Science.gov

Sample records for magnetic flux noise

  1. Magnetic flux noise in strongly anisotropic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, V. D.; Jung, G.; Shapiro, B. Ya.

    1995-04-01

    Magnetic noise due to thermally activated movements of flux vortices has been calculated taking into account fluctuations modes of nonrigid vortices. It has been shown that at low frequencies, below the crossover frequency, the noise spectrum of a layered superconductor is identical to that of a continuous material. Three regimes of spectral behavior, ln?, ?-1/2, and ?-3/2, have been predicted to be present in this frequency range. Characteristic frequencies separating different regimes depend on the geometry of the flux pickup loop. At high frequencies, above the crossover frequency, bending of vortices leads to a Lorentzian shape of noise spectra. The value of the crossover frquency is not influenced by the particularities of the flux-measuring arrangement and depends only on the material properties and applied magnetic field.

  2. Magnetic flux noise in copper oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Magnetic flux noise and flux creep in thin films and single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, and TlCa{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The noise power spectrum generally scales as 1/f (f is frequency) from 1 Hz to 1 kHz, increases with temperature, and decreases in higher-quality films. It is proportional to the magnetic field B in which the sample is cooled, at least in the range 0.1 mT < B < 3 mT. A model of thermally activated vortex motion is developed which explains the dependence of the noise on frequency, temperature, current, and applied magnetic field. The pinning potential is idealized as an ensemble of double wells, each with a different activation energy separating the two states. From the noise measurements, this model yields the distribution of pinning energies in the samples, the vortex hopping distance, the number density of mobile vortices, and the restoring force on a vortex at a typical pinning site. The distribution of pinning energies in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} shows a broad peak below 0.1 eV. The small ambient magnetic field, and the detection of noise even in the absence of a driving force, insure that the measured pinning energies are characteristic of isolated vortices near thermal equilibrium. The observed vortex density in fields much less than 0.1 mT is too large to be explained by the ambient field, suggesting a mechanism intrinsic to the sample which produces trapped vortices.

  3. Can magnetic noise from Kondo traps explain high frequency flux noise in superconducting qubits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Silva, Luis; de Sousa, Rogerio

    2015-03-01

    In solid state devices, charge and magnetic noise have common microscopic origin. Both occur due to the presence of Kondo traps nearby metallic wires. We use numerical renormalization group calculations to show that, despite their common origin, charge and magnetic noise have opposing behavior controlled by completely different energy scales. While magnetic noise follows an universal scaling with the Kondo temperature, charge noise remains well described by non-interacting theory even when the trap is deep into the Kondo regime. We show how these results may explain the high frequency (f= 1-10 GHz) Ohmic flux noise observed in SQUIDs and superconducting qubits. LGDS acknowledges support from Brazilian agencies FAPESP (2013/50220-7), CNPq (307107/2013-2) and PRP-USP NAP-QNano. RdS acknowledges support from the Canadian program NSERC-Discovery and a FAPESP-UVic exchange award.

  4. Correlation between magnetic flux leakage and magnetic Barkhausen noise: Stress dependence in pipeline steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T. W.; Mandal, K.; Hauge, C.; Weyman, P.; Sijgers, B.; Atherton, D. L.

    1997-05-01

    The tensile-stress dependence of angular-dependent magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) was investigated on the inner and outer surfaces of four sections of pipeline steel. Stresses up to 330 MPa or 70% of the yield strength of the steel were applied in either the circumferential or axial pipe direction. An effective MBN energy (MBN ENERGY), defined as the time integral of the squared voltage MBN signal, was calculated. The variation of the ratio of the MBN ENERGY in the pipe axis direction to that in the circumferential direction was correlated with the stress-dependent variation of the amplitude of radial magnetic flux leakage (MFL pp) signals measured on the outside of the pipe from simulated corrosion pits (13 mm diameter ball-milled pits) in sections of pipeline steel under axial magnetization that was applied from the outer surface of the pipe. The percentage variation of the MFL pp signal with stress was found to agree within uncertainty, with the MFL pp signal variation with stress from defects placed on the pipe wall far surface, at 1.1-1.2 T pipe wall flux density. The MBN ENERGY ratio is proposed as a measure of the relative anisotropy in line with the magnetizing field to that perpendicular to it. It is this relative anisotropy that defines the degree to which lines of flux may pass around a high reluctance defect by either remaining within the steel or being forced into the air.

  5. Use of magnetic Barkhausen noise and magnetic flux leakage signals for analysis of defects in pipeline steel

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, K.; Dufour, D.; Atherton, D.L.

    1999-05-01

    Oil and gas pipelines are normally buried. They are inspected, while they are in service, by pumping tools through the lines. Inspection tools based on magnetic flux leakage (MFL) measurements are the most economical method used for detecting metal loss, such as corrosion pits. Here the authors report on studies of the effects of hoop and axial tensile stresses on magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signals from 50% penetration electrochemically milled pits eroded in line pipe steel. It is observed that stress can change the MFL signal by more than 50%, depending on the magnetization of the pipe wall. The studies were performed on pits created in both the absence and presence of 330-MPa hoop or axial tensile stress. The MFL results obtained in the two cases show detectable differences if the applied stress is high enough to create plastic deformation in the regions of stress concentration near the pits. The effect of stress applied during pit erosion is less than that when the same stress is applied during the subsequent measurements. Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurements have been used to study the stress concentrations around electrochemically milled and mechanically drilled defects and have shown that significant additional stress and plastic deformation can be introduced during mechanical drilling. The MBN results are used to assist interpretation of the stress-dependent MFL results.

  6. The effects of defect depth and bending stress on magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux-leakage signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, K.; Corey, A.; Loukas, M. E.; Weyman, P.; Eichenberger, J.; Atherton, D. L.

    1997-07-01

    Magnetic-flux-leakage (MFL) measurements are used for corrosion inspection of buried oil and gas pipelines. MFL signals are sensitive to the depth of defects, such as corrosion pits, in the pipe wall and to external stresses generated mainly by the line pressure. MFL signal variations have been studied from the inside wall in the presence of various circumferential bending stresses and magnetic flux densities for three outside wall pits of depths 30%, 50% and 80% of the wall thickness. Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurements have been used to study the stress-induced changes in the direction of the bulk magnetic easy axis and directional anisotropies of the pipe wall. These help one to understand the stress-dependent MFL results.

  7. Comparison of Ising Spin Glass Noise to Flux and Inductance Noise in SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.

    2010-06-01

    Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux and inductance noise in SQUIDs. We present Monte Carlo simulations of 2D and 3D Ising spin glasses that produce magnetization noise SM consistent with flux noise. At low frequencies SM is a maximum at the critical temperature TC in three dimensions, implying that flux noise should be a maximum at TC. The second spectra of the magnetization noise and the noise in the susceptibility are consistent with experimentally measured SQUID inductance noise.

  8. Candidate Source of Flux Noise in SQUIDs: Adsorbed Oxygen Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Chuntai; Hu, Jun; Han, Sungho; Yu, Clare C.; Wu, R. Q.

    2015-08-01

    A major obstacle to using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as qubits is flux noise. We propose that the heretofore mysterious spins producing flux noise could be O2 molecules adsorbed on the surface. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an O2 molecule adsorbed on an α-alumina surface has a magnetic moment of ˜1.8 μB . The spin is oriented perpendicular to the axis of the O-O bond, the barrier to spin rotations is about 10 mK. Monte Carlo simulations of ferromagnetically coupled, anisotropic X Y spins on a square lattice find 1 /f magnetization noise, consistent with flux noise in Al SQUIDs.

  9. Quantum wire network with magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric

    2013-10-01

    The charge transport and the noise of a quantum wire network, made of three semi-infinite external leads attached to a ring crossed by a magnetic flux, are investigated. The system is driven away from equilibrium by connecting the external leads to heat reservoirs with different temperatures and/or chemical potentials. The properties of the exact scattering matrix of this configuration as a function of the momentum, the magnetic flux and the transmission along the ring are explored. We derive the conductance and the noise, describing in detail the role of the magnetic flux. In the case of weak coupling between the ring and the reservoirs, a resonant tunneling effect is observed. We also discover that a non-zero magnetic flux has a strong impact on the usual Johnson-Nyquist law for the pure thermal noise at small temperatures.

  10. Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Boris; Martsenyuk, Olesya; Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Uddin, Wahab

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, it was found that the strongest disturbances of the space-weather were associated with huge ejections of plasma from the solar corona, which took the form of magnetic clouds when moved from the Sun. It is the collisions of the magnetic clouds with the Earth's magnetosphere that lead to strong, sometimes catastrophic changes in space-weather. The onset of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is sudden and no reliable forerunners of CMEs have been found till date. The CME prediction methodologies are less developed compared to the methods developed for the prediction of solar flares. The most probable initial magnetic configuration of a CME is a flux rope consisting of twisted field lines which fill the whole volume of a dark coronal cavity. The flux ropes can be in stable equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field for weeks and even months, but suddenly they lose their stability and erupt with high speed. Their transition to the unstable phase depends on the parameters of the flux rope (i.e., total electric current, twist, mass loading, etc.), as well as on the properties of the ambient coronal magnetic field. One of the major governing factors is the vertical gradient of the coronal magnetic field, which is estimated as decay index ( n). Cold dense prominence material can be collected in the lower parts of the helical flux tubes. Filaments are, therefore, good tracers of the flux ropes in the corona, which become visible long before the beginning of the eruption. The perspectives of the filament eruptions and following CMEs can be estimated by a comparison of observed filament heights with calculated decay index distributions. The present paper reviews the formation of magnetic flux ropes, their stable and unstable phases, eruption conditions, and also discusses their physical implications in the solar corona.

  11. Evolution of solar magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The appearance of solar magnetic flux is discussed both the mechanisms and phenomena associated with flux emergence are considered. The dynamics of solar surface magnetic flux are addressed, including both the transport and structure of magnetic-flux-carrying elements as seen in the chromosphere and corona. The disappearance of magnetic flux from the surface of the Sun is also discussed. Standard solar models representing generally accepted views are considered along with observations which seem to fall outside the scope of these models.

  12. Flux Compression Magnetic Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In pulsed fusion propulsion schemes in which the fusion energy creates a radially expanding plasma, a magnetic nozzle is required to redirect the radially diverging flow of the expanding fusion plasma into a rearward axial flow, thereby producing a forward axial impulse to the vehicle. In a highly electrically conducting plasma, the presence of a magnetic field B in the plasma creates a pressure B(exp 2)/2(mu) in the plasma, the magnetic pressure. A gradient in the magnetic pressure can be used to decelerate the plasma traveling in the direction of increasing magnetic field, or to accelerate a plasma from rest in the direction of decreasing magnetic pressure. In principle, ignoring dissipative processes, it is possible to design magnetic configurations to produce an 'elastic' deflection of a plasma beam. In particular, it is conceivable that, by an appropriate arrangement of a set of coils, a good approximation to a parabolic 'magnetic mirror' may be formed, such that a beam of charged particles emanating from the focal point of the parabolic mirror would be reflected by the mirror to travel axially away from the mirror. The degree to which this may be accomplished depends on the degree of control one has over the flux surface of the magnetic field, which changes as a result of its interaction with a moving plasma.

  13. Magnetic flux transport by dipolarizing flux bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Angelopoulos, V.; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Runov, A.

    2014-02-01

    A dipolarizing flux bundle (DFB) is a small magnetotail flux tube (typically < ~3 RE in XGSM and YGSM) with a significantly more dipolar magnetic field than its background. Dipolarizing flux bundles typically propagate earthward at a high speed from the near-Earth reconnection region. Knowledge of a DFB's flux transport properties leads to better understanding of near-Earth (X = -6 to -30 RE) magnetotail flux transport and thus conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic and thermal plasma energy following magnetic reconnection. We explore DFB properties with a statistical study using data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms mission. To establish the importance of DFB flux transport, we compare it with transport by bursty bulk flows (BBFs) that typically envelop DFBs. Because DFBs coexist with flow bursts inside BBFs, they contribute >65% of BBF flux transport, even though they last only ~30% as long as BBFs. The rate of DFB flux transport increases with proximity to Earth and to the premidnight sector, as well as with geomagnetic activity and distance from the neutral sheet. Under the latter two conditions, the total flux transport by a typical DFB also increases. Dipolarizing flux bundles appear more often during increased geomagnetic activity. Since BBFs have been previously shown to be the major flux transporters in the tail, we conclude that DFBs are the dominant drivers of this transport. The occurrence rate of DFBs as a function of location and geomagnetic activity informs us about processes that shape global convection and energy conversion.

  14. Permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback for adjustably suspending an element on a single axis. The magnetic actuator includes a pair of opposing electromagnets and provides bi-directional forces along the single axis to the suspended element. Permanent magnets in flux feedback loops from the opposing electromagnets establish a reference permanent magnet flux-bias to linearize the force characteristics of the electromagnets to extend the linear range of the actuator without the need for continuous bias currents in the electromagnets.

  15. Fast Flux Test Facility noise data management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    An extensive collection of spectra from an automated data collection system at the Fast Flux Test Facility has features from neutron data extracted and managed by database software. Inquiry techniques, including screening, applied to database results show the influences of control rods on wideband noise and, more generally, abilities to detect diverse types of off-normal noise. Uncovering a temporary 0.1-Hz resonance shift gave additional diagnostic information on a 13-Hz mechanical motion characterized by the interference of two resonances. The latter phenomenon is discussed generically for possible application to other reactor types.

  16. The photospheric magnetic flux budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Harvey, K. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ensemble of bipolar regions and the magnetic network both contain a substantial and strongly variable part of the photospheric magnetic flux at any phase in the solar cycle. The time-dependent distribution of the magnetic flux over and within these components reflects the action of the dynamo operating in the solar interior. We perform a quantitative comparison of the flux emerging in the ensemble of magnetic bipoles with the observed flux content of the solar photosphere. We discuss the photospheric flux budget in terms of flux appearance and disappearance, and argue that a nonlinear dependence exists between the flux present in the photosphere and the rate of flux appearance and disappearance. In this context, we discuss the problem of making quantitative statements about dynamos in cool stars other than the Sun.

  17. Fast Ion Transport by Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiwisch, Adam; Heidbrink, William; Boehmer, Heinrich; McWilliams, Roger; Carter, Troy; Gekelman, Walter; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; Compernolle, Bart; Vincena, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Energetic Lithium test ions (500 <= Efast/Ti <= 1000) are launched in a Helium plasma in the presence of current-produced magnetic flux ropes at the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. Perturbing flux ropes are introduced via a hot, biased LaB6 cathode in the main chamber. Ion beam broadening up to fifty percent above background levels is observed in the radial direction after passing through the flux rope region (Te,max = 7 eV, Bperp = 7G, ?V = 160 V). Density, temperature, and magnetic fluctuation profiles are also obtained. A noise model has been developed to assess the quality of ion signals during the flux rope discharge period. The enhancement to transport may be a result of increased Coulomb scattering, magnetic fluctuations, or electric fields. Further analysis to determine the primary mechanism is ongoing.

  18. Magnetic noise from Kondo charge traps (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Silva, Luis G.; de Sousa, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic noise impacts a wide variety of solid-state devices, from quantum bits in superconductor and semiconductor-based quantum computer architectures to spintronic devices made of metals and semiconductors. Developing a theory of magnetic noise will have great impact in minimizing fluctuations in these devices. Magnetic noise is commonly detected as flux noise in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). At low frequencies, SQUID flux noise spectral density decreases with frequency as 1/f^{α} with α=0.5-0.8 in a wide variety of devices. However, at higher frequencies (above 1 GHZ) flux noise was found to be Ohmic, i.e. increasing linearly with frequency. This puzzling behavior is not explained by any model of magnetic fluctuations. Here we present a theory for the magnetic noise produced by local charge traps, elucidating the kind of noise that the majority of defects produce in a typical solid-state device. Our numerical renormalization group calculations reveal a deviation from 1/f behavior in the magnetic noise of charge traps in the Kondo regime over a wide range of frequencies. Remarkably, such behavior is not present in the charge noise, which is dominated by single-particle processes, consistent with a mean-field picture. The results show that, when Kondo correlations are present, magnetic noise originating from charge traps has a many-particle character, while charge noise does not. Since Kondo temperatures can be relatively high in charge traps, these findings indicate that electron-electron interactions can lead to a strong contribution to the magnetic noise that has not been captured by current models.

  19. Magnetic balltracking: Tracking the photospheric magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attie, R.; Innes, D. E.

    2015-02-01

    Context. One aspect of understanding the dynamics of the quiet Sun is to quantify the evolution of the flux within small-scale magnetic features. These features are routinely observed in the quiet photosphere and were given various names, such as pores, knots, magnetic patches. Aims: This work presents a new algorithm for tracking the evolution of the broad variety of small-scale magnetic features in the photosphere, with a precision equal to the instrumental resolution. Methods: We have developed a new technique to track the evolution of the individual magnetic features from magnetograms, called "magnetic balltracking". It quantifies the flux of the tracked features, and it can track the footpoints of magnetic field lines inferred from magnetic field extrapolation. The algorithm can detect and quantify flux emergence, as well as flux cancellation. Results: The capabilities of magnetic balltracking are demonstrated with the detection and the tracking of two cases of magnetic flux emergence that lead to the brightening of X-ray loops. The maximum emerged flux ranges from 1018 Mx to 1019 Mx (unsigned flux) when the X-ray loops are observed. Movies associated to Figs. 6 and 18 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Magnetic Flux and Helicity of Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Démoulin, P.; Janvier, M.; Dasso, S.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are formed by flux ropes (FRs) launched from the Sun as part of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). They carry away a large amount of magnetic flux and helicity. The main aim of this study is to quantify these amounts from in situ measurements of MCs at 1 AU. The fit of these data by a local FR model provides the axial magnetic field strength, the radius, the magnetic flux, and the helicity per unit length along the FR axis. We show that these quantities are statistically independent of the position along the FR axis. We then derive the generic shape and length of the FR axis from two sets of MCs. These results improve the estimation of magnetic helicity. Next, we evaluate the total magnetic flux and helicity that cross the sphere of radius of 1 AU, centred at the Sun, per year and during a solar cycle. We also include in the study two sets of small FRs that do not have all the typical characteristics of MCs. While small FRs are at least ten times more numerous than MCs, the magnetic flux and helicity are dominated by the contribution from the larger MCs. In one year they carry away the magnetic flux of about 25 large active regions and the magnetic helicity of 200 of them. MCs carry away an amount of unsigned magnetic helicity similar to the amount estimated for the solar dynamo and that measured in emerging active regions.

  1. Remedying magnetic hysteresis and 1/f noise for magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiafei; Tian, Wugang; Zhao, Jianqiang; Pan, Mengchun; Chen, Dixiang; Tian, Guiyun

    2013-02-01

    Thermal domain hoppings cause magnetic hysteresis and 1/f resistance noise in magnetoresistive sensors, which largely degrades their response linearity and low-frequency detection ability. In this Letter, the method of constant magnetic excitation integrated with vertical motion flux modulation was proposed to remedy magnetic hysteresis and 1/f resistance noise together. As demonstrated in experiments, the response linearity of the prototype sensor is promoted by about 10 times. Its noise level is reduced to near Johnson-Nyquist noise level, and, therefore, the low-frequency detection ability is approximately enhanced with a factor of 100.

  2. Model for l/f Flux Noise in SQUIDs and Qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Roger H.; DiVincenzo, David P.; Clarke, John

    2007-01-19

    We propose a model for 1/f flux noise in superconducting devices (f is frequency). The noise is generated by the magnetic moments of electrons in defect states which they occupy for a wide distribution of times before escaping. A trapped electron occupies one of the two Kramers-degenerate ground states, between which the transition rate is negligible at low temperature. As a result, the magnetic moment orientation is locked. Simulations of the noise produced by a plausible density of randomly oriented defects yield 1/f noise magnitudes in good agreement with experiments.

  3. Magnetic fluxes and moduli stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Kumar, Alok; Maillard, Tristan

    2007-04-01

    Stabilization of closed string moduli in toroidal orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory are studied using constant internal magnetic fields on D-branes and 3-form fluxes that preserve N=1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. Our analysis corrects and extends previous work by us, and indicates that charged scalar VEV's need to be turned on, in addition to the fluxes, in order to construct a consistent supersymmetric model. As an explicit example, we first show the stabilization of all Khler class and complex structure moduli by turning on magnetic fluxes on different sets of D9-branes that wrap the internal space T in a compactified type I string theory, when a charged scalar on one of these branes acquires a non-zero VEV. The latter can also be determined by adding extra magnetized branes, as we demonstrate in a subsequent example. In a different model with magnetized D7-branes, in a IIB orientifold on T/Z, we show the stabilization of all the closed string moduli, including the axion-dilaton at weak string coupling g, by turning on appropriate closed string 3-form fluxes.

  4. DISCONNECTING OPEN SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-20

    Disconnection of open magnetic flux by reconnection is required to balance the injection of open flux by coronal mass ejections and other eruptive events. Making use of recent advances in heliospheric background subtraction, we have imaged many abrupt disconnection events. These events produce dense plasma clouds whose distinctive shape can now be traced from the corona across the inner solar system via heliospheric imaging. The morphology of each initial event is characteristic of magnetic reconnection across a current sheet, and the newly disconnected flux takes the form of a 'U-'shaped loop that moves outward, accreting coronal and solar wind material. We analyzed one such event on 2008 December 18 as it formed and accelerated at 20 m s{sup -2} to 320 km s{sup -1}, thereafter expanding self-similarly until it exited our field of view 1.2 AU from the Sun. From acceleration and photometric mass estimates we derive the coronal magnetic field strength to be 8 {mu}T, 6 R{sub Sun} above the photosphere, and the entrained flux to be 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} Wb (1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx). We model the feature's propagation by balancing inferred magnetic tension force against accretion drag. This model is consistent with the feature's behavior and accepted solar wind parameters. By counting events over a 36 day window, we estimate a global event rate of 1 day{sup -1} and a global solar minimum unsigned flux disconnection rate of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} Wb yr{sup -1} (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} Mx yr{sup -1}) by this mechanism. That rate corresponds to {approx} - 0.2 nT yr{sup -1} change in the radial heliospheric field at 1 AU, indicating that the mechanism is important to the heliospheric flux balance.

  5. Disconnecting Open Solar Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Disconnection of open magnetic flux by reconnection is required to balance the injection of open flux by coronal mass ejections and other eruptive events. Making use of recent advances in heliospheric background subtraction, we have imaged many abrupt disconnection events. These events produce dense plasma clouds whose distinctive shape can now be traced from the corona across the inner solar system via heliospheric imaging. The morphology of each initial event is characteristic of magnetic reconnection across a current sheet, and the newly disconnected flux takes the form of a "U-"shaped loop that moves outward, accreting coronal and solar wind material. We analyzed one such event on 2008 December 18 as it formed and accelerated at 20 m s-2 to 320 km s-1, thereafter expanding self-similarly until it exited our field of view 1.2 AU from the Sun. From acceleration and photometric mass estimates we derive the coronal magnetic field strength to be 8 ?T, 6 R ? above the photosphere, and the entrained flux to be 1.6 1011 Wb (1.6 1019 Mx). We model the feature's propagation by balancing inferred magnetic tension force against accretion drag. This model is consistent with the feature's behavior and accepted solar wind parameters. By counting events over a 36 day window, we estimate a global event rate of 1 day-1 and a global solar minimum unsigned flux disconnection rate of 6 1013 Wb yr-1 (6 1021 Mx yr-1) by this mechanism. That rate corresponds to ~ - 0.2 nT yr-1 change in the radial heliospheric field at 1 AU, indicating that the mechanism is important to the heliospheric flux balance.

  6. Force sensor using changes in magnetic flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor); Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A force sensor includes a magnetostrictive material and a magnetic field generator positioned in proximity thereto. A magnetic field is induced in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material such that lines of magnetic flux pass through the magnetostrictive material. A sensor positioned in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive material measures changes in one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux.

  7. Measurement of Integrated Low Frequency Flux Noise in Superconducting Flux/Phase Qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Bo; Qiu Wei; Han Siyuan

    2008-11-07

    We measured the integrated low frequency flux noise ({approx}1 m{phi}{sub 0}) of an rf SQUID as a flux qubit by fitting the resonant peaks from photon assistant tunneling (PAT). The energy relaxation time Tl between the ground and first excited states in the same potential well, measured directly in time domain, is 3 ns. From these results we identified low frequency flux noise as the dominant source of decoherence. In addition, we found that the measured values of integrated flux noise in three qubits of various sizes differ more than an order of magnitude.

  8. Chaos in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; Dehaas, Tim; van Compernolle, Bart

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic Flux Ropes Immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Full three dimensional magnetic field and flows are measured at thousands of time steps. Each collision results in magnetic field line generation and the generation of a quasi-seperatrix layer and induced electric fields. Three dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data. The permutation entropy can be calculated from the time series of the magnetic field data or flows is used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen Shannon complexity map. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. Other types of chaotic dynamical models (Gissinger , Lorentz and Henon) also fall on the map and can give a clue to the nature of the turbulence. The ropes fall in the region of the C-H plane where chaotic systems lie. The entropy and complexity change in space and time, which reflects the change and possibly type of chaos associated with the ropes. Work sponsoerd by a LANL-UC grant and done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (supported by DOE and NSF).

  9. Chaos in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W. N.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic Flux Ropes Immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Full three dimensional magnetic field and flows are measured at thousands of time steps. Each collision results in magnetic field line generation and the generation of a quasi-seperatrix layer and induced electric fields. Three dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data using correlation techniques. The permutation entropy1 ,which is related to the Lyapunov exponent, can be calculated from the the time series of the magnetic field data (this is also done with flows) and used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen Shannon complexity map2. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. The complexity is a function of space and time. The complexity map, and analysis will be explained in the course of the talk. Other types of chaotic dynamical models such as the Lorentz, Gissinger and Henon process also fall on the map and can give a clue to the nature of the flux rope turbulence. The ropes fall in the region of the C-H plane where chaotic systems lie. The entropy and complexity change in space and time which reflects the change and possibly type of chaos associated with the ropes. The maps give insight as to the type of chaos (deterministic chaos, fractional diffusion , Levi flights..) and underlying dynamical process. The power spectra of much of the magnetic and flow data is exponential and Lorentzian structures in the time domain are embedded in them. Other quantities such as the Hurst exponent are evaluated for both magnetic fields and plasma flow. Work Supported by a UC-LANL Lab fund and the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by DOE and NSF. 1) C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88,174102 (2007) 2) O. Russo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 154102 (2007), J. Maggs, G.Morales, 55, 085015 (2013)

  10. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.; Kiang, Nelson Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 ?Pa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imagers permanent magnet and the room air handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions. PMID:11051496

  11. Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-06-01

    This cross-disciplinary special issue on 'Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes' follows in the footsteps of another collection of manuscripts dedicated to the subject of magnetic flux ropes, a volume on 'Physics of magnetic flux ropes' published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Monograph Series in 1990 [1]. Twenty-four years later, this special issue, composed of invited original contributions highlighting ongoing research on the physics of magnetic flux ropes in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas, can be considered an update on our state of understanding of this fundamental constituent of any magnetized plasma. Furthermore, by inviting contributions from research groups focused on the study of the origins and properties of magnetic flux ropes in a variety of different environments, we have attempted to underline both the diversity of and the commonalities among magnetic flux ropes throughout the solar system and, indeed, the universe. So, what is a magnetic flux rope? The answer will undoubtedly depend on whom you ask. A flux rope can be as narrow as a few Larmor radii and as wide as the Sun (see, e.g., the contributions by Heli Hietala et al and by Angelous Vourlidas). As described below by Ward Manchester IV et al , they can stretch from the Sun to the Earth in the form of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Or, as in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment described by David Schaffner et al , they can fit into a meter-long laboratory device tended by college students. They can be helical and line-tied (see, e.g., Walter Gekelman et al or J Sears et al ), or toroidal and periodic (see, e.g., John O'Bryan et al or Philippa Browning et al ). They can form in the low plasma beta environment of the solar corona (Tibor Török et al ), the order unity beta plasmas of the solar wind (Stefan Eriksson et al ) and the plasma pressure dominated stellar convection zones (Nicholas Nelson and Mark Miesch). In this special issue, Setthivoine You describes how canonical helicity can determine the result of reconnection and merging of multiple magnetic flux ropes, John Finn et al focus on diagnosing flux rope reconnection using quasi-separatrix layers, and Stefano Markidis et al investigate how a single flux rope can become unstable and begin to fall apart. With these many examples of different magnetized plasma structures, which can all be called magnetic flux ropes, the question still stands: just what is it that makes a volume of magnetized plasma a magnetic flux rope? There may not be a strict definition of a magnetic flux rope that everyone can agree on. Nonetheless, the ingredient common to all magnetic flux ropes is that the magnetic field lines that thread nearby plasma elements at one location along the flux rope must wind around and not diverge away from each other over a sufficiently long distance to look like a piece of an ordinary rope. In a way, it is similar to turbulence—you know it when you see it. The figures and illustrations included in this special issue provide plenty of examples of observed, measured, modeled and imagined magnetic flux ropes for you, the reader, to develop an appreciation of what different members of our research community mean by a magnetic flux rope. If you have never studied magnetic flux ropes, we hope that this special issue inspires you to look into their many mysteries. If magnetic flux ropes are already an integral part of your research, we hope the diversity of perspectives presented herein refresh your interest in the underlying plasma physics of whichever kind of magnetic flux rope you happen to be working with. References [1] Russell C T, Priest E R and Lee L-C 1990 Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes AGU Geophysical Monograph Series vol 58 (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union)

  12. Flux emergence in a magnetized convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui; Brun, Allan Sacha

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux-ropes, and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code and analysed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux-ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The actual flux-emergence episode is preceded by a localised increase of radial velocity, density and current density at the top of the convection zone. During the buoyant rise, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength and density scale as B~rho(alpha) , with alpha≤sssim 1. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and are, in consequence, in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly stronger as the flux-ropes evolve. The threshold for the initial magnetic field amplitude is slightly increased by the presence of the background dynamo field, even if it is on average much weaker than the flux-rope's field. The geometry and relative orientation of the magnetic field in the flux-ropes with respect to that in the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flows amplitudes (which develop within the flux-ropes) and surface signatures of magnetic flux emergence. This strongly influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing and Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence, which are key ingredients to the current coronal eruption triggering scenarios. The actual magnetic flux emergence is consistently preceded by strong and localised radial velocity enhancements at the place where the flux rope will emerge. The emerged magnetic flux is in most of the cases studied enough to influence the global surface magnetic field. In some cases, the emergence reinforces the system's global polarity reversal while in some others it inhibits the background dynamo from doing so. The fraction of magnetic flux which remains attached to the flux-rope is slowly spread out in latitude, diffused and assimilated by the background dynamo field.

  13. How the Saturnian Magnetosphere Conserves Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn are driven by the centrifugal force of near co-rotating water group ions released at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second by Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plasma is accelerated up to co-rotation speed by the magnetospheric magnetic field coupled to the Saturnian ionosphere. The plasma is lost ultimately through the process of magnetic reconnection in the tail. Conservation of magnetic flux requires that plasma-depleted, "empty" flux tubes return magnetic flux to the inner magnetosphere. After completion of the initial inrush of the reconnected and largely emptied flux tubes inward of the reconnection point, the flux tubes face the outflowing plasma and must move inward against the flow. Observations of such flux tubes have been identified in the eight years of Cassini magnetometer data. The occurrence of these tubes is observed at all local times indicating slow inward transport of the tubes relative to the co-rotation speed. Depleted flux tubes observed in the equatorial region appear as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field, whereas the same flux tubes observed at higher latitudes appear as decreased field strength. The difference in appearance of the low latitude and the high latitude tubes is due to the plasma environment just outside the tube. Warm low-density plasma fills the inside of the flux tube at all latitudes. This flux tube thus will expand in the less dense regions away from the magnetic equator and will be observed as a decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic field from the background. These flux tubes near the equator, where the plasma density outside of the flux tube is much greater, will be observed as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field. Cassini magnetometer and CAPS data are examined to understand the properties of these flux tubes and their radial and latitudinal evolution throughout the Saturnian magnetospheric environment.

  14. HELICAL LENGTHS OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS FROM THE MAGNETIC FLUX CONSERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kataoka, R.; Inoue, S.

    2010-02-10

    We estimate axial lengths of helical parts in magnetic clouds (MCs) at 1 AU from the magnetic flux (magnetic helicity) conservation between solar active regions (ARs) and MCs with the event list of Leamon et al. Namely, considering poloidal magnetic flux (PHI{sub P}) conservation between MCs and ARs, we estimated L{sub h} in MCs, where L{sub h} is the axial length of an MC where poloidal magnetic flux and magnetic twist exist. It is found that L{sub h} is 0.01-1.25 AU in the MCs. If the cylinder flux rope picture is assumed, this result leads to a possible new picture of the cylinder model whose helical structure (namely, poloidal magnetic flux) localizes in a part of a MC.

  15. Metamaterial anisotropic flux concentrators and magnetic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjrk, R.; Smith, A.; Bahl, C. R. H.

    2013-08-01

    A metamaterial magnetic flux concentrator is investigated in detail in combination with a Halbach cylinder of infinite length. A general analytical solution to the field is determined and the magnetic figure of merit is determined for a Halbach cylinder with a flux concentrator. It is shown that an ideal flux concentrator will not change the figure of merit of a given magnet design, while the non-ideal will always lower it. The geometric parameters producing maximum figure of merit, i.e., the most efficient devices, are determined. The force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders with flux concentrators is determined and the maximum torque is found. Finally, the effect of non-ideal flux concentrators and the practical use of flux concentrators, as well as demagnetization issues, is discussed.

  16. Magnetic Flux Emergence Along the Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Archontis, V.; Pariat, E.

    2014-12-01

    Flux emergence plays an important role along the solar cycle. Magnetic flux emergence builds sunspot groups and solar activity. The sunspot groups contribute to the large scale behaviour of the magnetic field over the 11 year cycle and the reversal of the North and South magnetic polarity every 22 years. The leading polarity of sunspot groups is opposite in the North and South hemispheres and reverses for each new solar cycle. However the hemispheric rule shows the conservation of sign of the magnetic helicity with positive and negative magnetic helicity in the South and North hemispheres, respectively. MHD models of emerging flux have been developed over the past twenty years but have not yet succeeded to reproduce solar observations. The emergence of flux occurs through plasma layers of very high gradients of pressure and changing of modes from a large ? to a low ? plasma (<1). With the new armada of high spatial and temporal resolution instruments on the ground and in space, emergence of magnetic flux is observed in tremendous detail and followed during their transit through the upper atmosphere. Signatures of flux emergence in the corona depend on the pre-existing magnetic configuration and on the strength of the emerging flux. We review in this paper new and established models as well as the recent observations.

  17. Flux Emergence in a Magnetized Convection Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux ropes and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code (anelastic spherical harmonics) and analyzed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The global nature of this model can only very crudely and inaccurately represent the local dynamics of the buoyant rise of the implanted magnetic structure, but nonetheless allows us to study the influence of global effects, such as self-consistently generated differential rotation and meridional circulation, and of Coriolis forces. Although motivated by the solar context, this model cannot be thought of as a realistic model of the rise of magnetic structures and their emergence in the Sun, where the local dynamics are completely different. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and consequently are in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly strong as the flux ropes evolve. During the buoyant rise across the convection zone, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength scales as Bvpropρα, with α <~ 1. An increase of radial velocity, density, and current density is observed to precede flux emergence at all longitudes. The geometry, latitude, and relative orientation of the flux ropes with respect to the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flow amplitudes (which develop within the flux ropes), and the corresponding surface signatures. This influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing, and the Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence. The emerged magnetic flux influences the system's global polarity, leading in some cases to a polarity reversal while inhibiting the background dynamo from doing so in others. The emerged magnetic flux is slowly advected poleward while being diffused and assimilated by the background dynamo field.

  18. FLUX EMERGENCE IN A MAGNETIZED CONVECTION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-07-20

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux ropes and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code (anelastic spherical harmonics) and analyzed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The global nature of this model can only very crudely and inaccurately represent the local dynamics of the buoyant rise of the implanted magnetic structure, but nonetheless allows us to study the influence of global effects, such as self-consistently generated differential rotation and meridional circulation, and of Coriolis forces. Although motivated by the solar context, this model cannot be thought of as a realistic model of the rise of magnetic structures and their emergence in the Sun, where the local dynamics are completely different. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and consequently are in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly strong as the flux ropes evolve. During the buoyant rise across the convection zone, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength scales as B{proportional_to}{rho}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx}< 1. An increase of radial velocity, density, and current density is observed to precede flux emergence at all longitudes. The geometry, latitude, and relative orientation of the flux ropes with respect to the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flow amplitudes (which develop within the flux ropes), and the corresponding surface signatures. This influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing, and the Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence. The emerged magnetic flux influences the system's global polarity, leading in some cases to a polarity reversal while inhibiting the background dynamo from doing so in others. The emerged magnetic flux is slowly advected poleward while being diffused and assimilated by the background dynamo field.

  19. Magnetic flux tubes and the dynamo problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schssler, Manfred; Ferriz-Mas, Antonio

    The observed properties of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and theoretical studies of magneto-convection in electrically well-conducting fluids suggest that the magnetic field in stellar convection zones is quite inhomogeneous: magnetic flux is concentrated into magnetic flux tubes embedded in significantly less magnetized plasma. Such a state of the magnetic field potentially has strong implications for stellar dynamo theory since the dynamics of an ensemble of flux tubes is rather different from that of a more uniform field and new phenomena like magnetic buoyancy appear. If the diameter of a magnetic flux tube is much smaller than any other relevant length scale, the MHD equations governing its evolution can be considerably simplified in terms of the thin-flux-tube approximation. Studies of thin flux tubes in comparison with observed properties of sunspot groups have led to far-reaching conclusions about the nature of the dynamo-generated magnetic field in the solar interior. The storage of magnetic flux for periods comparable to the amplification time of the dynamo requires the compensation of magnetic buoyancy by a stably stratified medium, a situation realized in a layer of overshooting convection at the bottom of the convection zone. Flux tubes stored in mechanical force equilibrium in this layer become unstable with respect to an undular instability once a critical field strength is exceeded, flux loops rise through the convection zone and erupt as bipolar magnetic regions at the surface. For parameter values relevant for the solar case, the critical field strength is of the order of 105 G. A field of similar strength is also required to prevent the rising unstable flux loops from being strongly deflected poleward by the action of the Coriolis force and also from `exploding' in the middle of the convection zone. The latter process is caused by the superadiabatic stratification. The magnetic energy density of a field of 105 G is two orders of magnitude larger than the kinetic energy density of the convective motions in the lower solar convection zone. This raises serious doubts whether the conventional turbulent dynamo process based upon cyclonic convection can work on the basis of such a strong field. Moreover, it is unclear whether solar differential rotation is capable of generating a toroidal magnetic field of 105 G; it is conceivable that thermal processes like an entropy-driven outflow from exploded flux tubes leads to the large field strength required. The instability of magnetic flux tubes stored in the overshoot region suggests an alternative dynamo mechanism based upon growing helical waves propagating along the tubes. Since this process operates only for field strengths exceeding a critical value, such a dynamo can fall into a `grand minimum' once the field strength is globally driven below this value, for instance by magnetic flux pumped at random from the convection zone into the dynamo region in the overshoot layer. The same process may act as a (re-)starter of the dynamo operation. Other non-conventional dynamo mechanisms based upon the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes are also conceivable.

  20. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

  1. Ising-Glauber spin cluster model for temperature-dependent magnetization noise in SQUIDs.

    PubMed

    De, Amrit

    2014-11-21

    Clusters of interacting two-level-systems, likely due to Farbe+(F(+)) centers at the metal-insulator interface, are shown to self-consistently lead to 1/f(?) magnetization noise [with ?(T)?1] in SQUIDs. Model calculations, based on a new method of obtaining correlation functions, explains various puzzling experimental features. It is shown why the inductance noise is inherently temperature dependent while the flux noise is not, despite the same underlying microscopics. Magnetic ordering in these systems, established by three-point correlation functions, explains the observed flux-inductance-noise cross correlations. Since long-range ferromagnetic interactions are shown to lead to a more weakly temperature dependent flux noise when compared to short-range interactions, the time reversal symmetry of the clusters is also not likely broken by the same mechanism which mediates surface ferromagnetism in nanoparticles and thin films of the same insulator materials. PMID:25479516

  2. Study Of Dc Modulation Noise In Magnetic Recording Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses dc modulation noise in thin-film magnetic medium on magnetic recording disk. Presents study of statistical and spectral characteristics of noise and describes study of dependence of noise upon applied magnetic field, thickness of magnetic layer, and roughness of surface of layer. DC modulation noise attributed to nucleation of isolated regions of reversal of magnetization in recording medium, and to growth and coalescence of regions with increasing reverse applied magnetic field. Inhomogeneities in magnetic recording media, not roughnesses of surfaces, are dominant sources of noise.

  3. Low Frequency Noise in Mesoscopic Magnetic Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of random telegraph noise (RTN) in individual mesoscopic sized NiFe alloy dots will be presented; the dots dimensions are as small as 200nm x 200nm x 10nm. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the RTN are explained by the energy landscape in the dots; the energy landscape RTN was independently measured [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 042409 (2013)]. The research was motivated by questions raised in understanding magnetic noise in magnetic tunnel junctions and giant magnetoresistance devices [Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 062512 (2009) and Phys. Rev. B 88, 014409 (2013)]. This work was supported primarily by ONR Grant N00014-11-1-0850 and the MRSEC Program of the NSF under Grant No. DMR-0819885. Additional support for work done using the University of Minnesota Nanofabrication Center and Characterization Facility was provided by the NSF NNIN network. Reseach performed in collaboration with Dan Endean, Feng Guo, C. T. Weigelt and R. H. Victora.

  4. Magnetic refrigeration using flux compression in superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Strayer, D. M.; Jackson, H. W.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using flux compression in high-temperature superconductors to produce the large time-varying magnetic fields required in a field cycled magnetic refrigerator operating between 20 K and 4 K is presently investigated. This paper describes the refrigerator concept and lists limitations and advantages in comparison with conventional refrigeration techniques. The maximum fields obtainable by flux compression in high-temperature supercoductor materials, as presently prepared, are too low to serve in such a refrigerator. However, reports exist of critical current values that are near usable levels for flux pumps in refrigerator applications.

  5. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  6. The open story of the magnetic fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Trevigne, Elisa

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the effects of oblique internal magnetic fields on the spectrum of type I superstrings compactified on tori. In particular we derive general formulae for the magnetic shifts and multiplicities of open strings connecting D9-branes with arbitrary magnetic fluxes. We discuss the flux induced potential and offer an interpretation of the stabilization of R-R moduli associated to deformations of the complex structure of T6 in terms of non-derivative mixings with NS-NS moduli. Finally we briefly comment on how to extract other low energy couplings and generalize our results to toroidal orbifolds and other configurations governed by rational conformal field theories on the worldsheet.

  7. Magnetic Flux Quantization of the Landau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Li, Kang; Long, Shuming; Yuan, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Landau problem has a very important application in modern physics, in which two-dimensional electron gas system and quantum Hall effect are outstanding. In this paper, first we review the solution of the Pauli equation, then using the single electron wave function, we calculate moving area expectations of the ideal 2-dimensional electron gas system and the per unit area's degeneracy of the electron gas system. As a result, how to calculate the magnetic flux of the electron gas system is given. It shows that the magnetic flux of 2-dimensional electron gas system in magnetic field is quantized, and magnetic flux quantization results from the quantization of the moving area expectations of electron gas system.

  8. Solar cycle of magnetic flux spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, Chunlan

    2015-08-01

    Solar cycle has not only presented fascinating scientific challenges but also left massive footprints on our living environments. To get better understanding on the magnetic cycle, we have made efforts to extend the knowledge by examining the cyclic behavior of Sun’s small-scale magnetic elements with SOHO/MDI and Hinode/SP observations (Jin et al. 2011, Jin and Wang 2012, 2014). The work has been made on the basic of identity of tens Million magnetic elements in the flux range from current detection limit (1.5x1016 Mx) to times of 1019 Mx. We find that from the detective limit to the large end of the magnetic flux spectrum, the variation of magnetic element numbers show no correlation, anti-correlation and correlation with sunspot number, respectively. The magnetic elements with flux less than 2.9x1018 Mx display behavior of some local dynamo that is independent of the sunspot cycle, while the enhanced network magnetic elements with flux larger a few times of 1019 Mx are likely to be the debris of decayed sunspots. Possibilities are considered to explain the anti-correlated magnetic elements in term of the interplay of local and global dynamos. We will report our new efforts and results in exploring the solar cycle in term of Sun’s magnetic flux spectrum by combining the SOHO/MDI, SDO/HMI and Hinode/SP observations. All efforts will help with learning which component of solar magnetism has responsibility for the change of solar total irradiance.

  9. Magnetic topology of emerging flux regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, Etienne

    Coronal magnetic fields structure and governs the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. These magnetic fields are often complex, composed of multiples domains of magnetic-field-lines connectivity. The topology of the magnetic field allows a synthetic description of these complex magnetic field by highlighting the structural elements that are important for the dynamic and the activity of the corona. Topology identifies the key elements where magnetic reconnection will preferentially occurs, and allows to explain and predict the evolution of the coronal plasma. However the topological elements - such as null points, separatrices, separators - do not appear out of thin air. Along with energy, and helicity, the magnetic topology of an active region is build up as the consequence of flux emergence. Some topological elements, such as bald-patches, are even fully part of the mechanism of flux emergence mechanism and drive the evolution and the structuration of the coronal magnetic field as it crosses the lower layer of the solar atmosphere. In the present talk I will therefore review our current understanding of the formation of active region in terms of magnetic topology. I will speak on how the topological structures which are key to solar activity are formed. Meanwhile I'll also discus the topological properties of emerging active region and how topology influences the very process of flux emergence.

  10. Color magnetic flux tubes in dense QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto

    2009-12-15

    QCD is expected to be in the color-flavor locking phase in high baryon density, which exhibits color superconductivity. The most fundamental topological objects in the color superconductor are non-Abelian vortices which are topologically stable color magnetic flux tubes. We present numerical solutions of the color magnetic flux tube for diverse choices of the coupling constants based on the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian. We also analytically study its asymptotic profiles and find that they are different from the case of usual superconductors. We propose the width of color magnetic fluxes and find that it is larger than naive expectation of the Compton wavelength of the massive gluon when the gluon mass is larger than the scalar mass.

  11. Magnetic Flux Emergence in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of magnetic flux from the solar interior into the atmosphere drives a diverse range of dynamic phenomena. In this talk, we review physical concepts important for understanding the flux emergence process and discuss advances drawn from a synthesis of observations and magnetohydrodynamics simulations. The development of data-driven models promises to bring the two approaches ever closer. Recent results and possibilities for future studies enabled by data-driven models will be discussed.

  12. Magnetic Flux Supplement to Coronal Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Madjarska, Maria S.; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Jiao, Fangran; Hou, Zhenyong

    2016-02-01

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of an MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.

  13. Magnetic flux reconstruction methods for shaped tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Chi-Wa

    1993-12-01

    The use of a variational method permits the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to be solved by reducing the problem of solving the 2D non-linear partial differential equation to the problem of minimizing a function of several variables. This high speed algorithm approximately solves the GS equation given a parameterization of the plasma boundary and the current profile (p` and FF` functions). The author treats the current profile parameters as unknowns. The goal is to reconstruct the internal magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak plasma and the toroidal current density profile from the external magnetic measurements. This is a classic problem of inverse equilibrium determination. The current profile parameters can be evaluated by several different matching procedures. Matching of magnetic flux and field at the probe locations using the Biot-Savart law and magnetic Green`s function provides a robust method of magnetic reconstruction. The matching of poloidal magnetic field on the plasma surface provides a unique method of identifying the plasma current profile. However, the power of this method is greatly compromised by the experimental errors of the magnetic signals. The Casing Principle provides a very fast way to evaluate the plasma contribution to the magnetic signals. It has the potential of being a fast matching method. The performance of this method is hindered by the accuracy of the poloidal magnetic field computed from the equilibrium solver. A flux reconstruction package has been implemented which integrates a vacuum field solver using a filament model for the plasma, a multi-layer perception neural network as an interface, and the volume integration of plasma current density using Green`s functions as a matching method for the current profile parameters. The flux reconstruction package is applied to compare with the ASEQ and EFIT data. The results are promising.

  14. Magnetic Flux Tube Interchange at the Heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinski, V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic field measured by Voyager 1 prior to its heliocliff encounter on 2012.65 showed an unexpectedly complex transition from the primarily azimuthal inner-heliosheath field to the draped interstellar field tilted by some 20 to the nominal azimuthal direction. Most prominent were two regions of enhanced magnetic field strength depleted in energetic charged particles of heliospheric origin. These regions were interpreted as magnetic flux tubes connected to the outer heliosheath that provided a path for the particles to escape. Despite large increases in strength, the fields direction did not change appreciably at the boundaries of these flux tubes. Rather, the fields direction changed gradually over several months prior to the heliocliff crossing. It is shown theoretically that the heliopause, as a pressure equilibrium layer, can become unstable to interchange of magnetic fields between the inner and the outer heliosheaths. The curvature of magnetic field lines and the anti-sunward gradient in plasma kinetic pressure provide conditions favorable for an interchange. Magnetic shear between the heliosheath and the interstellar fields reduces the growth rates, but does not fully stabilize the heliopause against perturbations propagating in the latitudinal direction. The instability could create a transition layer permeated by magnetic flux tubes, oriented parallel to each other and alternately connected to the heliosheath or the interstellar regions.

  15. The dynamics of magnetic flux rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, E. E.; Fisher, G. H.; Patten, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic fields in the presence of turbulent convection is examined using results of numerical simulations of closed magnetic flux tubes embedded in a steady 'ABC' flow field, which approximate some of the important characteristics of a turbulent convecting flow field. Three different evolutionary scenarios were found: expansion to a steady deformed ring; collapse to a compact fat flux ring, separated from the expansion type of behavior by a critical length scale; and, occasionally, evolution toward an advecting, oscillatory state. The work suggests that small-scale flows will not have a strong effect on large-scale, strong fields.

  16. Photospheric Magnetic Flux Transport - Supergranules Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Rightmire-Upton, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's photosphere show that active region magnetic flux is carried far from its origin by a combination of flows. These flows have previously been identified and modeled as separate axisymmetric processes: differential rotation, meridional flow, and supergranule diffusion. Experiments with a surface convective flow model reveal that the true nature of this transport is advection by the non-axisymmetric cellular flows themselves - supergranules. Magnetic elements are transported to the boundaries of the cells and then follow the evolving boundaries. The convective flows in supergranules have peak velocities near 500 m/s. These flows completely overpower the superimposed 20 m/s meridional flow and 100 m/s differential rotation. The magnetic elements remain pinned at the supergranule boundaries. Experiments with and without the superimposed axisymmetric photospheric flows show that the axisymmetric transport of magnetic flux is controlled by the advection of the cellular pattern by underlying flows representative of deeper layers. The magnetic elements follow the differential rotation and meridional flow associated with the convection cells themselves -- supergranules rule!

  17. Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gorecka, Agnieszka; Gremaud, Benoit; Miniatura, Christian

    2011-08-15

    We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter's butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.

  18. Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecka, Agnieszka; Grémaud, Benoît; Miniatura, Christian

    2011-08-01

    We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter’s butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.

  19. Flux-Flow noise in YBCO thin films in the normal region, transition and superconducting state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Paula; Castro, Hector

    2008-03-01

    The dynamic of vortexes inside type II superconductor thin films in the mixed state, that is, under their critical temperature and immersed in a DC magnetic field below its critical value, can be studied by means of the measurement of flux-flow noise, before the transition, during it and in the superconducting state. We measure the fluctuation in the voltage signal in the pseudogap region for an YCaBaCuO thin film, and compare it with the response in the other two regions. The response for overdoped and underdoped samples is compared with the response of optimaldoped samples.

  20. The Invariance of Open Solar Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.; Zhou, X.

    2005-12-01

    A major finding of Ulysses has been the relative invariance of the open magnetic flux transported into the heliosphere from the Sun by the solar wind. The measure of open flux, r- squared Br, where r is heliocentric distance and Br is the radial field component, was found to be independent of both heliolatitude and phase of the solar cycle, being essentially the same (to within much less than a factor of two) at the recent sunspot minimum and maximum (cycle #23). Although such an invariance is generally not a feature of models of the solar-heliospheric field, it was predicted by L. Fisk and N. Schwadron who proposed that newly created open flux is the result of merging of already open flux with adjacent magnetic loops so that reconnecting field lines result in another open field and another loop with the total number of each unchanged. Thus, studying the open flux in the solar wind is a test of this hypothesis. The preceding study of open flux by Smith and Balogh ended shortly after solar maximum in 2001 when the polar cap magnetic fields had just reversed and were still relatively weak. Since then, the polar cap fields have strengthened and are now about one-half their value during the previous two sunspot cycles (#21, 22). We now present further evidence regarding this important question in Ulysses data acquired over the past 4 years. The radial components at Ulysses and in-ecliptic spacecraft are compared since the latter measurements are potentially a measure of open flux extending back to previous sunspot cycles.

  1. Optimization of magnetic flux density measurement using multiple RF receiver coils and multi-echo in MREIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Chauhan, Munish; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; Sera, Igor; In Kwon, Oh; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) is an MRI method that enables mapping of internal conductivity and/or current density via measurements of magnetic flux density signals. The MREIT measures only the z-component of the induced magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz) by external current injection. The measured noise of Bz complicates recovery of magnetic flux density maps, resulting in lower quality conductivity and current-density maps. We present a new method for more accurate measurement of the spatial gradient of the magnetic flux density gradient (? Bz). The method relies on the use of multiple radio-frequency receiver coils and an interleaved multi-echo pulse sequence that acquires multiple sampling points within each repetition time. The noise level of the measured magnetic flux density Bz depends on the decay rate of the signal magnitude, the injection current duration, and the coil sensitivity map. The proposed method uses three key steps. The first step is to determine a representative magnetic flux density gradient from multiple receiver coils by using a weighted combination and by denoising the measured noisy data. The second step is to optimize the magnetic flux density gradient by using multi-echo magnetic flux densities at each pixel in order to reduce the noise level of ? Bz and the third step is to remove a random noise component from the recovered ? Bz by solving an elliptic partial differential equation in a region of interest. Numerical simulation experiments using a cylindrical phantom model with included regions of low MRI signal to noise (defects) verified the proposed method. Experimental results using a real phantom experiment, that included three different kinds of anomalies, demonstrated that the proposed method reduced the noise level of the measured magnetic flux density. The quality of the recovered conductivity maps using denoised ? Bz data showed that the proposed method reduced the conductivity noise level up to 3-4 times at each anomaly region in comparison to the conventional method.

  2. Magnetic flux concentrations in a polytropic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, I. R.; Brandenburg, A.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Strongly stratified hydromagnetic turbulence has recently been identified as a candidate for explaining the spontaneous formation of magnetic flux concentrations by the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). Much of this work has been done for isothermal layers, in which the density scale height is constant throughout. Aims: We now want to know whether earlier conclusions regarding the size of magnetic structures and their growth rates carry over to the case of polytropic layers, in which the scale height decreases sharply as one approaches the surface. Methods: To allow for a continuous transition from isothermal to polytropic layers, we employ a generalization of the exponential function known as the q-exponential. This implies that the top of the polytropic layer shifts with changing polytropic index such that the scale height is always the same at some reference height. We used both mean-field simulations (MFS) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of forced stratified turbulence to determine the resulting flux concentrations in polytropic layers. Cases of both horizontal and vertical applied magnetic fields were considered. Results: Magnetic structures begin to form at a depth where the magnetic field strength is a small fraction of the local equipartition field strength with respect to the turbulent kinetic energy. Unlike the isothermal case where stronger fields can give rise to magnetic flux concentrations at larger depths, in the polytropic case the growth rate of NEMPI decreases for structures deeper down. Moreover, the structures that form higher up have a smaller horizontal scale of about four times their local depth. For vertical fields, magnetic structures of super-equipartition strengths are formed, because such fields survive downward advection that causes NEMPI with horizontal magnetic fields to reach premature nonlinear saturation by what is called the "potato-sack" effect. The horizontal cross-section of such structures found in DNS is approximately circular, which is reproduced with MFS of NEMPI using a vertical magnetic field. Conclusions: Results based on isothermal models can be applied locally to polytropic layers. For vertical fields, magnetic flux concentrations of super-equipartition strengths form, which supports suggestions that sunspot formation might be a shallow phenomenon.

  3. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A. E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu

    2013-03-10

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  4. Magnetic merging in colliding flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.; Rhoads, James E.

    1995-01-01

    We develop an analytical theory of reconnection between colliding, twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our analysis is restricted to direct collisions between parallel tubes and is based on the collision dynamics worked out by Bogdan (1984). We show that there is a range of collision velocities for which neutral point reconnection of the Parker-Sweet type can occur, and a smaller range for which reconnection leads to coalescence. Mean velocities within the solar convection zone are probably significantly greater than the upper limit for coalescence. This suggests that the majority of flux tube collisions do not result in merging, unless the frictional coupling of the tubes to the background flow is extremely strong.

  5. Stochastic flux freezing and magnetic dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Eyink, Gregory L.

    2011-05-15

    Magnetic flux conservation in turbulent plasmas at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is argued neither to hold in the conventional sense nor to be entirely broken, but instead to be valid in a statistical sense associated to the ''spontaneous stochasticity'' of Lagrangian particle trajectories. The latter phenomenon is due to the explosive separation of particles undergoing turbulent Richardson diffusion, which leads to a breakdown of Laplacian determinism for classical dynamics. Empirical evidence is presented for spontaneous stochasticity, including numerical results. A Lagrangian path-integral approach is then exploited to establish stochastic flux freezing for resistive hydromagnetic equations and to argue, based on the properties of Richardson diffusion, that flux conservation must remain stochastic at infinite magnetic Reynolds number. An important application of these results is the kinematic, fluctuation dynamo in nonhelical, incompressible turbulence at magnetic Prandtl number (Pr{sub m}) equal to unity. Numerical results on the Lagrangian dynamo mechanisms by a stochastic particle method demonstrate a strong similarity between the Pr{sub m}=1 and 0 dynamos. Stochasticity of field-line motion is an essential ingredient of both. Finally, some consequences for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, dynamo, and reconnection are briefly considered.

  6. Magnetic Flux Compression Experiments Using Plasma Armatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic flux compression reaction chambers offer considerable promise for controlling the plasma flow associated with various micronuclear/chemical pulse propulsion and power schemes, primarily because they avoid thermalization with wall structures and permit multicycle operation modes. The major physical effects of concern are the diffusion of magnetic flux into the rapidly expanding plasma cloud and the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the plasma surface, both of which can severely degrade reactor efficiency and lead to plasma-wall impact. A physical parameter of critical importance to these underlying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes is the magnetic Reynolds number (R(sub m), the value of which depends upon the product of plasma electrical conductivity and velocity. Efficient flux compression requires R(sub m) less than 1, and a thorough understanding of MHD phenomena at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is essential to the reliable design and operation of practical reactors. As a means of improving this understanding, a simplified laboratory experiment has been constructed in which the plasma jet ejected from an ablative pulse plasma gun is used to investigate plasma armature interaction with magnetic fields. As a prelude to intensive study, exploratory experiments were carried out to quantify the magnetic Reynolds number characteristics of the plasma jet source. Jet velocity was deduced from time-of-flight measurements using optical probes, and electrical conductivity was measured using an inductive probing technique. Using air at 27-inHg vacuum, measured velocities approached 4.5 km/s and measured conductivities were in the range of 30 to 40 kS/m.

  7. MAGNETIC FLUX CONSERVATION IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; Decker, R. B.; Drake, J. F.; Ness, N. F.; Opher, M. E-mail: lburlagahsp@verizon.net E-mail: drake@umd.edu E-mail: mopher@bu.edu

    2013-01-01

    Voyager 1(V1) and Voyager 2(V2) have observed heliosheath plasma since 2005 December and 2007 August, respectively. The observed speed profiles are very different at the two spacecrafts. Speeds at V1 decreased to zero in 2010 while the average speed at V2 is a constant 150 km s{sup -1} with the direction rotating tailward. The magnetic flux is expected to be constant in these heliosheath flows. We show that the flux is constant at V2 but decreases by an order of magnitude at V1, even after accounting for divergence of the flows and changes in the solar field. If reconnection were responsible for this decrease, the magnetic field would lose 70% of its free energy to reconnection and the energy density released would be 0.6 eV cm{sup -3}.

  8. Magnetic-Flux-Compensated Voltage Divider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.

    2005-01-01

    A magnetic-flux-compensated voltage-divider circuit has been proposed for use in measuring the true potential across a component that is exposed to large, rapidly varying electric currents like those produced by lightning strikes. An example of such a component is a lightning arrester, which is typically exposed to currents of the order of tens of kiloamperes, having rise times of the order of hundreds of nanoseconds. Traditional voltage-divider circuits are not designed for magnetic-flux-compensation: They contain uncompensated loops having areas large enough that the transient magnetic fluxes associated with large transient currents induce spurious voltages large enough to distort voltage-divider outputs significantly. A drawing of the proposed circuit was not available at the time of receipt of information for this article. What is known from a summary textual description is that the proposed circuit would contain a total of four voltage dividers: There would be two mixed dividers in parallel with each other and with the component of interest (e.g., a lightning arrester), plus two mixed dividers in parallel with each other and in series with the component of interest in the same plane. The electrical and geometric configuration would provide compensation for induced voltages, including those attributable to asymmetry in the volumetric density of the lightning or other transient current, canceling out the spurious voltages and measuring the true voltage across the component.

  9. A review on equivalent magnetic noise of magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. J.; Gao, J. Q.; Li, M. H.; Shen, Y.; Hasanyan, D.; Li, J. F.; Viehland, D.

    2014-01-01

    Since the turn of the millennium, multi-phase magnetoelectric (ME) composites have been subject to attention and development, and giant ME effects have been found in laminate composites of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive layers. From an application perspective, the practical usefulness of a magnetic sensor is determined not only by the output signal of the sensor in response to an incident magnetic field, but also by the equivalent magnetic noise generated in the absence of such an incident field. Here, a short review of developments in equivalent magnetic noise reduction for ME sensors is presented. This review focuses on internal noise, the analysis of the noise contributions and a summary of noise reduction strategies. Furthermore, external vibration noise is also discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future possibilities and scientific challenges in the field of ME magnetic sensors. PMID:24421380

  10. SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S

    2008-05-14

    In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.

  11. Magnetic flux in modeled magnetic clouds at 1 AU and some specific comparisons to associated photospheric flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Szabo, A.; DeForest, C. E.; Thompson, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to better understand the solar origins of magnetic clouds, statistical distributions of the estimated axial magnetic flux of 30 magnetic clouds at 1 AU, separated according to their occurrence during the solar cycle, were obtained and a comparison was made of the magnetic flux of a magnetic cloud to the aggregate flux of apparently associated photospheric magnetic flux tubes, for some specific cases. The 30 magnetic clouds comprise 12 cases from WIND, and the remainder from IMP-8, earlier IMPs, the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 and HELIOS. The total magnetic flux along the cloud axis was estimated using a constant alpha, cylindrical, force-free flux rope model to determine cloud diameter and axial magentic field strength. The distribution of magentic fluxes for the 30 clouds is shown to be in the form of a skewed Gaussian.

  12. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  13. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Mark A. (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert D. (Schenectady, NY)

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  14. On turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields and the loss of magnetic flux from stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vainshtein, Samuel I.; Rosner, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects, and the processes leading to magnetic field flux loss from such objects are discussed with attention to the suppression of turbulent diffusion by back-reaction of magnetic fields on small spatial scales, and on the constraint imposed on magnetic flux loss by flux-freezing within stars. Turbulent magnetic diffusion can be suppressed even for very weak large-scale magnetic fields, so that 'standard' turbulent diffusion is incapable of significant magnetic flux destruction within a star. Finally, magnetic flux loss via winds is shown to be generally ineffective, no matter what the value of the effective magnetic Reynolds number is.

  15. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  16. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  17. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  18. Automatic magnetic flux measurement of micro plastic-magnetic rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingdong; Lin, Mingxing; Song, Aiwei

    2015-07-01

    Micro plastic-magnetic rotors of various sizes and shapes are widely used in industry, their magnetic flux measurement is one of the most important links in the production process, and therefore some technologies should be adopted to improve the measurement precision and efficiency. In this paper, the automatic measurement principle of micro plastic-magnetic rotors is proposed and the integration time constant and the integrator drift’s suppression and compensation in the measurement circuit are analyzed. Two other factors influencing the measurement precision are also analyzed, including the relative angles between the rotor magnetic poles and the measurement coil, and the starting point of the rotors in the coil where the measurement begins. An instrument is designed to measure the magnetic flux of the rotors. Measurement results show that the measurement error is within  ±1%, which meets the basic requirements in industry application, and the measurement efficiency is increased by 10 times, which can cut down labor cost and management cost when compared with manual measurement.

  19. dc modulation noise in thin film magnetic recording disk media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R. R.; Saunders, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    A study of dc modulation noise as a function of magnetic layer thickness has been conducted for plated longitudinal low-noise Co-alloy disk media with a range of 900 to 1100 Oe. The noise, produced by the application of a reverse longitudinal dc field to a uniformly magnetized disk, supplies data regarding the uniformity of the disk. A spectrum analyzer measures the noise by means of electronic detection, and noise spectra and autocorrelation functions calculated with a model are compared to the experimental results. The model correlates with experimental data to more than 0.99. The maximum distance between effective transitions diminishes from 2.8 microns to 1 micron when the thickness of the magnetic layer is increased from 25 nm to 60 nm. The maximum average transition amplitude is found to be independent of thickness, and is bounded by 0.001 of the saturation magnetization.

  20. Multiplicative noise effects on electroconvection in controlling additive noise by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jong-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We report multiplicative noise-induced threshold shift of electroconvection (EC) in the presence of a magnetic field H . Controlling the thermal fluctuation (i.e., additive noise) of the rodlike molecules of nematic liquid crystals by H , the EC threshold is examined at various noise levels [characterized by their intensity and cutoff frequency (fc) ]. For a sufficiently strong H (i.e., ignorable additive noise), a modified noise sensitivity characterizing the shift problem is in good agreement with experimental results for colored as well as white noise (fc?? ) ; until now, there was a large deviation for (sufficiently) colored noises. The present study shows that H provides us with ideal conditions for studying the corresponding Carr-Helfrich theory considering pure multiplicative noise.

  1. Noise analysis in fast magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) based on spoiled multi gradient echo (SPMGE) pulse sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Oh, Tong; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Ji Eun; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; In Kwon, Oh; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a promising non-invasive method to visualize a static cross-sectional conductivity and/or current density image by injecting low frequency currents. MREIT measures one component of the magnetic flux density caused by the injected current using a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. For practical in vivo implementations of MREIT, especially for soft biological tissues where the MR signal rapidly decays, it is crucial to develop a technique for optimizing the magnetic flux density signal by the injected current while maintaining spatial-resolution and contrast. We design an MREIT pulse sequence by applying a spoiled multi-gradient-echo pulse sequence (SPMGE) to the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE), which fully injects the current at the end of the read-out gradient. The applied ICNE-SPMGE pulse sequence maximizes the duration of injected current almost up to a repetition time by measuring multiple magnetic flux density data. We analyze the noise level of measured magnetic flux density with respect to the pulse width of injection current and T_{2}^{*} relaxation time. In due consideration of the ICNE-SPMGE pulse sequence, using a reference information of T_{2}^{*} values in a local region of interest by a short pre-scan data, we predict the noise level of magnetic flux density to be measured for arbitrary repetition time TR. Results from phantom experiment demonstrate that the proposed method can predict the noise level of magnetic flux density for an appropriate TR = 40 ms using a reference scan for TR = 75 ms. The predicted noise level was compared with the noise level of directly measured magnetic flux density data.

  2. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  3. NONLINEAR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOCONVECTION AROUND MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Botha, G. J. J.; Rucklidge, A. M.; Hurlburt, N. E. E-mail: A.M.Rucklidge@leeds.ac.uk

    2011-04-20

    Magnetic flux in the solar photosphere forms concentrations from small scales, such as flux elements, to large scales, such as sunspots. This paper presents a study of the decay process of large magnetic flux tubes, such as sunspots, on a supergranular scale. Three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations are performed in a cylindrical domain, initialized with axisymmetric solutions that consist of a well-defined central flux tube and an annular convection cell surrounding it. As the nonlinear convection evolves, the annular cell breaks up into many cells in the azimuthal direction, allowing magnetic flux to slip between cells away from the central flux tube (turbulent erosion). This lowers magnetic pressure in the central tube, and convection grows inside the tube, possibly becoming strong enough to push the tube apart. A remnant of the central flux tube persists with nonsymmetric perturbations caused by the convection surrounding it. Secondary flux concentrations form between convection cells away from the central tube. Tube decay is dependent on the convection around the tube. Convection cells forming inside the tube as time-dependent outflows will remove magnetic flux. (This is most pronounced for small tubes.) Flux is added to the tube when flux caught in the surrounding convection is pushed toward it. The tube persists when convection inside the tube is sufficiently suppressed by the remaining magnetic field. All examples of persistent tubes have the same effective magnetic field strength, consistent with the observation that pores and sunspot umbrae all have roughly the same magnetic field strength.

  4. Magnetic Flux Pileup and Magnetic Field Dipolarization During Substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Pu, Z.; Cao, X.; Fu, S.; Xiao, C.; Zong, Q.; Liu, Z.; Cao, J.; Korth, A.; Frazen, M.; Carr, C.; Reme, H.; Glassmeier, K.

    2005-12-01

    During the period from July to October in 2004, the orbit apogee of Double Star TC-1 of 13Re located in the magnetotail, which made it possible to survey some basic features of substorm processes in the magnetotail. In the present paper we make a case study of substorm occurring on Sep. 17, 2004. At about 0117 UT FUV WIC on board IMAGE observed an aurora breakup. Almost at the same time the LANL-01A and 90-085 at the geosynchronous altitude detected dispersionless injection of energetic electrons. About 2-3 minutes later a weak dipolarization was seen by NOAA geosynchronous satellite GOES 12. Interestingly, ten minutes before substorm onset, Cluster observed an earthward flow at (-15.00, 2.05, 3.50) Re(GSM). At 0116 UT (one min before onset) TC-1 saw a beginning of magnetic flux pile-up at its position (-10.26, -1.36, 1.01) REGSM, characterized by an increasing of Bz component with almost constant Bx and thermal pressure. At about 0126 UT (9 minutes after onset) TC-1 observed a local dipolarization of the magnetic field which was characterized by a rapid decrease of Bx component and a sharp jump in the thermal pressure, together with a continuous increase of Bz. In the literature, some authors treated the flux pile-up and dipolarization in the tail as a single process named `dipolarization'. However, as TC-1 measurements show in this event, flux pile-up and dipolarization are characterized by completely different signatures. The same feature holds for many other events. Detailed inspections of TC-1 data in this event show that the beginning of flux pile-up was about 10 minutes preceding the dipolarization. Besides, the latter lasted only for about two minutes, whereas the former kept for almost one hour. All these aforementioned differences imply that flux pile-up and dipolarization are two different dynamical processes. Nevertheless, further studies indicate that they are `cause-effect' related: The magnetic flux pileup may lead the field lines with `good' curvature to change to the `bad' ones, further compresses the magnetic field and yields disturbances. These can set up appropriate conditions for development of instabilities and then trigger substorm expansion onset. In summary, this case study seems consistent with the synthesis substorm model of near-Earth neutral line (NENL) and near-Earth current disruption (NECD).

  5. Magnetic Flux Concentration and Zonal Flows in Magnetorotational Instability Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2014-11-01

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few disk scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.

  6. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few disk scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.

  7. Experiences and results from an automated noise surveillance system of the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thie, J.A.; Mullens, J.A.; Campbell, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes recent accomplishments in the collection and interpretation of noise data from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Automated data collection has provided data for a variety of reactor conditions and phenomena from several fuel cycles. This automated method has aided the interpretation of neutron noise from control rod vibrations and structure vibrations.

  8. Detection of spin torque magnetization dynamics through low frequency noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Herranz, David; Ebels, Ursula; Katine, Jordan A.; Aliev, Farkhad G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a comparative study of high frequency dynamics and low frequency noise in elliptical magnetic tunnel junctions with lateral dimensions under 100 nm presenting current-switching phenomena. The analysis of the high frequency oscillation modes with respect to the current reveals the onset of a steady-state precession regime for negative bias currents above J = 10 7 A / cm 2 , when the magnetic field is applied along the easy axis of magnetization. By the study of low frequency noise for the same samples, we demonstrate the direct link between changes in the oscillation modes with the applied current and the normalised low frequency (1/f) noise as a function of the bias current. These findings prove that low frequency noise studies could be a simple and powerful technique to investigate spin-torque based magnetization dynamics.

  9. The noise main characteristic for magnetic microsensors structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panait, Cornel; Srbu, Vasile; C?runtu, George

    2009-01-01

    The noise-signal at the output of a Hall magnetic sensor can be interpreted as a result of an equivalent magnetic induction, acting on a noiseless Hall device. In this paperwork based on the adequate models it is analysed the operating conditions, and are established the noise main characteristic for three magnetic microsensor structures, realized in the bipolar and the MOS integrated circuits technology. By using the numerical simulation the values of the signal-to-noise ratio and the noise-equivalent magnetic induction spectral density for different structure devices are compared and it is also emphasized the way in which choosing the geometry and the material features allows getting high-performance sensors. (properties influence on the device performances.)

  10. Transport of magnetic flux in Saturn’s inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Lai, H. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Jia, Y. D.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of the Saturnian magnetosphere, which rotates rapidly with an internal plasma source provided by Enceladus, qualitatively resembles those of the jovian magnetosphere powered by Io. The newly added plasma is accelerated to the corotation speed and moves outward together with the magnetic flux. In the near tail region, reconnection cuts the magnetic flux, reconnects it into plasma-depleted inward moving flux tubes and outward moving massive plasmoids. The buoyant empty tubes then convect inward against the outward flow to conserve the total magnetic flux established by the internal dynamo. In both jovian and saturnian magnetospheres, flux tubes with enhanced field strength relative to their surroundings are detected in the equatorial region. Recent observations show that there are flux tubes with reduced field strength off the equator in the saturnian magnetosphere. To understand the formation mechanism of both types of flux tubes, we have surveyed all the available 1-sec magnetic field data from Cassini. The systematic statistical study confirms the different latitudinal distributions of the two types of flux tubes. In addition, enhanced-field flux tubes are closer to the planet while reduced-field flux tubes can be detected at larger distances; both types of flux tubes become indistinguishable from the background magnetic flux inside an L-value of about 4; the local time distribution of both types of flux tubes are similar and they contain about the same amount of magnetic flux. Therefore, the two types of flux tubes are the same phenomena with different manifestations in different plasma environments. When the surrounding plasma density is high (near the equator and closer to the plasma source region), the flux tubes are compressed and have enhanced field strength inside; while in the low-plasma density region (off the equator and further from the plasma source region), the flux tubes expand and have reduced field strength inside.

  11. Magnetic nerve stimulation without interlinkage between nerve and magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, S.; Harada, K.; Ji, C.; Oomura, Y.

    1984-09-01

    A new method of magnetic stimulation of nerves is proposed. Nerves are located on a core aperture outside the core which is implanted in the body. Nerves can be stimulated by the secondary currents which flow in the body fluids around the core when the magnetic flux in the core is changed. One of the advantages in this method is to be able to avoid the interlinkage between the core and nerves. The equivalent resistance of tissues around the core is calculated, and current density for nerve excitation is estimated. The validity of the new method is demonstrated by experiments using frog nerve-muscle preparations. The results show that the nerve can be excited by a change of magnetic flux which generates an EMF of 0.8-volts peak amplitude and 0.8-ms duration in a monitor wire. The current density in the vicinity of the core aperture for nerve excitation is 3.2 mA/cm/sup 2/.

  12. Relationships of a growing magnetic flux region to flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Bentley, R. D.; Schadee, A.; Antalova, A.; Kucera, A.; Dezso, L.; Gesztelyi, L.; Harvey, K. L.; Jones, H.; Livi, S. H. B.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of flare sites at the boundaries of major new and growing magnetic flux regions within complexes of active regions has been analyzed using H-alpha images. A spectrum of possible relationships of growing flux regions to flares is described. An 'intimate' interaction between old and new flux and flare sites occurs at the boundaries of their regions. Forced or 'intimidated' interaction involves new flux pushing older, lower flux density fields toward a neighboring old polarity inversion line, followed by the occurrence of a flare. In 'influential' interaction, magnetic lines of force over an old polarity inversion line reconnect to new emerging flux, and a flare occurs when the magnetic field overlying the filament becomes too weak to prevent its eruption. 'Inconsequential' interaction occurs when a new flux region is too small or has the wrong orientation for creating flare conditions. 'Incidental' interaction involves a flare occurring without any significant relationship to new flux regions.

  13. Magnetic Flux Pileup and Magnetic Field Dipolarization during Substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanghui, H.; Pu, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Korth, A.; Frazen, M.; Friedel, R.; Zong, Q. G.; Reme, H.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    During the period from July to October in 2004 the orbit apogee of Double Star TC-1 of 13RE located in the magnetotail which made it possible to survey some basic features of substorm processes in the magnetotail In the present paper we make a case study of substorm occurring on Sep 17 2004 At about 0117 UT FUV WIC on board IMAGE observed an aurora breakup Almost at the same time the LANL-01A and 90-085 at the geosynchronous altitude detected dispersionless injection of energetic electrons About 2-3 minutes later a weak dipolarization was seen by NOAA geosynchronous satellite GOES 12 Interestingly ten minutes before substorm onset Cluster observed an earthward flow at -15 00 2 05 3 50 REGSM At 0116 UT one min before onset TC-1 saw a beginning of magnetic flux pile-up at its position -10 26 -1 36 1 01 REGSM characterized by an increasing of Bz component with almost constant Bx and thermal pressure At about 0126 UT 9 minutes after onset TC-1 observed a local dipolarization of the magnetic field which was characterized by a rapid decrease of Bx component and a sharp jump in the thermal pressure together with a continuous increase of Bz In the literature some authors treated the flux pile-up and dipolarization in the tail as a single process named odipolarization - However as TC-1 measurements show in this event flux pile-up and dipolarization are characterized by completely different signatures The same feature holds for many other events Detailed inspections of TC-1 data in this event show that the beginning of flux pile-up was 10 minutes

  14. Magnetic flux ropes at the high-latitude magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, Jean; Raeder, Joachim; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1995-01-01

    We examine the consequences of magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause using a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Magnetic field lines from the simulation reveal the formation of magnetic flux ropes during periods with northward interplanetary magnetic field. These flux ropes result from multiple reconnection processes between the lobes field lines and draped magnetosheath field lines that are convected around the flank of the magnetosphere. The flux ropes identified in the simulation are consistent with features observed in the magnetic field measured by Hawkeye-1 during some high-latitude magnetopause crossings.

  15. Magnetic flux ropes in 3-dimensional MHD simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogino, Tatsuki; Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere is presently simulated by a 3D, time-dependent, global MHD method in order to model the magnetopause and magnetotail generation of magnetic flux ropes. It is noted that strongly twisted and localized magnetic flux tubes simular to magnetic flux ropes appear at the subpolar magnetopause when the IMF has a large azimuthal component, as well as a southward component. Plasmoids are generated in the magnetotail after the formation of a near-earth magnetic neutral line; the magnetic field lines have a helical structure that is connected from dawn to dusk.

  16. A magnetic bearing control approach using flux feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1989-01-01

    A magnetic bearing control approach using flux feedback is described and test results for a laboratory model magnetic bearing actuator are presented. Test results were obtained using a magnetic bearing test fixture, which is also described. The magnetic bearing actuator consists of elements similar to those used in a laboratory test model Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD).

  17. Complexity and diffusion of magnetic flux surfaces in anisotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Ruffolo, D.; Oughton, S.

    2014-04-10

    The complexity of magnetic flux surfaces is investigated analytically and numerically in static homogeneous magnetic turbulence. Magnetic surfaces are computed to large distances in magnetic fields derived from a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The question addressed is whether one can define magnetic surfaces over large distances when turbulence is present. Using a flux surface spectral analysis, we show that magnetic surfaces become complex at small scales, experiencing an exponential thinning that is quantified here. The computation of a flux surface is of either exponential or nondeterministic polynomial complexity, which has the conceptual implication that global identification of magnetic flux surfaces and flux exchange, e.g., in magnetic reconnection, can be intractable in three dimensions. The coarse-grained large-scale magnetic flux experiences diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established explicitly through multiple scale analysis. The Kubo number controls both large and small scale limits. These results have consequences for interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Remanent state noise measurements on magnetic recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, S. M.; Bissell, P. R.; Onions, T.; Mercer, T.

    1998-03-01

    Media noise has been investigated as a function of both the isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) and DC-demagnetisation (DCD) processes on a modified audio transport. Captured noise time series from a given remanent state has been analysed for spectral content using signal processing software. These noise spectra display changes in magnetic microstructure of the tested media with remanent state. Measurements have been made on a range of commercial and laboratory produced tapes. The paper concentrates on examples of commercial samples which have been chosen to indicate various noise characteristics. Conventional media usually show similar features, but changes in remanent state noise has been observed in tapes for new formats and in recent manufacture of conventional formats. This indicates changes in magnetic microstructure associated with new particles and dispersion techniques.

  19. Magnetic flux distribution in power transformer core with mitred joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qi; Guo, Shufeng; Wang, Zhongdong

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic flux distribution in the transformer core, and particularly at the joints, has a considerable influence on the efficiency of the core. This paper considers a more realistic scenario of magnetic flux transfer, combining the effects of air gaps and the anisotropic characteristics of transformer core laminations. Based on the anisotropic magnetization characteristics of modern graded grain-oriented electrical steels, the magnetic flux distribution in the core joint region as a function of the operating flux density and the joint configuration is investigated using the finite element method up to high flux densities. 2D results illustrate the benefits of using multi-step lapped joints versus single-step lapped (SSL) joints at various flux densities. Thin low-permeability gaps are introduced in the 3D model with SSL 45 mitred overlapped joint configuration, which successfully addresses computation challenges of the large number of mesh elements for the air.

  20. PROTOSTELLAR ACCRETION FLOWS DESTABILIZED BY MAGNETIC FLUX REDISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Li Zhiyun; Zhao Bo

    2012-09-20

    Magnetic flux redistribution lies at the heart of the problem of star formation in dense cores of molecular clouds that are magnetized to a realistic level. If all of the magnetic flux of a typical core were to be dragged into the central star, the stellar field strength would be orders of magnitude higher than the observed values. This well-known magnetic flux problem can in principle be resolved through non-ideal MHD effects. Two-dimensional (axisymmetric) calculations have shown that ambipolar diffusion, in particular, can transport magnetic flux outward relative to matter, allowing material to enter the central object without dragging the field lines along. We show through simulations that such axisymmetric protostellar accretion flows are unstable in three dimensions to magnetic interchange instability in the azimuthal direction. The instability is driven by the magnetic flux redistributed from the matter that enters the central object. It typically starts to develop during the transition from the prestellar phase of star formation to the protostellar mass accretion phase. In the latter phase, the magnetic flux is transported outward mainly through advection by strongly magnetized low-density regions that expand against the collapsing inflow. The tussle between the gravity-driven infall and magnetically driven expansion leads to a highly filamentary inner accretion flow that is more disordered than previously envisioned. The efficient outward transport of magnetic flux by advection lowers the field strength at small radii, making the magnetic braking less efficient and the formation of rotationally supported disks easier in principle. However, we find no evidence for such disks in any of our rotating collapse simulations. We conclude that the inner protostellar accretion flow is shaped to a large extent by the flux redistribution-driven magnetic interchange instability. How disks form in such an environment is unclear.

  1. Unresolved Magnetic Flux Removal Process in the Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Masahito; Chye Low, Boon; Lites, Bruce

    The mutual loss of magnetic flux due to the apparent collision of opposite-polarity magnetic elements is called "magnetic flux cancellation" as a descriptive term. The flux cancellation is essential to understand the dissipation of magnetic flux from the solar surface. An ?-loop submerging below the surface or a U-loop rising through the photosphere is the usual idea to explain the magnetic flux cancellation. Magnetic reconnection may be crucial for the forma-tion of these loops, especially for the submerging -loop. In fact, chromospheric and coronal activities are often observed at the cancellation sites. We investigate the evolution of 5 cancel-lation events of the opposite-polarity magnetic elements at granular scales by using accurate spectropolarimetric measurements with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. We find that the horizontal magnetic field, which is expected in both submerging ?-loop model and emerging U-loop model, does not appear between the canceling magnetic elements in 4 of the 5 events. The approaching magnetic elements in these events are more concentrated rather than gradually diffused, and they have nearly vertical fields even while they are in contact each other. We thus imply that the actual flux cancellation is highly time dependent event near the solar surface at scales less than a pixel of Hinode/SOT (about 200 km). At the polarity inversion line formed by the canceling magnetic elements, highly asymmetric Stokes-V profiles are observed. We confirm that such asymmetric profile can be made by the sum of the profiles at the opposite-polarity magnetic elements next to the polarity inversion line. This means that the approaching bipolar flux tubes still keep their nature within the pixel where they come in contact with each other, and thus supports the unresolved flux removal process within the pixel at the polarity inversion line.

  2. The Escape of Magnetic Flux from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Rust, D. M.

    1995-11-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 1024 Mx of net azimuthal flux is ejected by the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is identified with the rate of toroidal flux generation. It is compared with indicators of flux ejection from the solar atmosphere, including coronal mass ejections (CM Es), filament eruptions, and active region loop expansion. The rate is consistent with estimates of flux escaping in these phenomena. The toroidal flux escape rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and probably remove 100% of emerging flux, since multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3 %. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed 2 1045 Mx2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx2 cm-3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations. Helicity shedding and flux escape are seen as essential to the cyclic renewal of the solar dynamo. It is argued that because lefthanded and right-handed helical fields accumulate in the northern and southern hemispheres, separately, conservation of magnetic helicity requires that the dynamo-generated fields be expelled. The mean lifetime of magnetic flux on the solar surface is 3-6 months. The mechanisms described here should also enable Sun-like stars to shed dynamo-generated fields.

  3. Flux Transport and the Sun's Global Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Sun s global magnetic field is produced and evolved through the emergence of magnetic flux in active regions and its transport across the solar surface by the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric convective flows of granulation, supergranulation, and giant cell convection. Maps of the global magnetic field serve as the inner boundary condition for space weather. The photospheric magnetic field and its evolution determine the coronal and solar wind structures through which CMEs must propagate and in which solar energetic particles are accelerated and propagate. Producing magnetic maps which best represent the actual field configuration at any instant requires knowing the magnetic field over the observed hemisphere as well as knowing the flows that transport flux. From our Earth-based vantage point we only observe the front-side hemisphere and each pole is observable for only six months of the year at best. Models for the surface magnetic flux transport can be used to provide updates to the magnetic field configuration in those unseen regions. In this presentation I will describe successes and failures of surface flux transport and present new observations on the structure, the solar cycle variability, and the evolution of the flows involved in magnetic flux transport. I find that supergranules play the dominant role due to their strong flow velocities and long lifetimes. Flux is transported by differential rotation and meridional flow only to the extent that the supergranules participate in those two flows.

  4. Improvement of the superconducting magnetic levitation system for the determination of the magnetic flux quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sakamoto, Y. ); Shiota, F.; Nakayama, K.; Nezu, Y. ); Kikuzawa, M.; Hara, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors describe an improvement of the preliminary superconducting magnetic levitation system in progress for the absolute determination of the magnetic flux quantum. This improvement includes the development of the flux-up method to determine the flux in terms of the Josephson voltage. The improvement is essential for the determination of the magnetic flux quantum as well as of the coil current in terms of the Josephson voltage and quantized Hall resistance.

  5. Helicity charging and eruption of magnetic flux from the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.; Kumar, A.

    1994-01-01

    The ejection of helical toroidal fields from the solar atmosphere and their detection in interplanetary space are described. The discovery that solar magnetic fields are twisted and that they are segregated by hemisphere according to their chirality has important implications for the escape process. The roles played by erupting prominences, coronal mass ejections (CME's) and active region (AR) loops in expressing the escape of magnetic flux and helicity are discussed. Sporadic flux escape associated with filament eruptions accounts for less than one-tenth the flux loss. Azimuthal flux loss by CME's could account for more, but the major contributor to flux escape may be AR loop expansion. It is shown how the transfer of magnetic helicity from the sun's interior into emerged loops ('helicity charging') could be the effective driver of solar eruptions and of flux loss from the sun.

  6. Magnetic flux circulation in the rotationally driven giant magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Otto, A.; Ma, X.; Bagenal, F.; Wilson, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    The giant-planet magnetodiscs are shaped by the radial transport of plasma originating in the inner magnetosphere. Magnetic flux transport is a key aspect of the stretched magnetic field configuration of the magnetodisc. While net mass transport is outward (ultimately lost to the solar wind), magnetic flux conservation requires a balanced two-way transport process. Magnetic reconnection is a critical aspect of the balanced flux transport. We present a comprehensive analysis of current sheet crossings in Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini magnetometer data from 2004 to 2012 in an attempt to quantify the circulation of magnetic flux, emphasizing local time dependence. A key property of flux transport is the azimuthal bend forward or bend back of the magnetic field. The bend back configuration is an expected property of the magnetodisc with net mass outflow, but the bend forward configuration can be achieved with the rapid inward motion of mostly empty flux tubes following reconnection. We find a strong local time dependence for the bend forward cases, localized mostly in the postnoon sector, indicating that much of the flux-conserving reconnection occurs in the subsolar and dusk sector. We suggest that the reconnection occur in a complex and patchy network of reconnection sites, supporting the idea that plasma can be lost on small scales through a "drizzle"-like process. Auroral implications for the observed flux circulation will also be presented.

  7. Signal photon flux and background noise in a coupling electromagnetic detecting system for high-frequency gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Fangyu; Yang Nan; Fang Zhenyun; Wen Hao; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.; Stephenson, Gary V.

    2009-09-15

    A coupling system among Gaussian-type microwave photon flux, a static magnetic field, and fractal membranes (or other equivalent microwave lenses) can be used to detect high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) in the microwave band. We study the signal photon flux, background photon flux, and the requisite minimal accumulation time of the signal in the coupling system. Unlike the pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect (G effect) caused by the HFGWs in the gigahertz band, the electromagnetic (EM) detecting scheme proposed by China and the U.S. HFGW groups is based on the composite effect of the synchroresonance effect and the inverse G effect. The key parameter in the scheme is the first-order perturbative photon flux (PPF) and not the second-order PPF; the distinguishable signal is the transverse first-order PPF and not the longitudinal PPF; the photon flux focused by the fractal membranes or other equivalent microwave lenses is not only the transverse first-order PPF but the total transverse photon flux, and these photon fluxes have different signal-to-noise ratios at the different receiving surfaces. Theoretical analysis and numerical estimation show that the requisite minimal accumulation time of the signal at the special receiving surfaces and in the background noise fluctuation would be {approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} seconds for the typical laboratory condition and parameters of h{sub rms}{approx}10{sup -26}-10{sup -30}/{radical}(Hz) at 5 GHz with bandwidth {approx}1 Hz. In addition, we review the inverse G effect in the EM detection of the HFGWs, and it is shown that the EM detecting scheme based only on the pure inverse G effect in the laboratory condition would not be useful to detect HFGWs in the microwave band.

  8. Vortex Avalanches and Magnetic Flux Fragmentation in Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, Igor; Gurevich, Alex; Vinokur, Valerii

    2001-08-06

    We report the results of numerical simulations of nonisothermal dendritic flux penetration in type-II superconductors. We propose a generic mechanism of dynamic branching of a propagating hot spot of a flux flow/normal state triggered by a local heat pulse. The branching occurs when the flux hot spot reflects from inhomogeneities or the boundary on which magnetization currents either vanish, or change direction. The hot spot then undergoes a cascade of successive splittings, giving rise to a dissipative dendritic-type flux structure. This dynamic state eventually cools down, turning into a frozen multifilamentary pattern of magnetization currents.

  9. Localization of metal-induced gap states at the metal-insulator interface: Origin of flux noise in SQUIDs and superconducting qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, SangKook; Lee, Dung-Hai; Louie, Steven G.; Clarke, John

    2009-10-10

    The origin of magnetic flux noise in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices with a power spectrum scaling as 1/f (f is frequency) has been a puzzle for over 20 years. This noise limits the decoherence time of superconducting qubits. A consensus has emerged that the noise arises from fluctuating spins of localized electrons with an areal density of 5 x 10(17)m(-2). We show that, in the presence of potential disorder at the metal-insulator interface, some of the metal-induced gap states become localized and produce local moments. A modest level of disorder yields the observed areal density.

  10. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  11. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Ivan I; Kozlov, Gleb G; Smirnov, Dmitrii S; Glazov, Mikhail M; Efimov, Yurii P; Eliseev, Sergei A; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A; Petrov, Vladimir V; Kavokin, Kirill V; Kavokin, Alexey V; Zapasskii, Valerii S

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new - magnetometric - potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This "optical field" is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  12. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates.

  13. Shot noise in magnetic double-barrier tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepa?ski, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barna?, J.; Cascales, J. P.; Aliev, F. G.

    2013-04-01

    We calculate shot noise and the corresponding Fano factors in magnetic double-barrier tunnel junctions. Two situations are analyzed: (i) the central metallic layer is nonmagnetic while the external ones are ferromagnetic, and (ii) all of the metallic layers are ferromagnetic. In the latter case, the number of various magnetic configurations of the junctions is larger, which improves the functionality of such devices. The corresponding shot noise and Fano factor are shown to depend on the magnetic configuration of the junctions. The effect of spin relaxation in the central layer is also taken into account. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data on the shot noise in Fe/MgO/Fe/MgO/Fe structures.

  14. Forecasting the solar photospheric magnetic field using solar flux transport model and local ensemble Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Du, Aimin; Feng, Xueshang

    2015-04-01

    Accurate forecasting the solar photospheric magnetic field distribution play an important role in the estimates of the inner boundary conditions of the coronal and solar wind model. Forecasting solar photospheric magnetic field using the solar flux transport (SFT) model can achieve an acceptable match to the actual field. The observations from ground-based or spacecraft instruments can be assimilated to update the modeled flux. The local ensemble Kalman filtering (LEnKF) method is utilized to improve forecasts and characterize their uncertainty by propagating the SFT model with different model parameters forward in time to control the evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic field. Optimal assimilation of measured data into the ensemble produces an improvement in the fit of the forecast to the actual field. Our approach offers a method to improve operational forecasting of the solar photospheric magnetic field. The LEnKF method also allows sensitivity analysis of the SFT model to noise and uncertainty within the physical representation.

  15. ST-7 gravitational reference sensor: analysis of magnetic noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, John; MacKeiser, G.; Buchman, Saps; Byer, Robert; Lauben, Dave; DeBra, Daniel; Williams, Scott; Gill, Dale; Shelef, Ben; Shelef, Gad

    2003-05-01

    A next generation gravitational reference sensor is being developed by Stanford University for the disturbance reduction system (DRS). The DRS will demonstrate the technology required for future gravity missions, including the planned LISA gravitational-wave observatory. The GRS consists of a freely floating test mass, a housing, sensing electrodes and associated electronics. Position measurements from the GRS are used to fly the spacecraft in a drag-free trajectory, where spacecraft position will be continuously adjusted to stay centred about the test mass, essentially flying in formation with it. Any departure of the test mass from a gravitational trajectory is characterized as acceleration noise, resulting from unwanted forces acting on the test mass. The GRS will have an inherent acceleration noise level more than four orders of magnitude lower than previously demonstrated in space. To achieve such a high level of performance, the interaction of the magnetized test mass with the magnetic fields produced by the spacecraft must be considered carefully. It is shown that a new noise source due to the interaction of the time-varying magnetic field gradient and the permanent dipole of the test mass must be added to the noise analysis. A simple current loop model shows that the design of the spacecraft and instrument electronics must be done with attention to the magnetic noise produced.

  16. Completely Detached Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Richard; Larson, J.

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are common features in the solar corona, and may be sites where magnetic energy is stored prior to coronal mass ejections. One way to generate flux ropes in theoretical models is to begin with a potential field and then shear the magnetic footpoints. The field remains force-free but develops an azimuthal component which, for large shear, can form a flux rope. In idealized axisymmetric situations those ropes are detached from the solar surface and represent new flux not present in the initial potential-field state. The energy they store can exceed substantially the energy of the corresponding fully open field. However, detached ropes that arise from footpoint shear are still embedded in a nonpotential sheared field attached to the coronal base.Here we introduce a two-step procedure for constructing completely detached magnetic flux ropes, in which a detached rope is surrounded completely, both above and below, by potential field. We first build a standard flux rope as the culmination of a sequence of sheared-field solutions with monotonically increasing values for the azimuthal magnetic flux. From there we proceed along another solution sequence, this one constructed by confining the shear at the coronal base to ever-lower solar latitudes. When the confining latitude reaches zero, we have potential field everywhere just above the coronal base, and above that a flux rope. Such flux ropes are characterized by lower magnetic energy than standard flux ropes, and they form higher in the corona. We speculate that these completely detached flux ropes may represent a post-eruption state in a model that lacks sufficiently realistic physics for the ejecta to escape to infinity.This work was supported by NASA grant NNG04GB91G to Middlebury College.

  17. Magnetron magnetic priming for rapid startup and noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neculaes, Vasile Bogdan

    The magnetron is a vacuum electronics crossed-field device: perpendicular electric and magnetic fields determine the electron dynamics. Compactness, efficiency and reliability make magnetrons suitable for a wide range of military and civilian applications: radar, industrial heating, plasma sources, and medical accelerators. The most ubiquitous use of magnetrons is as the microwave power source in microwave ovens, operating at 2.45 GHz and delivering about 800--1000 W. University of Michigan and several other research programs are actively pursuing the development of GW range relativistic magnetrons. This dissertation presents experimental and computational results concerning innovative techniques to improve magnetron noise, startup and mode stability. The DC-operated oven magnetron studies performed at University of Michigan opened new directions by utilizing azimuthally varying magnetic fields (magnetic priming). Magnetic priming for rapid startup in an N-cavity magnetron operating in the pi-mode is based on implementation of an axial magnetic field with N/2 azimuthal periods, to prebunch the electrons in the desired number of spokes (N/2). Experiments with magnetic priming on DC oven magnetrons using perturbing magnets added on the upper existing magnet of the magnetron showed rapid startup (pi-mode oscillation observed at low currents) and up to 35 dB noise reduction (close to the carrier and in sidebands). A complex 3-dimensional (3D) ICEPIC computational model recovered the oven magnetron magnetic priming experimental results: rapid electron prebunching due to presence of perturbing magnets, fast startup and tendency towards a lower noise state. Simulations in 6-cavity relativistic magnetrons show that ideal magnetic priming causes fast startup, rapid mode growth (with radial electron diffusion) and suppression of mode competition. A highly idealized model (planar, crossed-field, non-resonant, non-relativistic structure) using single particle dynamics showed that magnetic priming causes rapid electron prebunching, specific symmetries in the electron cloud and an orbital parametric instability (radial exponential growth).

  18. Flux-vector model of spin noise in superconducting circuits: Electron versus nuclear spins and role of phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForest, S.; de Sousa, Rogério

    2015-08-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and other superconducting circuits are limited by intrinsic flux noise with spectral density 1 /fα with α <1 whose origin is believed to be due to spin impurities. Here, we present a theory of flux noise that takes into account the vectorial nature of the coupling of spins to superconducting wires. We present explicit numerical calculations of the flux-noise power (spectral density integrated over all frequencies) for electron impurities and lattice nuclear spins under several different assumptions. The noise power is shown to be dominated by surface electron spins near the wire edges, with bulk lattice nuclear spins contributing ˜5 % of the noise power in aluminum and niobium wires. We consider the role of electron spin phase transitions, showing that the spin-spin correlation length (describing, e.g., the average size of ferromagnetic spin clusters) greatly impacts the scaling of flux noise with wire geometry. Remarkably, the flux-noise power is exactly equal to zero when the spins are polarized along the flux-vector direction, forming what we call a poloidal state. Flux noise is nonzero for other spin textures, but gets reduced in the presence of correlated ferromagnetic fluctuations between the top and bottom wire surfaces, where the flux vectors are antiparallel. This demonstrates that engineering spin textures and/or intersurface correlation provides a method to reduce flux noise in superconducting devices.

  19. MAGNETIC HELICITY FLUX IN THE PRESENCE OF SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Alexander; Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-01-20

    Magnetic helicity has risen to be a major player in dynamo theory, with the helicity of the small-scale field being linked to the dynamo saturation process for the large-scale field. It is a nearly conserved quantity, which allows its evolution equation to be written in terms of production and flux terms. The flux term can be decomposed in a variety of fashions. One particular contribution that has been expected to play a significant role in dynamos in the presence of mean shear was isolated by Vishniac and Cho. Magnetic helicity fluxes are explicitly gauge dependent however, and the correlations that have come to be called the Vishniac-Cho flux were determined in the Coulomb gauge, which turns out to be fraught with complications in shearing systems. While the fluxes of small-scale helicity are explicitly gauge dependent, their divergences can be gauge independent. We use this property to investigate magnetic helicity fluxes of the small-scale field through direct numerical simulations in a shearing-box system and find that in a numerically usable gauge the divergence of the small-scale helicity flux vanishes, while the divergence of the Vishniac-Cho flux remains finite. We attribute this seeming contradiction to the existence of horizontal fluxes of small-scale magnetic helicity with finite divergences.

  20. Magnetic flux circulation in the rotationally-driven giant magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Otto, A.; Ma, X.; Bagenal, F.; Wilson, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The giant planet magnetodiscs are shaped by the radial transport of plasma originating in the inner magnetosphere. Along with plasma transport, magnetic flux transport is a key aspect of the stretched magnetic field configuration of the magnetodisc. While net mass transport is outward (ultimately lost to the solar wind), magnetic flux conservation requires a balanced two-way transport process involving magnetic reconnection. A key property of flux transport is the azimuthal bend forward or bend back of the magnetic field. The bend back configuration is an expected property of the magnetodisc with net mass outflow, but the bend forward configuration can be achieved with the rapid inward motion of mostly empty flux tubes following thin current sheet reconnection. We present a comprehensive analysis of current sheet crossings in Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini MAG data from 2004 to 2012 in an attempt to quantify the circulation of magnetic flux, emphasizing local time dependence. We find that the bend forward cases are limited mostly to the post-noon sector, indicating that much of the reconnection returning flux to the inner magnetosphere occurs in the subsolar and dusk sector. We also find a complex and patchy network of reconnection sites, supporting the idea that plasma can be lost on small-scales through a ``drizzle''-like process rather than a single extended X-line as originally envisioned for the Vasyliunas cycle. Auroral implications for the observed flux circulation and comparisons with Jupiter will also be presented.

  1. Unsteady wandering magnetic field lines, turbulence and laboratory flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, D.; Pulliam, D.; Lazarian, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe earth bound laboratory experiment investigations of patchy, unsteady, bursty, patchy magnetic field structures that are unifying features of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in helio, space and astro physics. Macroscopic field lines occupy cross sectional areas, fill up three dimensional (3D) volumes as flux tubes. They contain mass with Newtonian dynamics that follow magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations of motion. Flux rope geometry can be ubiquitous in laminar reconnection sheet geometries that are themselves unstable to formation of secondary "islands" that in 3D are really flux ropes. Flux ropes are ubiquitous structures on the sun and the rest of the heliosphere. Understanding the dynamics of flux ropes and their mutual interactions offers the key to many important astrophysical phenomena, including magnetic reconnection and turbulence. We describe laboratory investigations on RSX, where 3D interaction of flux ropes can be studied in great detail. We use experimental probes inside the the flux ropes to measure the magnetic and electric fields, current density, density, temperatures, pressure, and electrostatic and vector plasma potentials. Macroscopic magnetic field lines, unsteady wandering characteristics, and dynamic objects with structure down to the dissipation scale length can be traced from data sets in a 3D volume. Computational approaches are finally able to tackle simple 3D systems and we sketch some intriguing simulation results that are consistent with 3D extensions of typical 2D cartoons for magnetic reconnection and turbulence.

  2. A novel high temperature superconducting magnetic flux pump for MRI magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhiming; Yan, Guo; Wu, Chunli; Ding, Shufang; Chen, Chuan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a kind of minitype magnetic flux pump made of high temperature superconductor. This kind of novel high temperature superconducting (HTS) flux pump has not any mechanical revolving parts or thermal switches. The excitation current of copper coils in magnetic pole system is controlled by a singlechip. The structure design and operational principle have been described. The operating performance of the new model magnetic flux pump has been preliminarily tested. The experiments show that the maximum pumping current is approximately 200 A for Bi2223 flux pump and 80 A for MgB 2 flux pump operating at 20 K. By comparison, it is discovered that the operating temperature range is wider, the ripple is smaller and the pumping frequency is higher in Bi2223 flux pump than those in MgB 2 flux pump. These results indicate that the newly developed Bi2223 magnetic flux pump may efficiently compensate the magnetic field decay in HTS magnet and make the magnet operate in persistent current mode, this point is significant to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. This new flux pump is under construction presently. It is expected that the Bi2223 flux pump would be applied to the superconducting MRI magnets by further optimizing structure and improving working process.

  3. Low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference device operating in Tesla magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Tobias; Nagel, Joachim; Wlbing, Roman; Kemmler, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter

    2013-01-22

    Superconductivity in the cuprate YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) persists up to huge magnetic fields (B) up to several tens of Teslas, and sensitive direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be realized in epitaxially grown YBCO films by using grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJs). Here we present the realization of high-quality YBCO nanoSQUIDs, patterned by focused ion beam milling. We demonstrate low-noise performance of such a SQUID up to B = 1 T applied parallel to the plane of the SQUID loop at the temperature T = 4.2 K. The GBJs are shunted by a thin Au layer to provide nonhysteretic current voltage characteristics, and the SQUID incorporates a 90 nm wide constriction which is used for on-chip modulation of the magnetic flux through the SQUID loop. The white flux noise of the device increases only slightly from 1.3 ??(0)/(Hz)(1/2) at B = 0 to 2.3 ??(0)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. Assuming that a point-like magnetic particle with magnetization in the plane of the SQUID loop is placed directly on top of the constriction and taking into account the geometry of the SQUID, we calculate a spin sensitivity S(?)(1/2) = 62 ?(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at B = 0 and 110 ?(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. The demonstration of low noise of such a SQUID in Tesla fields is a decisive step toward utilizing the full potential of ultrasensitive nanoSQUIDs for direct measurements of magnetic hysteresis curves of magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets. PMID:23252846

  4. Force-Free Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, R.

    2003-05-01

    In the course of an ongoing investigation of force-free magnetic fields in the spherical geometry appropriate to the solar corona, we have found solutions that represent magnetic flux ropes. The magnetic energy stored in these ropes and the surrounding field is larger than that which can be stored in simple magnetic arcades with the same boundary conditions, and in some cases exceeds slightly the Aly-Sturrock limit on the energy of a closed force-free magnetic field with all its magnetic flux connected to the coronal base. Flux-rope solutions with the highest energies tend to arise when a strong potential field overlies a region of sheared field containing field-aligned currents. These flux-rope solutions have an unusual topology; instead of a single twisted, disconnected flux system, there are two distinct rope structures. A two-dimensional slice through each rope contains an O-type magnetic neutral point, and the overall solution therefore correspondingly contains two X-type neutral points. We speculate on the relation of this unusual topology to observations of magnetic clouds as interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections. This work was supported by NASA grant NAG5-9733 to Middlebury College.

  5. Optimization of multiply acquired magnetic flux density Bz using ICNE-Multiecho train in MREIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyun Soo; In Kwon, Oh

    2010-05-01

    The aim of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the electrical properties, conductivity or current density of an object by injection of current. Recently, the prolonged data acquisition time when using the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) method has been advantageous for measurement of magnetic flux density data, Bz, for MREIT in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the ICNE method results in undesirable side artifacts, such as blurring, chemical shift and phase artifacts, due to the long data acquisition under an inhomogeneous static field. In this paper, we apply the ICNE method to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) multi-echo train pulse sequence in order to provide the multiple k-space lines during a single RF pulse period. We analyze the SNR of the measured multiple Bz data using the proposed ICNE-Multiecho MR pulse sequence. By determining a weighting factor for Bz data in each of the echoes, an optimized inversion formula for the magnetic flux density data is proposed for the ICNE-Multiecho MR sequence. Using the ICNE-Multiecho method, the quality of the measured magnetic flux density is considerably increased by the injection of a long current through the echo train length and by optimization of the voxel-by-voxel noise level of the Bz value. Agarose-gel phantom experiments have demonstrated fewer artifacts and a better SNR using the ICNE-Multiecho method. Experimenting with the brain of an anesthetized dog, we collected valuable echoes by taking into account the noise level of each of the echoes and determined Bz data by determining optimized weighting factors for the multiply acquired magnetic flux density data.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the ejection of a magnetic flux rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CME's) are one of the most violent phenomena found on the Sun. One model to explain their occurrence is the flux rope ejection model. In this model, magnetic flux ropes form slowly over time periods of days to weeks. They then lose equilibrium and are ejected from the solar corona over a few hours. The contrasting time scales of formation and ejection pose a serious problem for numerical simulations. Aims: We simulate the whole life span of a flux rope from slow formation to rapid ejection and investigate whether magnetic flux ropes formed from a continuous magnetic field distribution, during a quasi-static evolution, can erupt to produce a CME. Methods: To model the full life span of magnetic flux ropes we couple two models. The global non-linear force-free field (GNLFFF) evolution model is used to follow the quasi-static formation of a flux rope. The MHD code ARMVAC is used to simulate the production of a CME through the loss of equilibrium and ejection of this flux rope. Results: We show that the two distinct models may be successfully coupled and that the flux rope is ejected out of our simulation box, where the outer boundary is placed at 2.5 R?. The plasma expelled during the flux rope ejection travels outward at a speed of 100 km s-1, which is consistent with the observed speed of CMEs in the low corona. Conclusions: Our work shows that flux ropes formed in the GNLFFF can lead to the ejection of a mass loaded magnetic flux rope in full MHD simulations. Coupling the two distinct models opens up a new avenue of research to investigate phenomena where different phases of their evolution occur on drastically different time scales. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Disentangling the magnetic force noise contribution in LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; Garca Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchausp, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martn, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetically-induced forces on the inertial masses on-board LISA Pathfinder are expected to be one of the dominant contributions to the mission noise budget, accounting for up to 40%. The origin of this disturbance is the coupling of the residual magnetization and susceptibility of the test masses with the environmental magnetic field. In order to fully understand this important part of the noise model, a set of coils and magnetometers are integrated as a part of the diagnostics subsystem. During operations a sequence of magnetic excitations will be applied to precisely determine the coupling of the magnetic environment to the test mass displacement using the on-board magnetometers. Since no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the test mass position will be available, an extrapolation of the magnetic measurements to the test mass position will be carried out as a part of the data analysis activities. In this paper we show the first results on the magnetic experiments during an end- to-end LISA Pathfinder simulation, and we describe the methods under development to map the magnetic field on-board.

  8. Evolution of the magnetic helicity flux during the formation and eruption of flux ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.

    2014-10-20

    We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

  9. Noise in small magnetic systemsapplications to very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannetier, M.; Fermon, C.; Le Goff, G.; Simola, J.; Kerr, E.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2005-04-01

    Reduction for 1/ f noise (or random telegraph noise) is a crucial issue for small magnetic sensors which is strongly related to structural properties and magnetic configuration. We show how it is possible to eliminate magnetic noise at low frequency in GMR/TMR sensors by a combination of cross anisotropies, window frame shapes and suitably designed magnetoresisitive stack. These sensors are superior to almost all existing field and flux sensors. Results are presented on a mixed sensor, where a superconducting loop acts as a flux-to-field transformer to the GMR sensor. This device is suitable for detection of biomagnetic signals, such as in magnetocardiography or in magnetoencephalography. Measurements on niobium-based and YBCO-based sensors are presented, leading to sensitivity of 30 fT/?Hz at 77 K for small samples. Sensitivity lower than 1 fT/?(Hz) is expected with appropriate design and use of TMR or CMR layers, which makes these a powerful alternative to SQUIDs.

  10. Kink Wave Propagation in Thin Isothermal Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopin, I. P.; Nagorny, I. G.; Nippolainen, E.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the propagation of kink waves in thin and isothermal expanding flux tubes in cylindrical geometry. By using the method of radial expansion for fluctuating variables we obtained a new kink wave equation. We show that including the radial component of the tube magnetic field leads to cutoff-free propagation of kink waves along thin flux tubes.

  11. Longitudinal variations of the magnetic flux in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dsa, Melinda; Erd?s, Gza

    2015-04-01

    The heliospheric magnetic flux is determined from the radial component of the magnetic field vector measured onboard interplanetary space probes. Earlier Ulysses research has shown remarkable independence of the flux from heliographic latitude. Here we investigate whether any longitudinal variation exist in the 50 year long OMNI magnetic data set. When determining the heliographic longitude of the plasma source, correction was applied for the solar wind travel time. Significant recurrent enhancements of the magnetic flux was observed during the declining phase of the solar cycles. These flux enhancements are associated with co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs), lasting several years. The recurrence period equals the equatorial rotation period of the Sun. The same, long lasting recurring features can be observed in the deviation angle of the solar wind velocity vector from the radial direction. However, the deviation angle is small, in the order of few degrees, which cannot account for the observed flux increases. An increase of the magnetic field is clearly caused by the plasma compression associated to CIRs, however the increase of the radial component is not obvious. It is suggested that the origin of that increase is caused by the compression of the plasma in the direction perpendicular to the Parker field line rather than the radial direction. The longitudinal variation of the magnetic flux during the declining phase of the solar cycle has impact on the modulation of cosmic rays as well as on the frequency and intensity of space weather events.

  12. Evaluation of surface decarburization depth by magnetic Barkhausen noise technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupakov, O.; Perevertov, O.; Tom, I.; Skrbek, B.

    2011-06-01

    Industrially unfavorable process of steel surface decarburization was induced by annealing in air. Two methods of after-anneal surface treatment were used: an acid pickling and a sand blasting. The obtained decarburized layers were examined by optical microscope, wave dispersive spectrometer, and surface X-ray diffraction method. Magnetic Barkhausen noise technique was tested for applicability of non-destructive characterization of the decarburized layer depth. A newly introduced parameter, Barkhausen noise coercivity, was proposed for practical use due to its sensitivity to decarburization and stability to measurement conditions. Other magnetic parameters, e.g. number of Barkhausen noise counts, were found to be sensitive to the compressive residual stress caused by the sand blasting.

  13. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Aliev, Farkhad G.; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Szczepański, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K.; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-12-08

    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here, we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10% and 40%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5–2 times the maximum values reported for magnetic tunnel junctions with inorganic barriers, indicating spin dependent bunching in tunneling. We explain our main findings in terms of a model which includes tunneling through a two level (or multilevel) system, originated from interfacial bonds of the PTCDA molecules. Our results suggest that interfaces play an important role in the control of shot noise when electrons tunnel through organic barriers.

  14. Magnetic flux ropes in the Venus ionosphere - Observations and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter data are used as evidence of naturally occurring magnetic field filamentary structures which can be described by a flux rope model. The solar wind is interpreted as piling up a magnetic field on the Venus ionosphere, with the incident ram pressure being expressed as magnetic field pressure. Currents flowing at the ionopause shield out the field, allowing magnetic excursions to be observed with magnitudes of tens of nT over an interval of a few seconds. A quantitative assessment is made of the signature expected from a flux rope. It is noted that each excursion of the magnetic field detected by the Orbiter magnetometer was correlated with variations in the three components of the field. A coordinate system is devised which shows that the Venus data is indicative of the presence of flux ropes whose parameters are the coordinates of the system and would yield the excursions observed in the spacecraft crossings of the fields.

  15. Magnetic flux generation and transport in cool stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I??k, E.; Schmitt, D.; Schssler, M.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The Sun and other cool stars harbouring outer convection zones manifest magnetic activity in their atmospheres. The connection between this activity and the properties of a deep-seated dynamo generating the magnetic flux is not well understood. Aims: By employing physical models, we study the spatial and temporal characteristics of the observable surface field for various stellar parameters. Methods: We combine models for magnetic flux generation, buoyancy instability, and transport, which encompass the entire convection zone. The model components are: (i) a thin-layer ?? dynamo at the base of the convection zone; (ii) buoyancy instabilities and the rise of flux tubes through the convection zone in 3D, which provides a physically consistent determination of emergence latitudes and tilt angles; and (iii) horizontal flux transport at the surface. Results: For solar-type stars and rotation periods longer than about 10 days, the latitudinal dynamo waves generated by the deep-seated ?? dynamo are faithfully reflected by the surface distribution of magnetic flux. For rotation periods of the order of two days, however, Coriolis acceleration of rising flux loops leads to surface flux emergence at much higher latitudes than the dynamo waves at the bottom of the convection zone reach. A similar result is found for a K0V star with a rotation period of two days. In the case of a rapidly rotating K1 subgiant, overlapping dynamo waves lead to noisy activity cycles and mixed-polarity fields at high latitudes. Conclusions: The combined model reproduces the basic observed features of the solar cycle. The differences between the latitude distributions of the magnetic field at the bottom of the convection zone and the emerging surface flux grow with increasing rotation rate and convection zone depth, becoming quite substantial for rapidly rotating dwarfs and subgiants. The dynamical evolution of buoyantly rising magnetic flux should be considered as an essential ingredient in stellar dynamo models. 3 movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Magnetic flux density reconstruction using interleaved partial Fourier acquisitions in MREIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee Myung; Nam, Hyun Soo; In Kwon, Oh

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) has been introduced as a non-invasive modality to visualize the internal conductivity and/or current density of an electrically conductive object by the injection of current. In order to measure a magnetic flux density signal in MREIT, the phase difference approach in an interleaved encoding scheme cancels the systematic artifacts accumulated in phase signals and also reduces the random noise effect. However, it is important to reduce scan duration maintaining spatial resolution and sufficient contrast, in order to allow for practical in vivo implementation of MREIT. The purpose of this paper is to develop a coupled partial Fourier strategy in the interleaved sampling in order to reduce the total imaging time for an MREIT acquisition, whilst maintaining an SNR of the measured magnetic flux density comparable to what is achieved with complete k-space data. The proposed method uses two key steps: one is to update the magnetic flux density by updating the complex densities using the partially interleaved k-space data and the other is to fill in the missing k-space data iteratively using the updated background field inhomogeneity and magnetic flux density data. Results from numerical simulations and animal experiments demonstrate that the proposed method reduces considerably the scanning time and provides resolution of the recovered Bz comparable to what is obtained from complete k-space data.

  17. Magnetic hysteresis and magnetic flux patterns measured by acoustically stimulated electromagnetic response in a steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hisato; Watanabe, Kakeru; Ikushima, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops are measured by ultrasonic techniques and used in visualizing the magnetic-flux distribution in a steel plate. The piezomagnetic coefficient determines the amplitude of acoustically stimulated electromagnetic (ASEM) fields, yielding the hysteresis behavior of the intensity of the ASEM response. By utilizing the high correspondence of the ASEM response to the magnetic-flux density, we image the specific spatial patterns of the flux density formed by an artificial defect in a steel plate specimen. Magnetic-flux probing by ultrasonic waves is thus shown to be a viable method of nondestructive material inspection.

  18. Localization of Metal-Induced Gap States at the Metal-Insulator Interface: Origin of Flux Noise in SQUIDs and Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sangkook; Lee, Dung-Hai; Louie, Steven G.; Clarke, John

    2010-03-01

    The origin of magnetic flux noise in dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with a power spectrum scaling as 1/f (f is frequency) has been a puzzle for over 25 years. This noise limits both the low frequency performance of SQUIDs and the decoherence time of flux-sensitive superconducting qubits, making scaling-up for quantum computing problematic. Recent calculations and experiments indicate that the noise is generated by electrons that randomly reverse their spin directions. Their areal density of 5 x 10^17 m-2 is relatively insensitive to the nature of the superconductor and substrate. Here, we propose that the local magnetic moments originate in metal-induced gap states (MIGSs) localized by potential disorder at the metal-insulator interface. MIGSs are particularly sensitive to such disorder, so that the localized states have a Coulomb repulsion sufficiently large to make them singly occupied. Our calculations demonstrate that a modest level of disorder generates the required areal density of localized moments. This result suggests that magnetic flux noise could be reduced by fabricating superconductor-insulator interfaces with less disorder. Support: NSF DMR07-05941, US DOE De-AC02-05CH11231, Samsung Foundation, Teragrid, NERSC.

  19. Noise-enhanced synchronization of stochastic magnetic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grollier, Julie; Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Accioly, Artur; Matsumoto, Rie; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Cros, Vincent; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Querlioz, Damien; Kim, Joo-Von

    2015-03-01

    Due to their small magnetic volume the magnetization dynamics of spin-torque nano-oscillators is very sensitive to thermal fluctuations. This results in a large phase noise detrimental to their phase-locking. Here, we pursue an original paradigm in which noise is advantageous for improving coherence and facilitating synchronized states. This builds upon recent work in which spin torque driven magnetic tunnel junctions have been shown to exhibit stochastic resonance. Our system comprises a magnetic tunnel junction with a super-paramagnetic free layer, whose magnetization dynamics is driven with spin torques through an external periodic current. We show synchronization of this stochastic oscillator at very low current densities (below 3 106 A/cm2) and input frequencies lower than the natural mean frequency of the oscillator. We show that such injection-locking is robust and leads to a drastic reduction in phase diffusion of the oscillator. This system is promising for applications where low energy is crucial and thermal noise has to be leveraged, such as bioinspired computing. We thank the European Research Council NanoBrain Stg Grant 259068.

  20. Sigmoidal equilibria and eruptive instabilities in laboratory magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Belova, E.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) has recently been modified to study quasi-statically driven line-tied magnetic flux ropes in the context of storage-and-release eruptions in the corona. Detailed in situ magnetic measurements and supporting MHD simulations permit quantitative analysis of the plasma behavior. We find that the behavior of these flux ropes depends strongly on the properties of the applied potential magnetic field arcade. For example, when the arcade is aligned parallel to the flux rope footpoints, force free currents induced in the expanding rope modify the pressure and tension in the arcade, resulting in a confined, quiescent discharge with a saturated kink instability. When the arcade is obliquely aligned to the footpoints, on the other hand, a highly sigmoidal equilibrium forms that can dynamically erupt (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). To our knowledge, these storage-and-release eruptions are the first of their kind to be produced in the laboratory. A new 2D magnetic probe array is used to map out the internal structure of the flux ropes during both the storage and the release phases of the discharge. The kink instability and the torus instability are studied as candidate eruptive mechanisms--the latter by varying the vertical gradient of the potential field arcade. We also investigate magnetic reconnection events that accompany the eruptions. The long-term objective of this work is to use internal magnetic measurements of the flux rope structure to better understand the evolution and eruption of comparable structures in the corona. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO). Qualitative sketches of flux ropes formed in (1) a parallel potential field arcade; and (2) an oblique potential field arcade. One-dimensional magnetic measurements from (1) a parallel arcade discharge that is confined; and (2) an oblique arcade discharge that erupts.

  1. Correlation of magnetostriction variation on magnetic loss and noise for power transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shan-Jen; Liu, Jui-Jung; Chang, Yeong-Hwa; Fu, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Chang-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yao; Chang, Chia-Wen

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostriction (MS)-caused strain in single-phase three-legged cores with different core cutting forms, which suffer from induced magnetic loss and noise, was studied. It is found that adopting each different core form types induces magnetostriction ɛ variation in a transformer core operating with a high-frequency AC signal. The results are compared with finite element analysis simulations. It is also indicated that magnetostriction ɛ variations are significant in the rolling direction and along limbs and yokes. In this paper, it is proposed that core corner sides and T-joint parts without cutting structure, the core exhibits lower core loss and lower heat dissipation due to the fact that the magnetic flux that passes through corner sides shows lower magnetostriction variation. The magnetic properties resulting from magnetostriction variation in core loss and heat dissipation phenomena are significantly different from other core forms because of stronger contributions from magnetostatic forces. The main contribution for reducing core loss and noise, making them much less in corner numbers and cutting-fabricated forms, can be expected to come from lower magnetic flux and magnetostriction variation.

  2. Emergence and loss of magnetic flux on the solar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia

    2002-10-01

    This review is focused on observations and theoretical advances on large-scale flux emergence and decay, which forms and dominates the magnetic field patterns on the Sun. The basic characteristics of emerging flux (asymmetry, inclination to the vertical, twist, sea-serpent-like appearance in the early stage of flux emergence in the photosphere) are described together with the results of relevant MHD simulations, which help us to interpret these observations. Magnetic flux emergence is far from being a random process in the active belt: it has a grouping (nesting) tendency, which has important implications for the operation of the solar dynamo. As soon as active regions are fully formed, they start decaying. Their magnetic flux gradually speads over an ever-increasing area and gets removed from the photosphere via small scale processes (e.g. Ohmic dissipation and flux cancellation, including flux submergence). Emergence of U-loops may play an important role in the removal of large-scale flux from the photopshere.

  3. Effect of magnetic geometry on ELM heat flux profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Petrie, T. W.; Watkins, J. G.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we explore how precisely the magnetic up/down symmetry must be controlled to insure sharing of edge localized mode (ELM) heat flux between upper and lower divertors in a double-null tokamak. We show for DIII-D, using infrared thermography, that the spatial distribution of Type-I ELM energy is less strongly affected by variations in magnetic geometry than the time-averaged peak heat flux in attached discharges. The degree of control necessary to share ELM heat flux deposition equally between divertors was less stringent than the control needed to balance the time-averaged heat flux. ELM energy is transported more than four times further into the scrape-off layer (SOL) than the time-averaged heat flux.

  4. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. 3: The equilibrium path of the flux tube arch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.; Montesinis, Benjamin

    1989-01-01

    The arched equilibrium path of a thin magnetic flux tube in a plane-stratified, nonmagnetic atmosphere is calculated for cases in which the flux tube contains a steady siphon flow. The large scale mechanical equilibrium of the flux tube involves a balance among the magnetic buoyancy force, the net magnetic tension force due to the curvature of the flux tube axis, and the inertial (centrifugal) force due to the siphon flow along curved streamlines. The ends of the flux tube are assumed to be pinned down by some other external force. Both isothermal and adiabatic siphon flows are considered for flux tubes in an isothermal external atmosphere. For the isothermal case, in the absence of a siphon flow the equilibrium path reduces to the static arch calculated by Parker (1975, 1979). The presence of a siphon flow causes the flux tube arch to bend more sharply, so that magnetic tension can overcome the additional straightening effect of the inertial force, and reduces the maximum width of the arch. The curvature of the arch increases as the siphon flow speed increases. For a critical siphon flow, with supercritical flow in the downstream leg, the arch is asymmetric, with greater curvature in the downstream leg of the arch. Adiabatic flow have qualitatively similar effects, except that adiabatic cooling reduces the buoyancy of the flux tube and thus leads to significantly wider arches. In some cases the cooling is strong enough to create negative buoyancy along sections of the flux tube, requiring upward curvature of the flux tube path along these sections and sometimes leading to unusual equilibrium paths of periodic, sinusoidal form.

  5. SIGNATURES OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AT BOUNDARIES OF INTERPLANETARY SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Hui; Yao Shuo; Zong Qiugang; Qi Yu; He Jiansen

    2010-09-01

    The interaction between interplanetary small-scale magnetic flux ropes and the magnetic field in the ambient solar wind is an important topic in the understanding of the evolution of magnetic structures in the heliosphere. Through a survey of 125 previously reported small flux ropes from 1995 to 2005, we find that 44 of them reveal clear signatures of Alfvenic fluctuations and thus classify them as Alfven wave trains rather than flux ropes. Signatures of magnetic reconnection, generally including a plasma jet of {approx}30 km s{sup -1} within a magnetic field rotational region, are clearly present at boundaries of about 42% of the flux ropes and 14% of the wave trains. The reconnection exhausts are often observed to show a local increase in the proton temperature, density, and plasma beta. About 66% of the reconnection events at flux rope boundaries are associated with a magnetic field shear angle larger than 90{sup 0} and 73% of them reveal a decrease of 20% or more in the magnetic field magnitude, suggesting a dominance of anti-parallel reconnection at flux rope boundaries. The occurrence rate of magnetic reconnection at flux rope boundaries through the years 1995-2005 is also investigated and we find that it is relatively low around the solar maximum and much higher when approaching solar minima. The average magnetic field depression and shear angle for reconnection events at flux rope boundaries also reveal a similar trend from 1995 to 2005. Our results demonstrate for the first time that boundaries of a substantial fraction of small-scale flux ropes have properties similar to those of magnetic clouds, in the sense that both of them exhibit signatures of magnetic reconnection. The observed reconnection signatures could be related either to the formation of small flux ropes or to the interaction between flux ropes and the interplanetary magnetic fields.

  6. Local magnetization unit for GMR array based magnetic flux leakage inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelkner, M.; Neubauer, A.; Reimund, V.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2012-05-01

    GMR sensors are increasingly used for magnetic surface inspection due to their high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. In case of simple planar or cylindrical shaped components, the GMR-based inspection procedure can be automated easily. We present GMR measurements of real fatigue cracks. In addition, we present a probe design using a local magnetization unit and commercially available GMR sensors. The design was carried out by means of finite-element method (FEM) simulations. Using the local probe we measured bearings containing artificial reference cracks of different depths and orientations. Cracks with a depth of 40 ?m could be resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio better than 6. A further reduction of the measuring time can be obtained using a sensor array. For this purpose we present a study of the optimized size of the sensing GMR-layers for a NDE-adapted sensor array. The geometric sensor parameters were investigated through simulations of the magnetic flux leakage of surface cracks using an analytic model.

  7. The Catastrophe of Coronal Magnetic Flux Ropes in CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. Q.

    A brief review is given on the progress made in the study of the catastrophe of coronal magnetic flux ropes with implication in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Relevant studies have been so far limited to 2.5-D cases, with a flux rope levitating in the corona, either parallel to the photosphere in Cartesian geometry or encircling the Sun like a torus in spherical geometry. The equilibrium properties of the system depend on the features of the flux rope and the surrounding background state. Under certain circumstances, the flux rope exhibits a catastrophic behavior, namely, the rope loses equilibrium and erupts upward upon an infinitesimal variation of any control parameter associated with the background state or the flux rope. The magnetic energy of the system right at the catastrophic point may exceed the corresponding open field energy so that after the background field is opened up by the erupting flux rope, a certain amount of magnetic free energy is left for the heating and acceleration of coronal plasma against gravity. The flux rope model has been used to reveal the common features of CMEs and to simulate typical CME events, proving to be a promising mechanism for the initiation of CMEs. Incidentally, the Aly conjecture on the maximum magnetic energy of force-free fields places a serious constraint on 2.5-D flux models. Nevertheless, current sheets must form during a catastrophe on the Alfvn timescale, and magnetic reconnection across the newly formed current sheets may contribute to circumventing such a constraint. In this sense, the catastrophe simply plays a role of driver for the fast magnetic reconnection, and a combination of them is thus responsible for the initiation of CMEs.

  8. The Solar Internetwork. I. Contribution to the Network Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gošić, M.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 × 1024 Mx day-1 over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  9. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Goi?, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Surez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup 1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  10. Forced three-dimensional magnetic reconnection due to linkage of magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, A.

    1995-01-01

    During periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation the magnetic field geometry at the dayside magnetopause is susceptible to magnetic reconnection. It has been suggested that reconnection may occur in a localized manner at several patches on the magnetopause. A major problem with this picture is the interaction of magnetic flux ropes which are generated by different reconnection processes. An individual flux rope is bent elbowlike where it intersects the magnetopause and the magnetic field changes from magnetospheric to interplanetary magnetic field orientation. Multiple patches of reconnection can lead to the formation of interlinked magnetic flux tubes. Although the corresponding flux is connected to the IMF the northward and southward connected branches are hooked into each other and cannot develop independently. We have studied this problem in the framework of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The results indicate that a singular current sheet forms at the interface of two interlinked flux tubes if no resistivity is present in the simulation. This current sheet is strongly tilted compared to the original current sheet. In the presence of resistivity the interaction of the two flux tubes forces a fast reconnection process which generates helically twisted closed magnetospheric flux. This linkage induced reconnection generates a boundary layer with layers of open and closed magnetospheric flux and may account for the brightening of auroral arcs poleward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux.

  11. Magnetic Flux in Toroidal Type i Compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph

    2002-12-01

    We discuss the compactification of type I strings on a torus with additional background gauge flux on the D9-branes. The solutions to the cancellation of the RR tadpoles display various phenomenologically attractive features like supersymmetry breaking, chiral fermions and suitable reductions of the rank of the gauge group.

  12. Magnetic flux emergence: a precursor of solar plasma expulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We model the emergence of magnetized plasma from the top of the convection zone to the lower corona. We investigate the eruption of coronal flux ropes above emerging flux regions. Methods: We performed three-dimensional numerical experiments in which the time-dependent and resistive equations of MHD are solved self-consistently, using the Lare3D code. Results: A subphotospheric magnetic flux tube rises from the convectively unstable layer into the solar surface, followed by the formation and eruption of a new flux rope into the corona. Firstly, we examined the case where the corona is field-free. The expansion of the emerging field forms an envelope sheath that surrounds the newly formed flux rope. The erupting ropes are confined by the envelope field. The eruptions are driven by the gradient of the gas pressure and the tension of fieldlines that reconnect within the emerging flux region. The amount of the initial twist of the emerging field and the dense plasma that is lifted up, determine the height-time profile of the erupting ropes. Secondly, we examined the case of emergence into a pre-existing magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere. A variety of different ambient field configurations was used in the experiments. External reconnection between the emerging and the pre-existing field may result in the removal of sufficient flux from the interacting fields and the full ejection of the flux ropes. Conclusions: The results indicate that the relative contact angle of the interacting flux systems and their field strengths are crucial parameters that ultimately affect the evolution of the eruption of the rope into the higher solar atmosphere. One important result is that for any contact angle that favors reconnection, ejective eruptions occur earlier when the ambient field is relatively strong. In many cases, the erupting plasma adopts an S-like configuration. The sigmoidal structure accelerates during the fast eruption of the rope. The acceleration is enhanced by the external and internal reconnection of fieldlines during the rising motion of the rope. A key result is that in the reconnection-favored cases, the flux ropes experience ejective eruptions when the envelope flux is reduced (owing to removal by external reconnection) below that of the erupting flux rope. If the envelope flux stays higher than the erupting flux, the magnetic flux rope remains confined by the envelope field.

  13. Magnetic flux density in the heliosphere through several solar cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erdős, G.; Balogh, A.

    2014-01-20

    We studied the magnetic flux density carried by solar wind to various locations in the heliosphere, covering a heliospheric distance range of 0.3-5.4 AU and a heliolatitudinal range from 80° south to 80° north. Distributions of the radial component of the magnetic field, B{sub R} , were determined over long intervals from the Helios, ACE, STEREO, and Ulysses missions, as well as from using the 1 AU OMNI data set. We show that at larger distances from the Sun, the fluctuations of the magnetic field around the average Parker field line distort the distribution of B{sub R} to such an extent that the determination of the unsigned, open solar magnetic flux density from the average (|B{sub R} |) is no longer justified. We analyze in detail two methods for reducing the effect of fluctuations. The two methods are tested using magnetic field and plasma velocity measurements in the OMNI database and in the Ulysses observations, normalized to 1 AU. It is shown that without such corrections for the fluctuations, the magnetic flux density measured by Ulysses around the aphelion phase of the orbit is significantly overestimated. However, the matching between the in-ecliptic magnetic flux density at 1 AU (OMNI data) and the off-ecliptic, more distant, normalized flux density by Ulysses is remarkably good if corrections are made for the fluctuations using either method. The main finding of the analysis is that the magnetic flux density in the heliosphere is fairly uniform, with no significant variations having been observed either in heliocentric distance or heliographic latitude.

  14. Magnetic Flux Density in the Heliosphere through Several Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erd?s, G.; Balogh, A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the magnetic flux density carried by solar wind to various locations in the heliosphere, covering a heliospheric distance range of 0.3-5.4 AU and a heliolatitudinal range from 80 south to 80 north. Distributions of the radial component of the magnetic field, BR , were determined over long intervals from the Helios, ACE, STEREO, and Ulysses missions, as well as from using the 1 AU OMNI data set. We show that at larger distances from the Sun, the fluctuations of the magnetic field around the average Parker field line distort the distribution of BR to such an extent that the determination of the unsigned, open solar magnetic flux density from the average lang|BR |rang is no longer justified. We analyze in detail two methods for reducing the effect of fluctuations. The two methods are tested using magnetic field and plasma velocity measurements in the OMNI database and in the Ulysses observations, normalized to 1 AU. It is shown that without such corrections for the fluctuations, the magnetic flux density measured by Ulysses around the aphelion phase of the orbit is significantly overestimated. However, the matching between the in-ecliptic magnetic flux density at 1 AU (OMNI data) and the off-ecliptic, more distant, normalized flux density by Ulysses is remarkably good if corrections are made for the fluctuations using either method. The main finding of the analysis is that the magnetic flux density in the heliosphere is fairly uniform, with no significant variations having been observed either in heliocentric distance or heliographic latitude.

  15. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-03-10

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5) 10{sup 22} Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4) 10{sup 22} Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  16. The origin of noise and magnetic hysteresis in crystalline permalloy ring-core fluxgate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narod, B. B.

    2014-06-01

    6-81.3 Mo permalloy, developed in the 1960s for use in high performance ring-core fluxgate sensors, remains the state-of-the-art for permalloy-cored fluxgate magnetometers. The magnetic properties of 6-81.3, namely magnetocrystalline and magnetoelastic anisotropies and saturation induction are all optimum in the Fe-Ni-Mo system. In such polycrystalline permalloy fluxgate sensors a single phenomenon may cause both fluxgate noise and magnetic hysteresis, explain Barkhausen jumps, remanence and coercivity, and avoid domain denucleation. The phenomenon, domain wall reconnection, is presented as part of a theoretical model. In the unmagnetized state a coarse-grain high-quality permalloy foil ideally forms stripe domains, which present at the free surface as parallel, uniformly spaced domain walls that cross the entire thickness of the foil. Leakage flux "in" and "out" of alternating domains is a requirement of the random orientation, grain-by-grain, of magnetic easy axes' angles with respect to the foil free surface. Its magnetostatic energy together with domain wall energy determines an energy budget to be minimized. Throughout the magnetization cycle the free surface domain pattern remains essentially unchanged, due to the magnetostatic energy cost such a change would elicit. Thus domain walls are "pinned" to free surfaces. Driven to saturation, domain walls first bulge then reconnect via Barkhausen jumps to form a new domain configuration this author has called "channel domains", that are attached to free surfaces. The approach to saturation now continues as reversible channel domain compression. Driving the permalloy deeper into saturation compresses the channel domains to arbitrarily small thickness, but will not cause them to denucleate. Returning from saturation the channel domain structure will survive through zero H, thus explaining remanence. The Barkhausen jumps being irreversible exothermic events are sources of fluxgate noise, powered by the energy available from domain wall reconnection. A simplified domain energy model can then provide a predictive relation between ring core magnetic properties and fluxgate sensor noise power. Four properties are predicted to affect noise power, two of which, are well known: saturation total magnetic flux density and magnetic anisotropy. The two additional properties are easy axes alignment and foil thickness. Flux density and magnetic anisotropy are primary magnetic properties determined by an alloy's chemistry and crystalline lattice properties. Easy axes alignment and foil thickness are secondary, geometrical properties related to an alloy's polycrystalline fabric and manufacture. Improvements to fluxgate noise performance can in principle be achieved by optimizing any of these four properties in such a way as to minimize magnetostatic energy. Fluxgate signal power is proportional to B-H loop curvature (d2B/dH2). The degree to which Barkhausen jumps coincide with loop curvature is a measure of noise that accompanies fluxgate signal. B-H loops with significant curvature beyond the open hysteresis loop may be used to advantage to acquire fluxgate signal with reduced noise.

  17. The origin of noise and magnetic hysteresis in crystalline permalloy ring-core fluxgate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narod, B. B.

    2014-09-01

    Developed in the 1960s for use in high-performance ring-core fluxgate sensors, 6-81.3 Mo permalloy remains the state of the art for permalloy-cored fluxgate magnetometers. The magnetic properties of 6-81.3, namely magnetocrystalline and magnetoelastic anisotropies and saturation induction, are all optimum in the Fe-Ni-Mo system. In such polycrystalline permalloy fluxgate sensors, a single phenomenon may cause both fluxgate noise and magnetic hysteresis; explain Barkhausen jumps, remanence and coercivity; and avoid domain denucleation. This phenomenon, domain wall reconnection, is presented as part of a theoretical model. In the unmagnetized state a coarse-grain high-quality permalloy foil ideally forms stripe domains, which present at the free surface as parallel, uniformly spaced domain walls that cross the entire thickness of the foil. Leakage flux "in" and "out" of alternating domains is a requirement of the random orientation, grain by grain, of magnetic easy axes' angles with respect to the foil free surface. Its magnetostatic energy together with domain wall energy determines an energy budget to be minimized. Throughout the magnetization cycle the free-surface domain pattern remains essentially unchanged, due to the magnetostatic energy cost such a change would elicit. Thus domain walls are "pinned" to free surfaces. Driven to saturation, domain walls first bulge then reconnect via Barkhausen jumps to form a new domain configuration that I have called "channel domains", which are attached to free surfaces. The approach to saturation now continues as reversible channel domain compression. Driving the permalloy deeper into saturation compresses the channel domains to arbitrarily small thickness, but will not cause them to denucleate. Returning from saturation the channel domain structure will survive through zero H, thus explaining remanence. The Barkhausen jumps, being irreversible exothermic events, are sources of fluxgate noise powered by the energy available from domain wall reconnection. A simplified domain energy model can then provide a predictive relation between ring-core magnetic properties and fluxgate sensor noise power. Four properties are predicted to affect noise power, two of which are well known: saturation total magnetic flux density and magnetic anisotropy. The two additional properties are easy axes alignment and foil thickness. Flux density and magnetic anisotropy are primary magnetic properties determined by an alloy's chemistry and crystalline lattice properties. Easy axes alignment and foil thickness are secondary, geometrical properties related to an alloy's polycrystalline fabric and manufacture. Improvements to fluxgate noise performance can in principle be achieved by optimizing any of these four properties in such a way as to minimize magnetostatic energy. Fluxgate signal power is proportional to B - H loop curvature [d2B/dH2]. The degree to which Barkhausen jumps coincide with loop curvature is a measure of noise that accompanies the fluxgate signal. B - H loops with significant curvature beyond the open hysteresis loop may be used to advantage to acquire the fluxgate signal with reduced noise.

  18. Magnetic flux leakage investigation of interacting defects: Stress and geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandache, Catalin

    The Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) non-destructive technique is the most cost-effective way to monitor corrosion on in-service oil and gas pipelines. The method consists of magnetizing the pipe wall and detecting the leakage flux as a defect indication. The MFL signals are used for locating and sizing metal loss defects in the pipe. The shape and amplitude of the MFL signals do not depend only on defect geometry, but also on tool speed, applied flux density, inspection configuration, magnetic properties, and stress state of the pipe wall. The last two factors cannot be accounted for through calibration measurements. High operating pressures of the pipelines, combined with the local variation of both stress and magnetic properties of the material make the MFL field data difficult to interpret. The main objective of this project was the study of interacting defects, a term referring to two sufficiently close corrosion pits that the area between them is subjected to stress superposition and magnetic flux shielding. This research analyzed the stress-dependent magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signatures from various single and interacting defects, electrochemically milled on steel samples at no applied stress or at an applied tensile stress of 46% of the material yield strength, and magnetized at moderate and high field amplitudes. A complementary technique, Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN), capable of concurrently detecting magnetic properties and local stresses on a microscopic scale, was used in interpreting the stress-affected MFL signals. The MBN method was also employed for macroscopic magnetic characterization of the ferromagnetic samples under uniaxial tensile load. Bulk and local MBN experimental results were compared with existing theoretical and numerical models of stress patterns. The MBN results were used to model the MFL response to stress under low MFL applied field conditions. Under high field MFL conditions, stress effects are small and flux shielding dominates the signal from the interacting defects. An analytical model was developed for the latter case, which relates the normal and tangential MFL components to the defect size and location, respectively. Flux shielding effects were accounted for in the model and good agreement between theoretical and experimental results suggested that this method can be used as an inverse MFL data interpretation technique.

  19. Identification of different processes in magnetization dynamics of API steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Benítez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Le Man, Tu; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a method to identify processes in magnetization dynamics using the angular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise. The analysis reveals that three different processes of the magnetization dynamics could be identified using the angular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise energy. The first process is the reversed domain nucleation which is related to the magneto-crystalline energy of the material, and the second and third ones are associated with 180° and 90° domain walls motions, respectively. Additionally, two transition regions were identified and they are located between the regions associated with the aforementioned processes. The causes involving these processes are analyzed and a method for establishing their location in the Barkhausen noise signal with respect to the applied magnetic field intensity is proposed.

  20. Magnetic Sensitivity Beyond the Projection Noise Limit by Spin Squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, R. J.; Koschorreck, M.; Napolitano, M.; Dubost, B.; Behbood, N.; Mitchell, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    We report the generation of spin squeezing and entanglement in a magnetically sensitive atomic ensemble, and entanglement-enhanced field measurements with this system. A maximal mf=1 Raman coherence is prepared in an ensemble of 8.5105 laser-cooled Rb87 atoms in the f=1 hyperfine ground state, and the collective spin is squeezed by synthesized optical quantum nondemolition measurement. This prepares a state with large spin alignment and noise below the projection-noise level in a mixed alignment-orientation variable. 3.2 dB of noise reduction is observed and 2.0 dB of squeezing by the Wineland criterion, implying both entanglement and metrological advantage. Enhanced sensitivity is demonstrated in field measurements using alignment-to-orientation conversion.

  1. Magnetic clouds, helicity conservation, and intrinsic scale flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Rust, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    An intrinsic-scale flux-rope model for interplanetary magnetic clouds, incorporating conservation of magnetic helicity, flux and mass is found to adequately explain clouds' average thermodynamic and magnetic properties. In spite their continuous expansion as they balloon into interplanetary space, magnetic clouds maintain high temperatures. This is shown to be due to magnetic energy dissipation. The temperature of an expanding cloud is shown to pass through a maximum above its starting temperature if the initial plasma beta in the cloud is less than 2/3. Excess magnetic pressure inside the cloud is not an important driver of the expansion as it is almost balanced by the tension in the helical field lines. It is conservation of magnetic helicity and flux that requires that clouds expand radially as they move away from the Sun. Comparison with published data shows good agreement between measured cloud properties and theory. Parameters determined from theoretical fits to the data, when extended back to the Sun, are consistent with the origin of interplanetary magnetic clouds in solar filament eruptions. A possible extension of the heating mechanism discussed here to heating of the solar corona is discussed.

  2. Casimir interactions between magnetic flux tubes in a dense lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Dan; Heyl, Jeremy S.

    2015-03-01

    We use the worldline numerics technique to study a cylindrically symmetric model of magnetic flux tubes in a dense lattice and the nonlocal Casimir forces acting between regions of magnetic flux. Within a superconductor the magnetic field is constrained within magnetic flux tubes and if the background magnetic field is on the order the quantum critical field strength, Bk=m/2 e =4.4 1013 Gauss, the magnetic field is likely to vary rapidly on the scales where QED effects are important. In this paper, we construct a cylindrically symmetric toy model of a flux tube lattice in which the nonlocal influence of QED on neighboring flux tubes is taken into account. We compute the effective action densities using the worldline numerics technique. The numerics predict a greater effective energy density in the region of the flux tube, but a smaller energy density in the regions between the flux tubes compared to a locally constant-field approximation. We also compute the interaction energy between a flux tube and its neighbors as the lattice spacing is reduced from infinity. Because our flux tubes exhibit compact support, this energy is entirely nonlocal and predicted to be zero in local approximations such as the derivative expansion. This Casimir-Polder energy can take positive or negative values depending on the distance between the flux tubes, and it may cause the flux tubes in neutron stars to form bunches. In addition to the above results we also discuss two important subtleties of determining the statistical uncertainties within the worldline numerics technique. Firstly, the distributions generated by the worldline ensembles are highly non-Gaussian, and so the standard error in the mean is not a good measure of the statistical uncertainty. Secondly, because the same ensemble of worldlines is used to compute the Wilson loops at different values of T and xcm, the uncertainties associated with each computed value of the integrand are strongly correlated. We recommend a form of jackknife analysis which deals with both of these problems.

  3. The Evolution of Open Magnetic Flux Driven by Photospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    The coronal magnetic field is of paramount importance in solar and heliospheric physics. Two profoundly different views of the coronal magnetic field have emerged. In quasi-steady models, the predominant source of open magnetic field is in coronal holes. In contrast, in the interchange model, the open magnetic flux is conserved, and the coronal magnetic field can only respond to the photospheric evolution via interchange reconnection. In this view the open magnetic flux diffuses through the closed, streamer belt fields, and substantial open flux is present in the streamer belt during solar minimum. However, Antiochos and co-workers, in the form of a conjecture, argued that truly isolated open flux cannot exist in a configuration with one heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - it will connect via narrow corridors to the polar coronal hole of the same polarity. This contradicts the requirements of the interchange model. We have performed an MHD simulation of the solar corona up to 20R solar to test both the interchange model and the Antiochos conjecture. We use a synoptic map for Carrington Rotation 1913 as the boundary condition for the model, with two small bipoles introduced into the region where a positive polarity extended coronal hole forms. We introduce flows at the photospheric boundary surface to see if open flux associated with the bipoles can be moved into the closed-field region. Interchange reconnection does occur in response to these motions. However, we find that the open magnetic flux cannot be simply injected into closed-field regions - the flux eventually closes down and disconnected flux is created. Flux either opens or closes, as required, to maintain topologically distinct open and closed field regions, with no indiscriminate mixing of the two. The early evolution conforms to the Antiochos conjecture in that a narrow corridor of open flux connects the portion of the coronal hole that is nearly detached by one of the bipoles. In the later evolution, a detached coronal hole forms, in apparent violation of the Antiochos conjecture. Further investigation reveals that this detached coronal hole is actually linked to the extended coronal hole by a separatrix footprint on the photosphere of zero width. Therefore, the essential idea of the conjecture is preserved, if we modify it to state that coronal holes in the same polarity region are always linked, either by finite width corridors or separatrix footprints. The implications of these results for interchange reconnection and the sources of the slow solar wind are briefly discussed.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF OPEN MAGNETIC FLUX DRIVEN BY PHOTOSPHERIC DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Antiochos, Spiro K. E-mail: lionel@predsci.com E-mail: titovv@predsci.com

    2011-04-20

    The coronal magnetic field is of paramount importance in solar and heliospheric physics. Two profoundly different views of the coronal magnetic field have emerged. In quasi-steady models, the predominant source of open magnetic field is in coronal holes. In contrast, in the interchange model, the open magnetic flux is conserved, and the coronal magnetic field can only respond to the photospheric evolution via interchange reconnection. In this view, the open magnetic flux diffuses through the closed, streamer belt fields, and substantial open flux is present in the streamer belt during solar minimum. However, Antiochos and coworkers, in the form of a conjecture, argued that truly isolated open flux cannot exist in a configuration with one heliospheric current sheet-it will connect via narrow corridors to the polar coronal hole of the same polarity. This contradicts the requirements of the interchange model. We have performed an MHD simulation of the solar corona up to 20 R{sub sun} to test both the interchange model and the Antiochos conjecture. We use a synoptic map for Carrington rotation 1913 as the boundary condition for the model, with two small bipoles introduced into the region where a positive polarity extended coronal hole forms. We introduce flows at the photospheric boundary surface to see if open flux associated with the bipoles can be moved into the closed-field region. Interchange reconnection does occur in response to these motions. However, we find that the open magnetic flux cannot be simply injected into closed-field regions-the flux eventually closes down and disconnected flux is created. Flux either opens or closes, as required, to maintain topologically distinct open- and closed-field regions, with no indiscriminate mixing of the two. The early evolution conforms to the Antiochos conjecture in that a narrow corridor of open flux connects the portion of the coronal hole that is nearly detached by one of the bipoles. In the later evolution, a detached coronal hole forms, in apparent violation of the Antiochos conjecture. Further investigation reveals that this detached coronal hole is actually linked to the extended coronal hole by a separatrix footprint on the photosphere of zero width. Therefore, the essential idea of the conjecture is preserved, if we modify it to state that coronal holes in the same polarity region are always linked, either by finite width corridors or separatrix footprints. The implications of these results for interchange reconnection and the sources of the slow solar wind are briefly discussed.

  5. The magnetotail and substorms. [magnetic flux transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The tail plays a very active and important role in substorms. Magmetic flux eroded from the dayside magnetosphere is stored here. As more and more flux is transported to the magnetotail and stored, the boundary flares more, the field strength in the tail increases, and the currents strengthen and move closer to the earth. Further, the plasma sheet thins and the magnetic flux crossing the neutral sheet lessens. The experimental evidence for these processes is discussed and a phenomenological or qualitative model of the substorm sequence is presented. In this model, the flux transport is driven by the merging of the magnetospheric and interplanetary magnetic fields. During the growth phase of substorms the merging rate on the dayside magnetosphere exceeds the reconnection rate in the neutral sheet.

  6. Modeled ground magnetic signatures of flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Mark A.; Clauer, C. Robert

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field on the ground due to a small (not greater than 200 km scale size) localized field-aligned current (FAC) system interacting with the ionosphere is calculated in terms of an integral over the ionospheric distribution of FAC. Two different candidate current systems for flux transfer events (FTEs) are considered: (1) a system which has current flowing down the center of a cylindrical flux tube with a return current uniformly distributed along the outside edge; and (2) a system which has upward current on one half of the perimeter of a cylindrical flux tube with downward current on the opposite half. The peak magnetic field on the ground is found to differ by a factor of 2 between the two systems, and the magnetic perturbations are in different directions depending on the observer's position.

  7. Z N twisted orbifold models with magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomo-hiro; Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Miura, Takashi; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We propose new backgrounds of extra dimensions to lead to four-dimensional chiral models with three generations of matter fermions, that is T 2 /Z N twisted orbifolds with magnetic fluxes. We consider gauge theory on six-dimensional space-time, which contains the T 2 /Z N orbifold with magnetic flux, Scherk-Schwarz phases and Wilson line phases. We classify all the possible Scherk-Schwarz and Wilson line phases on T 2 /Z N orbifolds with magnetic fluxes. The behavior of zero modes is studied. We derive the number of zero modes for each eigenvalue of the Z N twist, showing explicitly examples of wave functions. We also investigate Kaluza-Klein mode functions and mass spectra.

  8. 1/f noise and susceptibility-magnetization correlation in disordered ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn

    2011-03-01

    We consider a strongly disordered ferromagnet modeled by Ising spins placed at random in 2D with ferromagnetic interactions decaying exponentially with inter-site distance. Ferromagnetic phase in this model arises due to formation of infinite percolation cluster of strongly interacting spins. Fractal nature of the percolation cluster manifests itself in the dynamics of the system in the vicinity of the percolation transition. Simulating the dynamics with single spin flip Monte Carlo algorithm we observe 1/f power spectra of magnetization noise in a wide temperature range near the transition. Subjected to external AC magnetic field the system shows significant cross-correlation between susceptibility and magnetization in the ferromagnetic phase. This results suggest a possible explanation of the inductance-flux cross-correlation recently observed in SQUIDs. This work is done in collaboration with Lara Faoro and Lev B. Ioffe.

  9. Flux noise resulting from vortex avalanches using a simple kinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, G.; Stroud, D.

    1999-10-01

    We have carried out a model calculation of the flux noise produced by vortex avalanches in a type-II superconductor, using a simple kinetic model proposed by Bassler and Paczuski. Over a broad range of frequencies, we find that the flux noise S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) has a power-law dependence on frequency, S{sub {Phi}}({omega}){approximately}{omega}{sup {minus}s}, with s{approximately}1.4 in reasonable agreement with experiment. In addition, for small lattices, the calculated S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) has a high-frequency knee, which is seen in some experiments, and which is due to the finite lattice size. Deviations between calculation and experiment are attributed mostly to uncertainties in the measured critical current densities and pinning strengths of the experimental samples. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Yates, T. Y.

    2008-10-15

    Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial particle transport is achieved by combining various interferometry techniques, including Faraday rotation, conventional interferometry, and differential interferometry. It is observed that electron convective particle flux and its divergence exhibit a significant increase during a sawtooth crash. In this paper, we describe the basic techniques employed to determine the particle flux.

  11. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted. PMID:26690435

  12. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted. PMID:26690435

  13. Noise reduction from magnetic resonance images using nonseperable transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhadarya, Ehsan; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2006-03-01

    Multi-scale transforms have got a lot of applications in image processing, in recent years. Wavelet transform is a powerful multiscale transform for denoising noisy signals and images, but the usual two-dimensional separable wavelets are sub-optimal. These separable wavelet transforms can successfully identify zero dimensional singularities in images, but can weakly identify one dimensional singularities such as edges, curves and lines. In this sense, non-separable transforms such as Ridgelet and Curvelet transforms are proposed by Candes and Donoho. The coefficients produced by these non-separable transforms have shown to be sparser than wavelet coefficients. This fact results in better denoising capabilities than wavelet transform. These new non-separable transforms can identify direction in lines and curves, because of special structure of their basis elements. Basically, Magnetic Resonance images are probable to have Rician noise. In some special cases, this kind of noise can be supposed to be white Gaussian noise. In this paper, a new method for denoising MR images is proposed. This method is based on Monoscale Ridgelet transform. It is shown that this two transform can successfully denoise MR images embedded in white Gaussian noise. The results are better in comparison with usual wavelet denoising methods, based on both visual perception and signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. On the Dynamics of Emerging Toroidal Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Fisher, G. H.; Deluca, E. E.

    1992-05-01

    We study the dynamic evolution of emerging toroidal magnetic flux rings in the solar convective envelope by carrying out 3D numerical simulations based on the thin flux tube approximation of Spruit. We find: 1)For an axisymmetric flux ring, the aerodynamic drag force experienced by the ring when moving with respect to the ambient fluid transfers no angular momentum to the ring. Therefore in both cases, with or without the drag force, the ring moves nearly parallel to the rotational axis of the sun and emerges at a latitude significantly poleward of sunspot zones, as pointed out by Choudhuri and Gilman. However, for a non-axisymmetric flux ring (i.e. with wave-like undulations along its circumference), the aerodynamic drag force can transfer angular momentum to the flux ring, and therefore reduces the latitude of flux emergence to within the observed sunspot latitudes. 2)As each apex of a flux loop rises due to the magnetic buoyancy force, gas inside the flux tube tends to diverge from the apex. In the meantime, however, the Coriolis force drives a flow within the flux tube opposite to the direction of rotation. Thus the point of maximum divergence in the flow within the tube is shifted from the apex into the leading side (in the direction of rotation) of the emerging loop. The evacuation of plasma from the leading side of the loop results in a much lower internal gas pressure there as compared to that in the following side at the same depth. Therefore, the magnetic field strength is stronger on the leading side. The numerical simulations show that the field strength in the leading side of the loop can be twice as large as that of the following side at the same depth. This result offers a simple explanation for the observed fact that the leading polarity of an active region is more compact, forms sunspots more easily, and has a longer life time than does the following polarity.

  15. Do the Legs of Magnetic Clouds Contain Twisted Flux-rope Magnetic Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) characterized primarily by a smooth rotation in the magnetic field direction indicative of the presence of a magnetic flux rope. Energetic particle signatures suggest MC flux ropes remain magnetically connected to the Sun at both ends, leading to widely used model of global MC structure as an extended flux rope, with a loop-like axis stretching out from the Sun into the heliosphere and back to the Sun. The time of flight of energetic particles, however, suggests shorter magnetic field line lengths than such a continuous twisted flux rope would produce. In this study, two simple models are compared with observed flux rope axis orientations of 196 MCs to show that the flux rope structure is confined to the MC leading edge. The MC “legs,” which magnetically connect the flux rope to the Sun, are not recognizable as MCs and thus are unlikely to contain twisted flux rope fields. Spacecraft encounters with these non-flux rope legs may provide an explanation for the frequent observation of non-MC ICMEs.

  16. Properties of magnetic helicity flux in turbulent dynamos

    SciTech Connect

    Vishniac, Ethan T.; Shapovalov, Dmitry E-mail: dmsh@jhu.edu

    2014-01-10

    We study the flux of small-scale magnetic helicity in simulations of driven statistically homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a periodic box with an imposed large-scale shear. The simulations show that in the regime of strong dynamo action the eddy-scale magnetic helicity flux has only two significant terms: advective motion driven by the large-scale velocity field and the Vishniac-Cho (VC) flux which moves helicity across the magnetic field lines. The contribution of all the other terms is negligible. The VC flux is highly correlated with the large-scale electromotive force and is responsible for large-scale dynamo action, while the advective term is not. The VC flux is driven by the anisotropy of the turbulence. We derive analytical expressions for it in terms of the small-scale velocity or magnetic field. These expressions are used to predict the existence and strength of dynamo action for different turbulent anisotropies and tested against the results of the simulations.

  17. Hamiltonian magnetic reconnection with parallel electron heat flux dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, D.; Tassi, E.

    2015-10-01

    > We analyse, both analytically and numerically, a two-dimensional six-field fluid model for collisionless magnetic reconnection, accounting for temperature and heat flux fluctuations along the direction of the magnetic guide field. We show that the model possesses a Hamiltonian structure with a non-canonical Poisson bracket. This bracket is characterized by the presence of six infinite families of Casimirs, associated with Lagrangian invariants. This reveals that the model can be reformulated as a system of advection equations, thus generalizing previous results obtained for Hamiltonian isothermal fluid models for reconnection. Numerical simulations indicate that the presence of heat flux and temperature fluctuations yields slightly larger growth rates and similar saturated island amplitudes, with respect to the isothermal models. For values of the sonic Larmor radius much smaller than the electron skin depth, heat flux fluctuations tend to be suppressed and temperature fluctuations follow density fluctuations. Increasing the sonic Larmor radius results in an increasing fraction of magnetic energy converted into heat flux, at the expense of temperature fluctuations. In particular, heat flux fluctuations tend to become relevant along the magnetic island separatrices. The qualitative structures associated with the electron field variables are also reinterpreted in terms of the rotation of the Lagrangian invariants of the system.

  18. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. I. The formation of stable coronal flux ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Trk, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a convection zone magnetic flux tube into a solar atmosphere containing a pre-existing dipole coronal field, which is orientated to minimize reconnection with the emerging field. We observe that the emergence process is capable of producing a coronal flux rope by the transfer of twist from the convection zone, as found in previous simulations. We find that this flux rope is stable, with no evidence of a fast rise, and that its ultimate height in the corona is determined by the strength of the pre-existing dipole field. We also find that although the electric currents in the initial convection zone flux tube are almost perfectly neutralized, the resultant coronal flux rope carries a significant net current. These results suggest that flux tube emergence is capable of creating non-current-neutralized stable flux ropes in the corona, tethered by overlying potential fields, a magnetic configuration that is believed to be the source of coronal mass ejections.

  19. Three-dimensional prominence-hosting magnetic configurations: Creating a helical magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Guo, Y.

    2014-01-10

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coronal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an essential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows toward the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The converging flows bring the feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line, where magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happen. Inflow and outflow signatures of the magnetic reconnection process are identified, and thereby the newly formed helical loops wind around preexisting ones so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. When a macroscopic flux rope is formed, we switch off the driving flows and find that the system relaxes to a stable state containing a helical magnetic flux rope embedded in an overlying arcade structure. A major part of the formed flux rope is threaded by dipped field lines that can stably support prominence matter, while the total mass of the flux rope is in the order of 4-5 10{sup 14} g.

  20. Inference of physical phenomena from FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thie, J.A.; Damiano, B.; Campbell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The source of features observed in noise spectra collected by an automated data collection system operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) can be identified using a methodology based on careful data observation and intuition. When a large collection of data is available, as in this case, automatic pattern recognition and parameter storage and retrieval using a data base can be used to extract useful information. However, results can be limited to empirical signature comparison monitoring unless an effort is made to determine the noise sources. This paper describes the identification of several FFTF noise data phenomena and suggests how this understanding may lead to new or enhanced monitoring. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Explosive instability and erupting flux tubes in a magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, S. C.; Cowley, B.; Henneberg, S. A.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of multiple flux tubes in a magnetized plasma is proposed as a mechanism for explosive release of energy in plasmas. A significant fraction of the linearly stable isolated flux tubes are shown to be metastable in a box model magnetized atmosphere in which ends of the field lines are embedded in conducting walls. The energy released by destabilizing such field lines can be a large proportion of the gravitational energy stored in the system. This energy can be released in a fast dynamical time. PMID:26339193

  2. Sausage Mode Propagation in a Thick Magnetic Flux Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardi, A.; Ballai, I.; Marcu, A.; Orza, B.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the propagation of slow magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves in a thick expanding magnetic flux tube in the context of the quiescent (VAL-C) solar atmosphere. The propagation of these waves is found to be described by the Klein-Gordon equation. Using the governing MHD equations and the VAL-C atmosphere model we study the variation of the cut-off frequency along and across the magnetic tube guiding the waves. Due to the radial variation of the cut-off frequency the flux tubes act as low frequency filters for the waves.

  3. Advection of magnetic flux by accretion disks around neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Tulian, S.; Reisenegger, A.

    The aim of our research is to address why millisecond pulsars have relatively weak surface magnetic fields, of about 10^8 G, with a narrow spread. We propose that the accretion of plasma from the companion star fully screens the original neutron star field, but the accretion disk carries additional magnetic flux from the companion star, or itself can generate field by means of dynamo processes. For a strongly magnetized star, the field prevents the disk from approaching the star. The accretion is along the field lines and deposits the matter on the polar cap. Then, the accreted plasma flows, dragging with itself the magnetic field lines, from the pole to the equator (Payne & Melatos 2004). In a following stage, when the star becomes non-magnetic, because the field has been buried, the disk touches the star. We suggest that some effective mechanism of magnetic flux transport such as that proposed by Spruit & Uzdensky 2005 (or Bisnovatyi-Kogan & Lovelace 2007), operates and necessarily leads to a "strongly magnetized disk''. It becomes laminar because the magneto-rotational instability saturates (it is considered to be responsible for turbulence in the disk), and the magnetic difussivity is negligible. Then, the loss of angular momentum allowing the accretion is only caused by the magneto-centrifugal disk-wind (Blandford & Payne 1982). Meanwhile, the wind-driven transport of the magnetic flux by the disk re-magnetizes the star. This process continues until the Lorentz force due to the star's magnetic field forbids any further accretion of matter and magnetic flux, in the Ideal Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics approach. Additional of material can fall onto the star (but at lower rate) if some instability process sets in, allowing the diffusion of mass through the magnetic field lines (e.g the Interchange Instability, Spruit & Taam 1990). All these processes might lead to an asymptotic magnetic field of 10^8 G,as is inferred from observations. We are developing a self-consistent theoretical model to describe the above dynamical processes taking into account the interaction among the star, the strongly magnetized disk, and the disk-wind, justifying our hypothesis.

  4. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-25

    Hysteresis loops and Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in a single crystal α-iron containing a nonmagnetic particle were simulated based on the Laudau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The analyses of domain morphologies and hysteresis loops show that reversal magnetization process is control by nucleation of reversed domains at nonmagnetic particle when the particle size reaches a particle value. In such a situation, the value of nucleation field is determined by the size of nonmagnetic particles, and moreover, coercive field and Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal are strongly affected by the nucleation field of reversed domains.

  5. Magnetic field generation from shear flow in flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Gao, K.; Klarenbeek, J.; Yoo, C.

    2012-10-01

    In the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) we have measured out of plane quadrupole magnetic field structure in situations where magnetic reconnection was minimal. This quadrupole out of plane magnetic signature has historically been presumed to be the smoking gun harbinger of reconnection. On the other hand, we showed that when flux ropes bounced instead of merging and reconnecting, this signature could evolve. This can follow from sheared fluid flows in the context of a generalized Ohms Law. We reconstruct a shear flow model from experimental data for flux ropes that have been experimentally well characterized in RSX as screw pinch equilibria, including plasma ion and electron flow, with self consistent profiles for magnetic field, pressure, and current density. The data can account for the quadrupole field structure.

  6. Numerical simulation of reconnection in an emerging magnetic flux region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.; Priest, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical solutions in two dimensions are presented for the resistive MHD equations of an initial boundary value problem, simulating reconnection between an emerging magnetic flux region and an overlying coronal magnetic field. This numerical model displays four main phases, which are interpreted in terms of (1) a slowly evolving quasi-steady phase during which most of the magnetic flux emerges, with approximate equilibrium between magnetic and pressure forces; (2) an impulsive phase in which either the reconnection or continuing emergence of the first phase comes to disrupt the equilibrium, and extensive acceleration occurs as the high pressure region within the emerging region drives the fluid upwards and outwards; (3) a second quasi-steady phase; and (4) a potential-static phase in which continuing reconnection, ohmic dissipation, and fluid transport through boundaries depletes the system of all currents and flows.

  7. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Flux Ropes in Mercury's Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBraccio, Gina A.; Slavin, James A.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER orbital observations provide a new opportunity to investigate magnetic reconnection in the cross-tail current sheet of Mercury's magnetotail. Here we use measurements collected by the Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during 'hot seasons,' when the orbital periapsis is on Mercury's dayside and MESSENGER crosses the plasma sheet at distances of ~1.5 to 3 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius, or 2440 km). These data frequently contain signatures of large-scale magnetic reconnection in the form of plasmoid-type magnetic flux ropes and southward magnetic fields in the post-plasmoid plasma sheet. In the cross-tail current sheet, which separates the north and south lobes of the magnetotail, flux ropes are formed by reconnection at two or more X-lines and are then transported either toward or away from the planet by the Alfvénic flow emanating from the X-lines. Here we present a survey of 49 plasmoid-type flux ropes identified during seven MESSENGER 'hot seasons,' for which minimum variance analysis indicates that the spacecraft passed near the central axis of the structure. The locations of the selected flux ropes range between 1.7 and 2.8 RM down the tail from the center of the planet. With FIPS measurements, we determined an average proton density of 2.55 cm-3 in the adjacent plasma sheet surrounding the flux ropes, implying an Alfvén speed of ~450 km s-1. Under the assumption that the flux ropes are moving at the local Alfvén speed, we used the mean duration of 0.74 ± 0.15 s to calculate a typical diameter of ~0.14 RM, or ~340 km. We have modeled the plasmoids as force-free flux ropes in order to confirm this result. A superposed epoch analysis demonstrates that the magnetic structure of the flux ropes is similar to what is observed at Earth, but the timescales are 40 times faster at Mercury. The results of this flux rope survey indicate that intense magnetic reconnection occurs frequently in the cross-tail current layer of this small but extremely dynamic magnetosphere.

  8. Numerical simulation of reconnection in an emerging magnetic flux region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The resistive MHD equations are numerically solved in two dimensions for an initial-boundary-value problem which simulates reconnection between an emerging magnetic flux region and an overlying coronal magnetic field. The solution involves both ideal-MHD and resistive-MHD processes, and the solution shows an evolution which is remarkably suggestive of the preflare, impulsive, and main phases of the flare-cycle.

  9. Models for the probability densities of the turbulent plasma flux in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsaker, A. S.; Fredriksen, ; Pcseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J. K.

    2015-10-01

    Observations of turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas indicate that plasma losses can be due to coherent structures or bursts of plasma rather than a classical random walk or diffusion process. A model for synthetic data based on coherent plasma flux events is proposed, where all basic properties can be obtained analytically in terms of a few control parameters. One basic parameter in the present case is the density of burst events in a long time-record, together with parameters in a model of the individual pulse shapes and the statistical distribution of these parameters. The model and its extensions give the probability density of the plasma flux. An interesting property of the model is a prediction of a near-parabolic relation between skewness and kurtosis of the statistical flux distribution for a wide range of parameters. The model is generalized by allowing for an additive random noise component. When this noise dominates the signal we can find a transition to standard results for Gaussian random noise. Applications of the model are illustrated by data from the toroidal Blaamann plasma.

  10. Origin of 1/f noise peaks of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, W.N.; Kim, D.H.; Park, J.H.

    1994-02-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependence of 1/f noise has been measured in epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films. In a magnetic field, two noise peaks were observed as temperature decreases; one at higher temperature was found to match the thermal fluctuation of the sample resistance and the other near the foot of the transition was found to be magnetic-field dependent. The location of the latter was shifted toward low temperature and the peak height was decreased as a magnetic field increased. In a zero field only one peak from the resistance fluctuation was observed. We show that the field-dependent noises are due to flux motion interacting with the pinning potential. A classical model is used to explain the field-induced noise peaks. We interpret that the temperature dependences of the flux bundle size and the sample resistance are the reasons for the noise peaks, and a rough estimation of the temperature and field dependence of the flux bundle size is presented. Any possible relationship between the noise peaks and the flux-line-lattice phase transition is also discussed.

  11. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms, we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the large-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature (T approximately 10(exp 6) K) structures larger than supergranules (greater than approximately 30,000 kilometers). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures smaller than supergranules, (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing lines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions has a large non-magnetic component, or, if the heating is predominantly produced via the magnetic field, the mechanism is significantly different than in active regions.

  12. Mean square value of noise equivalent magnetic induction for magnetic microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panait, Cornel; Tama?, Razvan; C?runtu, George

    2010-11-01

    The noise-signal at the output of a Hall magnetic sensor can be interpreted as a results of an equivalent magnetic induction, acting on a noiseless Hall device. In the paperwork is defined this characteristic for two Hall devices realised in the bipolar and the MOS integrated circuits technology. The influence of geometry and material properties on these essential parameters in the characterisation of magnetic sensors performances, can be emphasised by simulating a few Hall devices structures.

  13. Noise-induced bifurcations in magnetization dynamics of uniaxial nanomagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, C. Perna, S.; Quercia, A.; Bertotti, G.; D'Aquino, M.; Mayergoyz, I. D.

    2015-05-07

    Stochastic magnetization dynamics in uniformly magnetized nanomagnets is considered. The system is assumed to have rotational symmetry as the anisotropy axis, the applied field, and the spin polarization are all aligned along an axis of symmetry. By appropriate integration of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the problem, the stochastic differential equation governing the evolution of the angle between the magnetization orientation and the symmetry axis is derived. The drift terms present in this equation contain a noise-induced drift term, which, in combination with drift terms of deterministic origin, can be written as the derivative of an effective potential. Superparamagnetic-like transitions are studied in connections with the bifurcations of the effective potential as temperature and excitation conditions are varied.

  14. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  15. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of ?-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single ?-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  16. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domainsmore » on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.« less

  17. Fractional quantization of the magnetic flux in cylindrical unconventional superconductors.

    PubMed

    Loder, F; Kampf, A P; Kopp, T

    2013-07-26

    The magnetic flux threading a conventional superconducting ring is typically quantized in units of ?0=hc/2e. The factor of 2 in the denominator of ?0 originates from the existence of two different types of pairing states with minima of the free energy at even and odd multiples of ?0. Here we show that spatially modulated pairing states exist with energy minima at fractional flux values, in particular, at multiples of ?0/2. In such states, condensates with different center-of-mass momenta of the Cooper pairs coexist. The proposed mechanism for fractional flux quantization is discussed in the context of cuprate superconductors, where hc/4e flux periodicities were observed. PMID:23931397

  18. Convective Intensification of Magnetic Flux Tubes in Stellar Photospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaguru, S. P.; Kurucz, R. L.; Hasan, S. S.

    2002-02-01

    The convective collapse of thin magnetic flux tubes in the photospheres of Sun-like stars is investigated using realistic models of the superadiabatic upper convection zone layers of these stars. The strengths of convectively stable flux tubes are computed as a function of surface gravity and effective temperature. We find that while stars with Teff>=5500 K and logg>=4.0 show flux tubes highly evacuated of gas, and hence strong field strengths due to convective collapse, cooler stars exhibit flux tubes with lower field strengths. Observations reveal the existence of field strengths close to thermal equipartition limits even in cooler stars, implying highly evacuated tubes, for which we suggest possible reasons.

  19. Testing the magnetic flux paradigm of AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Shane; Gaensler, Bryan; Banfield, Julie; Stil, Jeroen; Croom, Scott; Farnes, Jamie

    2014-04-01

    Recent theoretical work has proposed the 'magnetic-flux paradigm', where the accumulation of magnetic flux around the black hole is the dominant factor in determining the power and radio-loudness of AGN jets (eg. Sikora et al. 2013). From analysis of a large sample of polarized sources from the NVSS, with optical host galaxy identifications, we have found that the 1.4 GHz fractional linear polarization is greater for sources whose accretion-mode favours large accumulation of magnetic flux close to the black hole. However, from the current data, we cannot determine whether this relation is due to greater ordering of the magnetic field in the source or less Faraday depolarisation caused by the surrounding environment. Therefore, we propose broadband (1 to 10 GHz), high angular resolution (6 km config), spectropolarimetric ATCA observations (108 hrs total) to unambiguously determine the Faraday rotation measure environment as well as the intrinsic fractional polarization of the 162 sources in our sample. This will enable the first comprehensive study of the magnetic properties of radio-loud AGN in relation to their host galaxy accretion properties, while also producing the largest dataset to date of high angular-resolution, broadband radio polarization measurements of AGN.

  20. Materials for efficient high-flux magnetic bearing actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. E.; Trumper, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have demonstrated the capability for achieving positioning accuracies at the nanometer level in precision motion control stages. This makes possible the positioning of a wafer in six degrees of freedom with the precision necessary for photolithography. To control the position of an object at the nanometer level, a model of the magnetic bearing actuator force-current-airgap relationship must be accurately obtained. Additionally, to reduce thermal effects the design of the actuator should be optimized to achieve maximum power efficiency and flux density. Optimization of the actuator is accomplished by proper pole face sizing and utilizing a magnetic core material which can be magnetized to the highest flux density with low magnetic loss properties. This paper describes the construction of a magnetic bearing calibration fixture designed for experimental measurement of the actuator force characteristics. The results of a material study that review the force properties of nickel-steel, silicon-steel, and cobalt-vanadium-iron, as they apply to magnetic bearing applications are also presented.

  1. Black hole jets without large-scale net magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Giannios, Dimitrios; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scenario for launching relativistic jets from rotating black holes, in which small-scale magnetic flux loops, sustained by disc turbulence, are forced to inflate and open by differential rotation between the black hole and the accretion flow. This mechanism does not require a large-scale net magnetic flux in the accreting plasma. Estimates suggest that the process could operate effectively in many systems, and particularly naturally and efficiently when the accretion flow is retrograde. We present the results of general-relativistic force-free electrodynamic simulations demonstrating the time evolution of the black hole's magnetosphere, the cyclic formation of jets, and the effect of magnetic reconnection. The jets are highly variable on time-scales 10-103rg/c, where rg is the black hole's gravitational radius. The reconnecting current sheets observed in the simulations may be responsible for the hard X-ray emission from accreting black holes.

  2. Magnetic flux leakage inspection of tailor-welded blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, S.; Clapham, L.; Wild, P.

    2002-02-01

    A feasibility study was conducted on the application of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection to the evaluation of weld quality in automotive tailor-welded blanks (TWB). Using a permanent magnet configuration, magnetic flux was directed through the weld region of a TWB. A Hall effect sensor was coupled to the movement of a digital plotter and was, thereby, scanned around the weld region. Signals from the Hall effect sensor were processed and correlated with defects to determine corresponding MFL signatures. Simulated through-hole defects as small as 0.34 mm in diameter were readily detected. Furthermore, there was a reasonably linear relationship between the MFL signals associated with these defects and the diameter of the defect hole. Preliminary tests with specimens having naturally occurring defects such as concavity, pinholes, and undercutting, indicate that the MFL technique has excellent potential as an inspection method in this application.

  3. Coalescence of magnetic flux ropes in the ion diffusion region of magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongsheng; Lu, Quanming; Nakamura, Rumi; Huang, Can; Du, Aimin; Guo, Fan; Teh, Waileong; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, San; Wang, Shui

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important process in space and laboratory plasmas that effectively converts magnetic energy into plasma kinetic energy within a current sheet. Theoretical work suggested that reconnection occurs through the growth and overlap of magnetic flux ropes that deconstruct magnetic surfaces in the current sheet and enable the diffusion of the magnetic field lines between two sides of the sheet. This scenario was also proposed as a primary mechanism for accelerating energetic particles during reconnection, but experimental evidence has remained elusive. Here, we identify a total of 19 flux ropes during reconnection in the magnetotail. We found that the majority of the ropes are embedded in the Hall magnetic field region and 63% of them are coalescing. These observations show that the diffusion region is filled with flux ropes and that their interaction is intrinsic to the reconnection dynamics, leading to turbulence.

  4. Resolving Magnetic Flux Patches at the Surface of the Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    The geomagnetic field at a given epoch can be used to partition the surface of the liquid outer core into a finite number of contiguous regions in which the radial component of the magnetic flux density, B (sub r), is of one sign. These flux patches are instrumental in providing detail to surface fluid flows inferred from the changing geomagnetic field and in evaluating the validity of the frozen-flux approximation on which such inferences rely. Most of the flux patches in models of the modem field are small and enclose little flux compared to the total unsigned flux emanating from the core. To demonstrate that such patches are not required to explain the most spatially complete and accurate data presently available, those from the Magsat mission, I have constructed a smooth core field model that fits the Magsat data but does not possess small flux patches. I conclude that our present knowledge of the geomagnetic field does not allow us to resolve these features reliably at the core-mantle boundary; thus we possess less information about core flow than previously believed.

  5. Crossed flux tubes 3D magnetic reconnection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The formation and dynamics of writhing, plasma-filled, twisted open magnetic flux tubes is being investigated using laboratory experiments. The behavior of these flux tubes is relevant to solar corona loops, astrophysical jets, spheromak formation, and open field lines in tokamaks and RFP's. MHD forces have been determined to drive fast axial plasma flows into the flux tube from the boundary it intercepts. These flows fill the flux tubes with plasma while simultaneously injecting linked frozen-in azimuthal flux; helicity injection is thus associated with mass injection. An upgraded experiment under construction will have two adjacent arched plasma-filled flux tubes cross over each other. It is anticipated that a localized 3D reconnection will occur at the cross-over. This reconnection should result in half-twists in the post re-connection topology and subsequent Alfven wave propagation to equilibrate the half-twists along the post-reconnection flux tubes. The electrical circuitry requires two initially independent floating capacitor bank power supplies that become series-connected as a result of reconnection. Supported by DOE, NSF and AFOSR.

  6. SIMULATIONS OF TURBULENT DYNAMOS DRIVEN BY THE MAGNETIC HELICITY FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Shapovalov, Dmitry S.; Vishniac, Ethan T. E-mail: ethan@mcmaster.ca

    2011-09-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a periodic box with an imposed large-scale sinusoidal shear. We produce strong large-scale magnetic fields through dynamo action. This dynamo action is highly dependent on the spectral properties of the forcing function. In particular, we can produce either dynamo or antidynamo action by choosing particular forcing functions for the small-scale turbulence. Our results show that the large-scale electromotive force is well correlated with the local accumulation of eddy-scale magnetic helicity. Conversely, the electromotive force is very weakly correlated with the large-scale magnetic field strength or its product with kinetic helicity. We argue that in these simulations large-scale dynamo action is driven by an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, ultimately caused by the tendency of anisotropic turbulence to create a magnetic helicity flux.

  7. Current evolution in a numerical emerging-magnetic-flux model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, T.

    1985-05-01

    The resistive-MHD equations are numerically solved in two-dimensions for an initial-boundary-value problem which models the emergence of magnetic flux from the photosphere into the corona. As the emergence begins a current sheet forms around the emerging region which separates the emerging region from the overlying coronal magnetic field. This current sheet is the source of the free-magnetic energy in the system, and in the limit of zero resistivity it is a simple tangential discontinuity. However, when the resistivity is finite, reconnection between the magnetic field in the emerging region and the overlying coronal magnetic field ensures, and the subsequent evolution of the enveloping current sheet becomes complex. The overall time history of the current evolution is suggestive of the expected current evolution for the pre-flare, impulsive, and main phases of flares.

  8. C 4 fluxes from the sun as a star and the correlation with magnetic flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Linsky, J. L.; Bennett, J.; Brown, A.; Saar, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 144 C 4 wavelength 1548 SMM-UVSP spectroheliograms of solar plages were analyzed, some of which are series of exposures of the same region on the same day. Also analyzed were C 4 wavelength 1551 rasters of plages and C 4 1548 rasters of the quiet sun. The sample contains data on 17 different plages, observed on 50 different days. The center-to-limb variations of the active regions show that the optical thickness effects in the C 4 wavelength 1548 line can be neglected in the conversion from intensity to flux density. As expected for the nearly optically thin situation, the C 4 1548 line is twice as bright as the C 4 wavelength 1551 line. The average C 4 wavelength 1548 flux density for a quiet is 2700 erg/cm/s and, with surprisingly little scatter, 18,000 erg/cm/s for plages. The intensity histograms of rasters obtained at disk centers can be separated into characteristic plage and quiet-sun contributions with variable relative filling factors. The disk-averaged flux density in the C 4 doublet and the disk-averaged magnitude of the magnetic flux density are related. The relationship between the C 4 and magnetic flux densities for spatially resolved data is inferred to be almost the same, with only an additional factor of order unity in the constant of proportionality.

  9. Axisymmetric Modes in Magnetic Flux Tubes with Internal and External Magnetic Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Fedun, V.; Erdlyi, R.; Verth, G.

    2015-09-01

    Observations suggest that twisted magnetic flux tubes are ubiquitous in the Sun's atmosphere. The main aim of this work is to advance the study of axisymmetric modes of magnetic flux tubes by modeling both twisted internal and external magnetic fields, when the magnetic twist is weak. In this work, we solve the derived wave equations numerically assuming that the twist outside the tube is inversely proportional to the distance from its boundary. We also study the case of a constant magnetic twist outside the tube and solve these equations analytically. We show that the solution for a constant twist outside the tube is a good approximation for the case where the magnetic twist is proportional to 1/r, namely, the error is in all cases less than 5.4%. The solution is in excellent agreement with solutions to simpler models of twisted magnetic flux tubes, i.e., without external magnetic twist. It is shown that axisymmetric Alfvn waves are naturally coupled with magnetic twist as the azimuthal component of the velocity perturbation is nonzero. We compared our theoretical results with observations and comment on what the Doppler signature of these modes is expected to be. Lastly, we argue that the character of axisymmetric waves in twisted magnetic flux tubes can lead to false positives in identifying observations with axisymmetric Alfvn waves.

  10. Convective Radial Energy Flux Due To Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Francisco Alberto; Beyer, Peter; Fuhr, Guillaume; Monnier, Arnaud; Benkadda, Sadruddin

    2014-10-01

    With the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) consolidating as an important tool to control the transport barrier relaxation, the mechanism on how they work is still a subject to be clearly understood. In this work we investigate the equilibrium states in the presence of RMPs for a reduced MHD model using 3D electromagnetic fluid numerical code (EMEDGE3D) with a single harmonic RMP (single magnetic island chain) and multiple harmonics RMPs in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Two different equilibrium states were found in the presence of the RMPs with different characteristics for each of the geometries used. For the cylindrical geometry in the presence of a single RMP, the equilibrium state is characterized by a strong convective radial thermal flux and the generation of a mean poloidal velocity shear. In contrast, for toroidal geometry the thermal flux is dominated by the magnetic flutter. For multiple RMPs, the high amplitude of the convective flux and poloidal rotation are basically the same in cylindrical geometry, but in toroidal geometry the convective thermal flux and the poloidal rotation appear only with the islands overlapping of the linear coupling between neighbouring poloidal wavenumbers m, m - 1 , m + 1 . French agency CNRS and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP. Projects Numbers: ANR2010-BLAN-940-01, 560491/2010-7 and 201119296-1.

  11. Contagious Coronal Heating from Recurring Emergence of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Sterling, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    For each of six old bipolar active regions, we present and interpret Yohkoh/SXT and SOHO/MDI observations of the development, over several days, of enhanced coronal heating in and around the old bipole in response to new magnetic flux emergence within the old bipole. The observations show: 1. In each active region, new flux emerges in the equatorward side of the old bipole, around a lone remaining leading sunspot and/or on the equatorward end of the neutral line of the old bipole. 2. The emerging field is marked by intense internal coronal heating, and enhanced coronal heating occurs in extended loops stemming from the emergence site. 3. In five of the six cases, a "rooster tail" of coronal loops in the poleward extent of the old bipole also brightens in response to the flux emergence. 4. There are episodes of enhanced coronal heating in surrounding magnetic fields that are contiguous with the old bipole but are not directly connected to the emerging field. From these observations, we suggest that the accommodation of localized newly emerged flux within an old active region entails far reaching adjustments in the 3D magnetic field throughout the active region and in surrounding fields in which the active region is embedded, and that these adjustments produce the extensive enhanced coronal heating. We Also Note That The Reason For The recurrence of flux emergence in old active regions may be that active-region flux tends to emerge in giant-cell convection downflows. If so, the poleward "rooster tail" is a coronal flag of a long-lasting downflow in the convection zone. This work was funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  12. Contagious Coronal Heating from Recurring Emergence of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For each of six old bipolar active regions, we present and interpret Yohkoh/SXT and SOHO/MDI observations of the development, over several days, of enhanced coronal heating in and around the old bipole in response to new magnetic flux emerge= within the old bipole. The observations show: 1. In each active region, new flux emerges in the equatorward side of the old bipole, around a lone remaining leading sunspot and/or on the equatorward end of the neutral line of the old bipole. 2. The emerging field is marked by intense internal coronal heating, and enhanced coronal heating occurs in extended loops stemming from the emergence site. 3. In five of the six cases, a "rooster tail" of coronal loops in the poleward extent of the old bipole also brightens in response to the flux emergence. 4. There are episodes of enhanced coronal heating in surrounding magnetic fields that are contiguous with the old bipole but are not directly connected to the emerging field. From these observations, we suggest that the accommodation of localized newly emerged flux within an old active region entails far reaching adjustments in the 3D magnetic field throughout the active region and in surrounding fields in which the active region is embedded, and that these adjustments produce the extensive enhanced coronal heating. We also note that the reason for the recurrence of flux emergence in old active regions may be that active region flux tends to emerge in giant-cell convection downflows. If so, the poleward "rooster tail" is a coronal flag of a long-lasting downflow in the convection zone. This work was funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  13. Experimental Design of a Magnetic Flux Compression Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuelling, Stephan; Awe, Thomas J.; Bauer, Bruno S.; Goodrich, Tasha; Lindemuth, Irvin R.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Siemon, Richard E.; Atchison, Walter L.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Salazar, Mike A.; Scudder, David W.; Turchi, Peter J.; Degnan, James H.; Ruden, Edward L.

    2007-06-01

    Generation of ultrahigh magnetic fields is an interesting topic of high-energy-density physics, and an essential aspect of Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). To examine plasma formation from conductors impinged upon by ultrahigh magnetic fields, in a geometry similar to that of the MAGO experiments, an experiment is under design to compress magnetic flux in a toroidal cavity, using the Shiva Star or Atlas generator. An initial toroidal bias magnetic field is provided by a current on a central conductor. The central current is generated by diverting a fraction of the liner current using an innovative inductive current divider, thus avoiding the need for an auxiliary power supply. A 50-mm-radius cylindrical aluminum liner implodes along glide planes with velocity of about 5 km/s. Inward liner motion causes electrical closure of the toroidal chamber, after which flux in the chamber is conserved and compressed, yielding magnetic fields of 2-3 MG. Plasma is generated on the liner and central rod surfaces by Ohmic heating. Diagnostics include B-dot probes, Faraday rotation, radiography, filtered photodiodes, and VUV spectroscopy. Optical access to the chamber is provided through small holes in the walls.

  14. TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Vrs, Zoltn; Narita, Yasuhito; Bruno, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic flux tubes in the solar wind can be twisted as they are transported from the solar surface, where the tubes are twisted due to photospheric motions. It is suggested that the twisted magnetic tubes can be detected as the variation of total (thermal+magnetic) pressure during their passage through the observing satellite. We show that the total pressure of several observed twisted tubes resembles the theoretically expected profile. The twist of the isolated magnetic tube may explain the observed abrupt changes of magnetic field direction at tube walls. We have also found some evidence that the flux tube walls can be associated with local heating of the plasma and elevated proton and electron temperatures. For the tubes aligned with the Parker spiral, the twist angle can be estimated from the change of magnetic field direction. Stability analysis of twisted tubes shows that the critical twist angle of the tube with a homogeneous twist is 70, but the angle can further decrease due to the motion of the tube with respect to the solar wind stream. The tubes with a stronger twist are unstable to the kink instability, therefore they probably cannot reach 1AU.

  15. MHD waves on solar magnetic flux tubes - Tutorial review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the highly simplified models that have been developed for solar magnetic flux tubes, which are intense photospheric-level fields confined by external gas pressure but able to vary rapidly with height, are presently discussed with emphasis on the torsional Alfven mode's propagation, reflection, and non-WKB properties. The 'sausage' and 'kink' modes described by the thin flux-tube approximation are noted. Attention is also given to the surface waves and resonance absorption of X-ray-emitting loops, as well as to the results of recent work on the resonant instabilities that occur in the presence of bulk flows.

  16. Nonvanishing magnetic flux through the slightly charged Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Chul Hoon; Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2001-03-01

    In association with the Blandford-Znajek mechanism for rotational energy extraction from Kerr black holes, it is of some interest to explore how much magnetic flux can actually penetrate the horizon at least in idealized situations. For the completely uncharged Kerr hole case, it has been known for some time that the magnetic flux gets entirely expelled when the hole is maximally rotating. In the mean time, it is also known that when the rotating hole is immersed in an originally uniform magnetic field surrounded by an ionized interstellar medium (plasma), which is a more realistic situation, the hole accretes a certain amount of electric charge. In the present work, it is demonstrated that, as a result of this accretion charge small enough not to disturb the geometry, the magnetic flux through this slightly charged Kerr hole depends not only on the hole's angular momentum but on the hole's charge as well, such that it never vanishes for any value of the hole's angular momentum.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Flux Emergence in Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbett, W. P.

    2002-05-01

    Understanding the sub-photospheric structure and dynamics of emerging active region magnetic fields, and how these fields are coupled to structures observed above the photosphere, is important to a variety of ongoing research projects in both the solar physics and space science communities (for example, the effort to predict the onset of intense episodes of solar activity such as CMEs and flares). Over the past decade, much progress has been made by using 2-D MHD codes and the 1-D ``thin flux tube'' approximation to describe the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. However, in recent years, the rapid evolution of computer technology, coupled with advances in computational algorithms, have made it possible to use physically self-consistent, 3-D MHD numerical simulations to model the evolution of strong magnetic fields through stratified model convection zones without the restrictive assumptions of earlier models. This review will summarize efforts to use modern 3-D codes as tools to test predictions of earlier theoretical models and to interpret observational data. The emphasis will be on the progress made in modeling emerging magnetic flux in the solar interior; however, a brief overview of recent efforts to couple sub-photospheric simulations to models of the solar atmosphere and corona will also be presented.

  18. Anisotropy study of grain oriented steels with Magnetic Barkhausen Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, M. F.; Campos, M. A.; Landgraf, F. J. G.; Padovese, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    Grain oriented electrical steels present strong anisotropy, due to a {110} <001> texture (Goss), with [100] direction parallel to rolling direction (RD) and [110] direction parallel to transverse direction (TD). MBN (Magnetic Barkhausen Noise) were employed to measure magnetic properties in several angles towards RD using a 15° step. For 90° to the rolling direction (i.e., TD), the MBN signal changes, decreasing the MBNrms. It is found a connection between initial permeability and MBNrms. The lower initial permeability for the TD is related to a larger contribution of irreversible rotation in the hysteresis. The MBN procedure is non-destructive and provides rapid understanding of the anisotropy of the material, without the use of laborious methods like Epstein frame or toroidal coils.

  19. Open Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Reconnection During Steady Magnetic Convection Intervals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, B.; Milan, S. E.; Cowley, S. W.

    2009-05-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft was launched in 2000 with several imaging instruments onboard. The Far UltraViolet (FUV) experiment imaged the N2 LBH (Wideband Imaging Camera - WIC-), OI 135.6 nm (Spectrographic Imager -SI13-) and Doppler-shifted Lyman alpha auroral emission (SI12). The Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha emission allows to monitor the auroral oval both on the day and night sides. Remote sensing of the polar aurora is completed by ground based data of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) that monitors the ionospheric convection flow pattern in the polar region. In the present study, SI12 images are used to estimate the open/closed (o/c) field line boundary location, and monitor its movement. The SuperDARN data are used to compute the electric field of the polar cap at the location of the o/c boundary. The total electric field is then computed along the boundary accounting for its movement applying Faraday's law, so that the dayside and nightside reconnection voltages can be retrieved. We apply this method to the study of several intervals of steady magnetic convection (SMC). SMC events are intervals of enhanced convection without classical substorm signatures. During these intervals, it is expected that the amount of open magnetic flux remains fairly constant, and it has been suggested that the rate of opening (at the magnetopause) and closure (in the magnetotail) of magnetic flux balance each other. These rates can be expressed as voltages with a positive sign for the opening and a negative sign for closure. The net reconnection voltage then represents the net rate of accumulation of open flux by the magnetosphere. We find that, during SMC intervals, the open magnetic flux varies only slowly, and sometimes remains stationary during several hours. As a consequence, the net voltage often remains close to zero during SMC intervals. Occasionally, we find that an increase in the opening voltage is followed by a similar intensification of the closure voltage after downtail convection of the newly created open flux. The convection time can be roughly estimated and ranges between 20 and 40 minutes, i.e. the typical order of magnitude of the convection time in the magnetosphere.

  20. Magnetic Flux Conservation in the Heliosheath Including Solar Cycle Variations of Magnetic Field Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, A. T.; Opher, M.; Provornikova, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Tóth, G.

    2015-04-01

    In the heliosheath (HS), Voyager 2 has observed a flow with constant radial velocity and magnetic flux conservation. Voyager 1, however, has observed a decrease in the flow’s radial velocity and an order of magnitude decrease in magnetic flux. We investigate the role of the 11 yr solar cycle variation of the magnetic field strength on the magnetic flux within the HS using a global 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the heliosphere. We use time and latitude-dependent solar wind velocity and density inferred from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SWAN and interplanetary scintillations data and implemented solar cycle variations of the magnetic field derived from 27 day averages of the field magnitude average of the magnetic field at 1 AU from the OMNI database. With the inclusion of the solar cycle time-dependent magnetic field intensity, the model matches the observed intensity of the magnetic field in the HS along both Voyager 1 and 2. This is a significant improvement from the same model without magnetic field solar cycle variations, which was over a factor of two larger. The model accurately predicts the radial velocity observed by Voyager 2; however, the model predicts a flow speed ˜100 km s-1 larger than that derived from LECP measurements at Voyager 1. In the model, magnetic flux is conserved along both Voyager trajectories, contrary to observations. This implies that the solar cycle variations in solar wind magnetic field observed at 1 AU does not cause the order of magnitude decrease in magnetic flux observed in the Voyager 1 data.

  1. Magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise emission analysis of magnetic materials and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, Neelam

    specialchapt{ABSTRACT}. Barkhausen emission studies have been used to analyze the effect of residual stresses in ferromagnetic materials. The stresses generated due to mechanical wear and tear, abrasion and prolonged use can also lead to phase changes within the material. These phase changes can cause damage to the structural parts and should be prevented. In this study we analyze the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise profile of materials with more than one ferromagnetic phase. The correlation between the hysteresis and Barkhausen noise profiles for such materials is studied. Secondary Barkhausen emission peaks can be simulated for such materials. Experimental observations are compared with simulation measurements. Drawing a correlation between the secondary emergent peaks and the composition of each secondary phase should lead to an improved technique for non-destructive characterization of ferromagnetic materials. . Improved sensor-to-specimen coupling is also essential for conducting Barkhausen noise measurements of multiphase materials which may also have different surface geometries. A finite element study was conducted to optimize the design parameters of the magnetizing core in a Barkhausen noise sensor. Several sensor parameters inclusive of core material, core-tip curvature, core length and pole spacing were studied. A procedure for developing a high sensitivity Barkhausen noise sensor by design optimization based on finite element simulations has been demonstrated. The study also shows the applicability of Barkhausen emission and magnetic hysteresis analysis as advanced tools of non-destructive characterization of ferromagnetic materials.

  2. Inhomogeneous magnetic flux focusing in superconducting Josephson networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Gaia; Gambardella, Umberto; Pace, Sandro

    1999-06-01

    The bending effects of a transverse magnetic field on planar superconducting structures in the Meissner state are investigated. Systematic measurements are performed on arrays made of four and six small Josephson junctions connected in parallel by superconducting films. By applying an external uniform magnetic field H, we measure the Josephson critical current Ic, which is sensitive to the local magnetic-field distribution, as a function of H. We find that the experimental data cannot be accounted for by the external magnetic field, and a strong focusing effect is present. Moreover, only by using a nonuniform magnetic-field distribution with a maximum in the center of the array are we able to fit the experimental data by numerical simulations. We show that, in the absence of self-field effects resulting from the Josephson currents, the nonuniform magnetic-field distribution is caused by the diamagnetic shielding produced by Meissner currents flowing in the superconducting electrodes. Three-dimensional finite element numerical calculations are performed on several planar geometries in a transverse external magnetic field to compute the magnetic-field distribution and the screening current patterns. In this way, we find a quantitative agreement with the observed inhomogeneous field distribution. The multiloop geometry has also been compared with equivalent networks, which considerably reduce the numerical calculations and substantially give the same inhomogeneous flux focusing.

  3. Magnetic Flux Compression Concept for Aerospace Propulsion and Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Robertson, Tony; Hawk, Clark W.; Turner, Matt; Koelfgen, Syri

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate system level performance and design issues associated with magnetic flux compression devices for aerospace power generation and propulsion. The proposed concept incorporates the principles of magnetic flux compression for direct conversion of nuclear/chemical detonation energy into electrical power. Specifically a magnetic field is compressed between an expanding detonation driven diamagnetic plasma and a stator structure formed from a high temperature superconductor (HTSC). The expanding plasma cloud is entirely confined by the compressed magnetic field at the expense of internal kinetic energy. Electrical power is inductively extracted, and the detonation products are collimated and expelled through a magnetic nozzle. The long-term development of this highly integrated generator/propulsion system opens up revolutionary NASA Mission scenarios for future interplanetary and interstellar spacecraft. The unique features of this concept with respect to future space travel opportunities are as follows: ability to implement high energy density chemical detonations or ICF microfusion bursts as the impulsive diamagnetic plasma source; high power density system characteristics constrain the size, weight, and cost of the vehicle architecture; provides inductive storage pulse power with a very short pulse rise time; multimegajoule energy bursts/terawatt power bursts; compact pulse power driver for low-impedance dense plasma devices; utilization of low cost HTSC material and casting technology to increase magnetic flux conservation and inductive energy storage; improvement in chemical/nuclear-to-electric energy conversion efficiency and the ability to generate significant levels of thrust with very high specific impulse; potential for developing a small, lightweight, low cost, self-excited integrated propulsion and power system suitable for space stations, planetary bases, and interplanetary and interstellar space travel; potential for attaining specific impulses approaching 10 (exp 6) seconds, which would enable missions to the outer planets within ten years and missions at interstellar distances within fifty years.

  4. Solving the problem of magnetic flux transport during star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos de Lima, Reinaldo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Guerrero, Gustavo; Leao, Marcia; Lazarian, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection is an omnipresent process in turbulent astrophysical flows. It allows the magnetic flux to diffuse through the gas even when the electrical conductivity is very high. Recently we have tested this diffusive mechanism (termed Reconnection Diffusion, RD) for solving two intriguing problems related to star formation: (i) the removal of magnetic flux from collapsing molecular clouds in order to explain the observed magnetic field intensities in protostars, and (ii) the formation of rotationally sustained protostellar disks in the presence of the magnetic fields, which tend to remove all the angular momentum. Using 3D MHD simulations we have demonstrated successfully the efficiency of the RD in both problems. More recently, we have also identified the conditions under which RD is able to produce supercritical cores from self-gravitating subcritical molecular cloud clumps. In this presentation we review the RD theory and the results of our numerical studies in different phases of star formation. We also derive the RD coefficient from the numerical simulations and compare with the theoretical predictions

  5. Particle signature of magnetic flux transfer events at the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, P. W.; Keppler, E.; Williams, D. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    Energetic electron (E greater than 20 keV) and ion (E greater than 25 keV) enhancements have been observed using the Isee 1 and 2 spacecraft during magnetic flux transfer events in the dayside magnetosheath just outside the magnetopause. The ions are seen to be streaming along the magnetic field, filling the 90-180 deg pitch angle region. The electrons are more isotropic and yet exhibit slight anisotropy in the direction opposite to that of the ions. From their intensities and spectra the ions appear to be of magnetospheric origin. With the interpretation of the flux transfer events as 'patchy' interconnection of magnetosheath and magnetospheric field lines, the ions are then seen to be previously trapped magnetospheric particles escaping along freshly opened field lines.

  6. Fractional flux plateau in magnetization curve of multicomponent superconductor loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhao; Hu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Time-reversal symmetry (TRS) may be broken in superconductors with three or more condensates interacting repulsively, yielding two degenerate states specified by chirality of gap functions. We consider a loop of such a superconductor with two halves occupied by the two states with opposite chiralities. Fractional flux plateaus are found in a magnetization curve associated with free-energy minima, where the two domain walls between the two halves of loop accommodate different intercomponent phase kinks leading to finite winding numbers around the loop only in a part of all condensates. Fractional flux plateaus form pairs related by the flux quantum ?0=h c /2 e , although they individually take arbitrary values depending on material parameters and temperature. This phenomenon is a clear evidence of TRS broken superconductivity, and in a general point of view it provides a novel chance to explore relative phase difference, phase kink and soliton in ubiquitous multicomponent superconductivity such as that in iron pnicitides.

  7. Laser-Driven Magnetic-Flux Compression: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Yu

    Laser-Driven Flux Compression (LDFC) is a technique used to compress the magnetic field in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets driven by a laser. The compressed field in the ICF target is beneficial to the target performance. Embedding a magnetic field in a conventional ICF target reduces the heat loss if the central hot spot becomes magnetized. Higher hot spot temperatures lower the requirements on the implosion velocities, leading to larger shell masses and therefore higher energy gains. For a typical hot spot density of 10 g/cc, and temperature of 5 keV, a magnetic field B > 10 MG is required to magnetize the hot spot. Such a strong magnetic field is difficult to be externally generated. Instead of providing the strong magnetic field directly, a seed magnetic field much lower than the required field was provided and compressed by the imploding shell. The field needs to be compressed faster than its diffusion due to the finite resistivity of the fill gas and the shell. This requires the gas in the target being ionized by the shock so that the flux is frozen in the gas region and compressed by the imploding shell. In this thesis, theoretical models, numerical calculations, and basic experiments of flux compression in ICF targets are investigated. A measurable Lawson criterion, developed as a metric to assess the performance of an ICF target, is used to evaluate the benefits of suppressing the heat conductivity. A simple model is used to describe the process of field compression by shock waves during the shell implosion. The magnetohydrodynamics codes, LILAC-MHD and LILAC-MHD-SP, are used to simulate the field compression and the target performance. The Magneto-Inertial-Fusion-Electrical-Discharge-System (MIFEDS), the device providing the seed magnetic field, is described in detail. LDFC experiments using the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics are presented. The results include the first demonstration of 550-fold amplification of a 50 60 kG seed field to a 30 MG compressed field using LDFC, and the first demonstration of 15% and 30 % ion temperature and neutron yield enhancement by compressed magnetic fields.

  8. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO/EIT coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms (Falconer et al 1998, ApJ, 501, 386-396), we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the e-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature (T approx. 10(exp 6) K) structures larger than supergranules (>approx.30,000 km). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures smaller than supergranules, (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing fines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, Fisher et A (1998, ApJ, 508, 985-998) found that the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results, together with the result of Fisher et al (1999), suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions has a large non-magnetic component, or, if the heating is predominantly produced via the magnetic field, the mechanism is significantly different than in active regions. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  9. Alternative magnetic flux leakage modalities for pipeline inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Katragadda, G.; Lord, W.; Sun, Y.S.; Udpa, S.; Udpa, L.

    1996-05-01

    Increasing quality consciousness is placing higher demands on the accuracy and reliability of inspection systems used in defect detection and characterization. Nondestructive testing techniques often rely on using multi-transducer approaches to obtain greater defect sensitivity. This paper investigates the possibility of taking advantage of alternative modalities associated with the standard magnetic flux leakage tool to obtain additional defect information, while still using a single excitation source.

  10. Magnetic and Electric Flux Quanta: the Pion Mass

    SciTech Connect

    P Cameron

    2011-12-31

    The angular momentum of the magnetic flux quantum is balanced by that of the associated supercurrent, such that in condensed matter the resultant angular momentum is zero. The notion of a flux quantum in free space is not so simple, needing both magnetic and electric flux quanta to propagate the stable dynamic structure of the photon. Considering these flux quanta at the scale where quantum field theory becomes essential, at the scale defined by the reduced Compton wavelength of the electron, exposes variants of a paradox that apparently has not been addressed in the literature. Leaving the paradox unresolved in this note, reasonable electromagnetic rationales are presented that permit to calculate the masses of the electron, muon, pion, and nucleon with remarkable accuracy. The calculated mass of the electron is correct at the nine significant digit limit of experimental accuracy, the muon at a part in one thousand, the pion at two parts in ten thousand, and the nucleon at seven parts in one hundred thousand. The accuracy of the pion and nucleon mass calculations reinforces the unconventional common notion that the strong force is electromagnetic in origin.

  11. Flux Rope Acceleration and Enhanced Magnetic Reconnection Rate

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; Y. Ren; G.S. Choe; Y.-J. Moon

    2003-03-25

    A physical mechanism of flares, in particular for the flare rise phase, has emerged from our 2-1/2-dimensional resistive MHD simulations. The dynamical evolution of current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection and flux-rope acceleration subject to continuous, slow increase of magnetic shear in the arcade are studied by employing a non-uniform anomalous resistivity in the reconnecting current sheet under gravity. The simulation results directly relate the flux rope's accelerated rising motion with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. The simulation results provide good quantitative agreements with observations of the acceleration of flux rope, which manifests in the form of SXR ejecta or erupting filament or CMEs, in the low corona. Moreover, for the X-class flare events studied in this paper the peak reconnection electric field is about O(10{sup 2} V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate p articles to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 10 km. Nonthermal electrons thus generated can produce hard X-rays, consistent with impulsive HXR emission observed during the flare rise phase.

  12. Magnetic flux transport of decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network. [of solar supergranulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Several series of coordinated observations on decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network regions on the sun were carried out jointly at Big Bear Solar Observatory and at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of the Bejing Astronomical Observatory in China. The magnetic field evolution in several regions was followed closely for three to seven days. The magnetic flux transport from the remnants of decayed active regions was studied, along with the evolution and lifetime of the magnetic network which defines the boundaries of supergranules. The magnetic flux transport in an enhanced network region was studied in detail and found to be negative. Also briefly described are some properties of moving magnetic features around a sunspot. Results of all of the above studies are presented.

  13. Magnetic Flux Circulation During Dawn-Dusk Oriented Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, E. J.; Lopez, R. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Deng, Y.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic flux circulation is a primary mode of energy transfer from the solar wind into the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. For southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), magnetic flux circulation is described by the Dungey cycle (dayside merging, night side reconnection, and magnetospheric convection), and both the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere receive energy. For dawn-dusk oriented IMF, magnetic flux circulation is not well understood, and the inner magnetosphere does not receive energy. Several models have been suggested for possible reconnection patterns; the general pattern is: dayside merging; reconnection on the dayside or along the dawn/dusk regions; and, return flow on dayside only. These models are consistent with the lack of energy in the inner magnetosphere. We will present evidence that the Dungey cycle does not explain the energy transfer during dawn-dusk oriented IMF. We will also present evidence of how magnetic flux does circulate during dawn-dusk oriented IMF, specifically how the magnetic flux reconnects and circulates back.

  14. Magnetic flux concentrations from dynamo-generated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, S.; Brandenburg, A.; Losada, I. R.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The mean-field theory of magnetized stellar convection gives rise to two distinct instabilities: the large-scale dynamo instability, operating in the bulk of the convection zone and a negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI) operating in the strongly stratified surface layers. The latter might be important in connection with magnetic spot formation. However, as follows from theoretical analysis, the growth rate of NEMPI is suppressed with increasing rotation rates. On the other hand, recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) have shown a subsequent increase in the growth rate. Aims: We examine quantitatively whether this increase in the growth rate of NEMPI can be explained by an α2 mean-field dynamo, and whether both NEMPI and the dynamo instability can operate at the same time. Methods: We use both DNS and mean-field simulations (MFS) to solve the underlying equations numerically either with or without an imposed horizontal field. We use the test-field method to compute relevant dynamo coefficients. Results: DNS show that magnetic flux concentrations are still possible up to rotation rates above which the large-scale dynamo effect produces mean magnetic fields. The resulting DNS growth rates are quantitatively reproduced with MFS. As expected for weak or vanishing rotation, the growth rate of NEMPI increases with increasing gravity, but there is a correction term for strong gravity and large turbulent magnetic diffusivity. Conclusions: Magnetic flux concentrations are still possible for rotation rates above which dynamo action takes over. For the solar rotation rate, the corresponding turbulent turnover time is about 5 h, with dynamo action commencing in the layers beneath.

  15. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-09-29

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  16. Nonlinear evolution of magnetic flux ropes. 2: Finite beta plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1995-01-01

    In this second paper on the evolution of magnetic flux ropes we study the effects of gas pressure. We assume that the energy transport is described by a polytropic relationship and reduce the set of ideal MHD equations to a single, second-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation for the evolution function. For this conservative system we obtain a first integral of motion. To analyze the possible motions, we use a mechanical analogue -- a one-dimensional, nonlinear oscillator. We find that the effective potential for such an oscillator depends on two parameters: the polytropic index gamma and a dimensionless quantity kappa the latter being a function of the plasma beta, the strength of the azimuthal magnetic field relative to the axial field of the flux rope, and gamma. Through a study of this effective potential we classify all possible modes of evolution of the system. In the main body of the paper, we focus on magnetic flux ropes whose field and gas pressure increase steadily towards the symmetry axis. In this case, for gamma greater than 1 and all values of kappa, only oscillations are possible. For gamma less than 1, however, both oscillations and expansion are allowed. For gamma less than 1 and kappa below a critical value, the energy of the nonlinear oscillator determines whether the flux rope will oscillate or expand to infinity. For gamma less than 1 and kappa above critical, however, only expansion occurs. Thus by increasing kappa while keeping gamma fixed (less than 1), a phase transition occurs at kappa = kappa(sub critical) and the oscillatory mode disappears. We illustrate the above theoretical considerations by the example of a flux rope of constant field line twist evolving self-similarly. For this example, we present the full numerical MHD solution. In an appendix to the paper we catalogue all possible evolutions when (1) either the magnetic field or (2) the gas pressure decreases monotonically toward the axis. We find that in these cases critical conditions can occur for gamma greater than 1. While in most cases the flux rope collapses, there are notable exceptions when, for certain ranges of kappa and gamma, collapse may be averted.

  17. Spectral features of background ULF noise during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotik, Dmitry; Ermakova, Elena; Ryabov, Alexander; Shchecoldin, Aexander

    The monitoring of tangential components of ULF noise below first Schumann resonance was permanently provided since 2003 up to now at mid-latitude station New Life (56N, 44,7E). The regular structure in ULF spectrograms named SRS -spectral resonance structure could be observed practically every night excepting years of solar activity maximum. The SRS appears in the ULF noise due existing the resonator for Alfven waves in the ionosphere at heights from the bottom up to 600 -1000 km [1]. It was noticed that during magnetically disturbed time the strong anti-correlation between the intensity of SRS events and K index from station on neighbor magnetic meridian [2]. For more detail investigation it was choused several magnetic storms. First one is storm witch has began at November 20, 2003 with maximum Kp=9 (strong), second -at March 19, 2006 with Kp=6+ (moderate) and the third -at November 25, 2008 with Kp=5 (weak). The spectra of magnetic component amplitude and polarization parameter were analyzed. The comparison with ionosond and magnetic field data as well as world TEC maps for mentioned storm periods were made. The dynamics of changing the properties of ULF spectra during the storms were explored. The general regularities of these changes were displayed. One of the prominent feathers appeared at the end of the strong and moderate storms looked like fish shoals. Perhaps this kind of ULF bursts is the same nature as well known pearls pulsation but displayed in broad frequency range 1-6 Hz. May be it could be classified as special spectral structure. The analysis of changing the properties of ULF spectra during the storms together with geo-physical data has shown that the main regularities in changes the SRS caused by changing of the ionospheric parameters above the observation point. But some of ULF spectral features are results of interaction waves and particles in the magnetosphere. 1. Belyaev P.P., Polyakov S.V., Ermakova E.N., Isaev S.V. Solar cycle variations in the iono-spheric Alfven resonator1985-1995, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2000. V.62, No 4. P.239-248 2. D.S. Kotik, E.N. Ermakova, The anticorrelation between SRS and geomagnetic activity levels at mid latitudes. Abstracts of XXX Annual Seminar "Physics of Auroral phenomena", 28 February 2007, p. 18.

  18. The Nature of Kink MHD Waves in Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Terradas, J.; Andries, J.; Arregui, I.; Ballester, J.

    2009-05-01

    We examine the nature of MHD kink waves. This is done by determining the frequency, the damping rate and the eigenfunctions of MHD kink waves for three widely different MHD waves cases: a compressible pressure-less plasma, an incompressible plasma and a compressible plasma with non-zero plasma pressure which allows for MHD radiation. The overall conclusion is that kink waves are very robust and do not care about the details of the MHD wave environment. In all three cases the frequency and the damping rate are for most practical purposes the same. In the magnetic flux tube the kink waves are in all three cases, to a high degree of accuracy incompressible waves with negligible pressure perturbations and with mainly horizontal motions. The main restoring force of kink waves in the magnetized flux tube is the magnetic tension force. The gradient pressure force cannot be neglected except when the frequency of the kink wave is equal or slightly differs from the local Alfvn frequency, i.e. in the resonant layer. In a non-magnetic external plasma the wave is of course acoustic. The adjective fast is not the correct adjective to characterize kink waves. If an adjective is to be used it should be Alfvnic. However, it is better to realize that kink waves have mixed properties and cannot be put in one single box.

  19. A dynamo effect due to instability of magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriz-Mas, A.; Schmitt, D.; Schuessler, M.

    1994-09-01

    We show that a non-axisymmetric instability of toroidal magnetic flux tubes in a rotating star provides a dynamo effect. The instability occurs in the form of propagating helical waves; their growth in amplitude causes a phase shift between the perturbations of magnetic field and velocity, which leads to an electric field (anti)parallel to the direction of the unperturbed field. Together with differential rotation, this effects is capable of driving a dynamo of the alpha omega-type. In contrast to the conventional alpha-effect in cyclonic convention, this dynamo effect operates in strong (super-equipartition) magnetic fields which resist against distortion by convective flows. We calculate the induced electric field using results from linear stability and a model of the solar convection zone which consistently includes an overshoot layer. We find that for growing magnetic field the dynamo effect occurs first in high latitudes (near the poles) in a region of weak instability which moves towards the equator as the field strength increases further. The dependence of the dynamo effect on the location of the flux tubes (in depth and latitude) and on the rotation rate is discussed.

  20. Nonlinear Parker instability of isolated magnetic flux in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Tajima, T.; Matsumoto, R.; Hanawa, T.; Horiuchi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the Parker instability in an isolated horizontal magnetic-flux sheet embedded in a two-temperature layer atmosphere is studied by using a two-dimensional MHD code. In the solar case, this two-layer model is regarded as a simplified abstraction of the sun's photosphere/chromosphere and its overlying much hotter (coronal) envelope. The horizontal flux sheet is initially located in the lower temperature atmosphere so as to satisfy magnetostatic equilibrium under a constant gravitational acceleration. Ideal MHD is assumed, and only perturbations with k parallel to the magnetic-field lines are investigated. As the instability develops, the gas slides down the expanding loop, and the evacuated loop rises as a result of enhanced magnetic buoyancy. In the nonlinear regime of the instability, both the rise velocity of a magnetic loop and the local Alfven velocity at the top of the loop increase linearly with height and show self-similar behavior with height as long as the wavelength of the initial perturbation is much smaller than the horizontal size of the computing domain.

  1. Magnetic Flux Compression Concept for Nuclear Pulse Propulsion and Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    The desire for fast, efficient interplanetary transport requires propulsion systems having short acceleration times and very high specific impulse attributes. Unfortunately, most highly efficient propulsion systems which are within the capabilities of present day technologies are either very heavy or yield very low impulse such that the acceleration time to final velocity is too long to be of lasting interest, One exception, the nuclear thermal thruster, could achieve the desired acceleration but it would require inordinately large mass ratios to reach the range of desired final velocities. An alternative approach, among several competing concepts that are beyond our modern technical capabilities, is a pulsed thermonuclear device utilizing microfusion detonations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of an innovative magnetic flux compression concept for utilizing microfusion detonations, assuming that such low yield nuclear bursts can be realized in practice. In this concept, a magnetic field is compressed between an expanding detonation driven diamagnetic plasma and a stationary structure formed from a high temperature superconductor (HTSC). In general, we are interested in accomplishing two important functions: (1) collimation of a hot diamagnetic plasma for direct thrust production; and (2) pulse power generation for dense plasma ignition. For the purposes of this research, it is assumed that rnicrofusion detonation technology may become available within a few decades, and that this approach could capitalize on recent advances in inertial confinement fusion ICF) technologies including magnetized target concepts and antimatter initiated nuclear detonations. The charged particle expansion velocity in these detonations can be on the order of 10 (exp 6)- 10 (exp 7) meters per second, and, if effectively collimated by a magnetic nozzle, can yield the Isp and the acceleration levels needed for practical interplanetary spaceflight. The ability to ignite pure fusion micro-bursts with reasonable levels of input energy is an equally challenging scientific problem. It remains to be seen, however, whether an effective ignition driver can be developed which meets the requirements for practical spaceflight application (namely high power density, compactness, low weight, and low cost). In this paper, system level performance and design issues are examined including generator performance, magnetic flux compression processes, magnetic diffusion processes, high temperature superconductor (HTSC) material properties, plasmadynamic processes, detonation plasma expansion processes, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, magnetic nozzle performance, and thrust production performance. Representative generator performance calculations based on a simplified skin layer formulation are presented as well as the results of exploratory small-scale laboratory experiments on magnetic flux diffusion in HTSC materials. In addition, planned follow-on scientific feasibility experiments are described which utilize high explosive detonations and high energy gas discharges to simulate the plasma conditions associated with thermonuclear micro-detonations.

  2. Acoustic waves in random ensembles of magnetic fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutova, M.P.

    1995-10-10

    To analyze the observational data and provide the appropriate diagnostic procedure for photospheric manifestation of solar oscillations it is necessary to take into account strong inhomogeneity of solar atmosphere with respect to distribution of magnetic fields. We study the collective phenomena in the propagation of acoustic waves and unsteady wave-packets through quite regions, sunspots and plages, including time-dependent response of these regions to solar oscillations, the energy transfer mechanisms, frequency shift effects and reradiation of the acoustic waves in higher layers of atmosphere. We show that the dynamics of differently magnetized regions, their dispersion properties, and their response to the propagation of acoustic waves are completely different. We describe the effects caused by the specific distribution and randomness of magnetic flux tubes, which can be observed and which can provide the tools for diagnostic goals.

  3. Optimization of multiply acquired magnetic flux density B(z) using ICNE-Multiecho train in MREIT.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Oh In

    2010-05-01

    The aim of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the electrical properties, conductivity or current density of an object by injection of current. Recently, the prolonged data acquisition time when using the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) method has been advantageous for measurement of magnetic flux density data, Bz, for MREIT in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the ICNE method results in undesirable side artifacts, such as blurring, chemical shift and phase artifacts, due to the long data acquisition under an inhomogeneous static field. In this paper, we apply the ICNE method to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) multi-echo train pulse sequence in order to provide the multiple k-space lines during a single RF pulse period. We analyze the SNR of the measured multiple B(z) data using the proposed ICNE-Multiecho MR pulse sequence. By determining a weighting factor for B(z) data in each of the echoes, an optimized inversion formula for the magnetic flux density data is proposed for the ICNE-Multiecho MR sequence. Using the ICNE-Multiecho method, the quality of the measured magnetic flux density is considerably increased by the injection of a long current through the echo train length and by optimization of the voxel-by-voxel noise level of the B(z) value. Agarose-gel phantom experiments have demonstrated fewer artifacts and a better SNR using the ICNE-Multiecho method. Experimenting with the brain of an anesthetized dog, we collected valuable echoes by taking into account the noise level of each of the echoes and determined B(z) data by determining optimized weighting factors for the multiply acquired magnetic flux density data. PMID:20400810

  4. Low-noise magnetic sensing for marine munitions characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory; Keranen, Joe; Billings, Stephen; Fonda, Raul; Foley, Jack; Bassani, Chet

    2011-06-01

    Because the recovery of underwater munitions is many times more expensive than recovering the same items on dry land, there is a continuing need to advance marine geophysical characterization methods. To efficiently and reliably conduct surveying in marine environments, low-noise geophysical sensors are being configured to operate close to the sea bottom. We describe systems that are deployed from surface vessels via rigid or flexible tow cables or mounted directly to submersible platforms such as unmanned underwater vehicles. Development and testing of a towed configuration has led to a 4 meter wide hydrodynamically stable tow wing with an instrumented top-side assembly mounted on the stern of a surface survey vessel. An integrated positioning system combined with an instrumented cable management system, vessel and wing attitude and wing depth measurements to provide sub-meter positional accuracy in up to 25 meter water depths and within 1 to 2 meters of the seafloor. We present the results of data collected during an instrument validation survey over a series of targets emplaced at measured locations. Performance of the system was validated through analyses of data collected at varying speeds, headings, and height above the seafloor. Implementation of the system during live-site operations has demonstrated its capability to survey hundreds of acres of marine or lacustrine environment. Unique deployment concepts that utilize new miniaturized and very low noise sensors show promise for expanding the applicability of magnetic sensing at marine sites.

  5. Global characteristics of magnetic flux ropes in the Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is undertaken of global characteristics of Venus ionosphere magnetic flux ropes, whose maximum spatial occurrence at 165-km altitude occupies more than half of the ionospheric volume. Ropes above 200 km altitude in the low zenith angle regions appear to have quasi-horizontal orientations, while those below that altitude tend to be quasi-vertical. High zenith angle cases tend to be horizontal above 300 km, and randomly oriented below that altitude. Ropes may be more tightly 'twisted' at low than at high altitudes, especially in the low zenith angle regions. Rope field strengths are highest near the altitudes where their occurrence is greatest, and scale with the square root of the ambient thermal pressure. The global polarities of flux rope field-aligned currents seem to be random and do not support a steady, nonturbulent global formation mechanism.

  6. Magnetic flux relaxation in a pulse-magnetized Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartamyshev, A. A.; Krasnoperov, E. P.; Kuroedov, Yu. D.; Polushchenko, O. L.; Nizhelskiy, N. A.

    2009-09-01

    Trapped flux relaxation at the center of a single-domain Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor upon pulsed field magnetization has been studied at T = 78 K. In the case of a weakly magnetized sample, the induction increases according to a logarithmic law and the creep rate (defined as S = - dln B/dln t) is negative. As the amplitude H a of the magnetizing field grows, the creep rate decreases, changes sign, passes through a maximum, and tends to zero. The nonmonotonic behavior of S( H a ) is explained by a nonuniform radial distribution of the temperature during the magnetization pulse.

  7. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez-Ortiz, P.; Prez-Bentez, J. A.; Espina-Hernndez, J. H.; Caleyo, F.; Mehboob, N.; Grssinger, R.; Hallen, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements.

  8. Inertia Wheel on Low-Noise Active Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabelli, S.; Genta, G.; Silvagni, M.; Tonoli, A.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are particularly suited for space applications for a number of reasons: - they are ideally suited for vacuum applications; - the lack of lubrication and wear enhances the reliability and guaranties a long maintenance-free operation - the low drag torque decreases power consumption and reduces the torque exerted on the stator of the machine. - the possibility of insulating actively the spacecraft from the excitation due to unbalance of the rotating system In the case of reaction wheels, a well designed magnetic suspension allows high speed operation with a very low power consumption and vibration level. Conversely, microgravity (and possibly vacuum) operation is an advantage for magnetic bearings. The absence of static forces allows to operate with low current levels, thus reducing electrical noise and allowing to reach even lower vibration levels than in Earth applications of magnetic bearings. Active magnetic bearings (AMB) allow to adapt the working characteristics of the system to the operating needs: it is possible to use the actuators to lock the system during launch (absence of grabbers) and to stiffen the suspension when the spacecraft is accelerated (impulsive phases), while working in conditions optimised for microgravity when this is needed. Magnetic suspension systems designed for microgravity environment cannot be correctly tested on the ground. Testing in ground conditions results in the need of grossly overdesigning the levitation device; furthermore, in some cases ground testing is completely impossible, if not by introducing devices which compensate for the Earth gravitational field. If the compensation for the gravitational force is supplied by the same actuators used for microgravity operation, the actuators and the power amplifiers must be overdesigned and in some cases the suspension can be altogether impossible. They work in conditions which are much different from nominal ones and, above all, it is impossible to reach the precision in force measuring or vibration isolation which are required. Note that the stiffness of a magnetic suspension usually increases when it must compensate for a large static force and the increase of stiffness changes drastically the vibration isolation characteristics. It is also possible to support the rotor using a separate controlled electromagnet, but the latter will introduce disturbances which make impossible to evaluate the performances of the magnetic levitation system. Moreover, the sensitivity of the device to the operating conditions makes testing in conditions so different from the actual ones of very little significance. This is particularly true when accurate force measuring or vibration isolation is required or when low power consumption is one of the design specifications. Finally, if an external electromagnetic device is used for compensating for weight, its presence changes the stiffness of the system, to the point of altering drastically its stability characteristics. Parabolic flight is not a solution for this problem: the duration of low gravity conditions during parabolic flights is too short to perform significant experiments on magnetic suspension systems, particularly if the natural frequency of the suspension is very low as is typical of devices aimed at the isolation from low frequency vibrations. The environment in which parabolic flight testing is performed is also too rough for accurate testing. The availability of the space station changes deeply this situation: magnetic levitation systems built for space application can be tested in conditions which are very close to the operating ones. Although the space station environment is not vibrationally so clean as it would be necessary for some application, it is nevertheless far better than any simulated environment on the ground. The present paper deals with the design and construction of an engineering model of an inertia wheel on AMB. The aim of the project is to test the performance of the inertia wheel, particularly for what the disturbances caused by the rotor on the suppor

  9. Supergranular-scale magnetic flux emergence beneath an unstable filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Cid, C.; Guerrero, A.; Saiz, E.; Cerrato, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: Here we report evidence of a large solar filament eruption on 2013, September 29. This smooth eruption, which passed without any previous flare, formed after a two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection towards Earth. The coronal mass ejection generated a moderate geomagnetic storm on 2013, October 2 with very serious localized effects. The whole event passed unnoticed to flare-warning systems. Methods: We have conducted multi-wavelength analyses of the Solar Dynamics Observatory through Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. The AIA data on 304, 193, 211, and 94 Å sample the transition region and the corona, respectively, while HMI provides photospheric magnetograms, continuum, and linear polarization data, in addition to the fully inverted data provided by HMI. Results: This flux emergence happened very close to a filament barb that was very active in mass motion, as seen in 304 Å images. The observed flux emergence exhibited hectogauss values. The flux emergence extent appeared just beneath the filament, and the filament rose during the following hours. The emergence acquired a size of 33'' in ~12 h, about ~0.16 km s-1. The rate of signed magnetic flux is around 2 × 1017 Mx min-1 for each polarity. We have also studied the eruption speed, size, and dynamics. The mean velocity of the rising filament during the ~40 min previous to the flare is 115 ± 5 km s-1, and the subsequent acceleration in this period is 0.049 ± 0.001 km s-2. Conclusions: We have observed a supergranular-sized emergence close to a large filament in the boundary of the active region NOAA11850. Filament dynamics and magnetogram results suggest that the magnetic flux emergence takes place in the photospheric level below the filament. Reconnection occurs underneath the filament between the dipped lines that support the filament and the supergranular emergence. The very smooth ascent is probably caused by this emergence and torus instability may play a fundamental role, which is helped by the emergence. Movies associated to Figs. 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Three dimensional magnetic field structure of magnetic reconnection using plasma flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Thiago; Intrator, Tom; Oberto, Rachel; Sun, Xuan

    2009-11-01

    In nature, magnetic reconnection releases energy stored in stressed magnetic fields, and thus accelerates particles. This type of magnetic relaxation topologically rearranges magnetic field structure. In nature these processes are intrinsically 3D, whereas most models, theories and experiments are 2D, staying within the classic Sweet-Parker picture. The Reconnection Scaling eXperiment (RSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes magnetic fields and current systems in the plasma that support these natural 3D fields. 2D studies have shed much light on the physics, but 3D aspects are largely unconsidered and unknown. Explanation of this behavior demands the need of a 3D picture or map. We present the B-dot probe design needed to map out the B-field structure in the plasma, and the results of the 3D merging of plasma flux ropes. RSX has already yielded data showing the onset, flux pileup, and stagnation of magnetic reconnection between two interacting plasma flux ropes. B-dot probe, and 3D positioner design and construction will be discussed in depth. This work was supported by the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed R&D program, and the Physics Frontier Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical? Plasmas, jointly funded by NSF and DOE.

  11. Magnetic flux rope versus the spheromak as models for interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Osherovich, V. A.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic clouds form a subset of interplanetary ejecta with well-defined magnetic and thermodynamic properties. Observationally, it is well established that magnetic clouds expand as they propagate antisunward. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast two models which have been proposed for the global magnetic field line topology of magnetic clouds: a magnetic flux tube geometry, on the one hand, and a spheromak geometry (including possible higher multiples), on the other. Traditionally, the magnetic structure of magnetic clouds has been modeled by force-free configurations. In a first step, we therefore analyze the ability of static force-free models to account for the asymmetries observed in the magnetic field profiles of magnetic clouds. For a cylindrical flux tube the magnetic field remains symmetric about closest approach to the magnetic axis on all spacecraft orbits intersecting it, whereas in a spheromak geometry one can have asymmetries in the magnetic field signatures along some spacecraft trajectories. The duration of typical magnetic cloud encounters at 1 AU (1 to 2 days) is comparable to their travel time from the Sun to 1 AU and thus magnetic clouds should be treated as strongly nonstationary objects. In a second step, therefore, we abandon the static approach and model magnetic clouds as self-similarly evolving MHD configurations. In our theory, the interaction of the expanding magnetic cloud with the ambient plasma is taken into account by a drag force proportional to the density and the velocity of expansion. Solving rigorously the full set of MHD equations, we demonstrate that the asymmetry in the magnetic signature may arise solely as a result of expansion. Using asymptotic solutions of the MHD equations, we least squares fit both theoretical models to interplanetary data. We find that while the central part of the magnetic cloud is adequately described by both models, the 'edges' of the cloud data are modeled better by the magnetic flux tube. Further comparisons of the two models necessarily involve thermodynamic properties, since real magnetic configurations are never exactly force-free and gas pressure plays an essential role. We consider a polytropic gas. Our theoretical analysis shows that the self-similar expansion of a magnetic flux tube requires the polytropic index gamma to be less than unity. For the spheromak, however, self-similar, radially expanding solutions are known only for gamma equal to 4/3. This difference, therefore, yields a good way of distinguishing between the two geometries. It has been shown recently that the polytropic relationship is applicable to magnetic clouds and that the corresponding polytropic index is approximately 0.5. This observational result is consistent with the self-similar model of the magnetic flux rope but is in conflict with the self-similar spheromak model.

  12. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

    2006-08-15

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  13. Solar magnetic fields: the generation of emerging flux

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G.S.; Weiss, N.O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray observations have provided information about magnetic fields on the Sun, and we discuss the implications of these observations. The pattern of small-scale flux emergence is quite different from that of active regions. We infer that the small-scale originate fairly high in the convective zone, while the fields in active regions have a deeper origin. The small-scale turbulent fields are only loosely related to the fields that define the normal solar cycle. We indicate how dynamo models must be modified in the light of these results.

  14. Decoupling suspension controller based on magnetic flux feedback.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced. PMID:23844415

  15. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced. PMID:23844415

  16. Spins on Metals: Noise in SQUIDs and Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare

    2010-03-01

    Recent experiments at Stanford and Wisconsin have found evidence for magnetic defects on the surface of elemental metals like aluminum, niobium, and gold. Fluctuations of these impurities are the source of flux noise in SQUIDs. Flux noise is a major obstacle to the realization of using superconducting qubits to construct quantum computers. To see if flux noise can be described by spin glass noise, we have used Monte Carlo simulations of a 3D Ising spin glass to produce noise. We find that the noise is a maximum at the critical temperature. We compare our results to experimental measurements of the susceptibility, as well as the flux and inductance noise measured in SQUIDs.

  17. Spatial resolution of SQUID magnetometers and comparison with low noise room temperature magnetic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolabdjian, C.; Qasimi, A.; Bloyet, D.; Mosser, V.

    2002-03-01

    Any magnetic sensor placed in a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field delivers a signal proportional the mean field value taken over an effective area or volume which depends on the type of sensor considered. In the case of the field produced by a magnetic dipole and detected by a square or circular planar sensor, the overall measured spatial resolution ideally depends on the ratio of the mean dipole-sensor distance z0 to the square root of the effective sensor area AE. For Z 0/ A E?1 , the spatial resolution is limited by the size of the sensor, whereas for z 0/ A E?1 the dipole-sensor distance is the predominant factor. To compare various low noise magnetic sensors operating either at low temperature or at room temperature, we have measured their sensitivities and spatial responses to the field produced by a magnetic moment having the form of a tiny circular current loop. The sensors could be moved in all directions with respect to the current loop. The transfer of each sensor to the magnetic dipole field was compared to their response in a homogeneous field so as to deduce their effective area and compare this area to that deduced from independent spatial resolution measurements. We report the experimental results given by four types of sensors namely a dc-SQUID, a Hall effect sensor, a giant magneto-resistive sensor and a flux-gate sensor and discuss them by mean of a figure of merit criterion combining their spatial resolution and their sensitivity.

  18. Numerical Modeling of a Magnetic Flux Compression Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Awe, Thomas J.; Fuelling, Stephan; Goodrich, Tasha; Lindemuth, Irvin R.; Siemon, Richard E.; Garanin, Sergei F.

    2007-06-01

    A possible plasma target for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a stable diffuse z-pinch in a toroidal cavity, like that in MAGO experiments. To examine key phenomena of such MTF systems, a magnetic flux compression experiment with this geometry is under design. The experiment is modeled with 3 codes: a slug model, the 1D Lagrangian RAVEN code, and the 1D or 2D Eulerian Magneto-Hydro-Radiative-Dynamics-Research (MHRDR) MHD simulation. Even without injection of plasma, high- Z wall plasma is generated by eddy-current Ohmic heating from MG fields. A significant fraction of the available liner kinetic energy goes into Ohmic heating and compression of liner and central-core material. Despite these losses, efficiency of liner compression, expressed as compressed magnetic energy relative to liner kinetic energy, can be close to 50%. With initial fluctuations (1%) imposed on the liner and central conductor density, 2D modeling manifests liner intrusions, caused by the m = 0 Rayleigh-Taylor instability during liner deceleration, and central conductor distortions, caused by the m = 0 curvature-driven MHD instability. At many locations, these modes reduce the gap between the liner and the central core by about a factor of two, to of order 1 mm, at the time of peak magnetic field.

  19. C IV fluxes from the Sun as a star, and the correlation with magnetic flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Linsky, J. L.; Bennett, J.; Brown, A.; Saar, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 144 C IV wavelength 1548 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)-UVSP spectroheliograms of solar plages were analyzed, some of which are series of exposures of the same region on the same day. Also analyzed were the C IV wavelength 1551 rasters of plages and C IV wavelength 1548 rasters of the quiet sun. The sample contained data on 17 different plages, observed on 50 different days. The center-to-limb variations of the active regions show that the optical thickness effects in the C IV wavelength 1548 line can be neglected in the conversion from intensity to flux density. As expected for the nearly optically thin situation, the C IV wavelength 1548 line is twice as bright as the C IV 1551 line. The average C IV wavelength 1548 flux density for a quiet region is 2700 ergs/cm/s and, with surprisingly little scatter, 18,000 erg/cm/s for plages. The intensity histograms of rasters obtained at disk center can be separated into characteristic plage and quiet sun contributions with variable relative filling factors. The relationship between the C IV and magnetic flux densities for spatially resolved data is inferred to be almost the same, with only an additional factor of order unity in the constant of proportionality.

  20. Counterstreaming electrons in small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H. Q.; Zhao, G. Q.; Wang, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (SIMFRs) are commonly observed by spacecraft at 1 AU, and their origin still remains disputed. We investigated the counterstreaming suprathermal electron (CSE) signatures of 106 SIMFRs measured by Wind during 1995-2005. We found that 79 (75%) of the 106 flux ropes contain CSEs, and the percentages of counterstreaming vary from 8% to 98%, with a mean value of 51%. CSEs are often observed in magnetic clouds (MCs), and this indicates these MCs are still attached to the Sun at both ends. CSEs are also related to heliospheric current sheets (HCSs) and the Earth's bow shock. We divided the SIMFRs into two categories: The first category is far from HCSs, and the second category is in the vicinity of HCSs. The first category has 57 SIMFRs, and only 7 of 57 ropes have no CSEs. This ratio is similar to that of MCs. The second category has 49 SIMFRs; however, 20 of the 49 events have no CSEs. This ratio is larger than that of MCs. These two categories have different origins. One category originates from the solar corona, and most ropes are still connected to the Sun at both ends. The other category is formed near HCSs in the interplanetary space.

  1. INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX DEPLETION DURING PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Connick, David E.; Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu

    2011-01-20

    We examine near-Earth solar wind observations as assembled within the Omni data set over the past 15 years that constitute the latest solar cycle. We show that the interplanetary magnetic field continues to be depleted at low latitudes throughout the protracted solar minimum reaching levels below previously predicted minima. We obtain a rate of flux removal resulting in magnetic field reduction by 0.5 nT yr{sup -1} at 1 AU when averaged over the years 2005-2009 that reduces to 0.3 nT yr{sup -1} for 2007-2009. We show that the flux removal operates on field lines that follow the nominal Parker spiral orientation predicted for open field lines and are largely unassociated with recent ejecta. We argue that the field line reduction can only be accomplished by ongoing reconnection of nominally open field lines or very old closed field lines and we contend that these two interpretations are observationally equivalent and indistinguishable.

  2. Magnetically coupled quantum-flux-latch with wide operation margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Naoki; Takeuchi, Naoki; Narama, Tatsuya; Ortlepp, Thomas; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-11-01

    We have been developing adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) circuits as an ultra-low-power superconductor logic for energy-efficient computing. In a previous study, we proposed and demonstrated a quantum-flux-latch (QFL), which is a compact and compatible latch for AQFP logic. The QFL is composed of an AQFP buffer gate and a storage loop, which are directly connected to each other. However, the operation margins were not sufficiently wide due to a trade-off between the operation margins of the storage loop and that of the buffer gate. In this present study, we propose a magnetically coupled QFL (MC-QFL), where the storage loop and the buffer gate are physically separated and magnetically coupled to each other to eliminate the trade-off in the operation margins. The simulation results showed that the critical parameter margin of the MC-QFL is twice as large as that of the previously designed QFL. For comparison, we fabricated and demonstrated both the previously designed QFL and the newly designed MC-QFL. The measurement results showed that the MC-QFL has wider operation margins compared with the previously designed QFL.

  3. Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Engels, Svenja; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Lefeldt, Nele; Hein, Christine Maira; Zapka, Manuela; Michalik, Andreas; Elbers, Dana; Kittel, Achim; Hore, P J; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic noise is emitted everywhere humans use electronic devices. For decades, it has been hotly debated whether man-made electric and magnetic fields affect biological processes, including human health. So far, no putative effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at intensities below the guidelines adopted by the World Health Organization has withstood the test of independent replication under truly blinded experimental conditions. No effect has therefore been widely accepted as scientifically proven. Here we show that migratory birds are unable to use their magnetic compass in the presence of urban electromagnetic noise. When European robins, Erithacus rubecula, were exposed to the background electromagnetic noise present in unscreened wooden huts at the University of Oldenburg campus, they could not orient using their magnetic compass. Their magnetic orientation capabilities reappeared in electrically grounded, aluminium-screened huts, which attenuated electromagnetic noise in the frequency range from 50?kHz to 5?MHz by approximately two orders of magnitude. When the grounding was removed or when broadband electromagnetic noise was deliberately generated inside the screened and grounded huts, the birds again lost their magnetic orientation capabilities. The disruptive effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is not confined to a narrow frequency band and birds tested far from sources of electromagnetic noise required no screening to orient with their magnetic compass. These fully double-blinded tests document a reproducible effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise on the behaviour of an intact vertebrate. PMID:24805233

  4. Simplified Calculation Method for Magnetic Flux Density Distribution between Dual Halbach Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Mimpei; Yokoyama, Shuichi; Okuyama, Ryota

    Many software tools for magnetic field analysis give us distribution of magnetic flux density between Halbach arrays of permanent magnets. However, we need easier calculation tools in an early stage of development. This paper proposes an equivalent magnetic circuit method with high accuracy for field magnets provided with dual Halbach arrays.

  5. DIFFUSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD AND REMOVAL OF MAGNETIC FLUX FROM CLOUDS VIA TURBULENT RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.; Cho, J.

    2010-05-01

    The diffusion of astrophysical magnetic fields in conducting fluids in the presence of turbulence depends on whether magnetic fields can change their topology via reconnection in highly conducting media. Recent progress in understanding fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence reassures that the magnetic field behavior in computer simulations and turbulent astrophysical environments is similar, as far as magnetic reconnection is concerned. This makes it meaningful to perform MHD simulations of turbulent flows in order to understand the diffusion of magnetic field in astrophysical environments. Our studies of magnetic field diffusion in turbulent medium reveal interesting new phenomena. First of all, our three-dimensional MHD simulations initiated with anti-correlating magnetic field and gaseous density exhibit at later times a de-correlation of the magnetic field and density, which corresponds well to the observations of the interstellar media. While earlier studies stressed the role of either ambipolar diffusion or time-dependent turbulent fluctuations for de-correlating magnetic field and density, we get the effect of permanent de-correlation with one fluid code, i.e., without invoking ambipolar diffusion. In addition, in the presence of gravity and turbulence, our three-dimensional simulations show the decrease of the magnetic flux-to-mass ratio as the gaseous density at the center of the gravitational potential increases. We observe this effect both in the situations when we start with equilibrium distributions of gas and magnetic field and when we follow the evolution of collapsing dynamically unstable configurations. Thus, the process of turbulent magnetic field removal should be applicable both to quasi-static subcritical molecular clouds and cores and violently collapsing supercritical entities. The increase of the gravitational potential as well as the magnetization of the gas increases the segregation of the mass and magnetic flux in the saturated final state of the simulations, supporting the notion that the reconnection-enabled diffusivity relaxes the magnetic field + gas system in the gravitational field to its minimal energy state. This effect is expected to play an important role in star formation, from its initial stages of concentrating interstellar gas to the final stages of the accretion to the forming protostar. In addition, we benchmark our codes by studying the heat transfer in magnetized compressible fluids and confirm the high rates of turbulent advection of heat obtained in an earlier study.

  6. Estimating Total Heliospheric Magnetic Flux from Single-Point in Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Crooker, N. U.; Schwardron, N. A.; Horbury, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    A fraction of the total photospheric magnetic flux opens to the heliosphere to form the interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind. While this open flux is critical to our understanding of the generation and evolution of the solar magnetic field, direct measurements are generally limited to single-point measurements taken in situ by heliospheric spacecraft. An observed latitude invariance in the radial component of the magnetic field suggests that extrapolation from such single-point measurements to total heliospheric magnetic flux is possible. In this study we test this assumption using estimates of total heliospheric flux from well-separated heliospheric spacecraft and conclude that single-point measurements are indeed adequate proxies for the total heliospheric magnetic flux, though care must be taken when comparing flux estimates from data collected at different heliocentric distances.

  7. An investigation into the torque density capabilities of flux-focusing magnetic gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppalapati, Krishna Kiran

    Wind and many rotary based ocean energy conversion devices rely on a mechanical gearbox to increase their speed so as to match the requirements of the electromagnetic generator. However, mechanical gearboxes have a number of disadvantages such as the need for gear lubrication, no overload protection and the creation of acoustic noise. Frequently direct-drive generators are employed to overcome these issues, wherein the gearbox is removed and the shaft of the turbine is directly connected to the synchronous generator, either with an electrically excited or permanent magnet rotor. If the input speed to the generator is very low the torque must be very high in order to generate the necessary power. However, as the electrical loading of a synchronous generator is thermally limited, the size of the generator will become excessively large at high power levels. An alternative to these technologies is to consider replacing the mechanical gearbox with a magnetic gear. A magnetic gear can create speed change without any physical contact. It has inherent overload protection, and its non-contact operation offers the potential for high reliability. Despite significant progress, existing magnetic gear designs do not achieve torque densities that are competitive with mechanical gearboxes. This research has focused on designing a coaxial magnetic gear that can operate at a volumetric torque density that is comparable to a mechanical gearbox. A flux-focusing rotor topology also called spoke-type rotor magnet arrangement was adopted to improve the air-gap magnetic flux density which in turn improves the torque transferred between the rotors. Finite element analysis was utilized to conduct a parameter sweep analysis of the different geometric parameters of the magnetic gear. A sub-scale magnetic gear with a diameter of 110 mm and a scaled-up magnetic gear with a diameter of 228 mm was designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated. The torque and torque density of sub-scale design was measured to be 115 Nm and 151.2 Nm/L respectively and that of the scaled-up model was measured to be 731 Nm and 239 Nm/L respectively. An iterative magnetomechanical analysis technique was developed to study the deflection of the magnetic gear steel rotor bars due to the magnetic forces coming from the inner and outer rotor permanent magnets. The accuracy of the technique was validated by using an experimental test-stand. It was shown that the deflection is an important issue to consider especially if the air-gaps are small. A 2-D analytical based model was derived for the flux-focusing coaxial magnetic gear by using the separation of variables method to solve the Laplace and Poisson equation in each region. After applying the applicable Dirchlet and Neumann boundary conditions a set of 16 equations with 16 unknown Fourier coefficients was obtained. The 16 unknowns were solved numerically by putting the equations in a matrix form. It was shown that the analytical based model immensely reduced the torque and field computational time when compared to using finite element analysis. However, the analytical model does not take into consideration the non-linear properties of the steel. The benefits of using the analytical model was demonstrated by conducting a radial scaling and gear-ratio analysis.

  8. Results of railgun experiments powered by magnetic flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Deadrick, F.J.; Scudder, J.K.; Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Peterson, D.R.

    1980-10-24

    Researchers from LLNL and LANSL initiated a joint railgun research and development program to explore the potential of electromagnetic railguns to accelerate projectiles to hypervelocities. The effort was intended to determine experimentally the limits of railgun operation, to verify calculations of railgun performance, and to establish a data base at megampere currents. The program has led to the selection of a particular magnetic flux compression generator (MFCG) design for a set of initial experiments and to the design of small- and large-square bore railguns to match the expected MFCG power profile. The bore sizes are 12.7 and 50 mm, respectively. The design of the railguns and the diagnostic and data reduction techniques, followed by the results of eight experiments with the two railgun types are presented.

  9. Results of railgun experiments powered by magnetic flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Deadrick, J.; Scudder, J.K.; Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Peterson, D.R.

    1981-03-16

    Researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated a joint railgun research and development program to explore the potential of electromagnetic railguns to accelerate projectiles to hypervelocities. The effort was intended to (1) determine experimentally the limits of railgun operation; (2) verify calculations of railgun performance; and (3) establish a data base at megampere currents. The program has led to the selection of a particular magnetic flux compression generator (MFCG) design for a set of initial experiments and the design of small- and large-square-bore railguns to match the expected MFCG power profile. The bore sizes are 12.7 and 50 mm, respectively. In this paper, the design of the railguns and the diagnostic and data reduction techniques, followed by the results of eight experiments with the two railgun types, are presented.

  10. Validation Tests of Data Driven Magnetic Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Mark; Lukin, Vyacheslav; Leake, James Edward; Schuck, Peter W.

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of magnetic flux through the solar photosphere into the corona is a key problem to understanding the energization of the solar corona. With the advent of high spatial and temporal resolution solar vector magnetic field measurements, it may now be possible to simulate the dynamical evolution of the corona by using these measurements as the driving boundary condition for magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the corona. First, however, methods for using this data to drive simulations must be validated via quantitative tests. We report here on a series of such tests wherein the driving inputs are taken from self-consistent simulations of the emergence of flux ropes from the upper convection zone through the photosphere and chromosphere into the low corona. Photospheric MHD output from these simulations is then used to drive new simulations, and the driven results are compared against the original results for a variety of driving assumptions and algorithms. We will focus here on the relative advantages and disadvantages of data driving a higher order finite-element-based MHD code (HiFi) versus data driving a lower order Lagrangian remap-based MHD code (LARE3D). For each code, we will report on the necessary input conditions (spatial and temporal resolution, specification of MHD variables, and specification of vertical gradients) needed to reproduce a high level of agreement between the original and the driven simulations. Finally, we will report on the level of agreement achieved when using driving input equivalent to that of current solar observations. Based on these tests, we will address the prospects for using high time and spatial resolution vector magnetogram observations to drive MHD simulations of the solar chromosphere and corona.This work was supported by the ONR 6.1 and the NASA LWS programs.

  11. Evidence for globally coherent variability in solar magnetic flux emergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    We examine the large-scale spatial and temporal variations in the emergence of X-ray bright points on the sun, in order to study the global properties of magnetic flux emergence. Major variations in the rate of flux emergence are observed at all solar latitudes, on a time scale of 3-5 months. The most economical explanation of the observations is that the full sun participated in a single large eruptive event during the available 8 month observing period from Skylab in 1973. The peak of this global event corresponds in time to the eruption of a major complex of activity. Moreover, it appears that the only portion of the solar surface which deviates from the above pattern of behavior is the low latitude region in the vicinity of the AR complex; this area shows a temporary depletion immediately following the AR outburst. The high-latitude regions in both hemispheres show the same variation and appear to lead the low-latitude emergence by approximately 1 month.

  12. Evidence for globally coherent variability in solar magnetic flux emergence

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, L.; Vaiana, G.S.

    1980-01-15

    We examine the large-scale spatial and temporal variations in the emergence of X-ray bright points on the Sun, in order to study the global properties of magnetic flux emergence. Major variations in the rate of flux emergence are observed at all solar latitudes, on a time scale of 3--5 months. The most economical explanation of the observations is that the full Sun participated in a single large eruptive event during the available 8 month observing period from Skylab in 1973. The peak of this global event corresponds in time to the eruption of a major complex of activity. Moreover, it appears that the only portion of the solar surface which deviates from the above pattern of behavior is the low latitude region in the vicinity of the AR complex; this area shows a temporary depletion immediately following the AR outburst. The high-latitude regions in both hemispheres show the same variation and appear to lead the low-latitude emergence by approximately 1 month.

  13. Composite multi-qubit gates dynamically corrected against charge noise and magnetic field noise for singlet-triplet qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestner, Jason; Barnes, Edwin; Wang, Xin; Bishop, Lev; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2013-03-01

    We use previously described single-qubit SUPCODE pulses on both intra-qubit and inter-qubit exchange couplings, integrated with existing strategies such as BB1, to theoretically construct a CNOT gate that is robust against both charge noise and magnetic field gradient fluctuations. We show how this allows scalable, high-fidelity implementation of arbitrary multi-qubit operations using singlet-triplet spin qubits in the presence of experimentally realistic noise. This work is supported by LPS-NSA-CMTC, IARPA-MQCO and CNAM.

  14. Estimates of magnetic flux, and energy balance in the plasma sheet during substorm expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Pulkkinen, Tuija

    1996-01-01

    The energy and magnetic flux budgets of the magnetotail plasma sheet during substorm expansion are investigated. The possible mechanisms that change the energy content of the closed field line region which contains all the major dissipation mechanisms of relevance during substorms, are considered. The compression of the plasma sheet mechanism and the diffusion mechanism are considered and excluded. It is concluded that the magnetic reconnection mechanism can accomplish the required transport. Data-based empirical magnetic field models are used to investigate the magnetic flux transport required to account for the observed magnetic field dipolarizations in the inner magnetosphere. It is found that the magnetic flux permeating the current sheet is typically insufficient to supply the required magnetic flux. It is concluded that no major substorm-type magnetospheric reconfiguration is possible in the absence of magnetic reconnection.

  15. Flux-coherent series SQUID array magnetometers operating above 77 K with superior white flux noise than single-SQUIDs at 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesca, Boris; John, Daniel; Mellor, Christopher J.

    2015-10-01

    A very promising direction to improve the sensitivity of magnetometers based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is to build a series-array of N non-interacting SQUIDs operating flux-coherently, because in this case their voltage modulation depth, ΔV, linearly scales with N whereas the white flux noise SΦ1/2 decreases as 1/N1/2. Here, we report the realization of both these improvements in an advanced layout of very large SQUID arrays made of YBa2Cu3O7. Specially designed with large area narrow flux focusers for increased field sensitivity and improved flux-coherency, our arrays have extremely low values for SΦ1/2 between (0.25 and 0.44) μΦ0/Hz1/2 for temperatures in the range (77-83) K. In this respect, they outperform niobium/aluminium trilayer technology-based single-SQUIDs operating at 4.2 K. Moreover, with values for ΔV and transimpedance in the range of (10-17) mV and (0.3-2.5) kΩ, respectively, a direct connection to a low-noise room temperature amplifier is allowed, while matching for such readout is simplified and the available bandwidth is greatly increased. These landmark performances suggest such series SQUID arrays are ideal candidates to replace single-SQUIDs operating at 4.2 K in many applications.

  16. Magnetic susceptibilities of diluted magnetic semiconductors and anomalous Hall-voltage noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, C.; von Oppen, F.; Hfling, F.

    2004-03-01

    The carrier-spin and impurity-spin densities in diluted magnetic semiconductors are considered using a semiclassical approach. Equations of motions for the spin densities and the carrier-spin current density in the paramagnetic phase are derived, exhibiting their coupled diffusive dynamics. The dynamical spin susceptibilities are obtained from these equations. The theory holds for p-type and n-type semiconductors doped with magnetic ions of arbitrary spin quantum number. Spin-orbit coupling in the valence band is shown to lead to anisotropic spin diffusion and to a suppression of the Curie temperature in p-type materials. As an application we derive the Hall-voltage noise in the paramagnetic phase. This quantity is critically enhanced close to the Curie temperature due to the contribution from the anomalous Hall effect.

  17. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov-Dmoulin magnetic flux rope model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Dmoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the hyperbolic flux tube and bald patch separatrix surface, are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.

  18. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov-Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.

  19. Slow twists of solar magnetic flux tubes and the polar magnetic field of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Lee, Martin A.

    1989-01-01

    The solar wind model of Weber and Davis (1967) is generalized to compute the heliospheric magnetic field resulting from solar rotation or a steady axisymmetric twist including a geometrical expansion which is more rapid than spherical. The calculated increase in the ratio of the toroidal to poloidal field components with heliocentric radial distance r clarifies an expression derived recently by Jokipii and Kota (1989). Magnetic-field components transverse to r do not in general grow to dominate the radial component at large r. The analysis also yields expressions for the Poynting flux associated with the steady twists.

  20. Slow twists of solar magnetic flux tubes and the polar magnetic field of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Lee, Martin A.

    1989-08-01

    The solar wind model of Weber and Davis (1967) is generalized to compute the heliospheric magnetic field resulting from solar rotation or a steady axisymmetric twist including a geometrical expansion which is more rapid than spherical. The calculated increase in the ratio of the toroidal to poloidal field components with heliocentric radial distance r clarifies an expression derived recently by Jokipii and Kota (1989). Magnetic-field components transverse to r do not in general grow to dominate the radial component at large r. The analysis also yields expressions for the Poynting flux associated with the steady twists.

  1. Simulations of Emerging Magnetic Flux. II. The Formation of Unstable Coronal Flux Ropes and the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (approximately 36 Mm above the surface).We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as "magnetic breakout," are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  2. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. II. The formation of unstable coronal flux ropes and the initiation of coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-05-20

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (?36 Mm above the surface). We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as 'magnetic breakout', are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  3. Magnetic Environment and Magnetic Field Standards at NPL for the Calibration of Low Noise Magnetometers and Gradiometers for Cleanliness Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. J.; Harmon, S. A. C.; Turner, S.

    2012-05-01

    The magnetic field standards, facilities and capabilities available at NPL for the calibration of magnetometers and gradiometers and the measurement of the magnetic moment and relative magnetic permeability of materials will be presented. This work is performed in the NPL low magnetic field facility. The details of this facility will be explained, how the noise floor is being reduced and how the facility enables magnetic cleanliness measurement will be presented. This will include the discussion of a gradient field coil for the calibration of gradiometers. Methods to check that the materials used in space projects are not unduly magnetic will be discussed.

  4. Fine resolution soil water fluxes measured with a small Smart Field Lysimeter: The noise removal and further interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezal, Frantisek; Bekere Mekonnen, Getu; Matula, Svatopluk; Mihalikova, Marketa; Fisak, Jaroslav; Teressa Chala, Ayele; Hrkalova, Marketa; Moreira Barradas, Joao Manuel

    2014-05-01

    A weighable Smart Field Lysimeter (30 cm diameter, 30 cm depth) with an adaptively regulated suction at its bottom was used to measure soil water fluxes at the surface and at the 30 cm depth of a short grass stand. No overland flow or accumulation of water at the surface were observed and there was no groundwater table within the soil profile. Appropriate distinction between the fluxes of different directions made it possible to separately estimate actual evapotranspiration (upward surface flux), precipitation and condensation (downward surface flux and dew on grass leaves), percolation (downward flux at 30 cm) and capillary rise (upward flux at 30 cm). The primary data were collected at 1 minute intervals but required digital filtering to remove the information noise. Various methods of filtering were tested, with a special regard to intensive rain events. The resulting data have a 10-minute resolution. The lysimeter is capable of self-recovery after a period of drought but the noise of percolation and capillary rise estimates is enhanced for some time during, before and after this period. In these situations, it is important that a porous matrix sensor measures the suction in parallel to the reference tensiometer. Both the precipitation and the actual evapotranspiration derived from the lysimeter data alone are in absolute values higher than the analogous quantities obtained with the help of the directly measured tipping bucket precipitation. These discrepancies are probably due to the rain gauge underestimating true precipitation, but partly also due to numerical noise, however smoothed. If the rain gauge data are used only to distinguish the periods of rain from the rainless periods, than the condensation of water in the soil and on the grass leaves can be estimated. The actual evapotranspiration measured by the lysimeter has a diurnal patterns depending on actual weather. The maximum occurs, on average, shortly after the noon. The percolation curves after rain events make it possible to estimate the soil hydraulic properties on the principle of the outflow method.

  5. Enhancement of magnetic flux distribution in a DC superconducting electric motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, N. A.; Ewe, L. S.; Chin, K. M.

    2013-06-01

    Most motor designs require an air gap between the rotor and stator to enable the armature to rotate freely. The interaction of magnetic flux from rotor and stator within the air gap will provide the thrust for rotational motion. Thus, the understanding of magnetic flux in the vicinity of the air gap is very important to mathematically calculate the magnetic flux generated in the area. In this work, a finite element analysis was employed to study the behavior of the magnetic flux in view of designing a synchronous DC superconducting electric motor. The analysis provides an ideal magnetic flux distribution within the components of the motor. From the flux plot analysis, it indicates that flux losses are mainly in the forms of leakage and fringe effect. The analysis also shows that the flux density is high at the area around the air gap and the rotor. The high flux density will provide a high force area that enables the rotor to rotate. In contrast, the other parts of the motor body do not show high flux density indicating low distribution of flux. Consequently, a bench top model of a DC superconducting motor was developed where by motor with a 2-pole type winding was chosen. Each field coil was designed with a racetrack-shaped double pancake wound using DI-BSCCO Bi-2223 superconducting tapes. The performance and energy efficiency of the superconducting motor was superior when compared to the conventional motor with similar capacity.

  6. Empirical relationships between interplanetary conditions, magnetospheric flux transfer, and the AL index. [auroral zone magnetic index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Holzer, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Holzer and Slavin (1978) have found that the transfer of magnetic flux to and from the dayside magnetosphere as inferred from observed displacements of the magnetopause surface is correlated with both the magnitude of the auroral zone magnetic index AL and the incident flux of southward IMF. Empirical expressions specifying the rate at which magnetic flux is eroded in terms of interplanetary parameters and the rate of magnetic flux return as a function of AL have been developed. These relations are then used to predict magnetotail magnetic field enhancements from interplanetary and ground based data during an interval of substorm activity. The total magnetic flux in the tail is increased during intervals when the amount of flux transferred into its volume by dayside erosion exceeds the flux lost to the dayside by magnetospheric convection. Using Ogo-5 tail observations it is found for the sample events considered that these magnetic field enhancements can be described by empirical expressions for the magnetic flux transfer rates.

  7. Magnetohydrostatic Equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional Multiple Open Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Stratified Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gent, F. A.; Fedun, V.; Erdlyi, R.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  8. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional multiple open magnetic flux tubes in the stratified solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R.; Fedun, V.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  9. Perturbation analysis of rail guns powered by explosive magnetic flux compression

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Perturbation methods are used to predict the performance of rail guns powered by explosive magnetic flux compression, and the results are compared with experimental data. The problem of designing explosive magnetic flux compression generators for optimum rail gun performance is also discussed.

  10. Magnetic, basal, and radiative-equilibrium components in Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijver, C.J.; Dobson, A.K.; Radick, R.R.

    1989-06-15

    Mount Wilson Ca II H + K flux measurements of cool dwarf stars are analyzed comparing the fluxes with stellar Mg U H + K fluxes, variability amplitudes, rotation rates, and solar data. The authors conclude that the Mount Wilson Ca U H + K fluxes comprise three principal parts: (1) a photospheric contribution in the line wings, (2) a basal chromospheric component that appears to be unrelated to stellar magnetic activity and is therefore possibly nonmagnetic in origin, and (3) a chromospheric component that they associate with magnetically active regions and the (quiet and active) network. The basal chromosphere appears to cover the entire surface of magnetically inactive stars. The basal Ca II H + K flux density for solar-type stars equals the average emission observed in the center of solar supergranulation cells, where the magnetic flux density is small.

  11. Reduced low frequency noise in electron beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Z.; Feng, J. F.; Kurt, H.; Feng, G.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2010-05-17

    We compare low frequency noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with MgO barriers prepared by electron-beam evaporation with those prepared by radiofrequency sputtering, both showing a high tunneling magnetoresistance. The normalized noise parameter in the parallel state of junctions with evaporated barriers is at least one order of magnitude lower than that in junctions with sputtered barriers, and exhibits a weaker bias dependence. The lowest normalized noise is in the 10{sup -11} mum{sup 2} range. A lower density of oxygen vacancies acting as charge trap states in the evaporated MgO is responsible for the lower noise.

  12. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Liang; Xiang, Li; Guo, Huiqiang; Wei, Jian; Li, D. L.; Yuan, Z. H.; Feng, J. F. Han, X. F.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the low frequency (LF) noise measurements in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) below 4 K and at low bias, where the transport is strongly affected by scattering with magnons emitted by hot tunnelling electrons, as thermal activation of magnons from the environment is suppressed. For both CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB and CoFeB/AlO{sub x}/CoFeB MTJs, enhanced LF noise is observed at bias voltage around magnon emission energy, forming a peak in the bias dependence of noise power spectra density, independent of magnetic configurations. The noise peak is much higher and broader for unannealed AlO{sub x}-based MTJ, and besides Lorentzian shape noise spectra in the frequency domain, random telegraph noise (RTN) is visible in the time traces. During repeated measurements the noise peak reduces and the RTN becomes difficult to resolve, suggesting defects being annealed. The Lorentzian shape noise spectra can be fitted with bias-dependent activation of RTN, with the attempt frequency in the MHz range, consistent with magnon dynamics. These findings suggest magnon-assisted activation of defects as the origin of the enhanced LF noise.

  13. Prediction method of flux loss in anisotropic NdFeB/SmFeN hybrid magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Murata, Hiroki; Yanai, Takeshi; Nakano, Masaki; Yamashita, Fumitoshi

    2010-05-01

    We systematically evaluated the initial flux loss of anisotropic HDDR-NdFeB/RD-SmFeN hybrid bonded magnets. The measured flux loss values were compared with those obtained by two prediction methods based on our previous proposal. Consequently, it was clarified that the initial flux loss of anisotropic bonded magnets can be predicted from demagnetization curves at room and exposure temperatures of the corresponding hybrid magnets, which suggests that the method proposed previously for isotropic magnets can be also applicable to anisotropic ones.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Stability of a Single and Multiple Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furno, I.; Intrator, T.; Hemsing, E.

    2003-12-01

    Both the stability of a single magnetic flux rope and the interaction between multiple magnetic flux ropes are fundamental issues in the dynamics of the solar corona. Examples are in coronal mass ejections, in which highly twisted flux ropes are believed to play a crucial role, and in solar flares and large-scale eruptions in which transport of twist through magnetic reconnection is observed between distinct coronal flux systems. To study the interaction of magnetic flux ropes in a controlled laboratory environment, we use the Reconnection Scaling eXperiment (RSX) device at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which was originally designed to study three-dimensional magnetic reconnection during the coalescence of parallel current channels. Commercial plasma guns are used to inject magnetic helicity into hydrogen plasma column (r = 2 cm radius, L = 0.2-3 m length). Multiple flux ropes carrying currents up to 1 kA are created along the axial direction of a 4 m linear vacuum vessel. A set of 12 identical external coils surrounding the vessel provides an axial magnetic field parallel to the current channels. The azimuthal (B? = 0-100 Gauss) and axial (Bz = 0-1000 Gauss) magnetic field components as well as the plasma density (1012}-10{14 cm-3) can be varied independently. In particular, the twist of magnetic field lines, defined by ? = LB? / rBz, can be scaled in the range 1 < ? < 10 independently of the plasma collisionality. In the present work, the stability of single flux rope and the interaction of two flux ropes are studied in the RSX operational space. Magnetic data and visible light emission from a fast CCD camera are presented showing twisting and braiding of magnetic flux ropes.

  15. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  16. On the evolution of a magnetic flux rope: Two-dimensional MHD simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, W.-L.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Abdullah, M.

    2015-10-01

    We use the time-dependent, two-dimensional (2-D), ideal MHD equations to simulate and investigate the evolution of magnetic field and plasma profiles of the typical (T) and crater (C) magnetic flux ropes (FRs). The T-FR has a magnetic pressure peak at the center of the flux rope, while the C-FR has a local dip instead. The simulation starts with a 2-D magnetic flux rope in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where pressure gradient forces are balanced by Lorentz forces. The magnetic field and plasma pressure profiles for the initial flux rope are derived from the analytical solutions by Zhang et al. (2010). The initial flux rope starts to evolve when the force balance is broken by imposing pressure or magnetic field perturbations onto the equilibrium system. The pressure perturbations are produced by increasing/decreasing the internal plasma pressure of the flux rope, while the magnetic field perturbations are produced by increasing/decreasing the transverse magnetic fields across the flux rope. We conclude that a T-FR can be evolved into a C-FR and vice versa, if the perturbation strength is sufficient, and that the plasma pressure and density in the new equilibrium state could be either increased or decreased for the evolution of C-FR to T-FR and also for the evolution of T-FR to C-FR.

  17. Magnetic Flux Concentrations in Stratified Turbulent Plasma Due to Negative Effective Magnetic Pressure Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, S.; Brandenburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested a new mechanism that can be used to explain the formation of magnetic spots or bipolar regions in highly stratified turbulent plasmas. According to this model, a large-scale magnetic field suppresses the turbulent pressure, which leads to a negative contribution of turbulence to the effective magnetic pressure. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) have confirmed that the negative contribution is large enough so that the effective magnetic pressure becomes negative and leads to a large-scale instability, which we refer to as negative effective magnetic pressure Instability (NEMPI). NEMPI was used to explain the formation of active regions and sunspots on the solar surface. One step toward improving this model was to combine dynamo in- stability with NEMPI. The dynamo is known to be responsible for the solar large-scale magnetic field and to play a role in solar activity. In this context, we studied stratified turbulent plasmas in spherical geometry, where the background field was generated by alpha squared dynamo. For NEMPI to be excited, the initial magnetic field should be in a proper range, so we used quenching function for alpha. Using the Pencil Code and mean field simulations (MFS), we showed that in the presence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields, we deal with a coupled system, where both instabilities, dynamo and NEMPI, work together and lead to the formation of magnetic structures (Jabbari et al. 2013). We also studied a similar system in plane geometry in the presence of rotation and confirmed that for slow rotation NEMPI works, but as the Coriolis number increases, the rotation suppresses NEMPI. By increasing the Coriolis number even further, the combination of fast rotation and high stratification excites a dynamo, which leads again to a coupled system of dynamo and NEMPI (Jabbari et al. 2014). Another important finding concerning NEMPI is the case where the instability is excited by a vertical magnetic field (Brandenburg et al. 2013). When the field is vertical, the resulting magnetic flux concentrations lead to the magnetic spots and can be of equipartition field strength. DNS, MFS, and implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) confirm that in a proper parameter regime, vertical imposed fields lead to the formation of circular magnetic spots (Brandenburg et al. 2014).

  18. Asymmetric planar gradiometer for rejection of uniform ambient magnetic noise

    DOEpatents

    Dantsker, Eugene; Clarke, John

    2000-01-01

    An asymmetric planar gradiometer for use in making biomagnetic measurements. The gradiometer is formed from a magnetometer which is inductively-coupled to the smaller of two connected loops patterned in a superconducting film which form a flux transformer. The magnetometer is based on a SQUID formed from a high T.sub.c superconducting material. The flux transformer and magnetometer may be formed on separate substrates, allowing the baseline to be increased relative to presently available devices.

  19. An Experimental Determination of Static Magnetic Fields Induced Noise in Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Megan; Laramee, Craig

    2013-03-01

    Living systems are constantly exposed to static magnetic fields (SMFs) from both natural and man-made sources. Exposures vary in dose and duration ranging from geomagnetic (~50 ?T) to residential and industrial (~10s of mT) fields. Efforts to characterize responses to SMFs have yielded conflicting results, showing a dependence on experimental variables used. Here we argue that low to moderate SMF exposure is a sub-threshold perturbation operating below thermal noise, and assays that evaluate statistical characteristics of a single cell may identify responses not consistently found by population averaging approaches. Recent studies of gene expression show that it is a stochastic process capable of producing bursting dynamics. Moreover, theoretical and experimental methods have also been developed to allow quantitative estimates of the associated biophysical parameters. These developments provide a new way to assess responses of living systems to SMFs. In this work, we report on our efforts to use single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess responses of NIH-3T3 cells to SMF exposure at flux densities ranging from 1 to 440 mT for 48 hours. Results will contribute to determining mechanisms by which SMF exposure influences gene expression.

  20. Numerical dynamos with outer boundary heat flux inferred from probabilistic tomographyconsequences for latitudinal distribution of magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Hagay; Deschamps, Frdric; Choblet, Gal

    2015-11-01

    Mantle control on the geodynamo is often simulated using numerical dynamos with imposed outer boundary heat flux inferred from lower mantle tomography, assuming that seismic and thermal anomalies in the lowermost mantle are highly correlated. However, non-thermal effects might perturb this idealized linear seismic-thermal mapping. Here we use a probabilistic tomography model to isolate the thermal part of the seismic anomaly in order to impose a more realistic core-mantle boundary heat flux pattern on the outer boundary of numerical dynamo simulations. We demonstrate that on time average these dynamo models have more low-latitude convective and magnetic activity than corresponding models with conventional tomographic heat flux. In addition, the low-latitude magnetic flux and kinetic energy contributions are more time-dependent in the dynamo models with a probabilistic tomography heat flux, and thus may recover the observed latitudinal distribution of geomagnetic flux on the core-mantle boundary, which we propose as a morphological criterion for Earth-like dynamo models.

  1. Mechanism of a high-Tc superconducting flux pump: Using alternating magnetic field to trigger flux flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianzhao; Coombs, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    High-Tc Superconducting (HTS) magnets operating in persistent current mode suffer a current decay due to flux creep of superconductor and joint resistance. Flux pumps are able to inject direct current into superconducting circuit to compensate the current decay, without the thermal loss caused by current leads. In this work, we proposed a flux pumping mechanism for HTS coils, with an experimental verification and an analytical model. The basic principle we have used is that flux flow can be triggered when the superconductor carrying a direct current is subjected to a perpendicular AC magnetic field. Low frequency alternating current is induced in a loop of YBCO tape using an AC field. A portion of the tape which we refer to as the "bridge" shorts a superconducting coil. A high frequency AC field is applied perpendicular to the bridge tape when alternating current in the tape reaches one polarity. This triggers a net flux flow and results in a current increase in the coil. The proposed flux pump has clear physics and is easily controllable, which may make it promising in practical use.

  2. Single image signal-to-noise ratio estimation for magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Lai, M A; Tso, C P; Teo, C C

    2011-02-01

    A novel technique to quantify the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of magnetic resonance images is developed. The image SNR is quantified by estimating the amplitude of the signal spectrum using the autocorrelation function of just one single magnetic resonance image. To test the performance of the quantification, SNR measurement data are fitted to theoretically expected curves. It is shown that the technique can be implemented in a highly efficient way for the magnetic resonance imaging system. PMID:20703587

  3. Classification and performance of denoising algorithms for low signal-to-noise ratio magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Wilfred L.; Atkins, M. Stella; Sarty, Gordon E.

    2000-06-01

    The generation of magnitude magnetic resonance images comprises a sequence of data encodings or transformations, from detection of an analog electrical signal to a digital phase/frequency k-space to a complex image space via an inverse Fourier transform and finally to a magnitude image space via a magnitude transformation and rescaling. Noise present in the original signal is transformed at each step of this sequence. Denoising MR images from low field strength scanners is important because such images exhibit low signal to noise ratio. Algorithms that perform denoising of magnetic resonance images may be usefully classified according to the data domain on which they operate (i.e. at which step of the sequence of transformations they are applied) and the underlying statistical distribution of the noise they assume. This latter dimension is important because the noise distribution for low SNR images may be decidedly non-Gaussian. Examples of denoising algorithms include 2D wavelet thresholding (operates on the wavelet transform of the magnitude image; assumes Gaussian noise), Nowak's 2D wavelet filter (operates on the squared wavelet transform of the magnitude image; assumes Rician noise), Alexander et. al.'s complex 2D filters (operates on the wavelet transform of the complex image space; assumes Gaussian noise), wavelet packet denoising (wavelet packet transformation of magnitude image; assumes Rician noise) and anisotropic diffusion filtering (operates directly on magnitude image; no assumptions on noise distribution). Effective denoising of MR images must take into account both the availability of the underlying data, and the distribution of the noise to be removed. We classify a number of recently published denoising algorithms and compare their performance on images from a 0.35T permanent magnet MR scanner.

  4. The magnetic, basal, and radiative-equilibrium components in Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijver, C.J.; Dobson, A.K.; Radick, R.R.; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO )

    1989-06-01

    Mount Wilson Ca II H + K flux measurements of cool dwarf stars are analyzed and compared with stellar Mg II h + k fluxes, variability amplitudes, rotation rates, and solar data. It is concluded that the Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes comprise three principal parts: (1) a photospheric contribution in the line wings, (2) a basal chromospheric component that appears to be unrelated to stellar magnetic activity and is, therefore, possibly nonmagnetic in origin, and (3) a chromospheric component which is associated with magnetically active regions and the (quiet and active) network. The basal chromosphere appears to cover the entire surface of magnetically inactive stars. The basal Ca II H + K flux density for solar-type stars equals the average emission observed in the centers of solar supergranulation cells, where the magnetic flux density is small. 27 refs.

  5. The magnetic, basal, and radiative-equilibrium components in Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobson, Andrea K.; Radick, Richard R.

    1989-01-01

    Mount Wilson Ca II H + K flux measurements of cool dwarf stars are analyzed and compared with stellar Mg II h + k fluxes, variability amplitudes, rotation rates, and solar data. It is concluded that the Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes comprise three principal parts: (1) a photospheric contribution in the line wings, (2) a basal chromospheric component that appears to be unrelated to stellar magnetic activity and is, therefore, possibly nonmagnetic in origin, and (3) a chromospheric component which is associated with magnetically active regions and the (quiet and active) network. The basal chromosphere appears to cover the entire surface of magnetically inactive stars. The basal Ca II H + K flux density for solar-type stars equals the average emission observed in the centers of solar supergranulation cells, where the magnetic flux density is small.

  6. A high-speed induction motor making use of the third harmonic of the magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goleman, Ryszard

    1994-05-01

    This paper indicates some possibilities of construction of high-speed induction motors taking advantage of the magnetic flux third harmonic due to a process of magnetization of nonlinear magnetic circuits. Configurations of magnetic frequency triplers, which can be used as basic stator structures and generate a distorted flux, are presented. The paper also describes an experimental high-speed induction motor supplied from a single-phase source via a magnetic frequency tripler that make possible to obtain a rotating field having a synchronous speed equal to 9000 rpm at a supply voltage angular frequency of 314 rd.

  7. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiang; Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M. E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  8. Study on Enhancement and Weakening of Permanent Magnet Air-Gap Flux Density

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S

    2007-01-01

    In a conventional permanent magnet (PM) machine, the air gap flux produced by the PM is fixed. It is difficult to enhance the air gap flux density because of limitations of the PM in a series magnetic circuit. However, the air gap flux density can be weakened by using power electronic field weakening to the limit of demagnetization of the PMs. This paper presents an analytical study for controlling the PM air gap flux density through a stationary brushless excitation coil. The air gap flux density can be either enhanced or weakened. There is no concern with demagnetizing the PMs during field weakening. The leakage flux of the excitation coil through the PMs is blocked. The prototype motors built on the principle of this analytical study confirm the capabilities of significant flux enhancement and weakening.

  9. A coupled model of magnetic flux generation and transport in stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I?ik, E.; Schmitt, D.; Schssler, M.

    2007-12-01

    We present a combined model for magnetic field generation and transport in cool stars with outer convection zones. The mean toroidal magnetic field, which is generated by a cyclic thin-layer \\alpha\\Omega dynamo at the bottom of the convection zone is taken to determine the emergence probability of magnetic flux tubes in the photosphere. Following the nonlinear rise of the unstable thin flux tubes, emergence latitudes and tilt angles of bipolar magnetic regions are determined. These quantities are put into a surface flux transport model, which simulates the surface evolution of magnetic flux under the effects of large-scale flows and turbulent diffusion. First results are discussed for the case of the Sun and for more rapidly rotating solar-type stars. Movies are available via http://www.aip.de/AN/movies

  10. Equivalent magnetic noise in multi- push-pull configuration magnetoelectric composites: model and experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaojin; Hasanyan, Davresh; Li, Menghui; Gao, Junqi; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical model for the multi-push-pull configuration of magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composites comprising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers with interdigitated electrodes encapsulated in polyimide film is presented. Analytical solutions for the ME voltage coefficient ?E, ME charge coefficient ?Q, noise charge density and equivalent magnetic noise were derived. Parametric studies are presented to evaluate the influence of material properties and polyimide film geometries. The results show that the value of ?E was determined by the parameters of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, and that the values of ?Q and noise charge density were determined not only by the component parameters, but also by the volume fraction of the piezoelectric phase and polyimide film geometry. The equivalent magnetic noise had no dependence on the polyimide film geometry, but rather was determined by the component parameters and the volume fraction of the piezoelectric phase. Theoretical and experimental results are compared and shown to have good agreement with each other. PMID:25004486

  11. Correlated magnetic noise in global networks of gravitational-wave detectors: Observations and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.; Schofield, R. M. S.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most ambitious goals of gravitational-wave astronomy is to observe the stochastic gravitational-wave background. Correlated noise in two or more detectors can introduce a systematic error, which limits the sensitivity of stochastic searches. We report on measurements of correlated magnetic noise from Schumann resonances at the widely separated LIGO and Virgo detectors. We investigate the effect of this noise on a global network of gravitational-wave detectors and derive a constraint on the allowable coupling of environmental magnetic fields to test mass motion in gravitational-wave detectors. We find that while correlated noise from global electromagnetic fields could be safely ignored for initial LIGO stochastic searches, it could severely impact Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, KAGRA, as well as third-generation detectors.

  12. A moving hum filter to suppress rotor noise in high-resolution airborne magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Gamey, T.J.; Emond, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A unique filtering approach is developed to eliminate helicopter rotor noise. It is designed to suppress harmonic noise from a rotor that varies slightly in amplitude, phase, and frequency and that contaminates aero-magnetic data. The filter provides a powerful harmonic noise-suppression tool for data acquired with modern large-dynamic-range recording systems. This three-step approach - polynomial fitting, bandpass filtering, and rotor-noise synthesis - significantly reduces rotor noise without altering the spectra of signals of interest. Two steps before hum filtering - polynomial fitting and bandpass filtering - are critical to accurately model the weak rotor noise. During rotor-noise synthesis, amplitude, phase, and frequency are determined. Data are processed segment by segment so that there is no limit on the length of data. The segment length changes dynamically along a line based on modeling results. Modeling the rotor noise is stable and efficient. Real-world data examples demonstrate that this method can suppress rotor noise by more than 95% when implemented in an aeromagnetic data-processing flow. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic background noise cancellation in a biomagnetometer system for unshielded environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wltgens, P. J. M.; Koch, R. H.; Brown, S. L.; Altman, R. A.; Gallagher, W. J.; Matthews, R.; Haupt, S. G.; Lathrop, D. K.

    1996-03-01

    We are presently building a 7-channel high-Tc SQUID-based biomagnetometer system to measure magnetocardiograms in an unshielded environment. The main challenge in such a system is to resolve the very small magnetic signals originating from the human heart in the noisy magnetic background of a real-world environment. In this biomagnetometer setup, the SQUID sensors are being used in a three-SQUID gradiometer arrangement. The sensors are configured as first-order gradiometers, and at each sensor a common magnetic field is applied to cancel out the background field as measured by a reference sensor. To investigate the limits of magnetic background noise cancellation, the frequency dependence of the correlation between the magnetic backgrounds at two positions was measured as a function of distance between these positions. Furthermore, a study was made of how eddy currents induced in nearby metallic objects affect these correlations and the background noise cancellation.

  14. The application of wavelet shrinkage denoising to magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James

    2014-02-18

    The application of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) as a non-destructive method of defect detection has proliferated throughout the manufacturing community. Instrument technology and measurement methodology have matured commensurately as applications have moved from the R and D labs to the fully automated manufacturing environment. These new applications present a new set of challenges including a bevy of error sources. A significant obstacle in many industrial applications is a decrease in signal to noise ratio due to (i) environmental EMI and (II) compromises in sensor design for the purposes of automation. The stochastic nature of MBN presents a challenge to any method of noise reduction. An application of wavelet shrinkage denoising is proposed as a method of decreasing extraneous noise in MBN measurements. The method is tested and yields marked improvement on measurements subject to EMI, grounding noise, and even measurements in ideal conditions.

  15. The application of wavelet shrinkage denoising to magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, James

    2014-02-01

    The application of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) as a non-destructive method of defect detection has proliferated throughout the manufacturing community. Instrument technology and measurement methodology have matured commensurately as applications have moved from the R&D labs to the fully automated manufacturing environment. These new applications present a new set of challenges including a bevy of error sources. A significant obstacle in many industrial applications is a decrease in signal to noise ratio due to (i) environmental EMI and (II) compromises in sensor design for the purposes of automation. The stochastic nature of MBN presents a challenge to any method of noise reduction. An application of wavelet shrinkage denoising is proposed as a method of decreasing extraneous noise in MBN measurements. The method is tested and yields marked improvement on measurements subject to EMI, grounding noise, and even measurements in ideal conditions.

  16. Fermionic condensate in a conical space with a circular boundary and magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, S.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.

    2011-04-15

    The fermionic condensate is investigated in a (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime in the presence of a circular boundary and a magnetic flux. It is assumed that on the boundary the fermionic field obeys the MIT bag boundary condition. For irregular modes, we consider a special case of boundary conditions at the cone apex, when the MIT bag boundary condition is imposed at a finite radius, which is then taken to zero. The fermionic condensate is a periodic function of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. For both exterior and interior regions, the fermionic condensate is decomposed into boundary-free and boundary-induced parts. Two integral representations are given for the boundary-free part for arbitrary values of the opening angle of the cone and magnetic flux. At distances from the boundary larger than the Compton wavelength of the fermion particle, the condensate decays exponentially, with the decay rate depending on the opening angle of the cone. If the ratio of the magnetic flux to the flux quantum is not a half-integer number for a massless field the boundary-free part in the fermionic condensate vanishes, whereas the boundary-induced part is negative. For half-integer values of the ratio of the magnetic flux to the flux quantum, the irregular mode gives a nonzero contribution to the fermionic condensate in the boundary-free conical space.

  17. Composite pulses robust against charge noise and magnetic field noise for universal control of a singlet-triplet qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Barnes, Edwin; Kestner, Jason P.; Bishop, Lev S.; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2013-03-01

    We generalize our SUPCODE pulse sequences for singlet-triplet qubits to correct errors from imperfect control. This yields gates that are simultaneously corrected for both charge noise and magnetic field gradient fluctuations, addressing the two dominant T2* processes. By using this more efficient version of SUPCODE, we are able to introduce this capability while also substantially reducing the overall pulse time compared to the previous sequence. We show that our sequence remains realistic under experimental constraints such as finite bandwidth. This work is supported by LPS-NSA-CMTC, IARPA-MQCO and CNAM.

  18. Magnetic flux conversion and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state in S-1 spheromak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.

    1985-09-01

    S-1 Spheromak currents and magnetic fluxes have been measured with Rogowski coils and flux loops external to the plasma. Toroidal plasma currents up to 350 kA and spheromak configuration lifetimes over 1.0 msec have been achieved at moderate power levels. The plasma formation in the S-1 Spheromak device is based on an inductive transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic flux from a toroidal ''flux core'' to the plasma. Formation is programmed to guide the configuration into a force-free, minimum-energy Taylor state. Properly detailed programming of the formation process is found not to be essential since plasmas adjust themselves during formation to a final equilibrium near the Taylor state. After formation, if the plasma evolves away from the stable state, then distinct relaxation oscillation events occur which restore the configuration to that stable state. The relaxation process involves reconnection of magnetic field lines, and conversion of poloidal to toroidal magnetic flux (and vice versa) has been observed and documented. The scaling of toroidal plasma current and toroidal magnetic flux in the plasma with externally applied currents is consistent with the establishment of a Taylor state after formation. In addition, the magnetic helicity is proportional to that injected from the flux core, independent of how that helicity is generated.

  19. Magnetic Flux Transport and the Long-term Evolution of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Upton, Lisa; Warren, Harry P.; Hathaway, David H.

    2015-12-01

    With multiple vantage points around the Sun, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory imaging observations provide a unique opportunity to view the solar surface continuously. We use He ii 304 Å data from these observatories to isolate and track ten active regions and study their long-term evolution. We find that active regions typically follow a standard pattern of emergence over several days followed by a slower decay that is proportional in time to the peak intensity in the region. Since STEREO does not make direct observations of the magnetic field, we employ a flux-luminosity relationship to infer the total unsigned magnetic flux evolution. To investigate this magnetic flux decay over several rotations we use a surface flux transport model, the Advective Flux Transport model, that simulates convective flows using a time-varying velocity field and find that the model provides realistic predictions when information about the active region's magnetic field strength and distribution at peak flux is available. Finally, we illustrate how 304 Å images can be used as a proxy for magnetic flux measurements when magnetic field data is not accessible.

  20. Controlling the magnetic susceptibility in an artificial elliptical quantum ring by magnetic flux and external Rashba effect

    SciTech Connect

    Omidi, Mahboubeh Faizabadi, Edris

    2015-03-21

    Magnetic susceptibility is investigated in a man-made elliptical quantum ring in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interactions and the magnetic flux. It is shown that magnetic susceptibility as a function of magnetic flux changes between negative and positive signs periodically. The periodicity of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations depends on the geometry of the region where magnetic field is applied, the eccentricity, and number of sites in each chain ring (the elliptical ring is composed of chain rings). The magnetic susceptibility sign can be reversed by tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength as well. Both the magnetic susceptibility strength and sign can be controlled via external spin-orbit interactions, which can be exploited in spintronics and nanoelectronics.

  1. Characterization and compensation of systematic noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Scott James

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive neuroscientific research. A limit to its effectiveness, however, is the presence of systematic noise that can obscure neuronal activation. Systematic noise in fMRI has a temporal and/or spatial structure, as opposed to additive random Gaussian white noise (e.g. thermal fluctuations). Several examples are low frequency signal drifts, head motion, physiological noise, and spontaneous neuronal events. These systematic noise sources are generally multiplicative and depend on the signal strength. As the fMRI signal is increased, by increasing voxel size or field strength, these noise sources may dominate the thermal noise, and determine the effective signal-to-noise ratio of a functional imaging experiment. Thus, understanding these noise sources and how to mitigate their effects is an important step in maximizing the potential of functional MRI as a neuro-imaging tool. This dissertation investigates characterization and compensation techniques for several types of systematic noise in fMRI. First, mitigation techniques for signal drift in single cycle MRI studies and physiological noise (caused by the respiratory and cardiac rhythms) are investigated, with functional contrast increased using appropriate noise compensation. Then, the effect of physiological noise in multi-shot imaging is explored. It is seen that the effective repetition time (TR) combines with the frequency of the physiological noise to modulate the level of physiological noise variance induced in a multi-shot study. A noise compensation process is next applied to a rapid, multi-slice acquisition and is shown to reduce noise variance down to the level of the associated single-slice case. Finally, resting state low frequency functional connectivity patterns are examined. Using a multi-echo sequence, they are shown to have the same T2* and echo time dependence as "normal" task activation. A data-driven method of detecting functional connectivity patterns using a clustering algorithm is also investigated, and compared to the standard reference-based approach.

  2. Magnetic field enhancement of generation-recombination and shot noise in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Djidjou, T. K.; Basel, Tek; Rogachev, A.; Chen, Ying; Shinar, J.

    2015-03-21

    We have studied the effect of magnetic field on noise in series of 2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene-based organic light emitting diodes with dominant hole injection, dominant electron injection, and balanced electron and hole injection. The noise spectra of the balanced devices revealed the generation-recombination (g-r) noise term, which we associated with bimolecular electron-hole recombination. The presence of the g-r noise term is correlated with the strong organic magnetoresistance (up to 25%) observed in the balanced devices. The noise spectra also have the shot noise contribution with the Fano factor 0.25–0.4. We found that time constant of the g-r term decreases and the magnitude of shot noise increases when magnetic field is applied. This behavior can be consistently explained within the polaron-polaron model of organic magnetoresistance. We have not found any evidence that the magnetoresistance in studied devices is affected by traps.

  3. A possible interplay between electron beams and magnetic fluxes in the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2015-06-01

    Most studies on the magnetic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect focus on the action exerted by the magnetic flux on the electron beam, but neglect the back-action exerted by the electron beam on the magnetic flux. This paper focuses on the latter, which is the electromotive force ? U across the solenoid induced by the time-dependent magnetic field of the electron beam. Based on the back-action analysis, we observe that the magnetic A-B effect arises owing to the interaction energy between the magnetic field of the electron beam and the magnetic field of the solenoid. We also demonstrate that the interpretation attributing the magnetic A-B effect to the vector potential violates the uncertainty principle.

  4. Reducing media noise of perpendicular magnetic recording tape for over-50 TB class data cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunuma, S.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, T.; Doi, T.; Gomi, S.; Mashiko, Y.; Hirata, K.; Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    To reduce medium noise inherent in a perpendicular magnetic recording tape, which is deposited by facing targets sputtering, we have examined an epitaxial double-layered structure consisting of a soft magnetic underlayer (SUL), bcc-FeCoB/fcc-NiFe/Si/bcc-FeCoB, on a 4.5 μm para-aromatic polyamide (aramid) film. An epitaxial soft magnetic bilayer reduces broadband noise by 5.6 dB at 337 kilo fluxchanges per inch (kfci) compared to a single SUL medium (Tape S). This is due to the reduction in the low-frequency noise, which originates from the domain walls of the SUL. Improvement of the crystal orientation of the magnetic layer hcp-CoPtCr-SiO2 and the intermediate layer hcp-Ru by inserting a fcc-NiFe spacer in laminated SULs extends the roll-off curve toward high linear density. When each SUL layer of the bilayer was made thinner, from 25 nm (Tape D2) to 10 nm (Tape D1), the medium noise decreased, improving the signal-to-noise ratio by 8.6 dB at 337 kfci compared to Tape S. In a high resolution playback test of Tape D1, an areal density of 45.0 gigabits per square inch (Gb/in.2) was confirmed. Achieved areal density means the capability of an over-50 terabyte (TB) capacity for a typical linear-formatted data cartridge.

  5. Modeling Barkhausen Noise in magnetic glasses with dipole-dipole interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Awadhesh K.; Hentschel, H. George E.; Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Mondal, Chandana; Procaccia, Itamar; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen

    2015-10-01

    Long-ranged dipole-dipole interactions in magnetic glasses give rise to magnetic domains having labyrinthine patterns on the scale of about 1 micron. Barkhausen Noise then results from the movement of domain boundaries which is modeled by the motion of elastic membranes with random pinning. Here we propose that on the nanoscale new sources of Barkhausen Noise can arise. We propose an atomistic model of magnetic glasses in which we measure the Barkhausen Noise which results from the creation of new domains and the movement of domain boundaries on the nanoscale. The statistics of the Barkhausen Noise found in our simulations is in striking disagreement with the expectations in the literature. In fact we find exponential statistics without any power law, stressing the fact that Barkhausen Noise can belong to very different universality classes. In the present model the essence of the phenomenon is the fact that the spin response Green's function is decaying too rapidly for having sufficiently large magnetic jumps. A theory is offered in excellent agreement with the measured data without any free parameter.

  6. Negative differential conductance and super-Poissonian shot noise in single-molecule magnet junctions

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Molecular spintroinic device based on a single-molecule magnet is one of the ultimate goals of semiconductor nanofabrication technologies. It is thus necessary to understand the electron transport properties of a single-molecule magnet junction. Here we study the negative differential conductance and super-Poissonian shot noise properties of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet weakly coupled to two electrodes with either one or both of them being ferromagnetic. We predict that the negative differential conductance and super-Poissonian shot noise, which can be tuned by a gate voltage, depend sensitively on the spin polarization of the source and drain electrodes. In particular, the shot noise in the negative differential conductance region can be enhanced or decreased originating from the different formation mechanisms of negative differential conductance. The effective competition between fast and slow transport channels is responsible for the observed negative differential conductance and super-Poissonian shot noise. In addition, we further discuss the skewness and kurtosis properties of transport current in the super-Poissonian shot noise regions. Our findings suggest a tunable negative differential conductance molecular device, and the predicted properties of high-order current cumulants are very interesting for a better understanding of electron transport through single-molecule magnet junctions. PMID:25736094

  7. Coalescence of magnetic flux ropes in a 3D reconnection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuan; Intrator, Thomas; Dorf, Leonid; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2007-11-01

    The dynamics of magnetic flux ropes are of fundamental importance to the Earth's magnetosphere, solar eruptions, and many other astrophysical phenomena. Understanding the flux rope merging process mainly relies on the spacecraft observation, theory, and numerical simulations while little has been done experimentally. We present experimental results of 3D merging of two flux ropes in the Reconnection Scaling eXperiment (RSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The two flux ropes, or the two current channels embedded in the external magnetic field, are produced by two identical plasma guns. By varying the external magnetic field strength and plasma currents, we study the merging process for strong and moderate guide field. The primary results show the flux ropes undergo a sloshing process in the strong guide field and form a reverse current sheet if one decreases the guide field strength to 5 times the anti-parallel field strength. The results confirm that the merging rate is slower at higher guide field.

  8. BaBar technical design report: Chapter 9, Magnet coil and flux return

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, T.; The BaBar Collaboration

    1995-03-01

    The BaBar magnet is a thin, 1.5 T superconducting solenoid with a hexagonal flux return. This chapter discusses the physics requirements and performance goals for the magnet, describes key interfaces, and summarizes the projected magnet performance. It also presents the design of the superconducting solenoid, including magnetic design, cold mass design, quench protection and stability, cold mass cooling, cryostat design, and coil assembly and transportation. The cryogenic supply system and instrumentation are described briefly, and the flux return is described.

  9. Avalanche dynamics of magnetic flux in a two-dimensional discrete superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, S. L.; Nakin, A. V.; Savitskaya, N. E.

    2006-11-15

    The critical state of a two-dimensional discrete superconductor in an external magnetic field is studied. This state is found to be self-organized in the generalized sense, i.e., is a set of metastable states that transform to each other by means of avalanches. An avalanche is characterized by the penetration of a magnetic flux to the system. The sizes of the occurring avalanches, i.e., changes in the magnetic flux, exhibit the power-law distribution. It is also shown that the size of the avalanche occurring in the critical state and the external magnetic field causing its change are statistically independent quantities.

  10. Morphology and magnetic flux distribution in superparamagnetic, single-crystalline Fe3O4 nanoparticle rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeno, Yumu; Murakami, Yasukazu; Sato, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Park, Hyun Soon; Shindo, Daisuke; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-11-01

    This study reports on the correlation between crystal orientation and magnetic flux distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the form of self-assembled rings. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were single-crystalline, highly monodispersed, (25 nm average diameter), and showed no appreciable lattice imperfections such as twins or stacking faults. Electron holography studies of these superparamagnetic nanoparticle rings indicated significant fluctuations in the magnetic flux lines, consistent with variations in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the nanoparticles. The observations provide useful information for a deeper understanding of the micromagnetics of ultrasmall nanoparticles, where the magnetic dipolar interaction competes with the magnetic anisotropy.

  11. A COMPARISON OF THE INITIAL SPEED OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH THE MAGNETIC FLUX AND MAGNETIC HELICITY OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, S.-K.; Marubashi, K.; Cho, K.-S.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kim, K.-H.; Chae, J.; Moon, Y.-J.; Kim, I.-H.

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the speed of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the magnetic energy released during its eruption, we have compared the initial speed of CMEs (V{sub CME}) and the two parameters of their associated magnetic clouds (MC), magnetic flux (F{sub MC}), and magnetic helicity per unit length (|H{sub MC}|/L), for 34 pairs of CMEs and MCs. The values of these parameters in each MC have been determined by fitting the magnetic data of the MC to the linear force-free cylindrical model. As a result, we found that there are positive correlations between V {sup 2}{sub CME} and F{sub MC}, and between V{sup 2} {sub CME} and |H{sub MC}|/L. It is also found that the kinetic energy of CMEs (E{sub CME}) is correlated with F{sub MC} and |H{sub MC}|/L of the associated MC. In contrast, we found no significant correlation between (V{sub MC}){sup 2} and F{sub MC}, nor between (V{sub MC}){sup 2} and |H{sub MC}|/L. Our results support the notion that the eruption of a CME is related to the magnetic helicity of the source active region.

  12. Cluster electric current density measurements within a magnetic flux rope in the plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Lepping, R. P.; Gjerloev, J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Fairfield, D. H.; Acuna, M. H.; Balogh, A.; Dunlop, M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K.

    2003-01-01

    On August 22, 2001 all 4 Cluster spacecraft nearly simultaneously penetrated a magnetic flux rope in the tail. The flux rope encounter took place in the central plasma sheet, Beta(sub i) approx. 1-2, near the leading edge of a bursty bulk flow. The "time-of-flight" of the flux rope across the 4 spacecraft yielded V(sub x) approx. 700 km/s and a diameter of approx.1 R(sub e). The speed at which the flux rope moved over the spacecraft is in close agreement with the Cluster plasma measurements. The magnetic field profiles measured at each spacecraft were first modeled separately using the Lepping-Burlaga force-free flux rope model. The results indicated that the center of the flux rope passed northward (above) s/c 3, but southward (below) of s/c 1, 2 and 4. The peak electric currents along the central axis of the flux rope predicted by these single-s/c models were approx.15-19 nA/sq m. The 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetic field measurements provide a second means to determine the electric current density without any assumption regarding flux rope structure. The current profile determined using the curlometer technique was qualitatively similar to those determined by modeling the individual spacecraft magnetic field observations and yielded a peak current density of 17 nA/m2 near the central axis of the rope. However, the curlometer results also showed that the flux rope was not force-free with the component of the current density perpendicular to the magnetic field exceeding the parallel component over the forward half of the rope, perhaps due to the pressure gradients generated by the collision of the BBF with the inner magnetosphere. Hence, while the single-spacecraft models are very successful in fitting flux rope magnetic field and current variations, they do not provide a stringent test of the force-free condition.

  13. Modeling magnetic fields measured by surface probes embedded in a cylindrical flux conserver.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P

    2007-03-01

    Calculating magnetic fields at the surface of a flux conserver, perfect conductor, for displaced plasma currents is useful for understanding modes of a Z-pinch. The magnetic fields measured at the flux conserver are a sum of the magnetic fields from the plasma current and the eddy currents which form in the walls to keep the flux constant. While the magnetic field at the wall from the plasma current alone is easily calculated using the Biot-Savart law, finding the eddy currents in the flux conserver which satisfy the boundary conditions can be a tedious process. A simple method of calculating the surface magnetic field for a given Z-pinch displacement off-axis is derived for a cylindrical flux conserver. This relationship does not require the explicit calculation of the eddy currents, saving time when analyzing surface magnetic probe measurements. Analytic expressions can be used to describe the surface magnetic field which increase the understanding of the magnetic probe measurements. PMID:17411182

  14. Emergence of Embedded Magnetic Flux and Its Connections to the Solar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiueh, Tzihong

    2000-08-01

    A strong (~few105 G) and slightly twisted magnetic field (of flux 1023 Mx) can be stored in a dynamo flux tube within the overshoot region provided that the tube has a slightly lower temperature than the background gas, which has a stratification profile ?(dln?/dlnP)-1>=B2/8?P, where P, ?, B and ? are the gas pressure, density, magnetic field strength, and adiabatic index. Pumped by the intense vortical downdraft, the outer layer of dynamo flux tube is proposed to possess opposite magnetic helicity from that in the tube interior, as a direct result of the conservation of magnetic helicity. When the field-line twist in the outer layer exceeds some threshold, we show that the helicity-reversal layer can be subject to MHD instabilities that trigger partial flux eruption. In the nonlinear stage, flux ropes of 1022 Mx with magnetic helicity of a definite sign are expected to be ejected into the convection zone, leaving magnetic helicity of the opposite sign to accumulate in the main flux tube. Such a helicity removal mechanism breaks the conservation of magnetic helicity within the dynamo flux tube and can circumvent the recently discovered difficulty (the so-called ? quench) for the generation of large-scale fields. We argue that the dynamo ? is likely to resume a value of the same order as that of the kinematic turbulent dynamo. We further suggest that the helical flux expulsion is an indispensable component for the solar dynamo to operate properly. A natural prediction of this scenario is that strong sunspots in the same hemisphere should possess magnetic helicity of the same sign, regardless of the solar cycles. Specifically, the helical field lines in strong sunspots should obey the left-hand rule in the northern hemisphere and the right-hand rule in the southern hemisphere.

  15. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  16. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  17. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  18. Defect Profile Estimation from Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal via Efficient Managing Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenhua; Xu, Jun; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, efficient managing particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) for high dimension problem is proposed to estimate defect profile from magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal. In the proposed EMPSO, in order to strengthen exchange of information among particles, particle pair model was built. For more efficient searching when facing different landscapes of problems, velocity updating scheme including three velocity updating models was also proposed. In addition, for more chances to search optimum solution out, automatic particle selection for re-initialization was implemented. The optimization results of six benchmark functions show EMPSO performs well when optimizing 100-D problems. The defect simulation results demonstrate that the inversing technique based on EMPSO outperforms the one based on self-learning particle swarm optimizer (SLPSO), and the estimated profiles are still close to the desired profiles with the presence of low noise in MFL signal. The results estimated from real MFL signal by EMPSO-based inversing technique also indicate that the algorithm is capable of providing an accurate solution of the defect profile with real signal. Both the simulation results and experiment results show the computing time of the EMPSO-based inversing technique is reduced by 20%30% than that of the SLPSO-based inversing technique. PMID:24926693

  19. On the resonance scattering of sound by slender magnetic flux tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, T.J. )

    1989-10-01

    The impact of excited tube modes (resonances) on the acoustic scattering properties of slender flux tubes, which is relevant to the interaction of the solar five-minute oscillations with the thin intense magnetic flux tubes that dot the solar surface, is theoretically discussed. Quantitative examples are given which take into account the influence of the finite size of the flux tube on the resonance locations and widths. The practical implications of the theory for observations are considered. 31 refs.

  20. Flux Pileup in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection: Bursty Interaction of Large Flux Ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Karimabadi, H; Dorelli, J.; Roytershteyn, V.; Daughton, W.; Chacon, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations of the island coalescence problem for a range of system sizes greatly exceeding kinetic scales, the phenomenon of flux pileup in the collisionless regime is demonstrated. While small islands on the scale of {lambda} {le} 55 ion inertial length (d{sub i}) coalesce rapidly and do not support significant flux pileup, coalescence of larger islands is characterized by large flux pileup and a weaker time averaged reconnection rate that scales as {radical}d{sub i}/{lambda} while the peak rate remains nearly independent of island size. For the largest islands ({lambda} = 100d{sub i}), reconnection is bursty and nearly shuts off after the first bounce, reconnecting {approx}20% of the available flux.

  1. An introduction to the propellant-driven magnetic flux compression generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.E.

    1995-12-01

    An introduction to the concept of a propellant-driven magnetic flux compression generator is presented, together with the theory of its operation. The principles of operation of the propellant flux compression generator combine generator principles, derived from lumped parameter circuit theory, and interior ballistic principles.

  2. Line-of-sight magnetic flux imbalances caused by electric currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Rabin, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Several physical and observational effects contribute to the significant imbalances of magnetic flux that are often observed in active regions. We consider an effect not previously treated: the influence of electric currents in the photosphere. Electric currents can cause a line-of-sight flux imbalance because of the directionality of the magnetic field they produce. Currents associated with magnetic flux tubes produce larger imbalances than do smoothly-varying distributions of flux and current. We estimate the magnitude of this effect for current densities, total currents, and magnetic geometry consistent with observations. The expected imbalances lie approximately in the range 0-15%, depending on the character of the current-carying fields and the angle from which they are viewed. Observationally, current-induced flux imbalances could be indicated by a statistical dependence of the imbalance on angular distance from disk center. A general study of magnetic flux balance in active regions is needed to determine the relative importance of other- probably larger- effects such as dilute flux (too weak to measure or rendered invisible by radiative transfer effects), merging with weak background fields, and long-range connections between active regions.

  3. Observation of an evolving magnetic flux rope before and during a solar eruption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Ming-de

    2012-01-01

    Explosive energy release is a common phenomenon occurring in magnetized plasma systems ranging from laboratories, Earth's magnetosphere, the solar corona and astrophysical environments. Its physical explanation is usually attributed to magnetic reconnection in a thin current sheet. Here we report the important role of magnetic flux rope structure, a volumetric current channel, in producing explosive events. The flux rope is observed as a hot channel before and during a solar eruption from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly telescope on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. It initially appears as a twisted and writhed sigmoidal structure with a temperature as high as 10 MK, and then transforms toward a semi-circular shape during a slow-rise phase, which is followed by fast acceleration and onset of a flare. The observations suggest that the instability of the magnetic flux rope triggers the eruption, thus making a major addition to the traditional magnetic-reconnection paradigm. PMID:22434190

  4. Second Order Magnetic Barriers in Tokamaks, Noble Tori, and Topological Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2007-11-01

    Second order perturbation method of creating invariant manifold inside chaos in Hamiltonian systems [1-4] is applied to tokamak to build magnetic barriers inside the region of magnetic chaos created by resonant magnetic perturbations. Different safety factor profiles are used to represent tokamaks such as the ohmically heated tokamaks (OHT), the DIII-D and the ASDEX UG. In OHT, a magnetic barrier is created at about midway between two resonant magnetic surfaces. The barrier reduces the diffusion of magnetic field lines by about half. The barrier is fortified by adding up to third order magnetic perturbation. Beyond a maximum value of magnetic perturbation, the barrier is not sustainable. However, if a barrier is created at noble value of safety factor, then it is found to be much more robust. For the DIII-D, the robustness of magnetic barrier is tested for topological noise, and the barrier is found to be robust up to some maximum value of noise. This work is supported by US DOE OFES DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793. [1] Ciraolo G et al. 2004, J. Phys. A: Math Gen 37 3589. [2] Ciraolo G et al. 2004, Phys. Rev. E 69 056213. [3] Vittot M 2004, Phys. A: Math Gen 37 6337. [4] Chandre C et al. 2005, Phys. Rev. Lett.94 074101.

  5. 22 year cycle in the imbalance of the photospheric magnetic fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernova, Elena; Baranov, Dmitrii; Tyasto, Marta

    The manifestation of the 22 year solar magnetic cycle in the imbalance of positive and negative photospheric magnetic fluxes is studied. For the analysis we use synoptic maps of the photospheric magnetic field of Kitt Peak Observatory (1976 - 2003) and John Wilcox Observatory in Stanford (1976 - 2012). We consider strong magnetic fields for the heliolatitudes in the interval from +40 to -40. It is shown that the sign of the imbalance between positive and negative fluxes remains constant during 11 years from one inversion of the Suns global magnetic field to the next one and always coincides with the sign of the polar field in the Northern hemisphere. Thus, the imbalance between the magnetic fluxes of different polarities changes according to the 22 year cycle. The sign of the imbalance is determined both by the phase of the solar cycle (before or after the inversion) and by the parity of the solar cycle. The imbalance of positive and negative magnetic fluxes can be observed not only for the strong fields in the sunspot zone. The mean magnetic field of the Sun (Sun as a star), which is determined by the net flux of the background fields, changes according to the same pattern as the imbalance of the strong fields. The regular changes of the imbalance of the photospheric magnetic fields are reflected also in the parameters of heliosphere. We show the connection of the imbalance with the quadrupole component of the photospheric magnetic field and with the imbalance of the interplanetary magnetic field (the difference between the numbers of the days with positive and negative polarities of the interplanetary magnetic field near Earth).

  6. Adaptive cancellation of geomagnetic background noise for magnetic anomaly detection using coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dunge; Xu, Xin; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Wanhua; Liu, Xiaojun; Yu, Gang; Fang, Guangyou

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is an effective method for the detection of ferromagnetic targets against background magnetic fields. Currently, the performance of MAD systems is mainly limited by the background geomagnetic noise. Several techniques have been developed to detect target signatures, such as the synchronous reference subtraction (SRS) method. In this paper, we propose an adaptive coherent noise suppression (ACNS) method. The proposed method is capable of evaluating and detecting weak anomaly signals buried in background geomagnetic noise. Tests with real-world recorded magnetic signals show that the ACNS method can excellently remove the background geomagnetic noise by about 21 dB or more in high background geomagnetic field environments. Additionally, as a general form of the SRS method, the ACNS method offers appreciable advantages over the existing algorithms. Compared to the SRS method, the ACNS algorithm can eliminate the false target signals and represents a noise suppressing capability improvement of 6.4 dB. The positive outcomes in terms of intelligibility make this method a potential candidate for application in MAD systems.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC INVARIANTS OF MAGNETIC FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN INTERPLANETARY FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Telloni, D.; Perri, S.; Carbone, V.; Bruno, R.; D Amicis, R.

    2013-10-10

    A statistical analysis of magnetic flux ropes, identified by large-amplitude, smooth rotations of the magnetic field vector and a low level of both proton density and temperature, has been performed by computing the invariants of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, namely the magnetic helicity, the cross-helicity, and the total energy, via magnetic field and plasma fluctuations in the interplanetary medium. A technique based on the wavelet spectrograms of the MHD invariants allows the localization and characterization of those structures in both scales and time: it has been observed that flux ropes show, as expected, high magnetic helicity states (|?{sub m}| in [0.6: 1]), but extremely variable cross-helicity states (|?{sub c}| in [0: 0.8]), which, however, are not independent of the magnetic helicity content of the flux rope itself. The two normalized MHD invariants observed within the flux ropes tend indeed to distribute, neither trivially nor automatically, along the ?(?{sub m}{sup 2}+?{sub c}{sup 2})=1 curve, thus suggesting that some constraint should exist between the magnetic and cross-helicity content of the structures. The analysis carried out has further showed that the flux rope properties are totally independent of their time duration and that they are detected either as a sort of interface between different portions of solar wind or as isolated structures embedded in the same stream.

  8. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  9. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ?e?e?1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ?e?e as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  10. Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind - Evidence for interplanetary magnetic field reconnection?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Phillips, J. L.; Bame, S. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    An examination of ISEE-3 data from 1978 reveal 25 electron heat flux dropout events ranging in duration from 20 min to over 11 hours. The heat flux dropouts are found to occur in association with high plasma densities, low plasma velocities, low ion and electron temperatures, and low magnetic field magnitudes. It is suggested that the heat flux dropout intervals may indicate that the spacecraft is sampling plasma regimes which are magnetically disconnected from the sun and instead are connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.

  11. Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hong-Kang Zou, Wei-Ke; Chen, Qiao

    2014-09-07

    We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.

  12. Plasma diagnosis from thermal noise and limits on dust flux or mass in comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer-Vernet, N.; Couturier, P.; Hoang, S.; Perche, C.; Steinberg, J. L.; Fainberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal noise spectroscopy was used to measure the density and temperature of the main (cold) electron plasma population during two hours around the point of closest approach of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) to comet Giacobini-Zinner. The time resolution was 18 seconds in the plasma tail and 54 seconds elsewhere. Near the tail axis, the maximum plasma density was 670/cu cm and the temperature slightly above one volt. Away from the axis, the plasma density dropped to 100/cu cm over 2000 km, then decreased to 10/cu cm over 15,000 km; at the plasma tail, the density fluctuated between 10 and 30/cu cm, and the temperature, between 100,000 and 400,000 K. No evidence was found of grain impact on the spacecraft or antennas in the plasma tail. This yields an upper limit for the dust flux or particle mass, indicating either fluxes or masses in the tail smaller than those implied by models or an anomalous grain structure. Outside the tail, and particularly near 100,000 km from its axis, impulsive noises indicating plasma turbulence were observed.

  13. Studying the Effect of the Local Thunderstorm Cells on the Background ULF Magnetic Noise Parameter Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, E. N.; Kotik, D. S.; Ryabov, A. V.; Panyutin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the effect of the masking factor from the local thunderstorm cells on ULF magnetic field spectra with the inhomogeneous electron-density structures existing in the local ionosphere (ionospheric and lower ionospheric Alfvn resonators). Using an original data-processing technique for recording of horizontal magnetic components at the midlatitude reception point Novaya Zhizn', we have examined the contribution of the sources located at different distances from the reception point to the formation of the background noise spectra. The ULF signal processing technique permitted us to reduce the pulse component of magnetic noise in amplitude above a certain threshold and thus rule out the effect of a local thunderstorm activity. Frequency dependences of the azimuthal angle of the principal axis of the magnetic noise polarization ellipse are also analyzed. It is shown that the presence of the lower ionospheric Alfvn resonator leads to a nonmonotonic dependence of the azimuthal angle on the frequency. It was found that the local thunderstorms within 60 -80 km from the reception point completely mask the manifestation of the lower ionospheric Alfvn resonator in the ULF noise polarization parameters. To spot the local thunderstorm cells, we used the data from the meteorological radar facility MRL-4 in Nizhny Novgorod.

  14. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Lai, J; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C

    2014-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T(e) and n(e) fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ~60,000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50-75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60,000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained. PMID:24689579

  15. Synchronized and noise-robust audio recordings during realtime magnetic resonance imaging scans (L)

    PubMed Central

    Bresch, Erik; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2007-01-01

    This letter describes a data acquisition setup for recording, and processing, running speech from a person in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The main focus is on ensuring synchronicity between image and audio acquisition, and in obtaining good signal to noise ratio to facilitate further speech analysis and modeling. A field-programmable gate array based hardware design for synchronizing the scanner image acquisition to other external data such as audio is described. The audio setup itself features two fiber optical microphones and a noise-canceling filter. Two noise cancellation methods are described including a novel approach using a pulse sequence specific model of the gradient noise of the MRI scanner. The setup is useful for scientific speech production studies. Sample results of speech and singing data acquired and processed using the proposed method are given. PMID:17069275

  16. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xiang, Li; Guo, Huiqiang; Wei, Jian; Li, Dalai; Yuan, Z. H.; Feng, Jiafeng; Han, Xiufeng; Coey, J. M. D.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the low frequency noise in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) below 4 K and at low bias, where thermal activation from the bath is suppressed and magnon emission from hot tunneling electrons dominates the transport. For one CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB MTJ, within a narrow range of bias voltage around magnon emission energy, a Lorentzian shape noise spectra is observed. For one CoFeB/AlOx/CoFeB MTJ, at similar bias voltage but within much wide bias range, a much larger Lorentzian shape noise spectra is observed and random telegraph noise is visible in the time traces. In both cases the Lorentzian spectra eventually disappears after repeated measurements, which in combination of the fitted parameters suggests magnon-assisted activation of defects as its origin.

  17. Structure, Stability, and Evolution of Magnetic Flux Ropes from the Perspective of Magnetic Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Kliem, Bernhard; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of NOAA Active Region (AR) 11817 during 2013 August 10–12, when it developed a complex field configuration and produced four confined, followed by two eruptive, flares. These C-and-above flares are all associated with a magnetic flux rope (MFR) located along the major polarity inversion line, where shearing and converging photospheric flows are present. Aided by the nonlinear force-free field modeling, we identify the MFR through mapping magnetic connectivities and computing the twist number {{ T }}w for each individual field line. The MFR is moderately twisted (| {{ T }}w| \\lt 2) and has a well-defined boundary of high squashing factor Q. We found that the field line with the extremum | {{ T }}w| is a reliable proxy of the rope axis, and that the MFR's peak | {{ T }}w| temporarily increases within half an hour before each flare while it decreases after the flare peak for both confined and eruptive flares. This pre-flare increase in | {{ T }}w| has little effect on the AR's free magnetic energy or any other parameters derived for the whole region, due to its moderate amount and the MFR's relatively small volume, while its decrease after flares is clearly associated with the stepwise decrease in the whole region's free magnetic energy due to the flare. We suggest that {{ T }}w may serve as a useful parameter in forewarning the onset of eruption, and therefore, the consequent space weather effects. The helical kink instability is identified as the prime candidate onset mechanism for the considered flares.

  18. DRIFT ORBITS OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN AN INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Krittinatham, W.; Ruffolo, D. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.t

    2009-10-10

    Interplanetary magnetic flux ropes have significant effects on the distribution of energetic particles in space. Flux ropes can confine solar energetic particles (SEPs) for hours, and have relatively low densities of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as seen during second-stage Forbush decreases. As particle diffusion is apparently inhibited across the flux rope boundary, we suggest that guiding center drifts could play a significant role in particle motion into and out of the flux ropes. We develop an analytic model of the magnetic field in an interplanetary magnetic flux rope attached to the Sun at both ends, in quasi-toroidal coordinates, with the realistic features of a flux rope cross section that is small near the Sun, expanding with distance from the Sun, and field lines that are wound less tightly close to the Sun due to stretching by the solar wind. We calculate the particle drift velocity field due to the magnetic field curvature and gradient as a function of position and pitch-angle cosine, and trace particle guiding center orbits numerically, assuming conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. We find that SEPs in the interior of a flux rope can have drift orbits that are trapped for long times, as in a tokamak configuration, with resonant escape features as a function of the winding number. For Forbush decreases of GCRs, the drifts should contribute to a unidirectional anisotropy and net flow from one leg of the loop to the other, in a direction determined by the poloidal field direction.

  19. MAGNETAR GIANT FLARES-FLUX ROPE ERUPTIONS IN MULTIPOLAR MAGNETOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Cong

    2012-09-20

    We address a primary question regarding the physical mechanism that triggers the energy release and initiates the onset of eruptions in the magnetar magnetosphere. Self-consistent stationary, axisymmetric models of the magnetosphere are constructed based on force-free magnetic field configurations that contain a helically twisted force-free flux rope. Depending on the surface magnetic field polarity, there exist two kinds of magnetic field configurations, inverse and normal. For these two kinds of configurations, variations of the flux rope equilibrium height in response to gradual surface physical processes, such as flux injections and crust motions, are carefully examined. We find that equilibrium curves contain two branches: one represents a stable equilibrium branch, and the other an unstable equilibrium branch. As a result, the evolution of the system shows a catastrophic behavior: when the magnetar surface magnetic field evolves slowly, the height of the flux rope would gradually reach a critical value beyond which stable equilibriums can no longer be maintained. Subsequently, the flux rope would lose equilibrium and the gradual quasi-static evolution of the magnetosphere will be replaced by a fast dynamical evolution. In addition to flux injections, the relative motion of active regions would give rise to the catastrophic behavior and lead to magnetic eruptions as well. We propose that a gradual process could lead to a sudden release of magnetosphere energy on a very short dynamical timescale, without being initiated by a sudden fracture in the crust of the magnetar. Some implications of our model are also discussed.

  20. SCATTERING OF THE f-MODE BY SMALL MAGNETIC FLUX ELEMENTS FROM OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Felipe, T.; Braun, D.; Crouch, A.; Birch, A.

    2012-10-01

    The scattering of f-modes by magnetic tubes is analyzed using three-dimensional numerical simulations. An f-mode wave packet is propagated through a solar atmosphere embedded with three different flux tube models that differ in radius and total magnetic flux. A quiet-Sun simulation without a tube present is also performed as a reference. Waves are excited inside the flux tube and propagate along the field lines, and jacket modes are generated in the surroundings of the flux tube, carrying 40% as much energy as the tube modes. The resulting scattered wave is mainly an f-mode composed of a mixture of m = 0 and m = {+-}1 modes. The amplitude of the scattered wave approximately scales with the magnetic flux. A small amount of power is scattered into the p{sub 1}-mode. We have evaluated the absorption and phase shift from a Fourier-Hankel decomposition of the photospheric vertical velocities. They are compared with the results obtained from the ensemble average of 3400 small magnetic elements observed in high-resolution MDI Doppler datacubes. The comparison shows that the observed dependence of the phase shift with wavenumber can be matched reasonably well with the simulated flux tube model. The observed variation of the phase shifts with the azimuthal order m appears to depend on details of the ensemble averaging, including possible motions of the magnetic elements and asymmetrically shaped elements.

  1. Magnetic flux dynamics in superconducting films studied by scanning Hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Gheorghe

    In this thesis we address two different issues in the field of flux dynamics in superconductors with constricted geometry. In our experiments we used scanning Hall probe microscopy to investigate the magnetic field profile above the samples' surface. In the first experiment, Vortex Nucleation in Narrow Thin-Film Strips, we studied the magnetic flux nucleation in type-II superconducting thin-film strips of mesoscopic width. The maximum magnetic field below which vortices are completely expelled from niobium narrow thin-film strips was measured for different widths. Above this threshold field we examined the field dependence of the vortex density for the studied strips. In the second experiment, The Superconducting Dripping Faucet , we analyzed, in microbridge geometry, the dynamics of the magnetic flux nucleation in a one-dimensional type-I superconducting channel. For this experiment we have developed a novel high-bandwidth Hall probe to detect in real time the nucleation and subsequent motion of the magnetic flux tubes along a fabricated one-dimensional channel in a lead film. The complex dynamics exhibited by the flux tubes nucleating from one end of the channel shares many characteristics of the well-known dripping faucet experiment. Nonlinear time series analysis was used to investigate the dynamics of the flux tubes in our experiment.

  2. A Magnetic Flux Leakage and Magnetostrictive Guided Wave Hybrid Transducer for Detecting Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Cheng, Cheng; Ben, Anran

    2012-01-01

    Condition assessment of cables has gained considerable attention for the bridge safety. A magnetic flux leakage and magnetostrictive guided wave hybrid transducer is provided to inspect bridge cables. The similarities and differences between the two methods are investigated. The hybrid transducer for bridge cables consists of an aluminum framework, climbing modules, embedded magnetizers and a ribbon coil. The static axial magnetic field provided by the magnetizers meets the needs of the magnetic flux leakage testing and the magnetostrictive guided wave testing. The magnetizers also provide the attraction for the climbing modules. In the magnetic flux leakage testing for the free length of cable, the coil induces the axial leakage magnetic field. In the magnetostrictive guided wave testing for the anchorage zone, the coil provides a pulse high power variational magnetic field for generating guided waves; the coil induces the magnetic field variation for receiving guided waves. The experimental results show that the transducer with the corresponding inspection system could be applied to detect the broken wires in the free length and in the anchorage zone of bridge cables. PMID:22368483

  3. A noise-rejecting current amplifier for surface atmospheric ion flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    1997-09-01

    Large area electrodes are required to determine atmospheric charge fluxes at the earth's surface. These also act as antennas for power line hum, swamping the small atmospheric electric signals. A battery-powered head-amplifier resolving 0.025 pA is described here, which uses active compensation to substantially cancel the interference, allowing the atmospheric charge fluxes to be resolved in the presence of the interference. The overall response is nominally -100 mV/pA, with 30 dB of 50 Hz rejection. The head amplifier can drive a low impedance line.

  4. Predicting solar `climate' by assimilating magnetic data into a flux-transport dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, M.

    2007-12-01

    Observational and theoretical knowledge about global-scale solar dynamo ingredients have reached the stage that it is possible to calibrate a flux-transport dynamo for the Sun by adjusting only a few tunable parameters. The important ingredients in this class of model are differential rotation (Omega-effect), helical turbulence (alpha-effect), meridional circulation and turbulent diffusion. The meridional circulation works as a conveyor belt and governs the dynamo cycle period. Meridional circulation and magnetic diffusivity together govern the memory of the Sun's past magnetic fields. After describing the physical processes involved in a flux-transport dynamo, we will show that a predictive tool can be built from it to predict mean solar cycle features by assimilating magnetic field data from previous cycles. We will discuss the theoretical and observational connections among various predictors, such as dynamo-generated toroidal flux integral, cross-equatorial flux, polar fields and geomagnetic indices.

  5. Plasma diagnosis from thermal noise and limits on dust flux or mass in comet giacobini-zinner.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Vernet, N; Couturier, P; Hoang, S; Perche, C; Steinberg, J L; Fainberg, J; Meetre, C

    1986-04-18

    Thermal noise spectroscopy was used to measure the density and temperature of the main (cold) electron plasma population during 2 hours (1.5x10(5) kilometers perpendicular to the tail axis) around the point of closest approach of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) to Comet Giacobini-Zinner. The time resolution was 18 seconds (370 kilometers) in the plasma tail and 54 seconds (1100 kilometers) elsewhere. Near the tail axis, the maximum plasma density was 670 per cubic centimeter and the temperature slightly above 1 electron volt. Away from the axis, the plasma density dropped to 100 per cubic centimeter (temperature, 2x 10(4) K) over 2000 kilometers, then decreased to 10 (1.5x 10(5)K) over 15,000 kilometers; outside that region (plasma tail), the density fluctuated between 10 and 30 per cubic centimeter and the temperature between 1x 10(5) and 4 x10(5) K. The relative density of the hot population rarely exceeded a few percent. The tail was highly asymmetrical and showed much structure. On the other antenna, shot noise was recorded from the plasma particle impacts on the spacecraft body. No evidence was found of grain impacts on the antennas or spacecraft in the plasma tail. This yields an upper limit for the dust flux or particle mass, indicating either fluxes or masses in the tail smaller than implied by the models or an anomalous grain structure. This seems to support earlier suggestions that these grains are featherlike. Outside the tail, and particularly near 10(5) kilometers from its axis, impulsive noises indicating plasma turbulence were observed. PMID:17792147

  6. Magnetic flux relaxation in YBa2Cu3)(7-x) thin film: Thermal or athermal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitta, Satish; Stan, M. A.; Warner, J. D.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetic flux relaxation behavior of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin film on LaAlO3 for H is parallel to c was studied in the range 4.2 - 40 K and 0.2 - 1.0 T. Both the normalized flux relaxation rate S and the net flux pinning energy U increase continuously from 1.3 x 10(exp -2) to 3.0 x 10(exp -2) and from 70 to 240 meV respectively, as the temperature T increases from 10 to 40 K. This behavior is consistent with the thermally activated flux motion model. At low temperatures, however, S is found to decrease much more slowly as compared with kT, in contradiction to the thermal activation model. This behavior is discussed in terms of the athermal quantum tunneling of flux lines. The magnetic field dependence of U, however, is not completely understood.

  7. Mean-field and direct numerical simulations of magnetic flux concentrations from vertical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Gressel, O.; Jabbari, S.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Strongly stratified hydromagnetic turbulence has previously been found to produce magnetic flux concentrations if the domain is large enough compared with the size of turbulent eddies. Mean-field simulations (MFS) using parameterizations of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses show a large-scale negative effective magnetic pressure instability and have been able to reproduce many aspects of direct numerical simulations (DNS) regarding growth rate, shape of the resulting magnetic structures, and their height as a function of magnetic field strength. Unlike the case of an imposed horizontal field, for a vertical one, magnetic flux concentrations of equipartition strength with the turbulence can be reached, resulting in magnetic spots that are reminiscent of sunspots. Aims: We determine under what conditions magnetic flux concentrations with vertical field occur and what their internal structure is. Methods: We use a combination of MFS, DNS, and implicit large-eddy simulations (ILES) to characterize the resulting magnetic flux concentrations in forced isothermal turbulence with an imposed vertical magnetic field. Results: Using DNS, we confirm earlier results that in the kinematic stage of the large-scale instability the horizontal wavelength of structures is about 10 times the density scale height. At later times, even larger structures are being produced in a fashion similar to inverse spectral transfer in helically driven turbulence. Using ILES, we find that magnetic flux concentrations occur for Mach numbers between 0.1 and 0.7. They occur also for weaker stratification and larger turbulent eddies if the domain is wide enough. Using MFS, the size and aspect ratio of magnetic structures are determined as functions of two input parameters characterizing the parameterization of the effective magnetic pressure. DNS, ILES, and MFS show magnetic flux tubes with mean-field energies comparable to the turbulent kinetic energy. These tubes can reach a length of about eight density scale heights. Despite being ≤1% equipartition strength, it is important that their lower part is included within the computational domain to achieve the full strength of the instability. Conclusions: The resulting vertical magnetic flux tubes are being confined by downflows along the tubes and corresponding inflow from the sides, which keep the field concentrated. Application to sunspots remains a viable possibility.

  8. Finite {beta} correction to the magnetic flux tube ellipticity of the straight field line mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, N.; Aagren, O.

    2006-12-15

    A marginal minimum B mirror magnetic field has been proposed as an external plasma confining magnetic field for a single cell open magnetic mirror trap. An analytical expression for the flux tube ellipticity of this magnetic field has in a previous study been derived with a zero plasma {beta} approximation. This mirror field, which consists of straight nonparallel field lines in the confinement region, has a particular interest since it is likely to correspond to the smallest possible ellipticity for a magnetohydrodynamic stable mirror confinement. The plasma current is in this paper taken into account to the first order in {beta} and the influence of the plasma magnetic field on the magnetic flux surface geometry is studied.

  9. Solar Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the heating of the quiet corona by measuring the increase of coronal luminosity with the amount of magnetic flux in the underlying network at solar minimum when there were no active regions on the face of the Sun. The coronal luminosity is measured from Fe IX/X-Fe XII pairs of coronal images from SOHO/EIT. The network magnetic flux content is measured from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. We find that the luminosity of the corona in our quiet regions increases roughly in proportion to the square root of the magnetic flux content of the network and roughly in proportion to the length of the perimeter of the network magnetic flux clumps. From (1) this result, (2) other observations of many fine-scale explosive events at the edges of network flux clumps, and (3) a demonstration that it is energetically feasible for the heating of the corona in quiet regions to be driven by explosions of granule-sized sheared-core magnetic bipoles embedded in the edges of network flux clumps, we infer that in quiet regions that are not influenced by active regions the corona is mainly heated by such magnetic activity in the edges of the network flux clumps. Our observational results together with our feasibility analysis allow us to predict that (1) at the edges of the network flux clumps there are many transient sheared-core bipoles of the size and lifetime of granules and having transverse field strengths > approx. 100 G, (2) approx. 30 of these bipoles are present per supergranule, and (3) most spicules are produced by explosions of these bipoles.

  10. Solar Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the heating of the quiet corona by measuring the increase of coronal luminosity with the amount of magnetic flux in the underlying network at solar minimum when there were no active regions on the face of the Sun. The coronal luminosity is measured from Fe IX/X-Fe XII pairs of coronal images from SOHO/EIT. The network magnetic flux content is measured from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. We find that the luminosity of the corona in our quiet regions increases roughly in proportion to the square root of the magnetic flux content of the network and roughly in proportion to the length of the perimeter of the network magnetic flux clumps. From (1) this result, (2) other observations of many fine-scale explosive events at the edges of network flux clumps, and (3) a demonstration that it is energetically feasible for the heating of the corona in quiet regions to be driven by explosions of granule-sized sheared-core magnetic bipoles embedded in the edges of network flux clumps, we infer that in quiet regions that are not influenced by active regions the corona is mainly heated by such magnetic activity in the edges of the network flux clumps. Our observational results together with our feasibility analysis allow us to predict that (1) at the edges of the network flux clumps there are many transient sheared-core bipoles of the size and lifetime of granules and having transverse field strengths greater than approximately - 100 G, (2) approximately 30 of these bipoles are present per supergranule, and (3) most spicules are produced by explosions of these bipoles.

  11. Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T.; Matsumoto, R. |; Shibata, K.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented.

  12. Magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    1985-11-01

    The flow of plasma and magnetic flux toward a wall is examined in a slab geometry where the magnetic field is parallel to the wall. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with a quasisteady approximation is assumed that reduces the problem to three coupled ordinary differential equations. The calculated behavior shows that a thin current sheath is established at the wall in which a variety of phenomena appear, including significant resistive heating and rapid deceleration of the plasma flow. The sheath physics determines the speed at which flux and plasma flow toward the wall. The model has been applied to the field-reversal phase of a field-reversed theta pinch, during which the reduced magnetic field near the wall drives an outward flow of plasma and magnetic flux. The analysis leads to approximate expressions for the instantaneous flow speed, the loss of magnetic flux during the field reversal phase, the integrated heat flow to the wall, and the highest possible magnetic flux retained after reversal. Predictions from this model are compared with previous time-dependent MHD calculations and with experimental results from the TRX-1 [Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on the Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids, 27-29 October 1981 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 1982), p. 61] and TRX-2 [Proceedings of the 6th U.S. Symposium on Compact Toroid Research, 20-23 February, 1984 (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 1984), p. 154] experiments.

  13. Photospheric Injection of Magnetic Helicity: Connectivity-Based Flux Density Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmasse, K.; Pariat, E.; Dmoulin, P.; Aulanier, G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic helicity quantifies the degree to which the magnetic field in a volume is globally sheared and/or twisted. This quantity is believed to play a key role in solar activity due to its conservation property. Helicity is continuously injected into the corona during the evolution of active regions (ARs). To better understand and quantify the role of magnetic helicity in solar activity, the distribution of magnetic helicity flux in ARs needs to be studied. The helicity distribution can be computed from the temporal evolution of photospheric magnetograms of ARs such as the ones provided by SDO/HMI and Hinode/SOT. Most recent analyses of photospheric helicity flux derived a proxy to the helicity-flux density based on the relative rotation rate of photospheric magnetic footpoints. Although this proxy allows a good estimate of the photospheric helicity flux, it is still not a true helicity flux density because it does not take into account the connectivity of the magnetic field lines. For the first time, we implement a helicity density that takes this connectivity into account. To use it for future observational studies, we tested the method and its precision on several types of models involving different patterns of helicity injection. We also tested it on more complex configurations - from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations - containing quasi-separatrix layers. We demonstrate that this connectivity-based proxy is best-suited to map the true distribution of photospheric helicity injection.

  14. Laboratory simulation of arched magnetic flux rope eruptions in the solar atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S K P; Gekelman, W

    2010-08-13

    Dramatic eruption of an arched magnetic flux rope in a large ambient plasma has been studied in a laboratory experiment that simulates coronal loops. The eruption is initiated by laser generated plasma flows from the footpoints of the rope that significantly modify the magnetic-field topology and link the magnetic-field lines of the rope with the ambient plasma. Following this event, the flux rope erupts by releasing its plasma into the background. The resulting impulse excites intense magnetosonic waves that transfer energy to the ambient plasma and subsequently decay. PMID:20868055

  15. CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Lopin, Igor; Nagorny, Ivan

    2013-09-10

    The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.

  16. Evaluation of magnetic flux distribution from magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] nanowires by magnetic domain scope method using contact-scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Mitsunobu Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Hayashi, Naoto

    2014-05-07

    Current-driven magnetic domain wall motions in magnetic nanowires have attracted great interests for physical studies and engineering applications. The magnetic force microscope (MFM) is widely used for indirect verification of domain locations in nanowires, where relative magnetic force between the local domains and the MFM probe is used for detection. However, there is an occasional problem that the magnetic moments of MFM probe influenced and/or rotated the magnetic states in the low-moment nanowires. To solve this issue, the “magnetic domain scope for wide area with nano-order resolution (nano-MDS)” method has been proposed recently that could detect the magnetic flux distribution from the specimen directly by scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive field sensor. In this study, magnetic domain structure in nanowires was investigated by both MFM and nano-MDS, and the leakage magnetic flux density from the nanowires was measured quantitatively by nano-MDS. Specimen nanowires consisted from [Co (0.3)/Pd (1.2)]{sub 21}/Ru(3) films (units in nm) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated onto Si substrates by dual ion beam sputtering and e-beam lithography. The length and the width of the fabricated nanowires are 20 μm and 150 nm. We have succeeded to obtain not only the remanent domain images with the detection of up and down magnetizations as similar as those by MFM but also magnetic flux density distribution from nanowires directly by nano-MDS. The obtained value of maximum leakage magnetic flux by nano-MDS is in good agreement with that of coercivity by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. By changing the protective diamond-like-carbon film thickness on tunneling magnetoresistive sensor, the three-dimensional spatial distribution of leakage magnetic flux could be evaluated.

  17. Evaluation of magnetic flux distribution from magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] nanowires by magnetic domain scope method using contact-scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Mitsunobu; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Hayashi, Naoto

    2014-05-01

    Current-driven magnetic domain wall motions in magnetic nanowires have attracted great interests for physical studies and engineering applications. The magnetic force microscope (MFM) is widely used for indirect verification of domain locations in nanowires, where relative magnetic force between the local domains and the MFM probe is used for detection. However, there is an occasional problem that the magnetic moments of MFM probe influenced and/or rotated the magnetic states in the low-moment nanowires. To solve this issue, the "magnetic domain scope for wide area with nano-order resolution (nano-MDS)" method has been proposed recently that could detect the magnetic flux distribution from the specimen directly by scanning of tunneling magnetoresistive field sensor. In this study, magnetic domain structure in nanowires was investigated by both MFM and nano-MDS, and the leakage magnetic flux density from the nanowires was measured quantitatively by nano-MDS. Specimen nanowires consisted from [Co (0.3)/Pd (1.2)]21/Ru(3) films (units in nm) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated onto Si substrates by dual ion beam sputtering and e-beam lithography. The length and the width of the fabricated nanowires are 20 ?m and 150 nm. We have succeeded to obtain not only the remanent domain images with the detection of up and down magnetizations as similar as those by MFM but also magnetic flux density distribution from nanowires directly by nano-MDS. The obtained value of maximum leakage magnetic flux by nano-MDS is in good agreement with that of coercivity by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. By changing the protective diamond-like-carbon film thickness on tunneling magnetoresistive sensor, the three-dimensional spatial distribution of leakage magnetic flux could be evaluated.

  18. Equilibrium features and eruptive instabilities in laboratory magnetic flux rope plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Clayton E; Yamada, Masaaki; Belova, Elena V; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Fox, William

    2014-06-01

    One avenue for connecting laboratory and solar plasma studies is to carry out laboratory plasma experiments that serve as a well-diagnosed model for specific solar phenomena. In this paper, we present the latest results from one such laboratory experiment that is designed to address ideal instabilities that drive flux rope eruptions in the solar corona. The experiment, which utilizes the existing Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, generates a quasi-statically driven line-tied magnetic flux rope in a solar-relevant potential field arcade. The parameters of the potential field arcade (e.g., its magnitude, orientation, and vertical profile) are systematically scanned in order to study their influence on the evolution and possible eruption of the line-tied flux rope. Each flux rope discharge is diagnosed using a combination of fast visible light cameras and an in situ 2D magnetic probe array that measures all three components of the magnetic field over a large cross-section of the plasma. In this paper, we present the first results obtained from this new 2D magnetic probe array. With regard to the flux rope equilibrium, non-potential features such as the formation of a characteristic sigmoid shape and the generation of core toroidal field within the flux rope are studied in detail. With regard to instabilities, the onset and evolution of two key eruptive instabilitiesthe kink and torus instabilitiesare quantitatively assessed as a function of the potential field arcade parameters and the amount of magnetic energy stored in the flux rope.This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the NSF/DoE Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO).

  19. RMHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipations in Poynting flux dominated jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai

    2015-01-01

    We perform a 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulation to study the collision between high-? magnetic blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components, which can mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting flux dominated jet. We discover a significant Poynting flux energy dissipation component in addition to the dissipation due to the evolution of the blob without collision. We identify this additional Poynting flux energy dissipation as being mainly facilitated by the collision driven magnetic reconnections, through both observing the reconnection events in the simulations and quantitative calculations of the energy dissipation rate. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that our results are nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. Our results give a good support to some theories in astrophysical systems, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) model for GRBs, and some reconnection triggered mini-jet model for AGNs.

  20. Magnetic damping forces in figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Coffey, H.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses magnetic damping forces in figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension systems, focusing on the Holloman maglev rocket system. The paper also discusses simulating the damping plate, which is attached to the superconducting magnet by two short-circuited loop coils in the guideway. Closed-form formulas for the magnetic damping coefficient as functions of heave-and-sway displacements are derived by using a dynamic circuit model. These formulas are useful for dynamic stability studies.

  1. Twist accumulation and topology structure of a solar magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Cheng, X.; Zhao, J.; Pariat, E.

    2013-12-20

    To study the buildup of a magnetic flux rope before a major flare and coronal mass ejection (CME), we compute the magnetic helicity injection, twist accumulation, and topology structure of the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field, which is derived by the nonlinear force-free field model. The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory observed a series of confined flares without any CME before a major flare with a CME at 23:02 UT on 2005 January 15 in active region NOAA 10720. We derive the vector velocity at eight time points from 18:27 UT to 22:20 UT with the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetic fields, which were observed by the Digital Vector Magnetograph at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The injected magnetic helicity is computed with the vector magnetic and velocity fields. The helicity injection rate was ( 16.47 3.52) 10{sup 40} Mx{sup 2} hr{sup 1}. We find that only about 1.8% of the injected magnetic helicity became the internal helicity of the magnetic flux rope, whose twist increasing rate was 0.18 0.08 Turns hr{sup 1}. The quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the 3D magnetic field are computed by evaluating the squashing degree, Q. We find that the flux rope was wrapped by QSLs with large Q values, where the magnetic reconnection induced by the continuously injected magnetic helicity further produced the confined flares. We suggest that the flux rope was built up and heated by the magnetic reconnection in the QSLs.

  2. Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise

    SciTech Connect

    Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric

    2014-08-15

    We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrdinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.

  3. Gaussian approximation and single-spin measurement in magnetic resonance force microscopy with spin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Shesha; Brun, Todd A.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    A promising technique for measuring single electron spins is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in which a microcantilever with a permanent magnetic tip is resonantly driven by a single oscillating spin. The most effective experimental technique is the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAR) protocol, in which the signal takes the form of a frequency shift. If the quality factor of the cantilever is high enough, this signal will be amplified over time to the point where it can be detected by optical or other techniques. An important requirement, however, is that this measurement process occurs on a time scale that is short compared to any noise which disturbs the orientation of the measured spin. We describe a model of spin noise for the MRFM system and show how this noise is transformed to become time dependent in going to the usual rotating frame. We simplify the description of the cantilever-spin system by approximating the cantilever wave function as a Gaussian wave packet and show that the resulting approximation closely matches the full quantum behavior. We then examine the problem of detecting the signal for a cantilever with thermal noise and spin with spin noise, deriving a condition for this to be a useful measurement.

  4. Gaussian approximation and single-spin measurement in magnetic resonance force microscopy with spin noise

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, Shesha; Brun, Todd A.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2010-11-15

    A promising technique for measuring single electron spins is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in which a microcantilever with a permanent magnetic tip is resonantly driven by a single oscillating spin. The most effective experimental technique is the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAR) protocol, in which the signal takes the form of a frequency shift. If the quality factor of the cantilever is high enough, this signal will be amplified over time to the point where it can be detected by optical or other techniques. An important requirement, however, is that this measurement process occurs on a time scale that is short compared to any noise which disturbs the orientation of the measured spin. We describe a model of spin noise for the MRFM system and show how this noise is transformed to become time dependent in going to the usual rotating frame. We simplify the description of the cantilever-spin system by approximating the cantilever wave function as a Gaussian wave packet and show that the resulting approximation closely matches the full quantum behavior. We then examine the problem of detecting the signal for a cantilever with thermal noise and spin with spin noise, deriving a condition for this to be a useful measurement.

  5. A neutron diffraction and magnetic Barkhausen noise evaluation of defect-induced stress concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet-Sharghi, Riaz

    This thesis studies the effect of altering both the drilling technique (mechanical drilling vs. Electro-Chemical Milling) and the sequence of defect introduction and load application on the defect-induced stress distributions in sections of line pipe steel material. The defect-induced stress concentrations in loaded samples with defects introduced whilst loaded (in-situ) and prior to the application of load (pre-drilled) were examined using both neutron diffraction and Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN). These results indicated the presence of potentially large levels of residual stress particularly in the in-situ sample. This is believed to be a result of plastic deformation being introduced by the mechanical drilling process. Similar studies on ECM defects showed no signs of drilling-induced stresses. Experimental stress distribution results from the in-situ and pre-drilled samples were compared to those predicted using a three-dimensional finite element model solution. The overall level of agreement was found to be best for the pre-drilled sample case. The study also aimed to determine the effectiveness of MBN as a non-destructive method for characterizing line pipe samples. Results of an initial experiment are presented showing the effectiveness of MBN for performing quantitative strain analysis on samples. This was determined by comparing MBN-measured stress concentrations with those predicted by theory and reported in the literature. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) tests were also performed on the samples in order to examine any stress-induced differences in MFL response. It was found that the differences in stress distribution between the in-situ and pre-drilled samples were also reflected in the trend of the MFL signal amplitude and shape as a function of applied stress. The original work in this thesis includes the first definitive test of the effects of the order of load application and defect introduction on the resulting stress distributions around through-wall holes in plate samples. This effect will have implications for the more accurate sizing of defects and the determination of optimum operating pressures for in-service pipelines. In addition, a comprehensive study is included of the various factors effecting MBN signals from ferromagnetic samples, factors which will influence its wide-spread application as an NDE technique.

  6. The spatial structure of Martian magnetic flux ropes recovered by the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takuya; Seki, Kanako; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Brain, David A.; Matsunaga, Kazunari; Saito, Miho H.

    2014-02-01

    We applied the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction technique to Martian magnetic flux ropes observed by Mars Global Surveyor in order to estimate their spatial structures. This technique can provide a magnetic field map of their cross section from single spacecraft data, under the assumption that the structure is two-dimensional, magnetohydrostatic, and time independent. We succeeded in recovering the spatial structure for 70 events observed between April 1999 and November 2006. The reconstruction results indicate that the flux rope axes were mostly oriented horizontal to the Martian surface and were randomly distributed with respect to the typical plasma streamline. A subset of events with duration longer than 240 s was observed at solar zenith angles larger than 75. These events all occur downstream from strong crustal magnetic field in the southern hemisphere, indicating an association between the crustal fields and the detected flux ropes. Using the shape and size of the flux ropes obtained from the GS reconstruction, we estimate lower limits on their volume that span 2-3 orders of magnitude, with larger flux ropes observed downstream from strong crustal magnetic fields. Estimated ion escape rates associated with flux ropes are of the order of 1022-1023 ion/s, being approximately 10% of previously estimated escape rates during solar minimum.

  7. ON POLAR MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSAL AND SURFACE FLUX TRANSPORT DURING SOLAR CYCLE 24

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xudong; Todd Hoeksema, J.; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Junwei

    2015-01-10

    As each solar cycle progresses, remnant magnetic flux from active regions (ARs) migrates poleward to cancel the old-cycle polar field. We describe this polarity reversal process during Cycle 24 using four years (2010.33-2014.33) of line-of-sight magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. The total flux associated with ARs reached maximum in the north in 2011, more than two years earlier than the south; the maximum is significantly weaker than Cycle 23. The process of polar field reversal is relatively slow, north-south asymmetric, and episodic. We estimate that the global axial dipole changed sign in 2013 October; the northern and southern polar fields (mean above 60 latitude) reversed in 2012 November and 2014 March, respectively, about 16 months apart. Notably, the poleward surges of flux in each hemisphere alternated in polarity, giving rise to multiple reversals in the north. We show that the surges of the trailing sunspot polarity tend to correspond to normal mean AR tilt, higher total AR flux, or slower mid-latitude near-surface meridional flow, while exceptions occur during low magnetic activity. In particular, the AR flux and the mid-latitude poleward flow speed exhibit a clear anti-correlation. We discuss how these features can be explained in a surface flux transport process that includes a field-dependent converging flow toward the ARs, a characteristic that may contribute to solar cycle variability.

  8. ELF-magnetic flux densities measured in a city environment in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Straume, Aksel; Johnsson, Anders; Oftedal, Gunnhild

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a connection between extremely low frequency magnetic flux densities above 0.4 microT (time weighted average) and childhood leukemia risks. This conclusion is based mainly on indoor exposure measurements. We therefore regarded it important to map outdoor magnetic flux densities in public areas in Trondheim, Norway. Because of seasonal power consumption variations, the fields were measured during both summer and winter. Magnetic flux density was mapped 1.0 m above the ground along 17 km of pavements in downtown Trondheim. The spectrum was measured at some spots and the magnetic flux density emanated mainly from the power frequency of 50 Hz. In summer less than 4% of the streets showed values exceeding 0.4 microT, increasing to 29% and 34% on cold and on snowy winter days, respectively. The average levels were 0.13 microT (summer), 0.85 microT (winter, cold), and 0.90 microT (winter, snow), with the highest recorded value of 37 microT. High spot measurements were usually encountered above underground transformer substations. In winter electric heating of pavements also gave rise to relatively high flux densities. There was no indication that the ICNIRP basic restriction was exceeded. It would be of interest to map the flux density situation in other cities and towns with a cold climate. PMID:17786926

  9. Relaxation of flux ropes and magnetic reconnection in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment at LANL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furno, I.; Intrator, T.; Hemsing, E.; Hsu, S.; Lapenta, G.; Abbate, S.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection and plasma relaxation are studied in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) with current carrying plasma columns (magnetic flux ropes). Using plasma guns, multiple flux ropes (B? ? 100 Gauss, L=90 cm, r?3 cm) are generated in a three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry and are observed to evolve dynamically during the injection of magnetic helicity. Detailed evolution of electron density, temperature, plasma potential and magnetic field structures is reconstructed experimentally and visible light emission is captured with a fast-gated, intensified CCD camera to provide insight into the global flux rope dynamics. Experiments with two flux ropes in collisional plasmas and in a strong axial guide field (Bz / B? > 10) suggest that magnetic reconnection plays an important role in the initial stages of flux rope evolution. During the early stages of the applied current drive (t? 20 ? Alfv {e}n), the flux ropes are observed to twist, partially coalesce and form a thin current sheet with a scale size comparable to that of the ion sound gyro-radius. Here, non-ideal terms in a generalized Ohm's Law appear to play a significant role in the 3D reconnection process as shown by the presence of a strong axial pressure gradient in the current sheet. In addition, a density perturbation with a structure characteristic of a kinetic Alfvn wave is observed to propagate axially in the current layer, anti-parallel to the induced sheet current. Later in the evolution, when a sufficient amount of helicity is injected into the system, a critical threshold for the kink instability is exceeded and the helical twisting of each individual flux rope can dominate the dynamics of the system. This may prevent the complete coalescence of the flux ropes.

  10. Relaxation of flux ropes and magnetic reconnection in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment at LANL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furno, Ivo

    2004-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection and plasma relaxation are studied in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) with current carrying plasma columns (magnetic flux ropes). Using plasma guns, multiple flux ropes (B_pol < 100 Gauss, L=90 cm, r < 3 cm) are generated in a three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry and are observed to evolve dynamically during the injection of magnetic helicity. Detailed evolution of electron density, temperature, plasma potential and magnetic field structures is reconstructed experimentally and visible light emission is captured with a fast-gated, intensified CCD camera to provide insight into the global flux rope dynamics. Experiments with two flux ropes in collisional plasmas and in a strong axial guide field (Bz / B_pol > 10) suggest that magnetic reconnection plays an important role in the initial stages of flux rope evolution. During the early stages of the applied current drive (t < 20?_Alfven), the flux ropes are observed to twist, partially coalesce and form a thin current sheet with a scale size comparable to that of the ion sound gyro-radius. Here, non-ideal terms in a generalized Ohm's Law appear to play a significant role in the 3D reconnection process as shown by the presence of a strong axial pressure gradient in the current sheet. In addition, a density perturbation with a structure characteristic of a kinetic Alfvn wave is observed to propagate axially in the current layer, anti-parallel to the induced sheet current. Later in the evolution, when a sufficient amount of helicity is injected into the system, a critical threshold for the kink instability is exceeded and the helical twisting of each individual flux rope can dominate the dynamics of the system. This may prevent the complete coalescence of the flux ropes.

  11. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  12. Characterizing and modeling magnetic flux transport in the sun's photosphere and determining its impact on the sunspot cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Lisa A.

    The characterization and modeling of magnetic flux transport within the surface layers of the Sun are vital to explaining the sunspot cycle. The Sun's polar fields at solar cycle minimum are the seeds of the next solar cycle: weak polar fields produce weak cycles. Magnetic flux transport is key to the buildup of the polar fields and the subsequent magnetic reversals that are essential to modulating the sunspot cycle. The primary goals of this dissertation are threefold: 1. Make precise measurements of the Sun's axisymmetric flows (i.e., differential rotation and meridional flow). 2. Create a realistic surface flux transport model that reproduces the magnetic field evolution at the surface by incorporating the observed flows. 3. Investigate the role of flux transport in modulating the polar fields, and thereby the solar activity cycle. This work has been done in collaboration with Dr. David H. Hathaway of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. In Chapter 1, I provide an introduction to the Sun as a star. I begin with a discussion on stellar structure and evolution. I then discuss the techniques and instruments that have been used to study the Sun. I conclude Chapter 1 with a section on magnetic activity cycles on the Sun and in other stars. Magnetic flux on the Sun is transported by supergranular flows and the axisymmetric flows of differential rotation (DR) and meridional flow (MF). In Chapter 2, I introduce these flows. I then show a derivation of the Surface Flux Transport equation starting from Maxwell's equations and Ohm's Law. I conclude this chapter with an introduction to prior Surface Flux Transport models. In Chapter 3, I discuss a cross-correlation technique that we have used on magnetograms (maps of the magnetic field strengths over the surface of the Sun) to characterize the DR and MF and their variations from 1996 to present. Results show that while variability in DR is negligible, the MF varies in two fundamental ways: over the course of a solar cycle and from one cycle to the next. The MF is faster at solar cycle minimum and slower at maximum. Furthermore, the MF speeds that preceded the Solar Cycle 23/24 minimum were 20% faster than the MF speeds that preceded the prior minimum. This faster MF may have led to weaker polar field strengths and thus the subsequent extended solar minimum and an unusually weak Cycle 24. To understand the impact flux transport on the evolution of the polar fields, I have conducted experiments using a surface magnetic flux transport model, introduced in Chapter 4, that we have developed. This model advects the magnetic flux emerging in active regions (sunspots) using detailed observations of the near-surface flows that transport the magnetic elements. These flows include the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric cellular convective flows (supergranules), all of which vary in time in the model as indicated by direct observations. At each time step, magnetic maps of the entire Sun are created. These maps are used to create plots of the Sun's axial dipole moment, a measure of the polar field. Also in Chapter 4, I illustrate how this model is used to create a baseline. In this regime, the model assimilates (i.e. continually adds in data weighted by its noise level) magnetic data from magnetograms at all available latitudes. This ensures that it accurately represents the magnetic fields observed on the surface of the Sun. This baseline is used to illustrate the difference in the timing of the polar field reversals based on four different definitions of polar fields. Advantages and disadvantages of each of these definitions are discussed. In Chapter 5, I discuss how the model is used in a predictive or simulation regime. I have tested the predictability of this model using a baseline map as an initial condition, but with daily sunspot area data used to give the sources of new magnetic flux. I found that the strength of the polar fields at cycle minimum and the polar field reversals at cycle maximum can be reliably predicted up to 3 years in adv

  13. Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bezerra, V. B.; Saharian, A. A.; Harutyunyan, H. H.

    2015-03-01

    We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

  14. ABSORPTION OF p MODES BY THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rekha; Hindman, Bradley W.; Braun, Doug C.; Birch, Aaron C.

    2009-04-10

    We study the interaction between p modes and the many magnetic fibrils that lace the solar convection zone. In particular, we investigate the resulting absorption of p-mode energy by the fibril magnetic field. Through mechanical buffeting, the p modes excite tube waves on the magnetic fibrils-in the form of longitudinal sausage waves and transverse kink waves. The tube waves propagate up and down the magnetic fibrils and out of the p-mode cavity, thereby removing energy from the incident acoustic waves. We compute the absorption coefficient associated with this damping mechanism and model the absorption that would be observed for magnetic plage. We compare our results to the absorption coefficient that is measured using the local-helioseismic technique of ridge-filtered holography. We find that, depending on the mode order and the photospheric boundary conditions, we can achieve absorption coefficients for simulated plage that exceed 50%. The observed increase of the absorption coefficient as a function of frequency is reproduced for all model parameters.

  15. Noise annoyance caused by magnetic levitation train passbys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Joos

    2001-05-01

    In a laboratory study, the annoyance caused by the passby sounds from a magnetic levitation (maglev) train was investigated. The outdoor A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) of the maglev sounds varied from 65 to 90 dB. The driving speed of the maglev train varied from 100 to 400 km/h. Four important results were obtained. Provided that the outdoor ASELs were the same, (1) the annoyance was independent of the driving speed of the maglev train, (2) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was considerably higher than that caused by intercity trains, (3) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was hardly different from that caused by road traffic (passenger cars and trucks), and (4) the results (1)-(3) held true both for open or closed windows. On the basis of the present results, it might be expected that the sounds are equally annoying if the ASELs of the maglev-train passbys are at least 5 dB lower than those of the intercity train passbys. Consequently, the results of the present experiment do not support application of a railway bonus to the maglev-train sounds. Issues for future research, such as exploring further contributions of nonacoustic factors, will be discussed.

  16. White noise response of turbine blades subjected to heat flux and thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Karadag, V.; Aba, E.; Morguel, O.K.

    1997-07-01

    Design and production of the complex mechanical structures rarely result in an optimal solution. A typical example for this is a turbine blade design. Fatigue failures of the turbine blades is one of the most vexing problems of turbo-machine manufacturers, ever since the steam turbine became the main stay for power generating equipment and the gas turbines are increasingly used in air transport. Turbine blade failures due to fatigue are predominantly vibration related. The dynamic loads on the blading can arise from many different sources such as the high rotational speed, the high operating temperatures, the asymmetric aerofil tapered form of the turbine blade etc. Therefore, vibratory analysis is one of the most important stage in the designing of the turbine blades. In this study, the random response of the turbine blade to white noise excitation has been consistently calculated, including the internal damping mechanisms of the blade. Beside the damping effects, the rotational speed and the linear thermal gradient along the turbine blade are incorporated into the analysis. Pressure difference between the two surfaces of the turbine blades are modelled as white noise excitation along all over the turbine blade. The system dynamic equation of motion are derived and solved by using the combined Finite Element-Modal Analysis Method.

  17. An accurate symplectic calculation of the inboard magnetic footprint from statistical topological noise and field errors in the DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2011-02-15

    Any canonical transformation of Hamiltonian equations is symplectic, and any area-preserving transformation in 2D is a symplectomorphism. Based on these, a discrete symplectic map and its continuous symplectic analog are derived for forward magnetic field line trajectories in natural canonical coordinates. The unperturbed axisymmetric Hamiltonian for magnetic field lines is constructed from the experimental data in the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The equilibrium Hamiltonian is a highly accurate, analytic, and realistic representation of the magnetic geometry of the DIII-D. These symplectic mathematical maps are used to calculate the magnetic footprint on the inboard collector plate in the DIII-D. Internal statistical topological noise and field errors are irreducible and ubiquitous in magnetic confinement schemes for fusion. It is important to know the stochasticity and magnetic footprint from noise and error fields. The estimates of the spectrum and mode amplitudes of the spatial topological noise and magnetic errors in the DIII-D are used as magnetic perturbation. The discrete and continuous symplectic maps are used to calculate the magnetic footprint on the inboard collector plate of the DIII-D by inverting the natural coordinates to physical coordinates. The combination of highly accurate equilibrium generating function, natural canonical coordinates, symplecticity, and small step-size together gives a very accurate calculation of magnetic footprint. Radial variation of magnetic perturbation and the response of plasma to perturbation are not included. The inboard footprint from noise and errors are dominated by m=3, n=1 mode. The footprint is in the form of a toroidally winding helical strip. The width of stochastic layer scales as (1/2) power of amplitude. The area of footprint scales as first power of amplitude. The physical parameters such as toroidal angle, length, and poloidal angle covered before striking, and the safety factor all have fractal structure. The average field diffusion near the X-point for lines that strike and that do not strike differs by about three to four orders of magnitude. The magnetic footprint gives the maximal bounds on size and heat flux density on collector plate.

  18. Equilibrium force balance and eruptive instabilities in solar-relevant laboratory magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Belova, E. V.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.

    2013-10-01

    Quasi-statically driven line-tied magnetic flux ropes are studied in the context of storage-and-release eruptions in the solar corona. The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) facility is utilized to produce these arched low- ? flux ropes. Detailed in situ magnetic measurements and supporting MHD simulations permit quantitative analysis of the plasma behavior. We find that the orientation of the applied potential magnetic field arcade with respect to the flux rope footpoints (i.e., the electrodes) is key. With an arcade that is aligned parallel to the footpoints, force free currents induced in the expanding flux rope modify the pressure and tension in the arcade to produce a confined, quiescent discharge and a saturated kink instability. In an obliquely aligned arcade, on the other hand, a sigmoidal equilibrium forms that can dynamically erupt. Both the kink instability and the torus instability are studied as candidate eruptive mechanisms--the latter by varying the vertical gradient of the potential field arcade. New 2D magnetic measurements of these equilibrium and eruptive features facilitate comparisons to solar observations and modeling. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO).

  19. The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B sub yN. As a consequence of B sub yN ne 0 the plasmoid gets a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing number of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of ad hoc plasmoid models.

  20. The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD-simulation of magnetotail reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component ByN. As a consequence of ByN ≠ 0 the plasmoid assumes a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of an ad-hoc plasmoid model.

  1. The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD-simulation of magnetotail reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    On the basis of a 3D MHD simulation, the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration (including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B sub y N is discussed. As a consequence of B sub y N not equalling 0, the plasmoid assumes a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage, topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of an ad hoc plasmoid model.

  2. A flux-mnemonic permanent magnet brushless machine for wind power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chuang; Chau, K. T.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the concept of flux mnemonics is newly extended to the wind power generator. By incorporating a small magnetizing winding into an outer-rotor doubly salient AlNiCo permanent magnet (PM) machine, a new flux-mnemonic PM brushless wind power generator is proposed and implemented. This generator can offer effective and efficient air-gap flux control. First, the characteristics of the proposed generator are analyzed by using the finite element method. Second, the closed-loop flux control is devised to achieve a constant generated voltage under time-varying wind speeds. Finally, the experimental results are given to verify the validity of the proposed generator and control system.

  3. Plasma ? Scaling of Anisotropic Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Flux Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of "spaghetti"-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma ? dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma ?. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  4. The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B/sub yN/. As a consequence of b/sub yN/ /ne/ 0 the plasmid gets a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of ad-hoc plasmid models. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Plasma ? scaling of anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind flux tube

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima E-mail: amitava@princeton.edu

    2014-03-10

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of 'spaghetti'-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma ? dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma ?. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  6. Accurate periodicity measurement of superconducting quantum interference device magnetic flux response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    It is theoretically explained that a response of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is periodically dependent on total magnetic flux coupling to the SQUID ring (?) and its period is a flux quantum (?o=h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). For example, the voltage of an electromagnetically oscillated rf-SQUID or a current biased dc-SQUID is thought to be periodically dependent on ? with a period of ?o. In this paper, we propose an accurate method to check the periodicity of a SQUID response by using a set of sensing coils covered with a superconducting sheath. As a demonstration, we measured periodicity of a commercially available thin-film type rf-SQUID response in magnetic flux ranging up to approximately 4300?o. Its flux dependence was periodic below about 3400?o.

  7. Parallel heat flux and flow acceleration in open field line plasmas with magnetic trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, Chris

    2014-10-15

    The magnetic field strength modulation in a tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) provides both flux expansion next to the divertor plates and magnetic trapping in a large portion of the SOL. Previously, we have focused on a flux expander with long mean-free-path, motivated by the high temperature and low density edge anticipated for an absorbing boundary enabled by liquid lithium surfaces. Here, the effects of magnetic trapping and a marginal collisionality on parallel heat flux and parallel flow acceleration are examined. The various transport mechanisms are captured by kinetic simulations in a simple but representative mirror-expander geometry. The observed parallel flow acceleration is interpreted and elucidated with a modified Chew-Goldberger-Low model that retains temperature anisotropy and finite collisionality.

  8. Study of the magnetic flux density distribution of nickel coated aluminum foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, A.; Natter, H.; Hempelmann, R.; Diebels, S.; Koblischka, M. R.; Hartmann, U.; Lach, E.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell aluminum foams are metal cellular structures with a large volume fraction of pores. Due to their high stiffness to weight ratio, they are commonly used in applications for energy absorption and mechanical damping. The stiffness of the aluminum foam was increased by a nanocrystalline nickel coating via an electrodeposition process. The deposition process and thus the coating thickness strongly depend on mass transport limitations. To visualize the coating thickness distribution of the foam, we measured the magnetic flux density distribution by scanning the surface of cuts of coated foams with a commercial Hall probe. By measuring the magnetic flux density distribution, deposition parameters as the current density and flow conditions could be optimized with regard to a more homogeneous coating thickness distribution. Furthermore, a model of the mass transport limitation at a complex three dimensional foam electrode could be evaluated from the magnetic flux density distribution of the nickel coated foam cuts.

  9. Parallel heat flux and flow acceleration in open field line plasmas with magnetic trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The magnetic field strength modulation in a tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) provides both flux expansion next to the divertor plates and magnetic trapping in a large portion of the SOL. Previously, we have focused on a flux expander with long mean-free-path, motivated by the high temperature and low density edge anticipated for an absorbing boundary enabled by liquid lithium surfaces. Here, the effects of magnetic trapping and a marginal collisionality on parallel heat flux and parallel flow acceleration are examined. The various transport mechanisms are captured by kinetic simulations in a simple but representative mirror-expander geometry. The observed parallel flow acceleration is interpreted and elucidated with a modified Chew-Goldberger-Low model that retains temperature anisotropy and finite collisionality.

  10. Theoretical Noise Analysis on a Position-sensitive Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the theoretical noise analysis for a position-sensitive Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter (MMC), consisting of MMC read-out at both ends of a large X-ray absorber. Such devices are under consideration as alternatives to other cryogenic technologies for future X-ray astronomy missions. We use a finite-element model (FEM) to numerically calculate the signal and noise response at the detector outputs and investigate the correlations between the noise measured at each MMC coupled by the absorber. We then calculate, using the optimal filter concept, the theoretical energy and position resolution across the detector and discuss the trade-offs involved in optimizing the detector design for energy resolution, position resolution and count rate. The results show, theoretically, the position-sensitive MMC concept offers impressive spectral and spatial resolving capabilities compared to pixel arrays and similar position-sensitive cryogenic technologies using Transition Edge Sensor (TES) read-out.

  11. Performance comparison of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors in BLDC and BLAC operation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tumberger, B.; tumberger, G.; Hadiselimovi?, M.; Hamler, A.; Gori?an, V.; Jesenik, M.; Trlep, M.

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability and flux-weakening performance of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors with surface and inset permanent magnets. Finite element analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor in BLDC and BLAC operation mode. It is shown that the torque capability and flux-weakening performance of surface or inset permanent magnet configuration is strongly dependent on the stator teeth number/rotor pole number combination.

  12. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE TWO-STEP EMERGENCE OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, S.; Yokoyama, T.

    2011-07-10

    We present the new results of the two-dimensional numerical experiments on the cross-sectional evolution of a twisted magnetic flux tube rising from the deeper solar convection zone (-20,000 km) to the corona through the surface. The initial depth is 10 times deeper than most of the previous calculations focusing on the flux emergence from the uppermost convection zone. We find that the evolution is illustrated by the following two-step process. The initial tube rises due to its buoyancy, subject to aerodynamic drag due to the external flow. Because of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field, the tube maintains its coherency and does not deform to become a vortex roll pair. When the flux tube approaches the photosphere and expands sufficiently, the plasma on the rising tube accumulates to suppress the tube's emergence. Therefore, the flux decelerates and extends horizontally beneath the surface. This new finding owes to our large-scale simulation, which simultaneously calculates the dynamics within the interior as well as above the surface. As the magnetic pressure gradient increases around the surface, magnetic buoyancy instability is triggered locally and, as a result, the flux rises further into the solar corona. We also find that the deceleration occurs at a higher altitude than assumed in our previous experiment using magnetic flux sheets. By conducting parametric studies, we investigate the conditions for the two-step emergence of the rising flux tube: field strength {approx}> 1.5 x 10{sup 4} G and the twist {approx}> 5.0 x 10{sup -4} km{sup -1} at -20,000 km depth.

  13. Cross-tail magnetic flux ropes as observed by the GEOTAIL spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Fairfield, D. H.; Jones, J.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ten transient magnetic structures in Earth's magnetotail, as observed in GEOTAIL measurements, selected for early 1993 (at (-) X(sub GSM) = 90 - 130 Earth radii), are shown to have helical magnetic field configurations similar to those of interplanetary magnetic clouds at 1 AU but smaller in size by a factor of approximately = 700. Such structures are shown to be well approximated by a comprehensive magnetic force-free flux-rope model. For this limited set of 10 events the rope axes are seen to be typically aligned with the Y(sub GSM) axis and the average diameter of these structures is approximately = 15 Earth radii.

  14. Aurora and open magnetic flux during isolated substorms, sawteeth, and SMC events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejong, A. D.; Cai, X.; Clauer, R. C.; Spann, J. F.

    2007-08-01

    Using Polar UVI LBHl and IMAGE FUV WIC data, we have compared the auroral signatures and polar cap open flux for isolated substorms, sawteeth oscillations, and steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) events. First, a case study of each event type is performed, comparing auroral signatures and open magnetic fluxes to one another. The latitude location of the auroral oval is similar during isolated substorms and SMC events. The auroral intensity during SMC events is similar to that observed during the expansion phase of an isolated substorm. Examination of an individual sawtooth shows that the auroral intensity is much greater than the SMC or isolated substorm events and the auroral oval is displaced equatorward making a larger polar cap. The temporal variations observed during the individual sawtooth are similar to that observed during the isolated substorm, and while the change in polar cap flux measured during the sawtooth is larger, the percent change in flux is similar to that measured during the isolated substorm. These results are confirmed by a statistical analysis of events within these three classes. The results show that the auroral oval measured during individual sawteeth contains a polar cap with, on average, 150% more magnetic flux than the oval measured during isolated substorms or during SMC events. However, both isolated substorms and sawteeth show a 30% decrease in polar cap magnetic flux during the dipolarization (expansion) phase.

  15. Fabrication issues in optimizing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} flux transformers for low l/f noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, F.; Dantsker, E.; Nemeth, D.T.; Koelle, D.; Miklich, A.H.; Clarke, J.; Knappe, S.; Koch, H.; Thomson, R.E.

    1993-11-01

    We describe an improved interconnect technology for the fabrication of multiturn flux transformers from YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}-SrTiO{sub 3}-YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} multilayers. The essential improvements arc reductions in the thicknesses of the trilayer films, typically to 100 nm 250 nm and 250 mn respectively, and in the deposition rate, to 0.07 nm/laser pulse. This process yields crossovers in which the critical current density in the upper YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} film at 77K is (2-3) {times} 10{sup 6} A cm{sup {minus}2}. In situ trilayers exhibited 1/f flux noise levels at lHz below the measurement sensitivity of 15{mu}{Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup {minus}1/2}, where {Phi}{sub 0} is the flux quantum. However, the flux noise of trilayers in which each layer had been patterned was significantly higher. The best flip-chip magnetometer had a white noise of 40 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} increasing to 340 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at lHz; the corresponding flux noise levels were 9 {mu}{Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup {minus}l/2} and 75 {mu}{Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup {minus}l/2}, respectively.

  16. Competition between electric field and magnetic field noise in the decoherence of a single spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamonneau, P.; Lesik, M.; Tetienne, J. P.; Alvizu, I.; Mayer, L.; Dréau, A.; Kosen, S.; Roch, J.-F.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Teraji, T.; Kubo, Y.; Bertet, P.; Maze, J. R.; Jacques, V.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of electric field and magnetic field fluctuations in the decoherence of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond. To this end, we tune the amplitude of a magnetic field in order to engineer spin eigenstates protected either against magnetic noise or against electric noise. The competition between these noise sources is analyzed quantitatively by changing their relative strength through modifications of the host diamond material. This study provides significant insights into the decoherence of the NV electronic spin, which is valuable for quantum metrology and sensing applications.

  17. An H? Surge Provoked by Moving Magnetic Features near an Emerging Flux Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, D. H.; Kurokawa, H.; Berger, T. E.

    2007-02-01

    We present a detailed study of H? surges from cotemporal high-resolution multiwavelength images of NOAA AR 8227 obtained by the 50 cm Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (formerly situated on La Palma, Spain) and TRACE. We find that two kinds of collisions between opposite polarity magnetic flux produce the surges. First, one edge of an emerging flux region (EFR) collides with the preexisting magnetic field and causes continual surge activities, which have already been named EFR surges by previous authors. Secondly, moving magnetic features (MMFs), which emerge near the sunspot penumbra, pass through the ambient plasma and eventually collide with the opposite polarity magnetic field of the EFR. During their passage from the sunspot penumbra to the EFR, the MMFs constantly interacted with other magnetic elements and had a close relationship and showed similar flow patterns to Ca II K bright points. These brightenings were located at the leading edges of the MMFs. Cancellation of opposite polarity magnetic flux at the surge footpoint is observed, accompanied by chromospheric and coronal brightenings. We explain the evolutionary and morphological characteristics of the multiwavelength features associated with the H? surges in both cases by the extension of previous 2D schematic models of reconnection in surges. Furthermore, by measuring the expansion velocity and photospheric magnetic field around the surge footpoint, we estimate a dimensionless reconnection rate of 0.04 (ratio of inflow velocity to Alfvn velocity). This is sufficient to produce a significant surge that heats the chromospheric plasma to coronal temperatures.

  18. The Existence Condition for Magnetic Flux-Current Surfaces in Magnetohydrostatic Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, G. S.; No, J.; Kim, S.; Jang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetohydrostatic equilibria, in which the Lorentz force, the plasma pressure force and the gravitational force balance out to zero, are widely adopted as the zeroth order states of many space plasma systems. A magnetic flux-current surface is a surface, whose tangent plane is locally spanned by the magnetic field vector and the current density vector at each point in it; in other words, it is a surface, in which both magnetic field lines and current lines lie. We have derived the necessary and sufficient condition for existence of magnetic flux-current surfaces in magnetohydrostatic equilibria. It is also shown that the existence of flux-current surfaces is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for the ratio of gravity-aligned components of current density and magnetic field to be constant along each field line. However, its necessary and sufficient condition is found to be very restrictive. This finding gives a significant constraint in modeling solar coronal magnetic fields as force-free fields using photospheric magnetic field observations.

  19. Dynamic analysis of a magnetic bearing system with flux control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Josiah; Walsh, Thomas; Virgin, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    Using measured values of two-dimensional forces in a magnetic actuator, equations of motion for an active magnetic bearing are presented. The presence of geometric coupling between coordinate directions causes the equations of motion to be nonlinear. Two methods are used to examine the unbalance response of the system: simulation by direct integration in time; and determination of approximate steady state solutions by harmonic balance. For relatively large values of the derivative control coefficient, the system behaves in an essentially linear manner, but for lower values of this parameter, or for higher values of the coupling coefficient, the response shows a split of amplitudes in the two principal directions. This bifurcation is sensitive to initial conditions. The harmonic balance solution shows that the separation of amplitudes actually corresponds to a change in stability of multiple coexisting solutions.

  20. The stretching of magnetic flux tubes in the convective overshoot region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.; Mcclymont, Alexander N.; Chou, Dean-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of a magnetic flux tube initially lying at the bottom of the solar convective overshoot region. Stretching of the flux tube, e.g., by differential rotation, reduces its density, causing it to rise quasi-statically (a process referred to as vertical flux drift) until it reaches the top of the overshoot region and enters the buoyantly unstable convection region, from which a portion of it may ultimately protrude to form an active region on the surface. It is suggested that vertical flux drift and flux destabilization are inevitable consequences of field amplification, and it is surmised that these phenomena should be considered in self-consistent models of solar and stellar dynamos operating in the overshoot region.

  1. Bound oscillations on thin magnetic flux tubes - Convective instability and umbral oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.; Roberts, B.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility that 'tube waves' can be trapped on slender solar magnetic flux tubes is investigated. For rigid isothermal flux tubes, it is found that the flux tube geometry can by itself lead to waves which are trapped on the part of the tube that expands with height. Some geometries lead to trapped modes with eigenperiods near 180 s, if parameters appropriate to sunspot umbrae are chosen. It is possible that the umbral oscillations are a manifestation of such trapped waves, if sunspot umbrae consist of an assembly of slender flux tubes, as in the spaghetti model of Parker (1979). For flux tubes which have a constant ratio of Alfven speed to sound speed, it is found that it is primarily the variation of temperature with height which determines whether trapped waves can exist. Certain temperature profiles lead to disturbances for which omega squared is less than zero, corresponding to convective instability or Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  2. Bound oscillations on thin magnetic flux tubes: Convective instability and umbral oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, J.V.; Roberts, B.

    1981-11-01

    The possibility that ''tube waves'' can be trapped on slender solar magnetic flux tubes is investigated. For rigid isothermal flux tubes, we find that the flux tube geometry can by itself lead to waves which are trapped on the part of the tube that expands with height. Some geometries lead to trapped modes with eigenperiods near 180 s, if parameters appropriate to sunspot umbrae are chosen. It is possible that the umbral oscillations are a manifestation of such trapped waves, if sunspot umbrae consist of an assembly of slender flux tubes, as in the spaghetti model of Parker. For flux tubes which have a constant ratio of Alfven speed to sound speed, we find that it is primarily the variation of temperature with height which determines whether trapped waves can exist. Certain temperature profiles lead to disturbances for which ..omega../sup 2/<0, corresponding to convective instability or Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  3. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modulated MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chargeishvili, B. B.; Japaridze, D. R.

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear modulated both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric MHD wave propagation in magnetic flux tubes is studied. In the cylindrical coordinates, ordinary differential equation with cubic nonlinearity is derived. In both cases of symmetry, the equation has solitary solutions. Modulation stability of the solutions is studied. The results of the study show that the propagation of axisymmetric soliton causes rising of plasma temperature in peripheral regions of a magnetic flux tube. In the non-axisymmetric case, it gives also temperature rising effect. Results of theoretical study are examined on idealized model of chromospheric spicule.

  4. Kondo-induced electric polarization modulated by magnetic flux through a triangular triple quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.

    2015-03-01

    The Kondo effect plays an important role in emergence of electric polarization in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is point-contacted with a single lead, and a magnetic flux penetrates through the triangular loop. The Kondo-induced electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm type oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux. Our theoretical study shows various oscillation patterns associated with the field-dependent mixing of twofold orbitally degenerate ground states and their sensitivity to the point contact.

  5. Evidence in Magnetic Clouds for Systematic Open Flux Transport on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Kahler, S. W.; Gosling, J. T.; Lepping, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Most magnetic clouds encountered by spacecraft at 1 AU display a mix of unidirectional suprathermal electrons signaling open field lines and counterstreaming electrons signaling loops connected to the Sun at both ends. Assuming the open fields were originally loops that underwent interchange reconnection with open fields at the Sun, we determine the sense of connectedness of the open fields found in 72 of 97 magnetic clouds identified by the Wind spacecraft in order to obtain information on the location and sense of the reconnection and resulting flux transport at the Sun. The true polarity of the open fields in each magnetic cloud was determined from the direction of the suprathermal electron flow relative to the magnetic field direction. Results indicate that the polarity of all open fields within a given magnetic cloud is the same 89% of the time, implying that interchange reconnection at the Sun most often occurs in only one leg of a flux rope loop, thus transporting open flux in a single direction, from a coronal hole near that leg to the foot point of the opposite leg. This pattern is consistent with the view that interchange reconnection in coronal mass ejections systematically transports an amount of open flux sufficient to reverse the polarity of the heliospheric field through the course of the solar cycle. Using the same electron data, we also find that the fields encountered in magnetic clouds are only a third as likely to be locally inverted as not. While one might expect inversions to be equally as common as not in flux rope coils, consideration of the geometry of spacecraft trajectories relative to the modeled magnetic cloud axes leads us to conclude that the result is reasonable.

  6. SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. III. APPARENT UNIPOLAR FLUX EMERGENCE IN HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Hagenaar, H. J.; Parnell, C. E.; Welsch, B. T.

    2010-09-10

    Understanding the behavior of weak magnetic fields near the detection limit of current instrumentation is important for determining the flux budget of the solar photosphere at small spatial scales. Using 0.''3-resolution magnetograms from the Solar Optical Telescope's Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the Hinode spacecraft, we confirm that the previously reported apparent unipolar magnetic flux emergence seen in intermediate-resolution magnetograms is indeed the coalescence of previously existing flux. We demonstrate that similar but smaller events seen in NFI magnetograms are also likely to correspond to the coalescence of previously existing weak fields. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. The spatial scale at which apparent unipolar emergence can be directly observed as coalescence remains unknown. The polarity of the coalescing flux is more balanced than would be expected given the imbalance of the data set, however without further study we cannot speculate whether this implies that the flux in the apparent unipolar emergence events is produced by a granulation-scale dynamo or is recycled from existing field.

  7. Colored thermal noise driven dynamical system in the presence and absence of non-equilibrium constraint: time dependence of information entropy flux and entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Gurupada; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the relaxation of non-Markovian and thermodynamically closed system both in the absence and presence of non-equilibrium constraint in terms of the information entropy flux and entropy production based on the Fokker-Planck and the entropy balance equations. Our calculation shows how the relaxation time depends on noise correlation time. It also considers how the non-equilibrium constraint is affected by system parameters such as noise correlation time, strength of dissipation and frequency of dynamical system. The interplay of non-equilibrium constraint, frictional memory kernel, noise correlation time and frequency of dynamical system reveals the extremum nature of the entropy production.

  8. Influence of growth and annealing conditions on low-frequency magnetic 1/f noise in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jiafeng; Diao Zhu; Kurt, Huseyin; Singh, A.; Coey, J. M. D.; Stearrett, Ryan; Nowak, Edmund R.

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic 1/f noise is compared in magnetic tunnel junctions with electron-beam evaporated and sputtered MgO tunnel barriers in the annealing temperature range 350 - 425 Degree-Sign C. The variation of the magnetic noise parameter ({alpha}{sub mag}) of the reference layer with annealing temperature mainly reflects the variation of the pinning effect of the exchange-bias layer. A reduction in {alpha}{sub mag} with bias is associated with the bias dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance. The related magnetic losses are parameterized by a phase lag {epsilon}, which is nearly independent of bias especially below 100 mV. The similar changes in magnetic noise with annealing temperature and barrier thickness for two types of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions indicate that the barrier layer quality does not affect the magnetic losses in the reference layer.

  9. Thermal noise of mechanical oscillators in steady states with a heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Livia; Lazzaro, Claudia; Karapetyan, Gagik; Bonaldi, Michele; Pegoraro, Matteo; Thakur, Ram-Krishna; De Gregorio, Paolo; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2014-09-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the statistical properties of the position fluctuations of low-loss oscillators in nonequilibrium steady states. The oscillators are coupled to a heat bath, and a nonequilibrium steady state is produced by flowing a constant heat flux, setting a temperature difference across the oscillators. We investigated the distribution of the measurements of the square of the oscillator position and searched for signs of changes with respect to the equilibrium case. We found that, after normalization by the mean value, the second, third, and fourth standardized statistical moments are not modified by the underlying thermodynamic state. This differs from the behavior of the absolute, i.e., not normalized, second moment, which is strongly affected by temperature gradients and heat fluxes. We illustrate this with a numerical experiment in which we study via molecular dynamics the fluctuations of the length of a one-dimensional chain of identical particles interacting via anharmonic interparticle potentials, with the extremes thermostated at different temperatures: we use the variance of the length in correspondence to its first elastic mode of resonance to define an effective temperature which we observe to depart from the thermodynamic one in the nonequilibrium states. We investigate the effect of changing the interparticle potential and show that the qualitative behavior of the nonequilibrium excess is unchanged. Our numerical results are consistent with the chain length being Gaussian distributed in the nonequilibrium states. Our experimental investigation reveals that the position variance is the only, and crucially easily accessible, observable for distinguishing equilibrium from nonequilibrium steady states. The consequences of this fact for the design of interferometric gravitational wave detectors are discussed.

  10. Thermal noise of mechanical oscillators in steady states with a heat flux.

    PubMed

    Conti, Livia; Lazzaro, Claudia; Karapetyan, Gagik; Bonaldi, Michele; Pegoraro, Matteo; Thakur, Ram-Krishna; De Gregorio, Paolo; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2014-09-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the statistical properties of the position fluctuations of low-loss oscillators in nonequilibrium steady states. The oscillators are coupled to a heat bath, and a nonequilibrium steady state is produced by flowing a constant heat flux, setting a temperature difference across the oscillators. We investigated the distribution of the measurements of the square of the oscillator position and searched for signs of changes with respect to the equilibrium case. We found that, after normalization by the mean value, the second, third, and fourth standardized statistical moments are not modified by the underlying thermodynamic state. This differs from the behavior of the absolute, i.e., not normalized, second moment, which is strongly affected by temperature gradients and heat fluxes. We illustrate this with a numerical experiment in which we study via molecular dynamics the fluctuations of the length of a one-dimensional chain of identical particles interacting via anharmonic interparticle potentials, with the extremes thermostated at different temperatures: we use the variance of the length in correspondence to its first elastic mode of resonance to define an effective temperature which we observe to depart from the thermodynamic one in the nonequilibrium states. We investigate the effect of changing the interparticle potential and show that the qualitative behavior of the nonequilibrium excess is unchanged. Our numerical results are consistent with the chain length being Gaussian distributed in the nonequilibrium states. Our experimental investigation reveals that the position variance is the only, and crucially easily accessible, observable for distinguishing equilibrium from nonequilibrium steady states. The consequences of this fact for the design of interferometric gravitational wave detectors are discussed. PMID:25314407

  11. Geometrical investigation of the kinetic evolution of the magnetic field in a periodic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Restante, A. L.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Intrator, T.

    2013-08-15

    Flux ropes are bundles of magnetic field wrapped around an axis. Many laboratory, space, and astrophysics processes can be represented using this idealized concept. Here, a massively parallel 3D kinetic simulation of a periodic flux rope undergoing the kink instability is studied. The focus is on the topology of the magnetic field and its geometric structures. The analysis considers various techniques such as Poincar maps and the quasi-separatrix layer (QSL). These are used to highlight regions with expansion or compression and changes in the connectivity of magnetic field lines and consequently to outline regions where heating and current may be generated due to magnetic reconnection. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first QSL analysis of a fully kinetic 3D particle in cell simulation and focuses the existing QSL method of analysis to periodic systems.

  12. Large-Scale Coronal Heating, Clustering of Coronal Bright Points, and Concentration of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    By combining quiet-region Fe XII coronal images from SOHO/EIT with magnetograms from NSO/Kitt Peak and from SOHO/MDI, we show that on scales larger than a supergranule the population of network coronal bright points and the magnetic flux content of the network are both markedly greater under the bright half of the quiet corona than under the dim half. These results (1) support the view that the heating of the entire corona in quiet regions and coronal holes is driven by fine-scale magnetic activity (microflares, explosive events, spicules) seated low in the magnetic network, and (2) suggest that this large-scale modulation of the magnetic flux and coronal heating is a signature of giant convection cells.

  13. Pinning and magnetic flux diffusion in APC composites with superconducting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeev, G. L.; Drobin, V. M.; Vladimirova, N. M.; Kozlenkova, N. I.; Nikulenkov, E. V.; Salunin, N. I.

    2008-02-01

    Pinning and magnetic flux diffusion in composites with artificial pinning centers (APC) are studied using a magnetic step method. It is revealed experimentally, that a magnetic flux pinning is determined by boundaries of superconducting filaments and matrix in composites with thickness of filaments less of London's penetration depth. The elementary pinning force on n-s boundary for Cu-NbTi, Nb-NbTi,... composites is measured. The value of elementary pinning force is controlled by thickness n-s boundary. And the thickness n-s of boundary can be large in result of solid state diffusion during technological process. The thickness n-s boundary is estimated through the dependence of superconducting filaments effective volume from the magnetic field value. These results for elementary pinning force and thickness n-s of boundary are compared to results of direct measurements of critical currents in these APC superconducting composites.

  14. Magnetic x-ray microscopy at low temperatures - Visualization of flux distributions in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Claudia; Ruoß, Stephen; Weigand, Markus; Bechtel, Michael; Schütz, Gisela; Albrecht, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) microscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature has been performed on bilayers of high-Tc superconducting YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-δ) and soft-magnetic Co40Fe40B20. This should allow us to map the magnetic flux density distribution in the current-carrying state of the superconductor with high spatial resolution. For that purpose the UHV scanning X-ray microscope MAXYMUS has been upgraded by a MMR Micro Miniature Joule-Thompson cryostat capable of temperatures between 75 K and 580 K. Resulting XMCD images of the magnetic flux density in the superconductor with a field of view ranging from millimeters to micrometers are presented. The microscope's unique combination of total electron yield (TEY) measurements together with low temperatures offers novel possibilities concerning the current transport in superconductors on small length scales.

  15. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  16. Current measurement system utilizing cryogenic techniques for the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Murayama, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sakuraba, T. ); Shiota, F. )

    1989-04-01

    A series of systems composed of cryogenic devices such as a Josephson potentiometer and a cryogenic current comparator has been proposed and developed to precisely measure a current with any value up to 1 A. These systems will be used to measure the injected electrical energy with an uncertainty of the order of 0.01 ppm or less in the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum by superconducting magnetic levitation. Some preliminary experiments are described.

  17. High-resolution dichroic imaging of magnetic flux distributions in superconductors with scanning x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruo, S. Stahl, C.; Weigand, M.; Schtz, G.; Albrecht, J.

    2015-01-12

    The penetration of magnetic flux into high-temperature superconductors has been observed using a high-resolution technique based on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Superconductors coated with thin soft-magnetic layers are observed in a scanning x-ray microscope under the influence of external magnetic fields. Resulting electric currents in the superconductor create an inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution above the superconductor and lead to a local reorientation of the ferromagnetic layer. Measuring the local magnetization of the ferromagnet by x-ray absorption microscopy with circular-polarized radiation allows the analysis of the magnetic flux distribution in the superconductor with a spatial resolution on the nanoscale.

  18. Numerical computation for a new way to reduce vibration and noise due to magnetostriction and magnetic forces of transformer cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lihua; Yang, Qingxin; Yan, Rongge; Li, Yongjian; Zhang, Xian; Yan, Weili; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    Magnetostriction (MS) caused by the global magnetization of limbs and yokes and magnetic forces are the undisputed causes of the vibration and noise in power transformer cores. This paper presents a novel way to reduce the vibration and noise, in which nanocrystalline soft magnetic composite (NSMC) material with high permeability is used to fill the step-lap joint gaps of the power transformer magnetic cores. In order to numerically predict the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 3-D magneto-mechanical strong coupled model including MS and magnetic anisotropy of steel sheet was founded. Then, the numerical model was applied to analyze the step-lap joint region of the corner of magnetic cores. The analysis results illustrated that the deformation and noise of core with NSMC are lower than with the traditional epoxy damping material. Moreover, the validity of the proposed new way was verified by the simplified step-lap joint cores, which were achieved based on Epstein Frames.

  19. Toulouse limit for the nonequilibrium Kondo impurity: Currents, noise spectra, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Avraham; Hershfield, Selman

    1998-12-01

    We present an exact solution to the nonequilibrium Kondo problem, based on a special point in the parameter space of the model where both the Hamiltonian and the operator describing the nonequilibrium distribution can be diagonalized simultaneously. Through this solution we are able to compute the differential conductance, spin current, charge-current noise, and magnetization, for arbitrary voltage bias. The differential conductance shows the standard zero-bias anomaly and its splitting under an applied magnetic field. A detailed analysis of the scaling properties at low temperature and voltage is presented. The spin current is independent of the sign of the voltage. Its direction depends solely on the sign of the magnetic field and the asymmetry in the transverse coupling to the left and right leads. The charge-current noise can exceed 2eIc for a large magnetic field, where Ic is the charge current. This is not seen in noninteracting quantum problems, but occurs here because of the tunneling of pairs of electrons. The finite-frequency noise spectrum has singularities at ??=+/-2 eV, which cannot be explained in terms of noninteracting electrons. These singularities are traced to a different type of pair process involving the simultaneous creation or annihilation of two scattering states. The impurity susceptibility has three characteristic peaks as a function of magnetic field, two of which are due to interlead processes and one is due to intralead processes. Although the solvable point is only one point in the parameter space of the nonequilibrium Kondo problem, we expect it to correctly describe the strong-coupling regime of the model for arbitrary antiferromagnetic coupling constants and to be qualitatively correct as one leaves the strong-coupling regime.

  20. Characterization of magnetic degradation mechanism in a high-neutron-flux environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, Adib; Qiu, Jie; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason; Dai-Hattrick, Liyang; Zheng, Yuan F.; Cao, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Radiation-induced demagnetization of permanent magnets can result in the failure of magnet-based devices operating in high-radiation environments. To understand the mechanism underlying demagnetization, Nd-Fe-B magnets were irradiated with fast and fast plus thermal neutrons at fluences of 1012, 1013, 1014, and 1015 n/cm2, respectively. After irradiation, magnetic flux losses were shown to increase with the fluence. Compared with samples irradiated only with fast neutrons, the samples exposed to the fast plus thermal neutrons have higher magnetic flux losses, which is attributed to the thermal neutron capture reaction of boron. Hysteresis loops of the Nd-Fe-B magnets reveal a slightly increase in the coercivity after irradiation. Full remagnetization of the samples after irradiation was possible, which indicates that structural damage is unlikely an important factor in the demagnetization process at these levels of neutron flux and fluence. Finally, we performed a preliminary Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation on a cube of ions to obtain a better understanding of the thermal spike mechanism.

  1. Predicting the sun's polar magnetic fields with a surface flux transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H. E-mail: lar0009@uah.edu

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's polar magnetic fields are directly related to solar cycle variability. The strength of the polar fields at the start (minimum) of a cycle determine the subsequent amplitude of that cycle. In addition, the polar field reversals at cycle maximum alter the propagation of galactic cosmic rays throughout the heliosphere in fundamental ways. We describe a surface magnetic flux transport model that advects the magnetic flux emerging in active regions (sunspots) using detailed observations of the near-surface flows that transport the magnetic elements. These flows include the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric cellular convective flows (supergranules), all of which vary in time in the model as indicated by direct observations. We use this model with data assimilated from full-disk magnetograms to produce full surface maps of the Sun's magnetic field at 15 minute intervals from 1996 May to 2013 July (all of sunspot cycle 23 and the rise to maximum of cycle 24). We tested the predictability of this model using these maps as initial conditions, but with daily sunspot area data used to give the sources of new magnetic flux. We find that the strength of the polar fields at cycle minimum and the polar field reversals at cycle maximum can be reliably predicted up to 3 yr in advance. We include a prediction for the cycle 24 polar field reversal.

  2. Predicting the Sun's Polar Magnetic Fields with a Surface Flux Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's polar magnetic fields are directly related to solar cycle variability. The strength of the polar fields at the start (minimum) of a cycle determine the subsequent amplitude of that cycle. In addition, the polar field reversals at cycle maximum alter the propagation of galactic cosmic rays throughout the heliosphere in fundamental ways. We describe a surface magnetic flux transport model that advects the magnetic flux emerging in active regions (sunspots) using detailed observations of the near-surface flows that transport the magnetic elements. These flows include the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric cellular convective flows (supergranules), all of which vary in time in the model as indicated by direct observations. We use this model with data assimilated from full-disk magnetograms to produce full surface maps of the Sun's magnetic field at 15 minute intervals from 1996 May to 2013 July (all of sunspot cycle 23 and the rise to maximum of cycle 24). We tested the predictability of this model using these maps as initial conditions, but with daily sunspot area data used to give the sources of new magnetic flux. We find that the strength of the polar fields at cycle minimum and the polar field reversals at cycle maximum can be reliably predicted up to 3 yr in advance. We include a prediction for the cycle 24 polar field reversal.

  3. Observation of the magnetic flux and three-dimensional structure of skyrmion lattices by electron holography.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soon; Yu, Xiuzhen; Aizawa, Shinji; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kanazawa, Naoya; Onose, Yoshinori; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscale spin textures that are viewed as promising candidates as information carriers in future spintronic devices. Skyrmions have been observed using neutron scattering and microscopy techniques. Real-space imaging using electrons is a straightforward way to interpret spin configurations by detecting the phase shifts due to electromagnetic fields. Here, we report the first observation by electron holography of the magnetic flux and the three-dimensional spin configuration of a skyrmion lattice in Fe(0.5)Co(0.5)Si thin samples. The magnetic flux inside and outside a skyrmion was directly visualized and the handedness of the magnetic flux flow was found to be dependent on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The electron phase shifts ? in the helical and skyrmion phases were determined using samples with a stepped thickness t (from 55 nm to 510 nm), revealing a linear relationship (? = 0.00173 t). The phase measurements were used to estimate the three-dimensional structures of both the helical and skyrmion phases, demonstrating that electron holography is a useful tool for studying complex magnetic structures and for three-dimensional, real-space mapping of magnetic fields. PMID:24727689

  4. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, R.; Philippe, M.; Wera, L.; Fagnard, J. F.; Vanderheyden, B.; Dennis, A.; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m2 (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  5. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors.

    PubMed

    Egan, R; Philippe, M; Wera, L; Fagnard, J F; Vanderheyden, B; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Vanderbemden, P

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm(3)) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m(2) (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). PMID:25725888

  6. SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION TRIGGERING A SOLAR ERUPTION OF A TRIANGLE-SHAPED FLAG FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-08-10

    We report the first simultaneous activities of the slipping motion of flare loops and a slipping eruption of a flux rope in 131 Å and 94 Å channels on 2014 February 2. The east hook-like flare ribbon propagated with a slipping motion at a speed of about 50 km s{sup –1}, which lasted about 40 minutes and extended by more than 100 Mm, but the west flare ribbon moved in the opposite direction with a speed of 30 km s{sup –1}. At the later phase of flare activity, there was a well developed ''bi-fan'' system of flare loops. The east footpoints of the flux rope showed an apparent slipping motion along the hook of the ribbon. Simultaneously, the fine structures of the flux rope rose up rapidly at a speed of 130 km s{sup –1}, much faster than that of the whole flux rope. We infer that the east footpoints of the flux rope are successively heated by a slipping magnetic reconnection during the flare, which results in the apparent slippage of the flux rope. The slipping motion delineates a ''triangle-shaped flag surface'' of the flux rope, implying that the topology of a flux rope is more complex than anticipated.

  7. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection Triggering a Solar Eruption of a Triangle-shaped Flag Flux Rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    We report the first simultaneous activities of the slipping motion of flare loops and a slipping eruption of a flux rope in 131 and 94 channels on 2014 February 2. The east hook-like flare ribbon propagated with a slipping motion at a speed of about 50 km s-1, which lasted about 40 minutes and extended by more than 100 Mm, but the west flare ribbon moved in the opposite direction with a speed of 30 km s-1. At the later phase of flare activity, there was a well developed "bi-fan" system of flare loops. The east footpoints of the flux rope showed an apparent slipping motion along the hook of the ribbon. Simultaneously, the fine structures of the flux rope rose up rapidly at a speed of 130 km s-1, much faster than that of the whole flux rope. We infer that the east footpoints of the flux rope are successively heated by a slipping magnetic reconnection during the flare, which results in the apparent slippage of the flux rope. The slipping motion delineates a "triangle-shaped flag surface" of the flux rope, implying that the topology of a flux rope is more complex than anticipated.

  8. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection Triggering a Solar Eruption of a Triangle-Shaped Flag Flux Rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting

    2015-08-01

    We report the first simultaneous activities of the slipping motion of flare loops and a slipping eruption of a flux rope in 131Å and 94Å channels on 2014 February 2. The east hook-like flare ribbon propagated with a slipping motion at a speed of about 50 km/s, which lasted about 40 minutes and extended by more than 100 Mm, but the west flare ribbon moved in the opposite direction with a speed of 30 km/s. At the later phase of flare activity, there was a well developed “bi-fan” system of flare loops. The east footpoints of the flux rope showed an apparent slipping motion along the hook of the ribbon. Simultaneously, the fine structures of the flux rope rose up rapidly at a speed of 130 km/s, much faster than that of the whole flux rope. We infer that the east footpoints of the flux rope are successively heated by a slipping magnetic reconnection during the flare, which results in the apparent slippage of the flux rope. The slipping motion delineates a “triangle-shaped flag surface” of the flux rope, implying that the topology of a flux rope is more complex than anticipated.

  9. AC/DC transfer method for an AC magnetic flux density standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humar, Janez; Fefer, Dusan; Gersak, Gregor

    2005-08-01

    Several methods for assuring a reference alternating (AC) magnetic field (densities up to few mT and frequencies up to 10 kHz) inside an air-cored coil are currently used (inductive pick-up coils, Hall magnetometer, fluxgate magnetometer). But irrespective of the method used, the measuring uncertainty of the reference AC magnetic field standard is always larger then the uncertainty of a reference direct (DC) magnetic field standard. The method proposed in this paper uses this fact. It employs a comparison between an unknown AC and a known DC magnetic field, generated by a Helmholtz coil, calibrated by means of a NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) magnetometer. The basic idea of the method is to use a simple semiconductor magnetic sensor as a comparison medium. The purpose of this paper is the introduction of the common AC/DC transfer method into the field of magnetic flux density measurements, building an AC magnetic flux density standard, and evaluating its measuring uncertainty.

  10. DYNAMIC COUPLING OF CONVECTIVE FLOWS AND MAGNETIC FIELD DURING FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Fang; Manchester IV, Ward; Van der Holst, Bart; Abbett, William P.

    2012-01-20

    We simulate the buoyant rise of a magnetic flux rope from the solar convection zone into the corona to better understand the energetic coupling of the solar interior to the corona. The magnetohydrodynamic model addresses the physics of radiative cooling, coronal heating, and ionization, which allow us to produce a more realistic model of the solar atmosphere. The simulation illustrates the process by which magnetic flux emerges at the photosphere and coalesces to form two large concentrations of opposite polarities. We find that the large-scale convective motion in the convection zone is critical to form and maintain sunspots, while the horizontal converging flows in the near-surface layer prevent the concentrated polarities from separating. The footpoints of the sunspots in the convection zone exhibit a coherent rotation motion, resulting in the increasing helicity of the coronal field. Here, the local configuration of the convection causes the convergence of opposite polarities of magnetic flux with a shearing flow along the polarity inversion line. During the rising of the flux rope, the magnetic energy is first injected through the photosphere by the emergence, followed by energy transport by horizontal flows, after which the energy is subducted back to the convection zone by the submerging flows.

  11. A method for embedding circular force-free flux ropes in potential magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, V. S.; Trk, T.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for constructing approximate force-free equilibria in pre-eruptive configurations in which a thin force-free flux rope is embedded into a locally bipolar-type potential magnetic field. The flux rope is assumed to have a circular-arc axis, a circular cross-section, and electric current that is either concentrated in a thin layer at the boundary of the rope or smoothly distributed across it with a maximum of the current density at the center. The entire solution is described in terms of the magnetic vector potential in order to facilitate the implementation of the method in numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes that evolve the vector potential rather than the magnetic field itself. The parameters of the flux rope can be chosen so that its subsequent MHD relaxation under photospheric line-tied boundary conditions leads to nearly exact numerical equilibria. To show the capabilities of our method, we apply it to several cases with different ambient magnetic fields and internal flux-rope structures. These examples demonstrate that the proposed method is a useful tool for initializing data-driven simulations of solar eruptions.

  12. Temperature evolution of a magnetic flux rope in a failed solar eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Li, B.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, X.; Liu, R.; Wang, Y. M.

    2014-03-20

    In this paper, we report for the first time the detailed temperature evolution process of the magnetic flux rope in a failed solar eruption. Occurring on 2013 January 05, the flux rope was impulsively accelerated to a speed of ?400 km s{sup 1} in the first minute, then decelerated and came to a complete stop in two minutes. The failed eruption resulted in a large-size high-lying (?100 Mm above the surface), high-temperature 'fire ball' sitting in the corona for more than two hours. The time evolution of the thermal structure of the flux rope was revealed through the differential emission measure analysis technique, which produced temperature maps using observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The average temperature of the flux rope steadily increased from ?5 MK to ?10 MK during the first nine minutes of the evolution, which was much longer than the rise time (about three minutes) of the associated soft X-ray flare. We suggest that the flux rope is heated by the energy release of the continuing magnetic reconnection, different from the heating of the low-lying flare loops, which is mainly produced by the chromospheric plasma evaporation. The loop arcade overlying the flux rope was pushed up by ?10 Mm during the attempted eruption. The pattern of the velocity variation of the loop arcade strongly suggests that the failure of the eruption was caused by the strapping effect of the overlying loop arcade.

  13. The characteristics of trapped magnetic flux inside bulk HTS in the Mixed-? levitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, M.; Ueno, T.; Teshima, H.; Hirano, H.; Higuchi, T.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we propose a new experimental method to investigate the principle of 'Mixed-?' levitation systems. To confirm our claim, we measured the attractive force and the variation of flux passing through both, the HTS sample and the face surface of iron yoke, when the yoke is approached/retreated to the surface of field-cooled HTS sample. It is revealed that when the diameter of the yoke is less than the diameter of the HTS, in the small gap by reducing the gap, the flux which passes through the face surface of the yoke and consequently the attractive force will decrease. Therefore, stable levitation is achievable. However, when the diameter of yoke is equal to the diameter of the HTS, the magnetic flux will not decrease for a reducing gap and stable levitation is unfeasible. Briefly, stable levitation is achievable when the yoke diameter is less than the HTS's diameter. Additionally, as the yoke is approached to the HTS the flux variation of the HTS in 77 K is negligible compare to the flux variation of the HTS in the room temperature. Therefore, in superconductivity state the pinned fluxes in the HTS samples remain approximately constant and the HTS acts as a 'magnetic isolator'. This specification can be used to simulate the behavior of field-cooled HTS by the FEM software.

  14. Convective radial energy flux due to resonant magnetic perturbations and magnetic curvature at the tokamak plasma edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, F. A.; Beyer, P.; Fuhr, G.; Monnier, A.; Benkadda, S.

    2014-08-01

    With the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) consolidating as an important tool to control the transport barrier relaxation, the mechanism on how they work is still a subject to be clearly understood. In this work, we investigate the equilibrium states in the presence of RMPs for a reduced MHD model using 3D electromagnetic fluid numerical code with a single harmonic RMP (single magnetic island chain) and multiple harmonics RMPs in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Two different equilibrium states were found in the presence of the RMPs with different characteristics for each of the geometries used. For the cylindrical geometry in the presence of a single RMP, the equilibrium state is characterized by a strong convective radial thermal flux and the generation of a mean poloidal velocity shear. In contrast, for toroidal geometry, the thermal flux is dominated by the magnetic flutter. For multiple RMPs, the high amplitude of the convective flux and poloidal rotation are basically the same in cylindrical geometry, but in toroidal geometry the convective thermal flux and the poloidal rotation appear only with the islands overlapping of the linear coupling between neighbouring poloidal wavenumbers m, m - 1, and m + 1.

  15. Convective radial energy flux due to resonant magnetic perturbations and magnetic curvature at the tokamak plasma edge

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, F. A.; Beyer, P.; Fuhr, G.; Monnier, A.; Benkadda, S.

    2014-08-15

    With the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) consolidating as an important tool to control the transport barrier relaxation, the mechanism on how they work is still a subject to be clearly understood. In this work, we investigate the equilibrium states in the presence of RMPs for a reduced MHD model using 3D electromagnetic fluid numerical code with a single harmonic RMP (single magnetic island chain) and multiple harmonics RMPs in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Two different equilibrium states were found in the presence of the RMPs with different characteristics for each of the geometries used. For the cylindrical geometry in the presence of a single RMP, the equilibrium state is characterized by a strong convective radial thermal flux and the generation of a mean poloidal velocity shear. In contrast, for toroidal geometry, the thermal flux is dominated by the magnetic flutter. For multiple RMPs, the high amplitude of the convective flux and poloidal rotation are basically the same in cylindrical geometry, but in toroidal geometry the convective thermal flux and the poloidal rotation appear only with the islands overlapping of the linear coupling between neighbouring poloidal wavenumbers m, m – 1, and m + 1.

  16. Comparison of simulated and observed trapped and precipitating electron fluxes during a magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Margaret W.; Lemon, Colby L.; Orlova, Ksenia; Shprits, Yuri; Hecht, James; Walterscheid, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately model precipitating electron distributions is crucial for understanding magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling processes. We use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to assess how well different electron loss models can account for observed electron fluxes during the large 10 August 2000 magnetic storm. The strong pitch angle scattering rate produces excessive loss on the morning and dayside at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) compared to what is observed by a Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite. RCM-E simulations with parameterized scattering due to whistler chorus outside the plasmasphere and hiss inside the plasmasphere are able to account simultaneously for trapped electron fluxes at 1.2 keV to ~100 keV observed at GEO and for precipitating electron fluxes and electron characteristic energies in the ionosphere at 833 km measured by the NOAA 15 satellite.

  17. Reducing the Effects of Background Noise during Auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Speech Processing: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Two Image Acquisition Schemes and Noise Cancellation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Graham A.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The intense sound generated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) complicates studies of speech and hearing. This experiment evaluated the benefits of using active noise cancellation (ANC), which attenuates the level of the scanner sound at the participant's ear by up to 35 dB around the peak at 600 Hz. Method: Speech and

  18. MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY MEASURED IN FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Erdos, G.; Balogh, A.

    2012-07-10

    The radial component of the heliospheric magnetic field vector is used to estimate the open magnetic flux density of the Sun. This parameter has been calculated using observations from the Ulysses mission that covered heliolatitudes from 80 Degree-Sign S to 80 Degree-Sign N, from 1990 to 2009 and distances from 1 to 5.4 AU, the Advanced Composition Explorer mission at 1 AU from 1997 to 2010, the OMNI interplanetary database from 1971, and the Helios 1 and 2 missions that covered the distance range from 0.3 to 1 AU. The flux density was found to be much affected by fluctuations in the magnetic field which make its calculated value dependent on heliospheric location, type of solar wind (fast or slow), and the level of solar activity. However, fluctuations are distributed symmetrically perpendicular to the average Parker direction. Therefore, distributions of the field vector in the two-dimensional plane defined by the radial and azimuthal directions in heliospheric coordinates provide a way to reduce the effects of the fluctuations on the measurement of the flux density. This leads to a better defined flux density parameter; the distributions modified by removing the effects of fluctuations then allow a clearer assessment of the dependence of the flux density on heliospheric location, solar wind type, and solar activity. This assessment indicates that the flux density normalized to 1 AU is independent of location and solar wind type (fast or slow). However, there is a residual dependence on solar activity which can be studied using the modified flux density measurements.

  19. Magnetic forces and magnetized biomaterials provide dynamic flux information during bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandro; Bianchi, Michele; Sartori, Maria; Parrilli, Annapaola; Panseri, Silvia; Ortolani, Alessandro; Sandri, Monica; Boi, Marco; Salter, Donald M; Maltarello, Maria Cristina; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena; Dediu, Valentin; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2016-03-01

    The fascinating prospect to direct tissue regeneration by magnetic activation has been recently explored. In this study we investigate the possibility to boost bone regeneration in an experimental defect in rabbit femoral condyle by combining static magnetic fields and magnetic biomaterials. NdFeB permanent magnets are implanted close to biomimetic collagen/hydroxyapatite resorbable scaffolds magnetized according to two different protocols . Permanent magnet only or non-magnetic scaffolds are used as controls. Bone tissue regeneration is evaluated at 12 weeks from surgery from a histological, histomorphometric and biomechanical point of view. The reorganization of the magnetized collagen fibers under the effect of the static magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet produces a highly-peculiar bone pattern, with highly-interconnected trabeculae orthogonally oriented with respect to the magnetic field lines. In contrast, only partial defect healing is achieved within the control groups. We ascribe the peculiar bone regeneration to the transfer of micro-environmental information, mediated by collagen fibrils magnetized by magnetic nanoparticles, under the effect of the static magnetic field. These results open new perspectives on the possibility to improve implant fixation and control the morphology and maturity of regenerated bone providing "in site" forces by synergically combining static magnetic fields and biomaterials. PMID:26758898

  20. Analytical Study of Optimal Layout of Permanent Magnets in IPMSM for Generating Sinusoidal Flux-Density Distribution in Air Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Minoru

    This paper analytically demonstrates the optimal layout of permanent magnets for generating a sinusoidal flux density distribution in the air gap of the interior permanent-magnet synchronous machines with multiple flux barriers. In addition, practical design methods for realizing the optimal layout are proposed, and the designs are verified by conducting finite element analysis.

  1. Magnetic flux penetration in Nb superconducting films with lithographically defined microindentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbois, J.; Adami, O.-A.; Avila, J. I.; Motta, M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Nguyen, N. D.; Vanderbemden, P.; Vanderheyden, B.; Kramer, R. B. G.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines (d lines), caused by the abrupt bending of current streamlines around the indentations, depart from the expected parabolic trend close to the defect and depend on the shape and size of the indentation as well as on the temperature. These findings are backed up and compared with theoretical results obtained by numerical simulations and analytical calculations highlighting the key role played by demagnetization effects and the creep exponent n . In addition, we show that the presence of nearby indentations and submicrometer random roughness of the sample border can severely modify the flux front topology and dynamics. Strikingly, in contrast to what has been repeatedly predicted in the literature, we do not observe that indentations act as nucleation spots for flux avalanches, but they instead help to release the flux pressure and avoid thermomagnetic instabilities.

  2. Evaluation of first wall heat fluxes due to magnetic perturbations for a range of ITER scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyna, P.; Kripner, L.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G.; Peterka, M.; Panek, R.

    2015-08-01

    The proposed use of magnetic perturbations for edge-localized mode (ELM) control in ITER poses a number of integration issues, among them the localized heat fluxes (footprints) on the plasma-facing components (PFCs). They may provide the benefit of spreading the heat flux, thus reducing its peak value, but they may cause a localized erosion of the PFCs. We present calculations of heat fluxes for a range of ITER plasma parameters. The efficiency of our method enables us to perform calculations for a range of assumptions on the SOL width and to optimize the coil configuration to yield the largest power flux spreading. The optimal coil configuration is not sensitive on SOL parameters and is also close to the one which is considered optimal for ELM control. The proximity of footprints may cause significant power loads on the upper wall.

  3. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-03-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T{sub e} and n{sub e} fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ∼60 000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50–75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60 000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  4. A new use of high resolution magnetograms. [solar activity and magnetic flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, P. J.; Bratenahl, A.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-based solar magnetograms are frequently in error by as much as twenty percent and contribute to the poor correlation between magnetic changes and solar flares. High resolution measurement of the magnetic field component, which is normal to the photosphere and measured at photospheric height, can be used to construct a magnetic flux partition function F. Therefore, dF/dt is an EMF which drives atmospheric currents in reconnecting solar active regions. With a high quality magnetograph, the solar probe can be used to obtain good estimates of F and dF/dt and thereby the energy stored as induced solar atmospheric currents during quiescent interflare periods. Should a flare occur during a favorable observing period, the present method of analysis should show characteristic signatures in F, DF/dt, and especially, in the stored flux computed from dF/dt.

  5. Depinning of flux lines and AC losses in magnet-superconductor levitation system

    SciTech Connect

    Terentiev, A. N.; Hull, J. R.; De Long, L. E.

    1999-11-29

    The AC loss characteristics of a magnet-superconductor system were studied with the magnet fixed to the free end of an oscillating cantilever located near a stationary melt-textured YBCO pellet. Below a threshold AC field amplitude {approx}2Oe, the dissipation of the oscillator is amplitude-independent, characteristic of a linear, non-hysteretic regime. Above threshold,dissipation increases with amplitude, reflecting the depinning and hysteretic motion of flux lines. The threshold AC field is an order of magnitude higher than that measured for the same YBCO material via AC susceptometry in a uniform DC magnetic field, A partial lock-in of flux lines between YBCO ab planes is proposed as the mechanism for the substantial increase of the depinning threshold.

  6. Direct observation of closed magnetic flux trapped in the high-latitude magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Fear, R C; Milan, S E; Maggiolo, R; Fazakerley, A N; Dandouras, I; Mende, S B

    2014-12-19

    The structure of Earth's magnetosphere is poorly understood when the interplanetary magnetic field is northward. Under this condition, uncharacteristically energetic plasma is observed in the magnetotail lobes, which is not expected in the textbook model of the magnetosphere. Using satellite observations, we show that these lobe plasma signatures occur on high-latitude magnetic field lines that have been closed by the fundamental plasma process of magnetic reconnection. Previously, it has been suggested that closed flux can become trapped in the lobe and that this plasma-trapping process could explain another poorly understood phenomenon: the presence of auroras at extremely high latitudes, called transpolar arcs. Observations of the aurora at the same time as the lobe plasma signatures reveal the presence of a transpolar arc. The excellent correspondence between the transpolar arc and the trapped closed flux at high altitudes provides very strong evidence of the trapping mechanism as the cause of transpolar arcs. PMID:25525244

  7. The nature of the magnetic flux ropes in the Venus ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E. M.; Izrajlevich, P. L.; Podgornyi, I. M.; Shkolnikova, S. I.

    1980-04-01

    The nature of the individual peaks of magnetic field found by the Pioneer Venus spacecraft within the Venus ionosphere and interpreted as magnetic flux tubes with spiral lines of force is considered. It is shown that as the dynamic pressure of the solar wind changes, the normally stable boundary of the Venus ionosphere will undergo large accelerations and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may occur, leading to the breakdown of empty flux tubes whose ends extend into the solar wind and the simultaneous rising of cool ionospheric plasma. The observed twisting of the tubes into ropes is accounted for by compensation for the space charge induced by the penetration of cool ions through the lateral tube walls or, alternatively, by the Thirring instability at the ionospheric boundary when the interplanetary magnetic field changes direction.

  8. Magnetic flux ropes in the Venus ionosphere - In situ observations of force-free structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    Force-free magnetic structures with cylindrical geometry appear under a variety of conditions in nature. Filamentary helical magnetic structures are observed to be associated with prominences and flares in the solar atmosphere, and can arise in superconductors and laboratory plasmas. Another example of cylindrcal quasi-force-free configurations appears to exist in the Venus ionosphere. Magnetic flux ropes with diameters of approximately 20-30 km have been observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter to be a nearly ubiquitous feature of the dayside Venus ionosphere. Models of flux ropes suggest that many of these structures tend to be quasi-force-free, while others are correlated with pressure variations in the ambient thermal plasma.

  9. Direct observation of closed magnetic flux trapped in the high-latitude magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, R. C.; Milan, S. E.; Maggiolo, R.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Dandouras, I.; Mende, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of Earths magnetosphere is poorly understood when the interplanetary magnetic field is northward. Under this condition, uncharacteristically energetic plasma is observed in the magnetotail lobes, which is not expected in the textbook model of the magnetosphere. Using satellite observations, we show that these lobe plasma signatures occur on high-latitude magnetic field lines that have been closed by the fundamental plasma process of magnetic reconnection. Previously, it has been suggested that closed flux can become trapped in the lobe and that this plasma-trapping process could explain another poorly understood phenomenon: the presence of auroras at extremely high latitudes, called transpolar arcs. Observations of the aurora at the same time as the lobe plasma signatures reveal the presence of a transpolar arc. The excellent correspondence between the transpolar arc and the trapped closed flux at high altitudes provides very strong evidence of the trapping mechanism as the cause of transpolar arcs.

  10. The quasi-periodic behavior of recurrent jets caused by emerging magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. D.; Jiang, Y. C.; Yang, J. Y.; Bi, Y.; Liang, H. F.

    2015-10-01

    A series of recurring jets occurred at the edge of an active region NOAA 11459 on 2012 April 20, and they were observed simultaneously at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths. They also were sometimes associated with a hard X-ray source at the base region. The jets might have resulted from magnetic reconnection between the newly emerging flux and the preexisting magnetic field that corresponded to the footpoint region of large-scale coronal loops. We obtained two periods of 171 Å intensity variations at the jet footpoint region, which were about 5 and 13 min. At the jet base, the short and long periodic brightenings might have originated from magneto-acoustic waves and magnetic reconnection. It is plausible that the p-modes might possibly trigger magnetic reconnection, and that reconnection might release stored magnetic energy to produce the jets.

  11. Torsional Alfvén waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, K.; Solov'ev, A.; Musielak, Z. E.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kraśkiewicz, J.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfvén waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulas for the equilibrium mass density and gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to numerically simulate the propagation of nonlinear Alfvén waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, the transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfvén waves, as well as energy transfer to the magnetoacoustic waves that are triggered by the Alfvén waves and are akin to the vertical jet flows. Alfvén waves experience about 5% amplitude reflection at the transition region. Magnetic (velocity) field perturbations that experience attenuation (growth) with height agree with analytical findings. The kinetic energy of magnetoacoustic waves consists of 25% of the total energy of Alfvén waves. The energy transfer may lead to localized mass transport in the form of vertical jets, as well as to localized heating because slow magnetoacoustic waves are prone to dissipation in the inner corona.

  12. Modelling the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Soenen, A.; Poedts, S.

    2008-09-01

    The possible role of magnetic flux emergence as triggering mechanism for the initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is studied in the framework of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model. The full MHD equations are solved numerically on a spherical, axisymmetric (2.5D) domain. All simulations are performed with a modified version of the Versatile Advection Code (VAC) (Toth 1996). The magnetic field of the solution is maintained divergence-free at machine precision by exploiting an approach similar to that of Balsara and Spicer (1999): instead of storing the magnetic field components on a staggered mesh, we use the vector potential components in the nodes. In order to get satisfactorily solar wind properties, the Manchester et al. (2004) source term is implemented in the energy equation and gravity is taken into account as well in the model. Finally, a magnetic vector potential is superimposed at the inlet boundary of the Parker wind solution so that, when the steady state is reached, the Antiochos et al. (1999) triple arcade 'break out' magnetic field configuration (symmetric with respect to the equator) of a helmet streamers is obtained. When the steady state has been reached, we impose a magnetic flux emergence at the inlet boundary that is linearly growing in time during a time interval of ? t = 24 hours. After this time the vector potential at the solar base is again fixed. Due to the magnetic flux emergence at the solar base, extra radial magnetic field, is built up near the neutral line of the central arcade that expands outward. This generates an extra upward magnetic pressure force. As a consequence, the central flux system expands outward. Also the overlying field expands and, therefore, the downward magnetic tension increases. As a result, the X-point is flattened. When the distance between the central expanding arcade field and the overlying streamer field is of the order of the grid resolution, the (numerical) reconnection between these fields sets in. A flux rope is formed and, later, accelerated. Height-time and velocity-height plots of the ejected material are produced. The obtained eruption corresponds to a slow CME. The time evolution of the magnetic energy, kinetic energy and internal energy in the entire domain shows that magnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy, as expected. The energy evolution plots show, however, that only a small amount of magnetic energy is released in the system, so that the system evolves to a higher energy state. We think that the explanation of this behavior lies in the role of the magnetic helicity, which we neglected by only emerging radial magnetic field. In conclusion, we stress that by imposing a reasonable (Romano et al. (2007)) flux emergence rate, in a large but realistic active region (with, of course, model dimensionality limitations), quite realistic velocity profiles and energetics of slow CMEs are obtained.

  13. Development of a low-cost double rotor axial flux motor with soft magnetic composite and ferrite permanent magnet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Youhua; Guo, Youguang; Lei, Gang; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a low-cost double rotor axial flux motor (DRAFM) with low cost soft magnetic composite (SMC) core and ferrite permanent magnets (PMs). The topology and operating principle of DRAFM and design considerations for best use of magnetic materials are presented. A 905 W 4800 rpm DRAFM is designed for replacing the high cost NdFeB permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in a refrigerator compressor. By using the finite element method, the electromagnetic parameters and performance of the DRAFM operated under the field oriented control scheme are calculated. Through the analysis, it is shown that that the SMC and ferrite PM materials can be good candidates for low-cost electric motor applications.

  14. Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  15. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    SciTech Connect

    W. Liu

    2009-02-20

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  16. Plasma dynamics on current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. II - Low potential simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of plasma in a current-carrying magnetic flux tube of variable cross section is investigated using a one-dimensional numerical simulation. The flux tube is narrow at the two ends and broad in the middle. The middle part of the flux tube is loaded with a hot, magnetically trapped population, and the two ends have a more dense, gravitationally bound population. A potential difference larger than the gravitational potential but less than the energy of the hot population is applied across the domain. The general result is that the potential change becomes distributed along the anode half of the domain, with negligible potential change on the cathode half. The potential is supported by the mirror force of magnetically trapped particles. The simulations show a steady depletion of plasma on the anode side of the flux tube. The current steadily decreases on a time scale of an ion transit time. The results may provide an explanation for the observed plasma depletions on auroral field lines carrying upward currents.

  17. Tidal disruption and magnetic flux capture: powering a jet from a quiescent black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    The transient Swift J1644+57 is believed to have been produced by an unlucky star wandering too close to a supermassive black hole (BH) leading to a tidal disruption event. This unusual flare displayed highly super-Eddington X-ray emission which likely originated in a relativistic, collimated jet. This presents challenges to modern accretion and jet theory as upper limits of prior BH activity, which we obtain from the radio afterglow of this event, imply that both the pre-disruption BH and stellar magnetic fluxes fall many orders of magnitude short of what is required to power the observed X-ray luminosity. We argue that a pre-existing, `fossil' accretion disc can contain a sufficient reservoir of magnetic flux and that the stellar debris stream is capable of dragging this flux into the BH. To demonstrate this, we perform local, 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the disc-stream interaction and demonstrate that the interface between the two is unstable to mixing. This mixing entrains a sufficient amount of fossil disc magnetic flux into the infalling stellar debris to power the jet. We argue that the interaction with the fossil disc can have a pronounced effect on the structure and dynamics of mass fallback and likely the resulting transient. Finally, we describe possible ramifications of these interactions on unresolved problems in tidal disruption dynamics, in particular, the efficiency of debris circularization, and effects of the disruption on the pre-existing BH system.

  18. Equilibrium structure of solar magnetic flux tubes: Energy transport with multistream radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Kalkofen, W.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the equilibrium structure of vertical intense magnetic flux tubes on the Sun. Assuming cylindrical geometry, we solve the magnetohydrostatic equations in the thin flux-tube approximation, allowing for energy transport by radiation and convection. The radiative transfer equation is solved in the six-stream approximation, assuming gray opacity and local thermodynamic equilibrium. This constitutes a significant improvement over a previous study, in which the transfer was solved using the multidimensional generalization of the Eddington approximation. Convection in the flux tube is treated using mixing-length theory, with an additional parameter alpha, characterizing the suppression of convective energy transport in the tube by the strong magnetic field. The equations are solved using the method of partial linearization. We present results for tubes with different values of the magnetic field strength and radius at a fixed depth in the atmosphere. In general, we find that, at equal geometric heights, the temperature on the tube axis, compared to the ambient medium, is higher in the photosphere and lower in the convection zone, with the difference becoming larger for thicker tubes. At equal optical depths the tubes are generally hotter than their surroundings. The results are comparatively insensitive to alpha but depend upon whether radiative and convective energy transport operate simultaneously or in separate layers. A comparison of our results with semiempirical models shows that the temperature and intensity contrast are in broad agreement. However, the field strengths of the flux-tube models are somewhat lower than the values inferred from observations.

  19. Flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks during pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Naito, T.; Ainslie, M. D.; Giunchi, G.

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of a high-J c MgB2 bulk disk has been investigated at 20 K, in which flux jumps frequently occur for high pulsed fields. Using a numerical simulation of the PFM procedure, we estimated the time dependence of the local magnetic field and temperature during PFM. We analyzed the electromagnetic and thermal instability of the high-J c MgB2 bulk to avoid flux jumps using the time dependence of the critical thickness, d c(t), which shows the upper safety thickness to stabilize the superconductor magnetically, and the minimum propagation zone length, l m(t), to obtain dynamical stability. The values of d c(t) and l m(t) change along the thermally-stabilized direction with increasing temperature below the critical temperature, T c. However, the flux jump can be qualitatively understood by the local temperature, T(t), which exceeds T c in the bulk. Finally, possible solutions to avoid flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks are discussed.

  20. Twisted versus braided magnetic flux ropes in coronal geometry. I. Construction and relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, C.; Yeates, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a technique for generating tubular magnetic fields with arbitrary axial geometry and internal topology. As an initial application, this technique is used to construct two magnetic flux ropes that have the same sigmoidal tubular shape, but have different internal structures. One is twisted, the other has a more complex braided magnetic field. The flux ropes are embedded above the photospheric neutral line in a quadrupolar linear force-free background. Using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we show that both fields can relax to stable force-free equilibria whilst maintaining their tubular structure. Both end states are nonlinear force-free; the twisted field contains a single sign of alpha (the force-free parameter), indicating a twisted flux rope of a single dominant chirality, the braided field contains both signs of alpha, indicating a flux rope whose internal twisting has both positive and negative chirality. The electric current structures in these final states differ significantly between the braided field, which has a diffuse structure, and the twisted field, which displays a clear sigmoid. This difference might be observable.

  1. A FLUX ROPE NETWORK AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Daniel; Milosavljevic, Milos; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2013-09-01

    We investigate magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration in relativistic pair plasmas with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of a kinetic-scale current sheet in a periodic geometry. We include a guide field that introduces an inclination between the reconnecting field lines and explore outside-of-the-current sheet magnetizations that are significantly below those considered by other authors carrying out similar calculations. Thus, our simulations probe the transitional regime in which the magnetic and plasma pressures are of the same order of magnitude. The tearing instability is the dominant mode in the current sheet for all guide field strengths, while the linear kink mode is less important even without the guide field, except in the lower magnetization case. Oblique modes seem to be suppressed entirely. In its nonlinear evolution, the reconnection layer develops a network of interconnected and interacting magnetic flux ropes. As smaller flux ropes merge into larger ones, the reconnection layer evolves toward a three-dimensional, disordered state in which the resulting flux rope segments contain magnetic substructure on plasma skin depth scales. Embedded in the flux ropes, we detect spatially and temporally intermittent sites of dissipation reflected in peaks in the parallel electric field. Magnetic dissipation and particle acceleration persist until the end of the simulations, with simulations with higher magnetization and lower guide field strength exhibiting greater and faster energy conversion and particle energization. At the end of our largest simulation, the particle energy spectrum attains a tail extending to high Lorentz factors that is best modeled with a combination of two additional thermal components. We confirm that the primary energization mechanism is acceleration by the electric field in the X-line region. The highest-energy positrons (electrons) are moderately beamed with median angles {approx}30 Degree-Sign -40 Degree-Sign relative to (the opposite of) the direction of the initial current density, but we speculate that reconnection in more highly magnetized plasmas would give rise to stronger beaming. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for macroscopic reconnection sites, and which of our results may be expected to hold in systems with higher magnetizations.

  2. Long-term evolution of the open solar magnetic flux associated with bipolar magnetic region tilts and latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S.; Lockwood, M.

    2003-04-01

    When modelling the evolution of emerged magnetic flux threading the solar surface, and the open solar flux that results, two factors are critical for each newly-emerged bipolar magnetic region (BMR), namely its latitude and the tilt angle of the line connecting the centres of the two opposite polarity regions. The variation of the former throughout the solar cycle is given by the well-known butterfly diagram, however the behaviour of the latter is not so clearly defined. Using magnetogram observations of BMRs, a systematic variation of average tilt angle with heliographic latitude, and thus with the solar cycle phase, has been reported and used in several modelling studies. However, using observations of sunspot pairs no such variation is apparent. We here investigate vario