If the whole magnet assembly is integral to the sample probe, then, particularly when making low temperature measurements, a low total mass is desired. We have designed, modeled, and tested a variable magnetic field sweep unit suitable for use over a wide temperature range from cryogenic to ?200 °C which provides a sweepable uniform magnetic field over an air gap of 2 mm and spatial extent of 4 mm×4 mm. The unit consists of a magnet yoke structure with a mass of 18 g and a spur gear driven rotatable magnet to vary the gap field in a nearly sinusoidal manner as a function of the magnet rotation angle. In the present design, a 20 g SmCo magnet has been used which allows for low temperature operation to ?10 K, when attached to a cryogenic refrigerator cold finger. The shape of the magnetic yoke structure has been modeled and optimized using three-dimensional magnetic field software. The gap field uniformity can thus be modeled and tested experimentally. In a present working model the field for a 2 mm gap at room temperature B(?)=1.05?cos(?)(T) where ? is the magnet rotation angle. The field sweep amplitude at 19 K only increased by 3% over the 295 K value. With 0.25-mm-thick permunder pole tips, the field amplitude in a similar unit was increased to 1.20 T over a gap of 1.5 mm.

  10. Mapping magnetism with atomic resolution using aberrated electron probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Rusz, Ján; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we report a direct experimental real-space mapping of magnetic circular dichroism with atomic resolution in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an aberrated electron probe with customized phase distribution, we reveal with electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The aberrated probes allow the collection of EEL spectra using the transmitted beam, which results in a magnetic circular dichroic signal with intrinsically larger signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained via nanodiffraction techniques (where most of the transmitted electrons are discarded). The novel experimental setup presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution. This research was supported by DOE SUFD MSED, by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US DOE, and by the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (NSC center)

  11. DC Electric Field Measurement by the Double Probe System Aboard Geotail and its Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Y.; Hayakawa, H.; Ishisaka, K.; Okada, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Mukai, T.; Okada, M.

    2005-12-01

    We summarize the characteristics of the DC electric field measurement by the double probe system, PANT and EFD-P, aboard Geotail. The accuracy and correction factors for the gain (effective length) and off-set, which depends on ambient plasma conditions, are provided. Accurate measurements of electric fields are essential for space plasma studies, for example, plasma convection, wave-particle interactions, violation of MHD approximation, etc. One typical measurement techniques is the 'Double Probe method', identical to that of a voltmeter: the potential difference between two top-hat probes [cf. Pedersen et al., 1984]. This method can measure electric fields passively and continuously in all plasma conditions. However, the accuracy of the measured electric field values is limited. The probe measurement is also subjected to the variable gain (effective length) of the probe antenna and the artificial offset of the measured values. Those depend on a) the disturbance from ambient plasma and b) the disturbance from the spacecraft and the probe itself. In this paper, we show the results of the characteristics of DC electric field measurement by the PANT probe and the EFD-P (Electric Field Detector - Probe technique) receiver aboard Geotail [Tsuruda et al., 1994], in order to evaluate the accuracy, gain, and offset controlled by ambient plasmas. We conclude that the Geotail electric field measurement by the double probe system has the accuracy 0.4 mV/m for Ex and 0.3 mV/m for Ey, after the correction of the gain and offset. In better conditions, accuracy of Ey is 0.2 mV/m. The potential accuracy would be better because those values are limited by the accuracy of the particle measurement especially in low density conditions. In practical use, the corrections by long-term variation and spacecraft potential are effective to refine the electric field data. The characteristics of long-term variation and the dependences on ambient plasma are not fully understood well, yet. Further works will be needed based on the calibrated LEP data after 1998. It will also cover the conditions rejected in this paper, i.e., low density regions, potential controlled period, electric field quasi-parallel to magnetic field, etc. The comparison with EFD-B (EFD - Beam technique) data will also be included in order to reject the ambiguity in particle observations. In addition, we are trying to establish the numerical model of the double probe system for the full-quantitative understanding of the effect of potential structure and photoelectron distributions. Those will be the basis for planned experiments, BepiColombo to Mercury, ERG to the inner magnetosphere, and the multi-spacecraft magnetospheric mission SCOPE.

  12. The Magnetism of Meteorites and Early Solar System Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, D. W.

    1994-11-01

    The characteristics of the remanent magnetization of chondrite, achondrite and shergottite, nakhlite and chassignite (SNC) meteorites are described, and interpretation in terms of magnetizing fields in the ancient Solar System discussed. The magnetism of ordinary chondrites is commonly scattered in direction within samples, implying magnetization of constituent fragments before accumulation. The magnetic history of these meteorites is uncertain because of lack of knowledge of the origin and properties of tetrataenite, an ordered FeNi alloy often carrying the bulk of the magnetization. Achondrites also often possess scattered magnetization, the primary component probably being acquired during cooling after differentiation of the parent body. A magnetizing field of internal origin is possible. Estimates of magnetizing field strength are in the approximate range 5-100 ? T, with carbonaceous chondrites showing the highest values. The SNC meteorites, probably originating on Mars, provide evidence for a weak, ancient Martian magnetic field of the order 1 ? T.

  13. MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS B. Fornberg,2

    E-print Network

    Fornberg, Bengt

    MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS N. Flyer,1 B Axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields external to a unit sphere are studied as solutions to boundary value to the formation of an azimuthal rope of twisted magnetic field embedded within the global field, and to the energy

  14. Simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic field in photonic crystal nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolini, Silvia; Intonti, Francesca; Riboli, Francesco; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt; Balet, Laurent; Li, Lianhe H.; Francardi, Marco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Fiore, Andrea; Gurioli, Massimo

    2012-06-01

    The insertion of a metal-coated tip on the surface of a photonic crystal microcavity is used for simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic fields in photonic crystal nanocavities, via the radiative emission of embedded semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The photoluminescence intensity map directly gives the electric field distribution, to which the electric dipole of the QD is coupled. The magnetic field generates, via Faraday's law, a circular current in the apex of the metallized probe that can be schematized as a ring. The resulting magnetic perturbation of the photonic modes induces a blue shift, which can be used to map the magnetic field, within a single near-field scan.

  15. Design and calibration of high-frequency magnetic probes for the SUNIST spherical tokamak.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangqing; Tan, Yi; Pan, Ou; Ke, Rui; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-11-01

    A new high-frequency magnetic diagnostic system is designed, installed, and calibrated in the Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) to investigate Alfvén waves (AWs). The system consists of a fixed toroidal array and a movable radial array of high-frequency magnetic probes (HFMPs) with 21 and 60 probes, respectively. Based on the method of vacuum enameled wire wound on ceramic bobbins, the fixed toroidal array is located as near as possible to the plasma and carefully shielded to reduce the attenuation of high-frequency magnetic field. Meanwhile, by using the technology of commercial chip inductors mounted on printed circuit boards, the movable radial array is inserted into a thin quartz tube that allows positioning along radial direction. A Helmholtz coil is utilized to calibrate the effective areas as well as the frequency response of each HFMP. The calibration results are consistent with the calculated results of an equivalent probe-and-cable circuit model. High-frequency magnetic signals related to AW are detected with these HFMPs. These HFMPs are expected to play a key role in analyzing Alfvén eigenmodes excited by AW antenna in the SUNIST. PMID:25430367

  16. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Doran D; Alexson, Dimitri A; Garbini, Joseph L

    2013-09-01

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 ?m diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner. PMID:24089869

  17. Magnetically filtered Faraday probe for measuring the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Walker, Mitchell L.R.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Peterson, Peter Y. [Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); QSS Inc., NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The ability of a magnetically filtered Faraday probe (MFFP) to obtain the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster is investigated. The MFFP is designed to eliminate the collection of low-energy, charge-exchange (CEX) ions by using a variable magnetic field as an ion filter. In this study, a MFFP, Faraday probe with a reduced acceptance angle (BFP), and nude Faraday probe are used to measure the ion current density profile of a 5 kW Hall thruster operating over the range of 300-500 V and 5-10 mg/s. The probes are evaluated on a xenon propellant Hall thruster in the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility at operating pressures within the range of 4.4x10{sup -4} Pa Xe (3.3x10{sup -6} Torr Xe) to 1.1x10{sup -3} Pa Xe (8.4x10{sup -6} Torr Xe) in order to study the ability of the Faraday probe designs to filter out CEX ions. Detailed examination of the results shows that the nude probe measures a greater ion current density profile than both the MFFP and BFP over the range of angular positions investigated for each operating condition. The differences between the current density profiles obtained by each probe are attributed to the ion filtering systems employed. Analysis of the results shows that the MFFP, operating at a +5 A solenoid current, provides the best agreement with flight-test data and across operating pressures.

  18. Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken and we explore two scenarios. Increasing the heat flux through the northern hemisphere of the core-mantle boundary is an obvious choice but is not supported by current models for Mercury's mantle. We find that a combination of internal rather than bottom driving and an increased heat flux through the equatorial region of the core-mantle boundary also promotes the required symmetry breaking and results in very Mercury like fields. The reason is that the imposed heat flux pattern, though being equatorially symmetric, lowers the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of equatorially anti-symmetric convection modes. In both scenarios, a stably stratified layer or a feedback coupling to the magnetospheric field is required for lowering the field strength to Mercury-like values.

  19. Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

    1999-06-24

    Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

  20. Variability in Martian Magnetic Field Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Eastwood, J. P.; Ulusen, D.; Lillis, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    We have determined the locations of open and closed magnetic field lines at Mars as a function of four different controlling influences: solar wind magnetic field direction, solar wind pressure, martian season, and solar EUV flux.

  1. Passive Magnetic Shielding in Gradient Fields

    E-print Network

    Bidinosti, C P

    2013-01-01

    The effect of passive magnetic shielding on dc magnetic field gradients imposed by both external and internal sources is studied. It is found that for concentric cylindrical or spherical shells of high permeability material, higher order multipoles in the magnetic field are shielded progressively better, by a factor related to the order of the multipole. In regard to the design of internal coil systems for the generation of uniform internal fields, we show how one can take advantage of the coupling of the coils to the innermost magnetic shield to further optimize the uniformity of the field. These results demonstrate quantitatively a phenomenon that was previously well-known qualitatively: that the resultant magnetic field within a passively magnetically shielded region can be much more uniform than the applied magnetic field itself. Furthermore we provide formulae relevant to active magnetic compensation systems which attempt to stabilize the interior fields by sensing and cancelling the exterior fields clos...

  2. Plasma stability in a dipole magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Simakov, Andrei N., 1974-

    2001-01-01

    The MHD and kinetic stability of an axially symmetric plasma, confined by a poloidal magnetic field with closed lines, is considered. In such a system the stabilizing effects of plasma compression and magnetic field ...

  3. Direct probing of band-structure Berry phase in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, M.; Lucot, D.; Giraud, R.; Lemaître, A.; Ulysse, C.; Waintal, X.; Faini, G.

    2015-06-01

    We report on experimental evidence of the Berry phase accumulated by the charge-carrier wave function in single-domain nanowires made from a (Ga, Mn)(As, P) diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor layer. Its signature on the mesoscopic transport measurements is revealed as unusual patterns in the magnetoconductance that are clearly distinguished from the universal conductance fluctuations. We show that these patterns appear in a magnetic field region where the magnetization rotates coherently and are related to a change in the band-structure Berry phase as the magnetization direction changes. They should thus be considered a band-structure Berry phase fingerprint of the effective magnetic monopoles in the momentum space. We argue that this is an efficient method to vary the band structure in a controlled way and to probe it directly. Hence, (Ga, Mn)As appears to be a very interesting test bench for new concepts based on this geometrical phase.

  4. Design for a multifrequency high magnetic field superconducting quantum interference device-detected quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance probe: Spin-lattice relaxation of cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4?5H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cage, Brant; Russek, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    We have designed a spectrometer for the quantitative determination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at high magnetic fields and frequencies. It uses a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for measuring the magnetic moment as a function of the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. We used powdered 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to demonstrate resolution of g-tensor anisotropy to 1 mT in a magnetic field of 3 T with a sensitivity of 1014 spins per 0.1 mT. We demonstrate multifrequency operation at 95 and 141 GHz. By use of an aligned single crystal of cupric sulfate pentahydrate (chalcanthite) CuSO4?5H2O, we show that the spectrometer is capable of EPR line shape analysis from 4 to 200 K with a satisfactory fit to a Lorentzian line shape at 100 K. Below 100 K, we observed line-broadening, g shifts, and spectral splittings, all consistent with a known low-dimensional phase transition. Using SQUID magnetometry and a superconducting magnet, we improve by an order of magnitude the sensitivity and magnetic field range of earlier power saturation studies of CuSO4?5H2O. We were able to saturate up to 70% of the magnetic moment with power transfer saturation studies at 95 GHz, 3.3 T, and 4 K and obtained the spin-lattice relaxation time, T1=1.8 ms, of CuSO4?5H2O at 3.3 T and 4 K. We found an inverse linear dependence of T1, in units of seconds (s) at 3.3 T between 4 and 2.3 K, such that T1=0.016?K?s??-1-0.0022?s, where ? is the absolute bath temperature. The quantitative determination of EPR is difficult with standard EPR techniques, especially at high frequencies or fields. Therefore this technique is of considerable value.

  5. Probing neutrino magnetic moments at Spallation Neutron Source facilities

    E-print Network

    Kosmas, T S; Papoulias, D K; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2015-01-01

    Majorana neutrino electromagnetic properties are studied through neutral current coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. We focus on the potential of the recently planned COHERENT experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source to probe muon-neutrino magnetic moments. The resulting sensitivities are determined on the basis of a $\\chi^2$ analysis employing realistic nuclear structure calculations in the context of the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA). We find that they can improve existing limits by half an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that these facilities allow for Standard Model precision tests in the low energy regime, with a competitive determination of the weak mixing angle. Finally, they also offer the capability to probe other electromagnetic neutrino properties, such as the neutrino charge-radius. We illustrate our results for various choices of experimental setup and target material.

  6. Near-field magnetic communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bansal

    2004-01-01

    Even as cell phones have shrunk in size while boasting an ever-increasing array of features, two things about them haven't changed much: they still sprout a stubby antenna and, if you want a headset, you have to put up with an unwieldy wire connecting the headset and the phone. Thanks to a patented technology called near-field magnetic communication (NFMC), from

  7. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208 016 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  8. Magnetic field effect for cellulose nanofiber alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Chen, Yi; Kang, Kwang-Sun; Park, Young-Bin; Schwartz, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Regenerated cellulose formed into cellulose nanofibers under strong magnetic field and aligned perpendicularly to the magnetic field. Well-aligned microfibrils were found as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased. Better alignment and more crystalline structure of the cellulose resulted in the increased decomposition temperature of the material. X-ray crystallograms showed that crystallinity index of the cellulose increased as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased.

  9. Extraterrestrial magnetic fields - Achievements and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Smith; C. P. Sonett

    1976-01-01

    The major scientific achievements associated with the measurement of magnetic fields in space over the past decade and a half are reviewed. Aspects of space technology relevant to magnetic-field observations are discussed: magnetometers and how they operate, problems arising from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields and appropriate countermeasures and on-board processing of magnetometer data. The solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, the

  10. A near-field probe for subwavelength-focused imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Markley; G. V. Eleftheriades

    2009-01-01

    A near-field antenna array probe is presented that can produce a subwavelength focal spot at a distance of 0.25lambda. The array is composed of a central fed dipole with loaded secondary dipoles placed less than half a wavelength away on each side. When performing a surface raster scan, the probe return loss can be monitored to detect the presence of

  11. Time-domain diffracted magnetooptic Kerr probing of magnetization dynamics of patterned magnet arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobin Zhu; Fabian Giesen; Zhigang Liu; Mark Freeman; Hiroyuki Akinaga

    2006-01-01

    We probe the ultrafast magnetooptic Kerr effect in the diffracted spots of a patterned array of magnets, which serve as diffraction grating. This technique, diffracted MOKE, provides valuable information, as the off-specular spots contain the finite spatial frequencies of the magnetic moment configuration [1-3]. In this talk, we will present the D-MOKE study in the time domain of a 2

  12. Pulsed-Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    Pulsed-Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Tool for Studying Translational Diffusion and biochemical systems. Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance pro- vides a convenient and noninvasive spin-echo pulse sequence contain- ing a magnetic field gradient pulse in each period is used to measure

  13. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  14. Magnetic monopole and the nature of the static magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Xiuqing Huang

    2008-12-10

    We investigate the factuality of the hypothetical magnetic monopole and the nature of the static magnetic field. It is shown from many aspects that the concept of the massive magnetic monopoles clearly is physically untrue. We argue that the static magnetic field of a bar magnet, in fact, is the static electric field of the periodically quasi-one-dimensional electric-dipole superlattice, which can be well established in some transition metals with the localized d-electron. This research may shed light on the perfect unification of magnetic and electrical phenomena.

  15. Cluster Magnetic Fields from Galactic Outflows

    E-print Network

    J. Donnert; K. Dolag; H. Lesch; E. Müller

    2008-10-24

    We performed cosmological, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields are galactic outflows during the star-burst phase of galactic evolution. To do this we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by \\citet{2006MNRAS.370..319B} to our cosmological simulation. We find that the strength and structure of magnetic fields observed in galaxy clusters are well reproduced for a wide range of model parameters for the magnetized, galactic winds and do only weakly depend on the exact magnetic structure within the assumed galactic outflows. Although the evolution of a primordial magnetic seed field shows no significant differences to that of galaxy clusters fields from previous studies, we find that the magnetic field pollution in the diffuse medium within filaments is below the level predicted by scenarios with pure primordial magnetic seed field. We therefore conclude that magnetized galactic outflows and their subsequent evolution within the intra-cluster medium can fully account for the observed magnetic fields in galaxy clusters. Our findings also suggest that measuring cosmological magnetic fields in low-density environments such as filaments is much more useful than observing cluster magnetic fields to infer their possible origin.

  16. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 ?T; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 ?T), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  17. Suppression of magnetic relaxation by a transverse alternating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.; Fisher, L. M. [All-Russia Electrical Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)], E-mail: fisher@vei.ru; Yampol'skii, V. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics (Ukraine)], E-mail: yam@vk.kharkov.ua

    2007-07-15

    The evolution of the spatial distribution of the magnetic induction in a superconductor after the action of the alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the trapped magnetic flux has been analyzed. The observed stabilization of the magnetic induction profile is attributed to the increase in the pinning force, so that the screening current density becomes subcritical. The last statement is corroborated by direct measurements.

  18. Magnetic field sources and their threat to magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic storage media (tapes, disks, cards, etc.) may be damaged by external magnetic fields. The potential for such damage has been researched, but no objective standard exists for the protection of such media. This paper summarizes a magnetic storage facility standard, Publication 933, that ensures magnetic protection of data storage media.

  19. Magnetic field perturbartions in closed-field-line systems with zero toroidal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mauel, M; Ryutov, D; Kesner, J

    2003-12-02

    In some plasma confinement systems (e.g., field-reversed configurations and levitated dipoles) the confinement is provided by a closed-field-line poloidal magnetic field. We consider the influence of the magnetic field perturbations on the structure of the magnetic field in such systems and find that the effect of perturbations is quite different from that in the systems with a substantial toroidal field. In particular, even infinitesimal perturbations can, in principle, lead to large radial excursions of the field lines in FRCs and levitated dipoles. Under such circumstances, particle drifts and particle collisions may give rise to significant neoclassical transport. Introduction of a weak regular toroidal magnetic field reduces radial excursions of the field lines and neoclassical transport.

  20. Probing magnetic properties of sidewall epitaxial graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, Owen; Hankinson, John; Huan, Chao; Yu, Wenlong; Dong, Rui; Palmer, James; Ruan, Ming; Conrad, Edward; Berger, Claire; Deheer, Walter; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewall SiC have recently emerged as a novel material system enabling single channel room temperature ballistic transport over micrometer distance. In this work, we study the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of sidewall-ribbon-based magnetic tunnel junctions as a function of temperature and magnetic field (both amplitude and tilting angle). We show that the measured TMR exhibits a spin-switch behavior at temperatures below 30 K, indicating that the sidewall ribbons are magnetic and possess a spin component either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetization direction of the magnetic contact. Furthermore, we find that the TMR signal switches the sign at certain negative bias voltages, which has important implications in device applications.

  1. Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sciandrone; G. Placidi; L. Testa; A. Sotgiu

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter.

  2. Magnetic Fields1 Increasingly, instruments that generate large static magnetic fields (e.g., NMR spectrometers,

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Magnetic Fields1 Increasingly, instruments that generate large static magnetic fields (e.g., NMR spectrometers, MRI) are present in research laboratories. Such magnets typically have fields of 14,000 to 235,000 G (1.4 to 23.5 T), far above that of Earth's magnetic field, which is approximately 0.5 G

  3. Magnetic field perturbations in the systems where only poloidal magnetic field is present*

    E-print Network

    1 Magnetic field perturbations in the systems where only poloidal magnetic field is present* D In some plasma confinement systems the confinement is provided by a poloidal magnetic field (no toroidal magnetic field is present). Examples include FRC, levitated dipoles, and long diffuse pinches. We consider

  4. A scanning Hall probe microscope for high resolution magnetic imaging down to 300 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Khotkevych, V. V.; Bending, S. J. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, BA2 7AY Bath (United Kingdom); Milosevic, M. V. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, BA2 7AY Bath (United Kingdom); Department Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgelaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a low-temperature scanning Hall probe microscope with submicron lateral resolution and a large scanning range. The detachable microscope head is mounted on the cold flange of a commercial {sup 3}He-refrigerator (Oxford Instruments, Heliox VT-50) and operates between room temperature and 300 mK. It is fitted with a three-axis slip-stick nanopositioner that enables precise in situ adjustment of the probe location within a 6x6x7 mm{sup 3} space. The local magnetic induction at the sample surface is mapped with an easily changeable microfabricated Hall probe [typically GsAs/AlGaAs or AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs Hall sensors with integrated scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) tunneling tips] and can achieve minimum detectable fields {>=}10 mG/Hz{sup 1/2}. The Hall probe is brought into very close proximity to the sample surface by sensing and controlling tunnel currents at the integrated STM tip. The instrument is capable of simultaneous tunneling and Hall signal acquisition in surface-tracking mode. We illustrate the potential of the system with images of superconducting vortices at the surface of a Nb thin film down to 372 mK, and also of labyrinth magnetic-domain patterns of an yttrium iron garnet film captured at room temperature.

  5. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELD FLUCTUATIONS IN HIGH-CURRENT TOROIDAL DISCHARGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Rusbridge; D. J. Lees; P. A. H. Saunders

    1962-01-01

    Electric-field probes and magnetic search coils were used to observe low-; frequency fluctuations in discharges in Zeta and a similar torus of smaller bore. ; The amplitude of the fluctuations was measured as a function of discharge ; conditions and the results are summarized briefly. A simple ideal hydromagnetic ; model is introduced that fits the observed magnetic field fluctuations

  6. How to Draw Magnetic Fields - II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about depicting magnetic polarity. Learners will observe several provided drawings of magnetic field line patterns for bar magnets in simple orientations of like and unlike polarities and carefully draw the field lines and depict the polarities for several orientations, including an arrangement of six magnetic poles. This is the fourth activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

  7. Probing Strong Field Gravity Through Numerical Simulations

    E-print Network

    Choptuik, Matthew W; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-01-01

    This article is an overview of the contributions numerical relativity has made to our understanding of strong field gravity, to be published in the book "General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective", commemorating the 100th anniversary of general relativity.

  8. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOEpatents

    Doughty, Frank C. (Plano, TX); Spencer, John E. (Plano, TX)

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  9. Magnetic field driven domain-wall propagation in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.R. [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China); Yan, P. [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: yanpeng@ust.hk; Lu, J.; He, C. [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-08-15

    The mechanism of magnetic field induced magnetic domain-wall (DW) propagation in a nanowire is revealed: A static DW cannot exist in a homogeneous magnetic nanowire when an external magnetic field is applied. Thus, a DW must vary with time under a static magnetic field. A moving DW must dissipate energy due to the Gilbert damping. As a result, the wire has to release its Zeeman energy through the DW propagation along the field direction. The DW propagation speed is proportional to the energy dissipation rate that is determined by the DW structure. The negative differential mobility in the intermediate field is due to the transition from high energy dissipation at low field to low energy dissipation at high field. For the field larger than the so-called Walker breakdown field, DW plane precesses around the wire, leading to the propagation speed oscillation.

  10. Magnetic field calculation and measurement of active magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guoping; Zhou, Zude; Hu, Yefa

    2006-11-01

    Magnetic Bearings are typical devices in which electric energy and mechanical energy convert mutually. Magnetic Field indicates the relationship between 2 of the most important parameters in a magnetic bearing - current and force. This paper presents calculation and measurement of the magnetic field distribution of a self-designed magnetic bearing. Firstly, the static Maxwell's equations of the magnetic bearing are presented and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is found to solve the equations and get post-process results by means of ANSYS software. Secondly, to confirm the calculation results a Lakeshore460 3-channel Gaussmeter is used to measure the magnetic flux density of the magnetic bearing in X, Y, Z directions accurately. According to the measurement data the author constructs a 3D magnetic field distribution digital model by means of MATLAB software. Thirdly, the calculation results and the measurement data are compared and analyzed; the comparing result indicates that the calculation results are consistent with the measurement data in allowable dimension variation, which means that the FEA calculation method of the magnetic bearing has high precision. Finally, it is concluded that the magnetic field calculation and measurement can accurately reflect the real magnetic distribution in the magnetic bearing and the result can guide the design and analysis of the magnetic bearing effectively.

  11. Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-05-01

    During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

  12. Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

  13. Full 180° magnetization reversal with electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, J J; Hu, J M; Ma, J; Zhang, J X; Chen, L Q; Nan, C W

    2014-01-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals. PMID:25512070

  14. Full 180° Magnetization Reversal with Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Ma, J.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Achieving 180° magnetization reversal with an electric field rather than a current or magnetic field is a fundamental challenge and represents a technological breakthrough towards new memory cell designs. Here we propose a mesoscale morphological engineering approach to accomplishing full 180° magnetization reversals with electric fields by utilizing both the in-plane piezostrains and magnetic shape anisotropy of a multiferroic heterostructure. Using phase-field simulations, we examined a patterned single-domain nanomagnet with four-fold magnetic axis on a ferroelectric layer with electric-field-induced uniaxial strains. We demonstrated that the uniaxial piezostrains, if non-collinear to the magnetic easy axis of the nanomagnet at certain angles, induce two successive, deterministic 90° magnetization rotations, thereby leading to full 180° magnetization reversals.

  15. Vlasov Equation In Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    Biao Wu

    1999-09-07

    The linearized Vlasov equation for a plasma system in a uniform magnetic field and the corresponding linear Vlasov operator are studied. The spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the Vlasov operator are found. The spectrum of this operator consists of two parts: one is continuous and real; the other is discrete and complex. Interestingly, the real eigenvalues are infinitely degenerate, which causes difficulty solving this initial value problem by using the conventional eigenfunction expansion method. Finally, the Vlasov equation is solved by the resolvent method.

  16. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  17. Coupled Field Synthesis in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Di Barba; Fabrizio Dughiero; Elisabetta Sieni; Alessandro Candeo

    2011-01-01

    AGNETIC fluid hyperthermia (MFH) uses magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) excited by an ac magnetic field to destroy cancer tissues (i.e., the target tissue) by means of induced heat [1]. In general, this kind of device exhibits a large iron core. For instance, at the Charité hospital in Berlin, Germany, the equipment for this kind of technique has a magnetic field source

  18. Field Corrections of Open MRI Superconducting Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Matsuda; Akihiko Ariyoshi; Hajime Tanabe

    2005-01-01

    We constructed open MRI superconducting magnets with an iron yoke that generates a 0.7T highly uniform magnetic field. A program that compensates for the error field of those magnets was developed that uses linear programming to achieve an optimal arrangement of a large number of small iron shims. Since additional homogeneity compensation near the target value becomes difficult, we also

  19. Neutrinos with Mixing in Twisting Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    E. Kh. Akhmedov; S. T. Petcov; A. Yu. Smirnov

    1993-01-06

    Transitions in a system of neutrinos with vacuum mixing and magnetic moments, propagating in matter and transverse magnetic field, are considered. It is shown that in the realistic case of magnetic field direction varying along the neutrino path qualitatively new phenomena become possible: permutation of neutrino conversion resonances, appearance of resonances in the neutrino-antineutrino ($\

  20. Helicity of the Solar Magnetic Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjiv Kumar Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic helicity is a physical quantity that measures the degree of linkages and twistedness in the field lines. It is given by a volume integral over the scalar product of magnetic field B and its vector potential A. Direct computation of magnetic helicity in the solar atmosphere is not possible due to two reasons. First, we do not have the

  1. ELECTRON SPECTROMETER WITH TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dubinov; N. V. Minashkin; V. D. Selemir; N. V. Stepanov; V. E. Vatrunin

    1993-01-01

    The spectrometer allows to measure the spectrum of the electron beam, generated in the magnetized diode. Principle of the spectrometer's operation consists in spatial separation of Merent energies particles in gradient static magnetic field. Numerical integration of electron movement equations in the toroidal magnetic field %l\\/r -manner, is consistent with the experimental results received at 1-3000 accelerator. The results of

  2. ECE 390 Electric & Magnetic Fields Catalog Description: Static and quasi-static electric and magnetic fields.

    E-print Network

    ECE 390 ­ Electric & Magnetic Fields Catalog Description: Static and quasi-static electric and magnetic fields. Credits: 4 Terms Offered: Fall Prerequisites: MTH 255, ENGR 203 (concurrent enrollment fields in free space, Ampere's circuital law, vector magnetic potential · Biot-Savart law, magnetic

  3. Holographic description of the Schwinger effect in electric and magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Yoshiki Sato; Kentaroh Yoshida

    2015-04-20

    We consider a generalization of the holographic Schwinger effect proposed by Semenoff and Zarembo to the case with constant electric and magnetic fields. There are two ways to turn on magnetic fields, i) the probe D3-brane picture and ii) the string world-sheet picture. In the former picture, magnetic fields both perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are activated by a Lorentz transformation and a spatial rotation. In the latter one, the classical solutions of the string world-sheet corresponding to circular Wilson loops are generalized to contain two additional parameters encoding the presence of magnetic fields.

  4. Oblique ion collection in the drift approximation: How magnetized Mach probes really work

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The anisotropic fluid equations governing a frictionless obliquely flowing plasma around an essentially arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional ion-absorbing object in a strong magnetic field are solved analytically in the quasineutral drift approximation, neglecting parallel temperature gradients. The effects of transverse displacements traversing the magnetic presheath are also quantified. It is shown that the parallel collection flux density dependence upon the external Mach number is n{sub {infinity}}c{sub s} exp[-1-(M{sub parallel}{infinity}-M{sub perpendicular}cot {theta})], where {theta} is the angle (in the plane of field and drift velocity) of the object-surface to the magnetic-field and M{sub parallel{infinity}} is the external parallel flow. The perpendicular drift, M{sub perpendicular}, appearing here consists of the external E and B drift plus a weighted sum of the ion and electron diamagnetic drifts that depends upon the total angle of the surface to the magnetic field. It is that somewhat counterintuitive combination that an oblique (transverse) Mach probe experiment measures.

  5. Magnetization measurements reveal the local shear stiffness of hydrogels probed by ferromagnetic nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The local mechanical coupling of ferromagnetic nanorods in hydrogels was characterized by magnetization measurements. Nickel nanorods were synthesized by the AAO-template method and embedded in gelatine hydrogels with mechanically soft or hard matrix properties determined by the gelatine weight fraction. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field during gelation the nanorods were aligned along the field resulting in uniaxially textured ferrogels. The magnetization curves of the soft ferrogel exhibited not only important similarities but also characteristic differences as compared to the hard ferrogel. The hystereses measured in a field parallel to the texture axis were almost identical for both samples indicating effective coupling of the nanorods with the polymer network. By contrast, measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the texture axis revealed a much higher initial susceptibility of the soft as compared to the hard ferrogel. This difference was attributed to the additional rotation of the nanorods allowed by the reduced shear modulus in the soft ferrogel matrix. Two methods for data analysis were presented which enabled us to determine the shear modulus of the gelatine matrix which was interpreted as a local rather than macroscopic quantity in consideration of the nanoscale of the probe particles.

  6. The flexible magnetic field thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The thruster is designed so that ion currents to various internal surfaces can be measured directly; these measurements facilitate calculations of the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber. Experiments are described suggesting that the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber is strongly dependent on the shape and strength of the magnetic field but independent of the discharge current, discharge voltage, and neutral flow rate. Measurements of the energy cost per plasma ion suggest that this cost decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as a consequence of increased anode shielding from the primary electrons. Energy costs per argon plasma ion as low as 50 eV are measured. The energy cost per beam ion is found to be a function of the energy cost per plasma ion, extracted ion fraction, and discharge voltage. Part of the energy cost per beam ion has to do with creating many ions in the plasma and then extracting only a fraction of them into the beam. The balance of the energy goes into accelerating the remaining plasma ions into the walls of the discharge chamber.

  7. Probing the magnetic ground state of the molecular dysprosium triangle with muon spin relaxation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Salman; S. R. Giblin; Y. Lan; A. K. Powell; R. Scheuermann; R. Tingle; R. Sessoli

    2010-01-01

    We present zero field muon spin lattice relaxation measurements of a Dysprosium triangle molecular magnet. The local magnetic fields sensed by the implanted muons indicate the coexistence of static and dynamic internal magnetic fields below T*˜35K . Bulk magnetization and heat capacity measurements show no indication of magnetic ordering below this temperature. We attribute the static fields to the slow

  8. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection with a magnetic molecular beacon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shichao; Yao, Cuicui; Wei, Shuoming; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Han, Qing; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hongming

    2008-12-01

    Toxoplasma Gondii infection is widespread in humans worldwide and reported infection rates range from 3%-70%, depending on the populations or geographic areas, and it has been recognized as a potential food safety hazard in our daily life. A magnetic molecular beacon probe (mMBP), based on theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), was currently reported to detect Toxoplasma Gondii DNA. Nano-sized Fe3O4 were primarily prepared by coprecipitation method in aqueous phase with NaOH as precipitator, and was used as magnetic core. The qualified coreshell magnetic quantum dots (mQDs), i.e. CdTe(symbol)Fe3O4, were then achieved by layer-by-layer method when mol ratio of Fe3O4/CdTe is 1/3, pH at 6.0, 30 °C, and reactant solution was refluxed for 30 min, the size of mQDs were determined to be 12-15 nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Over 70% overlap between emission spectrum of mQDs and absorbance spectrum of BHQ-2 was observed, this result suggests the synthesized mQDs and BHQ-2 can be utilized as energy donor and energy acceptor, respectively. The sensing probe was fabricated and a stem-loop Toxoplasma Gondii DNA oligonucleotide was labeled with mQDs at the 5' end and BHQ-2 at 3' end, respectively. Target Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected under conditions of 37 °C, hybridization for 2h, at pH8.0 in Tris-HCl buffer. About 30% recovery of fluorescence intensity was observed via fluorescence spectrum (FS) after the Toxoplasma gondii DNA was added, which suggested that the Toxoplasma Gondii DNA was successfully detected. Specificity investigation of the mMBP indicated that relative low recovery of fluorescence intensity was obtained when the target DNA with one-base pair mismatch was added, this result indicated the high specificity of the sensing probe. Our research simultaneously indicated that mMBP can be conveniently separated from the unhybridized stem-loop DNA and target DNA, which will be meaningful in DNA sensing and purification process.

  10. Proof-of-principle demonstration of a translating coils-based method for measuring the magnetic field of axially-symmetric magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, P.; Buzio, M.; Kazazi, M.; Russenschuck, S.

    2015-02-01

    In axially-symmetric magnets for particle accelerators, the magnetic field is usually surveyed by expensive and time-consuming 3D Hall-probe mappers. Problems arise for a coherent treatment among beam physics requirements, magnet design and manufacturing, and magnetic measurements. For example, when the longitudinal direction of the mapper is misaligned with respect to the magnet, the measured fringe fields will show spurious components. In this paper, an alternative measurement method, exploiting the inherent axial symmetry of the magnetic field, is proposed. The magnetic flux linked with a pair of sensing coils is measured as a function of the longitudinal position. An induction transducer, sensitive to the longitudinal and radial components of the magnetic field, and a measurement system have been designed and prototyped. The experimental proof-of-principle demonstration of the method in comparison with a Hall-probe mapper is presented for a solenoid magnet.

  11. Non-linear magnetization dynamics probed with X-rays: 1. Broken cylindrical symmetry of uniform modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulon, J.; Brouder, Ch.; Rogalev, A.; Goujon, G.; Wilhelm, F.

    2014-10-01

    We discuss how X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) may complement each other to probe the nonlinear nature of the resonant precession of either spin or orbital magnetization components in aligned ferro-, ferri- or even antiferro-magnets. The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is solved in a rotating frame locked to the microwave pump field, while treating as time-dependent perturbations the terms which, in the formulation of the free energy density, break down the cylindrical symmetry of precession. Concretely, we analyze the time-oscillating deviations of the magnetization from the steady-state solutions of the LLG equation hereafter called SS-modes. At any perturbation order, one may derive magnetic dipole components which oscillate at harmonic frequencies of the pump frequency and could be probed with XMCD. Under bichromatic pumping, frequency mixing arises from a time-dependent Zeeman coupling between two rotating frames locked to each individual pump field. Similarly, we expect magnetic quadrupole components to oscillate at the same frequencies. For consistency, their derivation requires a perturbation calculation up to second order. The latter time-reversal even, rank-2 magnetic tensor components can be probed only with XMLD. Beyond the (reciprocal) linear dichroism classically measured in ferri- or antiferromagnetic samples, a non-reciprocal XMLD signal is to be expected when space parity is lost. Nonlinear effects strongly depend upon the relative orientations of the external bias field and of the pump field with respect to the symmetry axes of the magnetic system. This holds true for the foldover lineshape distortions, harmonic generation, frequency mixing or multiquanta excitations.

  12. Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.

  13. A carpet cloak for static magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongfeng; Lei Mei, Zhong; Jun Cui, Tie

    2013-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional carpet cloak for static magnetic field, a design that renders the magnetic response of a given volume invisible from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields. The device is designed using transformation optics method and can be implemented with alternating superconducting and magnetic material layers. Through the proper design of the constitutive tensors and relative thicknesses of each slab, we achieve the perfect performance of invisibility. Full wave numerical simulations confirm our design.

  14. Magnetic Field Structure in Molecular Clouds by Polarization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. P.; Su, B. H.; Eswaraiah, C.; Pandey, A. K.; Wang, C. W.; Lai, S. P.; Tamura, M.; Sato, S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.

  15. Magnetic Fields and Rotations of Protostars

    E-print Network

    Masahiro N. Machida; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka; Tomoaki Matsumoto

    2007-07-21

    The evolution of the magnetic field and angular momentum in the collapsing cloud core is studied using three-dimensional resistive MHD nested grid simulations. Starting with a Bonnor-Ebert isothermal cloud rotating in a uniform magnetic field, we calculate the cloud evolution from the molecular cloud core (n=10^4 cm^-3) to the stellar core (n \\simeq 10^22 cm^-3). The magnetic field strengths at the center of the clouds converge to a certain value as the clouds collapse, when the clouds have the same angular momenta but different strengths of the magnetic fields at the initial state. For 10^12 cm^-3 magnetic field from the collapsing cloud core, and the magnetic field lines, which are strongly twisted for n magnetic field lines are twisted and amplified again for nc > 10^16 cm^-3, because the magnetic field is recoupled with the warm gas. Finally, protostars at their formation epoch have 0.1-1kG of the magnetic fields, which are comparable to observations. The magnetic field strength of protostar slightly depends on the angular momentum of the host cloud. The protostar formed from the slowly rotating cloud core has a stronger magnetic field. The evolution of the angular momentum is closely related to the evolution of the magnetic field. The angular momentum in the collapsing cloud is removed by the magnetic effect. The formed protostars have 0.1-2 days of the rotation period at their formation epoch, which are slightly shorter than the observation. This indicates that the further removal mechanism of the angular momentum such as interaction between the protostar and disk, wind gas or jet is important in further evolution of the protostar.

  16. Magnetic field measurements for study of fast electron transport in magnetized HED plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Griffin, Brandon; Presura, Radu; Haque, Showera; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Interaction of megagauss magnetic fields with high energy density (HED) plasma is of great interest in the field of magnetized plasma. The field changes fundamental properties of the HED plasma such as thermal and magnetic diffusion. A coupled capability utilizing the 1.0 MA Zebra pulsed power generator and the 50 TW Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility enables to create such a condition for studies of magnetized plasma properties. We have conducted an experiment to measure magnetic fields generated by a 1.0 MA, 100 ns Zebra pulsed current in stainless steel coils. Using a 532 nm continuous laser from a single longitudinal mode laser system, the temporal change in the magnetic field was measured with the Faraday rotation in F2 glass. The probe laser passing through the 1.5 mm in radius and 1.75 mm thick glass placed in the vicinity of the inductive coils was split with a Glan-Taylor prism to measure vertical and horizontal polarization components with photodiodes. We will present the analysis of the experimental result and a design of a coupled experiment for study of fast electron transport in the magnetized plasma.

  17. Multiorder coherent Raman scattering of a quantum probe field

    SciTech Connect

    Fam Le Kien; Patnaik, Anil K.; Hakuta, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    We study the multiorder coherent Raman scattering of a quantum probe field in a far-off-resonance medium with a prepared coherence. Under the conditions of negligible dispersion and limited bandwidth, we derive a Bessel-function solution for the sideband field operators. We analytically and numerically calculate various quantum statistical characteristics of the sideband fields. We show that the multiorder coherent Raman process can replicate the statistical properties of a single-mode quantum probe field into a broad comb of generated Raman sidebands. We also study the mixing and modulation of photon statistical properties in the case of two-mode input. We show that the prepared Raman coherence and the medium length can be used as control parameters to switch a sideband field from one type of photon statistics to another type, or from a nonsqueezed state to a squeezed state and vice versa. We demonstrate that an even or odd coherent state of the quantum probe field can produce a multipartite entangled coherent state. We show that the concurrence reaches its maximal value at an optimal medium length that is determined by the magnitude of the Raman coherence and the orders of the Raman sidebands.

  18. Comparative measurements of plasma potential with ball-pen and Langmuir probe in low-temperature magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanáška, M.; Adámek, J.; Peterka, M.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) is used for direct plasma potential measurements in magnetized plasma. The probe can adjust the ratio of the electron and ion saturation currents Isat-/Isat+ to be close to one and therefore its I-V characteristic becomes nearly symmetric. If this is achieved, the floating potential of the BPP is close to the plasma potential. Because of its rather simple construction, it offers an attractive probe for measurements in magnetized plasma. Comparative measurements of plasma potential by BPPs of different dimensions as well as one Langmuir probe (LP) in an argon discharge plasma of a cylindrical magnetron were performed at various experimental conditions. An additional comparison by an emissive probe was also performed. All these types of probes provide similar values of plasma potential in a wide range of plasma parameters. Our results for three different BPP dimensions indicate that the BPP can be operated in a cylindrical magnetron DC argon discharge if the value of the ratio of the magnetic field and neutral gas pressure, B/p, is greater than approximately 10 mT/Pa.

  19. Plasma and Magnetic Field Inside Magnetic Clouds: a Global Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cid; M. A. Hidalgo; T. Nieves-Chinchilla; J. Sequeiros; A. F. Viñas

    2002-01-01

    Data observed during spacecraft encounters with magnetic clouds have been extensively analyzed in the literature. Moreover, several models have been proposed for the magnetic topology of these events, and fitted to the observations. Although these interplanetary events present well-defined plasma features, none of those models have included a simultaneous analysis of magnetic field and plasma data. Using as a starting

  20. Magnetic shielding of an inhomogeneous magnetic field source by a bulk superconducting tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, K.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Wéra, L.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2015-03-01

    Bulk type-II irreversible superconductors can act as excellent passive magnetic shields, with a strong attenuation of low frequency magnetic fields. Up to now, the performances of superconducting magnetic shields have mainly been studied in a homogenous magnetic field, considering only immunity problems, i.e. when the field is applied outside the tube and the inner field should ideally be zero. In this paper, we aim to investigate experimentally and numerically the magnetic response of a high-Tc bulk superconducting hollow cylinder at 77 K in an emission problem, i.e. when subjected to the non-uniform magnetic field generated by a source coil placed inside the tube. A bespoke 3D mapping system coupled with a three-axis Hall probe is used to measure the magnetic flux density distribution outside the superconducting magnetic shield. A finite element model is developed to understand how the magnetic field penetrates into the superconductor and how the induced superconducting shielding currents flow inside the shield in the case where the emitting coil is placed coaxially inside the tube. The finite element modelling is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Results show that a concentration of the magnetic flux lines occurs between the emitting coil and the superconducting screen. This effect is observed both with the modelling and the experiment. In the case of a long tube, we show that the main features of the field penetration in the superconducting walls can be reproduced with a simple analytical 1D model. This model is used to estimate the maximum flux density of the emitting coil that can be shielded by the superconductor.

  1. Atom probe analysis of sputtered Co Cr magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hono, K.; Maeda, Y.; Li, J.-L.; Sakurai, T.

    1993-04-01

    Both Co-22at%Cr bulk alloy and its thin films were analyzed by an atom probe field ion microscope. While no compositional inhomogeneity was found in the bulk sample, a significant compositional fluctuation was found in the Co-Cr thin film sample which was deposited on a tungsten tip surface at 200°C. The concentration of the Cr enriched region was in the range of 30-40 at% Cr, while that of the Cr depleted region was in the range of 5-10 at% Cr.

  2. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  3. Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

  4. Magnetic field depression in electron holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We analyze spikes of the electrostatic field observed by Van Allen Probes in the outer radiation belt. These spikes exhibit the classical signatures of electron holes, i.e. a positive hump of the electrostatic potential (depleted electron density) and a propagation velocity of the order of an electron thermal velocity. The characteristic amplitude, velocity and spatial scale of these electron holes are several tens of mV/m, several thousand of km/s and about several km, respectively. The unexpected feature is the magnetic field depression of about several tens of pT within the observed electron holes. We suggest that this depression is due to the diamagnetic current of an electron population trapped within the electron hole. We estimate that the trapped population has a density up to 50% of the background plasma density, a temperature of about hundreds of eV and a high temperature anisotropy, T?/T||~ 3.5. We argue that the observed electron holes could be generated due to the injection of the highly-anisotropic plasma into the outer radiation belts.

  5. The CASSIOPE/e-POP Magnetic Field Instrument (MGF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, D. D.; Miles, D. M.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.; Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-06-01

    Field-aligned currents couple energy between the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere and are responsible for driving both micro and macro motions of plasma and neutral atoms in both regimes. These currents are believed to be a contributing energy source for ion acceleration in the polar ionosphere and may be detected via measurements of magnetic gradients along the track of a polar orbiting spacecraft, usually the north-south gradients of the east-west field component. The detection of such gradients does not require observatory class measurements of the geomagnetic field. The Magnetic Field instrument (MGF) measures the local magnetic field onboard the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite by using two ring-core fluxgate sensors to characterize and remove the stray spacecraft field. The fluxgate sensors have their heritage in the MAGSAT design, are double wound for reduced mass and cross-field dependence, and are mounted on a modest 0.9 m carbon-fiber boom. The MGF samples the magnetic field 160 times per sec (˜50 meters) to a resolution of 0.0625 nT and outputs data at 1952 bytes per second including temperature measurements. Its power consumption is 2.2 watts, and its noise level is 7 pT per root Hz at 1 Hz.

  6. Extraterrestrial Magnetic Fields: Achievements and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD J. SMITHAND; Charles Sonett

    1976-01-01

    The major scientific achievements associated with the measurement of magnetic fields in space over the past decade and a half are reviewed. Aspects of space technology relevant to magnetic-field observations are discussed, including the different types of magnetometers used and how they operate, problems arising from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields and the appropriate countermeasures that have been developed and on-board processing

  7. Magnetic field effects on plasma ionization balance

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Magnetic fields give rise to several phenomena that can significantly affect ionization balance in a plasma. Theoretical models commonly used to determine the charge state distribution (viz., ) of ions in non-magnetized plasmas are reviewed first, for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations. Then, after a brief survey of laboratory and cosmic plasmas with strong fields, B > 10{sup 6} Gauss, some of the ways such magnetic fields influence are highlighted. Most key problems have yet to be tackled.

  8. Origin of magnetic fields in galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael S. de Souza; Reuven Opher

    2010-01-01

    Microgauss magnetic fields are observed in all galaxies at low and high redshifts. The origin of these intense magnetic fields is a challenging question in astrophysics. We show here that the natural plasma fluctuations in the primordial Universe (assumed to be random), predicted by the fluctuation -dissipation theorem, predicts ˜0.034muG fields over ˜0.3kpc regions in galaxies. If the dipole magnetic

  9. Magnetic field sensor utilizing bent fiber taper and magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Tian, Zhuang; Sun, Li-Peng; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-05-01

    A magnetic field sensor is demonstrated by placing a bent-fiber taper modal interferometer inside a magnetic fluid sealed with an organic glass base. Owing to the strong refractive index dependency of the interferometer and magneto-optics property of the fluid, our sensor exhibits high sensitivity to the external magnetic field change. A linear wavelength dependency of ~58pm/Oe is experimentally obtained within a magnetic field range from 30 to 80 Oe. Our structure is featured of high sensitivity, fiber-compatibility, compactness, and robustness.

  10. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  11. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    E-print Network

    Altarev, I; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Nießen, B; Petzoldt, G; Reisner, M; Stuiber, S; Sturm, M; Singh, J T; Taubenheim, B; Rohrer, H K; Schläpfer, U

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a linear improvement in the systematic reach and a 40 % improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  12. Seeing the corona with the solar probe plus mission: the wide-field imager for solar probe+ (WISPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, Angelos; Howard, Russell A.; Plunkett, Simon P.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Carter, Michael T.; Thernisien, Arnaud F. R.; Chua, Damien H.; Van Duyne, Peter; Socker, Dennis G.; Linton, Mark G.; Liewer, Paulett C.; Hall, Jeffrey R.; Morrill, Jeff S.; DeJong, Eric M.; Mikic, Zoran; Rochus, Pierre L. P. M.; Bothmer, Volker; Rodman, Jens; Lamy, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission scheduled for launch in 2018, will orbit between the Sun and Venus with diminishing perihelia reaching as close as 7 million km (9.86 solar radii) from Sun center. In addition to a suite of in-situ probes for the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particles, SPP will be equipped with an imager. The Wide-field Imager for the Solar PRobe+ (WISPR), with a 95° radial by 58° transverse field of view, will image the fine-scale coronal structure of the corona, derive the 3D structure of the large-scale corona, and determine whether a dust-free zone exists near the Sun. Given the tight mass constrains of the mission, WISPR incorporates an efficient design of two widefield telescopes and their associated focal plane arrays based on novel large-format (2kx2k) APS CMOS detectors into the smallest heliospheric imaging package to date. The flexible control electronics allow WISPR to collect individual images at cadences up to 1 second at perihelion or sum several of them to increase the signal-to-noise during the outbound part of the orbit. The use of two telescopes minimizes the risk of dust damage which may be considerable close to the Sun. The dependency of the Thomson scattering emission of the corona on the imaging geometry dictates that WISPR will be very sensitive to the emission from plasma close to the spacecraft in contrast to the situation for imaging from Earth orbit. WISPR will be the first `local' imager providing a crucial link between the large scale corona and the in-situ measurements.

  13. Magnetic field properties of SSC model dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Butteris, J.; Sims, R.; Winters, M. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1992-09-01

    SSC 1.5m model dipole magnets were built and tested at Fermilab. Magnetic field properties were studied in term of transfer function variation and multipole components. The results were satisfactory. Observation of periodicity of remanent field along the axis is also reported.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    Stepi?nik, Janez

    of the magnetic field enables scanning of very large volume samples. Reduction in S/N ratio due to the weak in the case of strong magnetic fields, detection and processing of low frequency signal are less 655 DOI: 10 Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 655­667, 2004 #12;demanding for the electronics. The techniques used

  15. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  16. Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béché, Armand; van Boxem, Ruben; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The experimental search for magnetic monopole particles has, so far, been in vain. Nevertheless, these elusive particles of magnetic charge have fuelled a rich field of theoretical study. Here, we created an approximation of a magnetic monopole in free space at the end of a long, nanoscopically thin magnetic needle. We experimentally demonstrate that the interaction of this approximate magnetic monopole field with a beam of electrons produces an electron vortex state, as theoretically predicted for a true magnetic monopole. This fundamental quantum mechanical scattering experiment is independent of the speed of the electrons and has consequences for all situations where electrons meet such monopole magnetic fields, as, for example, in solids. The set-up not only shows an attractive way to produce electron vortex states but also provides a unique insight into monopole fields and shows that electron vortices might well occur in unexplored solid-state physics situations.

  17. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  18. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  19. Magnetic fields in anisotropic relativistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folomeev, Vladimir; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized anisotropic fluid are studied. For such configurations, we obtain static equilibrium solutions with an axisymmetric, poloidal magnetic field produced by toroidal electric currents. The presence of such a field results in small deviations of the shape of the configuration from spherical symmetry. This in turn leads to the modification of an equation for the current and correspondingly to changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field for the systems supported by the anisotropic fluid, in contrast to the case of an isotropic fluid, where such deviations do not affect the magnetic field.

  20. Magnetic Fields in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverkorn, Marijke

    This chapter presents a review of observational studies to determine the magnetic field in the Milky Way, both in the disk and in the halo, focused on recent developments and on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar medium. I discuss some terminology which is confusingly or inconsistently used and try to summarize current status of our knowledge on magnetic field configurations and strengths in the Milky Way. Although many open questions still exist, more and more conclusions can be drawn on the large-scale and small-scale components of the Galactic magnetic field. The chapter is concluded with a brief outlook to observational projects in the near future.

  1. Magnetic fields in anisotropic relativistic stars

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Folomeev; Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

    2015-02-28

    Relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized anisotropic fluid are studied. For such configurations, we obtain static equilibrium solutions with an axisymmetric, poloidal magnetic field produced by toroidal electric currents. The presence of such a field results in small deviations of the shape of the configuration from spherical symmetry. This in turn leads to the modification of an equation for the current and correspondingly to changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field for the systems supported by the anisotropic fluid, in contrast to the case of an isotropic fluid, where such deviations do not affect the magnetic field.

  2. Magnetic field spectrum at cosmological recombination revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2015-06-01

    If vector type perturbations are present in the primordial plasma before recombination, the generation of magnetic fields is known to be inevitable through the Harrison mechanism. In the context of the standard cosmological perturbation theory, nonlinear couplings of first-order scalar perturbations create second-order vector perturbations, which generate magnetic fields. Here we reinvestigate the generation of magnetic fields at second-order in cosmological perturbations on the basis of our previous study, and extend it by newly taking into account the time evolution of purely second-order vector perturbations with a newly developed second-order Boltzmann code. We confirm that the amplitude of magnetic fields from the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes is consistent with the result in our previous study. However, we find, both numerically and analytically, that the magnetic fields from the purely second-order vector perturbations partially cancel out the magnetic fields from one of the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes, in the tight coupling regime in the radiation dominated era. Therefore, the amplitude of the magnetic fields on small scales, k ?10 h Mpc-1 , is smaller than the previous estimates. The amplitude of the generated magnetic fields at cosmological recombination is about Brec=5.0 ×10-24 Gauss on k =5.0 ×10-1 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we discuss the reason for the discrepancies that exist in estimates of the amplitude of magnetic fields among other authors.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonances in weak fields

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Richard Warren

    1953-01-01

    ?s technique involves ~ su41ng a molecular beam through tuo sueeessive static magnetic fields shish have gradients in opposite direotions, While passing from ene magnetic field ts tho other~ the beam is irradiated eith electro-mag- nstio ?nsrgy? When tho...Lgneto The ssmple was placed in, the best pert of the field Then a permanent magnet was brought close to the solenoid& snd pointed to a spot gust beyond the sample in such a manner that, the field of the permanent magnet was roughly opposibx to that...

  4. Magnetic tracers, a probe of the solar convective layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes, Elizabeth; Bonnefond, Francois

    A meridional circulation of sunspots has been measured through the digital analysis of the Meudon spectroheliograms from 1978 to 1983. Old and young sunspots follow a zonal meridional circulation, in several bands of latitude, in which two adjacent bands have opposite motions. This meridional circulation pattern is time-dependent. Using the H filaments as magnetic field tracers, a large-scale magnetic pattern has been found that was also obtained independently by direct measurement of the magnetic field (Hoeksema, 1988). The coincidence of a large-scale magnetic pattern with a zonal meridional circulation suggests the existence of azimuthal rolls below the surface, and these azimuthal rolls can explain a number of properties of the solar cycle. New rolls occur with increasing proximity to the Equator, thereby indicating the direction of propagation of the dynamo wave. The occurrence of rolls is very favorable to the emergence of the magnetic regions. The rolls also influence the magnetic complexity of the active regions. They modulate the surface rotation through the Coriolis force, which accelerates or decelerates the fluid particles. They therefore offer a plausible explanation of the torsional oscillation pattern. There are a number of problems raised by such an unexpected circulation pattern: for example, the coexistence of axisymmeric rolls with hypothetical giant cells, the location of the dynamo source below or within the convective zone, and the coupling of the radiative interior and the convective layers. To resolve these important issues, continuous observational studies are needed of the manifestation of solar activity, as well as of radius and luminosity variations. So, we have aimed our paper at an audience of theoreticians in the hope that they take up the challenges we describe.

  5. Generation of the magnetic field in jets

    E-print Network

    V. Urpin

    2006-05-22

    We consider dynamo action under the combined influence of turbulence and large-scale shear in sheared jets. Shear can stretch turbulent magnetic field lines in such a way that even turbulent motions showing mirror symmetry become suitable for generation of a large-scale magnetic field. We derive the integral induction equation governing the behaviour of the mean field in jets. The main result is that sheared jets may generate a large-scale magnetic field if shear is sufficiently strong. The generated mean field is mainly concentrated in a magnetic sheath surrounding the central region of a jet, and it exhibits sign reversals in the direction of the jet axis. Typically, the magnetic field in a sheath is dominated by the component along the jet that can reach equipartition with the kinetic energy of particles, The field in the central region of jets has a more disordered structure.

  6. Soil gas carbon dioxide probe: laboratory testing and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P

    2013-05-01

    An automated semi-continuous on-line instrument has been developed to measure CO2 gas concentrations in the vadose zone. The instrument uses semi-permeable polymer tubing (CO2 probe) for diffusion based sampling, coupled to an infra red sensor. The system operated automatically by intermittently purging the CO2 probe, which was installed in the vadose zone, with a non-CO2 gas at a low flow rate. The gas exiting the CO2 probe was monitored at the ground surface using a miniature infra red sensor and the response related to the vadose zone soil gas CO2 concentration. The in situ CO2 probes provided a reliable monitoring technique under long-term (18 months) aggressive and dynamic field conditions, with no interference observed from non-CO2 gases and volatile organic compounds. The probes provided data that were comparable to conventional grab sampling techniques without the labour-intensive sample collection and processing associated with these conventional techniques. Also, disturbance to vadose zone CO2 profiles from repeated grab samples during long-term semi-continuous monitoring could potential be reduced by using the diffusion based sampling technique. PMID:23563305

  7. Development and application of a novel near-field microwave probe for local broadband characterization of ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatmane, Mahmoud Nadjib

    A novel near-field microwave probe is developed for the characterization of magnetic materials. The ferromagnetic resonance probe consists of a shorted micro-coax, where the current path is a Cu thin film that sits on top of a focused ion beam deposited buffer layer. The buffer layer creates a mechanically more robust probe and leads to an increase in sensitivity. This is demonstrated through measurements on a broad range of samples, from common magnetic materials such as NiFe, to advanced materials such as multiferroic nanocomposites, where the magnetization dynamics are more complex. The data from these measurements are used to extract parameters on both the static and dynamic properties of the probed sample, such as the anisotropy field and the intrinsic magnetic damping. These parameters are important in the design of magneto-electronic devices, like the components of a hard drive in the magnetic recording industry. The main attributes of this technique are that it is broadband, it is local with the potential to achieve higher spatial resolution, and it is a non-contact method, although it is possible to measure a material while in contact. Because of the probe's metallic tip, and the ability to come in contact with the sample, it was possible to extend the measurements to both magnetically and electrically characterize the multiferroic material, which is of interest for an advanced media concept (Electrically Assisted Magnetic Recording). Finally, the probe can also measure samples of any form factor (e.g. wafers, media disc, chips), and can therefore be used to characterize devices in their working environment, or between fabrication steps.

  8. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  9. Intralayer and interlayer exchange tuned by magnetic field in the bilayer manganite (La0.4Pr0.6)1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 probed by inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, F.; Hennion, M.; Gukasov, A.; Petit, S.; Regnault, L. P.; Ivanov, A.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Apostu, M.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2008-08-01

    The bilayer manganite La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 (LSMO) exhibits a phase transition from a paramagnetic insulating (PI) to a ferromagnetic metallic (FM) state with a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect. Upon 60% Pr substitution, both the magnetic order and the PI to FM transition are suppressed. However, application of a magnetic field induces a first-order transition to a FM state with a CMR effect. We report here inelastic neutron scattering from a single crystal of (La0.4Pr0.6)1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 under a magnetic field of 3.7 T, applied along the c axis and along the [110] direction. Our data reveal the in-plane exchange Jab close to that of the Pr-free compound LSMO although the interlayer exchange Jc is much smaller than that found in LSMO. Anisotropic lattice distortion induced by the smaller size of Pr3+ ion is considered to explain these results.

  10. Magnetic fields around BOK globules: CCD polarimetry of CB 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Brian D.; Clemens, Dan P.; Leach, Robert W.; Barvainis, Richard

    1995-05-01

    The small Bok globule CB 4 was probed using a CCD imaging polarimeter in order to create a detailed map of the magnetic field associated with this cloud. Stars as faint as 17th mag at V band were measured polarimetrically with uncertainties less than 1%. Sky transmission variations were minimized via a system of synchronous polaroid rotation and bidirectional charge shifting. In all, 80 stars behind the periphery of the globule were accurately analyzed polarimetrically. The large-scale (1-2 pc) magnetic field direction around CB 4 was found to be very uniform (P.A. = 63.3 deg +/- 1.1 deg). Double-Gaussian fitting of the polarization position angle histogram gave a dispersion of 10 deg about the primary field direction. Possible field-line compression was found inward of approximately 0.2 pc from the cloud center. No appreciable twisting of field lines was found. By plotting stellar separations against differences of polarization angles, CB 4 was found to have a magnetic field decorrelation length of approximately 0.1 pc, similar to the size of the visually opaque cire, but much smaller than the size of the bright optical rim or CO half-power contour of approximately 0.5 pc. The magnetic field decorrelation length may be related to a characteristic transient clumping size, or perhaps even to clumps of a more permanent nature.

  11. Investigation of the arcjet plume near field using electrostatic probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plum of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in) and 15 cm (5.9 in) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  12. Investigation of the Arcjet near Field Plume Using Electrostatic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plume of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in.) and 15 cm (5.9 in.) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in.) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in.) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  13. Magnetic phase control by an electric field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lottermoser; Thomas Lonkai; Uwe Amann; Dietmar Hohlwein; Jörg Ihringer; Manfred Fiebig

    2004-01-01

    The quest for higher data density in information storage is motivating investigations into approaches for manipulating magnetization by means other than magnetic fields. This is evidenced by the recent boom in magnetoelectronics and `spintronics', where phenomena such as carrier effects in magnetic semiconductors and high-correlation effects in colossal magnetoresistive compounds are studied for their device potential. The linear magnetoelectric effect-the

  14. Magnetic Field Mapping by Selective Equipotential Excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ouajdi Felfoul; Michelle Raimbert; Sylvain Martel

    2006-01-01

    A new magnetic field mapping method in MRI is presented. This technique is ideal for severe inhomogeneities where plane warp cannot be ignored. The present study employs a ferromagnetic ball to create a perturbation within the imaged volume. The magnetic moment and position of the device are acquired experimentally with a new technique that excites magnetic equipotentials within a volume.

  15. LABORATORY VI MAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    . · Calculate the motion of a particle with a constant acceleration. · Calculate the motion of a particle of the universe, the atomic structure of materials, and the quark structure of elementary particles. Magnetic; · Calculate the magnetic force on a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field and describe its

  16. A Large Volume Double Channel 1H-X RF Probe for Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance at 0.0475 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Wilkens, Ken; Waddell, Kevin W.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a large volume 340 mL 1H-X magnetic resonance (MR) probe for studies of hyperpolarized compounds at 0.0475 T. 1H/13C and 1H/15N probe configurations are demonstrated with the potential for extension to 1H/129Xe. The primary applications of this probe are preparation and quality assurance of 13C and 15N hyperpolarized contrast agents using PASADENA (parahydrogen and synthesis allow dramatically enhanced nuclear alignment) and other parahydrogen-based methods of hyperpolarization. The probe is efficient and permits 62 ?s 13C excitation pulses at 5.3 Watts, making it suitable for portable operation. The sensitivity and detection limits of this probe, tuned to 13C, are compared with a commercial radio frequency (RF) coil operating at 4.7 T. We demonstrate that low field MR of hyperpolarized contrast agents could be as sensitive as conventional high field detection and outline potential improvements and optimization of the probe design for preclinical in vivo MRI. PASADENA application of this low-power probe is exemplified with 13C hyperpolarized 2-hydroxyethyl propionate-1-13C,2,3,3-d3. PMID:22706029

  17. The Physics of Attraction and Repulsion: Magnetism and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakotte, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    The development of new materials with improved magnetic properties completely changed the modern world in the past decades. Recent progress is predominantly due to a better understanding of magnetism that has gone far beyond compass needles rotating in a magnetic field and bar magnets attracting or repelling each other. New magnetic materials are used to build smaller and smaller read/write heads and hard disks with increased storage capacity, developments that are responsible the revolution in the computer industry. Another example is the field of magnetic levitation that became feasible for commercial applications with the discovery of new superconducting materials, and a prototype train is under development in Japan. In medicine, the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an alternative to other (destructive) radiation techniques.

  18. Simple Method for the Automatic Recording of the Internal Magnetic Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Asti; F. Conti

    1968-01-01

    Pick-up coil systems suitable for magnetization measurements are shown to be useful also for the automatic recording of the internal magnetic field of an ellipsoidal specimen. The probe is made to operate in this way not with the need of special devices, but simply by properly changing the coil's position. The accuracy in the measurement is essentially limited by eddy

  19. Using Experiment and Computer Modeling to Determine the Off-Axis Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lietor-Santos, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ideal solenoid is a common topic among introductory-based physics textbooks and a typical current arrangement in laboratory hands-on experiences where the magnetic field inside a solenoid is determined at different currents and at different distances from its center using a magnetic probe. It additionally provides a very simple…

  20. Self-magnetic-field-limiting current of intense relativistic electron beam under externally applied magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Guo-zhi; Song Xiao-xin

    1998-01-01

    The self-magnetic-field-limiting current of intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) without an externally applied magnetic field is reported and briefly commented in this paper. By using dynamic balance method the self-magnetic-field-limiting current of IREB under externally applied magnetic field is derived, showing that in this case it will increase. This result is obtained for the first time, so far as we

  1. Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Graphene Nanoribbon in Sharply Localized Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Abdulaziz D. Alhaidari; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

    2013-03-20

    We study the effect of a sharply localized magnetic field on the electron transport in a strip (ribbon) of graphene sheet, which allows to give results for the transmission and reflection probability through magnetic barriers. The magnetic field is taken as a single and double delta type localized functions, which are treated later as the zero width limit of gaussian fields. For both field configurations, we evaluate analytically and numerically their transmission and reflection coefficients. The possibility of spacial confinement due to the inhomogeneous field configuration is also investigated.

  3. Inclination angle of vector magnetic fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanping, Lü; Wang, Jingxiu

    1994-11-01

    The authors further elaborate on an empirical method to improve the consistency of the line-of-sight and transverse field calibration. The method can also be used to check the transverse field calibration. Furthermore, based on the correction, the authors calculate the inclination angle of the vector magnetic field related to the solar surface, which can give some information on how the vector magnetic field is distributed in space.

  4. Coronal magnetic fields produced by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Yang, W.-H.

    1987-01-01

    The magneto-frictional method is used for computing force free fields to examine the evolution of the magnetic field of a line dipole, when there is relative shearing motion between the two polarities. It found that the energy of the sheared field can be arbitrarily large compared with the potential field. It is also found that it is possible to fit the magnetic energy, as a function of shear, by a simple functional form.

  5. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.

  6. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

  7. Field Corrections of Open MRI Superconducting Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tetsuya; Ariyoshi, Akihiko; Tanabe, Hajime

    We constructed open MRI superconducting magnets with an iron yoke that generates a 0.7T highly uniform magnetic field. A program that compensates for the error field of those magnets was developed that uses linear programming to achieve an optimal arrangement of a large number of small iron shims. Since additional homogeneity compensation near the target value becomes difficult, we also used nonlinear programming. We must evaluate all shim magnetizations precisely by making a 3D finite element shim model. Since, it is impossible to make such shims in a large magnet model, we describe a fast calculation method of shim magnetizations without that model. Homogeneity of 0.35ppm (Vrms) at 35cm Diameter Spherical Volume (DSV), which is the top value of an open MRI magnet, is obtained by applying these methods. The number of correction times were reduced by half of initial manufactured magnets.

  8. Equivalence of periodic magnetic field to uniform magnetic field in electron beam focusing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ura; M. Terada

    1966-01-01

    The general solution of the electron trajectory equation in a periodic magnetic field is derived in the form of series expansion, assuming laminar electron flow and small perturbation. It is concluded that if the cathode is not very heavily immersed in a magnetic field, beam focusing by a periodic magnetic field would be almost equivalent to that by a uniform

  9. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence of self-assembled InAsGaAs quantum dots in pulsed magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    magnetic fields T. Nuytten* INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Pulsed Fields Group, K-function extent and effective mass, we use very high pulsed magnetic fields of up to 50 T to probe the PLTemperature dependence of the photoluminescence of self-assembled InAsÕGaAs quantum dots in pulsed

  10. Poloidal mode analysis of magnetic probe data in a spherical tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, H.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Adachi, Y. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Gryaznevich, M. P. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    A method to determine the poloidal mode number m in a spherical tokamak based on magnetic probe data was developed. Perturbed magnetic fields at Mirnov coils are calculated for distributed helical filamentary currents on rational surfaces assuming the maximum current amplitude, m and n (toroidal mode number), and the toroidal location of the filaments. These free parameters were determined from the best fit to the measured signals. The residual error was reduced by a factor of 2 by introducing helical filaments instead of toroidal filaments. Using this method, m/n=2/1 and 3/2 modes were identified in Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak discharges, and the time evolution of the tearing modes was derived.

  11. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaime, M.; Lacerda, A.; Takano, Y.; Boebinger, G. S.

    2006-11-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, established in 1990 with support from the National Science Foundation, the State of Florida, and the US Department of Energy, is a facility open to external users around the world. The experimental capabilities are distributed in three campuses. In Tallahassee, Florida, continuous magnetic fields are produced by means of superconducting and resistive magnets reaching fields of up to 33T (resistive), and 45T (hybrid). EMR, ICR, and a 900MHz wide bore NMR magnet are also available. The facility in Gainesville, Florida, is devoted to generating extremely low temperatures in the presence of external magnetic fields (15T, down to 0.4mK), and large MRI imaging capabilities. In Los Alamos, New Mexico, a 9 kV-capable capacitor bank and a number of different liquid Nitrogen-cooled resistive magnets produce repetitive pulses up to 75 T and now a single-shot pulsed up to 300T.

  12. Two-axis magnetic field sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.

  13. Coronal holes and solar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, J. W.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1972 nearly continuous observations of coronal holes and their associated photospheric magnetic fields have been made using a variety of satellite and ground-based equipment. The present paper reviews the results of comparisons of these data and shows that the structure and evolution of coronal holes is basically governed by the large-scale distribution of photospheric magnetic flux. Nonpolar holes form in the decaying remnants of bipolar magnetic regions in areas with a large-scale flux imbalance. In addition, there is strong indirect evidence that the magnetic field in coronal holes is always open to interplanetary space, but not all open-field regions have associated coronal holes.

  14. Magnetic fields and rotation of spiral galaxies

    E-print Network

    E. Battaner; H. Lesch; E. Florido

    1998-02-02

    We present a simplified model in which we suggest that two important galactic problems -the magnetic field configuration at large scales and the flat rotation curve- may be simultaneously explained. A highly convective disc produces a high turbulent magnetic diffusion in the vertical direction, stablishing a merging of extragalactic and galactic magnetic fields. The outer disc may then adquire a magnetic energy gradient very close to the gradient required to explain the rotation curve, without the hypothesis of galactic dark matter. Our model predicts symmetries of the galactic field in noticeable agreement with the large scale structure of our galaxy.

  15. High concentration ferronematics in low magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    T. Tóth-Katona; P. Salamon; N. Éber; N. Tomašovi?ová; Z. Mitróová; P. Kop?anský

    2014-09-05

    We investigated experimentally the magneto-optical and dielectric properties of magnetic-nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals (ferronematics). Our studies focus on the effect of the very small orienting bias magnetic field $B_{bias}$, and that of the nematic director pretilt at the boundary surfaces in our systems sensitive to low magnetic fields. Based on the results we assert that $B_{bias}$ is not necessarily required for a detectable response to low magnetic fields, and that the initial pretilt, as well as the aggregation of the nanoparticles play an important (though not yet explored enough) role.

  16. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (?) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low ? and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers' turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. PMID:25494726

  17. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  18. Decay of positronium in strong magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wunner; H. Herold

    1979-01-01

    We investigate the decay of bound electron-positron pairs (positronium) in strong magnetic fields (of order 1012 Gauss, which are assumed for neutron stars) on the basis of a correct treatment of the two-body problem, thus improving previous work by Carr and Sutherland (1978). We find that, even in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the decay of the ground

  19. Ensemble Solar Global Magnetic Field Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Henney; C. N. Arge; J. Koller; W. A. Toussaint; S. L. Young; J. W. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The ability to forecast geoeffective space weather events is critically dependent on the estimation of the global solar photospheric magnetic field distribution as input to coronal and heliospheric models. Currently, the solar magnetic field can only be recorded for approximately half of the solar surface at any given time. Since the rotation period of the Sun as observed from Earth

  20. Photon-neutrino interactions in magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Shaisultanov R

    1998-02-28

    The low-energy two neutrino-two photon interactions in the presence of homogeneous magnetic field are studied. The cross sections in external magnetic field are shown to be larger than in vacuum by factor $\\sim (m_W /m_e) ^4(B/B_c) ^2$. The energy-loss rate due to the process $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \

  1. Lengthwise field variation in CBA magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willen

    1984-01-01

    The multipole content of the magnetic field in accelerator superconducting magnets built with a cos theta current distribution inside an iron yoke is determined by the placement of the individual current-carrying turns in the coil, by the location of the coil inside the iron yoke and by the amount of iron saturation at high field. Differences in these parameters cause

  2. Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Baiko, D. A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The body-centered-cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic-field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields B > or approx. 10{sup 14} G). The effect of the magnetic field on ion displacements in a strongly magnetized neutron star crust can suppress the nuclear reaction rates and make them extremely sensitive to the magnetic-field direction.

  3. Line Sink in Uniform Magnetic Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai Prakash Narain; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1971-01-01

    The motion of an inviscid, incompressible, and conducting fluid due to a line sink in a uniform strong magnetic field is considered. The solutions show that motion is confined in a narrow region parallel to the magnetic field. Such a motion for a point sink has erroneously been named as a wake or backward jet flow. Finally, the known solution

  4. Directional discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard F. Burlaga

    1969-01-01

    It is shown that the interplanetary magnetic field has different characteristics on different scales, and it is noted that a given physical theory may not be applicable or relevant on all scales. Four scales are defined in terms of time intervals on which the data may be viewed. Many discontinuities in the magnetic-field direction are seen on the mesoscale (˜

  5. On the origins of galactic magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    A. Borzou; H. R. Sepangi; R. Yousefi; A. H. Ziaie

    2009-11-18

    We present a five dimensional unified theory of gravity and electromagnetism which leads to modified Maxwell equations, suggesting a new origin for galactic magnetic fields. It is shown that a region with nonzero scalar curvature would amplify the magnetic fields under certain conditions.

  6. Magnetic fields, branes, and noncommutative geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Bigatti; Leonard Susskind

    2000-01-01

    We construct a simple physical model of a particle moving on the infinite noncommutative 2-plane. The model consists of a pair of opposite charges moving in a strong magnetic field. In addition, the charges are connected by a spring. In the limit of large magnetic field, the charges are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. Interactions of such particles include

  7. Magnetic Fields in Stars: Origin and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, N.

    2014-08-01

    Various types of magnetic fields occur in stars: small scale fields, large scale fields, and internal toroidal fields. While the latter may be ubiquitous in stars due to differential rotation, small scale fields (spots) may be associated with envelop convection in all low and high mass stars. The stable large scale fields found in only about 10% of intermediate mass and massive stars may be understood as a consequence of dynamical binary interaction, e.g., the merging of two stars in a binary. We relate these ideas to magnetic fields in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and to their role in core-collapse and thermonuclear supernova explosions.

  8. Solar Mean Magnetic Field Observed by GONG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Harvey; G. Petrie; R. Clark

    2009-01-01

    The average line-of-sight (LOS) magnetic field of the Sun has been observed for decades, either by measuring the circular polarization across a selected spectrum line using integrated sunlight or by averaging such measurements in spatially resolved images. The GONG instruments produce full-disk LOS magnetic images every minute, which can be averaged to yield the mean magnetic field nearly continuously. Such

  9. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O. (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  10. A simple, small and low cost permanent magnet design to produce homogeneous magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, B.; Benecke, M.; Volke, F.

    2008-05-01

    A new portable, pocket-size NMR probe based on a novel permanent magnet arrangement is presented. It is based on a Halbach-type magnet design which mimics the field of a spherical dipole by using cylindrical bar and ring magnets. The magnet system is made up of only three individual magnets, and most field calculations and optimisations can be performed analytically. A prototype system has been built using a set of small, off the shelf commercially available permanent magnets. Proton linewidths of 50 ppm FWHM could be achieved at a field strength of 1 T. Calculations show that with custom-sized permanent magnets, linewidths of less than 1 ppm can be achieved over sample volumes of up to 1 mm 3, which would in theory enable chemical shift resolved proton spectroscopy on mass-limited samples. But even with the achieved linewidth of 50 ppm, this can be a useful portable sensor for small amounts of liquid samples with restricted molecular mobility, like gels, polymers or high viscosity liquids.

  11. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    E-print Network

    Jan Rusz; Juan-Carlos Idrobo; Somnath Bhowmick

    2014-08-13

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase distribution using the aberration-corrected optics of an scanning transmission electron microscope. The required phase distribution of the probe depends on the magnetic symmetry and crystal structure of the sample. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals utilizing the phase of the electron probe are as strong as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.

  12. Manipulation of Raman Resonances Using Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desavage, Sara A.; Davis, Jon P.; Narducci, Frank A.

    2012-06-01

    We have theoretically and experimentally studied Raman resonances in multi-level atoms (specifically ^85Rb). Our emphasis has been on varying the relative orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the propagation direction of the Raman fields. We find that, in general, the spectrum consists of up to 11 peaks. By considering selection rules, we show that it is possible to orient the magnetic field so that either a 6 peak spectrum or 5 peak spectrum results, depending on whether the Raman fields contain a polarization component along the magnetic field direction or not. Furthermore, we find that the spectrum is not always symmetric with respect to the magnetically insensitive transition (clock transition). We explore the origins of the asymmetry and the overall shape of the spectra. We will discuss applications to magnetically sensitive atom interferometry.

  13. Processing of polymers in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, E.P.; Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Earls, J.D.; Priester, R.D. Jr. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Many organic molecules and polymers have an anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility, and thus can be aligned in high magnetic fields. The presence of liquid crystallinity allows cooperative motions of the individual molecules, and thus the magnetic energy becomes greater than the thermal energy at experimentally obtainable field strengths. This work has determined the effect of magnetic field alignment on the thermal expansion and mechanical properties of liquid crystalline thermosets in the laboratory. Further advances in magnet design are needed to make magnetic field alignment a commercially viable approach to polymer processing. The liquid crystal thermoset chosen for this study is the diglycidyl ether of dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene cured with the diamine sulfamilamide. This thermoset has been cured at field strengths up to 18 Tesla.

  14. Electric fields and currents in front of a biased electrode (flush mounted probe) and the I - V characteristics of the electrode for various mechanisms of transverse conductivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Rozhansky; A. A. Ushakov; S. P. Voskoboynikov

    1999-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of a biased electrode (flush mounted probe) and the potential and current distributions are analysed for three basic mechanisms of conductivity across the magnetic field (viscosity, inertia, ion-neutral collisions) in a fully ionized plasma for probe sizes larger than the ion gyro-radius. The analysis was performed both analytically (for small probe potentials) and numerically. It is shown

  15. Laser-produced plasmas interaction with high pulsed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolowski, J.; Kasperczuk, A.; Parys, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Woryna, E.; Zakharov, Yu P.

    1999-03-01

    This work presents results of two experiments accomplished at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) in Warsaw: (1) investigations of the influence of magnetic field on a laser-produced plasma in the presence or absence of the background plasma, (2) investigations of dynamics of laser-produced plasma in a strong magnetic field. The aim of experiment 1 (performed in collaboration with the Institute of Laser Physics (ILP) RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) was laboratory simulation of depolarization and deflection of plasma streams drifting across magnetic field in geoplasma background. An Nd:glass laser (5 ns, 2 J) was used to produce the plasma inside Helmholtz coils 0741-3335/41/3A/069/img9. The diagnostics for studying the interaction processes were: ion collectors, Langmuir and magnetic probes and an image converter camera. We present a comparison of the effects investigated in that experiment with some phenomena occurring in the geoplasma. In experiment 2 the plasma was produced by means of a Nd:glass laser (1 ns, 10 J) focused on a solid target located in a single-turn coil 0741-3335/41/3A/069/img10. Plasma expansion was investigated with an automated interferometer along the magnetic field lines and perpendicular to these lines. From the interferograms, it has been revealed that the plasma stream has a clear asymmetry for 0741-3335/41/3A/069/img11 caused by an unmagnetized ion Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  16. Chaotic magnetic fields: Particle motion and energization

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Brahmananda [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Ram, Abhay K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Li, Xiaocan [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2014-02-11

    Magnetic field line equations correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system, so the features of a Hamiltonian systems can easily be adopted for discussing some essential features of magnetic field lines. The integrability of the magnetic field line equations are discussed by various authors and it can be shown that these equations are, in general, not integrable. We demonstrate several examples of realistic chaotic magnetic fields, produced by asymmetric current configurations. Particular examples of chaotic force-free field and non force-free fields are shown. We have studied, for the first time, the motion of a charged particle in chaotic magnetic fields. It is found that the motion of a charged particle in a chaotic magnetic field is not necessarily chaotic. We also showed that charged particles moving in a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field are energized. Such energization processes could play a dominant role in particle energization in several astrophysical environments including solar corona, solar flares and cosmic ray propagation in space.

  17. Probe for measurements of the DC electric field in air around high voltage apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Johansson; L. Walfridsson; U. Ga?fvert; B. Ka?llstrand; S. Ho?rnfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the external field distribution around high voltage apparatus is of vital importance. As a part of the effort to improve the physical understanding of the DC field distribution outside high voltage apparatus, a small probe that can measure DC electric fields has been developed and a first version of this probe has been tested. The probe is 26

  18. Quark condensate in a magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Shushpanov, I A

    1997-01-01

    We study the dependence of quark condensate $\\Sigma$ on an external magnetic field. For weak fields, it rises linearly with the field. Pion mass and residue are also shifted so that the Gell-Mann - Oakes - Renner relation is satisfied. In the strong field region, $\\Sigma(H) \\propto (eH)^{3/2}$.

  19. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, B.R.; Kaushik, S.

    1999-05-18

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below is disclosed. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations. 8 figs.

  20. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, Brian R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaushik, Sumanth (Cambridge, MA)

    1999-01-01

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations.

  1. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  2. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinelli, Gabriella [Centro Tecnológico, FES Aragón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Rancho Seco S/N, Bosques de Aragón, Nezahualcóyotl, Estado de México 57130 (Mexico)] [Centro Tecnológico, FES Aragón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Rancho Seco S/N, Bosques de Aragón, Nezahualcóyotl, Estado de México 57130 (Mexico); Sánchez, Ángel [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)] [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-07-23

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

  3. The spatial distribution and time evolution of impact-generated magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    The production of magnetic fields was revealed by laboratory hypervelocity impacts in easily vaporized targets. As quantified by pressure measurements, high frame-rate photography, and electrostatic probes, these impacts tend to produce large quantities of slightly ionized vapor, which is referred to as impact-generated plasma. Nonaligned electron density and temperature gradients within this plasma may lead to production of the observed magnetic fields. Past experiments were limited to measuring a single component of the impact-generated magnetic fields at only a few locations about the developing impact crater and consequently gave little information about the field production mechanism. To understand this mechanism, the techniques were extended to map the three components of the magnetic field both in space and time. By conducting many otherwise identical experiments with arrayed magnetic detectors, a preliminary 3-D picture was produced of impact-generated magnetic fields as they develop through time.

  4. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

  5. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices. PMID:23364687

  6. Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandrone, M.; Placidi, G.; Testa, L.; Sotgiu, A.

    2000-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter. In clinical analysis of peripheral regions of the body (legs, arms, foot, knee, etc.) it would be better to adopt much less expensive magnets leaving the most expensive instruments to applications that require the insertion of the patient in the magnet (head, thorax, abdomen, etc.). These "dedicated" apparati could be smaller and based on resistive magnets that are manufactured and operated at very low cost, particularly if they utilize an iron yoke to reduce power requirements. In order to obtain good field uniformity without the use of a set of shimming coils, we propose both particular construction of a dedicated magnet, using four independently controlled pairs of coils, and an optimization-based strategy for computing, a posteriori, the optimal current values. The optimization phase could be viewed as a low-cost shimming procedure for obtaining the desired magnetic field configuration. Some experimental measurements, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach (construction and optimization), have also been reported. In particular, it has been shown that the adoption of the proposed optimization based strategy has allowed the achievement of good uniformity of the magnetic field in about one fourth of the magnet length and about one half of its bore. On the basis of the good experimental results, the dedicated magnet can be used for MRI of peripheral regions of the body and for animal experimentation at very low cost.

  7. Casimir Effect in External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the Casimir effect for charged fields in presence of external magnetic field. We consider scalar field (connected with spinless particles) and the Dirac field (connected with 1/2-spin particles). In both cases we describe quantum field using the canonical formalism. We obtain vacuum energy by direct solving field equations and using the mode summation method. In order to compute the renormalized vacuum energy we use the Abel--Plana formula.

  8. Origin of magnetic fields in galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Microgauss magnetic fields are observed in all galaxies at low and high redshifts. The origin of these intense magnetic fields is a challenging question in astrophysics. We show here that the natural plasma fluctuations in the primordial Universe (assumed to be random), predicted by the fluctuation -dissipation theorem, predicts {approx}0.034 {mu}G fields over {approx}0.3 kpc regions in galaxies. If the dipole magnetic fields predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem are not completely random, microgauss fields over regions > or approx. 0.34 kpc are easily obtained. The model is thus a strong candidate for resolving the problem of the origin of magnetic fields in < or approx. 10{sup 9} years in high redshift galaxies.

  9. Decay of Resonaces in Strong Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    Peter Filip

    2015-04-27

    We suggest that decay properties (branching ratios) of hadronic resonances may become modified in strong external magnetic field. The behavior of $K^{\\pm *}\\!$, $K^{0*}$ vector mesons as well as $\\Lambda^*(1520)$ and $\\Xi^{0*}$ baryonic states is considered in static fields $10^{13}$-\\,$10^{15}$ T. In particular, $n=0$ Landau level energy increase of charged particles in the external magnetic field, and the interaction of hadron magnetic moments with the field is taken into account. We suggest that enhanced yield of dileptons and photons from $\\rho^0(770)$ mesons may occur if strong decay channel $\\rho^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$ is significantly suppressed. CP - violating $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays of pseudoscalar $\\eta_c$ and $\\eta(547)$ mesons in the magnetic field are discussed, and superpositions of quarkonium states $\\eta_{c,b}$ and $\\chi_{c,b}(nP)$ with $\\Psi(nS), \\Upsilon(nS)$ mesons in the external field are considered.

  10. Magnetic phase control by an electric field.

    PubMed

    Lottermoser, Thomas; Lonkai, Thomas; Amann, Uwe; Hohlwein, Dietmar; Ihringer, Jörg; Fiebig, Manfred

    2004-07-29

    The quest for higher data density in information storage is motivating investigations into approaches for manipulating magnetization by means other than magnetic fields. This is evidenced by the recent boom in magnetoelectronics and 'spintronics', where phenomena such as carrier effects in magnetic semiconductors and high-correlation effects in colossal magnetoresistive compounds are studied for their device potential. The linear magnetoelectric effect-the induction of polarization by a magnetic field and of magnetization by an electric field-provides another route for linking magnetic and electric properties. It was recently discovered that composite materials and magnetic ferroelectrics exhibit magnetoelectric effects that exceed previously known effects by orders of magnitude, with the potential to trigger magnetic or electric phase transitions. Here we report a system whose magnetic phase can be controlled by an external electric field: ferromagnetic ordering in hexagonal HoMnO3 is reversibly switched on and off by the applied field via magnetoelectric interactions. We monitor this process using magneto-optical techniques and reveal its microscopic origin by neutron and X-ray diffraction. From our results, we identify basic requirements for other candidate materials to exhibit magnetoelectric phase control. PMID:15282600

  11. Polarized radiation diagnostics of stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Gautier

    The main techniques used to diagnose magnetic fields in stars from polarimetric observations are presented. First, a summary of the physics of spectral line formation in the presence of a magnetic field is given. Departures from the simple case of linear Zeeman effect are briefly considered: partial Paschen-Back effect, contribution of hyperfine structure, and combined Stark and Zeeman effects. Important approximate solutions of the equation of transfer of polarized light in spectral lines are introduced. The procedure for disk-integration of emergent Stokes profiles, which is central to stellar magnetic field studies, is described, with special attention to the treatment of stellar rotation. This formalism is used to discuss the determination of the mean longitudinal magnetic field (through the photographic technique and through Balmer line photopolarimetry). This is done within the specific framework of Ap stars, which, with their unique large-scale organized magnetic fields, are an ideal laboratory for studies of stellar magnetism. Special attention is paid to those Ap stars whose magnetically split line components are resolved in high-dispersion Stokes I spectra, and to the determination of their mean magnetic field modulus. Various techniques of exploitation of the information contained in polarized spectral line profiles are reviewed: the moment technique (in particular, the determination of the crossover and of the mean quadratic field), Zeeman-Doppler imaging, and least-squares deconvolution. The prospects that these methods open for linear polarization studies are sketched. The way in which linear polarization diagnostics complement their Stokes I and V counterparts is emphasized by consideration of the results of broad band linear polarization measurements. Illustrations of the use of various diagnostics to derive properties of the magnetic fields of Ap stars are given. This is used to show the interest of deriving more physically realistic models of the geometric structure of these fields. How this can possibly be achieved is briefly discussed. An overview of the current status of polarimetric studies of magnetic fields in non-degenerate stars of other types is presented. The final section is devoted to magnetic fields of white dwarfs. Current knowledge of magnetic fields of isolated white dwarfs is briefly reviewed. Diagnostic techniques are discussed, with particular emphasis on the variety of physical processes to be considered for understanding of spectral line formation over the broad range of magnetic field strengths encountered in these stars.

  12. Laser-generated magnetic fields in quasi-hohlraum geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Bradley; Turnbull, David; Ross, Steven; Hazi, Andrew; Ralph, Joseph; Lepape, Sebastian; Froula, Dustin; Haberberger, Dan; Moody, John

    2014-10-01

    Laser-generated magnetic fields of 10--40 T have been produced with 100--4000 J laser drives at Omega EP and Titan. The fields are generated using the technique described by Daido et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 846 (1986)], which works by directing a laser through a hole in one plate to strike a second plate. Hot electrons generated in the laser-produced plasma on the second plate collect on the first plate. A strap connects the two plates allowing a current of 10 s of kA to flow and generate a solenoidal magnetic field. The magnetic field is characterized using Faraday rotation, b-dot probes, and proton radiography. Further experiments to study the effect of the magnetic field on hohlraum performance are currently scheduled for Omega. This work was performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA-27344.

  13. Sources of Magnetic Field Magnetic Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    + y2 6 Force between two bits of wire Field from bottom wire at top wire: F = Itop LBB = µ0Ibottom 2r Force on top wire: F/L = µ0IbottomItop 2r F = 1 4 0 q1q2 r2viz. 7 SI definition of the ampere: "One

  14. Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy of Magnetic Vortices inVery Underdoped yttrium-barium-copper-oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guikema, Janice Wynn; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-12-02

    Since their discovery by Bednorz and Mueller (1986), high-temperature cuprate superconductors have been the subject of intense experimental research and theoretical work. Despite this large-scale effort, agreement on the mechanism of high-T{sub c} has not been reached. Many theories make their strongest predictions for underdoped superconductors with very low superfluid density n{sub s}/m*. For this dissertation I implemented a scanning Hall probe microscope and used it to study magnetic vortices in newly available single crystals of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (Liang et al. 1998, 2002). These studies have disproved a promising theory of spin-charge separation, measured the apparent vortex size (an upper bound on the penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab}), and revealed an intriguing phenomenon of ''split'' vortices. Scanning Hall probe microscopy is a non-invasive and direct method for magnetic field imaging. It is one of the few techniques capable of submicron spatial resolution coupled with sub-{Phi}{sub 0} (flux quantum) sensitivity, and it operates over a wide temperature range. Chapter 2 introduces the variable temperature scanning microscope and discusses the scanning Hall probe set-up and scanner characterizations. Chapter 3 details my fabrication of submicron GaAs/AlGaAs Hall probes and discusses noise studies for a range of probe sizes, which suggest that sub-100 nm probes could be made without compromising flux sensitivity. The subsequent chapters detail scanning Hall probe (and SQUID) microscopy studies of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} crystals with T{sub c} {le} 15 K. Chapter 4 describes two experimental tests for visons, essential excitations of a spin-charge separation theory proposed by Senthil and Fisher (2000, 2001b). We searched for predicted hc/e vortices (Wynn et al. 2001) and a vortex memory effect (Bonn et al. 2001) with null results, placing upper bounds on the vison energy inconsistent with the theory. Chapter 5 discusses imaging of isolated vortices as a function of T{sub c}. Vortex images were fit with theoretical magnetic field profiles in order to extract the apparent vortex size. The data for the lowest T{sub c}'s (5 and 6.5 K) show some inhomogeneity and suggest that {lambda}{sub ab} might be larger than predicted by the T{sub c} {proportional_to} n{sub s}(0)/m* relation first suggested by results of Uemura et al. (1989) for underdoped cuprates. Finally, Chapter 6 examines observations of apparent ''partial vortices'' in the crystals. My studies of these features indicate that they are likely split pancake vortex stacks. Qualitatively, these split stacks reveal information about pinning and anisotropy in the samples. Collectively these magnetic imaging studies deepen our knowledge of cuprate superconductivity, especially in the important regime of low superfluid density.

  15. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-Field Plume of the NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to further the design of future high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for ongoing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the 50-kW NASA-457Mv2. An electrostatic probe array comprised of a near-field Faraday probe, single Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the near-field plume from approximately 0.1 ? 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at the following operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V and 500 V at 30 kW and 500 V at 50 kW. Results have shown that the acceleration zone is limited to within 0.4 mean thruster diameters of the exit plane while the high-temperature region is limited to 0.25 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all four operating conditions. Maximum plasma potentials in the near-field at 300 and 400 V were approximately 50 V with respect to cathode potential, while maximum electron temperatures varied from 24 ? 32 eV, depending on operating condition. Isothermal lines at all operating conditions were found to strongly resemble the magnetic field topology in the high-temperature regions. This distribution was found to create regions of high temperature and low density near the magnetic poles, indicating strong, thick sheath formation along these surfaces. The data taken from this study are considered valuable for future design as well as modeling validation.

  16. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to further the design of future high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for ongoing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the 50-kW NASA-457Mv2. An electrostatic probe array comprised of a near-field Faraday probe, single Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the near-field plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at the following operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V and 500 V at 30 kW and 500 V at 50 kW. Results have shown that the acceleration zone is limited to within 0.4 mean thruster diameters of the exit plane while the high-temperature region is limited to 0.25 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all four operating conditions. Maximum plasma potentials in the near-field at 300 and 400 V were approximately 50 V with respect to cathode potential, while maximum electron temperatures varied from 24 - 32 eV, depending on operating condition. Isothermal lines at all operating conditions were found to strongly resemble the magnetic field topology in the high-temperature regions. This distribution was found to create regions of high temperature and low density near the magnetic poles, indicating strong, thick sheath formation along these surfaces. The data taken from this study are considered valuable for future design as well as modeling validation.

  17. Radiative processes in strong magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Harding

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of electromagnetic processes in strong magnetic fields is currently of great interest in high-energy astrophysics. Strong magnetic fields affect the physics in several fundamental ways: energies perpendicular to the field are quantized, transverse momentum is not conserved and electron\\/positron spin is important. The relaxation of transverse momentum conservation allows first order processes and their inverses: one-photon pair production

  18. Origin of magnetic fields in galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael S. de Souza; Reuven Opher

    2010-01-01

    Microgauss magnetic fields are observed in all galaxies at low and high redshifts. The origin of these intense magnetic fields is a challenging question in astrophysics. We show here that the natural plasma fluctuations in the primordial Universe (assumed to be random), predicted by the fluctuation -dissipation theorem, predicts â0.034 μG fields over â0.3 kpc regions in galaxies. If the

  19. Emittance measurement in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.

    1991-04-15

    Emittance can be measured by intercepting an electron beam on a range thick plate and then observing the expansion of beamlets transmitted through small holes. The hole size is selected to minimize space charge effects. In the presence of a magnetic field the beamlets have a spiral trajectory and the usual field free formulation must be modified. To interpret emittance in the presence of a magnetic field an envelope equation is derived in the appropriate rotating frame. 1 ref.

  20. Turbulence and Magnetic Fields in Astrophysical Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Schekochihin; Steven C Cowley

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields permeate the Universe. They are found in planets, stars, accretion discs, galaxies, clusters of galaxies,\\u000a and the intergalactic medium. While there is often a component of the field that is spatially coherent at the scale of the\\u000a astrophysical object, the field lines are tangled chaotically and there are magnetic fluctuations at scales that range over\\u000a orders of magnitude.

  1. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim V. Kashikhint; Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good

  2. Development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Pulse Sequences and Probes to Study Biomacromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cosman, M; Krishnan, V V; Maxwell, R

    2001-02-26

    The determination of the three dimensional structures at high resolution of biomolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, enables us to understand their function at the molecular level. At the present time, there are only two methods available for determining such structures, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared to well-established X-ray diffraction techniques, NMR methodology is relatively new and has many areas in which improvement can still be attained. In this project, we focused on the development of new NMR probes and pulse sequences that were tailored to tackle specific problems that are not adequately addressed by current technology. Probes are the hardware that contain the radio frequency (RF) circuitry used to both excite and detect the NMR signals. Pulse sequences are composed of a series of RF pulses and delays, which are applied to the sample held within the magnetic field by the probe, so as to manipulate the nuclear spins. Typically, a probe is developed for a specific set of nuclei and types of experiments and the pulse sequences are then written to use the probe in an optimal manner. In addition, the inter-development of instrumentation and methods are determined by the specific biological question to be examined. Thus our efforts focused on addressing an area of importance in NMR Structural Biology namely more effective ways to use the phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nucleus. Phosphorus is a very important biological element that is strategically located in nucleic acids, where it imparts negative charge and flexibility to RNA and DNA. It is also a component of the cellular membrane and thus interacts with membrane proteins. It is used in mechanisms to signal, activate or deactivate enzymes; and participates in energy storage and release. However, the phosphorus nucleus exhibits certain properties, such as poor spectral dispersion, low sensitivity of detection, and fast relaxation, which limit its effective use in NMR studies of biomolecules. Our unique combination of expertise at LLNL allowed us to tackle each of the negative features of {sup 31}P-NMR in a three-pronged, concerted effort. The nature of our work necessitated an interdependent, multidisciplinary approach that required knowledge of spin physics (pulse sequences), engineering (probes), and structural biology (sample preparation and structure determination).

  3. Earth-directed ICME magnetic field configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Vourlidas, Angelos; Adam, Szabo; Neel, Savani; Mays Leila, M.; Hidalgo Miguel, A.; Wenyuan, Yu

    2015-04-01

    It is known that the geoeffectiveness of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) depends on their magnetic field configuration. However, it remains unclear how the ICME interactions with the solar wind or other solar transient structures affect their magnetic configuration through, say, distortion of their cross-section, or deformation of their front. Obviously, precise space weather forecasting is depended on precise understanding of the evolution of the ICME internal magnetic topology. The goal of this study is to identify the ambient solar wind parameters that affect the flux-rope geometry and magnetic field configuration.

  4. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    SciTech Connect

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius.

  5. Probing Strong Gravitational Fields in X-ray Novae

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey E. McClintock

    1998-02-06

    Most X-ray novae (aka soft X-ray transients) contain black hole primaries. In particular, the large mass functions measured for six X-ray novae directly clinch the argument (within general relativity) that they contain black holes. These firm dynamical results are discussed, and the urgent need to determine precise masses for black holes is stressed. The dynamical evidence for black holes is convincing but it is indirect. Now it appears that direct evidence may be at hand. Three recent studies have revealed phenomena that very likely probe strong gravitational fields: (1) a comparison of the luminosities of black hole systems and neutron star systems has yielded compelling evidence for the existence of event horizons; (2) RXTE observations of fast, stable QPOs have probed the very inner accretion disks of two black holes; and (3) three different types of low energy spectra have been linked to different black-hole spin states (e.g. Kerr vs. Schwarzschild).

  6. 3D analysis of applied field effect on trapped magnetic field during pulsed field magnetization of bulk superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi Khene, Mohamed; Alloui, Lotfi; Mimoune, Souri Mohamed; Bouillault, Frédéric; Feliachi, Mouloud

    2014-04-01

    External applied field effect in magnetization process by pulsed field (PFM) method of rectangular bulk superconductor is analysed by solving the A-V magnetic equation coupled to the thermal one in order to show the influence of the amplitude of the external field on the trapped magnetic field of bulk superconductor. A numerical model based on the control volume method (CVM) has been developed, which uses a power-law model with temperature dependency and magnetic field dependence on critical current density. For low cooling temperature Tco = 20 K, a good distribution of the trapped magnetic field of the bulk superconductor is obtained when we applied high external field.

  7. Effect of magnetic field on ball milled hard magnetic particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Altuncevahir; N. Poudyal; V. M. Chakka; K. H. Chen; T. D. Black; T. D. Liu

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, the powder particles of NdFeB and SmCo based alloys prepared by the ball milling in a uniform magnetic field are compared to those milled without an applied magnetic field. The ball milling was carried out for a total of 100 hours, and the powders were sampled every 25 hours. The particle size after 100 hours of milling

  8. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    PubMed

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0?mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5??g of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required. PMID:26038833

  9. Novel Handheld Magnetometer Probe Based on Magnetic Tunnelling Junction Sensors for Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, A.; Balalis, G. L.; Thompson, S. K.; Forero Morales, D.; Mohtar, A.; Wedding, A. B.; Thierry, B.

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0?mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5??g of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required. PMID:26038833

  10. Polarization Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso Sainz, R.

    2011-12-01

    The solar atmosphere is a highly ionized medium which is the playground of magnetic fields. In the deepest layer (the photosphere), magnetic fields disturb the 'normal' fluid motions forcing the plasma to behave incounterintuitive ways; in the outer layers (the chromosphere and the corona) magnetic fields rule, making the plasma levitate or even ejecting it out of the gravitational well of the Sun, with important consequences for us here on Earth. However, magnetic fields are elusive. The only quantitative evidence of their presence is through the polarization state of the light emitted by the plasma they are playing with. Remote sensing of magnetic fields from 150 million km away through spectropolarimetry is a challenge on applied physics as well as an art. It requires the application of quantum mechanics, radiative transfer theory, and advanced optics to the interpretation and analysis of spectropolarimetric observations. I will review standard diagnostic techniques and recent developments on this field. I will discuss their limitations and how to overcome them through the complementary aspects of different diagnostic techniques, spectral regions, and statistical analysis. Finally, I will review what are the main areas for progress in this regard: most notably, the 'measurement' of magnetic fields in the extremely dilute and weakly magnetized outer layers of the sun.

  11. Superconducting tubular wires in transverse magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Yasunori

    2011-04-01

    The electromagnetic response of a round tubular wire of superconducting film to a transverse magnetic field is investigated theoretically. For a superconducting tubular wire (STW) in which the thickness d of the superconducting layer is much smaller than the radius R of the wire, analytical expressions for the magnetic-field and current distributions are obtained on the basis of the critical state model with constant critical current density jc. When an applied transverse magnetic field Ha increases monotonically from zero, the penetration of the magnetic field into an STW occurs in two stages: for 0magnetic field in the interior of an STW is shielded, whereas for Ha>jcd/2 the magnetic field extends into the interior. Analytical expressions of the hysteretic ac loss Qtube of an STW in a transverse ac magnetic field of amplitude H0 are also obtained, and Qtube(H0) is found to have an abrupt change at H0?jcd/2.

  12. The sun and interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) serves as a link between the sun, the response of the earth to solar activity and variations in galactic cosmic radiation. The IMF originates as a solar-coronal magnetic field that is transported into space by the solar wind. The close connection between solar magnetic fields and the origin and structure of the solar wind is described. The solar wind forms the heliosphere, a cavity containing the magnetized solar plasma from which the interstellar plasma and field are excluded. The entry of galactic cosmic rays into the heliosphere and their strong interaction with the IMF are discussed, this topic being of primary importance to the production and temporal variations of radiogenic elements. The profound influence of the IMF on geomagnetic activity and the aurora is discussed within the context of merging or reconnection with the planetary field. The physical connection is thus established between solar magnetic fields, magnetic storms and aurora. The state of the solar wind and IMF during the Maunder minimum is considered and an explanation for the (relative) absence of sunspots and aurora is proposed. The mechanism is an interruption of the oscillatory solar dynamo, a consequent reduction in the heating of the corona, a cessation of the supersonic solar wind and a weakening or absence of southward-directed magnetic fields in the vicinity of the earth.

  13. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-06-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 ?W and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 ?m and 8.1 ?m, respectively. PMID:26114041

  14. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-01-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 ?W and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 ?m and 8.1 ?m, respectively.

  15. Developing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) as an Electronic Probe of Nanoscale Condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paster, Jeremy W.; Tennant, Daniel M.; Mozaffari, Shirin; Markert, John T.

    2015-03-01

    The investigation of NMR via magnetic force coupling in a large field gradient has led to vast improvements in spatial resolution over the conventional inductive method. It has been demonstrated that nanoscale force sensors could be scaled to distinguish a single nuclear spin, assuming experimental noise can be minimized and other specious force signatures stifled. Accordingly, there are many efforts aimed at repurposing NMR for 3D imaging on the atomic scale. In addition to proof-of-concept experiments aimed at separately resolving some of the eventual experimental barriers to atomic resolution, some of us have directed our attention to using NMR to probe the electronic environment in larger condensed matter systems which are not well suited for other scanning probe microscopy techniques and which are prohibitively small for inductive NMR detection. Previously, we proposed using NMRFM to probe superconducting transitions in microcrystals. In parallel, we revamped our investigation of thin films to explore two-dimensional conducting interfaces between insulating oxides. Presented here is a survey of the technical impediments as well as current strategies for unlocking this exciting potential for NMRFM, as a tool to investigate sub-surface electronic transport in microscale and nanoscale condensed matter systems.

  16. Magnetic Field Measurement with Ground State Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.

    Observational studies of magnetic fields are crucial. We introduce a process "ground state alignment" as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1 G ? B ? 10^{-15} G). In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this chapter, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields in the Epoch of Reionization.

  17. The magnetic field of Mercury, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

    1974-01-01

    An updated analysis and interpretation is presented of the magnetic field observations obtained during the Mariner 10 encounter with the planet Mercury. The combination of data relating to position of the detached bow shock wave and magnetopause, and the geometry and magnitude of the magnetic field within the magnetosphere-like region surrounding Mercury, lead to the conclusion that an internal planetary field exists with dipole moment approximately 5.1 x 10 the 22nd power Gauss sq cm. The dipole axis has a polarity sense similar to earth's and is tilted 7 deg from the normal to Mercury's orbital plane. The magnetic field observations reveal a significant distortion of the modest Hermean field (350 Gamma at the equator) by the solar wind flow and the formation of a magnetic tail and neutral sheet which begins close to the planet on the night side. The composite data is not consistent with a complex induction process driven by the solar wind flow.

  18. Theory of cosmological seed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, H. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division (TPPD), PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2007-07-15

    A theory for the generation of seed magnetic field and plasma flow on cosmological scales driven by externally given baroclinic vectors is presented. The Beltrami-like plasma fields can grow from zero values at initial time t=0 from a nonequilibrium state. Exact analytical solutions of the set of two-fluid equations are obtained that are valid for large plasma {beta}-values as well. Weaknesses of previous models for seed magnetic field generation are also pointed out. The analytical calculations predict the galactic seed magnetic field generated by this mechanism to be of the order of 10{sup -14} G, which may be amplified later by the {alpha}{omega} dynamo (or by some other mechanism) to the present observed values of the order of {approx}(2-10) {mu}G. The theory has been applied to laser-induced plasmas as well and the estimate of the magnetic field's magnitude is in agreement with the experimentally observed values.

  19. Vector magnetic field camera for permanent magnets inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chady, T.; Psuj, G.; Todaka, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2013-01-01

    Permanent magnets are widely used in many applications. A fast and reliable system for online evaluation of permanent magnets is required for their quality assurance. Therefore, a new measurement system has been developed to measure the spatial distribution of the vector magnetic field. The system consists of a complex Hall transducer, an analog multiplexer, a mechanical XYZ scanner and a control computer. The matrix of Hall sensors is designed in this way that all 3 components can be measured at once in multiple points. Such kind of transducer enables to reduce the time needed for inspection. The similar matrix transducer was also utilized to evaluate state of magnetized ferromagnetic materials.

  20. Transient response of a high-temperature superconductor tube to pulsed magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Cha; T. R. Askew; Kalamazoo Coll

    1998-01-01

    The transient response of a melt-cast-processed BSCCO-2212 superconductor tube under a pulsed magnetic field was investigated by using a pulsed current source driving an external copper solenoid. The induced current in the superconductor tube was measured by a Rogowski coil and the penetration field was measured by a Hall probe inside the tube. It was found that (a) the maximum