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Sample records for magnetic helical mesostructured

  1. Fabrication of a magnetic helical mesostructured silica rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang Qiao, Shi; Cheng, Lina; Yan, Zifeng; Qing Lu, Gao Max

    2008-10-01

    We report a one-step synthesis of magnetic helical mesostructured silica (MHMS) by self-assembly of an achiral surfactant, magnetic nanocrystals with stearic acid ligands and silicate. This core-shell structured material consists of an Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanocrystal core and a highly ordered periodic helical mesoporous silica shell. We propose that the formation of the helical structure is induced by the interaction between the surfactant and dissociated stearic acid ligands. The MHMS obtained possesses superparamagnetism, uniform mesostructure, narrow pore size distribution, high surface area, and large pore volume. Furthermore, the drug release process is demonstrated using aspirin as a drug model and MHMS as a drug carrier in a sodium phosphate buffer solution.

  2. Mechanics of helical mesostructures from polymer-nanoparticle hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan; Lawrence, Jimmy; Grason, Gregory; Emrick, Todd; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    We describe the fabrication and mechanics of polymer and nanoparticle (NP)-based high-aspect ratio mesostructures, which we refer to as ribbons, with nm-scale cross-sections and up to cm-scale lengths. When placed into a fluid like water, interfacial tension associated with the ribbons' intrinsic geometric asymmetry balances the elastic cost of bending, turning ribbons into helices with tunable preferred curvature. This universal, elastocapillary-based mechanism enables the reversible formation of helices from a variety of polymer and NP compositions, as demonstrated with specific examples of poly(methyl methacrylate), CdSe quantum dots, and gold NPs with polystyrene-azide or undecene ligands. Using custom-designed characterization methods, we quantitatively show that helices are highly stretchable with force-displacement relationships described by a nonlinear spring of finite extensibility. At small strains, these helices generate nN forces, affording mesostructures with a stiffness similar to single polymer chains (ca. 10-6 N/m), and when fully stretched, they display properties similar to synthetic polymer nanofibers. These mesostructures offer a novel platform for engineering tunable materials with a broad range of mechanical properties and organic or inorganic functionality.

  3. Conservation of magnetic helicity during plasma relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, H.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    Decay of the total magnetic helicity during the sawtooth relaxation in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch is much larger than the MHD prediction. However, the helicity decay (3--4%) is smaller than the magnetic energy decay (7--9%), modestly supportive of the helicity conservation hypothesis in Taylor`s relaxation theory. Enhanced fluctuation-induced helicity transport during the relaxation is observed.

  4. Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.

    2014-04-10

    Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.

  5. Magnetic Helicity in Solar Dynamo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, Mark; Augustson, Kyle C.; Zhang, Mei

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic helicity is a fundamental agent for magnetic self-organization in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamos. As a conserved quantity in ideal MHD, it establishes a strict topological coupling between large and small-scale magnetic fields. The generation of magnetic fields on scales larger than the velocity field is linked to an upscale transfer of magnetic helicity, either locally in spectral space as in the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in MHD turbulence or non-locally, as in the turbulent alpha-effect of mean-field dynamo theory. Thus, understanding the generation, transport, and dissipation of magnetic helicity is an essential prerequisite to understanding manifestations of magnetic self-organization in the solar dynamo, including sunspots, the prominent dipole and quadrupole moments, and the 22-year magnetic activity cycle. Yet, despite its significance, magnetic helicity is often neglected in observational and theoretical studies of solar magnetism. This can be attributed to two factors; First, the calculation of the magnetic helicity is not unique; in general it depends on an electromagnetic guage through the magnetic vector potential. Second, unless it is explicitly calculated as part of the computational algorithm in numerical models, it is not always straightforward to obtain the magnetic vector potential. Here we consider gauge-invariant measures of the magnetic helicity and magnetic helicity flux and we describe how they can be computed from measurable quantities such as the magnetic field, the bulk plasma velocity, and the electrical current density. These measures can be applied to local Cartesian geometries as well as global spherical shells. Here we apply them to two global dynamo simulations, each exhibiting regular magnetic cycles. These include a convective MHD dynamo model and a 3-D Babcock-Leighton dynamo model. Both exhibit patterns of magnetic helicity evolution that reflect the global restructuring of the magnetic field over the

  6. Magnetic Helicity and the Solar Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to open a new window into the solar dynamo, convection, and magnetic reconnection through measurement of the helicity density of magnetic fields in the photosphere and tracing of large-scale patterns of magnetic helicity in the corona.

  7. Magnetic Helicity in a Cyclic Convective Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Zhang, Mei; Augustson, Kyle C.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic helicity is a fundamental agent for magnetic self-organization in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamos. As a conserved quantity in ideal MHD, it establishes a strict topological coupling between large and small-scale magnetic fields. The generation of magnetic fields on scales larger than the velocity field is linked to an upscale transfer of magnetic helicity, either locally in spectral space as in the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in MHD turbulence or non-locally, as in the turbulent alpha-effect of mean-field dynamo theory. Thus, understanding the generation, transport, and dissipation of magnetic helicity is an essential prerequisite to understanding manifestations of magnetic self-organization in the solar dynamo, including sunspots, the prominent dipole and quadrupole moments, and the 22-year magnetic activity cycle. We investigate the role of magnetic helicity in a convective dynamo model that exhibits regular magnetic cycles. The cycle is marked by coherent bands of toroidal field that persist within the convection zone and that are antisymmetric about the equator. When these toriodal bands interact across the equator, it initiates a global restructuring of the magnetic topology that contributes to the reversal of the dipole moment. Thus, the polar field reversals are preceeded by a brief reversal of the subsurface magnetic helicity. There is some evidence that the Sun may exhibit a similar magnetic helicity reversal prior to its polar field reversals.

  8. The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  9. The AGS with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2010-02-25

    The idea of using multiple partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron, to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This modification provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. First, it provides a larger 'spin tune gap' for the placement of the vertical betatron tune of the AGS during acceleration, second, the vertical spin direction during the beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, third, the symmetric placement of the snakes allows for a better control of the AGS optics, and for reduced values of the beta and eta functions, especially near injection, fourth, the optical properties of the helical magnets also favor the placement of the horizontal betatron tune in the 'spin tune gap', thus eliminating the horizontal spin resonances. In this paper we provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and we compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  10. On the helicity of open magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, C.; Yeates, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We reconsider the topological interpretation of magnetic helicity for magnetic fields in open domains, and relate this to the relative helicity. Specifically, our domains stretch between two parallel planes, and each of these ends may be magnetically open. It is demonstrated that, while the magnetic helicity is gauge-dependent, its value in any gauge may be physically interpreted as the average winding number among all pairs of field lines with respect to some orthonormal frame field. In fact, the choice of gauge is equivalent to the choice of reference field in the relative helicity, meaning that the magnetic helicity is no less physically meaningful. We prove that a particular gauge always measures the winding with respect to a fixed frame, and propose that this is normally the best choice. For periodic fields, this choice is equivalent to measuring relative helicity with respect to a potential reference field. However, for aperiodic fields, we show that the potential field can be twisted. We prove by construction that there always exists a possible untwisted reference field.

  11. Primordial magnetic helicity from stochastic electric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra

    2014-04-01

    We study the possibility that primordial magnetic fields generated in the transition between inflation and reheating posses magnetic helicity, HM. The fields are induced by stochastic currents of scalar charged particles created during the mentioned transition. We estimate the rms value of the induced magnetic helicity by computing different four-point scalar quantum electrodynamics Feynman diagrams. For any considered volume, the magnetic flux across its boundaries is in principle not null, which means that the magnetic helicity in those regions is gauge dependent. We use the prescription given by Berger and Field and interpret our result as the difference between two magnetic configurations that coincide in the exterior volume. In this case, the magnetic helicity gives only the number of magnetic links inside the considered volume. We calculate a concrete value of HM for large scales and analyze the distribution of magnetic defects as a function of the scale. Those defects correspond to regular as well as random fields in the considered volume. We find that the fractal dimension of the distribution of topological defects is D=1/2. We also study if the regular fields induced on large scales are helical, finding that they are and that the associated number of magnetic defects is independent of the scale. In this case, the fractal dimension is D=0. We finally estimate the intensity of fields induced at the horizon scale of reheating and evolve them until the decoupling of matter and radiation under the hypothesis of the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity. The resulting intensity is high enough and the coherence length long enough to have an impact on the subsequent process of structure formation.

  12. Magnetic stripes and skyrmions with helicity reversals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhen; Mostovoy, Maxim; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Zhang, Weizhu; Kimoto, Koji; Matsui, Yoshio; Kaneko, Yoshio; Nagaosa, Naoto; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-06-01

    It was recently realized that topological spin textures do not merely have mathematical beauty but can also give rise to unique functionalities of magnetic materials. An example is the skyrmion--a nano-sized bundle of noncoplanar spins--that by virtue of its nontrivial topology acts as a flux of magnetic field on spin-polarized electrons. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct visualization of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets. Topologically, skyrmions are equivalent to magnetic bubbles (cylindrical domains) in ferromagnetic thin films, which were extensively explored in the 1970s for data storage applications. In this study we use Lorentz microscopy to image magnetic domain patterns in the prototypical magnetic oxide-M-type hexaferrite with a hint of scandium. Surprisingly, we find that the magnetic bubbles and stripes in the hexaferrite have a much more complex structure than the skyrmions and spirals in helimagnets, which we associate with the new degree of freedom--helicity (or vector spin chirality) describing the direction of spin rotation across the domain walls. We observe numerous random reversals of helicity in the stripe domain state. Random helicity of cylindrical domain walls coexists with the positional order of magnetic bubbles in a triangular lattice. Most unexpectedly, we observe regular helicity reversals inside skyrmions with an unusual multiple-ring structure. PMID:22615354

  13. A Helical Magnet Design for RHIC^*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willen, E.; Gupta, R.; Kelly, E.; Muratore, J.

    1997-05-01

    Helical dipole magnets are required in a project for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to control and preserve the beam polarization in order to allow the collision of polarized proton beams. The project requires superconducting magnets with a 100 mm coil aperture and a 4 Tesla field in which the field rotates 360 degrees over a distance of 2.4 meters. A design restraint is that the magnets operate at relatively low current (less than 500 amperes) in order to minimize the heat load from the current leads. A magnet has been developed that uses a small diameter superconducting cable wound into helical grooves machined into a thick-walled aluminum cylinder. The design and test results of this prototype magnet will be described. ^*Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  15. Novel Design of Superconducting Helical Dipole Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, R.; Senti, M.; Stelzer, G.

    1997-05-01

    Superconducting helical dipole magnets with a nominal field of 4 Tesla are needed for the spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnets are required to operate at a relatively low current of 400 A since many of these magnets have to be independently controlled. The Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., in Palm Bay, FL has designed and built two prototype magnets using advanced computer controlled coil winding technology. The AML design is extremely cost effective since it avoids magnet specific tooling despite the required complex coil pattern and any precision machined inserts or spacers. It is the first time an accelerator magnet of this technology has reached a field above 4 Tesla. Results from the prototype testing at BNL are presented.

  16. Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, B. C.

    2011-05-01

    The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field

  17. THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Raouafi, Nour-Eddine

    2012-11-01

    Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

  18. Faraday signature of magnetic helicity from reduced depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, Axel; Stepanov, Rodion

    2014-05-10

    Using one-dimensional models, we show that a helical magnetic field with an appropriate sign of helicity can compensate the Faraday depolarization resulting from the superposition of Faraday-rotated polarization planes from a spatially extended source. For radio emission from a helical magnetic field, the polarization as a function of the square of the wavelength becomes asymmetric with respect to zero. Mathematically speaking, the resulting emission occurs then either at observable or at unobservable (imaginary) wavelengths. We demonstrate that rotation measure (RM) synthesis allows for the reconstruction of the underlying Faraday dispersion function in the former case, but not in the latter. The presence of positive magnetic helicity can thus be detected by observing positive RM in highly polarized regions in the sky and negative RM in weakly polarized regions. Conversely, negative magnetic helicity can be detected by observing negative RM in highly polarized regions and positive RM in weakly polarized regions. The simultaneous presence of two magnetic constituents with opposite signs of helicity is shown to possess signatures that can be quantified through polarization peaks at specific wavelengths and the gradient of the phase of the Faraday dispersion function. Similar polarization peaks can tentatively also be identified for the bi-helical magnetic fields that are generated self-consistently by a dynamo from helically forced turbulence, even though the magnetic energy spectrum is then continuous. Finally, we discuss the possibility of detecting magnetic fields with helical and non-helical properties in external galaxies using the Square Kilometre Array.

  19. Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-01-30

    Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.

  20. Helicity of the Solar Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic helicity is a physical quantity that measures the degree of linkages and twistedness in the field lines. It is given by a volume integral over the scalar product of magnetic field B and its vector potential A. Direct computation of magnetic helicity in the solar atmosphere is not possible due to two reasons. First, we do not have the observations at different heights in the solar atmosphere to compute the volume integral. Second, the vector potential A is non-unique owing to gauge variance. Many researchers incorrectly inferred twist, a component of magnetic helicity, from the force-free parameter α. We clarified the physical meaning of α and its relation with the magnetic helicity. Also, a direct method is proposed for the computation of global α values of sunspots. An analytical bipole was generated to study the effect of polarimetric noise on the estimation of various magnetic parameters. We find that the effect of polarimetric noise, present in the recent vector magnetograms e.g., from Hinode (Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro- Polarimeter (SOT/SP)), on the magnetic parameters like α and magnetic energy, is negligible. We examined the fine structures of local current and α in the sunspots. Local α patches of opposite signs are present in the umbra of each sunspot. The amplitude of the spatial variation of local α in the umbra is typically of the order of the global α of the sunspot. We find that the local α and current are distributed as alternately positive and negative filaments in the penumbra. The amplitude of azimuthal variation of the local α in the penumbra is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that in the umbra. The contributions of the local positive and negative currents and α in the penumbra cancel each other giving almost no contribution for their global values for whole sunspot. We have introduced the concept of signed shear angle (SSA) for sunspots and establish its importance for non force

  1. Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. J. B. Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.; Yeates, A. R.

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.

  2. Facile solvothermal synthesis of mesostructured Fe3O4/chitosan nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for pH-responsive drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanghui; Wang, Jianzhi; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Yanfeng; Yuan, Xuemei; Ma, Yingxia

    2014-02-01

    We report a facile fabrication of a host-metal-guest coordination-bonding system in a mesostructured Fe3O4/chitosan nanoparticle that can act as a pH-responsive drug-delivery system. The mesostructured Fe3O4/chitosan was synthesized by a solvothermal approach with iron(III) chloride hexahydrate as a precursor, ethylene glycol as a reducing agent, ammonium acetate as a porogen, and chitosan as a surface-modification agent. Subsequently, doxorubicin (DOX), acting as a model drug (guest), was loaded onto the mesostructured Fe3O4/chitosan nanoparticles, with chitosan acting as a host molecule to form the NH2-Zn(II)-DOX coordination architecture. The release of DOX can be achieved through the cleavage of coordination bonds that are sensitive to variations in external pH under weakly acidic conditions. The pH-responsive nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by in vitro releases and cell assay tests. Furthermore, the relaxation efficiency of the nanoparticles as high-performance magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents was also investigated. Experimental results confirm that the synthesized mesostructured Fe3O4/chitosan is a smart nanovehicle for drug delivery owing to both its pH-responsive nature and relaxation efficiency. PMID:24259489

  3. JOINT INVERSE CASCADE OF MAGNETIC ENERGY AND MAGNETIC HELICITY IN MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, R.; Frick, P.; Mizeva, I.

    2015-01-10

    We show that oppositely directed fluxes of energy and magnetic helicity coexist in the inertial range in fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with small-scale sources of magnetic helicity. Using a helical shell model of MHD turbulence, we study the high Reynolds number MHD turbulence for helicity injection at a scale that is much smaller than the scale of energy injection. In a short range of scales larger than the forcing scale of magnetic helicity, a bottleneck-like effect appears, which results in a local reduction of the spectral slope. The slope changes in a domain with a high level of relative magnetic helicity, which determines that part of the magnetic energy is related to the helical modes at a given scale. If the relative helicity approaches unity, the spectral slope tends to –3/2. We show that this energy pileup is caused by an inverse cascade of magnetic energy associated with the magnetic helicity. This negative energy flux is the contribution of the pure magnetic-to-magnetic energy transfer, which vanishes in the non-helical limit. In the context of astrophysical dynamos, our results indicate that a large-scale dynamo can be affected by the magnetic helicity generated at small scales. The kinetic helicity, in particular, is not involved in the process at all. An interesting finding is that an inverse cascade of magnetic energy can be provided by a small-scale source of magnetic helicity fluctuations without a mean injection of magnetic helicity.

  4. CURRENT HELICITY OF ACTIVE REGIONS AS A TRACER OF LARGE-SCALE SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, H.; Moss, D.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kuzanyan, K.; Sokoloff, D.

    2012-05-20

    We demonstrate that the current helicity observed in solar active regions traces the magnetic helicity of the large-scale dynamo generated field. We use an advanced two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with dynamo saturation based on the evolution of the magnetic helicity and algebraic quenching. For comparison, we also studied a more basic two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with simple algebraic alpha-quenching only. Using these numerical models we obtained butterfly diagrams both for the small-scale current helicity and also for the large-scale magnetic helicity, and compared them with the butterfly diagram for the current helicity in active regions obtained from observations. This comparison shows that the current helicity of active regions, as estimated by -A {center_dot} B evaluated at the depth from which the active region arises, resembles the observational data much better than the small-scale current helicity calculated directly from the helicity evolution equation. Here B and A are, respectively, the dynamo generated mean magnetic field and its vector potential. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given.

  5. The magnetic helicity spectrum from solar vector magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Zhang, Hongqi; Sokoloff, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    The gauge-invariant (or relative) magnetic helicity is often measured to characterize the degree of magnetic complexity of active regions. However, magnetic helicity is expected to have different signs on different length scales that can be identified with the large- and small-scale fields used in dynamo theory. To address this, it is important to determine magnetic helicity spectra as functions of wavenumber. These spectra are defined such that the integral over all wavenumbers gives the usual magnetic helicity density in a particular patch of interest. Using vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory for active region NOAA 11515, which was on the southern hemisphere, we show that the magnetic helicity spectrum has positive sign on scales below 30 Mm, but negative sign on larger scales. This active region was rather complex and its magnetic helicity was within 26% of its theoretical maximum value. This is much more than that of NOAA 11158, which was also rather complex, but only within 5% of its theoretical maximum value. Since the contribution of larger length scales turned out to be important in the case of NOAA 11515, its total magnetic helicity is dominated by the negative values from large length scales, which explains the unusual sign for the southern hemisphere. Measuring magnetic helicity spectra with DKIST may become an important tool to learn about the workings of the underlying dynamo.

  6. Understanding the Mesozoic kinematic evolution in the Cameros basin (Iberian Range, NE Spain) from magnetic subfabrics and mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio M.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2014-09-01

    Analysis of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and brittle mesostructures (hydroplastic synsedimentary faults and tension gashes) is applied in this study in order to characterize the Mesozoic tectonic events in the Cameros basin (NW Iberian Range), formed between Tithonian and Albian times. Low-field AMS at room and low temperature (LF-AMS at RT and LF-AMS at LT, respectively) together with high-field AMS (HF-AMS) measurements allow separating ferro- and paramagnetic fabrics. The combination of LF-AMS at LT and HF-AMS torque measurements confirms the reliability of both procedures in terms of isolating the paramagnetic contribution to the AMS. Magnetic fabric results combined with the analyses of synsedimentary faults indicate a NW-SE extension direction during Aptian (and probably Barremian) times. This extension direction is perpendicular to the main extension direction (NE-SW) prevailing during early and late stages of basin evolution. It is also consistent with extension direction deduced from large-scale bending folds and tension gashes, developed after partial lithification. Cleavage development during Albian enhanced the orientation of the magnetic fabric in lithologies where the previous extensional magnetic lineation is coaxial with the expected one for compression.

  7. Helical Magnetic Fields from Sphaleron Decay and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Copi, Craig J.; Ferrer, Francesc; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Achucarro, Ana

    2008-10-24

    Many models of baryogenesis rely on anomalous particle physics processes to give baryon number violation. By numerically evolving the electroweak equations on a lattice, we show that baryogenesis in these models creates helical cosmic magnetic fields, though the helicity created is smaller than earlier analytical estimates. After a transitory period, electroweak dynamics is found to conserve the Chern-Simons number and the total electromagnetic helicity. We argue that baryogenesis could lead to magnetic fields of nano-Gauss strength today on astrophysical length scales. In addition to being astrophysically relevant, such helical magnetic fields can provide an independent probe of baryogenesis and CP violation in particle physics.

  8. Helical dipole magnets for polarized protons in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.

    1997-07-01

    Superconducting helical dipole magnets will be used in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to maintain polarization of proton beams and to perform localized spin rotations at the two major experimental detector regions. Requirements for the helical dipole system are discussed, and magnet prototype work is reported.

  9. A Half Century of Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Using NASA's "OMNI" dataset, this work presents observations of the net magnetic helicity and the normalized helicity spectrum at 1 AU over the period 1965 - 2014. Past studies (1,2) reported that the helicity at large scales has a definite dominant sign organized with respect to the heliospheric current sheet, with negative helicities occurring north of the current sheet, and positive helicities south. The present study confirms this pattern and extends it by more than two solar cycles and past the most recent solar maximum. Particle scattering by turbulence with finite magnetic helicity is one of only two known particle transport mechanisms that are sensitive to particle charge sign and magnetic field polarity. Implications to cosmic ray transport will be discussed. References: (1) Bieber, Evenson, and Matthaeus, Geophys. Res. Lett. , Vol 14, p 864, 1987. (2) Smith and Bieber, Proc. 23rd Internat. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Calgary), Vol 3, p 493, 1993.

  10. Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M. Bellan

    2001-10-09

    OAK-B135 The goal of the Caltech program is to determine how helicity injection works by investigating the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with magnetic relaxation. A new coaxial helicity injection source has been constructed and brought into operation. The key feature of this source is that it has maximum geometric simplicity. Besides being important for fusion research, this work also has astrophysical implications. Photos obtained using high-speed cameras show a clear sequence of events in the formation process. In particular, they show initial merging/reconnection processes, jet-like expansion, kinking, and separation of the plasma from the source. Various diagnostics have been developed, including laser induced fluorescence and soft x-ray detection using high speed diodes. Gas valves have been improved and a patent disclosure relating to puffed gas valves has been filed. Presentations on this work have been given in the form of invited talks at several university physics departments that were previously unfamiliar with laboratory plasma experiments.

  11. SMART Observation of Magnetic Helicity in Solar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, M.; Kitai, R.; Shibata, K.

    2006-08-01

    We examined the magnetic helicity of solar filaments from their structure in the chromosphere and corona. The H-alpha telescope of the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) observed 239 intermediate filaments from 2005 July 1 to 2006 May 15. The intermediate filament usually locates between two active regions. Using these images, we identified the filament spine and its barbs, and determined the chromospheric filament helicity from the mean angle between each barbs and a spine. We found that 71% (78 of 110) of intermediate filaments in the northern hemisphere are negative helicity and 67% (87 of 129) of filaments in the southern hemisphere are positive, which agreed with the well-known hemispheric tendency of the magnetic helicity. Additionally, we studied the coronal helicity of intermediate filaments. The coronal filament helicity is defined as the crossing angle of threads formed a filament. The helicity pattern of coronal filaments obtained with EIT/SOHO 171A also shows the helicity hemispheric tendency. Namely, 65% (71 of 110) of coronal filaments in the northern hemisphere exhibit negative helicity and the 65% (84 of 129) of filaments in the southern hemisphere show negative helicity. These data were observed in the same day with the SMART H-alpha data. Moreover, we found 12 filament eruptions in our data. The 7 of 12 filaments show the clear opposite sign of the hemispheric tendency of the magnetic helicity. The helicity seems to be change during temporal evolution. This results suggest that filament instability may be driven by the opposite sign helicity injection from the foot point of the barb.

  12. Scale Dependence of Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k approximately equal to 2AU(sup -1) (or frequency nu approximately equal to 2 microHz) at distances below 2.8AU and at k approximately equal to 30AU(sup -1) (or nu approximately equal to 25 microHz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10(sup 45) Mx(sup 2) cycle(sup -1) at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  13. SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  14. Decay of magnetic helicity producing polarized Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    When a super-Alfvenic electron beam propagates along an ambient magnetic field, the left-hand circularly polarized Alfven wave is Cherenkov-emitted (two stream instability). This instability results in a spontaneous conversion of the background plasma helicity to the wave helicity. The background helicity induces a frequency (energy) shift in the eigenmodes, which changes the critical velocity for Cherenkov emission, and it becomes possible for a sub-Alfvenic electron beam to excite a nonsingular Alfven mode.

  15. Josephson junction through a disordered topological insulator with helical magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzin, Alexander; Alidoust, Mohammad; Loss, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We study supercurrent and proximity vortices in a Josephson junction made of disordered surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator with a proximity induced in-plane helical magnetization. In a regime where the rotation period of helical magnetization is larger than the junction width, we find supercurrent 0 -π crossovers as a function of junction thickness, magnetization strength, and parameters inherent to the helical modulation and surface states. The supercurrent reversals are associated with proximity induced vortices, nucleated along the junction width, where the number of vortices and their locations can be manipulated by means of the superconducting phase difference and the parameters mentioned above.

  16. Determining how magnetic helicity injection really works. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bellan, P.M.

    1998-10-21

    Magnetic helicity injection is the essential process underlying both spheromak formation and helicity injection toroidal current drive in tokamaks (e.g., HIT and NSTX). The dynamical details of the helicity injection process are poorly understood because existing models avoid a dynamic description. In particular, Taylor relaxation, the main model motivating helicity injection efforts, is an argument that predicts the state to which a turbulent magnetic configuration relaxes after all dynamics are over. The goal of the Caltech experiment is to investigate the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with relaxation and so determine how helicity injection really works. Although the global relaxation model (i.e., Taylor model) typically invokes axisymmetry, simple physical arguments (Cowling`s theorem) show that the detailed dynamics must involve topologically complex, non-axisymmetric processes. Progress for this project is given here.

  17. Nonlinear stability of magnetic islands in a rotating helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Toda, S.; Narushima, Y.; Yagi, M.

    2012-12-15

    Coexistence of the forced magnetic reconnection by a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) and the curvature-driven tearing mode is investigated in a helical (stellarator) plasma rotated by helical trapped particle-induced neoclassical flows. A set of Rutherford-type equations of rotating magnetic islands and a poloidal flow evolution equation is revisited. Using the model, analytical expressions of criteria of spontaneous shrinkage (self-healing) of magnetic islands and sudden growth of locked magnetic islands (penetration of RMP) are obtained, where nonlinear saturation states of islands show bifurcation structures and hysteresis characteristics. Considering radial profile of poloidal flows across magnetic islands, it is found that the self-healing is driven by neoclassical viscosity even in the absence of micro-turbulence-induced anomalous viscosity. Effects of unfavorable curvature in stellarators are found to modify the critical values. The scalings of criteria are consistent with low-{beta} experiments in the large helical device.

  18. The Effects of Spatial Smoothing on Solar Magnetic Helicity and the Hemispheric Helicity Sign Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Ocker, Stella; Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The hemispheric sign rule for solar magnetic helicity, which states that negative/positive helicity occurs preferentially in the northern/southern hemisphere, provides clues to the causes of twisted, flaring magnetic fields. However, previous studies on the hemisphere rule may have been significantly affected by seeing from atmospheric turbulent motions. Using Hinode/SOT-SP data spanning from 2006 to 2012, we studied the effects of two important data processing steps that imitate the effects of atmospheric seeing: noise reduction by ignoring pixel values that are weaker than the estimated noise threshold, and Gaussian spatial smoothing. We applied these processing techniques to the helicity distribution maps for active regions NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11243, along with the average helicities of 36 active regions, in order to imitate and understand the effects of seeing from atmospheric turbulence. We found that rather than changing trends in the helicity distributions, Gaussian smoothing and noise reduction enhanced existing trends by pushing outliers towards the mean or removing them altogether. We also found that, when separated for weak and strong magnetic fields, the average helicities of the 36 active regions conformed to the hemisphere rule for weak field helicities and breached the rule for strong field helicities. In general, we found that data processing did not affect whether the hemisphere rule held for data taken from space-based instruments, and thus that seeing from atmospheric turbulence did not significantly affect previous studies' ground-based results on the hemisphere rule. This work was carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  19. Resonant Landau-Zener transitions in a helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.; Wołoszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.

    2015-06-01

    Spin-dependent electron transport has been studied in magnetic semiconductor waveguides (nanowires) in the helical magnetic field. We have shown that—apart from the well-known conductance dip located at the magnetic field equal to the helical-field amplitude Bh—the additional conductance dips (with zero conductance) appear at a magnetic field different from Bh. This effect occurring in the non-adiabatic regime is explained as resulting from the resonant Landau-Zener transitions between the spin-split subbands.

  20. Magnetic helicity transport in the advective gauge family

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaresi, Simon; Brandenburg, Axel; Hubbard, Alexander; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2011-01-15

    Magnetic helicity fluxes are investigated in a family of gauges in which the contribution from ideal magnetohydrodynamics takes the form of a purely advective flux. Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in this advective gauge family exhibit instabilities triggered by the build-up of unphysical irrotational contributions to the magnetic vector potential. As a remedy, the vector potential is evolved in a numerically well behaved gauge, from which the advective vector potential is obtained by a gauge transformation. In the kinematic regime, the magnetic helicity density evolves similarly to a passive scalar when resistivity is small and turbulent mixing is mild, i.e., when the fluid Reynolds number is not too large. In the dynamical regime, resistive contributions to the magnetic helicity flux in the advective gauge are found to be significant owing to the development of small length scales in the irrotational part of the magnetic vector potential.

  1. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  2. Magnetic Helicity Reversals in a Cyclic Convective Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Zhang, Mei; Augustson, Kyle C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the role of magnetic helicity in promoting cyclic magnetic activity in a global, 3D, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a convective dynamo. This simulation is characterized by coherent bands of toroidal field that exist within the convection zone, with opposite polarities in the northern hemisphere (NH) and southern hemisphere (SH). Throughout most of the cycle, the magnetic helicity in these bands is negative in the NH and positive in the SH. However, during the declining phase of each cycle, this hemispheric rule reverses. We attribute this to a global restructuring of the magnetic topology that is induced by the interaction of the bands across the equator. This band interaction appears to be ultimately responsible for, or at least associated with, the decay and subsequent reversal of both the toroidal bands and the polar fields. We briefly discuss the implications of these results within the context of solar observations, which also show some potential evidence for toroidal band interactions and helicity reversals.

  3. Particle acceleration in helical magnetic fields in the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordovskyy, Mykola; Browning, Philippa; Bareford, Michael; Pinto, Rui; Kontar, Eduard; Bian, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Twisted magnetic fields should be ubiquitous in the solar corona. Emerging twisted ropes as well as complex photospheric motions provide continuous influx of the magnetic helicity. Twisted coronal fields, in turn, contain excess magnetic energy, which can be released, causing solar flares and other explosive phenomena. It has been shown recently, that reconnection in helical magnetic structures results in particle acceleration distributed within large volume, including the lower corona and chromosphere. Hence, the magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration scenario involving magnetic helicity can be a viable alternative to the standard flare model, where particles are accelerated in a small volume located in the upper corona. We discuss our recent results on the energy release and particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection in twisted coronal loops. Evolution of various helical structures is described in terms of resistive MHD, including heat conduction and radiation. We consider the effects of field topology and photospheric motions on the energy accumulation and release. In particular, we focus on scenarios with continuous helicity injection, leading to recurrent explosive events. Using the obtained MHD models, ion and electron acceleration is investigated, taking into account Coulomb collisions. We derive time-dependent energy spectra and spatial distribution for these species, and calculate resulting non-thermal radiation intensities. Based on the developed numerical models, we investigate observational implications of particle acceleration in helical magnetic structures. Thus, we compare temporal variations of thermal and non-thermal emission in different configurations. Furthermore, we consider spatial distributions of the thermal EUV and X-ray emission and non-thermal X-ray emission and compare them with observational data.

  4. Helical Dipole Magnets for Polarized Protons in RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Luccio, A.; Mariam, F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Katayama, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamura, M.; Tominaka, T.; Wu, H.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be able to support experiments using polarized proton beams. Siberian Snakes are used to maintain polarization in this high energy superconducting collider. To make efficient use of available space while taking advantage of high field superconducting magnets, 4 Tesla helical dipole magnets will be used. These magnets generate a central dipole field in which the field direction rotates through 360^circ about the longitudinal axis over the length of the device. An arrangement of four such magnets can produce the desired change in the spin direction while keeping the proton orbit outside of the ``Snake'' unaltered. Similar magnet arrangements will be used to produce longitudinal polarization at the two major interaction points in RHIC. The basic requirements and layout of these magnets are described, as well as tolerances on field quality and integrated field strengths. First results of tests of prototype helical magnets will be discussed.

  5. Electric Control of Spin Helicity in a Magnetic Ferroelectric

    SciTech Connect

    Yamasaki, Y.; Goto, T.; Sagayama, H.; Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-04-06

    Magnetic ferroelectrics or multiferroics, which are currently extensively explored, may provide a good arena to realize a novel magnetoelectric function. Here we demonstrate the genuine electric control of the spiral magnetic structure in one such magnetic ferroelectric, TbMnO{sub 3}. A spin-polarized neutron scattering experiment clearly shows that the spin helicity, clockwise or counterclockwise, is controlled by the direction of spontaneous polarization and hence by the polarity of the small electric field applied on cooling.

  6. Helical cosmological magnetic fields from extra-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmjeet, Kumar; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2015-05-01

    We study the inflationary generation of helical cosmological magnetic fields in a higher-dimensional generalization of the electromagnetic theory. For this purpose, we also include a parity breaking piece to the electromagnetic action. The evolution of an extra-dimensional scale factor allows the breaking of conformal invariance of the effective electromagnetic action in 1 +3 dimensions required for such generation. Analytical solutions for the vector potential can be obtained in terms of Coulomb wave-functions for some special cases. We also present numerical solutions for the vector potential evolution in more general cases. In the presence of a higher-dimensional cosmological constant there exist solutions for the scale factors in which both normal and extra dimensional space either inflate or deflate simultaneously with the same rate. In such a scenario, with the number of extra dimensions D =4 , a scale invariant spectrum of helical magnetic field is obtained. The net helicity arises, as one helical mode comes to dominate over the other at the superhorizon scales. A magnetic field strength of the order of 10-9 G can be obtained for the inflationary scale H ≃1 0-3 Mpl . Weaker fields will be generated for lower scales of inflation. Magnetic fields generated in this model respects the bounds on magnetic fields by Planck and γ -ray observations (i.e., 10-16 G

  7. Injection of magnetic flux and helicity in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, E.

    2006-09-01

    This thesis is related to the mechanisms of emergence into the solar atmosphere, of two quantities playing key roles in solar activity: magnetic flux and magnetic helicity. Helicity, which is a topological measure of twist and shear, is believed to be a conserved quantity for solar conditions, in the frame of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A crucial phase in the emergence process of these quantities, which are generated and amplified in the solar interior, are their injection through the solar photosphere, the transition region between the solar interior and atmosphere. The first part of my work provided new answers to questions unsolved by the classical scenario of emergence. I have analyzed multi-wavelength observations (FGE, TRACE, SoHO, THEMIS) of an emerging active region. I demonstrated that magnetic flux tubes emerge with a flat undulated shape and that small scale magnetic reconnection events, are necessary to this emergence process. Then, using a 3D MHD numerical simulation, I studied the mechanism of magnetic reconnection and in particular the natural formation of current layers where regions of strong variations of magnetic connectivity, called quasi-separatrix layers, are present. Finally, I demonstrated that the classical definition of helicity flux density is biased and proposed a more accurate definition. I applied my new definition to observations of active regions and showed that the photospheric injection pattern of magnetic helicity is unipolar and homogenous. This study allows to link the generation of helicity in the solar atmosphere, its injection and its distribution in the solar corona and its ejection in the interplanetary medium.

  8. Rashba Torque Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Makarov, Denys; Gaididei, Yuri

    2016-03-01

    Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism.

  9. Magnetic clouds, helicity conservation, and intrinsic scale flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Rust, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    An intrinsic-scale flux-rope model for interplanetary magnetic clouds, incorporating conservation of magnetic helicity, flux and mass is found to adequately explain clouds' average thermodynamic and magnetic properties. In spite their continuous expansion as they balloon into interplanetary space, magnetic clouds maintain high temperatures. This is shown to be due to magnetic energy dissipation. The temperature of an expanding cloud is shown to pass through a maximum above its starting temperature if the initial plasma beta in the cloud is less than 2/3. Excess magnetic pressure inside the cloud is not an important driver of the expansion as it is almost balanced by the tension in the helical field lines. It is conservation of magnetic helicity and flux that requires that clouds expand radially as they move away from the Sun. Comparison with published data shows good agreement between measured cloud properties and theory. Parameters determined from theoretical fits to the data, when extended back to the Sun, are consistent with the origin of interplanetary magnetic clouds in solar filament eruptions. A possible extension of the heating mechanism discussed here to heating of the solar corona is discussed.

  10. Rashba Torque Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Helices.

    PubMed

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V; Sheka, Denis D; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P; Yershov, Kostiantyn V; Makarov, Denys; Gaididei, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism. PMID:27008975

  11. Rashba Torque Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Helices

    PubMed Central

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Makarov, Denys; Gaididei, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism. PMID:27008975

  12. ALFVEN SIMPLE WAVES: EULER POTENTIALS AND MAGNETIC HELICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Hu, Q.; Dasgupta, B.; Zank, G. P.; Roberts, D. A.

    2010-12-20

    The magnetic helicity characteristics of fully nonlinear, multi-dimensional Alfven simple waves are investigated, by using relative helicity formulae and also by using an approach involving poloidal and toroidal decomposition of the magnetic field and magnetic vector potential. Different methods to calculate the magnetic vector potential are used, including the homotopy and Biot-Savart formulae. Two basic Alfven modes are identified: (1) the plane one-dimensional Alfven simple wave given in standard texts, in which the Alfven wave propagates along the z-axis with wave phase {psi} = k{sub 0}(z - {lambda}t), where k{sub 0} is the wave number and {lambda} is the group velocity of the wave and (2) the generalized Barnes simple Alfven wave in which the wave normal n moves in a circle in the xy-plane perpendicular to the mean field, which is directed along the z-axis. The plane Alfven wave (1) is analogous to the slab Alfven mode and the generalized Barnes solution (2) is analogous to the two-dimensional mode in Alfvenic, incompressible turbulence. The helicity characteristics of these two basic Alfven modes are distinct. The helicity characteristics of more general multi-dimensional simple Alfven waves are also investigated. Applications to nonlinear Alfvenic fluctuations and structures observed in the solar wind are discussed.

  13. Self-sustained annihilation of magnetic islands in helical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2005-07-15

    The evolution of the magnetic island which is induced by the resonant deformation by external currents in helical systems (such as the large helical device (LHD) [A. Iiyoshi, Phys. Plasmas 2, 2349 (1995)]) is analyzed. The defect of the bootstrap current, caused by the magnetic island, has a parity which reduces the size of the magnetic island, if the bootstrap current enhances the vacuum rotational transform. The width of magnetic island can be suppressed to the level of ion banana width if the pressure gradient exceeds a threshold value. This island annihilation is self-sustained. That is, the annihilation continues, for fixed beta value, until the external drive for island generation exceeds a threshold. The effects of the reversal of the direction of the bootstrap current and of the sign of radial electric field are also investigated. The possibility of the neoclassical tearing mode in the LHD-like plasma is discussed.

  14. Current-induced Orbital and Spin Magnetizations in Crystals with Helical Structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Taiki; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically show that in a crystal with a helical lattice structure, orbital and spin magnetizations along a helical axis are induced by an electric current along the helical axis. We propose a simple tight-binding model for calculations, and the results can be generalized to any helical crystals. The induced magnetizations are opposite for right-handed and left-handed helices. The current-induced spin magnetization along the helical axis comes from a radial spin texture on the Fermi surface. This is in sharp contrast to Rashba systems where the induced spin magnetization is perpendicular to the applied current. PMID:26156643

  15. Magnetic helicity injection in NOAA 11261 associated with flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Ruan, Guiping; liu, Jihong

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic helicity was found important in understanding solar activities such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). Berger and field (1984) derived an expression for helicity flux dHm/dt, that can be applied to an individual solar active region (AR) occupying an area S of the photosphere, (1) \\begin{linenomath}dHm/dt=-2\\ints[(\\mathbf{Ap}\\cdot \\mathbf{V})\\mathbf{B}-(\\mathbf{Ap} \\cdot \\mathbf{B})\\mathbf{V}] dS, \\eqno{(1)}\\end{linenomath} where Ap is the vector potential of potential field, and V is the plasma velocity at the surface S. The first term describes the effect of magnetic footpoint motions on the surface S. The second term describes the flux of helicity advected through the surface when already twisted and/or writhed flux ropes emerge. Chae (2001) proposed a method of self-consistently determining magnetic helicity injection rate, dH/dt, using a time series of longitudinal magnetograms only: (2) \\begin{linenomath}dH/dt=-\\int2(\\textbf{A}p\\cdot \\textbf{V}LCT)BndS, \\eqno{(2)}\\end{linenomath} where n is the normal component of magnetic field. Ap is the vector potential computed from Bn by Fourier transform method. V LCT is the horizontal component of velocity determined by the technique of local correlation tracking (LCT). This technique was applied by some scientists (e.g., Chae et al., 2001; Nindos and Zhang, 2002; Romano et al., 2003). Magnetic helicity injection was found to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of major flares (Moon et al. 2002a, 2002b; Park et al., 2008; Labonte et al., 2007; Maeshiro et al., 2009).

  16. Dependence of magnetization processes on vortex helicities in Permalloy nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Liao, Chun-Neng; San, Zheng-Hong; Lee, Chung-Peng; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Ho, Tung-Feng

    2008-04-01

    Two different magnetization reversal processes, which are caused by the helicities of the two small vortex domain walls in the two sides of the onion state, are found numerically to exist in thin film rings. When the two vortex domain walls are in the same helicity, the onion state will transform to flux closure state (vortex state) with increasing of the field, and then transform from the flux closure state (vortex state) to the reverse onion state with further increasing of the field. When the two vortex domain walls are in opposite helicities, however, with increasing of the field, the onion state will transform directly to the reverse onion state skipping the flux closure state (vortex state).

  17. Roles of effective helical ripple rates in nonlinear stability of externally induced magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.

  18. Jet Rotation Driven by Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks in Helical Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfvén Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  19. JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-10

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  20. Properties of magnetic helicity flux in turbulent dynamos

    SciTech Connect

    Vishniac, Ethan T.; Shapovalov, Dmitry E-mail: dmsh@jhu.edu

    2014-01-10

    We study the flux of small-scale magnetic helicity in simulations of driven statistically homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a periodic box with an imposed large-scale shear. The simulations show that in the regime of strong dynamo action the eddy-scale magnetic helicity flux has only two significant terms: advective motion driven by the large-scale velocity field and the Vishniac-Cho (VC) flux which moves helicity across the magnetic field lines. The contribution of all the other terms is negligible. The VC flux is highly correlated with the large-scale electromotive force and is responsible for large-scale dynamo action, while the advective term is not. The VC flux is driven by the anisotropy of the turbulence. We derive analytical expressions for it in terms of the small-scale velocity or magnetic field. These expressions are used to predict the existence and strength of dynamo action for different turbulent anisotropies and tested against the results of the simulations.

  1. Goldstone mode in the conical phase of helical magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Yan; Belitz, D.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the nature of the Goldstone mode in the conical phase of helical magnets such as MnSi. A Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya term in the action leads to helical order in the ground state, characterized by a pitch vector q [1]. The Goldstone mode in the helical phase, the helimagnon, is known to have an anisotropic dispersion relation of the form 2̂kz^2 + k^4/q^2, analogous to smectic or cholesteric liquid crystals [2]. In the presence of a homogeneous external magnetic field H the helix is superimposed by a homogeneous magnetization, which leads to a conical phase [3]. The Goldstone mode in the latter is found to be a modified helimagnon, with a dispersion relation of the structure 2̂φ0^2 + H^2 k^2. The additional term H^2 k^2 is a result of the magnetic field breaking the rotational symmetry. In addition, there are remnants of ferromagnetic magnons with masses H^2. [1] P. Bak and M.H. Jensen, J. Phys. C 13, L881 (1980). [2] D. Belitz, T.R. Kirkpatrick, and A. Rosch, Phys. Rev. B 73, 054431 (2006). [3] Y. Ishikawa, G. Shirane, J.A. Tarvin, and M. Kohgi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 4956 (1977).

  2. RF Integration into Helical Magnet for Muon 6-Dimensional Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Kashikhin, V.; Lamm, M.; Lee, A.; Lopes, M.; Zlobin, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, S.; Neubauer, M.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The helical cooling channel is proposed to make a quick muon beam phase space cooling in a short channel length. The challenging part of the helical cooling channel magnet design is how to integrate the RF cavity into the compact helical cooling magnet. This report shows the possibility of the integration of the system.

  3. Magnetic helicity and the relaxation of fossil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of an active dynamo, purely poloidal magnetic field configurations are unstable to large-scale dynamical perturbations, and decay via reconnection on an Alfvénic time-scale. Nevertheless, a number of classes of dynamo-free stars do exhibit significant, long-lived, surface magnetic fields. Numerical simulations suggest that the large-scale poloidal field in these systems is stabilized by a toroidal component of the field in the stellar interior. Using the principle of conservation of total helicity, we develop a variational principle for computing the structure of the magnetic field inside a conducting sphere surrounded by an insulating vacuum. We show that, for a fixed total helicity, the minimum energy state corresponds to a force-free configuration. We find a simple class of axisymmetric solutions, parametrized by angular and radial quantum numbers. However, these solutions have a discontinuity in the toroidal magnetic field at the stellar surface which will exert a toroidal stress on the surface of the star. We then describe two other classes of solutions, the standard spheromak solutions and ones with fixed surface magnetic fields, the latter being relevant for neutron stars with rigid crusts. We discuss the implications of our results for the structure of neutron star magnetic fields, the decay of fields, and the origin of variability and outbursts in magnetars.

  4. New mode of operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for injecting magnetic helicity into a spheromak.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, S; Hill, D N; Stallard, B W; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B; Holcomb, C T; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Moller, J; Wood, R D

    2003-03-01

    By operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun continuously with just sufficient current to enable plasma ejection, large gun-voltage spikes (approximately 1 kV) are produced, giving the highest sustained voltage approximately 500 V and highest sustained helicity injection rate observed in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment. The spheromak magnetic field increases monotonically with time, exhibiting the lowest fluctuation levels observed during formation of any spheromak (B/B>/=2%). The results suggest an important mechanism for field generation by helicity injection, namely, the merging of helicity-carrying filaments. PMID:12689228

  5. Chiral charge erasure via thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Andrew J.; Sabancilar, Eray

    2016-05-01

    We consider a relativistic plasma of fermions coupled to an Abelian gauge field and carrying a chiral charge asymmetry, which might arise in the early Universe through baryogenesis. It is known that on large length scales, λ gtrsim 1/(αμ5), the chiral anomaly opens an instability toward the erasure of chiral charge and growth of magnetic helicity. Here the chemical potential μ5 parametrizes the chiral asymmetry and α is the fine-structure constant. We study the process of chiral charge erasure through the thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity and contrast with the well-studied phenomenon of Chern-Simons number diffusion. Through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem we estimate the amplitude and time scale of helicity fluctuations on the length scale λ, finding δScript H ~ λT and τ ~ αλ3T2 for a relativistic plasma at temperature T. We argue that the presence of a chiral asymmetry allows the helicity to grow diffusively for a time t ~ T3/(α5μ54) until it reaches an equilibrium value Script H ~ μ5T2/α, and the chiral asymmetry is partially erased. If the chiral asymmetry is small, μ5 < T/α, this avenue for chiral charge erasure is found to be slower than the chiral magnetic effect for which t ~ T/(α3μ52). This mechanism for chiral charge erasure can be important for the hypercharge sector of the Standard Model as well as extensions including U(1) gauge interactions, such as asymmetric dark matter models.

  6. Magnetic helicity as a constraint on coronal dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    1986-01-01

    The Taylor hypothesis has provided a model for the relaxed magnetic configurations of not only laboratory plasmas, but also of astrophysical plasmas. However, energy dissipation is possible only for systems which depart from a strict Taylor state, and hence a parameter describing that departure must be introduced, when the Taylor hypothesis is used to estimate the dissipation. An application of the Taylor hypothesis to the problem of coronal heating provides an insight into this difficult problem. When particular sorts of footpoint motions put energy and helicity in the corona, the conservation of helicity puts a constraint on how much of the energy can be dissipated. However, on considering a random distribution of footpoint motions, this constraint gets washed away, and the Taylor hypothesis is probably not going to play any significant role in the actual calculation of relevant physical quantities in the coronal heating problem.

  7. Chiral Magnetism in an Itinerant Helical Magnet, MnSi - An Extended 29Si NMR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi; Motoya, Kiyoichiro; Majumder, Mayukh; Witt, Sebastian; Krellner, Cornelius; Baenitz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The microscopic magnetism in the helical, conical and ferromagnetically polarized phases in an itinerant helical magnet, MnSi, has been studied by an extended 29Si NMR at zero field and under external magnetic fields. The temperature dependence of the staggered moment, MQ(T), determined by the 29Si NMR frequency, ν(T), and the nuclear relaxation rate, 1/T1(T), at zero field is in general accord with the SCR theory for weak itinerant ferromagnetic metals and its extension to helical magnets. The external field dependence of resonance frequency, ν(H), follows a vector sum of the contributions from the atomic hyperfine and macroscopic fields with a field induced moment characteristic to itinerant magnets. A discontinuous jump of the resonance frequency at the critical field, Hc, between the conical and the polarized phases has also been found, which suggests a first order like change of the electronic states at Hc.

  8. Can slow roll inflation induce relevant helical magnetic fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrer, Ruth; Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We study the generation of helical magnetic fields during single field inflation induced by an axial coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. During slow roll inflation, we find that such a coupling always leads to a blue spectrum with B2(k)proptok, as long as the theory is treated perturbatively. The magnetic energy density at the end of inflation is found to be typically too small to backreact on the background dynamics of the inflaton. We also show that a short deviation from slow roll does not result in strong modifications to the shape of the spectrum. We calculate the evolution of the correlation length and the field amplitude during the inverse cascade and viscous damping of the helical magnetic field in the radiation era after inflation. We conclude that except for low scale inflation with very strong coupling, the magnetic fields generated by such an axial coupling in single field slow roll inflation with perturbative coupling to the inflaton are too weak to provide the seeds for the observed fields in galaxies and clusters.

  9. PERFORMANCE SUMMARY OF THE HELICAL MAGNETS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    WILLEN,E.; ANERELLA,M.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; MACKAY,W.; MARONE,A.; MURATORE,J.; PLATE,S.; THOMAS,R.; WANDERER,P.; WU,K.C.; OKAMURA,M.

    2003-05-12

    A series of four Snake and eight Rotator superconducting helical magnet assemblies has been built and installed in RHIC to control the polarization of protons during acceleration and storage in that machine. Each of these assemblies consists of four 2.4 m long dipole magnets in each of which the field rotates through 360 degrees along the magnet's length. The magnets were made by winding one millimeter diameter superconducting 7-strand cable into slots milled into thick-walled aluminum tubes. The magnets produce 4 Tesla field at a current of 320 amperes and are quench-protected with 0.050 ohm resistors placed across the winding in each slot. A total of 48 of these 2.4 m magnets has been built, tested and installed. This paper summarizes their quench performance as well as their field uniformity, of which the integral field is the most critical. All magnets reached the required operating field level of 4 T, and the integral field of the magnets was generally about half of the maximum permissible level of 0.050 Tesla meters.

  10. Nonlinear decay of magnetic helicity in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a mean magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stribling, Troy; Matthaeus, William H.; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    1994-01-01

    We show that the magnetic helicity associated with fluctuations in homogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a mean magnetic field decays in time because of nonlinear processes. Evidence is obtained numerically, by use of both dissipative and nondissipative spectral method simulations. The described effect stands in contrast to expectations based on studies of MHD turbulence without an applied mean field, in which magnetic helicity is transferred nonlinearly to long wavelengths and is preserved in time because of selective decay when dissipation is present. The process of nonlinear decay is described in terms of a generalized ideal helicity invariant and is characterized by the transient production of a mean induced electric field aligned with the applied magnetic field, an effect reminiscent of the alpha effect in dynamo theory. A simple phenomenological model for the decay process is proposed.

  11. Magnetic and luminescent binuclear double-stranded helicates.

    PubMed

    Cucos, Paula; Tuna, Floriana; Sorace, Lorenzo; Matei, Iulia; Maxim, Catalin; Shova, Sergiu; Gheorghe, Ruxandra; Caneschi, Andrea; Hillebrand, Mihaela; Andruh, Marius

    2014-07-21

    Three new binuclear helicates, [M2L2]·3DMF (M = Co(II), 1, Zn(II), 3) and [Cu2L2]·DMF·0.4H2O (2), have been assembled using the helicand H2L that results from the 2:1 condensation reaction between o-vanillin and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether. The metal ions within the binuclear helicates are tetracoordinated with a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Direct current magnetic characterization and EPR spectroscopy of the Co(II) derivative point to an easy axis type anisotropy for both Co(II) centers, with a separation of at least 55 K between the two doublets. Dynamic susceptibility measurements evidence slow relaxation of the magnetization in an applied dc field. Since the distance between the cobalt ions is quite large (11.59 Å), this is attributed in a first instance to the intrinsic properties of each Co(II) center (single-ion magnet behavior). However, the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate and the absence of slow dynamics in the Zn(II)-doped sample suggest that neither the simple Orbach mechanism nor Raman or direct processes can account for the relaxation, and collective phenomena have to be invoked for the observed behavior. Finally, due to the rigidization of the two organic ligands upon coordination, the pure zinc derivative exhibits fluorescence emission in solution, which was analyzed in terms of fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes. PMID:24998701

  12. Distribution of Helical Properties of Solar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzanyan, Kirill M.; Lamburt, Victor G.; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Bao, Shu-Dong

    2003-06-01

    We summarize studies of helical properties of solar magnetic fields such as current helicity and twist of magnetic fields in solar active regions (ARs), that are observational tracers of the alpha-effect in the solar convective zone (SCZ). Information on their spatial distribution is obtained by analysis of systematic magnetographic observations of active regions taken at Huairou Solar Observing Station of National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The main property is that the tracers of the alpha-effect are antisymmetric about the solar equator. Identifying longitudinal migration of active regions with their individual rotation rates and taking into account the internal differential rotation law within the SCZ known from helioseismology, we deduce the distribution of the effect over depth. We have found evidence that the alpha-effect changes its value and sign near the bottom of the SCZ, and this is in accord with the theoretical studies and numerical simulations. We discuss other regularities which can be revealed by further analysis such as possible dependence on longitude, time, and magnetic field strength, etc.

  13. Magnetic helicity signature produced by cross-field 2D turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Markovskii, S. A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2013-06-13

    Hybrid numerical simulations of freely decaying 2D turbulence are presented. The background magnetic field is perpendicular to the simulation plane, which eliminates linear kinetic Alfven waves from the system. The normalized magnetic helicity of the initial large-scale fluctuations is zero, while the normalized cross-helicity is not. As the turbulence evolves, it develops nonzero magnetic helicity at smaller scales, in the proton kinetic range. In the quasi-steady state of evolution, the magnetic helicity spectrum has a peak consistent with the solar wind observations.

  14. Vortex wall dynamics and pinning in helical magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, Bahman

    2014-06-01

    Domain walls formed by one dimensional array of vortex lines have been recently predicted to exist in disordered helical magnets and multiferroics. These systems are on one hand analogues to the vortex line lattices in type-II superconductors while on the other hand they propagate in the magnetic medium as a domain boundary. Using a long wavelength approach supported by numerical optimization we lay out detailed theory for dynamics and structure of such topological fluctuations at zero temperature in presence of weak disorder. We show the interaction between vortex lines is weak. This is the direct consequence of the screening of the vorticity by helical background in the system. We explain how one can use this result to understand the elasticity of the wall with a vicinal surface approach. Also we show the internal degree of freedom of this array leads to the enhancement of its mobility. We present estimates for the interaction and mobility enhancements using the microscopic parameters of the system. Finally we determine the range of velocities/force densities in which the internal movement of the vortex wall can be effective in its dynamics.

  15. Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Niklasson, Eyvind; Ram, Abhay

    2014-04-01

    We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients A=B=C=1 are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late times with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic ABC fields, the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with an exponent that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the probability density function of kinetic energy is, at late times, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails. PMID:24827325

  16. Current induced vortex wall dynamics in helical magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, Bahman

    2015-03-01

    Nontrivial topology of interfaces separating phases with opposite chirality in helical magnetic metals result in new effects as they interact with spin polarized current. These interfaces or vortex walls consist of a one dimensional array of vortex lines. We predict that adiabatic transfer of angular momentum between vortex array and spin polarized current will result in topological Hall effect in multi-domain samples. Also we predict that the motion of the vortex array will result in a new damping mechanism for magnetic moments based on Lenz's law. We study the dynamics of these walls interacting with electric current and use fundamental electromagnetic laws to quantify those predictions. On the other hand discrete nature of vortex walls affects their pinning and results in low depinning current density. We predict the value of this current using collective pinning theory.

  17. Ion-temperature gradient modes affected by helical magnetic field of magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-07-15

    Ion temperature gradient mode (ITG) affected by static magnetic field of magnetic islands is investigated numerically by means of Landau fluid model. The ITG is localized around O-points of magnetic islands, and the localization in poloidal direction is similar to the poloidal localization of toroidal ITG. This is because the helical magnetic field of magnetic islands causes geometrical coupling, and thus Fourier modes that have the same helicity as the islands are coupled together. The strength of coupling is characterized by the square of island width, and it corresponds to the fact that the strength of mode coupling of toroidal ITG is characterized by the inverse aspect ratio of torus in reduced fluid models.

  18. Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.

  19. Three-dimensional prominence-hosting magnetic configurations: Creating a helical magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Guo, Y.

    2014-01-10

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coronal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an essential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows toward the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The converging flows bring the feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line, where magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happen. Inflow and outflow signatures of the magnetic reconnection process are identified, and thereby the newly formed helical loops wind around preexisting ones so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. When a macroscopic flux rope is formed, we switch off the driving flows and find that the system relaxes to a stable state containing a helical magnetic flux rope embedded in an overlying arcade structure. A major part of the formed flux rope is threaded by dipped field lines that can stably support prominence matter, while the total mass of the flux rope is in the order of 4-5× 10{sup 14} g.

  20. Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Herron, Isom

    2006-11-15

    Hollerbach and Ruediger have reported a new type of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The salient advantage of this 'helical' MRI (HMRI) is that marginal instability occurs at arbitrarily low magnetic Reynolds and Lundquist numbers, suggesting that HMRI might be easier to realize than standard MRI (axial field only), and that it might be relevant to cooler astrophysical disks, especially those around protostars, which may be quite resistive. We confirm previous results for marginal stability and calculate HMRI growth rates. We show that in the resistive limit, HMRI is a weakly destabilized inertial oscillation propagating in a unique direction along the axis. But we report other features of HMRI that make it less attractive for experiments and for resistive astrophysical disks. Large axial currents are required. More fundamentally, instability of highly resistive flow is peculiar to infinitely long or periodic cylinders: finite cylinders with insulating endcaps are shown to be stable in this limit, at least if viscosity is neglected. Also, Keplerian rotation profiles are stable in the resistive limit regardless of axial boundary conditions. Nevertheless, the addition of a toroidal field lowers thresholds for instability even in finite cylinders.

  1. Increasing the magnetic helicity content of a plasma by pulsing a magnetized source.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, S; Stallard, B W; McLean, H S; Hooper, E B; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B I; Hill, D N; Holcomb, C T; Moller, J; Wood, R D

    2004-11-12

    By operating a magnetized coaxial gun in a pulsed mode it is possible to produce large voltage pulses of duration approximately 500 mus while reaching a few kV, giving a discrete input of helicity into a spheromak. In the sustained spheromak physics experiment (SSPX), it is observed that pulsing serves to nearly double the stored magnetic energy and double the temperature. We discuss these results by comparison with 3D MHD simulations of the same phenomenon. PMID:15600933

  2. Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Tan, Changyi; Wang, Haimin

    2010-09-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 × 1043 Mx2 just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 × 1043 Mx2, in the corona over ~1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.

  3. TIME EVOLUTION OF CORONAL MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE FLARING ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, Ju; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul; Tan, Changyi

    2010-09-10

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 x 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 x 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2}, in the corona over {approx}1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.

  4. Evolution of Magnetic Helicity and Energy Spectra of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-03-01

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30-60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-07-20

    The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10{sup 22} Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.

  6. Helicity from observational solar magnetic fields and the relationship with solar activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    The helicity is important to present the basic topological configuration of magnetic field trans-ferred form the solar subatmosphere into the interplanetary space. In this talk, the basic configuration of magnetic field and helicity in the solar atmosphere have been discussed in the following: 1) The Hinode high resolution vector magnetograms provide the important infor-mation on the fine features of current helicity density and the possible accumulated process of magnetic helicity in the solar atmosphere. 2) The relationship between the eruption of solar flare-CMEs and helicity transfer from the suntamosphere has be presented based on the analy-sis of photospheric vector magnetograms. 3) The statistical distribution of magnetic field (and helicity) in solar atmosphere and its reversals with solar cycles are presented by means of the observational (vector) magnetograms. As the magnetic fields in the solar surface provides the information on the formation of magnetic field in the solar convection zone, the statistical anal-ysis of the observational magnetic helicity is important for the confirmation of the alpha-effect of the solar dynamo.

  7. Dynamics of Laboratory Astrophysical Jets with Magnetized Helical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    A triple electrode planar plasma gun (MOCHI LabJet) designed to study the dynamics of magnetized helical flows in plasma jets provides boundary conditions and dimensionless numbers relevant to astrophysical jets. The goal is to observe the effect of current and flow profiles on the collimation and stability of jets to address the questions: why are jets collimated and long? How are jet irregularities related to plasma instabilities? The current and azimuthal flow profiles of the jets are tailored by biasing the electrodes at different potentials. High-speed camera images, high-resolution Ḃ probe measurements, and 3D vector tomography of plasma flows will map a stability space for varying current and flow profiles. An analytical stability space is derived with Newcomb's variational analysis applied to collimated magnetic flux tubes with skin and core currents. Two numerical stability spaces are also computed by integrating the Euler-Lagrange equation and applying a shooting method to the ideal MHD eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalue problem is generalized to include azimuthal flows and computed with a monotonicity condition for minimizing the required scanning of the complex eigenvalue space. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  8. Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term (a few days) evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the temporal evolution of the relative coronal magnetic helicity in NOAA active region (AR) 10930 during the time period of December 8, 21:20 UT through December 14, 5:00 UT. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free (NLFF) magnetic fields reconstructed by the optimization method (Wheatland et al. 2000) as implemented by Wiegelmann (2004). As the boundary conditions for the force-free reconstruction, we use the preprocessed Hinode Spectropolarimeter (SP) vector magnetograms in which the net Lorentz force and the torque in the photosphere are minimized (see Wiegelmann et al. 2006 for the details). The major findings of this study are: (1) a negative (left-handed) helicity of -5×1043 Mx2 in the AR corona is estimated right before the X3.4 flare; (2) the major flare is preceded by a significantly and consistently large amount of negative helicity injection (-2×1043 Mx2) into the corona over 2 days; (3) the temporal variation of helicity is comparable to that of the rotational speed in the southern sunspot with positive polarity; (4) in general, the time profile of the coronal helicity is well-matched with that of the helicity accumulation by the time integration of the simplified helicity injection rate (Chae 2001) determined by using SOHO MDI magnetograms; (5) at the time period of the channel structure development (December 11, 4:00-8:00 UT) with newly emerging flux and just right before the C5.7 class flare, the time variation of the coronal helicity shows a rapid and huge increase of negative helicity, but that of the helicity accumulation by MDI magnetograms indicates a monotonous increase of negative helicity.

  9. A multichannel magnetic probe system for analysing magnetic fluctuations in helical axis plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haskey, S. R.; Blackwell, B. D.; Seiwald, B.; Hole, M. J.; Pretty, D. G.; Howard, J.; Wach, J.

    2013-09-15

    The need to understand the structure of magnetic fluctuations in H-1NF heliac [S. Hamberger et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 123 (1990)] plasmas has motivated the installation of a sixteen former, tri-axis helical magnetic probe Mirnov array (HMA). The new array complements two existing poloidal Mirnov arrays by providing polarisation information, higher frequency response, and improved toroidal resolution. The helical placement is ideal for helical axis plasmas because it positions the array as close as possible to the plasma in regions of varying degrees of favourable curvature in the magnetohydrodynamic sense, but almost constant magnetic angle. This makes phase variation with probe position near linear, greatly simplifying the analysis of the data. Several of the issues involved in the design, installation, data analysis, and calibration of this unique array are presented including probe coil design, frequency response measurements, mode number identification, orientation calculations, and mapping probe coil positions to magnetic coordinates. Details of specially designed digitally programmable pre-amplifiers, which allow gains and filters to be changed as part of the data acquisition initialisation sequence and stored with the probe signals, are also presented. The low shear heliac geometry [R. Jiménez-Gómez et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 033001 (2011)], flexibility of the H-1NF heliac, and wealth of information provided by the HMA create a unique opportunity for detailed study of Alfvén eigenmodes, which could be a serious issue for future fusion reactors.

  10. A multichannel magnetic probe system for analysing magnetic fluctuations in helical axis plasmas.

    PubMed

    Haskey, S R; Blackwell, B D; Seiwald, B; Hole, M J; Pretty, D G; Howard, J; Wach, J

    2013-09-01

    The need to understand the structure of magnetic fluctuations in H-1NF heliac [S. Hamberger et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 123 (1990)] plasmas has motivated the installation of a sixteen former, tri-axis helical magnetic probe Mirnov array (HMA). The new array complements two existing poloidal Mirnov arrays by providing polarisation information, higher frequency response, and improved toroidal resolution. The helical placement is ideal for helical axis plasmas because it positions the array as close as possible to the plasma in regions of varying degrees of favourable curvature in the magnetohydrodynamic sense, but almost constant magnetic angle. This makes phase variation with probe position near linear, greatly simplifying the analysis of the data. Several of the issues involved in the design, installation, data analysis, and calibration of this unique array are presented including probe coil design, frequency response measurements, mode number identification, orientation calculations, and mapping probe coil positions to magnetic coordinates. Details of specially designed digitally programmable pre-amplifiers, which allow gains and filters to be changed as part of the data acquisition initialisation sequence and stored with the probe signals, are also presented. The low shear heliac geometry [R. Jiménez-Gómez et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 033001 (2011)], flexibility of the H-1NF heliac, and wealth of information provided by the HMA create a unique opportunity for detailed study of Alfvén eigenmodes, which could be a serious issue for future fusion reactors. PMID:24089823

  11. A multichannel magnetic probe system for analysing magnetic fluctuations in helical axis plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Blackwell, B. D.; Seiwald, B.; Hole, M. J.; Pretty, D. G.; Howard, J.; Wach, J.

    2013-09-01

    The need to understand the structure of magnetic fluctuations in H-1NF heliac [S. Hamberger et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 123 (1990)] plasmas has motivated the installation of a sixteen former, tri-axis helical magnetic probe Mirnov array (HMA). The new array complements two existing poloidal Mirnov arrays by providing polarisation information, higher frequency response, and improved toroidal resolution. The helical placement is ideal for helical axis plasmas because it positions the array as close as possible to the plasma in regions of varying degrees of favourable curvature in the magnetohydrodynamic sense, but almost constant magnetic angle. This makes phase variation with probe position near linear, greatly simplifying the analysis of the data. Several of the issues involved in the design, installation, data analysis, and calibration of this unique array are presented including probe coil design, frequency response measurements, mode number identification, orientation calculations, and mapping probe coil positions to magnetic coordinates. Details of specially designed digitally programmable pre-amplifiers, which allow gains and filters to be changed as part of the data acquisition initialisation sequence and stored with the probe signals, are also presented. The low shear heliac geometry [R. Jiménez-Gómez et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 033001 (2011)], 10.1088/0029-5515/51/3/033001, flexibility of the H-1NF heliac, and wealth of information provided by the HMA create a unique opportunity for detailed study of Alfvén eigenmodes, which could be a serious issue for future fusion reactors.

  12. Helicity-vorticity turbulent pumping of magnetic fields in the solar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of helical convective motions and differential rotation in the solar convection zone results in turbulent drift of a large-scale magnetic field. We discuss the pumping mechanism and its impact on the solar dynamo.

  13. On the resilience of helical magnetic fields to turbulent diffusion and the astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2013-02-01

    The extent to which large-scale magnetic fields are susceptible to turbulent diffusion is important for interpreting the need for in situ large-scale dynamos in astrophysics and for observationally inferring field strengths compared to kinetic energy. By solving coupled evolution equations for magnetic energy and magnetic helicity in a system initialized with isotropic turbulence and an arbitrarily helical large-scale field, we quantify the decay rate of the latter for a bounded or periodic system. The magnetic energy associated with the non-helical large-scale field decays at least as fast as the kinematically estimated turbulent diffusion rate, but the decay rate of the helical part depends on whether the ratio of its magnetic energy to the turbulent kinetic energy exceeds a critical value given by M1, c = (k1/k2)2, where k1 and k2 are the wavenumbers of the large and forcing scales. Turbulently diffusing helical fields to small scales while conserving magnetic helicity requires a rapid increase in total magnetic energy. As such, only when the helical field is subcritical can it so diffuse. When supercritical, it decays slowly, at a rate determined by microphysical dissipation even in the presence of macroscopic turbulence. In effect, turbulent diffusion of such a large-scale helical field produces small-scale helicity whose amplification abates further turbulent diffusion. Two curious implications are that (1) standard arguments supporting the need for in situ large-scale dynamos based on the otherwise rapid turbulent diffusion of large-scale fields require re-thinking since only the large-scale non-helical field is so diffused in a closed system. Boundary terms could however provide potential pathways for rapid change of the large-scale helical field. (2) Since M1, c ≪ 1 for k1 ≪ k2, the presence of long-lived ordered large-scale helical fields as in extragalactic jets do not guarantee that the magnetic field dominates the kinetic energy.

  14. Evolution of Magnetic Helicity During Eruptive Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, E. R.; Longcope, D. W.; Janvier, M.

    2016-08-01

    During eruptive solar flares and coronal mass ejections, a non-potential magnetic arcade with much excess magnetic energy goes unstable and reconnects. It produces a twisted erupting flux rope and leaves behind a sheared arcade of hot coronal loops. We suggest that the twist of the erupting flux rope can be determined from conservation of magnetic flux and magnetic helicity and equipartition of magnetic helicity. It depends on the geometry of the initial pre-eruptive structure. Two cases are considered, in the first of which a flux rope is not present initially but is created during the eruption by the reconnection. In the second case, a flux rope is present under the arcade in the pre-eruptive state, and the effect of the eruption and reconnection is to add an amount of magnetic helicity that depends on the fluxes of the rope and arcade and the geometry.

  15. Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux tubes in almost helical plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Andrade, L.C.

    2006-02-15

    Riemannian geometry of curves applied recently by Ricca [Fluid Dyn. Res 36, 319 (2005)] in the case of inflectional disequilibrium of twisted magnetic flux tubes is used here to compute the magnetic helicity force-free field case. Here the application of Lorentz force-free to the magnetic flux tube in tokamaks allows one to obtain an equation that generalizes the cylindrical tokamak equation by a term that contains the curvature of the magnetic flux tube. Another example of the use of the magnetic flux tube is done by taking the electron magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluid model (EMHD) of plasma physics that allows one to compute the velocity of the fluid in helical and almost helical flows in terms of the Frenet torsion of thin magnetic flux tubes. The cases of straight and curved twisted tubes are examined. Second-order effects on the Frenet torsion arise on the poloidal component of the magnetic field, while curvature effects appear in the toroidal component. The magnetic fields are computed in terms of the penetration depth used in superconductors. The ratio between poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic field depends on the torsion and curvature of the magnetic flux tube. It is shown that the rotation of the almost helical plasma flow contributes to the twist of the magnetic flux tube through the total Frenet torsion along the tube.

  16. Enantioselective synthesis of helical polydiacetylene by application of linearly polarized light and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Guang; Xia, Hongyan; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Gao, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic optical activity, which can occur in all media and is induced by longitudinal magnetic field, causes the difference in absorption coefficients of left and right circularly polarized light and has the potential for magnetically induced enantioselectivity in chemical reactions. Compared with the well-established technique with circularly polarized light, there are few reports on the production of helical conjugated polymers in a photochemical reaction based on above magnetochiral anisotropy mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that the enantioselective polymerization of diacetylene derivative can be achieved in the liquid crystal phase by application of linearly polarized light under a parallel or antiparallel magnetic field. The screw direction of predominant helical polydiacetylene chain can be rigorously controlled with the relative orientation of linearly polarized light and the magnetic field. Moreover, the prepared helical polydiacetylene assemblies can serve as a direct visual probe for the enantioselective recognition of D- or L-lysine.

  17. Magnetic Helicity of the Global Field in Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    For the first time we reconstruct the magnetic helicity density of the global axisymmetric field of the Sun using the method proposed by Brandenburg et al. and Pipin et al. To determine the components of the vector potential, we apply a gauge which is typically employed in mean-field dynamo models. This allows for a direct comparison of the reconstructed helicity with the predictions from the mean-field dynamo models. We apply this method to two different data sets: the synoptic maps of the line-of-sight magnetic field from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and vector magnetic field measurements from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system. Based on the analysis of the MDI/SOHO data, we find that in solar cycle 23 the global magnetic field had positive (negative) magnetic helicity in the northern (southern) hemisphere. This hemispheric sign asymmetry is opposite to the helicity of the solar active regions, but it is in agreement with the predictions of mean-field dynamo models. The data also suggest that the hemispheric helicity rule may have reversed its sign during the early and late phases of cycle 23. Furthermore, the data indicate an imbalance in magnetic helicity between the northern and southern hemispheres. This imbalance seems to correlate with the total level of activity in each hemisphere in cycle 23. The magnetic helicity for the rising phase of cycle 24 is derived from SOLIS/VSM data, and qualitatively its latitudinal pattern is similar to the pattern derived from SOHO/MDI data for cycle 23.

  18. Using Magnetic Helicity Diagnostics to Determine the Nature of Solar Active-Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    Employing a novel nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method that self-consistently infers instantaneous free magnetic-energy and relative magnetic-helicity budgets from single photospheric vector magnetograms, we recently constructed the magnetic energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions. The EH diagram implies dominant relative helicities of left-handed or right-handed chiralities for the great majority of active regions. The amplitude (budget) of these helicities scales monotonically with the free magnetic energy. This constructive, strongly preferential accumulation of a certain sense of magnetic helicity seems to disqualify recently proposed mechanisms relying on a largely random near-surface convection for the formation of the great majority of active regions. The existing qualitative formation mechanism for these regions remains the conventional Omega-loop emergence following a buoyant ascension from the bottom of the convection zone. However, exceptions to this rule include even eruptive active regions: NOAA AR 11283 is an obvious outlier to the EH diagram, involving significant free magnetic energy with a small relative magnetic helicity. Relying on a timeseries of vector magnetograms of this region, our methodology shows nearly canceling amounts of both senses of helicity and an overall course from a weakly left-handed to a weakly right-handed structure, in the course of which a major eruption occurs. For this and similarly behaving active regions the latest near-surface formation scenario might conceivably be employed successfully. Research partially supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. PIRG07-GA-2010-268245 and by the European Union Social Fund (ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  19. Note: On-chip multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic Janus helical microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, G.; Decanini, D.; Leroy, L.; Haghiri-Gosnet, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Microswimmers integrated into microfluidic devices that are capable of self-illumination through fluorescence could revolutionize many aspects of technology, especially for biological applications. Few illumination and propulsion techniques of helical microswimmers inside microfluidic channels have been demonstrated. This paper presents the fabrication, detachment, and magnetic propulsions of multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic helical microswimmers integrated inside microfluidics. The fabrication process is based on two-photon laser lithography to pattern 3-D nanostructures from fluorescent photoresist coupled with conventional microfabrication techniques for magnetic thin film deposition by shadowing. After direct integration inside a microfluidic device, injected gas bubble allows gentle detachment of the integrated helical microswimmers whose magnetic propulsion can then be directly applied inside the microfluidic channel using external electromagnetic coil setup. With their small scale, fluorescence, excellent resistance to liquid/gas surface tension, and robust propulsion capability inside the microfluidic channel, the microswimmers can be used as high-resolution and large-range mobile micromanipulators inside microfluidic channels.

  20. Theory for nanoparticle retention time in the helical channel of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2009-05-01

    Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a separation and characterization technique for magnetic nanoparticles such as those used for cell labeling and for targeted drug therapy. A helical separation channel is used to efficiently exploit the quadrupole magnetic field. The fluid and sample components therefore have angular and longitudinal components to their motion in the thin annular space occupied by the helical channel. The retention ratio is defined as the ratio of the times for non-retained and a retained material to pass through the channel. Equations are derived for the respective angular and longitudinal components to retention ratio.

  1. Validation and Benchmarking of a Practical Free Magnetic Energy and Relative Magnetic Helicity Budget Calculation in Solar Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, K.; Tziotziou, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Archontis, V.

    2014-12-01

    In earlier works we introduced and tested a nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method designed to self-consistently calculate the coronal free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets of observed solar magnetic structures. In principle, the method requires only a single, photospheric or low-chromospheric, vector magnetogram of a quiet-Sun patch or an active region and performs calculations without three-dimensional magnetic and velocity-field information. In this work we strictly validate this method using three-dimensional coronal magnetic fields. Benchmarking employs both synthetic, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and nonlinear force-free field extrapolations of the active-region solar corona. Our time-efficient NLFF method provides budgets that differ from those of more demanding semi-analytical methods by a factor of approximately three, at most. This difference is expected to come from the physical concept and the construction of the method. Temporal correlations show more discrepancies that are, however, soundly improved for more complex, massive active regions, reaching correlation coefficients on the order of, or exceeding, 0.9. In conclusion, we argue that our NLFF method can be reliably used for a routine and fast calculation of the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in targeted parts of the solar magnetized corona. As explained in this article and in previous works, this is an asset that can lead to valuable insight into the physics and triggering of solar eruptions.

  2. A theoretical model for the magnetic helicity of solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Petrovay, Kristof; Nandy, Dibyendu

    Active regions on the solar surface are known to possess magnetic helicity, which is predominantly negative in the northern hemisphere and positive in the southern hemisphere. Choudhuri et al. [Choudhuri, A.R. On the connection between mean field dynamo theory and flux tubes. Solar Phys. 215, 31 55, 2003] proposed that the magnetic helicity arises due to the wrapping up of the poloidal field of the convection zone around rising flux tubes which form active regions. Choudhuri [Choudhuri, A.R., Chatterjee, P., Nandy, D. Helicity of solar active regions from a dynamo model. ApJ 615, L57 L60, 2004] used this idea to calculate magnetic helicity from their solar dynamo model. Apart from getting broad agreements with observational data, they also predict that the hemispheric helicity rule may be violated at the beginning of a solar cycle. Chatterjee et al. [Chatterjee, P., Choudhuri, A.R., Petrovay, K. Development of twist in an emerging magnetic flux tube by poloidal field accretion. A&A 449, 781 789, 2006] study the penetration of the wrapped poloidal field into the rising flux tube due to turbulent diffusion using a simple 1-d model. They find that the extent of penetration of the wrapped field will depend on how weak the magnetic field inside the rising flux tube becomes before its emergence. They conclude that more detailed observational data will throw light on the physical conditions of flux tubes just before their emergence to the photosphere.

  3. Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments for validated determination of the helical field coil location in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G.; Knowlton, S.

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the behavior of plasmas in magnetic confinement fusion devices typically requires accurate knowledge of the magnetic field structure. In stellarator-type confinement devices, the helical magnetic field is produced by currents in external coils and may be traced experimentally in the absence of plasma through the experimental technique of vacuum magnetic field mapping. Field mapping experiments, such as these, were performed on the recently constructed compact toroidal hybrid to verify the range of accessible magnetic configurations, compare the actual magnetic configuration with the design configuration, and identify any vacuum field errors that lead to perturbations of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces. Furthermore, through the use of a new coil optimization routine, modifications are made to the simulation coil model such that better agreement exists between the experimental and simulation results. An outline of the optimization procedure is discussed in conjunction with the results of one such optimization process performed on the helical field coil.

  4. Search for CP violating signature of intergalactic magnetic helicity in the gamma-ray sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Chen, Wenlei; Ferrer, Francesc; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2014-11-01

    The existence of a cosmological magnetic field could be revealed by the effects of non-trivial helicity on large scales. We evaluate a CP (conjugation plus parity) odd statistic, Q, using gamma-ray data obtained from Fermi satellite observations at high galactic latitudes to search for such a signature. Observed values of Q are found to be non-zero; the probability of a similar signal in Monte Carlo simulations is ˜0.2 per cent. Contamination from the Milky Way does not seem to be responsible for the signal since it is present even for data at very high galactic latitudes. Assuming that the signal is indeed due to a helical cosmological magnetic field, our results indicate left-handed magnetic helicity and field strength ˜10-14 G on ˜10 Mpc scales.

  5. A theoretical model for the magnetic helicity of solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, A. R.; Chatterjee, P.; Petrovay, K.; Nandy, D.

    Active regions on the solar surface are known to possess magnetic helicity which is predominantly negative in the northern hemisphere and positive in the southern hemisphere Choudhuri 2003 Sol Phys 123 217 proposed that the magnetic helicity arises due to the wrapping up of the poloidal field of the convection zone around rising flux tubes which form active regions Choudhuri Chatterjee and Nandy 2004 ApJ 615 L57 used this idea to calculate magnetic helicity from their solar dynamo model and found broad agreements with observational data Chatterjee Choudhuri and Petrovay 2006 A A in press have studied the penetration of the wrapped poloidal field into the rising flux tube and concluded that more detailed observational data will throw light on the physical conditions of flux tubes just before their emergence to the photosphere

  6. Formation of giant molecular clouds and helical magnetic fields by the Parker instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    1991-10-01

    It is suggested that the Orion molecular cloud complex formed through the Parker instability (the buoyancy of a magnetic field entrained in matter) and that the helical filament found by Uchida et al. (1991) in the L1641 in the Orion cloud complex is the result of spinning gas falling along the magnetic field and twisting it. The twisted magnetic field, unlike a purely planar field, suppresses the Parker instability on small scales, allowing the generation of finite clouds rather than general turbulence.

  7. Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  8. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  9. Electrical manipulation of dynamic magnetic impurity and spin texture of helical Dirac fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhong, Min; Zheng, Shi-Han; Yang, Mou; Wang, Guang-Hui

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the spin inelastic scattering of helical electrons off a high-spin nanomagnet absorbed on a topological surface. The nanomagnet is treated as a dynamic quantum spin and driven by the spin transfer torque effect. We proposed a mechanism to electrically manipulate the spin texture of helical Dirac fermions rather than by an external magnetic field. By tuning the bias voltage and the direction of impurity magnetization, we present rich patterns of spin texture, from which important fingerprints exclusively associated with the spin helical feature are obtained. Furthermore, it is found that the nonmagnetic potential can create the resonance state in the spin density with different physics as the previously reported resonance of charge density.

  10. Rigidity evaluation of a superconducting helical coil for an LHD-type fusion magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, H.; Imagawa, S.; Takahata, K.; Mito, T.; Sagara, A.

    2010-06-01

    The large helical device (LHD) type fusion power reactor has many advantages in operations such as steady state and no active plasma current. The magnet system of the LHD-type fusion device consists of superconducting helical coils and superconducting poloidal coils. Since the helical coil is a complicated three-dimensional structure, designs of the coil and the supporting structure have to be performed carefully. Clarifying the mechanical behavior during coil excitation is very important for a design of the coil system. The mechanical behavior for components in the helical coil can be estimated using a simplified two dimensional axisymmetric model which has a mean radius of curvature of the actual helical coil. To evaluate the accuracy of this simplified model, stress distribution was calculated with three-dimensional finite element model and the result was compared with that of the simplified model. The stress distribution of a candidate design of LHD-type helical reactor was estimated by using the simplified model and the result showed that the stress / strain level were within the reasonable range for composed materials.

  11. Disorder effects on helical edge transport in graphene under a strong tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chunli; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2015-10-01

    In a recent experiment, Young et al. [Nature (London) 505, 528 (2014), 10.1038/nature12800] observed a metal to insulator transition as well as transport through helical edge states in monolayer graphene under a strong, tilted magnetic field. Under such conditions, the bulk is a magnetic insulator which can exhibit metallic conduction through helical edges. It was found that the two-terminal conductance of the helical channels deviates from the expected quantized value (=e2/h per edge, at zero temperature). Motivated by this observation, we study the effect of disorder on the conduction through the edge channels. We show that, unlike for helical edges of topological insulators in semiconducting quantum wells, a disorder Rashba spin-orbit coupling does not lead to backscattering, at least to leading order. Instead, we find that the lack of perfect antialignment of the electron spins in the helical channels to be the most likely cause for backscattering arising from scalar (i.e., spin-independent) impurities. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and other time-reversal symmetry-breaking and/or sublattice parity-breaking potentials also lead to (subleading) corrections to the channel conductance.

  12. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  13. Global-scale consequences of magnetic-helicity injection and condensation on the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, Duncan H.; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-04-01

    In the recent paper of Antiochos, a new concept for the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona by small-scale convective motions and its condensation onto polarity inversion lines (PILs) was developed. We investigate this concept through global simulations of the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields, and compare the results with the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments. Assuming that the vorticity of the cells is predominantly counterclockwise/clockwise in the northern/southern hemisphere, the convective motions inject negative/positive helicity into each hemisphere. The simulations show that: (1) on a north-south oriented PIL, both differential rotation and convective motions inject the same sign of helicity, which matches that required to reproduce the hemispheric pattern of filaments. (2) On a high-latitude east-west oriented polar crown or subpolar crown PIL, the vorticity of the cells has to be approximately 2-3 times greater than the local differential-rotation gradient in order to overcome the incorrect sign of helicity injection from differential rotation. (3) In the declining phase of the cycle, as a bipole interacts with the polar field, in some cases, helicity condensation can reverse the effect of differential rotation along the east-west lead arm but not in all cases. The results show that this newly developed concept of magnetic helicity injection and condensation, in conjunction with the mechanisms used in Yeates et al., is a viable explanation for the hemispheric pattern of filaments. Future observational studies should focus on examining the vorticity component within convective motions to determine both its magnitude and latitudinal variation relative to the differential-rotation gradient on the Sun.

  14. Global-Scale Consequences of Magnetic-Helicity Injection and Condensation on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, Duncan H.; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2013-01-01

    In the recent paper of Antiochos, a new concept for the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona by small-scale convective motions and its condensation onto polarity inversion lines (PILs) has been developed. We investigate this concept through global simulations of the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields and compare the results with the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments. Assuming that the vorticity of the cells is predominately counter-clockwise/clockwise in the northern/southern hemisphere, the convective motions inject negative/positive helicity into each hemisphere. The simulations show that: (i) On a north-south orientated PIL, both differential rotation and convective motions inject the same sign of helicity which matches that required to reproduce the hemispheric pattern of filaments. (ii) On a high latitude east-west orientated polar crown or sub-polar crown PIL, the vorticity of the cells has to be approximately 2-3 times greater than the local differential rotation gradient in order to overcome the incorrect sign of helicity injection from differential rotation. (iii) In the declining phase of the cycle, as a bipole interacts with the polar field, in some cases helicity condensation can reverse the effect of differential rotation along the East-West lead arm, but not in all cases. The results show that this newly developed concept of magnetic helicity injection and condensation is a viable method to explain the hemispheric pattern of filaments in conjunction with the mechanisms used in Yeates et al. (2008). Future observational studies should focus on determining the vorticity component within convective motions to determine, both its magnitude and latitudinal variation relative to the differential rotation gradient on the Sun.

  15. Formation of sheet plumes, current coils, and helical magnetic fields in a spherical magnetohydrodynamic dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

    2011-07-01

    Aiming at understanding of magnetic field generation process in rapidly rotating stars and planets represented by the Earth, computer simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo were performed in a rotating spherical shell geometry. Thermal convection and dynamo process with Ekman number of the order of 10-7 were studied. New structures of convection motion, dynamo-generated electrical current, and magnetic field are found. The flow is organized as a set of thin, sheet-like plumes. The current is made of small-scale coil structure with magnetic flux tubes within each of the coil. These flux tubes are connected each other to form a large scale helical magnetic field structure.

  16. BNL alternating gradient synchrotron with four helical magnets to minimize the losses of the polarized proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W. W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2013-04-01

    The principle of using multiple partial helical magnets to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during its acceleration was applied successfully to the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) which currently operates with two partial helical magnets. In this paper we further explore this idea by using four partial helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS, which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets and their relatively lower field of operation allows for better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection and allows both the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed within the “spin tune gap,” therefore eliminating the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS during the acceleration cycle. Second, it provides a wider spin tune gap. Third, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical. Although the spin tune gap, which is created with four partial helices, can also be created with a single or two partial helices, the high field strength of a single helical magnet which is required to generate such a spin tune gap makes the use of the single helical magnet impractical, and that of the two helical magnets rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare them with those from the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. Although in this paper we specifically discuss the effect of the four partial helices on the AGS, this method which can eliminate simultaneously the vertical and horizontal intrinsic spin resonances is a general method and can be applied to any medium energy synchrotron which operates in similar energy range like the AGS and provides the required space to accommodate the four

  17. Solvent triggered structural diversity of triple-stranded helicates: single molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongfeng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Pengfei

    2016-02-21

    Multiple-stranded helicates are of interest in respect of their simplicity in geometry and significance in biology and materials. Bis-β-diketones have shown their advantage in terms of structure and geometry in the construction of multiple-stranded helicates, but further studies on their properties are limited due to their poor crystallization. In this study, solvents are found to play a decisive role in the crystallization of triple-stranded helicates. [Dy2(BTB)3(H2O)4] is used as a precursor to solvent-dependently crystallize three complexes [Dy2(BTB)3(CH3OH)4]·3CH3OH (1), [Dy2(BTB)3(DME)2] (2) and [Dy2(BTB)3(DOA)(H2O)2]·4.5DOA (3) (BTB = 3,3'-bis(4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-dioxobutyl)biphenyl), where the key structural motif of the triple-stranded helicate, [Dy2(BTB)3], is retained. Four methanol molecules are found to ligate to Dy(3+) ions in 1, while each Dy(3+) ion is chelated by one DME molecule in 2. Interestingly, it is observed that 1,4-dioxane as a bridge ligates to two adjacent Dy(3+) ions, giving rise to the formation of a 1D chain structure. Magnetic measurement shows that 1 and 2 display slow magnetic relaxation under zero dc field, while single molecular magnet behavior is obtained for 3 under an applied dc field of 2000 Oe. PMID:26781997

  18. eRMHD simulations of jets with helical magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Sogorb, M.; Perucho, M.; Gómez, J. L.; Martí, J. M.; Antón, L.; Aloy, M. A.; Agudo, I.

    We present numerical magnetohydrodynamic and emission (eRMHD) simulations of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. We focus our study on the role played by the magnetic field in the dynamics of the jet, analyzing the balance of the main driving forces which determine the jet evolution. Overpressured jets with different magnetizations are considered in order to study their influence in the jet collimation, confinement and overall stability. Computation of the synchrotron emission from these models allows a direct comparison with actual sources. We find that the relative brightness of the knots associated with the recollimation shocks decreases with increasing magnetization, suggesting that overpressured jets presenting stationary components may have a relatively weak magnetization, with magnetic fields of the order of equipartition or below.

  19. Mesostructure from hydration gradients in demosponge biosilica.

    PubMed

    Neilson, James R; George, Nathan C; Murr, Meredith M; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E

    2014-04-22

    Organisms of the phylum Porifera, that is, sponges, utilize enzymatic hydrolysis to concatenate bioavailable inorganic silicon to produce lightweight, strong, and often flexible skeletal elements called spicules. In their optical transparency, these remarkable biomaterials resemble fused silica, despite having been formed under ambient marine biological conditions. Although previous studies have elucidated the chemical mechanisms of spicule formation and revealed the extensive hydration of these glasses, their precise composition and local and medium-range structures had not been determined. We have employed a combination of compositional analysis, (1) H and (29) Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray total scattering to characterize spicule-derived silica produced by the demosponge Tethya aurantia. These studies indicate that the materials are highly hydrated, but in an inhomogeneous manner. The spicule-derived silica is, on average, perfectly dense for the given extent of hydration and regions of fully condensed and unstrained SiO networks persist throughout each monolithic spicule. To accommodate chemical strain and defects, the extensive hydration is concentrated in distinct regions that give rise to mesostructural features. The chemistry responsible for producing spicule silica resembles hydrolytic sol-gel processing, which offers exceptional control over the precise local atomic arrangement of materials. However, the specific processing involved in forming the sponge spicule silica further results in regions of fully condensed silica coexisting with regions of incomplete condensation. This mesostructure suggests a mechanism for atomistic defect tolerance and strain relief that may account for the unusual mechanical properties of the biogenic spicules. PMID:24633700

  20. Noiseless manipulation of helical edge state transport by a quantum magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestrov, P. G.; Recher, P.; Brouwer, P. W.

    2016-05-01

    The current through a helical edge state of a quantum spin Hall insulator may be fully transmitted through a magnetically gapped region due to a combination of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping [Meng et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 205403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.205403]. Using a scattering approach, we here argue that in such a system the current is effectively carried by electrons with energies below the magnet-induced gap and well below the Fermi energy. This has striking consequences, such as the absence of shot noise, an exponential suppression of thermal noise, and an obstruction of thermal transport. For two helical edges covered by the same quantum magnet, the device can act as a robust noiseless current splitter.

  1. One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system- magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally.

  2. One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system- magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally. PMID:26883883

  3. Formation of Opposite-Sign Magnetic Helicity by an Erupting Filament in a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Kurokawa, Hiroki

    2004-06-01

    It is unclear whether it is possible for magnetic helical fields of opposite signs to co-exist in a coronal mass ejection (CME). During filament eruption with high-cadence observations for the initial stage, evidence is found for the formation of right-handed helical fields in a rising dextral filament that is embedded in a CME with helical fields in a left-handed sense. The data include Mees multi-off-band Hα observations with 16s cadence and TRACE 1600Å observations of 2s cadence. The filament material is ejected outward and is associated with the expanding CME, suggesting that both of the opposite-sign helical fields are injected into interplanetary space. In this paper, we consider the key observational features, including the formation of a coil-like structure (due to barb reconnections) and the alignment of reconnected field lines with the primary axis of the filament. It is found that they are consistent with the predicted changes during filament eruption by the filament model of Martin and McAllister. However, our results do not reject the filament model of Rust and Kumar. Moreover, a model that reconciles both of them seems to be more convenient for understanding the complicated observations. Therefore, the formation of opposite-sign helicity in an eruptive flux rope should be common for such types of filament eruptions.

  4. Helical Magnetic Fields in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping; Zhang, Qizhou; Yang, Louis; Girart, Josep M.; Rao, Ramprasad

    2016-03-01

    We present Submillimeter Array polarization observations of the CO J = 3-2 line toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The CO Stokes I maps at an angular resolution of ˜1″ reveal two bipolar outflows from the binary sources of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The kinematic features of the CO emission can be modeled by wind-driven outflows at ˜20° inclined from the plane of the sky. Close to the protostars the CO polarization, at an angular resolution of ˜2.″3, has a position angle approximately parallel to the magnetic field direction inferred from the dust polarizations. The CO polarization direction appears to vary smoothly from an hourglass field around the core to an arc-like morphology wrapping around the outflow, suggesting a helical structure of magnetic fields that inherits the poloidal fields at the launching point and consists of toroidal fields at a farther distance of outflow. The helical magnetic field is consistent with the theoretical expectations for launching and collimating outflows from a magnetized rotating disk. Considering that the CO polarized emission is mainly contributed from the low-velocity and low-resolution data, the helical magnetic field is likely a product of the wind-envelope interaction in the wind-driven outflows. The CO data reveal a PA of ˜30° deflection in the outflows. The variation in the CO polarization angle seems to correlate with the deflections. We speculate that the helical magnetic field contributes to ˜10° deflection of the outflows by means of Lorentz force.

  5. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part I: Flow Patterns and Their Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.

  6. Note: On-chip multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic Janus helical microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, G; Decanini, D; Leroy, L; Haghiri-Gosnet, A M

    2016-03-01

    Microswimmers integrated into microfluidic devices that are capable of self-illumination through fluorescence could revolutionize many aspects of technology, especially for biological applications. Few illumination and propulsion techniques of helical microswimmers inside microfluidic channels have been demonstrated. This paper presents the fabrication, detachment, and magnetic propulsions of multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic helical microswimmers integrated inside microfluidics. The fabrication process is based on two-photon laser lithography to pattern 3-D nanostructures from fluorescent photoresist coupled with conventional microfabrication techniques for magnetic thin film deposition by shadowing. After direct integration inside a microfluidic device, injected gas bubble allows gentle detachment of the integrated helical microswimmers whose magnetic propulsion can then be directly applied inside the microfluidic channel using external electromagnetic coil setup. With their small scale, fluorescence, excellent resistance to liquid/gas surface tension, and robust propulsion capability inside the microfluidic channel, the microswimmers can be used as high-resolution and large-range mobile micromanipulators inside microfluidic channels. PMID:27036837

  7. Modulated helical metals at magnetic domain walls of pyrochlore iridium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breakings, metal-insulator transitions, and transport properties of magnetic-domain-wall states in pyrochlore iridium oxides are studied by employing a symmetry-adapted effective Hamiltonian with a slab perpendicular to the (111) direction of the pyrochlore structure. Emergent metallic domain wall, which has an unconventional topological nature with a controllable and mobile metallic layer, is shown to host Fermi surfaces with modulated helical spin textures resembling Rashba metals. The helical nature of the domain-wall Fermi surfaces is experimentally detectable by anomalous Hall conductivity, circular dichroism, and optical Hall conductivity under external magnetic fields. Possible applications of the domain-wall metals to spin-current generation and "half-metallic" conduction are also discussed.

  8. Cross and magnetic helicity in the outer heliosphere from Voyager 2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovieno, M.; Gallana, L.; Fraternale, F.; Richardson, J. D.; Opher, M.; Tordella, D.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma velocity and magnetic field measurements from the Voyager 2 mission are used to study solar wind turbulence in the slow solar wind at two different heliocentric distances, 5 and 29 astronomical units, sufficiently far apart to provide information on the radial evolution of this turbulence. The magnetic helicity and the cross-helicity, which express the correlation between the plasma velocity and the magnetic field, are used to characterize the turbulence. Wave number spectra are computed by means of the Taylor hypothesis applied to time resolved single point Voyager 2 measurements. The overall picture we get is complex and difficult to interpret. A substantial decrease of the cross-helicity at smaller scales (over 1-3 hours of observation) with increasing heliocentric distance is observed. At 5 AU the only peak in the probability density of the normalized residual energy is negative, near -0.5. At 29 AU the probability density becomes doubly peaked, with a negative peak at -0.5 and a smaller peak at a positive values of about 0.7. A decrease of the cross-helicity for increasing heliocentric distance is observed, together with a reduction of the unbalance toward the magnetic energy of the energy of the fluctuations. For the smaller scales, we found that at 29 AU the normalized polarization is small and positive on average (about 0.1), it is instead zero at 5 AU. For the larger scales, the polarization is low and positive at 5 AU (average around 0.1) while it is negative (around - 0.15) at 29 AU.

  9. Response of Helical Luttinger Liquid in InAs/GaSb Edges to a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingxin; Tong, Bingbing; Liu, Xiaoxue; Han, Zhongdong; Zhang, Chi; Sullivan, Gerard; Du, Rui-Rui

    Electron-electron interactions have been shown to play an important role in InAs/GaSb quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge states, leading to power-law behaviors of the helical edge conductance as a function of temperature and bias voltage (Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 136804). A variety of inelastic and/or multiparticle backscattering processes could occur in helical edges when taking electron-electron interactions into account. On the other hand, in the presence of an external magnetic field, single-particle elastic backscattering is also allowed in QSH edge due to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry (TRS). It would be interesting to pursue experimental investigations for the combined effect of electron-electron interactions and TRS breaking on QSH edge transport. We report work in progress for low temperature conductance measurements of the helical edge in InAs/GaSb under perpendicular or in-plane magnetic fields. We found that the magnetic field responses are generally correlated with the interaction strength in the edge states. The work at Peking University were supported by NBRPC Grants (No. 2012CB921301 and No. 2014CB920901), and by Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter.

  10. Magnetic field components in a sinusoidally varying helical wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1994-07-27

    One may be interested in a pure multipole magnetic field (i.e., proportional to sin(n{theta}) or cos(n{theta}) whose strength varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longitudinal coordinate z (say proportional to cos{sub L}/{sup (2m-1){pi}z}), where L denotes the half-period of the wiggler and m=1,2,3{hor_ellipsis}). Associated with such a z variation, there necessarily will be presented a z component of magnetic field which in the source-free region, in fact, will give rise to both normal and skew transverse fields associated with the functions A{sub n}(z) and {Angstrom}{sub n}(z) as expressed in Reference{sup bc}. In this note the field components and expression for the scalar potential both inside and outside a thin pure winding surface are included with additional contributions from a possible high permeable shield. It is also shown that for a pure dipole case of n=1 and pure axial variation of m=1 the transverse field can be derived from a simple two dimensional field.

  11. Final Techical Report - "Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works"

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M. Bellan

    2005-02-15

    This research program involved direct observation of the complicated plasma dynamics underlying spheromak formation. Spheromaks are self-organizing magnetically dominated plasma configurations which potentially offer a simple, low-cost means for confining the plasma in a controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor. The spheromak source used in these studies was a coaxial co-planar magnetized plasma gun which was specifically designed to have the simplest relevant geometry. The simplicity of the geometry facilitated understanding of the basic physics and minimized confusion that would otherwise have resulted from complexities due to the experimental geometry. The coaxial plasma gun was mounted on one end of a large vacuum tank that had excellent optical access so the spheromak formation process could be tracked in detail using ultra-high speed cameras. The main accomplishments of this research program were (1) obtaining experimental data characterizing the detailed physics underlying spheromak formation and the development of new theoretical models motivated by these observations, (2) determining the relationship between spheromak physics and astrophysical jets, (3) developing a new high-speed camera diagnostic for the SSPX spheromak at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and (4) training graduate students and postdoctoral fellows.

  12. Helical order in one-dimensional magnetic atom chains and possible emergence of Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younghyun; Cheng, Meng; Bauer, Bela; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.

    2014-08-01

    We theoretically obtain the phase diagram of localized magnetic impurity spins arranged in a one-dimensional chain on top of a one- or two-dimensional electron gas. The interactions between the spins are mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida mechanism through the electron gas. Recent work predicts that such a system may intrinsically support topological superconductivity without spin-orbit coupling when a helical spin-density wave is spontaneously formed in the spins, and superconductivity is induced in the electron gas. We analyze, using both analytical and numerical techniques, the conditions under which such a helical spin state is stable in a realistic situation in the presence of disorder. We show that (i) it appears only when the spins are coupled to a (quasi-) one-dimensional electron gas, and (ii) it becomes unstable towards the formation of (anti)ferromagnetic domains if the disorder in the impurity spin positions δR becomes comparable with the Fermi wavelength. We also examine the stability of the helical state against Gaussian potential disorder in the electronic system using a diagrammatic approach. Our results suggest that in order to stabilize the helical spin state and thus the emergent topological superconductivity under realistic experimental conditions, a sufficiently strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, giving rise to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, is required.

  13. Generation of uniform magnetic field using a spheroidal helical coil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Yavuz; Aktaş, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Uniformity of magnetic fields are of great importance especially in magnetic resonance studies, namely in magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications (NMR, FMR, ESR, EPR etc.) and magnetic resonance imaging applications (MRI, FMRI). Field uniformity is also required in some other applications such as eddy current probes, magnetometers, magnetic traps, particle counters etc. Here we proposed a coil winding regime, which follows the surface of a spheroid (an ellipsoid of rotation); in light of previous theoretical studies suggesting perfect uniformity for a constant ampere per turn in the axial direction thereof. We demonstrated our theoretical results from finite element calculations suggesting 0.15% of field uniformity for the proposed structure, which we called a Spheroidal Helical Coil.

  14. Nanosized helical magnetic domains in strongly frustrated Fe3PO4O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K. A.; Bordelon, M. M.; Terho, G.; Neilson, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fe3PO4O3 forms a noncentrosymmetric lattice structure (space group R 3 m ) comprising triangular motifs of Fe3 + coupled by strong antiferromagnetic interactions (| ΘC W|>900 K). Neutron diffraction from polycrystalline samples shows that strong frustration eventually gives way to an ordered helical incommensurate structure below TN = 163 K, with the helical axis in the hexagonal a b plane and a modulation length to ˜86 Å. The magnetic structure consists of an unusual needlelike correlation volume that extends past 900 Å along the hexagonal c axis but is limited to ˜70 Å in the a b plane, despite the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic sublattice topology. The small in-plane correlation length, which persists to at least T =TN/40 , indicates a robust blocking of long-range order of the helical magnetic structure, and therefore stable domain walls, or other defect spin textures, must be abundant in Fe3PO4O3 . Temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction reveals small negative thermal expansion below TN. No change in lattice symmetry is observed on cooling through TN, as revealed by high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The previously reported reduced moment of the Fe3 + ions (S =5 /2 ), μ ˜4.2 μB , is confirmed here through magnetization studies of a magnetically diluted solid solution series of compounds, Fe(3 -x )GaxPO4O3 , and is consistent with the refined magnetic moment from neutron diffraction 4.14(2) μB. We attribute the reduced moment to a modified spin density distribution arising from ligand charge transfer in this insulating oxide.

  15. Helicity, anisotropies, and their competition in a multiferroic magnet: Insight from the phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdikova, M. V.; Ziman, T.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the complex phase diagram of MnWO4, we investigate the competition between anisotropy, magnetic field, and helicity for the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor Heisenberg model. Apart from two competing exchanges, which favor a spiral magnetic structure, the model features the biaxial single-ion anisotropy. The model is treated in the real-space mean-field approximation and the phase diagram containing various incommensurate and commensurate states is obtained for different field orientations. We discuss the similarities and differences of the theoretical phase diagram and the experimental diagram of MnWO4.

  16. Direct Detection of the Helical Magnetic Field Geometry from 3D Reconstruction of Prominence Knot Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapiór, Maciej; Martínez-Gómez, David

    2016-02-01

    Based on the data collected by the Vacuum Tower Telescope located in the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands, we analyzed the three-dimensional (3D) motion of so-called knots in a solar prominence of 2014 June 9. Trajectories of seven knots were reconstructed, giving information of the 3D geometry of the magnetic field. Helical motion was detected. From the equipartition principle, we estimated the lower limit of the magnetic field in the prominence to ≈1-3 G and from the Ampère’s law the lower limit of the electric current to ≈1.2 × 109 A.

  17. Relationships between Fluid Vorticity, Kinetic Helicity, and Magnetic Field on Small-scales (Quiet-Network) on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, C. R.; Rajaguru, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    We derive horizontal fluid motions on the solar surface over large areas covering the quiet-Sun magnetic network from local correlation tracking of convective granules imaged in continuum intensity and Doppler velocity by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From these we calculate the horizontal divergence, the vertical component of vorticity, and the kinetic helicity of fluid motions. We study the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity, and between vorticity (kinetic helicity) and the magnetic field. We find that the vorticity (kinetic helicity) around small-scale fields exhibits a hemispherical pattern (in sign) similar to that followed by the magnetic helicity of large-scale active regions (containing sunspots). We identify this pattern to be a result of the Coriolis force acting on supergranular-scale flows (both the outflows and inflows), consistent with earlier studies using local helioseismology. Furthermore, we show that the magnetic fields cause transfer of vorticity from supergranular inflow regions to outflow regions, and that they tend to suppress the vortical motions around them when magnetic flux densities exceed about 300 G (from HMI). We also show that such an action of the magnetic fields leads to marked changes in the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity. These results are speculated to be of importance to local dynamo action (if present) and to the dynamical evolution of magnetic helicity at the small-scale.

  18. Evolution of the magnetic helicity flux during the formation and eruption of flux ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.

    2014-10-20

    We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

  19. Helicity-vorticity turbulent pumping of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    We study the effect of turbulent drift of a large-scale magnetic field that results from the interaction of helical convective motions and differential rotation in the solar convection zone. The principal direction of the drift corresponds to the direction of the large-scale vorticity vector. Thus, the effect produces a latitudinal transport of the large-scale magnetic field in the convective zone wherever the angular velocity has a strong radial gradient. The direction of the drift depends on the sign of helicity and it is defined by the Parker-Yoshimura rule. The analytic calculations are done within the framework of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics using the minimal \\tau-approximation. We estimate the magnitude of the drift velocity and find that it can be several m/s near the base of the solar convection zone. The implications of this effect for the solar dynamo are illustrated on the basis of an axisymmetric mean-field dynamo model with a subsurface shear layer. We find that the helicity--vorticity pumping effect can have an influence on the features of the sunspot time--latitude diagram, producing a fast drift of the sunspot activity maximum at the rise phase of the cycle and a slow drift at the decay phase of the cycle.

  20. Anomalous scaling of the magnetic field in the helical Kazantsev-Kraichnan model.

    PubMed

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M

    2015-06-01

    The field-theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion are used to investigate the influence of spatial parity violation of the conductive turbulent environment on the anomalous scaling behavior of correlation functions of a weak magnetic field in the framework of the Kazantsev-Kraichnan rapid change model. Two-loop expressions for the critical dimensions of the leading composite operators, which drive the anomalous scaling of the two-point single-time correlation functions of the magnetic field in the presence of large-scale anisotropy, are found to be functions of the helicity parameter. It is shown that the presence of helicity in the system leads to a significantly stronger manifestation of anomalous scaling than in the nonhelical case. At the same time, it is also shown that helicity does not destroy the standard hierarchy of the anisotropic anomalous exponents in the framework of which the leading contribution to anomalous scaling is given by the isotropic shell. PMID:26172794

  1. Sign-Singularity of the Reduced Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, V.; Perri, S.; Yordanova, E.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Andre, M.; Veltri, P.; Bruno, R.

    2010-05-07

    We investigate the scaling laws of a signed measure derived from the reduced magnetic helicity which has been determined from Cluster data in the solar wind. This quantifies the handedness of the magnetic field; namely, it can be related to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations (right or left hand). The measure results to be sign-singular; that is, we do not observe any scale-dependent effect at the ion- and at electron-cyclotron frequencies. Cancellations between right- and left-hand polarizations go on in the dispersive or dissipative range, beyond the electron-cyclotron frequency. This means that the mechanism responsible for the generation of the dispersive or dissipative range is rather insensitive to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations.

  2. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca

    2010-08-01

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation.

  3. Magnetic helicity conservation and inverse energy cascade in electron magnetohydrodynamic wave packets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2011-05-13

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence. PMID:21668138

  4. Sign-singularity of the reduced magnetic helicity in the solar wind plasma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, V; Perri, S; Yordanova, E; Veltri, P; Bruno, R; Khotyaintsev, Y; André, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the scaling laws of a signed measure derived from the reduced magnetic helicity which has been determined from Cluster data in the solar wind. This quantifies the handedness of the magnetic field; namely, it can be related to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations (right or left hand). The measure results to be sign-singular; that is, we do not observe any scale-dependent effect at the ion- and at electron-cyclotron frequencies. Cancellations between right- and left-hand polarizations go on in the dispersive or dissipative range, beyond the electron-cyclotron frequency. This means that the mechanism responsible for the generation of the dispersive or dissipative range is rather insensitive to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations. PMID:20482162

  5. Magnetic Helicity Conservation and Inverse Energy Cascade in Electron Magnetohydrodynamic Wave Packets

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2011-05-13

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.

  6. Ion heating during magnetic relaxation in the helicity injected torus-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Hamp, W.T.; Smith, R.J.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-12-15

    Ion doppler spectroscopy (IDS) is applied to the helicity injected torus (HIT-II) spherical torus to measure impurity ion temperature and flows. [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] The IDS instrument employs a 16-channel photomultiplier and can track temperature and velocity continuously through a discharge. Data for the coaxial helicity injection (CHI), transformer, and combined current drive configurations are presented. Ion temperatures for transformer-driven discharges are typically equal to or somewhat lower than electron temperatures measured by Thomson scattering. Internal reconnection events in transformer-driven discharges cause rapid ion heating. The CHI discharges exhibit anomalously high ion temperatures >250 eV, which are an order of magnitude higher than Thomson measurements, indicating ion heating through magnetic relaxation. The CHI discharges that exhibit current and poloidal flux buildup after bubble burst show sustained ion heating during current drive.

  7. Lanthanide-Directed Fabrication of Four Tetranuclear Quadruple Stranded Helicates Showing Magnetic Refrigeration and Slow Magnetic Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Amit Kumar; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Malviya, Amita; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-06-01

    A rare class of four tetranuclear lanthanide based quadruple stranded helicates namely, [Ln4L4(OH)2](OAc)2·xH2O (Ln = Gd(III)(1), Dy(III)(2) and x = 4, 5 respectively), [Er4L4(OH)2](NO3)2·9H2O (3), and [Dy4L4(NO3)](NO3)2·2CH3OH·H2O (4) were synthesized by employing succinohydrazone derived bis-tridentate ligand (H2L) and characterized. Structures of 1-3 are similar to each other except the nature of counterions and number of lattice water molecules. In 4, a distorted nitrate ion was arranged in a hexagonal manner holding four dysprosium centers in a slightly twisted manner. Because of the symmetrical nature of each complex, the C4 axis crosses the center of helicate resulting a pseudo-D4 coordination environment. Each ligand coordinates to lanthanide centers in helical manner forming mixture of left (Λ) and right (Δ) handed discrete units. Complex 1 exhibits antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between nearby Gd(III) centers and shows magnetic refrigeration (-ΔSm = 24.4 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 7 T at 3 K). AC magnetic susceptibility measurements of 2 and 4 demonstrate slow relaxation behavior, with Ueff (effective energy barrier) of 20.5 and 4.6 K, respectively. As per our knowledge, complexes 1, 2, and 4 represent the first examples of aesthetically pleasing quadruple stranded helicates showing potential magnetocaloric effect and single-molecule-magnet-like behavior. PMID:27196362

  8. Helical states with ordered magnetic topology in the Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfiglio, D.; Cappello, S.; Gobbin, M.; Spizzo, G.

    2008-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration for magnetic confinement has shown to develop helical configurations characterized by good magnetic surfaces both in experiments and visco-resistive 3D MHD numerical computations [1]. In the RFX-mod experiment, quasi-single helicity (QSH) states with ordered magnetic topology have been found to develop both spontaneously during high current discharges [2] and in a stimulated way through the periodic oscillation of the toroidal flux (so-called OPCD technique) [3]. In both cases, the expulsion of the separatrix of the dominant mode has proved to be the key for significant chaos healing [4], as expected by theory [5]. In this work, we present results of visco-resistive 3D MHD numerical modeling aiming at clarifying the mechanism and the conditions for separatrix expulsion and chaos healing in spontaneous and stimulated cases. The effect is investigated by reconstruction of the magnetic topology through field line tracing algorithms and by study of test particle dynamics. [1] S. Cappello, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46, B313 (2004) & references therein. [2] M. Valisa et al., invited oral, EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (2008). [3] D. Terranova et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 095001 (2007). [4] R. Lorenzini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 025005 (2008). [5] D. F. Escande, R. Paccagnella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3169 (2000).

  9. INTERPRETING ERUPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN NOAA AR 11158 VIA THE REGION'S MAGNETIC ENERGY AND RELATIVE-HELICITY BUDGETS

    SciTech Connect

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Liu Yang

    2013-08-01

    In previous works, we introduced a nonlinear force-free method that self-consistently calculates the instantaneous budgets of free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in solar active regions (ARs). Calculation is expedient and practical, using only a single vector magnetogram per computation. We apply this method to a time series of 600 high-cadence vector magnetograms of the eruptive NOAA AR 11158 acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory over a five-day observing interval. Besides testing our method extensively, we use it to interpret the dynamical evolution in the AR, including eruptions. We find that the AR builds large budgets of both free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity, sufficient to power many more eruptions than the ones it gave within the interval of interest. For each of these major eruptions, we find eruption-related decreases and subsequent free-energy and helicity budgets that are consistent with the observed eruption (flare and coronal mass ejection (CME)) sizes. In addition, we find that (1) evolution in the AR is consistent with the recently proposed (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of solar ARs, (2) eruption-related decreases occur before the flare and the projected CME-launch times, suggesting that CME progenitors precede flares, and (3) self terms of free energy and relative helicity most likely originate from respective mutual terms, following a progressive mutual-to-self conversion pattern that most likely stems from magnetic reconnection. This results in the non-ideal formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and instigates further research on the triggering of solar eruptions with magnetic helicity firmly placed in the eruption cadre.

  10. Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching.

    PubMed

    Mangin, S; Gottwald, M; Lambert, C-H; Steil, D; Uhlíř, V; Pang, L; Hehn, M; Alebrand, S; Cinchetti, M; Malinowski, G; Fainman, Y; Aeschlimann, M; Fullerton, E E

    2014-03-01

    The possibility of manipulating magnetic systems without applied magnetic fields have attracted growing attention over the past fifteen years. The low-power manipulation of the magnetization, preferably at ultrashort timescales, has become a fundamental challenge with implications for future magnetic information memory and storage technologies. Here we explore the optical manipulation of the magnetization in engineered magnetic materials. We demonstrate that all-optical helicity-dependent switching (AO-HDS) can be observed not only in selected rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) alloy films but also in a much broader variety of materials, including RE-TM alloys, multilayers and heterostructures. We further show that RE-free Co-Ir-based synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures designed to mimic the magnetic properties of RE-TM alloys also exhibit AO-HDS. These results challenge present theories of AO-HDS and provide a pathway to engineering materials for future applications based on all-optical control of magnetic order. PMID:24531398

  11. Electrically controlled spin-transistor operation in a helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.

    2016-03-01

    A proposal of an electrically controlled spin transistor in a helical magnetic field is presented. In the proposed device, the transistor action is driven by the Landau-Zener transitions that lead to a backscattering of spin polarized electrons and switching the transistor into the high-resistance state (off state). The on/off state of the transistor can be controlled by the all-electric means using Rashba spin-orbit coupling that can be tuned by the voltages applied to the side electrodes.

  12. Helical equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1981-08-01

    A straight, helical plasma equilibrium equation is solved numerically for a plasma with a helical magnetic axis. As is expected, by a suitable choice of the plasma boundary, the vacuum configuration is made line ..integral.. dl/B stable. As the plasma pressure increases, the line ..integral.. dl/B criterion will improve (again as expected). There is apparently no limit on the plasma ..beta.. from the equilibrium consideration. Thus helical-axis stellarator ..beta.. will presumably be limited by MHD stability ..beta.., and not by equilibrium ..beta...

  13. Self-similar inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by the chiral anomaly

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi

    2015-12-28

    For systems with charged chiral fermions, the imbalance of chirality in the presence of magnetic field generates an electric current—this is the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We study the dynamical real-time evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled by the anomaly to the chiral charge density and the CME current by solving the Maxwell-Chern-Simons equations. We find that the CME induces the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity toward the large distances, and that at late times this cascade becomes self-similar, with universal exponents. We also find that in terms of gauge field topology the inverse cascade represents the transition from linked electricmore » and magnetic fields (Hopfions) to the knotted configuration of magnetic field (Chandrasekhar-Kendall states). The magnetic reconnections are accompanied by the pulses of the CME current directed along the magnetic field lines. In conclusion, we devise an experimental signature of these phenomena in heavy ion collisions, and speculate about implications for condensed matter systems.« less

  14. Self-similar inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by the chiral anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi

    2015-12-28

    For systems with charged chiral fermions, the imbalance of chirality in the presence of magnetic field generates an electric current—this is the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We study the dynamical real-time evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled by the anomaly to the chiral charge density and the CME current by solving the Maxwell-Chern-Simons equations. We find that the CME induces the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity toward the large distances, and that at late times this cascade becomes self-similar, with universal exponents. We also find that in terms of gauge field topology the inverse cascade represents the transition from linked electric and magnetic fields (Hopfions) to the knotted configuration of magnetic field (Chandrasekhar-Kendall states). The magnetic reconnections are accompanied by the pulses of the CME current directed along the magnetic field lines. In conclusion, we devise an experimental signature of these phenomena in heavy ion collisions, and speculate about implications for condensed matter systems.

  15. Magnetic field-induced helical mode and topological transitions in a topological insulator nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Luis A; Pettes, Michael T; Rokhinson, Leonid P; Shi, Li; Chen, Yong P

    2016-04-01

    The spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states in a topological insulator nanowire or nanoribbon promise novel topological devices and exotic physics such as Majorana fermions. Here, we report local and non-local transport measurements in Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoribbons that exhibit quasi-ballistic transport over ∼2 μm. The conductance versus axial magnetic flux Φ exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with maxima occurring alternately at half-integer or integer flux quanta (Φ0 = h/e, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge) depending periodically on the gate-tuned Fermi wavevector (kF) with period 2π/C (where C is the nanoribbon circumference). The conductance versus gate voltage also exhibits kF-periodic oscillations, anti-correlated between Φ = 0 and Φ0/2. These oscillations enable us to probe the Bi2Te3 band structure, and are consistent with the circumferentially quantized topological surface states forming a series of one-dimensional subbands, which undergo periodic magnetic field-induced topological transitions with the disappearance/appearance of the gapless Dirac point with a one-dimensional spin helical mode. PMID:26780658

  16. Magnetic field-induced helical mode and topological transitions in a topological insulator nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Luis A.; Pettes, Michael T.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Shi, Li; Chen, Yong P.

    2016-04-01

    The spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states in a topological insulator nanowire or nanoribbon promise novel topological devices and exotic physics such as Majorana fermions. Here, we report local and non-local transport measurements in Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoribbons that exhibit quasi-ballistic transport over ∼2 μm. The conductance versus axial magnetic flux Φ exhibits Aharonov–Bohm oscillations with maxima occurring alternately at half-integer or integer flux quanta (Φ0 = h/e, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge) depending periodically on the gate-tuned Fermi wavevector (kF) with period 2π/C (where C is the nanoribbon circumference). The conductance versus gate voltage also exhibits kF-periodic oscillations, anti-correlated between Φ = 0 and Φ0/2. These oscillations enable us to probe the Bi2Te3 band structure, and are consistent with the circumferentially quantized topological surface states forming a series of one-dimensional subbands, which undergo periodic magnetic field-induced topological transitions with the disappearance/appearance of the gapless Dirac point with a one-dimensional spin helical mode.

  17. Magnetic crystals and helical liquids in alkaline-earth fermionic gases.

    PubMed

    Barbarino, Simone; Taddia, Luca; Rossini, Davide; Mazza, Leonardo; Fazio, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    The joint action of a magnetic field and of interactions is crucial for the appearance of exotic quantum phenomena, such as the quantum Hall effect. Owing to their rich nuclear structure, equivalent to an additional synthetic dimension, one-dimensional alkaline-earth(-like) fermionic gases with synthetic gauge potential and atomic contact repulsion may display similar related properties. Here we show the existence and the features of a hierarchy of fractional insulating and conducting states by means of analytical and numerical methods. We demonstrate that the gapped states are characterized by density and magnetic order emerging solely for gases with effective nuclear spin larger than 1/2, whereas the gapless phases can support helical modes. We finally argue that these states are related to an unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in the thin-torus limit and that their properties can be studied in state-of-the-art laboratories. PMID:26350624

  18. Magnetic crystals and helical liquids in alkaline-earth fermionic gases

    PubMed Central

    Barbarino, Simone; Taddia, Luca; Rossini, Davide; Mazza, Leonardo; Fazio, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    The joint action of a magnetic field and of interactions is crucial for the appearance of exotic quantum phenomena, such as the quantum Hall effect. Owing to their rich nuclear structure, equivalent to an additional synthetic dimension, one-dimensional alkaline-earth(-like) fermionic gases with synthetic gauge potential and atomic contact repulsion may display similar related properties. Here we show the existence and the features of a hierarchy of fractional insulating and conducting states by means of analytical and numerical methods. We demonstrate that the gapped states are characterized by density and magnetic order emerging solely for gases with effective nuclear spin larger than 1/2, whereas the gapless phases can support helical modes. We finally argue that these states are related to an unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in the thin-torus limit and that their properties can be studied in state-of-the-art laboratories. PMID:26350624

  19. Helical plasma striations in liners in the presence of an external axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, L.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Byvank, T.; Cahill, A. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    Awe et al. found on the 20 MA Z machine [Acta Phys. Pol. A 115, 956 (2009)] that applying an externally generated axial magnetic field to an imploding liner leads to a helical pattern in the liner when viewed with soft x-ray radiography ([Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] and [Phys. Plasmas 21, 056303 (2014)]). Here, we show that this phenomenon is also observed in extreme ultraviolet self-emission images of 10 mm long cylindrical metal liners having varying diameters and varying wall thicknesses on a 1 MA, 100-200 ns pulsed power generator. The magnetic field in these experiments is created using either twisted return current wires positioned close to the liner, generating a time-varying Bz, or a Helmholtz coil, generating a steady-state Bz.

  20. Magnetic reconnection in a comparison of topology and helicities in two and three dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Čemeljić, M. Huang, R.-Y.

    2014-03-15

    Through a direct comparison between numerical simulations in two and three dimensions, we investigate topological effects in reconnection. A simple estimate on increase in reconnection rate in three dimensions by a factor of √(2), when compared with a two-dimensional case, is confirmed in our simulations. We also show that both the reconnection rate and the fraction of magnetic energy in the simulations depend linearly on the height of the reconnection region. The degree of structural complexity of a magnetic field and the underlying flow is measured by current helicity and cross-helicity. We compare results in simulations with different computational box heights.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Magnetic Flux Compression in Helical-Cone Magnetoexplosive Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryugin, Yu. N.; Korolev, P. V.; Kargin, V. I.; Pikar, A. S.; Popkov, N. F.; Ryaslov, E. A.

    2004-11-01

    We present the results of calculations of the physical processes of magnetic flux compression in a magnetocumulative generator with a large diameter spiral. The generator considered is a modification of the one developed for the multimegajoule energy source and intended for the PIRIT-EMG stationary electrophysical facility, pumping a pulsed energy of 80 MJ. The development of the magnetocumulative generator required calculating its output parameters and optimizing the generator dimensions, choosing the form and calculating the shape and thickness, insulation type and electric strength of the spiral wire. The authors developed a program package to simulate the helical-cone generator operation and numerically investigate the physical processes occurring at magnetic flux compression. To calculate the liner scatter dynamics, Eulerian equations were solved for counter-running sliding detonation waves. The system of equations is integrated using a finite-difference method for 2-D stationary grids adapting to the peculiarities of the flow. The liner collision with spiral coils as well as the destruction of the insulation is considered in 2-D through a model of nonviscous gas without heat conductivity. The magnetic flux compression is calculated using the analytical solutions of dynamic tasks and a 1-D non-linear diffusion of the magnetic field in conductors. Moreover, using a sufficiently simple algorithm, we managed to account for the basic losses of the magnetic flux related to diffusion, cuts-off at section and wire joints, and the losses related to spiral and liner misalignment.

  2. Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

    2014-07-01

    We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1\\leqslant {{\\mu }_{r}}\\leqslant 20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation

  3. Evidence for helical kink instability in the Venus magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    Empirical models of the magnetic field structure of flux ropes found in the Venus ionosphere are seen as suggesting that the ropes are unstable to long-wavelength (more than 100 km) helical-kink perturbations. The onset of such an instability can explain the apparent volume distribution of flux ropes with altitude, as well as their orientation as a function of altitude. In the subsolar region, the fraction of volume occupied by flux ropes increases from approximately 20 percent at high altitudes to more than 50 percent at low altitudes; this is a greater increase than would be expected if ropes convect downward as simple straight horizontal cylinders. The helical kink instability raises the fractional volume occupied by ropes by turning the originally straight, horizontal flux tubes into corkscrew-shaped structures as they convect to lower altitudes. It is noted that this instability also explains why high altitude ropes tend to be horizontal and low altitude ropes appear to have almost any orientation.

  4. Helical Magnetic Self-Organization in the RFX-mod and MST devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Spolaore, M.; Cappello, S.; Puiatti, M. E.; Chapman, B. E.; Sarff, J. S.; den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M. B.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Stephens, H. D.; Yang, Y. M.

    2010-11-01

    Self-organization of the reversed field pinch with large helical structure (QSH regimes) is predominant as plasma current is increased. In RFX-mod, the persistence and strength of the QSH state increases markedly above 1 MA. An internal transport barrier appears, and plasma thermalization within the helical magnetic surfaces reflects improved confinement. The QSH regime is also obtained in MST plasmas, which operates with plasma current up to nearly 0.6 MA. We report here a statistical analysis of the tearing mode behavior in MST (e.g., amplitudes and QSH persistency) that reveals a trend with plasma current similar to that observed in RFX-Mod. This trend supports an expectation for universal behavior that depends on parameters such as the Lundquist number that vary with the plasma current. Analysis of the common database from the two devices should help reveal key physics for QSH onset and dynamics. Planned Thomson scattering measurements and transport analysis on MST will be important to compare with the confinement behavior established for RFX-Mod. Work supported by USDoE.

  5. Status of UCLA Helical Permanent-Magnet Inverse Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazik, A.; Tikhoplav, R.; Frederico, J. T.; Affolter, M.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2009-01-22

    A helical undulator, utilizing permanent-magnet of cylindrically symmetric (Halbach) geometry is being developed at UCLA's Neptune Facility. The initial prototype is a short 10 cm, 7 periods long helical undulator, designed to test the electron-photon coupling by observing the micro-bunching is currently being constructed. The Neptune IFEL facility utilizes a 15 MeV Photoinjector-generated electron beam of 0.5 nC interacting with CO{sub 2} of peak energy up to 100 J, estimated to have acceleration of 100 MeV/m. An Open Iris-Loaded Waveguide Structure (OILS) scheme which conserves laser mode size and wave fronts throughout the undulator, is utilized to avoid Gouy phase shift caused by focusing of the drive laser. Undulator design was tested by computer simulations Radia and Genesis 1.3. Coherent Transition Radiation and Coherent Cherenkov Radiation will be used for micro-bunching diagnostic. Currently permanent dipoles and their aluminum holders have been built, and the project is in its final state of assembly and undulator testing.

  6. Status of UCLA Helical Permanent-Magnet Inverse Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazik, A.; Tikhoplav, R.; Frederico, J. T.; Affolter, M.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    A helical undulator, utilizing permanent-magnet of cylindrically symmetric (Halbach) geometry is being developed at UCLA's Neptune Facility. The initial prototype is a short 10 cm, 7 periods long helical undulator, designed to test the electron-photon coupling by observing the micro-bunching is currently being constructed. The Neptune IFEL facility utilizes a 15 MeV Photoinjector-generated electron beam of 0.5 nC interacting with CO2 of peak energy up to 100 J, estimated to have acceleration of 100 MeV/m. An Open Iris-Loaded Waveguide Structure (OILS) scheme which conserves laser mode size and wave fronts throughout the undulator, is utilized to avoid Gouy phase shift caused by focusing of the drive laser. Undulator design was tested by computer simulations Radia and Genesis 1.3. Coherent Transition Radiation and Coherent Cherenkov Radiation will be used for micro-bunching diagnostic. Currently permanent dipoles and their aluminum holders have been built, and the project is in its final state of assembly and undulator testing.

  7. Magnetic Reconnection and Ion Flows During Point-Source DC Helicity Injection on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    A passive ion temperature polychromator has been deployed on Pegasus to study power balance and non-thermal ion distributions that arise during point source helicity injection. Spectra are recorded from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator whose output is recorded by an intensified high-speed camera. During helicity injection, stochastic magnetic fields keep Te low and thus low ionization impurities penetrate to the core. Under these conditions, high core ion temperatures are measured (Ti 1.2 keV, Te 0.1 keV) using spectral lines from CIII, NIII, and BIV. This rapid ion heating is seen to coincide with internal MHD activity. The ion temperature closely follows the injection bias voltage, indicating that power from the guns is strongly coupled to the ions through this MHD activity. Bi-directional toroidal ion flows of ˜60 km/s have been observed on the BIV line during helicity injection when looking near the front of the injectors. The flow is on the order of the Alfv'en velocity, as predicted by Sweet-Parker reconnection, and is indicative of magnetic reconnection occurring near the injectors. When looking away from the helicity injectors, the bi-directional flow appears to be replaced by strong toroidal rotation, suggesting that ion acceleration during helicity injection is asymmetric and 3D in nature.

  8. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-05-15

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  9. Simulation of RF Cavity Dark Current in Presence of Helical Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Kashikhin, Vladimir; /Unlisted

    2010-09-01

    In order to produce muon beam of high enough quality to be used for a Muon Collider, its large phase space must be cooled several orders of magnitude. This task can be accomplished by ionization cooling. Ionization cooling consists of passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal focusing channel. But first high power tests of RF cavity with beryllium windows in solenoidal magnetic field showed a dramatic drop in accelerating gradient due to RF breakdowns. It has been concluded that external magnetic fields parallel to RF electric field significantly modifies the performance of RF cavities. However, magnetic field in Helical Cooling Channel has a strong dipole component in addition to solenoidal one. The dipole component essentially changes electron motion in a cavity compare to pure solenoidal case, making dark current less focused at field emission sites. The simulation of dark current dynamic in HCC performed with CST Studio Suit is presented in this paper.

  10. The dynamics of Wolf numbers based on nonlinear dynamos with magnetic helicity: comparisons with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeorin, Y.; Safiullin, N.; Kleeorin, N.; Porshnev, S.; Rogachevskii, I.; Sokoloff, D.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of solar activity using a nonlinear one-dimensional dynamo model and a phenomenological equation for the evolution of Wolf numbers. This system of equations is solved numerically. We take into account the algebraic and dynamic nonlinearities of the alpha effect. The dynamic nonlinearity is related to the evolution of a small-scale magnetic helicity, and it leads to a complicated behaviour of solar activity. The evolution equation for the Wolf number is based on a mechanism of formation of magnetic spots as a result of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). This phenomenon was predicted 25 yr ago and has been investigated intensively in recent years through direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations. The evolution equation for the Wolf number includes the production and decay of sunspots. Comparison between the results of numerical simulations and observational data of Wolf numbers shows a 70 per cent correlation over all intervals of observation (about 270 yr). We determine the dependence of the maximum value of the Wolf number versus the period of the cycle and the asymmetry of the solar cycles versus the amplitude of the cycle. These dependences are in good agreement with observations.

  11. Simulation of RF Cavity Dark Current In Presence of Helical Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Kashikhin, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    In order to produce muon beam of high enough quality to be used for a Muon Collider, its large phase space must be cooled several orders of magnitude. This task can be accomplished by ionization cooling. Ionization cooling consists of passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal focusing channel. But first high power tests of RF cavity with beryllium windows in solenoidal magnetic field showed a dramatic drop in accelerating gradient due to RF breakdowns. It has been concluded that external magnetic fields parallel to RF electric field significantly modifies the performance of RF cavities. However, magnetic field in Helical Cooling Channel has a strong dipole component in addition to solenoidal one. The dipole component essentially changes electron motion in a cavity compare to pure solenoidal case, making dark current less focused at field emission sites. The simulation of dark current dynamic in HCC performed with CST Studio Suit is presented in this paper.

  12. POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF ALFVEN-CYCLOTRON WAVES IN THE ANGLE DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Yao Shuo; Tian Hui; Marsch, Eckart

    2011-04-20

    The fluctuating magnetic helicity is considered an important parameter in diagnosing the characteristic modes of solar wind turbulence. Among them is the Alfven-cyclotron wave, which is probably responsible for the solar wind plasma heating, but has not yet been identified from the magnetic helicity of solar wind turbulence. Here, we present the possible signatures of Alfven-cyclotron waves in the distribution of magnetic helicity as a function of {theta}{sub VB}, which is the angle between the solar wind velocity and local mean magnetic field. We use magnetic field data from the STEREO spacecraft to calculate the {theta}{sub VB} distribution of the normalized reduced fluctuating magnetic helicity {sigma}{sub m}. We find a dominant negative {sigma}{sub m} for 1 s < p < 4 s (p is time period) and for {theta}{sub VB} < 30 deg. in the solar wind outward magnetic sector, and a dominant positive {sigma}{sub m} for 0.4 s < p < 4 s and for {theta}{sub VB}>150 deg. in the solar wind inward magnetic sector. These features of {sigma}{sub m} appearing around the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron frequencies may be consistent with the existence of Alfven-cyclotron waves among the outward propagating fluctuations. Moreover, right-handed polarized waves at larger propagation angles, which might be kinetic Alfven waves or whistler waves, have also been identified on the basis of the {sigma}{sub m} features in the angular range 40 deg. < {theta}{sub VB} < 140 deg. Our findings suggest that Alfven-cyclotron waves (together with other wave modes) play a prominent role in turbulence cascading and plasma heating of the solar wind.

  13. Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The possibilities of manipulating magnetization without applied magnetic fields have attracted growing attention over the last fifteen years. The low-power manipulation of magnetization, preferably at ultra-short time scales, has become a fundamental challenge with implications for future magnetic information memory and storage technologies. Here we explore the optical manipulation of the magnetization of engineered materials and devices using 100 fs optical pulses. We demonstrate that all optical - helicity dependent switching (AO-HDS) can be observed not only in selected rare-earth transition-metal (RE-TM) alloy films but also in a much broader variety of materials, including alloys, multilayers, heterostructures and RE-free Co-Ir-based synthetic ferrimagnets. The discovery of AO-HDS in RE-free TM-based synthetic ferrimagnets can enable breakthroughs for numerous applications since it exploits materials that are currently used in magnetic data storage, memories and logic technologies. In addition, this materials study of AO-HDS offers valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms involved. Indeed the common denominator of the diverse structures showing AO-HDS in this study is that two ferromagnetic sub-lattices exhibit magnetization compensation (and therefore angular momentum compensation) at temperatures near or above room temperature. We are highlighting that compensation plays a major role and that this compensation can be established at the atomic level as in alloys but also over a larger nanometers scale as in the multilayers or in heterostructures. We will also discuss the potential to extend AO-HDS to new classes of magnetic materials. This work was done in collaboration with S. Mangin, M. Gottwald, C-H. Lambert, D. Steil, V. Uhlíř, L. Pang, M. Hehn, S. Alebrand, M. Cinchetti, G. Malinowski, Y. Fainman, and M. Aeschlimann. Supported by the ANR-10-BLANC-1005 ``Friends,'' a grant from the Advanced Storage Technology Consortium, Partner University Fund

  14. Two new Dy3 triangles with trinuclear circular helicates and their single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuang-Yan; Zhao, Lang; Guo, Yun-Nan; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Yang; Tang, Jinkui

    2012-10-15

    Self-assembly of polydentate Schiff base 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol di(benzoy1hydrazone) (H(3)L), with dysprosium thiocyanate and sodium azide, affords two novel trinuclear triangular circular helicate dysprosium(III) complexes, [Dy(3)(μ(3)-OCH(3))(2)(HL)(3)(SCN)]·4CH(3)OH·2CH(3)CN·2H(2)O (1) or [Dy(3)(μ(3)-N(3))(μ(3)-OH)(H(2)L)(3)(SCN)(3)](SCN)·3CH(3)OH·H(2)O (2), depending on the presence or absence of base. Single-crystal X-ray analyses show that two μ(3)-methoxy oxygens cap the Dy(3) triangle in complex 1 and that one μ(3)-OH and one μ(3)-N(3)(-) cap the Dy(3) triangle of complex 2, representing the first example of a μ(3)-N(3)(-)-capped lanthanide complex reported to date. Ac susceptibility measurements reveal that multiple relaxation processes and the onset of slow magnetization relaxation occur for complex 1 and 2, respectively. Theoretical calculations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism; however, the different magnetic anisotropy of the respective structures, which is dictated by the coordination environment of Dy(III) ions and structural parameters of the triangles, is mostly responsible for the distinctive relaxation dynamics observed. PMID:22510150

  15. Magnetic moments in a helical edge can make weak correlations seem strong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väyrynen, Jukka I.; Geissler, Florian; Glazman, Leonid I.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of localized magnetic moments on the conductance of a helical edge. Interaction with a local moment is an effective backscattering mechanism for the edge electrons. We evaluate the resulting differential conductance as a function of temperature T and applied bias V for any value of V /T . Backscattering off magnetic moments, combined with the weak repulsion between the edge electrons, results in a power-law temperature and voltage dependence of the conductance; the corresponding small positive exponent is indicative of insulating behavior. Local moments may naturally appear due to charge disorder in a narrow-gap semiconductor. Our results provide an alternative interpretation of the recent experiment by Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 136804 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.136804 where a power-law suppression of the conductance was attributed to strong electron repulsion within the edge, with the value of Luttinger-liquid parameter K fine tuned close to 1 /4 .

  16. Phase diagram of the itinerant helical magnet MnSi at high pressures and strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stishov, Sergei

    We performed a series of resistivity, heat capacity and ultrasound speed measurements of a MnSi single crystal at high pressures and strong magnetic fields [1-3]. Two notable features of the phase transition in MnSi that disappear on pressure increasin are a sharp peak marking the first order phase transition and a shallow maximum, situated slightly above the critical temperature and pointing to the domain of prominent helical fluctuations. The longitudinal and transverse ultrasound speeds and attenuation were measured in a MnSi single crystal in the temperature range of 2-40 K and magnetic fields to 7 Tesla. The magnetic phase transition in MnSi in zero magnetic field is signified by a quasi-discontinuity in the c11 elastic constant, which almost vanishes at the skyrmion - paramagnetic transition at high magnetic fields. The powerful fluctuations at the minima of c11 make the mentioned crossing point of the minima and the phase transition lines similar to a critical end point, where a second order phase transition meets a first order one.

  17. Adhesion of Particulate Materials to Mesostructured Polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoss, Darby; Knepper, Robert; Hotchkiss, Peter; Tappan, Alexander; Boudouris, Bryan; Beaudoin, Stephen

    Interactions based on van der Waals (vdW) forces will influence the performance and reliability of mesostructured polypyrrole swabs used for the collection and detection of trace particles. The vdW adhesion force between materials is described by the Hamaker constant, and these constants are measured via optical and dielectric properties (i.e., according to Lifshitz theory), inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and contact angle measurements. Here, contact angle measurements were performed on films of several common materials and used to estimate Hamaker constants. This, in turn, will allow for the tuning of the design properties associated with the polypyrrole swabs. A comparison of these results to Hamaker constants estimated using Lifshitz Theory and IGC reveals the fundamental behavior of the materials. The Hamaker constants were then used in a new computational vdW adhesion model. The idealized model describes particle adhesion to an array of mesostrucures. This model elucidates the importance of where the particle makes contact with the mesostructure and the independence of vdW forces generated by each mesostructure. These results will facilitate the rational design of polypyrrole swabs optimized for harvesting microscale particles of trace materials.

  18. Domain size criterion for the observation of all-optical helicity-dependent switching in magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadri, Mohammed Salah; Hehn, Michel; Pirro, Philipp; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Malinowski, Grégory; Fullerton, Eric E.; Mangin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    To understand the necessary condition for the observation of all-optical helicity-dependent switching (AO-HDS) of magnetization in thin films, we investigated ferromagnetic Co/Pt and Co/Ni multilayers as well as ferrimagnetic TbCo alloys as a function of magnetic layer compositions and thicknesses. We show that both ferro- and ferrimagnets with high saturation magnetization show AO-HDS if their magnetic thickness is strongly reduced below a material-dependent threshold thickness. By taking into account the demagnetizing energy and the domain wall energy, we are able to define a criterion to predict whether AO-HDS or thermal demagnetization (TD) will be observed. This criterion for the observation of AO-HDS is that the equilibrium size of magnetic domains forming during the cooling process should be larger than the laser spot size. From these results we anticipate that more magnetic materials are expected to show AO-HDS. However, the effect of the optical pulses' helicity is hidden by the formation of small magnetic domains during the cooling process.

  19. Observation of slow magnetic relaxation in triple-stranded lanthanide helicates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuang-Yan; Xu, Gong-Feng; Zhao, Lang; Guo, Yun-Nan; Guo, Yang; Tang, Jinkui

    2011-08-28

    Two dinuclear triple-stranded helicates [Ln(2)L(3)](3+) (Ln = Dy and Tb) obtained via self-assembly from the ligand HL (2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol di(benzoylhydrazone)) and lanthanide perchlorate have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structural analysis demonstrates that three ligand strands wrap around a pseudo-threefold axis defined by the two metal ions, leading to a 'meso'-relation between the right- (Δ) and left-hand (Λ) configurations of [Ln(2)L(3)](3+) in the crystal. Each Ln(III) ion is coordinated by nine donor atoms in a distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic arrangement. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements of [Dy(2)L(3)](3+) reveal a frequency-dependent out-of-phase signal under a 700 Oe dc field, indicating the onset of the slow relaxation of magnetization with a roughly estimated activation energy of ∼5 K and τ(0) of 10(-7) s. PMID:21743912

  20. Control of the Helicity Content of a Gun-Generated Spheromak by Incorporating a Conducting Shell into a Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Jun'ichi; Asai, Tomohiko

    In the formation of magnetized plasmoid by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the magnetic helicity content of the generated plasmoid is one of the critical parameters. Typically, the bias coil to generate a poloidal flux is mounted either on the outer electrode or inside the inner electrode. However, most of the flux generated in the conventional method spreads even radially outside of the formation region. Thus, only a fraction of the total magnetic flux is actually exploited for helicity generation in the plasmoid. In the proposed system, the plasma gun incorporates a copper shell mounted on the outer electrode. By changing the rise time of the discharge bias coil current and the geometrical structure of the shell, the magnetic field structure and its time evolution can be controlled. The effect of the copper shell has been numerically simulated for the actual gun structure, and experimentally confirmed. This may increase the magnetic helicity content results, through increased poloidal magnetic field.

  1. Evidence for Helical Magnetic fields in Kiloparsec-Scale AGN Jets and the Action of a Cosmic Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabuzda, D. C.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopulos, I.; Kazanas, D.

    2012-01-01

    A search for transverse kiloparsec-scale gradients in Faraday rotation-measure (RM) maps of extragalactic radio sources in the literature has yielded 6 AGNs displaying continuous, monotonic RM gradients across their jets, oriented roughly orthogonal to the local jet direction. The most natural interpretation of such transverse RM gradients is that they are caused by the systematic change in the line-of-sight components of helical magnetic fields associated with these jets. All the identified transverse RM gradients increase in the counterclockwise (CCW) direction on the sky relative to the centers of these AGNs. Taken together with the results of Contopoulos et al. who found evidence for a predominance of clockwise (CW) transverse RM gradients across parsec-scale (VLBI) jets, this provides new evidence for preferred orientations of RM gradients due to helical jet magnetic fields, with a reversal from CW in the inner jets to CCW farther from the centers of activity. This can be explained by the "Poynting-Robertson cosmic-battery" mechanism, which can generate helical magnetic fields with a. characteristic "twist," which are expelled with the jet outflows. If the Poynting-Robertson battery mechanism is not operating, an alternative mechanism must be identified, which is able to explain the 'predominance of CW /CCW RM gradients on parsec/kiloparsec scales.

  2. EFFECTS OF NON-ISOTROPIC SCATTERING, MAGNETIC HELICITY, AND ADIABATIC FOCUSING ON DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2012-06-10

    Transport of solar energetic particles in interplanetary space is analyzed. A new systematic derivation of the diffusion approximation is given, which incorporates the effects of non-isotropic scattering, magnetic helicity, and adiabatic focusing in a non-uniform large-scale magnetic field. The derivation is based on a system of stochastic differential equations, equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation, and the new method is a generalization of the Smoluchowski approximation in the theory of the Brownian motion. Simple, physically transparent expressions for the transport coefficients are derived. Different results of earlier treatments of the problem are related to the assumptions regarding the evolving particle distribution.

  3. WAVELET ANALYSIS AS A TOOL TO LOCALIZE MAGNETIC AND CROSS-HELICITY EVENTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Telloni, D.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Pietropaolo, E.; Carbone, V.

    2012-05-20

    In this paper, we adopt the use of the wavelet transform as a new tool to investigate the time behavior at different scales of reduced magnetic helicity, cross-helicity, and residual energy in space plasmas. The main goal is a better characterization of the fluctuations in which interplanetary flux ropes are embedded. This kind of information is still missing in the present literature, and our tool can represent the basis for a new treatment of in situ measurements of this kind of event. There is a debate about the origins of small-scale flux ropes. It has been suggested that they are formed through magnetic reconnection in the solar wind, such as across the heliospheric current sheet. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that they are formed in the corona, similar to magnetic clouds. Thus, it looks like that there are two populations, one originating in the solar wind via magnetic reconnection across the current sheet in the inner heliosphere and the other originating in the corona. Small-scale flux ropes might be the remnants of the streamer belt blobs formed from disconnection; however, a one-to-one observation of a blob and a small-scale flux rope in the solar wind has yet to be found. Within this panorama of possibilities, this new technique appears to be very promising in investigating the origins of these objects advected by the solar wind.

  4. Magnetic Helicity Spectrum of Solar Wind Fluctuations as a Function of the Angle with Respect to the Local Mean Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, J. J.; Gary, S. P.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic field data acquired by the Ulysses spacecraft in high-speed streams over the poles of the Sun are used to investigate the normalized magnetic helicity spectrum σ m as a function of the angle θ between the local mean magnetic field and the flow direction of the solar wind. This spectrum provides important information about the constituent modes at the transition to kinetic scales that occurs near the spectral break separating the inertial range from the dissipation range. The energetically dominant signal at scales near the thermal proton gyroradius k bottomρ i ~ 1 often covers a wide band of propagation angles centered about the perpendicular direction, θ ~= 90° ± 30°. This signal is consistent with a spectrum of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén waves with k bottom Gt k par in which there is more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun and along the direction of the local mean magnetic field than toward the Sun. Moreover, this signal is principally responsible for the reduced magnetic helicity spectrum measured using Fourier transform techniques. The observations also reveal a subdominant population of nearly parallel propagating electromagnetic waves near the proton inertial scale k par c/ωpi ~ 1 that often exhibit high magnetic helicity |σ m | ~= 1. These waves are believed to be caused by proton pressure anisotropy instabilities that regulate distribution functions in the collisionless solar wind. Because of the existence of a drift of alpha particles with respect to the protons, the proton temperature anisotropy instability that operates when T pbottom/T ppar > 1 preferentially generates outward propagating ion-cyclotron waves and the fire-hose instability that operates when T pbottom/T ppar < 1 preferentially generates inward propagating whistler waves. These kinetic processes provide a natural explanation for the magnetic field observations.

  5. MAGNETIC HELICITY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF THE ANGLE WITH RESPECT TO THE LOCAL MEAN MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.; Gary, S. P.

    2011-06-10

    Magnetic field data acquired by the Ulysses spacecraft in high-speed streams over the poles of the Sun are used to investigate the normalized magnetic helicity spectrum {sigma}{sub m} as a function of the angle {theta} between the local mean magnetic field and the flow direction of the solar wind. This spectrum provides important information about the constituent modes at the transition to kinetic scales that occurs near the spectral break separating the inertial range from the dissipation range. The energetically dominant signal at scales near the thermal proton gyroradius k{sub perpendicular{rho}i} {approx} 1 often covers a wide band of propagation angles centered about the perpendicular direction, {theta} {approx_equal} 90{sup 0} {+-} 30{sup 0}. This signal is consistent with a spectrum of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves with k{sub perpendicular} >> k{sub ||} in which there is more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun and along the direction of the local mean magnetic field than toward the Sun. Moreover, this signal is principally responsible for the reduced magnetic helicity spectrum measured using Fourier transform techniques. The observations also reveal a subdominant population of nearly parallel propagating electromagnetic waves near the proton inertial scale k{sub ||} c/{omega}{sub pi} {approx} 1 that often exhibit high magnetic helicity |{sigma}{sub m}| {approx_equal} 1. These waves are believed to be caused by proton pressure anisotropy instabilities that regulate distribution functions in the collisionless solar wind. Because of the existence of a drift of alpha particles with respect to the protons, the proton temperature anisotropy instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} > 1 preferentially generates outward propagating ion-cyclotron waves and the fire-hose instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} < 1 preferentially generates inward propagating whistler waves. These kinetic processes

  6. FIRST SYNOPTIC MAPS OF PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD FROM SOLIS/VSM: NON-RADIAL MAGNETIC FIELDS AND HEMISPHERIC PATTERN OF HELICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gosain, S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

    2013-07-20

    We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of the observed radial field with the radial field estimate from line-of-sight magnetograms. Furthermore, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, H{sub c} , during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e., H{sub c} is predominantly negative in the north and positive in the south. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears to be no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of the cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Furthermore, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 Degree-Sign {<=} {theta} {<=} 30 Degree-Sign ) separately for weak (100 G < |B{sub r} | < 500 G) and strong (|B{sub r} | > 1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., {theta} {center_dot} H{sub c} < 0), H{sub c} of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., {theta} {center_dot} H{sub c} > 0), albeit with large statistical scatter. We discuss two plausible scenarios to explain the opposite hemispheric trend of helicity in weak and strong field regions.

  7. Controllable synthesis of helical, straight, hollow and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xun; Xu, Zheng

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ► The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ► The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.

  8. Modification of tokamak edge plasma turbulence and transport by biasing and resonant helical magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Lafouti, Mansoureh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Meshkani, Sakineh; Salar Elahi, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, both Resonant Helical magnetic Field (RHF) and limiter biasing have been applied to the tokamak. We have investigated their effects on the turbulence and transport of the particles at the edge of the plasma. The biased limiter voltage has been fixed at 200 V and RHF has L = 2 and L = 3. Also, the effects of the time order of the application of RHF and biasing to the tokamak have been explored. The experiment has been performed under three conditions. At first, the biasing and RHF were applied at t = 15 ms and at t = 20 ms. In the next step, RHF and biasing were applied at t = 15 ms and t = 20 ms, respectively. Finally, both of them were turned on at t = 15 ms until the end of the shot. For this purpose, the ion saturation current (I(sat)) and the floating potential (V(f)) have been measured by the Langmuir probe at r/a = 0.9. Moreover, the power spectra of I(sat) and floating potential gradient (∇V(f)), the coherency, the phase between them, and the particle diffusion coefficient have been calculated. The density fluctuations of the particles have been measured by the Rake probe and they have been analyzed with the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) technique. Also the particle diffusion coefficient has been determined by the Fick's law. The results show that, when RHF and biasing were applied at the same time to the plasma (during flatness region of plasma current), the radial particle density gradient, the radial particle flux, and the particle diffusion coefficient decrease about 50%, 60%, and 55%, respectively, compared to the other conditions. For more precision, the average values of the particle flux and the particle density gradient were calculated in the work. When the time is less than 15 ms, the average values of the particle flux and the particle density gradient are identical under all conditions, but in the other time interval they change. They reduce with the simultaneous application of biasing and RHF. The same results obtain

  9. Helical Tomotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer Based on Ventilation Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Jing; McLawhorn, Robert; Altes, Tallisa A.; Lange, Eduard de; Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Sheng Ke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of lung ventilation-based treatment planning, computed tomography and hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 (He-3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation images of 6 subjects were coregistered for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning in Tomotherapy. Highly-functional lungs (HFL) and less-functional lungs (LFL) were contoured based on their ventilation image intensities, and a cylindrical planning-target-volume was simulated at locations adjacent to both HFL and LFL. Annals of an anatomy-based plan (Plan 1) and a ventilation-based plan (Plan 2) were generated. The following dosimetric parameters were determined and compared between the 2 plans: percentage of total/HFL volume receiving {>=}20 Gy, 15 Gy, 10 Gy, and 5 Gy (TLV{sub 20}, HFLV{sub 20}, TLV{sub 15}, HFLV{sub 15}, TLV{sub 10}, HFLV{sub 10}, TLV{sub 5}, HFLV{sub 5}), mean total/HFL dose (MTLD/HFLD), maximum doses to all organs at risk (OARs), and target dose conformality. Compared with Plan 1, Plan 2 reduced mean HFLD (mean reduction, 0.8 Gy), MTLD (mean reduction, 0.6 Gy), HFLV{sub 20} (mean reduction, 1.9%), TLV{sub 20} (mean reduction, 1.5%), TLV{sub 15} (mean reduction, 1.7%), and TLV{sub 10} (mean reduction, 2.1%). P-values of the above comparisons are less than 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. For HFLV{sub 15}, HFLV{sub 10}, TLV{sub 5}, and HTLV{sub 5}, Plan 2 resulted in lower values than plan 1 but the differences are not significant (P-value range, 0.063-0.219). Plan 2 did not significantly change maximum doses to OARs (P-value range, 0.063-0.563) and target conformality (P = 1.000). HP He-3 MRI of patients with lung disease shows a highly heterogeneous ventilation capacity that can be utilized for functional treatment planning. Moderate but statistically significant improvements in sparing functional lungs were achieved using helical tomotherapy plans.

  10. Goddard Space Flight Center specification for Helical-Scan 8-millimeter (mm) magnetic digital data tape cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jimmy L.

    1992-01-01

    The same kind of standard and controls are established that are currently in use for the procurement of new analog, digital, and IBM/IBM compatible 3480 tape cartridges, and 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. The Magnetic Tape Certification Facility (MTCF) maintains a Qualified Products List (QPL) for the procurement of new magnetic media and uses the following specifications for the QPL and Acceptance Tests: (1) NASA TM-79724 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new analog magnetic tapes; (2) NASA TM-80599 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new digital magnetic tapes; (3) NASA TM-100702 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new IBM/IBM compatible 3840 magnetic tape cartridges; and (4) NASA TM-100712 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. This document will be used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new Helical Scan 8 mm digital data tape cartridges.

  11. Bright photoluminescent hybrid mesostructured silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore; Gianotti, Enrica

    2012-07-28

    Bright photoluminescent mesostructured silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the incorporation of fluorescent cyanine dyes into the channels of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. Cyanine molecules were introduced into MCM-41 nanoparticles by physical adsorption and covalent grafting. Several photoluminescent nanoparticles with different organic loadings have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption porosimetry. A detailed photoluminescence study with the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes was carried out to elucidate the cyanine molecules distribution within the pores of MCM-41 nanoparticles and the influence of the encapsulation on the photoemission properties of the guests. The results show that highly stable photoluminescent hybrid materials with interesting potential applications as photoluminescent probes for diagnostics and imaging can be prepared by both methods. PMID:22706523

  12. Helical plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR® rocket engine.

  13. Helical plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  14. Impact of magnetic topology on radial electric field profile in the scrape-off layer of the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Ida, K.; Kamiya, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Kawamura, G.; Ohdachi, S.; Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Hudson, S.; Feng, Y.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, T.; Morisaki, T.; The LHD Experiment Group

    2016-09-01

    The radial electric field in the plasma edge is studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments. When magnetic field lines become stochastic or open at the plasma edge and connected to the vessel, electrons are lost faster than ions along these field lines. Then, a positive electric field appears in the plasma edge. The radial electric field profile can be used to detect the effective plasma boundary. Magnetic topology is an important issue in stellarator and tokamak research because the 3D boundary has the important role of controlling MHD edge stability with respect to ELMs, and plasma detachment. Since the stochastic magnetic field layer can be controlled in the LHD by changing the preset vacuum magnetic axis, this device is a good platform to study the properties of the radial electric field that appear with the different stochastic layer width. Two magnetic configurations with different widths of the stochastic layer as simulated in vacuum are studied for low-β discharges. It has been found that a positive electric field appeared outside of the last closed flux surface. In fact the positions of the positive electric field are found in the boundary between of the stochastic layer and the scrape-off layer. To understand where is the boundary of the stochastic layer and the scrape-off layer, the magnetic field lines are analyzed statistically. The variance of the magnetic field lines in the stochastic layer is increased outwards for both configurations. However, the skewness, which means the asymmetry of the distribution of the magnetic field line, increases for only one configuration. If the skewness is large, the connection length becomes effectively short. Since that is consistent with the experimental observation, the radial electric field can be considered as an index of the magnetic topology.

  15. Nonlinear theory of a free electron laser with a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Peskov, N. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    A 1D nonlinear theory of a free electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field is developed based on averaged equations of the electron motion. By averaging we separated two different cases of the e-beam/rf-wave interaction. The first one corresponds to the traditional wiggler synchronism (resonance) of rf wave with the electrons moving along stationary helical trajectories. The second one corresponds to combination resonances distinguishing by excitation of oscillation of the electrons near the stationary helical trajectory. Comparative analysis of the FEL operation in different regimes has been studied under the traditional wiggler synchronism condition. It was shown that FELs operated far from cyclotron resonance (including a reversed guide field orientation) possess low sensitivity to the initial velocity spread in the driving beam resulting in high electron efficiency. In contrast, under the weak guide field (the gyrofrequency is less than the bounce frequency) of a conventional orientation, the FEL efficiency is restricted by a significant increase in the transverse velocity of the electrons during the interaction with the rf wave that results in violation of the synchronism conditions and is accompanied by electron current losses. An additional mechanism of FEL efficiency enhancement under the conventional guide field orientation in the conditions when the gyrofrequency is higher than the bounce frequency, based on the dependence of the effective mass of the oscillating electrons on their energy, was demonstrated. Results of the theoretical analysis are compared with the results of experimental studies of FEL oscillators. The specific features of energy extraction from the electron beam under condition of an abnormal Doppler effect in the case of the combination resonance are described. This regime is beneficial to increase radiation frequency keeping wiggler period and electron energies.

  16. Site-Selective Determination of Magnetic Helices in BaTiCoFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} by Resonant Magnetic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Okube, Maki; Kaneko, Yuhei; Ohsawa, Seiji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Mori, Takeharu

    2010-06-23

    Synchrotron radiation intensity measurements were made for single crystals of ferrimagnetic BaTiCoFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} at the BL-6C(3A) beamline of the Photon Factory. The resonant x-ray magnetic scattering (RXMS) method at the Fe K edge makes it possible to determine the magnetic crystal structure, having the magnetic helices for Fe ions in tetrahedral 4f{sub 1}, bipyramidal 2b, and octahedral 2a, 4f{sub 2} and 12k sites. Based on the information on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and a resonant magnetic scattering factor f''{sub m} ( = 0.23) estimated from BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at E = 7128.2 eV, the magnetic structures have been determined from an asymmetrical ratio {Delta}R (Y{sup +}-Y{sup -})/(Y{sup +}+Y{sup -}), where Y{sup +} and Y{sup -} are scattering intensities for left- and right-circular polarizations, respectively. Spin orientations were estimated in the least-squares procedure to minimize a residual factor of {Sigma}({Delta}R{sub obs}-{Delta}R{sub calc}){sup 2}. The canting angles estimated in this study are 180 deg., 19 deg., 118 deg., 180 deg. and 65 deg. for the magnetic moments of Fe ions in 4f{sub 1}, 2b, 2a, 4f{sub 2} and 12k sites, respectively.

  17. Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

  18. A novel approach to calculate inductance and analyze magnetic flux density of helical toroidal coil applicable to Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems (SMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh Pahlavani, M. R.; Shoulaie, A.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, formulas are proposed for the self and mutual inductance calculations of the helical toroidal coil (HTC) by the direct and indirect methods at superconductivity conditions. The direct method is based on the Neumann’s equation and the indirect approach is based on the toroidal and the poloidal components of the magnetic flux density. Numerical calculations show that the direct method is more accurate than the indirect approach at the expense of its longer computational time. Implementation of some engineering assumptions in the indirect method is shown to reduce the computational time without loss of accuracy. Comparison between the experimental measurements and simulated results for inductance, using the direct and the indirect methods indicates that the proposed formulas have high reliability. It is also shown that the self inductance and the mutual inductance could be calculated in the same way, provided that the radius of curvature is >0.4 of the minor radius, and that the definition of the geometric mean radius in the superconductivity conditions is used. Plotting contours for the magnetic flux density and the inductance show that the inductance formulas of helical toroidal coil could be used as the basis for coil optimal design. Optimization target functions such as maximization of the ratio of stored magnetic energy with respect to the volume of the toroid or the conductor’s mass, the elimination or the balance of stress in some coordinate directions, and the attenuation of leakage flux could be considered. The finite element (FE) approach is employed to present an algorithm to study the three-dimensional leakage flux distribution pattern of the coil and to draw the magnetic flux density lines of the HTC. The presented algorithm, due to its simplicity in analysis and ease of implementation of the non-symmetrical and three-dimensional objects, is advantageous to the commercial software such as ANSYS, MAXWELL, and FLUX. Finally, using the

  19. Excitation of stable Alfven eigenmodes by application of alternating magnetic field perturbations in the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, T.; Toi, K.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Takeuchi, M.; Akiyama, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Minami, T.; Nishimura, S.; Okamura, S.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, C.; Matsunaga, G.

    2009-09-15

    Stable toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) with low toroidal mode number (n=1 and n=2) were excited by application of alternating magnetic field perturbations generated with a set of electrodes inserted into the edge region of neutral beam injection heated plasmas on the Compact Helical System [K. Nishimura, K. Matsuoka, M. Fujiwara et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 86 (1990)]. The gap locations of TAEs excited by the electrodes are in the plasma peripheral region of {rho}>0.7 ({rho} is the normalized minor radius) where energetic ion drive is negligibly small, while some AEs are excited by energetic ions in the plasma core region of {rho}<0.4. The damping rate of these stable TAEs derived from plasma responses to applied perturbations is fairly large, that is, {approx}9% to {approx}12% of the angular eigenfrequency. This large damping rate is thought to be dominantly caused by continuum damping and radiative damping.

  20. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    DOEpatents

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.

    1987-01-01

    A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.

  1. Overview of transport and MHD stability study: focusing on the impact of magnetic field topology in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kasahara, H.; Evans, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kamiya, K.; Ohdach, S.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sudo, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohno, N.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; T., Ii; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Collaborators

    2015-10-01

    The progress in the understanding of the physics and the concurrent parameter extension in the large helical device since the last IAEA-FEC, in 2012 (Kaneko O et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 095024), is reviewed. Plasma with high ion and electron temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 6 keV) with simultaneous ion and electron internal transport barriers is obtained by controlling recycling and heating deposition. A sign flip of the nondiffusive term of impurity/momentum transport (residual stress and convection flow) is observed, which is associated with the formation of a transport barrier. The impact of the topology of three-dimensional magnetic fields (stochastic magnetic fields and magnetic islands) on heat momentum, particle/impurity transport and magnetohydrodynamic stability is also discussed. In the steady state operation, a 48 min discharge with a line-averaged electron density of 1 × 1019 m-3 and with high electron and ion temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 2 keV), resulting in 3.36 GJ of input energy, is achieved.

  2. Specific features of the motion of neutrons in a medium with a helical magnetic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fraerman, A. A. Udalov, O. G.

    2007-02-15

    The specific features of the motion of neutrons in a noncoplanar magnetic field are considered by an example of the magnetization distribution in the form of a conical helix. The reflection coefficients of neutrons from holmium crystals are calculated. It is shown that, for a noncoplanar distribution of a magnetic field in a crystal, the reflection coefficient of neutrons with spin flip exhibits an additional feature.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RIBO-, DEOXYRIBO-, AND HYBRID OLIGONUCLEOTIDE HELICES BY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Pardi, Arthur; Martin, Francis H.; Tinoco, Jr., Ignacio

    1980-11-01

    The nonexchangeable base protons and the hydrogen- bonding NH-N imino protons were used to study the conformations and the helix-coil transitions in the following oligonucleotides: (I) dCT{sub 5}G + dCA{sub 5}G, (II) rCU{sub 5}G + rCA{sub 5}G, (III) dCT{sub 5}G + rCA{sub 5}G, (IV) rCU{sub 5}G + dCA{sub 5}G. The first three mixtures all form stable double-helical structures at 5{degrees}C, whereas IV forms a triple strand with a ratio of 2:1 rCU{sub 5}G:dCA{sub 5}G. The chemical shifts of the imino protons in the double strands indicate that I, II, and III have different conformations in solution. For example, the hydrogen-bonded proton of one of the C-G base pairs is more shielded (a 0.4-ppm upfield shift) in helix I than in helix II or III. This implies a significant change in helical parameters, such as the winding angle, the distance between base pairs, or overlap of the bases. The coupling constants of the H1’ sugar protons show that helix I has 90% 2’-endo sugar conformation, whereas helix III has greater than 85% 3’-endo conformation for the observed sugar rings. The sugar pucker data are consistent with helix I having B-family geometry; III has A-family geometry. The chemical shifts of the nonexchangeable base protons in system I were followed with increasing temperature. The midpoints for the transitions, T{sub m}’s, for all the base protons were 28-30 {degrees}C; this indicates an all-or-none transition.

  4. Combined effects of a magnetic field and a helical force on the onset of a rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection with free-free boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi Orou, Jean Bio; Pomalégni, Gisèle

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the combined effects of rotation , magnetic field and helical force on the onset of stationary and oscillatory convection in a horizontal electrically conducting fluid layer heated from below with free-free boundary conditions. For this investigation the linear stability analysis studied by Chandrasekhar (1961) is used. We obtain the condition for the formation of a single large scale structure. In (Pomalégni et al., 2014) it was shown the existence of a critical value Scr of the intensity of the helical force for which the apparition of two cells at marginal stability for the oscillatory convection is obtained. Then, we have shown here how the increasing of parameter Ta influences this critical value of the helical force intensity.

  5. Physical interpretation of the angle-dependent magnetic helicity spectrum in the solar wind: The nature of turbulent fluctuations near the proton gyroradius scale

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; TenBarge, Jason M.; Podesta, John J.

    2014-04-20

    Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.

  6. Design and development of high-temperature superconducting magnet system with joint-winding for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Ito, S.; Terazaki, Y.; Seino, Y.; Hamaguchi, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative winding method is developed by connecting high-temperature superconducting (HTS) conductors to enable efficient construction of a magnet system for the helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. A large-current capacity HTS conductor, referred to as STARS, is being developed by the incorporation of several innovative ideas, such as the simple stacking of state-of-the-art yttrium barium copper oxide tapes embedded in a copper jacket, surrounded by electrical insulation inside a conductor, and an outer stainless-steel jacket cooled by helium gas. A prototype conductor sample was fabricated and reached a current of 100 kA at a bias magnetic field of 5.3 T with the temperature at 20 K. At 4.2 K, the maximum current reached was 120 kA, and a current of 100 kA was successfully sustained for 1 h. A low-resistance bridge-type mechanical lap joint was developed and a joint resistance of 2 nΩ was experimentally confirmed for the conductor sample.

  7. Mesostructured forms of gamma-Al(2)O(3).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaorong; Hicks, Randall W; Pauly, Thomas R; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2002-02-27

    gamma-Al2O3 is one of the most extensively utilized metal oxides in heterogeneous catalysis. Conventional forms of this oxide typically exhibit a surface area and pore volume less than 250 m2/g and 0.5 cm3/g, respectively. Previous efforts to prepare mesostructured forms of alumina resulted only in structurally unstable derivatives with amorphous framework walls. The present work reports mesostructured aluminas with walls made of gamma-Al2O3, denoted MSU-gamma. These materials are structurally stable and provide surface areas and pore volumes up to 370 m2/g and 1.5 cm3/g, respectively. The key to obtaining these structures is the formation of a mesostructured surfactant/boehmite precursor, denoted MSU-S/B, assembled through the hydrolysis of an aluminum cation, oligomer, or molecule in the presence of a nonionic surfactant. Mesostructured, gamma-aluminas offer the possibility of improving the catalytic efficiency of many heterogeneous catalytic processes, such as petroleum refining, petrochemical processing, and automobile exhaust control. PMID:11853430

  8. Aerosol-Assisted Self-Assembly of Mesostructured Spherical Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C.J.; Fan,; H.; Lu, Y.; Rieker, T.; Stump, A.; Ward, T.L.

    1999-03-23

    Nanostructured particles exhibiting well-defined pore sizes and pore connectivities (1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional) are of interest for catalysis, chromatography, controlled release, low dielectric constant fillers, and custom-designed pigments and optical hosts. During the last several years considerable progress has been made on controlling the macroscopic forms of mesoporous silicas prepared by surfactant and block copolymer liquid crystalline templating procedures. Typically interfacial phenomena are used to control the macroscopic form (particles, fibers, or films), while self-assembly of amphiphilic surfactants or polymers is used to control the mesostructure. To date, although a variety of spherical or nearly-spherical particles have been prepared, their extent of order is limited as is the range of attainable mesostructures. They report a rapid, aerosol process that results in solid, completely ordered spherical particles with stable hexagonal, cubic, or vesicular mesostructures. The process relies on evaporation-induced interfacial self-assembly (EISA) confined to a spherical aerosol droplet. The process is simple and generalizable to a variety of materials combinations. Additionally, it can be modified to provide the first aerosol route to the formation of ordered mesostructured films.

  9. Field evolution of the magnetic phase transition in the helical magnet MnSi inferred from ultrasound studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A. E.; Stishov, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal and transverse ultrasound speeds and attenuation were measured in a MnSi single crystal in the temperature range of 2-40 K and magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla. The magnetic phase diagram of MnSi in applied magnetic field appears to depend on the experimental setups, which is related to a difference in demagnetization factors arising due to the disk shape of the sample. The magnetic phase transition in MnSi in zero magnetic field is signified by a quasidiscontinuity in the c11 elastic constant, which varies significantly with magnetic field. It is notable that the region where the c11 discontinuity almost vanishes closely corresponds to the extent of skyrmion phase along the magnetic to paramagnetic transition. This implies that the c11 elastic constant is almost continuous through the transition from the skyrmion to paramagnetic phases. A recovery of the discontinuity of c11 and enhanced sound absorption occur at the crossing of the phase transition line and the line of minima in c11. The powerful fluctuations at the minima of c11 make the mentioned crossing point similar to a critical end point, where a second order phase transition meets a first order one.

  10. Detachment stabilization with n/m=1/1 resonant magnetic perturbation field applied to the stochastic magnetic boundary of the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, I.; Tamura, N.; Sato, K.; Goto, M.; Narushima, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Shoji, M.; Morita, S.; Peterson, B. J.; Funaba, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Narihara, K.; Morisaki, T.; Yamada, H.; Komori, A.; Feng, Y.; Reiter, D.

    2010-05-15

    It is found that the remnant island structure created by n/m=1/1 resonant magnetic perturbation field in the stochastic magnetic boundary of the Large Helical Device (LHD) [A. Komori et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104015 (2009)] has a stabilizing effect on formation of radiating plasma, realizing stably sustained divertor detachment operation with the core plasma being unaffected. The data from the several diagnostics, (profiles of electron temperature and density, radiation and temporal evolution of divertor particle flux) indicate selective cooling around X-point of the island and thus peaked radiation there, which is stabilized outside of the last closed flux surface throughout the detachment phase. The vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy measurements of high Z impurity (iron) emission shows significant decrease during the detachment, indicating core plasma decontamination. The results from the three-dimensional (3D) edge transport code, edge Monte Carlo 3D (EMC3) [Y. Feng et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 44, 57 (2004)]-EIRENE [D. Reiter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 172 (2005)] show similar tendency in the radiation pattern. The island size and its radial location are varied to investigate the magnetic topology effects on the detachment control. The divertor particle flux and neutral pressure exhibit intermittent oscillation as well as modification of recycling pattern during the detachment, which are found to reflect the island structure.

  11. TEST OF THE HEMISPHERIC RULE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SUN USING THE HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER (HMI) DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic twist in solar active regions (ARs) has been found to have a hemispheric preference in sign (hemisphere rule): negative in the northern hemisphere and positive in the southern. The preference reported in previous studies ranges greatly, from ∼ 58% to 82%. In this study, we examine this hemispheric preference using vector magnetic field data taken by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and find that 75% ± 7% of 151 ARs studied obey the hemisphere rule, well within the preference range in previous studies. If the sample is divided into two groups—ARs having magnetic twist and writhe of the same sign and having opposite signs—the strength of the hemispheric preference differs substantially: 64% ± 11% for the former group and 87% ± 8% for the latter. This difference becomes even more significant in a sub-sample of 82 ARs having a simple bipole magnetic configuration: 56% ± 16% for the ARs having the same signs of twist and writhe, and 93% with lower and upper confidence bounds of 80% and 98% for the ARs having the opposite signs. The error reported here is a 95% confidence interval. This may suggest that, prior to emergence of magnetic tubes, either the sign of twist does not have a hemispheric preference or the twist is relatively weak.

  12. Helical modulation of the electrostatic plasma potential due to edge magnetic islands induced by resonant magnetic perturbation fields at TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaccio, G. Spizzo, G.; Schmitz, O. Frerichs, H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Evans, T. E.; White, R. B.

    2015-10-15

    The electrostatic response of the edge plasma to a magnetic island induced by resonant magnetic perturbations to the plasma edge of the circular limiter tokamak TEXTOR is analyzed. Measurements of plasma potential are interpreted by simulations with the Hamiltonian guiding center code ORBIT. We find a strong correlation between the magnetic field topology and the poloidal modulation of the measured plasma potential. The ion and electron drifts yield a predominantly electron driven radial diffusion when approaching the island X-point while ion diffusivities are generally an order of magnitude smaller. This causes a strong radial electric field structure pointing outward from the island O-point. The good agreement found between measured and modeled plasma potential connected to the enhanced radial particle diffusivities supports that a magnetic island in the edge of a tokamak plasma can act as convective cell. We show in detail that the particular, non-ambipolar drifts of electrons and ions in a 3D magnetic topology account for these effects. An analytical model for the plasma potential is implemented in the code ORBIT, and analyses of ion and electron radial diffusion show that both ion- and electron-dominated transport regimes can exist, which are known as ion and electron root solutions in stellarators. This finding and comparison with reversed field pinch studies and stellarator literature suggest that the role of magnetic islands as convective cells and hence as major radial particle transport drivers could be a generic mechanism in 3D plasma boundary layers.

  13. Helicity patterns on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, A.

    Solar magnetic fields exhibit hemispheric preference for negative (pos- itive) helicity in northern (southern) hemisphere. The hemispheric he- licity rule, however, is not very strong, - the patterns of opposite sign helicity were observed on different spatial scales in each hemisphere. For instance, many individual sunspots exhibit patches of opposite he- licity inside the single polarity field. There are also helicity patterns on scales larger than the size of typical active region. Such patterns were observed in distribution of active regions with abnormal (for a give hemisphere) helicity, in large-scale photospheric magnetic fields and coronal flux systems. We will review the observations of large-scale pat- terns of helicity in solar atmosphere and their possible relationship with (sub-)photospheric processes. The emphasis will be on large-scale pho- tospheric magnetic field and solar corona.

  14. The transport of relative canonical helicity

    SciTech Connect

    You, S.

    2012-09-15

    The evolution of relative canonical helicity is examined in the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic formalism. Canonical helicity is defined here as the helicity of the plasma species' canonical momentum. The species' canonical helicity are coupled together and can be converted from one into the other while the total gauge-invariant relative canonical helicity remains globally invariant. The conversion is driven by enthalpy differences at a surface common to ion and electron canonical flux tubes. The model provides an explanation for why the threshold for bifurcation in counter-helicity merging depends on the size parameter. The size parameter determines whether magnetic helicity annihilation channels enthalpy into the magnetic flux tube or into the vorticity flow tube components of the canonical flux tube. The transport of relative canonical helicity constrains the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields, and provides a more general framework for driving flows and currents from enthalpy or inductive boundary conditions.

  15. An improved neoclassical drift-magnetohydrodynamical fluid model of helical magnetic island equilibria in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the perturbed ion polarization current on the stability of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamak plasmas is calculated using an improved, neoclassical, four-field, drift-magnetohydrodynamical model. The calculation involves the self-consistent determination of the pressure and scalar electric potential profiles in the vicinity of the associated magnetic island chain, which allows the chain's propagation velocity to be fixed. Two regimes are considered. First, a regime in which neoclassical ion poloidal flow damping is not strong enough to enhance the magnitude of the polarization current (relative to that found in slab geometry). Second, a regime in which neoclassical ion poloidal flow damping is strong enough to significantly enhance the magnitude of the polarization current. In both regimes, two types of solution are considered. First, a freely rotating solution (i.e., an island chain that is not interacting with a static, resonant, magnetic perturbation). Second, a locked solution (i.e., an island chain that has been brought to rest in the laboratory frame via interaction with a static, resonant, magnetic perturbation). In all cases, the polarization current is found to be either always stabilizing or stabilizing provided that ηi≡d ln Ti/d ln ne does not exceed some threshold value. In certain ranges of ηi, the polarization current is found to have a stabilizing effect on a freely rotating island, but a destabilizing effect on a corresponding locked island.

  16. Critical roles of cationic surfactants in the preparation of colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles: control of mesostructure, particle size, and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hironori; Urata, Chihiro; Higashitamori, Sayuri; Aoyama, Yuko; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-12

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are promising materials for various applications, such as drug delivery and catalysis, but the functional roles of surfactants in the formation and preparation of mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN-as) remain to be seen. It was confirmed that the molar ratio of cationic surfactants to Si of alkoxysilanes (Surf/Si) can affect the degree of mesostructure formation (i.e., whether the mesochannels formed inside the nanoparticles actually pass through the outer surface of the particles), the particle diameter, and the dispersibility of MSN-as. Wormhole-like mesostructures formed with low Surf/Si ratios; however, the mesopores did not pass through the outer surface of the particles completely. At high Surf/Si ratios, the mesostructures extended. The particle diameter was 100 nm or larger at low Surf/Si ratios, and the primary particle diameter decreased as the Surf/Si ratio increased. This was because the surfactants enhanced the dispersity of the alkoxysilanes in water and the hydrolysis rate of the alkoxysilanes became faster, leading to an increased nucleation as compared to the particle growth. Moreover, primary particles aggregated at low Surf/Si ratios because of the hydrophobic interactions among the surfactants that were not involved in the mesostructure formation but were adsorbed onto the nanoparticles. At high Surf/Si ratios, the surfactant micelles were adsorbed on the surface of primary particles (admicelles), resulting in the dispersion of the particles due to electrostatic repulsion. In particular, molar ratios of 0.13 or higher were quite effective for the preparation of highly dispersed MSN-as. Surfactants played important roles in the mesostructure formation, decreasing the particle diameters, and the dispersibility of the particles. All of these factors were considerably affected by the Surf/Si ratio. The results suggested novel opportunities to control various colloidal mesostructured nanoparticles from the

  17. Tunable synthesis and in situ growth of silicon-carbon mesostructures using impermeable plasma

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Alireza; Mélinon, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, plasma-assisted synthesis has been extensively used in large scale production of functional nano- and micro-scale materials for numerous applications in optoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, magnetism and drug delivery, however systematic formation of these minuscule structures has remained a challenge. Here we demonstrate a new method to closely manipulate mesostructures in terms of size, composition and morphology by controlling permeability at the boundaries of an impermeable plasma surrounded by a blanket of neutrals. In situ and rapid growth of thin films in the core region due to ion screening is among other benefits of our method. Similarly we can take advantage of exceptional properties of plasma to control the morphology of the as deposited nanostructures. Probing the plasma at boundaries by means of observing the nanostructures, further provides interesting insights into the behaviour of gas-insulated plasmas with possible implications on efficacy of viscous heating and non-magnetic confinement. PMID:23330064

  18. Forced magnetic reconnection and field penetration of an externally applied rotating helical magnetic field in the TEXTOR tokamak.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Y; de Bock, M F M; Finken, K H; Jakubowski, M; Jaspers, R; Koslowski, H R; Kraemer-Flecken, A; Lehnen, M; Liang, Y; Matsunaga, G; Reiser, D; Wolf, R C; Zimmermann, O

    2006-08-25

    The magnetic field penetration process into a magnetized plasma is of basic interest both for plasma physics and astrophysics. In this context special measurements on the field penetration and field amplification are performed by a Hall probe on the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) on the TEXTOR tokamak and the data are interpreted by a two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED field is accompanied by a change of the plasma fluid rotation. The differential rotation frequency between the DED field and the plasma plays an important role in the process of the excitation of tearing modes. The momentum input from the rotating DED field to the plasma is interpreted by both a ponderomotive force at the rational surface and a radial electric field modified by an edge ergodization. PMID:17026312

  19. Conductance of a helical edge liquid coupled to a magnetic impurity.

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y.; Furusaki, A.; Matveev, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    Transport in an ideal two-dimensional quantum spin Hall device is dominated by the counterpropagating edge states of electrons with opposite spins, giving the universal value of the conductance, 2e{sup 2}/h. We study the effect on the conductance of a magnetic impurity, which can backscatter an electron from one edge state to the other. In the case of isotropic Kondo exchange we find that the correction to the electrical conductance caused by such an impurity vanishes in the dc limit, while the thermal conductance does acquire a finite correction due to the spin-flip backscattering.

  20. Electric and thermoelectric transport in graphene and helical metal in finite magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Sung-Po; Aji, Vivek

    2011-10-01

    We study the electrical and thermoelectric transport properties of the surface state of a topological insulator and graphene in the presence of randomly distributed impurities. For finite impurity strength, the dependence of the transport coefficients as a function of the gate voltage, magnetic field, and impurity potential are obtained numerically. In the limit of zero impurities (clean limit), analytic results for the peak values of the magneto-oscillations in thermopower are derived. Analogous with the conventional two-dimensional electron gas, the peak values are universal in the clean limit. Unlike graphene, in topological insulators the coupling of the electron spin to its momentum leads to a dependence of the transport coefficients on the gyromagnetic ratio (g). We compare our results with data on graphene and identify unique signatures expected in topological insulators due to the magnetoelectric coupling.

  1. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing. PMID:26177830

  2. Heterogeneous silicon mesostructures for lipid-supported bioelectric interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuanwen; Carvalho-de-Souza, João L; Wong, Raymond C S; Luo, Zhiqiang; Isheim, Dieter; Zuo, Xiaobing; Nicholls, Alan W; Jung, Il Woong; Yue, Jiping; Liu, Di-Jia; Wang, Yucai; De Andrade, Vincent; Xiao, Xianghui; Navrazhnykh, Luizetta; Weiss, Dara E; Wu, Xiaoyang; Seidman, David N; Bezanilla, Francisco; Tian, Bozhi

    2016-09-01

    Silicon-based materials have widespread application as biophysical tools and biomedical devices. Here we introduce a biocompatible and degradable mesostructured form of silicon with multi-scale structural and chemical heterogeneities. The material was synthesized using mesoporous silica as a template through a chemical vapour deposition process. It has an amorphous atomic structure, an ordered nanowire-based framework and random submicrometre voids, and shows an average Young's modulus that is 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of single-crystalline silicon. In addition, we used the heterogeneous silicon mesostructures to design a lipid-bilayer-supported bioelectric interface that is remotely controlled and temporally transient, and that permits non-genetic and subcellular optical modulation of the electrophysiology dynamics in single dorsal root ganglia neurons. Our findings suggest that the biomimetic expansion of silicon into heterogeneous and deformable forms can open up opportunities in extracellular biomaterial or bioelectric systems. PMID:27348576

  3. Fragmentation and constitutive response of tailored mesostructured aluminum compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Andrew M.; Braithwaite, Christopher H.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Krywopusk, Nicholas M.; Gibbins, David J.; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2016-04-01

    The fragmentation and constitutive response of aluminum-based compacts were examined under dynamic conditions using mesostructured powder compacts in which the interfaces between the powders (sizes of 40, 100, and 400 μm) were tailored during the swaging fabrication process. Fragmentation was induced in ring samples of this material through explosive loading and was examined through high speed photography, laser interferometry, and soft capture of fragments. Fragment velocities of around 100 m/s were recorded. The fragment mass distributions obtained correlated in general with the interfacial strength of the compacts as well as with the powder size. Experimental results are compared with fragmentation theories to characterize the behavior of reactive powders based on the material's mesostructure by introducing the fracture toughness of the compacts. The mean fragment size is calculated using a modified form of Mott's theory and successfully compared with experimental results.

  4. Single-molecule magnet behavior in an octanuclear dysprosium(iii) aggregate inherited from helical triangular Dy3 SMM-building blocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Guo, Mei; Tang, Jinkui

    2016-06-28

    An unprecedented octanuclear dysprosium(iii) cluster with the formula [Dy8L6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-CH3O)2(CH3OH)6(H2O)2]·6H2O·10CH3OH·2CH3CN () based on a nonlinearly tritopic aroylhydrazone ligand H3L has been isolated, realizing the successful linking of pairwise interesting triangular Dy3 SMMs. It is noteworthy that two enantiomers (Λ and Δ configurations) individually behaving as a coordination-induced chirality presented in the Dy3 helicate are connected in the meso Dy8 cluster. Remarkably, alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that the Dy8 cluster shows typical SMM behavior inherited from its Dy3 helical precursor. It is one of the rare polynuclear Lnn SMMs (n > 7) under zero dc field. PMID:27231152

  5. Mesostructured zeolites: bridging the gap between zeolites and MCM-41.

    PubMed

    Prasomsri, Teerawit; Jiao, Wenqian; Weng, Steve Z; Garcia Martinez, Javier

    2015-05-28

    Surfactant-templating is one of the most versatile and useful techniques to implement mesoporous systems into solid materials. Various strategies based on various interactions between surfactants and solid precursors have been explored to produce new structures. Zeolites are invaluable as size- and shape-selective solid acid catalysts. Nevertheless, their micropores impose limitations on the mass transport of bulky feed and/or product molecules. Many studies have attempted to address this by utilizing surfactant-assisting technology to alleviate the diffusion constraints. However, most efforts have failed due to micro/mesopore phase separation. Recently, a new technique combining the uses of cationic surfactants and mild basic solutions was introduced to synthesise mesostructured zeolites. These materials sustain the unique characteristics of zeolites (i.e., strong acidity, crystallinity, microporosity, and hydrothermal stability), including tunable mesopore sizes and degrees of mesoporosity. The mesostructured zeolites are now commercially available through Rive Technology, and show superior performance in VGO cracking. This feature article provides an overview of recent explorations in the introduction of mesoporosity into zeolites using surfactant-templating techniques. Various porous materials, preparation methods, physical and catalytic properties of mesostructured zeolites will be discussed. PMID:25866848

  6. Helical logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Ralph C.; Drexler, K. Eric

    1996-12-01

    Helical logic is a theoretical proposal for a future computing technology using the presence or absence of individual electrons (or holes) to encode 1s and 0s. The electrons are constrained to move along helical paths, driven by a rotating electric field in which the entire circuit is immersed. The electric field remains roughly orthogonal to the major axis of the helix and confines each charge carrier to a fraction of a turn of a single helical loop, moving it like water in an Archimedean screw. Each loop could in principle hold an independent carrier, permitting high information density. One computationally universal logic operation involves two helices, one of which splits into two `descendant' helices. At the point of divergence, differences in the electrostatic potential resulting from the presence or absence of a carrier in the adjacent helix controls the direction taken by a carrier in the splitting helix. The reverse of this sequence can be used to merge two initially distinct helical paths into a single outgoing helical path without forcing a dissipative transition. Because these operations are both logically and thermodynamically reversible, energy dissipation can be reduced to extremely low levels. This is the first proposal known to the authors that combines thermodynamic reversibility with the use of single charge carriers. It is important to note that this proposal permits a single electron to switch another single electron, and does not require that many electrons be used to switch one electron. The energy dissipated per logic operation can very likely be reduced to less than 0957-4484/7/4/004/img5 at a temperature of 1 K and a speed of 10 GHz, though further analysis is required to confirm this. Irreversible operations, when required, can be easily implemented and should have a dissipation approaching the fundamental limit of 0957-4484/7/4/004/img6.

  7. Evidence of internal rotation and a helical magnetic field in the jet of the quasar NRAO 150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Sol N.; Agudo, Iván; Gómez, José L.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Roy, Alan L.

    2014-06-01

    The source NRAO 150 is a very prominent millimeter to radio emitting quasar at redshift z = 1.52 for which previous millimeter VLBI observations revealed a fast counterclockwise rotation of the innermost regions of the jet. Here we present new polarimetric multi-epoch VLBI-imaging observations of NRAO 150 performed at 8, 15, 22, 43, and 86 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) between 2006 and 2010. All new and previous observational evidence - i.e., spectral index maps, multi-epoch image cross-correlation, and low level of linear polarization degree in optically thin regions - are consistent with an interpretation of the source behavior where the jet is seen at an extremely small angle to the line of sight, and the high frequency emitting regions in NRAO 150 rotate at high speeds on the plane of the sky with respect to a reference point that does not need to be related to any particularly prominent jet feature. The observed polarization angle distribution at 22, 43, and 86 GHz during observing epochs with high polarization degree suggests that we have detected the toroidal component of the magnetic field threading the innermost jet plasma regions. This is also consistent with the lower degree of polarization detected at progressively poorer angular resolutions, where the integrated polarization intensity produced by the toroidal field is explained by polarization cancellation inside the observing beam. All this evidence is fully consistent with a kinematic scenario where the main kinematic and polarization properties of the 43 GHz emitting structure of NRAO 150 are explained by the internal rotation of such emission regions around the jet axis when the jet is seen almost face on. A simplified model developed to fit helical trajectories to the observed kinematics of the 43 GHz features fully supports this hypothesis. This explains the kinematics of the innermost regions of the jet in NRAO 150 in terms of internal

  8. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  9. Mercury binding sites in thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica.

    PubMed

    Billinge, Simon J L; McKimmy, Emily J; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2005-06-15

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO(2))(1)(-)(x)()(LSiO(1.5))(x)(), where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S < or = 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu(t))(2). At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands. PMID:15941284

  10. Quasi-single helicity state by a small positive pulse of toroidal magnetic field in TPE-RX reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Yambe, K.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.

    2006-12-15

    By applying a small positive pulse ({delta}B{sub ta}) in toroidal magnetic field, the quasi-single helicity (QSH) state can be obtained with a controllable and reproducible manner in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiment on the large RFP machine, TPE-RX [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. The QSH state in RFP is one of the states where the improved confinement can be observed, and is important for development toward the pure single helicity (SH) state. In the SH state, the dynamo-action for sustaining the RFP configuration will be driven by a single helical mode and its harmonics, and the anomalous plasma loss can be avoided which is caused by the multi-helicity dynamo action in ordinary RFPs. In the operating condition presented here, the reversal of toroidal magnetic field (B{sub ta}) is maintained at a shallow value ({approx}-1 mT) for a certain period ({approx}20 ms) after the setting up of the RFP configuration and then the positive {delta}B{sub ta} ((less-or-similar sign)5 mT magnitude and {approx}2 ms width) is applied to the B{sub ta}, which is usually negative during the sustaining phase of RFP. Just after applying the pulse, the m/n=1/6 mode (m and n being the poloidal and toroidal Fourier mode numbers, respectively) grows dominantly and the configuration goes into QSH state. This QSH state can be sustained for a long period (up to {approx}45 ms) almost until the end of discharge by applying a delayed reversal of B{sub ta} with appropriate timing and magnitude. The setting up of the QSH states shows a reproducibility of almost 100% with the same timing corresponding to the applied positive pulse. This observation can confirm the interpretation in the former report [Y. Hirano et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 112501 (2005)], in which it is claimed that the QSH state is obtained when a small positive pulse in toroidal magnetic field spontaneously appears.

  11. Electron acceleration based on a laser pulse propagating through a plasma in the simultaneous presence of a helical wiggler and an obliquely applied external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashti, M. A.; Jafari, S.

    2016-06-01

    Electron acceleration based on a laser pulse propagating through plasma channel has been studied in the simultaneous presence of a helical magnetic wiggler and an obliquely applied external magnetic field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectory has been made using the fourth-order Runge-kutta method. Numerical results indicate that electron energy increases with decreasing θ -angle of the obliquely external magnetic field. Besides, it increases with increasing the amplitude of the obliquely magnetic field. It is also found that the electron attains a higher energy at shorter distances for higher amplitude of the wiggler field Ωw . Therefore, employing a magnetic wiggler field is very beneficial for electron acceleration in short distances. Further new results reveal that in the absence of the wiggler field (Ωw=0) , the electron energy increases with increasing the laser intensity, whereas in the presence of the wiggler field (Ωwneq0) , the electron energy increases with decreasing the laser intensity. As a result, employing a wiggler magnetic field in the laser-based electron accelerators can be worthwhile in the design of table top accelerators and it can enhance the electron energy at lower laser intensities.

  12. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average ..beta.. and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned.

  13. Instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenpour, Taghi; Mehrabi, Narges

    2013-08-15

    The dispersion relation of a two-stream free-electron laser (TSFEL) with a one-dimensional helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field is studied. Also, all relativistic effects on the space-charge wave and radiation are considered. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to find the unstable interaction among the all wave modes. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream FEL. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the two-stream instability and the FEL resonance is investigated. The maximum growth rate of FEL resonance is investigated numerically as a function of the axial magnetic field.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of the effect of the ergodic magnetic field line structure on particle fueling in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Komori, A.; Yamada, H.; Miyazawa, J.; LHD Experimental Group

    2003-03-01

    The particle fueling via the ergodic magnetic field line structure formed around the core plasma is investigated by using a CCD camera with an H α interference filter and a fully three-dimensional neutral particle transport simulation. The measurements of the plasma density profile and the calculations of the radial profile of the particle fueling rate in additional gas fueling experiments show inward plasma transport from around the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) into the core plasma. The analyses of the particle fueling rate in various plasma density cases prove that the dependence of the particle fueling inside of the LCMS on the line averaged plasma density agrees with that of the measured increments of the plasma content due to the gas fueling, which indicates that particle fueling just inside of the LCMS can effectively contribute to the core plasma density by the effect of the inward plasma transport in large helical device plasmas.

  15. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  16. Hierarchical mesostructured titanium phosphonates with unusual uniform lines of macropores.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Lin, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials of mesostructured titanium phosphonates with unusual uniform lines of macropores were synthesized by using bis(hexamethylenetriamine) penta(methylenephosphonic acid) (BHMTPMP) as the coupling molecule, through a one-pot hydrothermal process without any surfactant assistance. A wormhole-like mesostructure and many uniform parallel lines of macropores divided by solid ridges in the same direction were confirmed by N(2) sorption, SEM and TEM observations. This novel macropore architecture has never been observed in other metal phosphonate materials, which may be directly related to the structure nature of BHMTPMP with extra long alkyl chains. The structural characterization of FT-IR and MAS NMR revealed the integrity of organic groups inside the hybrid framework. The hybrid materials were also used as adsorbents for heavy metal ions and CO(2), in order to clarify the impacts of the organic contents and organic types on the physicochemical properties of the synthesized hierarchical macro-/mesoporous phosphonate materials. PMID:21344079

  17. Structural analysis of hybrid titania-based mesostructured composites.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, Shannon W; Bartl, Michael H; Hu, Jerry G; Stucky, Galen D

    2005-07-13

    High-optical-quality titania-based mesostructured films with cubic or 2D-hexagonal symmetry were fabricated by combining trifluoroacetate (TFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) copolymers. The distribution, dynamics, and local environments of the TFA-modified titania, PEO, and PPO components of the hybrid were investigated. IR/Raman spectroscopy, in situ small-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that TFA coordinates the titanium center and forms a stable complex that is subsequently organized by the block copolymer species into ordered mesostructures. Solid-state NMR (19)F-->(1)H cross-polarization, (13)C{(1)H} two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation, and (1)H relaxation techniques were used to determine that PEO is predominantly incorporated within the TFA-modified titania, and that PPO environments encompass both microphase separated regions and interfacial regions composed of mixed PPO and TFA-modified titania. NMR (19)F multiple-quantum spin counting measurements suggest that -CF(3) groups of the trifluoroacetate ligands do not form clusters but instead randomly distribute within the inorganic component of the hybrid. PMID:15998076

  18. Solid mesostructured polymer-surfactant films at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Pegg, Jonathan C; Eastoe, Julian

    2015-08-01

    Pioneering work by Edler et al. has spawned a new sub-set of mesostructured materials. These are solid, self-supporting films comprising surfactant micelles encased within polymer hydrogel; composite polymer-surfactant films can be grown spontaneously at the air-liquid interface and have defined and controllable mesostructures. Addition of siliconalkoxide to polymer-surfactant mixtures allows for the growth of mesostructured hybrid polymer-surfactant silica films that retain film geometry after calcinations and exhibit superior mechanical properties to typically brittle inorganic films. Growing films at the air-liquid interface provides a rapid and simple means to prepare ordered solid inorganic films, and to date the only method for generating mesostructured films thick enough (up to several hundred microns) to be removed from the interface. Applications of these films could range from catalysis to encapsulation of hydrophobic species and drug delivery. Film properties and mesostructures are sensitive to surfactant structure, polymer properties and polymer-surfactant phase behaviour: herein it will be shown how film mesostructure can be tailored by directing these parameters, and some interesting analogies will be drawn with more familiar mesostructured silica materials. PMID:25127447

  19. Helical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Johnson, Eric; Richardson, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  20. Thermally activated helicity reversals of skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X. Z.; Shibata, K.; Koshibae, W.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kaneko, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kimoto, K.; Taguchi, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic bubbles with winding number S =1 are topologically equivalent to skyrmions. Here we report the discovery of helicity (in-plane magnetization-swirling direction) reversal of skyrmions, while keeping their hexagonal lattice form, at above room temperature in a thin hexaferrite magnet. We have observed that the frequency of helicity reversals dramatically increases with temperature in a thermally activated manner, revealing that the generation energy of a kink-soliton pair for switching helicity on a skyrmion rapidly decreases towards the magnetic transition temperature.

  1. Nanofabrication of highly ordered, tunable metallic mesostructures via quasi-hard-templating of lyotropic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyi; Lu, Wei; Dai, Jiyan; Bourgeois, Laure; Yao, Jianfeng; Wang, Huanting; Friend, James R.; Zhao, Dongyuan; MacFarlane, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of metal frameworks perforated with nanotunnels is a challenge because metals have high surface energies that favor low surface area structures; traditional liquid-crystal templating techniques cannot achieve the synthetic control required. We report a synthetic strategy to fabricate metal nanomaterials with highly ordered, tunable mesostructures in confined systems based on a new quasi-hard-templating liquid-crystals mechanism. The resulting platinum nanowires exhibit long range two-dimensional hexagonally ordered mesopore structures. In addition, single crystalline hexagonal mesoporous platinum nanowires with dominant {110} facets have been synthesized. Finally, we demonstrate that the mesostructures of metal nanomaterials can be tuned from hexagonal to lamellar mesostructures. PMID:25502015

  2. Mercury Binding Sites in Thiol-Functionalized Mesostructured Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, Simon J.L.; McKimmey, Emily J.; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.

    2010-07-13

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(LSiO{sub 1.5}){sub x}, where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S {le} 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu{sup t}){sub 2}. At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands.

  3. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift.

  4. A SOLAR TORNADO OBSERVED BY AIA/SDO: ROTATIONAL FLOW AND EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN A PROMINENCE AND CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xing; Morgan, Huw; Leonard, Drew; Jeska, Lauren

    2012-06-20

    During 2011 September 24, as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument of the Solar Dynamic Observatory and ground-based H{alpha} telescopes, a prominence and associated cavity appeared above the southwest limb. On 2011 September 25 8:00 UT, material flows upward from the prominence core along a narrow loop-like structure, accompanied by a rise ({>=}50,000 km) of the prominence core and the loop. As the loop fades by 10:00, small blobs and streaks of varying brightness rotate around the top part of the prominence and cavity, mimicking a cyclone. The most intense and coherent rotation lasts for over three hours, with emission in both hot ({approx}1 MK) and cold (hydrogen and helium) lines. We suggest that the cyclonic appearance and overall evolution of the structure can be interpreted in terms of the expansion of helical structures into the cavity, and the movement of plasma along helical structures which appears as a rotation when viewed along the helix axis. The coordinated movement of material between prominence and cavity suggests that they are structurally linked. Complexity is great due to the combined effect of these actions and the line-of-sight integration through the structure which contains tangled fields.

  5. Mesostructured Composite Materials with Electrically Tunable Upconverting Properties.

    PubMed

    Mundoor, Haridas; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2015-11-01

    A promising approach of designing mesostructured materials with novel physical behavior is to combine unique optical and electronic properties of solid nanoparticles with long-range ordering and facile response of soft matter to weak external stimuli. Here, orientationally ordered nematic liquid crystalline dispersions of rod-like upconversion nanoparticles are designed, practically realized, and characterized. Boundary conditions on particle surfaces, defined through surface functionalization, promote spontaneous unidirectional self-alignment of the dispersed rod-like nanoparticles, mechanically coupled to the molecular ordering direction of the thermotropic nematic liquid crystal host. As host is electrically switched at low voltages ≈ 1 V, nanorods rotate, yielding tunable upconversion and polarized luminescence properties of the composite. Spectral and polarization dependencies are characterized and explained through invoking models of electrical switching of liquid crystals and upconversion dependence on crystalline matrices of nanorods, and their potential practical uses are discussed. PMID:26332163

  6. A versatile pathway for the direct assembly of organo-functional mesostructures from sodium silicate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jainisha; Kim, Seong-Su; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2004-03-01

    Silica mesostructures with well-expressed hexagonal and wormhole framework structures and up to 50% organo-functionalization of the framework silicon sites have been directly assembled from sodium silicate. PMID:14973613

  7. Helical flux ropes in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present numerical method for the computation of force-free, cancelling magnetic structures shows that flux cancellation at the neutral line in a sheared magnetic arcade generates helical field lines that can support a prominence's plasma. With increasing flux cancellation, the axis of the helical fields moves to greater heights; this is suggestive of a prominence eruption. Two alternative scenarios are proposed for the formation of polar crown prominences which yield the correct axial magnetic field sign. Both models are noted to retain the formation of helical flux tubes through flux cancellation as their key feature.

  8. Formation of Mesostructured Nanoparticles through Self-Assembly and Aerosol Process

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Fan, Hongyou; Lu, Yunfeng; Rieker, Thomas; Stump, Arron; Ward, Timothy L.

    1999-05-07

    Silica nanoparticles exhibiting hexagonal, cubic, and vesicular mesostructures have been prepared using aerosol assisted, self-assembled process. This process begins with homogennous aerosol droplets containing silica source, water, ethanol, and surfactant, in which surfactant concentration is far below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Solvent evaporation enriches silica and surfactant inducing interfacial self-assembly confined to a spherical aerosol droplet and results in formation of completely solid, ordered spherical particles with stable hexagonal, cubic, or vesicular mesostructures.

  9. Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

    2008-11-18

    Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

  10. Preparation of poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine)-intercalated mesostructured manganese oxide composites by exchange reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Gengchao Yang Zhenyu; Li Xingwei; Li Chunzhong; Yuan Weikang

    2008-08-04

    Layered mesostructured manganese oxide (mesostructured MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized using manganese chloride and lithium hydroxide as the raw materials and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the structure-directing agent. Poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine)-intercalated mesostructured MnO{sub 2} composites (P(An-co-oAs)/MnO{sub 2}) were synthesized in an organic solvent through the exchange reaction between the CTAB in MnO{sub 2} gallery and the P(An-co-oAs). The interlayer spacing (I{sub c} values) of mesostructured MnO{sub 2} enlarged from 2.52 to 4.41 nm as the added amount of P(An-co-oAs) increased from 0 to 0.5 g per 0.5 g of mesostructured MnO{sub 2}. The regularity of the layered structure of the composites was firstly decreased due to intercalation of low amounts of P(An-co-oAs). However, with increasing the intercalated amount of P(An-co-oAs) the layered structure of the composites becomes more regular. The electrical conductivity of the composites is 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than that of the mesostructured MnO{sub 2}.

  11. A new synthesis of lamellar-mesostructured silica by using poly(ethylene glycol) distearate as template

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Huanzhi; Jin Zhengwei; Wang Xiaodong

    2008-11-03

    A lamellar-mesostructured silica has been synthesized by using poly(ethylene glycol) distearate as template in ethanol solution. Highly ordered lamellar mesostructure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electronic microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm. The material obtained in this work has a large interlayer distance, and good thermal and mechanical stabilities, which can favor the preparation of the in situ polymerized nanocomposites based on intercalation of polymers in the lamellar-mesostructured silica.

  12. Self-assembly of spherical colloids into helical chains with well-controlled handedness.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yadong; Xia, Younan

    2003-02-26

    Physical constraint and capillary force have been combined to provide a generic approach to assemble achiral building blocks such as monodisperse spherical colloids into helical mesostructures. The key component of this process is an array of V-shaped grooves anisotropically etched in the surface of a Si(100) wafer. The structural arrangement among the spherical colloids is determined by the ratio between the width of the V-grooves and the diameter of the colloids. Double-layered structures with a helical morphology will be formed when this ratio falls between 2.70 and 2.85. The exact handedness of these helical structures could be controlled by varying the relative orientation of capillary force with respect to the longitudinal axis of the spirals. The processing of an achiral material into helical mesostructures having well-controlled handedness should allow us to explore new properties that this material otherwise does not exhibit. The self-assembly process may also provide valuable insights to improve our understanding on the mechanism(s) by which pure enantiomers with a particular sense of rotation evolved in nature. PMID:12590523

  13. Determination of the Mesostructure of Glasses Using Laser Photoionization Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affatigato, Mario; Stentz, Dale; Blair, Sarah; Goater, Cole; Feller, Steve

    2000-03-01

    Though glasses are amorphous materials they retain both short- and intermediate range order, traditionally attributed to energetically favorable groups present in the crystals of the same stoichiometry. The short range order structures (nanounits) are well understood from a variety of measurements, chiefly from nuclear magnetic resonance. Intermediate range mesounits, on the other hand, have been quite difficult to study but play a key role in the determination of the properties of the glass. We report on investigations of the mesostructure of borate, silicate and borosilicate glasses and crystals containing lead, sodium and bismuth oxides using laser desorption mass spectroscopy. This method has yielded novel information regarding the dominant mesounits in the network, the mixing of silicate and borate subnetworks, the preferential associations of alkali cations, as well as the presence of larger grouping of atoms that have been the source of much speculation (e.g., reedmergnerite clusters). Both positive and negative high resolution mass spectra will be presented in the discussion of tentative models of the glass structure, and supporting evidence from Raman spectroscopy and neutron scattering will also be given. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation, DMR-PECASE award No. 9733724.

  14. Mesostructured SBA-16 with excellent hydrothermal, thermal and mechanical stabilities: modified synthesis and its catalytic application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Tang, Qinghu; Du, Yu; Liu, Xianbin; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Yanhui

    2009-05-01

    We report a modified method to synthesize SBA-16 mesostructured silica under refluxing condition using block co-polymer poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (F127) as template, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as co-template, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silica source. The physiochemical properties of SBA-16 silica were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and (29)Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The resulting SBA-16 silica exhibited highly ordered mesoporous structure, mono-dispersed spherical morphology, excellent hydrothermal, thermal and mechanical stabilities. It was worth mentioning that the synthesis time can be significantly reduced from 48 h to 8 h, which opened a feasible way to produce SBA-16 silica in a large scale. Moreover, the "super-cage" pore structure of SBA-16 encapsulated gold nanoparticles in a "ship in a bottle" way. The well-confined gold nanoparticles (mean size of 5 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution were highly active in solvent-free benzyl alcohol selective oxidation with molecular oxygen. PMID:19246048

  15. Selective control for helical microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsamba, Panayiota; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    One of the greatest aspirations for artificial microswimmers is their application in non-invasive medicine. For any practical use, adequate mechanisms enabling control of multiple artificial swimmers is of paramount importance. Here we propose a multi-helical, freely-jointed motor as a novel selective control mechanism. We show that the nonlinear step-out behavior of a magnetized helix driven by a rotating magnetic field can be exploited, when used in conjunction with other helices, to obtain a velocity profile that is non-negligible only within a chosen interval of operating frequencies. Specifically, the force balance between the competing opposite-handed helices is tuned to give no net motion at low frequencies while in the middle frequency range, the swimming velocity increases monotonically with the driving frequency if two opposite helices are used, thereby allowing speed adjustment by varying the driving frequency. We illustrate this idea in detail on a two-helix system, and demonstrate how to generalize to N helices, both numerically and theoretically. We finish by explaining how to solve the inverse problem and design an artificial swimmer with an arbitrarily-complex velocity vs. frequency relationship.

  16. Magnetic turbulence and pressure gradient feedback effect of the 1/2 mode soft-hard magnetohydrodynamic limit in large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, J.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S.; Narushima, Y.

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feedback process between the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradients in Large Helical Device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations as well as its role in the transition between the soft-hard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regimes for instabilities driven by the mode 1/2 in the middle plasma. In the present paper, we summarize the results of two simulations with different Lundquist numbers, S=2.5×10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}, assuming a plasma in the slow reconnection regime. The results for the high Lundquist number simulation show that the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradient in the middle plasma region of LHD are below the critical value to drive the transition to the hard MHD regime, therefore only relaxations in the soft MHD limit are triggered (1/2 sawtooth-like events) [Phys. Plasmas 19, 082512 (2012)]. In the case of the simulation with low Lundquist number, the system reaches the hard MHD limit and a plasma collapse is observed.

  17. Studies of Solar Helicity Using Vector Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, Mona J.; Pevstov, Alexei A.

    1999-01-01

    observations of photospheric magnetic fields made with vector magnetographs have been used recently to study solar helicity. In this paper we indicate what can and cannot be derived from vector magnetograms, and point out some potential problems in these data that could affect the calculations of 'helicity'. Among these problems are magnetic saturation, Faraday rotation, low spectral resolution, and the method of resolving the ambiguity in the azimuth.

  18. On the Hemispheric Rule of Magnetic Helicity in the Sun: Test with the Active Regions in Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic twist in solar active regions (ARs) has been found to have a hemispheric preference in sign (hemisphere rule): negative in the northern hemisphere and positive in the southern. The preference reported in previous studies ranges greatly, from ~ 58% to 82%. In this study, we examine this hemispheric preference with ARs in Solar Cycle 24 using vector magnetic field data taken by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and find that 75% ± 7% of 151 ARs studied obey the hemisphere rule, well within the preference range in previous studies. If the sample is divided into two groups: ARs having magnetic twist and writhe of the same sign (group-same) and having opposite signs (group-opposite), the strength of the hemispheric preference differs substantially: 64% ± 11% for group-same and 87% ± 8% for group-opposite. This difference becomes even more significant in a sub-sample of 82 ARs having a simple bipole magnetic configuration: 56% ± 16% for the ARs in group-same, and 93% with lower and upper confidence bounds of 80% and 98% for the ARs in group-opposite. This may suggest that, prior to emergence of magnetic tubes, either the sign of twist does not have a hemispheric preference or the twist is relatively weak. Emerging ARs show an even greater difference between the two groups. In a sample of 116 emerging ARs, it is found that 84% of ARs in group-opposite follows the hemispheric rule, whereas only 34% of ARs in group-same follows the rule. A sample without emerging ARs (120 ARs) shows 88% in group-opposite and 71% of ARs in group-opposite that obey the rule. This suggests that surface dynamics plays a role in building-up magnetic twist in ARs after they emerge.

  19. Helicity Generation by Heat Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    In a large laboratory plasma (ne ~= 10^12 cm-3, k Te ~= 2 eV, B0 ~= 30 G, 1 m ⊥ B_0, 2.5 m allel B_0), the electrons are heated locally by a short intense current pulse (100 A, 0.2 μs) using a magnetic loop antenna or a biased electrode. The heat transport along the field establishes a flux tube with strong radial and weak axial temperature gradients. The time scale of temperature relaxation (Δ t ~= 50 μs) is much longer than that of the transient whistler wave pulse excited by the initial current pulse (Δ t < 2 μs). The temperature gradients drive linked field-aligned and diamagnetic currents which, due to their linkage, exhibit helicity and form a flux rope with J × B ~= 0.(R. L. Stenzel and J. M. Urrutia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 1469 (1996). Alternatively, the helicity generation can be understood by the twisting of magnetic field lines which, in the parameter regime of electron MHD, are frozen into the electron fluid. The electron heating at one end of the flux tube causes a nonuniform diamagnetic rotation, hence the helicity. The heat transport by helical convection and conduction is investigated. The slowly time-varying magnetic field may excite Alfvénic perturbations.

  20. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.

  1. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-06-15

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.

  2. Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields

    SciTech Connect

    Buniy, Roman V.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2014-05-15

    We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫{sub Ω}trF{sub μν}F{sup μν}d{sup 4}x subject to the local constraint ε{sup μναβ}trF{sub μν}F{sub αβ}=0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity.

  3. Helicity in dynamical processes in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgansky, Michael; Maksimenkov, Leonid; Khapaev, Alexey; Chkhetiani, Otto

    2016-04-01

    In modern geophysical fluid dynamics and dynamic meteorology, a notable interest is observed to the notion of helicity ("kinetic helicity" to be distinguished from "magnetic helicity" widely used in magnetohydrodynamics, astrophysics and Solar physics), which is defined by the scalar product of 3D vectors of velocity and vorticity. In this contribution, we bring together different, both known in the literature and novel formulations of the helicity balance equation, by also taking into account the effects of air compressibility and Earth rotation. Equations and relationships are presented that are valid under different approximations customarily made in the dynamic meteorology, e.g. Boussinesq approximation, quasi-static approximation, quasi-geostrophic approximation. An emphasis is placed on the helicity budget analysis in large-scale atmospheric motions. An explicit expression is presented for the rate of helicity injection from the free atmosphere into a non-linear Ekman boundary layer. This injection is shown to be exactly balanced by the helicity viscous destruction within the boundary layer. It is conjectured that this helicity injection may characterize the intensity of atmospheric circulation in extratropical latitudes of both terrestrial hemispheres. Examples are provided based on re-analyses data. Vertical distribution of helicity and superhelicity in different Ekman boundary layers is also discussed.

  4. The influence of helical background fields on current helicity and electromotive force of magnetoconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, G.; Küker, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the empirical finding that the known hemispheric rules for the current helicity at the solar surface are not strict, we demonstrate the excitation of small-scale current helicity by the influence of large-scale helical magnetic background fields on nonrotating magnetoconvection. This is shown within a quasilinear analytic theory of driven turbulence and by nonlinear simulations of magnetoconvection that the resulting small-scale current helicity has the same sign as the large-scale current helicity, while the ratio of both pseudoscalars is of the order of the magnetic Reynolds number of the convection. The same models do not provide finite values of the small-scale kinetic helicity. On the other hand, a turbulence-induced electromotive force is produced including the diamagnetic pumping term, as well as the eddy diffusivity but, however, no α effect. It has thus been argued that the relations for the simultaneous existence of small-scale current helicity and α effect do not hold for the model of nonrotating magnetoconvection under consideration. Calculations for various values of the magnetic Prandtl number demonstrate that, for the considered diffusivities, the current helicity increases for growing magnetic Reynolds number, which is not true for the velocity of the diamagnetic pumping, which is in agreement with the results of the quasilinear analytical approximation.

  5. Evolution of helicities in dynamo problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, M. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    The properties of wavelet spectra of kinetic and magnetic energies, as well as of helicities, are considered by the example of a three-dimensional dynamo model in a rapidly rotating a plane layer and heated from below. It is shown that the transition from the kinematic mode to the full dynamo mode is accompanied by a decrease in the magnetic energy of the system. The hydrodynamic helicity changes its sign by height and has the same sign for all scales. The current and magnetic helicities also have the dipole form of symmetry in the physical space; however, their sign at small and large scales is different—the so-called effect of separation in scales. The cross-helicity has no separation in scales, but it can change the sign with time so that its averaged value is small.

  6. Helicity Injected Torus Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Aboulhosn, R. Z.; Akcay, C.; Hamp, W. T.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Sutphin, G. L.; Wrobel, J. S.; Mueller, D.; Roquemore, L.

    2006-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT--SI) spheromak experiment [Sieck, Nucl. Fusion v.46, p.254 (2006)] addresses critical issues for spheromaks, including current drive, high-beta operation, confinement quality and efficient steady-state operation. HIT--SI has a ``bow-tie'' shaped axisymmetric confinement region (major radius R=0.33 m, axial extent of 0.57 m) and two half-torus helicity injectors, one mounted on each end of the flux conserver. HIT--SI has produced spheromaks with up to 30 kA of toroidal current, using less than 4 MW of applied power, demonstrating that Steady Inductive Helicity Injection can generate and sustain discharges with modest power requirements. Fast camera images of HIT--SI discharges indicate a toroidally rotating n=1 structure, driven by the helicity injectors. The direction of the toroidal current is determined by the direction of rotation of the driven n=1. Measured surface and internal magnetic fields in HIT--SI discharges are consistent with that of the true 3D Taylor state, including the injectors. Recent HIT--SI physics studies, diagnostic improvements and machine upgrades will also be summarized.

  7. Formation of impeller-like helical DNA–silica complexes by polyamines induced chiral packing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ben; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2012-01-01

    The helicity of DNA and its long-range chiral packing are widespread phenomena; however, the packing mechanism remains poorly understood both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report the extraordinary DNA chiral self-assembly by silica mineralization, together with circular dichroism measurements and electron microscopy studies on the structure and morphology of the products. Mg2+ ion and diethylenetriamine were found to induce right- and left-handed chiral DNA packing with two-dimensional-square p4mm mesostructures, respectively, to give corresponding enantiomeric impeller-like helical DNA–silica complexes. Moreover, formation of macroscopic impeller-like helical architectures depends on the types of polyamines and co-structure-directing agents and pH values of reaction solution. It has been suggested that interaction strength between negatively charged DNA phosphate strands and positively charged counterions may be the key factor for the induction of DNA packing handedness. PMID:24098845

  8. Synthesis, structure, and electrochemistry and magnetic properties of a novel 1D homochiral MnIII(5-Brsalen) coordination polymer with left-handed helical character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dapeng; Yu, Naisen; Zhao, Haiyan; Liu, Dedi; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhenghua; Liu, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    A novel homochiral manganese (III) Mn(5-Brsalen) coordination polymer with left-handed helical character by spontaneous resolution on crystallization by using Mn(5-Brsalen) and 4,4-bipyridine, [MnIII(5-Brsalen)(4,4-bipy)]·ClO4·CH3OH (1) (4,4-bipy = 4,4-bipyridine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. In compound 1, each manganese(III) anion is six-coordinate octahedral being bonded to four atoms of 5-Brsalen ligand in an equatorial plane and two nitrogen atoms from a 4,4-bipyridine ligand in axial positions. The structure of compound 1 can be described a supramolecular 2D-like structure which was formed by the intermolecular π-stacking interactions between the neighboring chains of the aromatic rings of 4,4-bipyridine and 5-Brsalen molecules. UV-vis absorption spectrum, electrochemistry and magnetic properties of the compound 1 have also been studied.

  9. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a helical ribbon polymer based on dimeric manganese(II) subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling-Yun; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Sun, Xian-Zhong; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shou-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2004-07-01

    One mixed-ligand complex of [Mn 2(mpa) 2(2,2'-bpy) 2] n ( 1) (mpa= m-phthalate and 2,2'-bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) has been synthesized and structurally established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It consists of one-dimensional ribbons featuring carboxylate-bridged dinuclear units. The one-dimensional ribbons are assembled into three-dimensional networks by π-π stacking interactions. It was stable in air up to ca. 245 °C. The magnetic measurements suggest that the polymer gives weak antiferromagnetic behavior.

  10. Mesostructured gamma-Al(2)O(3) with a lathlike framework morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaorong; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2002-10-16

    A novel three-step assembly pathway is reported for the formation of a mesostructured alumina with framework pore walls made of crystalline, lathlike gamma-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles. In the initial supramolecular assembly step of the pathway a mesostructured alumina with a wormhole framework morphology and amorphous pore walls is assembled through the hydrolysis of Al(13) oligocations and hydrated aluminum cations in the presence of a nonionic diblock or triblock poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant as the structure-directing porogen. The walls of the initial mesostructure are then transformed in a second hydrolysis step at a higher temperature to a surfactant-boehmite mesophase, denoted MSU-S/B, with a lathlike framework made of boehmite nanoparticles. A final thermal reaction step topochemically converts the intermediate boehmitic mesophase to a mesostructure with crystalline gamma-Al(2)O(3) pore walls, denoted MSU-gamma, with retention of the lathlike framework morphology. The boehmitic MSU-S/B intermediates formed from the chloride salts of aluminum incorporate chloride anions into the mesostructure. Chloride ion incorporation tends to disorder the nanoparticle assembly process, leading to a broadening of the slit-shaped framework pores in the final MSU-gamma phases and to the introduction of intra- and interparticle textural mesopores. However, the well-ordered MSU-gamma phases made from aluminum nitrate as the preferred aluminum reagent exhibit narrow framework pore size distributions and average pore sizes that are independent of the surfactant size and packing parameter, in accord with a lathlike framework assembled from nanoparticles of regular size and connectivity. The high surface areas ( approximately 300-350 m(2)/g) and pore volumes ( approximately 0.45-0.75 cm(3)/g) provided by these mesostructured forms of gamma-Al(2)O(3) should be useful in materials and catalytic applications where the availability of surface Lewis acid sites and the dispersion of

  11. Helical channel design and technology for cooling of muon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K; Derbenev, Y.S.; Johnson, R.P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2010-08-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  12. Helical Channel Design and Technology for Cooling of Muon Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Johnson, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  13. Helical Channel Design and Technology for Cooling of Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Johnson, R. P.

    2010-11-04

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  14. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  15. Small-angle polarized neutron scattering study of the mesostructure of phase precipitates in the steel P91 after heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runov, V. V.; Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Runova, M. K.; Sumin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the analysis of the mesostructure of phase precipitates formed in the steel P91 during heat treatment in the temperature range of 600-820°C after quenching at 1050°C for 30 min. Measurements have been performed by the small-angle polarized neutron scattering (SAPNS) method with the separation of nuclear-magnetic interference scattering. The characteristic sizes of the phases precipitated during heat treatment have been determined to be in the range of 150-450 Å. It has been demonstrated that the method is highly effective for solving problems of this class, which is based on the possibility to separate and investigate nuclear-magnetic contrast scattering against the background of the total nuclear and magnetic small-angle scattering.

  16. New Exact Relations for Helicities in Hall Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Supratik; Galtier, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Hall magnetohydrodynamics is a mono-fluid plasma model appropriate for probing Final{some of the} physical processes (other than pure kinetic effects) at length scales smaller than the scales of standard MHD. In sub-ionic space plasma turbulence (e.g. the solar wind) this fluid model has been proved to be useful. Three-dimensional incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) possesses three inviscid invariants which are the total energy, the magnetic helicity and the generalized helicity. In this presentation, we would like to discuss new exact relations for helicities (magnetic helicities and generalized helicities) which are derived for homogeneous stationary (not necessarily isotropic) Hall MHD turbulence (and also for its inertialess electron MHD limit) in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers. The universal laws are written only in terms of mixed second-order structure functions, i.e. the scalar product of two different increments and are written simply as ηM = di < δ ( {b} × {j}) \\cdot δ {b} >, with ηM the average magnetic helicity flux rate, {b} the magnetic field, {j} the current and ± ηG = < δ ( {v} × {Ω} ) \\cdot δ {Ω} > , with ηM the average generalized helicity flux rate, {v} the fluid velocity and {Ω} = {b} + dI {ω} being the generalized helicity where ω is simply the fluid vorticity ( = nabla × {v}). It provides, therefore, a direct measurement of the dissipation rates for the corresponding helicities even in case of an anisotropic plasma turbulence. This study shows that the generalized helicity cascade is strongly linked to the left polarized fluctuations while the magnetic helicity cascade is linked to the right polarized fluctuations. The newly derived relations also show that like energy, a non-zero helicity flux can only be associated to a departure of Beltrami flow state. {Reference} S. Banerjee & S. Galtier, {Chiral Exact Relations for Helicities in Hall Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence} (submitted).

  17. Enhanced helical swimming in Boger fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, Francisco; Mendez-Rojano, Rodrigo; Zenit, Roberto; Lauga, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We conduct experiments with force-free magnetically-driven helical swimmers in Newtonian and viscoelastic (Boger) fluids. In order assess the effect of viscoelasticity on the swimming performance, we conduct experiments for swimmers with different helical tail geometries. We use helices with the same wave length and total length but vary the angle of the helix. As previously reported by the computational study of Spagniole and collaborators, we found that the swimming performance can either increase, decrease or remain unchanged, depending on the geometry of the tail. With the right geometry, the enhancement can be up to a factor of two.

  18. Helicity oscillations of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, Alexandra; Kartavtsev, Alexander; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-06-01

    The helicity of a Dirac neutrino with mass m evolves under the influence of a B field because it has a magnetic dipole moment proportional to m . Moreover, it was recently shown that a polarized or anisotropic medium engenders the same effect for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Because a B field polarizes a background medium, it instigates helicity oscillations even for Majorana neutrinos unless the medium is symmetric between matter and antimatter. Motivated by these observations, we review the impact of a B field and of an anisotropic or polarized medium on helicity oscillations for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos from the common perspective of in-medium dispersion.

  19. HELICITY CONSERVATION IN NONLINEAR MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Zhang, H.; Kuzanyan, K. M.

    2013-05-01

    It is believed that magnetic helicity conservation is an important constraint on large-scale astrophysical dynamos. In this paper, we study a mean-field solar dynamo model that employs two different formulations of the magnetic helicity conservation. In the first approach, the evolution of the averaged small-scale magnetic helicity is largely determined by the local induction effects due to the large-scale magnetic field, turbulent motions, and the turbulent diffusive loss of helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that the typical strength of the large-scale magnetic field generated by the dynamo is much smaller than the equipartition value for the magnetic Reynolds number 10{sup 6}. This is the so-called catastrophic quenching (CQ) phenomenon. In the literature, this is considered to be typical for various kinds of solar dynamo models, including the distributed-type and the Babcock-Leighton-type dynamos. The problem can be resolved by the second formulation, which is derived from the integral conservation of the total magnetic helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that magnetic helicity propagates with the dynamo wave from the bottom of the convection zone to the surface. This prevents CQ because of the local balance between the large-scale and small-scale magnetic helicities. Thus, the solar dynamo can operate in a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers up to 10{sup 6}.

  20. REPRODUCTION OF THE OBSERVED TWO-COMPONENT MAGNETIC HELICITY IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE BY A SUPERPOSITION OF PARALLEL AND OBLIQUE ALFVEN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Yao Shuo

    2012-04-10

    The angular distribution of the normalized reduced magnetic helicity density ({sigma} r{sub m}) in solar wind turbulence reveals two components of distinct polarity in different angle ranges. This kind of two-component {sigma}{sup r}{sub m} may indicate the possible wave modes and power spectral densities (PSDs) of the turbulent fluctuations. Here we model the measured angular distribution of {sigma}{sup r}{sub m} by assuming a PSD distribution for Alfven fluctuations in wavevector space, and then fit the model results to the observations by adjusting the pattern of the PSD distribution. It is found that the two-component form of the PSD, which has a major and minor component close to k and k{sub ||}, respectively, seems to be responsible for the observed two-component {sigma}{sup r}{sub m}. On the other hand, both an isotropic PSD and a PSD with only a single component bending toward k fail to reproduce the observations. Moreover, it is shown that the effect of gradual balance between outward and inward wave-energy fluxes with decreasing spatial scale needs to be considered in order to reproduce the observed diminishing of |{sigma}{sup r}{sub m}| at shorter scales. Therefore, we suggest that the observed two-component {sigma}{sup r}{sub m} in the solar wind turbulence may be due to a superposition of Alfven waves with quasi-perpendicular (major part) and quasi-parallel (minor part) propagation. The waves seem to become gradually balanced toward shorter scales.

  1. Theory of helical electron beams in gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kuftin, A.N.; Lygin, V.K.; Manuilov, V.N.; Raisky, B.V.; Solujanova, E.A.; Tsimring, S.E.

    1993-04-01

    Helical electron beams (HEB) with disturbed axial symmetry of currents density and HEB with locking electrons in magnetic trap are described. The theory of magnetron injection gun (MIG) in space-charge limited current is developed. Systems on permanent magnets forming HEB are considered. 30 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    DOEpatents

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-06

    The present invention generates stellarator fields having favorable properties (magnetic well and large rotational transform) by a simple coil system consisting only of unlinked planar non-circular coils. At large rotational transform toroidal effects on magnetic well and rotational transform are small and can be ignored. We do so herein, specializing in straight helical systems.

  3. Bioinspired helical microswimmers based on vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Feng, Xiaomiao; Pei, Allen; Kane, Christopher R; Tam, Ryan; Hennessy, Camille; Wang, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Plant-based bioinspired magnetically propelled helical microswimmers are described. The helical microstructures are derived from spiral water-conducting vessels of different plants, harnessing the intrinsic biological structures of nature. Geometric variables of the spiral vessels, such as the helix diameter and pitch, can be controlled by mechanical stretching for the precise fabrication and consistent performance of helical microswimmers. Xylem vessels of a wide variety of different plants have been evaluated for the consistency and reproducibility of their helical parameters. Sequential deposition of thin Ti and Ni layers directly on the spiral vessels, followed by dicing, leads to an extremely simple and cost-efficient mass-production of functional helical microswimmers. The resulting plant-based magnetic microswimmers display efficient propulsion, with a speed of over 250 μm/s, as well as powerful locomotion in biological media such as human serum. The influence of actuation frequencies on the swimming velocity is investigated. Such use of plant vessels results in significant savings in the processing costs and provides an extremely simple, cost-effective fabrication route for the large-scale production of helical magnetic swimmers. PMID:24283342

  4. Mesostructured tin oxide as sensitive material for C(2)H(5)OH sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-De; Ma, Chun-Lai; Wu, Xing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Heng-De

    2002-07-01

    Mesostructured tin oxide with high specific surface area was synthesized using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB: CH(3)(CH(2))(15)N(+)(CH(3))(3)Br(-)) as the organic template and hydrous tin chloride (SnCl(4).5H(2)O) and NH(4)OH as the inorganic precursors under acidic conditions at ambient temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and N(2)-sorption isotherms were used to characterize the mesostructured tin oxide that was formed at room temperature as well as calcined at different temperature. The surface area of mesostructured tin oxide calcined at 400 degrees C is 136 m(2) g(-1). The indirect heating sensor using this material as sensitive body was fabricated on an alumna tube with Au electrodes and platinum wires. Electrical and sensing properties of such a sensor were investigated. It was found that the mesostructured tin oxide with high surface area had higher sensitivity to C(2)H(5)OH and selectivity to gasoline than commercial sample of polycrystalline tin(IV) oxide. PMID:18968691

  5. Mesostructured SBA-3 silica containing Reichardt's dye as an optical ammonia sensor.

    PubMed

    Onida, Barbara; Borello, Luisa; Fiorilli, Sonia; Bonelli, Barbara; Areán, C Otero; Garrone, Edoardo

    2004-11-01

    Mesostructured SBA-3 silica containing Reichardt's dye is shown to give a reversible optical response to gaseous ammonia, with a response time of a few seconds and an intensity proportional to the ammonia partial pressure, which are desirable properties for gas sensing. PMID:15514833

  6. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-01-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos (2013) to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the system. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of, for example, a bipolar active region. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, coronal loops having opposite helicity do not reconnect, whereas loops having the same sense of helicity do reconnect. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  7. Two-fluid and finite Larmor radius effects on helicity evolution in a plasma pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during nonlinear relaxation of a driven-damped plasma pinch is compared in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics and two-fluid models with and without the ion gyroviscous stress tensor. Magnetic energy and helicity are supplied via a boundary electric field which initially balances the resistive dissipation, and the plasma undergoes multiple relaxation events during the nonlinear evolution. The magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy over each event, which is short compared with the global resistive diffusion time. The magnetic energy decreases by roughly 1.5% of its initial value over a relaxation event, while the magnetic helicity changes by at most 0.2% of the initial value. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in low-β pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1% between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution. The cross helicity is found to change appreciably due to the first-order finite Larmor radius effects which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The plasma current evolves towards the flat parallel current state predicted by Taylor relaxation theory but does not achieve it. Plasma flow develops significant structure for two-fluid models, and the flow perpendicular to the magnetic field is much more substantial than the flow along it.

  8. Tokamak Startup Using Point-Source dc Helicity Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Redd, A. J.; Sontag, A. C.

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  9. Tokamak startup using point-source dc helicity injection.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Redd, A J; Sontag, A C

    2009-06-01

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation. PMID:19658871

  10. Helicity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    Ideal fluid flow conserves a special quantity known as helicity, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. Helicity can be understood as a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines of the flow, providing an important geometric tool to study diverse physical systems such as turbulent fluids and plasmas. Since superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, a natural question arises: Is there an extra conserved quantity akin to helicity in superfluids? We address the question of a ''superfluid helicity'' theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.

  11. Synthesis of Mesostructured Copper Sulfide by Cation Exchange and Liquid Crystal Templating

    SciTech Connect

    Lubeck, C R; Doyle, F M; Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Han, T Y

    2005-08-01

    The development of synthetic pathways to yield advanced functional materials is an important aspect of materials science. In particular, the ability to control and manipulate the chemical composition and structure of inorganic nanomaterials is highly desirable. Two synthetic approaches which show great promise for producing the next generation of functional inorganic nanomaterials are (1) templating of supramolecular assemblies and (2) ion exchange within nanostructured inorganic solids to manipulate chemical composition. Templating of supramolecular assemblies of surfactants and amphiphilic polymers has already proven to be a powerful technique in synthesizing various inorganic structures. Namely, numerous examples of mesostructured metal oxides (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}, etc.) have been synthesized by templating the liquid crystalline phases of amphiphilic polymers and surfactants (i.e. vesicles, 2D and 3D hexagonal and cubic phases, etc.) with inorganic precursors, resulting in the formation of highly ordered inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Although the templating of supramolecular assemblies has been successful in generating highly ordered mesostructured metal oxides, there are only a few examples of non-oxidic mesostructured inorganic materials. The recent developments of ion exchange within nanoparticles offer a promising approach to generating novel nanostructured inorganic materials with unique chemical compositions. Konenkamp et al. and Alivisatos et al. have successfully utilized the ion exchange methods to fully transform the chemical composition of simple nanostructured inorganic materials while retaining their shapes. Although the exact mechanism by which the ions exchange while retaining the overall structure is still unclear, this approach combined with templating of supramolecular assemblies can provide a potent technique for obtaining highly ordered inorganic materials with unique structures and chemical compositions. Herein, we

  12. Structural and diffusion characterizations of steam-stable mesostructured zeolitic UL-ZSM-5 materials.

    PubMed

    Vinh-Thang, Hoang; Huang, Qinglin; Ungureanu, Adrian; Eić, Mladen; Trong-On, Do; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2006-05-01

    A series of mesoporous UL-ZSM-5 materials (Si/Al = 50) with different micro- and mesoporosity as well as crystallinity was prepared following the procedure proposed in one of our recent studies (Trong-On, D.; Kaliaguine, S. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 3248-3251. Trong-On, D.; Kaliaguine, S. U.S. Patent 6,669,924, B1, 2003). These materials have zeolitic structure in the form of nanoparticles intergrown in the walls of the amorphous wormhole-like aluminosilicate mesopores of Al-Meso-50, which was used as a precursor in the synthesis. The structure, crystallinity, and textural properties of the synthesized materials, as well as a reference ZSM-5 zeolite sample, were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning electron microscoy (SEM) analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 27Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption techniques. The acid properties were examined by FTIR of adsorbed pyridine. UL-ZSM-5 materials were shown to be highly hydrothermally stable. The diffusion of two C7 hydrocarbons, i.e., n-heptane and toluene, in four UL-ZSM-5 materials with different microporosities, related acidities, and crystallinities were investigated using the zero-length column (ZLC) method. Furthermore, the wormhole-like mesostructured aluminosilicate precursor (Al-Meso-50) and a reference MFI zeolite sample were also investigated using the same technique. A theoretical model considering a combination of mesopore diffusion (with surface slip in the main channels) with an activated, mainly surface diffusion mechanism in the intrawall biporous structure, was proposed and employed to interpret the experimental ZLC results. A classical Knudsen type of diffusion was replaced by an activated surface slip type of diffusion mechanism in the mesopores. The transport of n-heptane in UL-ZSM-5 materials was found to be mainly controlled by mesopore diffusion in the main

  13. Investigating the mesostructure of ordered porous silica nanocomposites by transmission electron microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bullita, S.; Casula, M. F.; Piludu, M.; Falqui, A.; Carta, D.; Corrias, A.

    2014-10-21

    Nanocomposites made out of FeCo alloy nanocrystals supported onto pre-formed mesoporous ordered silica which features a cubic arrangement of pores (SBA-16) were investigated. Information on the effect of the nanocrystals on the mesostructure (i.e. pore arrangement symmetry, pore size, and shape) were deduced by a multitechnique approach including N2 physisorption, low angle X-ray diffraction, and Transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques are required, however, to gain direct evidence on key compositional and textural features of the nanocomposites. In particular, electron tomography and microtomy techniques make clear that the FeCo nanocrystals are located within the pores of the SBA-16 silica, and that the ordered mesostructure of the nanocomposite is retained throughout the observed specimen.

  14. Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell reminiscent of thermodynamically driven grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayerlein, Bernd; Zaslansky, Paul; Dauphin, Yannicke; Rack, Alexander; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the interaction between mineral precursors and organic components leading to material formation and structuring in biomineralizing systems. The mesostructure of biological materials, such as the outer calcitic shell of molluscs, is characterized by many parameters and the question arises as to what extent they all are, or need to be, controlled biologically. Here, we analyse the three-dimensional structure of the calcite-based prismatic layer of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, using high-resolution synchrotron-based microtomography. We show that the evolution of the layer is statistically self-similar and, remarkably, its morphology and mesostructure can be fully predicted using classical materials science theories for normal grain growth. These findings are a fundamental step in understanding the constraints that dictate the shape of these biogenic minerals and shed light on how biological organisms make use of thermodynamics to generate complex morphologies.

  15. Mesostructural Bi-Mo-O catalyst: correct structure leading to high performance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Peng, Bo; Peng, Luming; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Structure-activity relationship has been one of the main topics of research on catalysts all the time. Component and structure are the two moieties governing the performance of solid materials as catalysts. Multicomponent bismuth molybdates are well known catalysts for propene oxidation but pure crystalline phases of bismuth molybdate are inactive for the reaction. We have designed mesostructural Bi-Mo-O catalyst with pure bismuth molybdate nanocrystals attached to molybdenum oxide nanobelts and found it is a high performance catalyst for the reaction, though the two domains themselves are inactive. The strongly expitaxial interaction between the two domains causes the lattice shrinkage and distortion of the bismuth molybdate nanocrystals and extremely promotes their catalytic activity toward propene oxidation while keeping high selectivity at the same time. The results are instructive for design of nano oxide catalysts with mesostructures leading to high performance. PMID:24121515

  16. Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell reminiscent of thermodynamically driven grain growth.

    PubMed

    Bayerlein, Bernd; Zaslansky, Paul; Dauphin, Yannicke; Rack, Alexander; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the interaction between mineral precursors and organic components leading to material formation and structuring in biomineralizing systems. The mesostructure of biological materials, such as the outer calcitic shell of molluscs, is characterized by many parameters and the question arises as to what extent they all are, or need to be, controlled biologically. Here, we analyse the three-dimensional structure of the calcite-based prismatic layer of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, using high-resolution synchrotron-based microtomography. We show that the evolution of the layer is statistically self-similar and, remarkably, its morphology and mesostructure can be fully predicted using classical materials science theories for normal grain growth. These findings are a fundamental step in understanding the constraints that dictate the shape of these biogenic minerals and shed light on how biological organisms make use of thermodynamics to generate complex morphologies. PMID:25326825

  17. Distortions in protein helices.

    PubMed

    Geetha, V

    1996-08-01

    alpha-helices are the most common secondary structures in observed proteins. However, they are not always found in ideal helical conformation and they often exhibit structural distortions. Quantification of these irregularities become essential in understanding the packing of helices and therefore, their role in the functional characteristics of the protein. The backbone torsions phi, psi are of limited utility in this endeavor, because distorted helices often maintain the backbone geometry. The local compensatory effects are responsible for the preservation of the entire hydrogen bond network of the helical stretch. Earlier descriptions of helical linearity and curvature rest mostly on approximation, thus motivating the search for a better method for understanding and quantifying helical irregularities. We developed a method which involves the rotation and superposition of identical repeating units of the protein by the quaternion method. The set of parameters derived from the rotation-superposition algorithm helps in identifying the bends and kinks which are not necessarily induced by unusual amino acids like proline. The quantification of irregularities of observed helices might lead to a better understanding of their packing interactions. PMID:8842770

  18. A Helical Stairway Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We answer a geometric question that was raised by the carpenter in charge of erecting helical stairs in a 10-story hospital. The explanation involves the equations of lines, planes, and helices in three-dimensional space. A brief version of the question is this: If A and B are points on a cylinder and the line segment AB is projected radially onto…

  19. Emerging double helical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-07-01

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on `bottom-up' and `top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  20. Helicity and singular structures in fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, H. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Helicity is, like energy, a quadratic invariant of the Euler equations of ideal fluid flow, although, unlike energy, it is not sign definite. In physical terms, it represents the degree of linkage of the vortex lines of a flow, conserved when conditions are such that these vortex lines are frozen in the fluid. Some basic properties of helicity are reviewed, with particular reference to (i) its crucial role in the dynamo excitation of magnetic fields in cosmic systems; (ii) its bearing on the existence of Euler flows of arbitrarily complex streamline topology; (iii) the constraining role of the analogous magnetic helicity in the determination of stable knotted minimum-energy magnetostatic structures; and (iv) its role in depleting nonlinearity in the Navier-Stokes equations, with implications for the coherent structures and energy cascade of turbulence. In a final section, some singular phenomena in low Reynolds number flows are briefly described. PMID:24520175

  1. Heteroepitaxial formation of aligned mesostructured silica films with large structural periodicities from mixed surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Saeko; Kanno, Yosuke; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Kuroda, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Hirokatsu

    2013-06-11

    Liquid-crystal phases consisting of cylindrical micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers and silica precursors are epitaxially built up on aligned surface micelles formed by an alkyl-PEO surfactant, Brij56, irrespective of the large difference in the intrinsic structural periodicities resulting in the formation of fully aligned mesostructured silica films with large lattice constants. Brij56 works as an alignment controlling agent on rubbing-treated polyimide through selective adsorption from a precursor solution containing the two surfactants, a block copolymer and Brij56, through strong hydrophobic interactions to form an anisotropic surface micelle structure. Aligned mesostructured silica layers with larger periodicities, which dominantly consist of block copolymers, form on these aligned surface micelles by gradually changing the vertical periodicity keeping the lateral intermicelle distance constant. This can be regarded as a kind of heteroepitaxy because the lattice constant at the surface is different from that of the bulk of the film. On the basis of this new concept, highly aligned mesostructured silica films with structural periodicities as large as 10 nm are successfully formed, which has never been achieved when the block copolymers are used alone as the structure-directing agent. The periodicity of the aligned films can precisely be controlled by an appropriate choice of block copolymers and the mixing ratio of the two surfactants, which increases the opportunity for applications of these films with highly anisotropic mesoscale structure. PMID:23721098

  2. Modelling of magnetic satellite intensity in the neutron diffraction of an incommensurate helical structure: NiBr 2 and Ni 0.91Fe 0.09Br 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, P.; Moore, M. W.; Wilkinson, C.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.

    1985-05-01

    We describe the application of a neutron multidetector diffractometer (D16, I.L.L.) to the study of the incommensurate helical magnetic structure of pure and Fe 2+-doped single crystals of NiBr 2. Use of the multidetector permits detailed mapping of satellite intensity around 003 M arising from three magnetic domains, from which the magnitude and direction of the helix propagation vector τ are deduced. τ moves from [110] (0.0138(5) Å -1) in NiBr 2 to [100] (0.0151(5) Å -1) in Ni 0.91 Fe 0.09Br 2. The measured intensity profiles in (2θ, ω, v space are fitted to model profiles constructed by superimposing profiles measured at 003 M in the collinear phase at 28 K on a ring with radius τ, and optimizing the weighting of intensity around the ring.

  3. Filament Channel Formation by Helicity Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.

    2013-12-01

    A major unexplained feature of the solar atmosphere is the accumulation of magnetic shear, in the form of filament channels, at photospheric polarity inversion lines (PILs). In addition to free energy, this shear also represents magnetic helicity, which is conserved under reconnection. Consequently, the observations raise the question: Why is helicity observed to be concentrated along PILs? Preliminary results of 3D MHD simulations using the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS) are presented that support the magnetic-helicity condensation model of filament-channel formation (Antiochos 2013). In this work, we address the problem of filament-channel formation by considering supergranular twisting of a quasi-potential flux system, bounded by a PIL and containing a coronal hole (CH). The magnetic helicity injected by small-scale photospheric motions is shown to inverse-cascade up to the largest allowable scales that define the closed flux system: the PIL and the CH boundary. This, in effect, produces field lines that are both sheared and smooth and, in agreement with Antiochos (2013), are sheared in opposite senses at the PIL and the CH. We present a detailed analysis of our simulation results and discuss their implications for observations.

  4. Exabyte helical scan devices at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Kaczar, K.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Votava, M.; White, V.; Hockney, G.; Bracker, S.; de Miranda, J.M.

    1989-05-01

    Exabyte 8mm helical scan storage devices are in use at Fermilab in a number of applications. These devices have the functionality of magnetic tape, but use media which is much more economical and much more dense than conventional 9 track tape. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Solar flares controlled by helicity conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliner, Erast B.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.

    1995-01-01

    The energy release in a class of solar flares is studied on the assumption that during burst events in highly conducting plasma the magnetic helicity of plasma is approximately conserved. The available energy release under a solar flare controlled by the helicity conservation is shown to be defined by the magnetic structure of the associated prominence. The approach throws light on some solar flare enigmas: the role of the associated prominence. The approach throws light on some solar flare enigmas: the role of the associated prominences; the discontinuation of the reconnection of magnetic lines long before the complete reconnection of participated fields occurs; the existence of quiet prominences which, in spite of their usual optical appearance, do not initiate any flare events; the small energy release under a solar flare in comparison with the stockpile of magnetic energy in surrounding fields. The predicted scale of the energy release is in a fair agreement with observations.

  6. Chiral transport of neutrinos in supernovae: Neutrino-induced fluid helicity and helical plasma instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    Chirality of neutrinos modifies the conventional kinetic theory and hydrodynamics, leading to unusual chiral transport related to quantum anomalies in field theory. We argue that these corrections have new phenomenological consequences for hot and dense neutrino gases, especially in core-collapse supernovae. We find that the neutrino density can be converted to the fluid helicity through the chiral vortical effect. This fluid helicity effectively acts as a chiral chemical potential for electrons via the momentum exchange with neutrinos and induces a "helical plasma instability" that generates a strong helical magnetic field. This provides a new mechanism for converting the gravitational energy released by the core collapse to the electromagnetic energy and potentially explains the origin of magnetars. The other possible applications of the neutrino chiral transport theory are also discussed.

  7. Two-impurity helical Majorana problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Erik; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    We predict experimentally accessible signatures for helical Majorana fermions in a topological superconductor by coupling to two quantum dots in the local moment regime (corresponding to spin-1 /2 impurities). Taking into account Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions mediated by bulk and edge modes, where the latter cause a long-range antiferromagnetic Ising coupling, we formulate and solve the low-energy theory for this two-impurity helical Majorana problem. In particular, we show that the long-time spin dynamics after a magnetic field quench displays weakly damped oscillations with universal quality factor.

  8. Nanocasting synthesis of In2O3 with appropriate mesostructured ordering and enhanced gas-sensing property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Hao, Haoran; Ji, Huiming; Li, Xiaolei; Cai, Shu; Zheng, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous In2O3 gas-sensing materials with controlled mesostructured morphology and high thermal stability have been successfully synthesized via a nanocasting method in conjunction with the container effect. The mesostructured ordering, as well as the particle size, crystallinity and pore size distribution have been proved to vary in a large range by using the XRD, SAXRD, SEM, TEM, and nitrogen physisorption techniques. The control of the mesostructured morphology was carried out by tuning the transportation rate of indium precursor in template channel resulting from the different escape rate of the decomposed byproducts via the varied container opening and shapes. The particular relation between the mesostructured ordering and gas sensing property of mesoporous In2O3 was examined in detail. It was found that the ordered mesoporous In2O3 with appropriate mesostructured morphology exhibited significantly improved ethanol sensitivity, response and selectivity performances in comparison with the other ordered mesoporous In2O3, which benefits from the large surface area with enough sensing active sites, proper pore distribution for sufficient gas diffusion, and appropriate particle size for effective electron depletion. The resulting sensing behaviors lead to a better understanding of designing and using such mesoporous metal oxides for a number of gas-sensing applications. PMID:24308308

  9. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G; Kazakevich, G M; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T; Yoshikawa, C; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V S; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  10. Higher-order harmonic effect of a three-dimensional helical wiggler on the Larmor rotation of the equilibrium electrons in a free-electron laser with a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shi-Chang

    2013-10-15

    Analytical formulas of the Larmor rotation are derived in detail for the equilibrium electrons motion in a free-electron laser with combination of a three-dimensional (3-D) helical wiggler and a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field. Generally, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a reversed guide field is much smaller than that in a positive guide field. At non-resonance, a helical orbit governed by the zero-order component of a 3-D wiggler field could hold; meanwhile, the higher-harmonic effect definitely influences those electrons with off-axis guiding centers and induces the electron-beam spreads. At resonance, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a positive guide field has a singularity with a limit tending to infinite, which causes all the electrons to hit the waveguide wall before the exit of the wiggler. Although Larmor-radius singularity does not exist in the configuration of a reversed guide field, at anti-resonance, the first-order harmonic of a 3-D wiggler field induces a transverse displacement which rapidly grows in proportion to a square of time, and leads part of the electron beam to hit the waveguide wall before reaching the wiggler exit, which depends on the specific parameters of the individual electrons. The analytical conclusions derived in the present paper are examined by the nonlinear simulations and the experimental observation. Disagreement with the previous literatures is discussed in detail.

  11. S-duality and helicity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, Kitran; Terning, John

    2016-03-01

    We examine interacting Abelian theories at low energies and show that holomorphically normalized photon helicity amplitudes transform into dual amplitudes under SL(2, {Z} ) as modular forms with weights that depend on the number of positive and negative helicity photons and on the number of internal photon lines. Moreover, canonically normalized helicity amplitudes transform by a phase, so that even though the amplitudes are not duality invariant, their squares are duality invariant. We explicitly verify the duality transformation at one loop by comparing the amplitudes in the case of an electron and the dyon that is its SL(2, {Z} ) image, and extend the invariance of squared amplitudes order by order in perturbation theory. We demonstrate that S-duality is a property of all low-energy effective Abelian theories with electric and/or magnetic charges and see how the duality generically breaks down at high energies.

  12. Biot-Savart helicity versus physical helicity: A topological description of ideal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahihi, Taliya; Eshraghi, Homayoon

    2014-08-01

    For an isentropic (thus compressible) flow, fluid trajectories are considered as orbits of a family of one parameter, smooth, orientation-preserving, and nonsingular diffeomorphisms on a compact and smooth-boundary domain in the Euclidian 3-space which necessarily preserve a finite measure, later interpreted as the fluid mass. Under such diffeomorphisms the Biot-Savart helicity of the pushforward of a divergence-free and tangent to the boundary vector field is proved to be conserved and since these circumstances present an isentropic flow, the conservation of the "Biot-Savart helicity" is established for such flows. On the other hand, the well known helicity conservation in ideal flows which here we call it "physical helicity" is found to be an independent constant with respect to the Biot-Savart helicity. The difference between these two helicities reflects some topological features of the domain as well as the velocity and vorticity fields which is discussed and is shown for simply connected domains the two helicities coincide. The energy variation of the vorticity field is shown to be formally the same as for the incompressible flow obtained before. For fluid domains consisting of several disjoint solid tori, at each time, the harmonic knot subspace of smooth vector fields on the fluid domain is found to have two independent base sets with a special type of orthogonality between these two bases by which a topological description of the vortex and velocity fields depending on the helicity difference is achieved since this difference is shown to depend only on the harmonic knot parts of velocity, vorticity, and its Biot-Savart vector field. For an ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow three independent constant helicities are reviewed while the helicity of magnetic potential is generalized for non-simply connected domains by inserting a special harmonic knot field in the dynamics of the magnetic potential. It is proved that the harmonic knot part of the vorticity

  13. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  14. Hierarchical Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mesostructures by Crystallization-Driven Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Petretic, Amy; Molev, Gregory; Guerin, Gerald; Manners, Ian; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-24

    Multistep crystallization-driven self-assembly has great potential to enable the construction of sophisticated hybrid mesostructures. During the assembly procedure, each step modifies the properties of the overall structure. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of this approach by preparing polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid mesostructures. We started by growing polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFS) homopolymer crystals onto multiwalled CNTs. This first step facilitated the redispersion of the coated CNTs in both polar (2-propanol) and nonpolar (decane) solvents. In the second step of hybrid construction, a unimer solution of a PFS block copolymer was added into the PFS-CNT solution. The PFS coating on the CNT initiated the growth of elongated micelles, resulting in structures that resembled hairy caterpillars. PFS-b-P2VP (P2VP = poly-2-vinylpyridine) micelles were grown from the surface of PFS-CNT hybrids in 2-propanol, and PFS-b-PI (PI = polyisoprene) micelles were grown from these hybrids in decane. These micelles, by transmission electron microscopy were seen to have an unusual wavy kinked structure, very different from the uniform smooth structures normally formed by both block copolymers. For hybrids with PFS-b-PI micelles, cross-linking of the micelle coronas locked the whole structure in place and allowed us to use the partial oxidation of PFS components to grow metal nanoparticles in the core of these micelles. We finally investigated the influence of the corona-forming block used to grow the micelles on the wettability of films made from these mesostructures. Films formed with CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-PI micelles were superhydrophobic (contact angle, 152°). In contrast, the surface of the films was much more hydrophilic (contact angle, 54°) when they were prepared from CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-P2VP micelles. PMID:26418346

  15. HDS and deep HDS activity of Co/Mo/S-mesostructured synthetic clays.

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K. A.; Song, C.; Kim, J. H.; Castagnola, N.; Fernandez-Saavedra, R.; Marshall, C. L.; Schwartz, M. M.; Penn State Univ.; ICMM-CSIC

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is to identify more promising supports from synthetic clay materials to advance hydrotreating catalyst development. Silica sol can be used as the silicon-containing starting material when creating nanoporous layered silicate catalysts with a certain portion of unreacted sol particles incorporated into the final matrix. The resulting structure then has mesoporosity and a unique morphology. Hectorite-based clays have been prepared using different silica sols in order to ascertain the importance of sol characteristics on the final matrix. Several techniques have been applied to characterize the materials, including XRD, TGA, N2 porosimetry, and TEM. For hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to biphenyl was examined at 400 degrees C using CoMoS-loaded mesostructured clay supports. No hydrogenation or hydrocracking was observed with any of the clay supports. The most active clay was derived from Ludox silica sol AS-30 with an activity of 65% DBT conversion and 100% selectivity to biphenyl (BP). For comparison, a reference commercial catalyst displayed 94% BP selectivity. For deep HDS, the conversion of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene was tested at 325 and 350 degrees C. At 325 degrees C, conversions are 92% of commercial catalysts for a CoMoS-loaded mesostructured clay derived from Ludox AM-30 silica sol. A commercially available synthetic hectorite called laponite has very low activity, indicating that the unique morphology of the mesostructured clays is important. Hydrogenolysis vs. hydrogenation pathways are compared for the deep HDS reaction. HR-TEM of the most active deep HDS catalyst revealed a multilayered MoS2 morphology.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences are observed to form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the corona. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of a bipolar active region, for example. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, opposite helicity twists do not lead to significant reconnection in such a coronal system, whereas twists with the same sense of helicity do produce substantial reconnection. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  17. Adding helicity to inflationary magnetogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Caprini, Chiara; Sorbo, Lorenzo E-mail: sorbo@physics.umass.edu

    2014-10-01

    The most studied mechanism of inflationary magnetogenesis relies on the time-dependence of the coefficient of the gauge kinetic term F{sub μν} F{sup μν}. Unfortunately, only extremely finely tuned versions of the model can consistently generate the cosmological magnetic fields required by observations. We propose a generalization of this model, where also the pseudoscalar invariant F{sub μν}  F-tilde {sup μν} is multiplied by a time dependent function. The new parity violating term allows more freedom in tuning the amplitude of the field at the end of inflation. Moreover, it leads to a helical magnetic field that is amplified at large scales by magnetohydrodynamical processes during the radiation dominated epoch. As a consequence, our model can satisfy the observational lower bounds on fields in the intergalactic medium, while providing a seed for the galactic dynamo, if inflation occurs at an energy scale ranging from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 10} GeV. Such energy scale is well below that suggested by the recent BICEP2 result, if the latter is due to primordial tensor modes. However, the gauge field is a source of tensors during inflation and generates a spectrum of gravitational waves that can give a sizable tensor to scalar ratio r=O(0.2) even if inflation occurs at low energies. This system therefore evades the Lyth bound. For smaller values of r, lower values of the inflationary energy scale are required. The model predicts fully helical cosmological magnetic fields and a chiral spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.

  18. The alpha dynamo parameter and measurability of helicities in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lantz, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Alpha, an important parameter in dynamo theory, is shown to be proportional to either the kinetic, current, magnetic, or velocity helicities of the fluctuating magnetic field and fluctuating velocity field. The particular helicity to which alpha is proportional depends on the assumptions used in deriving the first-order smoothed equations that describe the alpha effect. In two cases, viz., when alpha is proportional to either the magnetic helicity or velocity helicity, alpha can be determined experimentally from two-point measurements of the fluctuating fields in incompressible, homogeneous turbulence with arbitrary rotational symmetry. For the other two possibilities, alpha can be determined if the turbulence is isotropic.

  19. Dynamics of helical states in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano; Auriemma, F.; Brower, D.; Chapman, B. E.; den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D.; Lin, L.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Sarff, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal and the magnetic dynamics of quasi-single-helicity (QSH) plasmas evolve independently during the formation and sustainment of the core helical structure. At higher plasma current (and Lundquist number) MST plasmas transition from an axisymmetric multi-helicity state to a QSH state characterized by a strong core helical mode and reduced secondary mode amplitudes. Plasmas in the QSH state tend to wall-lock, often in an orientation that is unfavorable for optimized measurements of the 3D structure using MST's advanced diagnostics. Recently a technique to control the locking position through an applied resonant magnetic perturbation has been developed. Using this technique it is possible to adjust the 3D phase more optimally for specific diagnostics, to study the dynamics of the QSH structure and thermal features. The multi-chord FIR interferometer shows the presence of a density structure for the duration of the QSH state. Measurements of the time evolution of the electron temperature profile using the Thomson Scattering diagnostic reveal that the transition to QSH allows the presence of a 3D thermal structure, but this structure is intermittent. Understanding the mechanism(s) driving these dynamics is the goal of this work. Work supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  20. Spheromak Power and Helicity Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    2000-05-18

    This note addresses the division of gun power and helicity between the open line volume and the closed flux surface volume in a steady state flux core spheromak. Our assumptions are that fine scale turbulence maintains each region close to a Taylor state, {mu}{sub o}J = {lambda}B. The gun region that feeds these two volumes surrounded by a flux conserver is shown topologically below. (The actual geometry is toroidal). Flux and current from the magnetized gun flow on open lines around the entire closed surface containing the spheromak. The gun current flows down the potential gradient, the potential difference between the two ends of each line being the gun voltage. Here, the gun voltage excludes the sheath drops at each end. When these volumes have different values of {lambda} (ratio of {mu}{sub o}B{sup -2}j {center_dot} B in each region) in the open line volume V{sub 1} and the closed spheromak volume V{sub 2} the efficiency of transferring the gun power to the spheromak to sustain the ohmic loss is the {lambda}-ratio of these regions, in the limit V{sub 1} << V{sub 2}. This result follows immediately from helicity balance in that limit. Here we give an accounting of all the gun power, and do not assume a small edge (open line) region.

  1. Helical screw viscometer

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.; Chapman, R.N.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1983-06-30

    A helical screw viscometer for the measurement of the viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids comprising an elongated cylindrical container closed by end caps defining a circular cylindrical cavity within the container, a cylindrical rotor member having a helical screw or ribbon flight carried by the outer periphery thereof rotatably carried within the cavity whereby the fluid to be measured is confined in the cavity filling the space between the rotor and the container wall. The rotor member is supported by axle members journaled in the end caps, one axle extending through one end cap and connectable to a drive source. A pair of longitudinally spaced ports are provided through the wall of the container in communication with the cavity and a differential pressure meter is connected between the ports for measuring the pressure drop caused by the rotation of the helical screw rotor acting on the confined fluid for computing viscosity.

  2. The origin of the helicity hemispheric sign rule reversals in the mean-field solar-type dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.; Zhang, H.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Kuzanyan, K. M.; Gao, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Observations of proxies of the magnetic helicity in the Sun over the past two solar cycles revealed reversals of the helicity hemispheric sign rule (negative in the North and positive in the South hemispheres). We apply the mean-field solar dynamo model to study the reversals of the magnetic helicity sign for the dynamo operating in the bulk of the solar convection zone. The evolution of the magnetic helicity is governed by the conservation law. We found that the reversal of the sign of the small-scale magnetic helicity follows the dynamo wave propagating inside the convection zone. Therefore, the spatial patterns of the magnetic helicity reversals reflect the processes which contribute to generation and evolution of the large-scale magnetic fields. At the surface, the patterns of the helicity sign reversals are determined by the magnetic helicity boundary conditions at the top of the convection zone. We demonstrate the impact of fluctuations in the dynamo parameters and variability in dynamo cycle amplitude on the reversals of the magnetic helicity sign rule. The obtained results suggest that the magnetic helicity of the large-scale axisymmetric field can be treated as an additional observational tracer for the solar dynamo and it probably can be used for the solar activity forecast as well.

  3. Trend of photospheric helicity flux in active regions generating halo CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrli, Aimilia; Zuccarello, Francesco; Zuccarello, Francesca; Romano, Paolo; Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi; Spadaro, Daniele; Hood, Alan; Mackay, Duncan

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are very energetic events initiated in the solar atmosphere, re-sulting in the expulsion of magnetized plasma clouds that propagate into interplanetary space. It has been proposed that CMEs can play an important role in shedding magnetic helicity, avoiding its endless accumulation in the corona. We therefore investigated the behavior of magnetic helicity accumulation in sites where the initiation of CMEs occurred, in order to de-termine whether and how changes in magnetic helicity accumulation are temporally correlated with CME occurrence. After identifying the active regions (AR) where the CMEs were ini-tiated by means of a double cross-check based on the flaring-eruptive activity and the use of SOHO/EIT difference images, we used MDI magnetograms to calculate magnetic flux evolu-tion, magnetic helicity injection rate and magnetic helicity injection in 10 active regions that gave rise to 12 halo CMEs observed during the period February 2000 -June 2003. No unique behavior in magnetic helicity injection accompanying halo CME occurrence is found. In fact, in some cases there is an abrupt change in helicity injection timely correlated with the CME event, while in some others no significant variation is recorded. However, our analysis show that the most significant changes in magnetic flux and magnetic helicity injection are associated with impulsive CMEs rather than gradual CMEs. Moreover, the most significant changes in mag-netic helicity are observed when X-class flares or eruptive filaments occur, while the occurrence of flares of class C or M seems not to affect significantly the magnetic helicity accumulation.

  4. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.

  5. 3D hexagonal (R-3m) mesostructured nanocrystalline titania thin films : synthesis and characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. Y.; Lee, B.; Carew, D. B.; Mamak, M; Peiris, F. C.; Speakman, S.; Chopra, N.; Ozin, G. A.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Toronto; ORNL; Xerox Research Centre of Canada

    2006-01-01

    A straightforward and reproducible synthesis of crack-free large-area thin films of 3D hexagonal (R-3m) mesostructured nanocrystalline titania (meso-nc-TiO{sub 2}) using a Pluronic triblock copolymer (P123)/1-butanol templating system is described. The characterization of the films is achieved using a combination of electron microscopy (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy), grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction, and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The mesostructure of the obtained films is found to be based upon a 3D periodic array of large elliptically shaped cages with diameters around 20 nm interconnected by windows of about 5 nm in size. The mesopores of the film calcined at 300 C are very highly ordered, and the titania framework of the film has a crystallinity of 40 % being composed of 5.8 nm sized anatase crystallites. The film displays high thermal stability in that the collapse of the pore architecture is incomplete even at 600 C. The accessible surface area of 3D hexagonal meso-nc-TiO{sub 2} estimated by the absorption of methylene blue is nearly twice as large as that of 2D hexagonal meso-nc-TiO{sub 2} at the same annealing temperature.

  6. 3D HEXAGONAL (R-3M) MESOSTRUCTURED NANOCRYSTALLINE TITANIA THIN FILMS: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S Y; Lee, B; Carew, D B; Peiris, F C; Mamak, M; Speakman, Scott A; Chopra, N; Ozin, G A

    2006-01-01

    A straightforward and reproducible synthesis of crack-free large-area thin films of 3D hexagonal (R-3m) mesostructured nanocrystalline titania (meso-nc-TiO{sub 2}) using a Pluronic triblock copolymer (P123)/1-butanol templating system is described. The characterization of the films is achieved using a combination of electron microscopy (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy), grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction, and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The mesostructure of the obtained films is found to be based upon a 3D periodic array of large elliptically shaped cages with diameters around 20 nm interconnected by windows of about 5 nm in size. The mesopores of the film calcined at 300 C are very highly ordered, and the titania framework of the film has a crystallinity of 40 % being composed of 5.8 nm sized anatase crystallites. The film displays high thermal stability in that the collapse of the pore architecture is incomplete even at 600 C. The accessible surface area of 3D hexagonal meso-nc-TiO{sub 2} estimated by the absorption of methylene blue is nearly twice as large as that of 2D hexagonal meso-nc-TiO{sub 2} at the same annealing temperature.

  7. Solid-phase reaction synthesis of mesostructured tungsten disulfide material with a high specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    An, Gaojun; Lu, Changbo; Xiong, Chunhua

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} WS{sub 2} material was synthesized through solid-phase reaction. {yields} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WS{sub 4} as precursor and n-octadecylamine as template. {yields} WS{sub 2} material has high specific surface area (145.9 m{sup 2}/g). {yields} The whole preparation process is simple, convenient, green and clean. -- Abstract: A mesostructured tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) material was prepared through a solid-phase reaction utilizing ammonium tetrathiotungstate as the precursor and n-octadecylamine as the template. The as-synthesized WS{sub 2} material was characterized by X-ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Low-temperature N{sub 2} Adsorption (BET method), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The characterization results indicate that the WS{sub 2} material has the typical mesopore structure (3.7 nm) with a high specific surface area (145.9 m{sup 2}/g), and large pore volume (0.18 cm{sup 3}/g). This approach is novel, green and convenient. The plausible mechanism for the formation of the mesostructured WS{sub 2} material is discussed herein.

  8. Effect of Mesostructured Layer upon Crystalline Properties and Device Performance on Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Listorti, Andrea; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Frontera, Carlos; Roiati, Vittoria; Garcia-Andrade, Laura; Colella, Silvia; Rizzo, Aurora; Ortiz, Pablo; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fascinating characteristics of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is the retrieved obtainment of outstanding photovoltaic (PV) performances withstanding important device configuration variations. Here we have analyzed CH3NH3PbI3-xClx in planar or in mesostructured (MS) configurations, employing both titania and alumina scaffolds, fully infiltrated with perovskite material or presenting an overstanding layer. The use of the MS scaffold induces to the perovskite different structural properties, in terms of grain size, preferential orientation, and unit cell volume, in comparison to the ones of the material grown with no constraints, as we have found out by X-ray diffraction analyses. We have studied the effect of the PSC configuration on photoinduced absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence, complementary techniques that allow studying charge photogeneration and recombination. We have estimated electron diffusion length in the considered configurations observing a decrease when the material is confined in the MS scaffold with respect to a planar architecture. However, the presence of perovskite overlayer allows an overall recovering of long diffusion lengths explaining the record PV performances obtained with a device configuration bearing both the mesostructure and a perovskite overlayer. Our results suggest that performance in devices with perovskite overlayer is mainly ruled by the overlayer, whereas the mesoporous layer influences the contact properties. PMID:26263326

  9. Varied pore organization in mesostructured semiconductors based on the [SnSe4](4-) anion.

    PubMed

    Trikalitis, P N; Rangan, K K; Bakas, T; Kanatzidis, M G

    2001-04-01

    Open framework metal chalcogenide solids, with pore sizes in the nano- and mesoscale, are of potentially broad technological and fundamental interest in research areas ranging from optoelectronics to the physics of quantum confinement. Although there have been significant advances in the design and synthesis of mesostructured silicas, the construction of their non-oxidic analogues still remains a challenge. Here we describe a synthetic strategy that allows the preparation of a large class of mesoporous materials based on supramolecular assembly of tetrahedral Zintl anions [SnSe4]4- with transition metals in the presence of cetylpyridinium (CP) surfactant molecules. These mesostructured semiconducting selenide materials are of the general formulae (CP)4-2xMxSnSe4 (where 1.0 < x < 1.3; M=Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cd, Hg). The resulting materials are open framework chalcogenides and form mesophases with uniform pore size (with spacings between 35 and 40 A). The pore arrangement depends on the synthetic conditions and metal used, and include disordered wormhole, hexagonal and even cubic phases. All compounds are medium bandgap semiconductors (varying between 1.4 and 2.5 eV). We expect that such semiconducting porous networks could be used for optoelectronic, photosynthetic and photocatalytic applications. PMID:11287949

  10. The quantum Hall effect helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2015-04-16

    The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.

  11. Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

  12. Mesostructured amorphous manganese oxides: facile synthesis and highly durable elimination of low-concentration NO at room temperature in air.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanyan; Hua, Zile; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Meiying; Wang, Min; Wang, Jin; Cui, Xiangzhi; Zhang, Lingxia; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-04-01

    At a high space velocity of 120 000 mL g(-1) h(-1) and a relative humidity of 50-90%, 98% removal of 10 ppm NO has been achieved for over 237 h and no sign of deactivation was observed with mesostructured amorphous manganese oxides (AMO), due to the prevention of the catalyst active sites from deactivation. PMID:25728967

  13. Modelling of magnetic satellite intensity in the neutron diffraction of an incommensurate helical structure: NiBr 2 and Ni 0.9Fe 0.1Br 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, P.; Moore, M. W.; Wilkinson, C.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.

    1986-02-01

    We describe the application of a neutron multidetector diffractometer (D16, ILL) to study the incommensurate helical magnetic structure of pure and Fe 2+ -doped single crystals of NiBr 2. Detailed mapping of satellite intensity around (0, 0, 3/2) yields the magnitude and direction of the helix propagation vector τ. τ moves from [110] in NiBr 2 to [100] in Ni 09Fe 0.1Br 2 with only a 5% increase in magnitude. The incommensurate-commensurate transition temperature is unchanged. The measured intensity profiles in (2ϑ, ω, v) space are fitted to model profiles constructed by superimposing profiles measured in the collinear phase at 28 K on a ring with radius τ, and optimizing the weighting of intensity around the ring. Based on the models optimized for these two crystals data from single detector instruments has been analysed for a range of Ni 1-xFe xBr 2 crystals and the magnetic phase diagram derived.

  14. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  15. Growth of ordered silver nanoparticles in silica film mesostructured with a triblock copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO

    SciTech Connect

    Bois, L.; Chassagneux, F.; Parola, S.; Bessueille, F.; Battie, Y.; Destouches, N.; Boukenter, A.; Moncoffre, N.

    2009-07-15

    Elaboration of mesostructured silica films with a triblock copolymer polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide, (PEO-PPO-PEO) and controlled growth of silver nanoparticles in the mesostructure are described. The films are characterized using UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Organized arrays of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter between 5 and 8 nm have been obtained by NaBH{sub 4} reduction. The size and the repartition of silver nanoparticles are controlled by the film mesostructure. The localization of silver nanoparticles exclusively in the upper-side part of the silica-block copolymer film is evidenced by RBS experiment. On the other hand, by using a thermal method, 40 nm long silver sticks can be obtained, by diffusion and coalescence of spherical particles in the silica-block copolymer layer. In this case, migration of silver particles toward the glass substrate-film interface is shown by the RBS experiment. - Graphical abstract: Growth of silver nanoparticles in a mesostructured block copolymer F127-silica film is performed either by a chemical route involving NaBH{sub 4} reduction or by a thermal method. An array of spherical silver nanoparticles with 10 nm diameter on the upper-side of the mesostructured film or silver sticks long of 40 nm with a preferential orientation are obtained according to the method used. a: TEM image of the Fag5SiNB sample illustrating the silver nanoparticles array obtained by the chemical process; b: HR-TEM image of the Fag20Sid2 sample illustrating the silver nanosticks obtained by the thermal process.

  16. Mesostructured Hydrophobic-Oleophobic Silica Films for Sustained Functionality in Tribological Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessman, Aaron J.

    The primary goal of this research was to synthesize water- and oil-repellent coatings that offer sustained functionality and durability. Engineered low surface energy materials generally suffer from a lack of mechanical robustness, which makes them susceptible to damage by abrasive wear. Fluorinated silanes are often combined with alkoxide precursors via sol-gel co-condensation to create coatings with high hardness and good substrate adhesion. However, a common problem with these materials is that the organic moieties that provide low surface energy also become surface segregated and highly concentrated at the solid-air interface. With such a structure, mechanical removal of the top surface by abrasion, for example, reveals subsurface areas that are then much less concentrated in terms of functional chemistry. The material developed in this study was designed to overcome this problem by means of a tailored and templated mesostructure that effectively encapsulated the low surface energy functional moieties, and thus achieves sustained functionality during abrasive wear. This material, applied as a thin coating to a variety of substrates, has the potential to reduce waste and pollution and the environmental degradation of materials and structures. Improving the performance of such materials can benefit a wide variety of applications. These include optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic panels; automobile and aircraft; architectural structures; the chemical, food, and medical industries for hygienic and anti-fouling requirements; textiles; and household applications. This approach has further implications in areas such as boundary lubrication and drug delivery systems. Hydrophobic-oleophobic mesoporous fluorinated silica films were synthesized via sol-gel co-condensation and coated on glass substrates. Fluorosilane and surfactant template concentrations were varied to elucidate the effect of organic functionality and porosity on performance. Structural

  17. The Writhe of Helical Structures in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toeroek, T.; Berger, M. A.; Kliem, B.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Helicity is a fundamental property of magnetic fields, conserved in ideal MHD. In flux rope topology, it consists of twist and writhe helicity. Despite the common occurrence of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, little is known about how their shape relates to the writhe, which fraction of helicity is contained in writhe, and how much helicity is exchanged between twist and writhe when they erupt. Aims. Here we perform a quantitative investigation of these questions relevant for coronal flux ropes. Methods. The decomposition of the writhe of a curve into local and nonlocal components greatly facilitates its computation. We use it to study the relation between writhe and projected S shape of helical curves and to measure writhe and twist in numerical simulations of flux rope instabilities. The results are discussed with regard to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. (1) We demonstrate that the relation between writhe and projected S shape is not unique in principle, but that the ambiguity does not affect low-lying structures, thus supporting the established empirical rule which associates stable forward (reverse) S shaped structures low in the corona with positive (negative) helicity. (2) Kink-unstable erupting flux ropes are found to transform a far smaller fraction of their twist helicity into writhe helicity than often assumed. (3) Confined flux rope eruptions tend to show stronger writhe at low heights than ejective eruptions (CMEs). This argues against suggestions that the writhing facilitates the rise of the rope through the overlying field. (4) Erupting filaments which are S shaped already before the eruption and keep the sign of their axis writhe (which is expected if field of one chirality dominates the source volume of the eruption), must reverse their S shape in the course of the rise. Implications for the occurrence of the helical kink instability in such events are discussed.

  18. Conceptual Design for Superconducting Planar Helical Undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    2004-05-01

    A preliminary consideration was made on a short-period superconducting planar helical undulator (SCHU) for circularly polarized radiation. The SCHU consists of coils and iron poles/yokes. There is no magnetic structure in the horizontal plane of the electron orbit. The SCHU would provide the large horizontal aperture needed to allow injection into the storage ring. The expected field strength is at least 30% larger than that by an APPLE-type permanent-magnet device with the same gap and the same period.

  19. Helicon wave excitation with helical antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Light, M.; Chen, F.F.

    1995-04-01

    Components of the wave magnetic field in a helicon discharge have been measured with a single-turn, coaxial magnetic probe. Left- and right-handed helical antennas, as well as plane-polarized antennas, were used; and the results were compared with the field patterns computed for a nonuniform plasma. The results show that the right-hand circularly polarized mode is preferentially excited with all antennas, even those designed to excite the left-hand mode. For right-hand excitation, the radial amplitude profiles are in excellent agreement with computations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. A new regime of nucleate boiling in microsphere mesostructures: Jumping pool boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. S.; Makarov, P. G.; El Bouz, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We have studied a new regime of nucleate boiling in distilled water on substrates representing mesostructures of monodisperse and/or polydisperse microspheres made of various materials. It is experimentally established that, under some conditions of nucleate boiling, there appear "jumping pool boiling" regimes in which bubbles do not reach the surface of underheated liquid. In addition, bubbles may capture a certain number of microspheres, lift them up to some height, and then sink together down to the vessel bottom. Alternatively, microspheres may trap a certain number of bubbles, float up toward the evaporating surface, and then (without reaching the surface) sink back to the bottom layer where the nucleate bubbling takes place. Subregimes of this boiling mechanism involving microspheres of various densities and dimensions have also been observed.

  1. Formation of mesostructured thin films at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Edler, Karen J; Yang, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The growth of free-standing surfactant-templated films of inorganic oxides at the air-solution interface is an attractive route to manufacture unsupported mesostructured membranes for a range of potential applications. So far this synthesis method has been relatively neglected due to the fragility of the initial films. More recent work to understand the mechanism of formation has led to development of thicker, more robust films, as well as providing new information on the general formation mechanisms of mesoporous materials whether in film or particulate form. This review describes the properties of silica and other inorganic oxide films templated by surfactants and grown at the air-solution interface, their formation mechanisms and implications for further development of these materials. PMID:23090013

  2. Hindered Energy Cascade in Highly Helical Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Rodion; Golbraikh, Ephim; Frick, Peter; Shestakov, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The conventional approach to the turbulent energy cascade, based on Richardson-Kolmogorov phenomenology, ignores the topology of emerging vortices, which is related to the helicity of the turbulent flow. It is generally believed that helicity can play a significant role in turbulent systems, e.g., supporting the generation of large-scale magnetic fields, but its impact on the energy cascade to small scales has never been observed. We suggest, for the first time, a generalized phenomenology for isotropic turbulence with an arbitrary spectral distribution of the helicity. We discuss various scenarios of direct turbulent cascades with new helicity effect, which can be interpreted as a hindering of the spectral energy transfer. Therefore, the energy is accumulated and redistributed so that the efficiency of nonlinear interactions will be sufficient to provide a constant energy flux. We confirm our phenomenology by high Reynolds number numerical simulations based on a shell model of helical turbulence. The energy in our model is injected at a certain large scale only, whereas the source of helicity is distributed over all scales. In particular, we found that the helical bottleneck effect can appear in the inertial interval of the energy spectrum.

  3. Hindered Energy Cascade in Highly Helical Isotropic Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Rodion; Golbraikh, Ephim; Frick, Peter; Shestakov, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The conventional approach to the turbulent energy cascade, based on Richardson-Kolmogorov phenomenology, ignores the topology of emerging vortices, which is related to the helicity of the turbulent flow. It is generally believed that helicity can play a significant role in turbulent systems, e.g., supporting the generation of large-scale magnetic fields, but its impact on the energy cascade to small scales has never been observed. We suggest, for the first time, a generalized phenomenology for isotropic turbulence with an arbitrary spectral distribution of the helicity. We discuss various scenarios of direct turbulent cascades with new helicity effect, which can be interpreted as a hindering of the spectral energy transfer. Therefore, the energy is accumulated and redistributed so that the efficiency of nonlinear interactions will be sufficient to provide a constant energy flux. We confirm our phenomenology by high Reynolds number numerical simulations based on a shell model of helical turbulence. The energy in our model is injected at a certain large scale only, whereas the source of helicity is distributed over all scales. In particular, we found that the helical bottleneck effect can appear in the inertial interval of the energy spectrum. PMID:26684120

  4. Multifunctionality in bimetallic Ln(III)[W(V)(CN)8]3- (Ln = Gd, Nd) coordination helices: optical activity, luminescence, and magnetic coupling.

    PubMed

    Chorazy, Szymon; Nakabayashi, Koji; Arczynski, Mirosław; Pełka, Robert; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Two chiral luminescent derivatives of pyridine bis(oxazoline) (Pybox), (SS/RR)-iPr-Pybox (2,6-bis[4-isopropyl-2-oxazolin-2-yl]pyridine) and (SRSR/RSRS)-Ind-Pybox (2,6-bis[8H-indeno[1,2-d]oxazolin-2-yl]pyridine), have been combined with lanthanide ions (Gd(3+), Nd(3+)) and octacyanotungstate(V) metalloligand to afford a remarkable series of eight bimetallic CN(-)-bridged coordination chains: {[Ln(III)(SS/RR-iPr-Pybox)(dmf)4]3[W(V)(CN)8]3}n ⋅dmf⋅4 H2O (Ln = Gd, 1-SS and 1-RR; Ln = Nd, 2-SS and 2-RR) and {[Ln(III)(SRSR/RSRS-Ind-Pybox)(dmf)4][W(V)(CN)8]}n⋅5 MeCN⋅4 MeOH (Ln = Gd, 3-SRSR and 3-RSRS; Ln = Nd, 4-SRSR and 4-RSRS). These materials display enantiopure structural helicity, which results in strong optical activity in the range 200-450 nm, as confirmed by natural circular dichroism (NCD) spectra and the corresponding UV/Vis absorption spectra. Under irradiation with UV light, the Gd(III)-W(V) chains show dominant ligand-based red phosphorescence, with λmax ≈660 nm for 1-(SS/RR) and 680 nm for 3-(SRSR/RSRS). The Nd(III)-W(V) chains, 2-(SS/RR) and 4-(SRSR/RSRS), exhibit near-infrared luminescence with sharp lines at 986, 1066, and 1340 nm derived from intra-f (4)F3/2 → (4)I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of the Nd(III) centers. This emission is realized through efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer from the Pybox derivative to the lanthanide ion. Due to the presence of paramagnetic lanthanide(III) and [W(V)(CN)8](3-) moieties connected by cyanide bridges, 1-(SS/RR) and 3-(SRSR/RSRS) are ferrimagnetic spin chains originating from antiferromagnetic coupling between Gd(III) (SGd = 7/2) and W(V) (SW = 1/2) centers with J1-(SS) = -0.96(1) cm(-1), J1-(RR) =-0.95(1) cm(-1), J3-(SRSR) = -0.91(1) cm(-1), and J3-(RSRS) =-0.94(1) cm(-1). 2-(SS/RR) and 4-(SRSR/RSRS) display ferromagnetic coupling within their Nd(III)-NC-W(V) linkages. PMID:24740567

  5. Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Bryant

    Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of

  6. Broadband optical isolator based on helical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hu; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Based on helical metamaterials, a new broadband optical isolator with a triple-helix structure is proposed in this paper. The right-handed circularly polarized light can transmit through the isolator with its polarization unchanged. The reverse propagating light, which is caused by the reflection of the latter optical devices, is converted into left-handed circularly polarized light that is suppressed by the proposed isolator because of absorption. Our design has some unprecedented advantages such as broad frequency ranges and a compact structure; moreover, neither polarizers nor adscititious magnetic fields are required. Properties of the isolator are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and this phenomenon is studied by the mechanism of helical antenna theory. PMID:26366900

  7. Helical relativistic electron beam Vlasov equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. M.

    1980-08-01

    Three existing helical relativistic electron beam models are discussed and compared. Both Yoshikawa's and Lawson's models are shown to be derivable from appropriate Vlasov equilibria. A new helical Vlasov equilibrium with energy spread is presented and studied. Unlike Auer's axial current model in which the allowance of an energy spread limits the total current in the relativistic beam case, the present model, with the addition of an azimuthal current, permits solutions with arbitrarily large current. On the other hand, like the model studied by Kan and Lai, the present model leads to nonhollowed-out beam solutions in which, the larger the beam current, the more force-free is the magnetic field configuration.

  8. Coherent electron transport in a helical nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yong-Long; Du, Long; Jiang, Hua; Kang, Guang-Zhen; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-09-01

    The quantum dynamics of carriers bound to helical tube surfaces is investigated in a thin-layer quantization scheme. By numerically solving the open-boundary Schrödinger equation in curvilinear coordinates, geometric effect on the coherent transmission spectra is analysed in the case of single propagating mode as well as multimode. It is shown that, the coiling endows the helical nanotube with different transport properties from a bent cylindrical surface. Fano resonance appears as a purely geometric effect in the conductance, the corresponding energy of quasibound state is obviously influenced by the torsion and length of the nanotube. We also find new plateaus in the conductance. The transport of double-degenerate mode in this geometry is reminiscent of the Zeeman coupling between the magnetic field and spin angular momentum in quasi-one-dimensional structure.

  9. Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Christian E.; Ricca, Renzo L.; Sumners, De Witt L.

    2015-01-01

    Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts. PMID:25820408

  10. Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (∼10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure. PMID:26416086

  11. Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (~10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure.

  12. Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection.

    PubMed

    Laing, Christian E; Ricca, Renzo L; Sumners, De Witt L

    2015-01-01

    Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts. PMID:25820408

  13. Hydrodynamic interactions between rotating helices.

    PubMed

    Kim, MunJu; Powers, Thomas R

    2004-06-01

    Escherichia coli bacteria use rotating helical flagella to swim. At this scale, viscous effects dominate inertia, and there are significant hydrodynamic interactions between nearby helices. These interactions cause the flagella to bundle during the "runs" of bacterial chemotaxis. Here we use slender-body theory to solve for the flow fields generated by rigid helices rotated by stationary motors. We determine how the hydrodynamic forces and torques depend on phase and phase difference, show that rigid helices driven at constant torque do not synchronize, and solve for the flows. We also use symmetry arguments based on kinematic reversibility to show that for two rigid helices rotating with zero phase difference, there is no time-averaged attractive or repulsive force between the helices. PMID:15244620

  14. Analysis of scrape-off layer in toroidal helical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    1990-03-01

    Magnetic field structure of the scrape-off layer region in toroidal helical systems is analyzed by using toroidal harmonic functions. The connection length of the field line to the wall is calculated for various configurations. It is found that L has a logarythmic dependence on the distance from the outermost magnetic surface or from the residual magnetic islands. The effect of the axisymmetric fields on the stress structure is also discussed.

  15. Reversed field pinch current drive with oscillating helical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Farengo, Ricardo; Clemente, Roberto Antonio

    2006-04-15

    The use of oscillating helical magnetic fields to produce and sustain the toroidal and poloidal currents in a reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated. A simple physical model that assumes fixed ions, massless electrons, and uniform density and resistivity is employed. Thermal effects are neglected in Ohm's law and helical coordinates are introduced to reduce the number of coupled nonlinear equations that must be advanced in time. The results show that it is possible to produce RFP-like magnetic field profiles with pinch parameters close to the experimental values. The efficiencies obtained for moderate resistivity, and the observed scaling, indicate that this could be a very attractive method for high temperature plasmas.

  16. Conservation of helicity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.

  17. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary project was approved by the DOE

  18. Controlling skyrmion helicity via engineered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián A; Troncoso, Roberto E

    2016-10-26

    Single magnetic skyrmion dynamics in chiral magnets with a spatially inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) is considered. Based on the relation between DMI coupling and skyrmion helicity, it is argued that the latter must be included as an extra degree of freedom in the dynamics of skyrmions. An effective description of the skyrmion dynamics for an arbitrary inhomogeneous DMI coupling is obtained through the collective coordinates method. The resulting generalized Thiele equation is a dynamical system for the center of mass position and helicity of the skyrmion. It is found that the dissipative tensor and hence the Hall angle become helicity dependent. The skyrmion position and helicity dynamics are fully characterized by our model in two particular examples of engineered DMI coupling: half-planes with opposite-sign DMI and linearly varying DMI. In light of the experiment of Shibata et al (2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 723) on the magnitude and sign of the DMI, our results constitute the first step toward a more complete understanding of the skyrmion helicity as a new degree of freedom that could be harnessed in future high-density magnetic storage and logic devices. PMID:27588612

  19. Detection of in-depth helical spin structures by planar Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Basaran, Ali C. Guénon, S.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Morales, R.

    2015-06-22

    We developed a method to determine the magnetic helicity and to study reversal mechanisms in exchange biased nanostructures using Planar Hall Effect (PHE). As a test case, we use an in-depth helical spin configuration that occurs during magnetization reversal in exchange coupled Ni/FeF{sub 2} heterostructures. We show the way to induce and determine the sign of the helicity from PHE measurements on a lithographically patterned cross. The helicity sign can be controlled by the angle between the externally applied magnetic field and a well-defined unidirectional anisotropy axis. Furthermore, the PHE signal reveals complex reversal features due to small deviations of the local unidirectional anisotropy axes from the crystallographic easy axis. The simulations using an incomplete domain wall model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. These studies show that helical spin formations in nanomagnetic systems can be studied using laboratory-based magnetotransport.

  20. Mesostructured TiO2 Gated Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica-Based Nanotablets for Multistimuli-responsive Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Xue; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ye; Qiao, Zhen-An; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng

    2015-11-25

    A multistimuli-responsive drug carrier is designed and successfully synthesized by self-assembly of thiol-modified periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticles, coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and mesostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2). Dye-loaded PMO-Au@TiO2 nanotablets are shown to respond to environmental changes (pH, temperature, and light) to achieve controlled release. PMID:26418053

  1. Helical tomotherapy quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Balog, John; Soisson, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy uses a dynamic delivery in which the gantry, treatment couch, and multileaf collimator leaves are all in motion during treatment. This results in highly conformal radiotherapy, but the complexity of the delivery is partially hidden from the end-user because of the extensive integration and automation of the tomotherapy control systems. This presents a challenge to the medical physicist who is expected to be both a system user and an expert, capable of verifying relevant aspects of treatment delivery. A related issue is that a clinical tomotherapy planning system arrives at a customer's site already commissioned by the manufacturer, not by the clinical physicist. The clinical physicist and the manufacturer's representative verify the commissioning at the customer site before acceptance. Theoretically, treatment could begin immediately after acceptance. However, the clinical physicist is responsible for the safe and proper use of the machine. In addition, the therapists and radiation oncologists need to understand the important machine characteristics before treatment can proceed. Typically, treatment begins about 2 weeks after acceptance. This report presents an overview of the tomotherapy system. Helical tomotherapy has unique dosimetry characteristics, and some of those features are emphasized. The integrated treatment planning, delivery, and patient-plan quality assurance process is described. A quality assurance protocol is proposed, with an emphasis on what a clinical medical physicist could and should check. Additionally, aspects of a tomotherapy quality assurance program that could be checked automatically and remotely because of its inherent imaging system and integrated database are discussed. PMID:18406907

  2. Helical Tomotherapy Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, John Soisson, Emilie

    2008-05-01

    Helical tomotherapy uses a dynamic delivery in which the gantry, treatment couch, and multileaf collimator leaves are all in motion during treatment. This results in highly conformal radiotherapy, but the complexity of the delivery is partially hidden from the end-user because of the extensive integration and automation of the tomotherapy control systems. This presents a challenge to the medical physicist who is expected to be both a system user and an expert, capable of verifying relevant aspects of treatment delivery. A related issue is that a clinical tomotherapy planning system arrives at a customer's site already commissioned by the manufacturer, not by the clinical physicist. The clinical physicist and the manufacturer's representative verify the commissioning at the customer site before acceptance. Theoretically, treatment could begin immediately after acceptance. However, the clinical physicist is responsible for the safe and proper use of the machine. In addition, the therapists and radiation oncologists need to understand the important machine characteristics before treatment can proceed. Typically, treatment begins about 2 weeks after acceptance. This report presents an overview of the tomotherapy system. Helical tomotherapy has unique dosimetry characteristics, and some of those features are emphasized. The integrated treatment planning, delivery, and patient-plan quality assurance process is described. A quality assurance protocol is proposed, with an emphasis on what a clinical medical physicist could and should check. Additionally, aspects of a tomotherapy quality assurance program that could be checked automatically and remotely because of its inherent imaging system and integrated database are discussed.

  3. Note on the helicity decomposition of spin and orbital optical currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Andrea; Berry, M. V.

    2015-06-01

    In the helicity representation, the Poynting vector (current) for a monochromatic optical field, when calculated using either the electric or the magnetic field, separates into right-handed and left-handed contributions, with no cross-helicity contributions. Cross-helicity terms do appear in the orbital and spin contributions to the current. But when the electric and magnetic formulas are averaged (‘electric-magnetic democracy’), these terms cancel, restoring the separation into right-handed and left-handed currents for orbital and spin separately.

  4. Spheromak Power and Helicity Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    2000-05-18

    This note addresses the division of gun power and helicity between the open line volume and the closed flux surface volume in a steady state flux core spheromak. Our assumptions are that fine scale turbulence maintains each region close to an axisymmetric Taylor state, {mu}{sub o}j = {lambda}B. The gun region that feeds these two volumes surrounded by a flux conserver is shown topologically below. (The actual geometry is toroidal). Flux and current from the magnetized gun flow on open lines around the entire closed surface containing the spheromak. The gun current flows down the potential gradient, the potential difference between the two ends of each line being the gun voltage. Here, the gun voltage excludes the sheath drops at each end. These volumes have different values of {lambda} in each region (open line volume V{sub 1} and closed spheromak volume V{sub 2}) and we want to calculate the efficiency of transferring the gun power to the spheromak to sustain the ohmic loss in steady state.

  5. Chaotic coordinates for the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S. R.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The theory of quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFM) surfaces is reviewed, and numerical techniques that allow high-order QFM surfaces to be efficiently constructed for experimentally relevant, non-integrable magnetic fields are described. As a practical example, the chaotic edge of the magnetic field in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is examined. A precise technique for finding the boundary surface is implemented, the hierarchy of partial barriers associated with the near-critical cantori is constructed, and a coordinate system, which we call chaotic coordinates, that is based on a selection of QFM surfaces is constructed that simplifies the description of the magnetic field, so that flux surfaces become "straight" and islands become "square."

  6. Cool and hot flux ropes, their helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nindos, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    We will review recent indirect and direct evidence for the existence of magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere. Magnetic flux ropes may appear as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped (sigmoidal) structures in regions that are likely to erupt, and may also show in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations that use data from photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The availability of high sensitivity data recorded with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution in hot EUV wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has revealed the existence of coherent structures identified as hot flux ropes. In this presentation, we will review the properties of both cool and hot flux ropes with an emphasis on the frequency of their occurrence in large flares and on their magnetic helicity content.

  7. Equilibrium Reconstruction on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel A. Lazerson, D. Gates, D. Monticello, H. Neilson, N. Pomphrey, A. Reiman S. Sakakibara, and Y. Suzuki

    2012-07-27

    Equilibrium reconstruction is commonly applied to axisymmetric toroidal devices. Recent advances in computational power and equilibrium codes have allowed for reconstructions of three-dimensional fields in stellarators and heliotrons. We present the first reconstructions of finite beta discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The plasma boundary and magnetic axis are constrained by the pressure profile from Thomson scattering. This results in a calculation of plasma beta without a-priori assumptions of the equipartition of energy between species. Saddle loop arrays place additional constraints on the equilibrium. These reconstruction utilize STELLOPT, which calls VMEC. The VMEC equilibrium code assumes good nested flux surfaces. Reconstructed magnetic fields are fed into the PIES code which relaxes this constraint allowing for the examination of the effect of islands and stochastic regions on the magnetic measurements.

  8. DYNAMO EFFICIENCY WITH SHEAR IN HELICAL TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-jin

    2009-05-10

    To elucidate the influence of shear flow on the generation of magnetic fields through the modification of turbulence property, we consider the case where a large-scale magnetic field is parallel to a large-scale shear flow without direct interaction between the two in the kinematic limit where the magnetic field does not backreact on the velocity. By nonperturbatively incorporating the effect of shear in a helically forced turbulence, we show that turbulence intensity and turbulent transport coefficients (turbulent viscosity, {alpha} and {beta} effect) are enhanced by a weak shear, while strongly suppressed for strong shear. In particular, {beta} is shown to be much more strongly suppressed than {alpha} effect. We discuss its important implications for dynamo efficiency, i.e., on the scaling of the dynamo number with differential rotation.

  9. Chaotic coordinates for the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S. R.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-10-15

    The theory of quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFM) surfaces is reviewed, and numerical techniques that allow high-order QFM surfaces to be efficiently constructed for experimentally relevant, non-integrable magnetic fields are described. As a practical example, the chaotic edge of the magnetic field in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is examined. A precise technique for finding the boundary surface is implemented, the hierarchy of partial barriers associated with the near-critical cantori is constructed, and a coordinate system, which we call chaotic coordinates, that is based on a selection of QFM surfaces is constructed that simplifies the description of the magnetic field, so that flux surfaces become “straight” and islands become “square.”.

  10. Bifurcated helical core equilibrium states in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Chapman, I. T.; Schmitz, O.; Turnbull, A. D.; Tobias, B. J.; Lazarus, E. A.; Turco, F.; Lanctot, M. J.; Evans, T. E.; Graves, J. P.; Brunetti, D.; Pfefferlé, D.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Halpern, F. D.; Tran, T. M.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Pochelon, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; Lao, L.; Luce, T. C.; Buttery, R.; Ferron, J. R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Petty, C. C.; van Zeeland, M.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Lütjens, H.

    2013-07-01

    Tokamaks with weak to moderate reversed central shear in which the minimum inverse rotational transform (safety factor) qmin is in the neighbourhood of unity can trigger bifurcated magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states, one of which is similar to a saturated ideal internal kink mode. Peaked prescribed pressure profiles reproduce the ‘snake’ structures observed in many tokamaks which has led to a novel explanation of the snake as a bifurcated equilibrium state. Snake equilibrium structures are computed in simulations of the tokamak à configuration variable (TCV), DIII-D and mega amp spherical torus (MAST) tokamaks. The internal helical deformations only weakly modulate the plasma-vacuum interface which is more sensitive to ripple and resonant magnetic perturbations. On the other hand, the external perturbations do not alter the helical core deformation in a significant manner. The confinement of fast particles in MAST simulations deteriorate with the amplitude of the helical core distortion. These three-dimensional bifurcated solutions constitute a paradigm shift that motivates the applications of tools developed for stellarator research in tokamak physics investigations.

  11. Design principles for Bernal spirals and helices with tunable pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, Szilard N.; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Wales, David J.

    2014-07-01

    Using the framework of potential energy landscape theory, we describe two in silico designs for self-assembling helical colloidal superstructures based upon dipolar dumbbells and Janus-type building blocks, respectively. Helical superstructures with controllable pitch length are obtained using external magnetic field driven assembly of asymmetric dumbbells involving screened electrostatic as well as magnetic dipolar interactions. The pitch of the helix is tuned by modulating the Debye screening length over an experimentally accessible range. The second design is based on building blocks composed of rigidly linked spheres with short-range anisotropic interactions, which are predicted to self-assemble into Bernal spirals. These spirals are quite flexible, and longer helices undergo rearrangements via cooperative, hinge-like moves, in agreement with experiment.Using the framework of potential energy landscape theory, we describe two in silico designs for self-assembling helical colloidal superstructures based upon dipolar dumbbells and Janus-type building blocks, respectively. Helical superstructures with controllable pitch length are obtained using external magnetic field driven assembly of asymmetric dumbbells involving screened electrostatic as well as magnetic dipolar interactions. The pitch of the helix is tuned by modulating the Debye screening length over an experimentally accessible range. The second design is based on building blocks composed of rigidly linked spheres with short-range anisotropic interactions, which are predicted to self-assemble into Bernal spirals. These spirals are quite flexible, and longer helices undergo rearrangements via cooperative, hinge-like moves, in agreement with experiment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00324a

  12. The Advanced Helical Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-10-26

    A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.

  13. ASYMMETRY OF HELICITY INJECTION FLUX IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Lirong; Alexander, David

    2009-04-20

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions (ARs) is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. In this paper, we address the origin of this morphological asymmetry, which is not well understood. Although it may be assumed that, in an emerging {omega}-shaped flux tube, those portions of the flux tube in which the magnetic field has a higher twist may maintain its coherence more readily, this has not been tested observationally. To assess this possibility, it is important to characterize the nature of the fragmentation and asymmetry in solar ARs and this provides the motivation for this paper. We separately calculate the distribution of the helicity flux injected in the leading and following polarities of 15 emerging bipolar ARs, using the Michelson Doppler Image 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms and a local correlation tracking technique. We find from this statistical study that the leading (compact) polarity injects several times more helicity flux than the following (fragmented) one (typically 3-10 times). This result suggests that the leading polarity of the {omega}-shaped flux tube possesses a much larger amount of twist than the following field prior to emergence. We argue that the helicity asymmetry between the leading and following magnetic field for the ARs studied here results in the observed magnetic field asymmetry of the two polarities due to an imbalance in the magnetic tension of the emerging flux tube. We suggest that the observed imbalance in the helicity distribution results from a difference in the speed of emergence between the leading and following legs of an inclined {omega}-shaped flux tube. In addition, there is also the effect of magnetic flux imbalance between the two polarities with the fragmented following polarity displaying spatial fluctuation in both the magnitude and sign of helicity measured.

  14. Primary Cardiac Lymphoma: Helical CT Findings and Radiopathologic Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique Pagola, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Fidel; Lastra, Pedro; Delgado, M. Luisa Ruiz; Sadaba, Pablo; Pinto, Jesus; Ballesteros, Ma Angeles; Ortiz, Antonio

    2004-03-15

    Primary tumors of the heart are extremely rare.Clinical manifestations are nondiagnostic and the patients are often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are standard in this diagnostic workup. We report a case of a man with acromegaly, dysphagia, chest pain and weight loss. An invasive cardiac mass was diagnosed by helical-CT. Autopsy demonstrated a B-cell aggressive lymphoma.

  15. Template electrosynthesis of tailored-made helical nanoswimmers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Tam, Ryan; Feng, Xiaomiao; Ai, Stephen; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-21

    We demonstrate a template electrosynthesis for large-scale low-cost preparation of remarkably small magnetically driven tailored-made helical nanoswimmers that display efficient propulsion behavior and hold considerable promise for future miniature devices in the human body. PMID:24126904

  16. The effect of mesostructure heterogeneity on cracks initiation and the displacement distribution in NCF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrida, H.; Giannadis, K.; Varna, J.; Ayadi, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Non Crimp Fabrics (NCF) are promising new generation composite materials. They are now being used in some sections of composite industry, for example in wind turbine blades and boat hulls. The aerospace industry also shows an increasing interest in this material, thanks to the low cost of its manufacturing process. NCFs are special types of textile composites, made of layers of parallel fiber bundles oriented in different directions and separated by resin. Due to the manufacturing process the fiber bundles are not perfectly straight. They show a certain degree of waviness which decreases the stiffness and the strength of the material. The heterogeneous mesostructure affects the mechanical properties of the material and the failure mechanisms. This was studied using both numerical and experimental methods. In our experimental approach, a carbon fiber/epoxy resin laminate with uniform fiber distribution was manufactured by voluntarily introducing waviness to simulate the NCF composites. The displacement map was studied against the thickness of a sample loaded in tension, using ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry). This can give us a primary idea of the micro damage initiation and the cracks' shapes.

  17. Chondroitin sulfate functionalized mesostructured silica nanoparticles as biocompatible carriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Juqun; Qin, Jin; Fan, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have garnered a great deal of attention as potential carriers for therapeutic payloads. Here, we report a pH-responsive drug-carrier based on chondroitin sulfate functionalized mesostructured silica nanoparticles (NMChS-MSNs) ie, the amidation between NMChS macromer and amino group functionalized MSNs. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The resultant NMChS-MSNs were uniform spherical nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 74 nm. Due to the covalent graft of hydrophilic and pH responsive NMChS, the NMChS-MSNs could be well dispersed in aqueous solution, which is favorable to being utilized as drug carriers to construct a pH-responsive controlled drug delivery system. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a well-known anticancer drug, could be effectively loaded into the channels of NMChS-MSNs through electrostatic interactions between drug and matrix. The drug release rate of DOX@NMChS-MSNs was pH dependent and increased with the decrease of pH. The in vitro cytotoxicity test indicated that NMChS-MSNs were highly biocompatible and suitable to use as drug carriers. Our results imply that chondroitin sulfate functionalized nanoparticles are promising platforms to construct the pH-responsive controlled drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. PMID:23091377

  18. Modeling the local structure and energetics of protozeolitic nanoclusters in hydrothermally stable aluminosilicate mesostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Mahanti, S D; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2005-02-24

    The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to investigate the structure and bonding of silica and aluminosilicate nanoclusters containing five- and six-membered oxygen rings. The clusters, which are derived from the BEA zeolite structure, are considered as models of the protozeolitic clusters that are incorporated into the pore walls of steam stable aluminosilicate mesostructures assembled from zeolite seeds. Two locally different Brønsted acid sites in the aluminosilicate structure are identified for the adsorption of a water molecule. The sterically more open acid site is favored for water binding. The stability of the aluminosilicate structure in the presence of H2O molecule is studied by breaking an Al-O bond and inserting a water molecule into the five-membered ring structure. We find that an excitation energy at least 18 times larger than the room-temperature thermal energy is needed to break the stable five-membered ring structure, implying a high hydrothermal stability and acidity for this aluminosilicate structure. PMID:16851274

  19. Optical performance of mesostructured composite silica film loaded with organic dye.

    PubMed

    Guli, Mina; Chen, Shijian; Zhang, Dingke; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Jianxi; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Li

    2014-01-10

    A mesoporous composite silica film loaded with organic dye has been successfully synthesized by a solgel reaction process and a simple postgrafting method at room temperature. The composite film was characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and laser performance, and the results confirmed the existence of dyes in the channels of the silica film. A blue-shift and fluorescence property in the PL spectrum was observed from the composite film compared with that of dye molecules in C₂H₅OH solution. The spectrum narrowing phenomena has been observed when the composite film is pumped at λp=355  nm by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. A narrower, higher peak was observed in emission spectra from the mesostructured composite silica film compared with the PL spectrum of dye in C₂H₅OH solution. There is a substantial reduction in the full width at half-maximum of the emitting light, which results in peaks with linewidths of 26 nm or more. This collapse of the emission spectrum is one of the signatures of the presence of amplified spontaneous emission. PMID:24514063

  20. Effects of mesostructured silica catalysts on the depolymerization of organosolv lignin fractionated from woody eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Klamrassamee, Thepparat; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Cronin, Dylan; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S

    2015-03-01

    Isolated and purified organosolv eucalyptus wood lignin was depolymerized at different temperatures with and without mesostructured silica catalysts (i.e., SBA-15, MCM-41, ZrO2-SBA-15 and ZrO2-MCM-41). It was found that at 300°C for 1h with a solid/liquid ratio of 0.0175/1 (w/v), the SBA-15 catalyst with high acidity gave the highest syringol yield of 23.0% in a methanol/water mixture (50/50, wt/wt). Doping with ZrO2 over these catalysts did not increase syringol yield, but increased the total amount of solid residue. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) also identified other main phenolic compounds such as 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethanone, 1,2-benzenediol, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde. Analysis of the lignin residues with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated decreases in the absorption bands intensities of OH group, CO stretching of syringyl ring and aromatic CH deformation of syringol unit, and an increase in band intensities associated with the guaiacyl ring, confirming the type of products formed. PMID:25614246

  1. Use of Helical Fields to Allow a Long Pulse Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

    2008-11-20

    The maintenance of the magnetic configuration of a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is an unsolved problem. Even a toroidal loop voltage does not suffice to maintain the magnetic configuration in axisymmetry but could if the plasma had helical shaping. The theoretical tools for plasma optimization using helical shaping have advanced, so an RFP could be relatively easily designed for optimal performance with a spatially constant toroidal loop voltage. A demonstration that interesting solutions exist is given.

  2. Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.

  3. Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2015-05-01

    Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.

  4. Twist Helicity in Classical Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Martin W.; Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental work has demonstrated that a partial measure of fluid Helicity (the sum of linking and writhing of vortex tubes) is conserved even as those vortices undergo topology changing reconnections. Measuring the total Helicity, however, requires additional information about how the vortex lines are locally twisted inside the vortex core. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel technique for experimentally measuring twist Helicity. Using this method, we are able to measure the production and eventual decay of twist for a variety of vortex evolutions. Remarkably, we observe twist dynamics capable of conserving total Helicity even in the presence of rapidly changing writhe. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  5. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Yue Bun Pun, Edwin; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices. PMID:26354497

  6. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices. PMID:26354497

  7. Microinstability Studies for the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.M. Tang; H. Sugama; N. Nakajima; K.Y. Watanabe; S. Murakami; H. Yamada; W.A. Cooper

    2002-01-28

    Fully kinetic assessments of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes have been obtained for cases for the Large Helical Device (LHD). This calculation employs the comprehensive linear microinstability code FULL, as recently extended for nonaxisymmetric systems. The code retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. These effects include trapped particles, FLR, transit and bounce and magnetic drift frequency resonances, etc., for any number of plasma species. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped electrons and ion temperature gradients are presented, using numerically-calculated three-dimensional MHD equilibria. These are reconstructed from experimental measurements. Quasilinear fluxes of particles and energy for each species are also calculated. Pairs of LHD discharges with different magnetic axis positions and with and without pellet injection are compared.

  8. Organization and magnetic properties of cigar-shaped ferrite nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, A. T.; Pileni, M. P.

    2002-11-01

    Cigar-shaped maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanocrystals dispersed in aqueous solution are subjected to a magnetic field during the deposition (process) on graphite. The nanocrystals can thus be oriented along their long axis to form ribbons at a mesoscopic scale whereas without a field the nanocrystals remain randomly oriented on the substrate. The magnetic properties markedly depend on the organization of the nanocrystals within the mesostructures.

  9. Synthesis of mesostructured polyaniline using mixed surfactants, anionic sodium dodecylsulfate and non-ionic polymers and their applications in H2O2 and glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Prathap, M U Anu; Thakur, Bhawana; Sawant, Shilpa N; Srivastava, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Mesostructured polyaniline was prepared by the self-assembly of a mixture of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate and a non-ionic polymeric surfactant (polyethylene glycol, and block-co-polymers such as Pluronic P123 and Brij-35). Materials were characterized by a complementary combination of X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and UV-visible spectrophotometer. Mesostructured polyaniline was used for construction of biosensor, which displayed excellent electrocatalytic response for the detection of H(2)O(2) and glucose compared to conventional polyaniline. The electrocatalytic response observed in the case of mesostructured polyaniline can be correlated with the large surface area and nanopores which enhances the accessibility of H(2)O(2)/glucose molecule to the active site that result in high observed current. The methodology adopted in the present study provides a new platform for the fabrication of polyaniline based high-performance glucose and other biosensors. PMID:21958538

  10. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  11. All-Optical Helicity Dependent Spin Switching in a Many-Spin System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latta, Tanner; Zhang, G. P.

    All-optical helicity dependent magnetic switching (AOS) is achieved through using an ultrafast laser pulse to manipulate and switch the spin of an electron from one direction to another. This process happens in a short amount of femtoseconds after the laser pulse is introduced. All-optical helicity dependent magnetic switching (AOS) does not fall to the assistance of any external magnetic field. Linearly polarized light, as well as right and left circularly polarized light are used to manipulate the spin of the electrons. Ferrimagnetic, rather than ferromagnetic, materials are more suitable to create conditions in which AOS are viable due to the orientation of the spins within this material. In the following study we show and conclude that AOS is possible with the use of left and right circularly polarized laser pulses. All-optical helicity dependent magnetic switching has many applications in magnetic recording technology or magnetic memory devices. DE-FG02-06ER46304.

  12. Charge Carriers in Planar and Meso-Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Mobilities, Lifetimes, and Concentrations of Trap States.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Eline M; Eperon, Giles E; Stranks, Samuel D; Savenije, Tom J

    2015-08-01

    Efficient solar cells have been obtained using thin films of solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskites. However, there remains limited knowledge about the relationship between preparation route and optoelectronic properties. We use complementary time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements to investigate the charge carrier dynamics in thin planar films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x), CH3NH3PbI3, and their meso-structured analogues. High mobilities close to 30 cm(2)/(V s) and microsecond-long lifetimes are found in thin films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x), compared to lifetimes of only a few hundred nanoseconds in CH3NH3PbI3 and meso-structured perovskites. We describe our TRMC and PL experiments with a global kinetic model, using one set of kinetic parameters characteristic for each sample. We find that the trap density is less than 5 × 10(14) cm(-3) in CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x), 6 × 10(16) cm(-3) in the CH3NH3PbI3 thin film and ca. 10(15) cm(-3) in both meso-structured perovskites. Furthermore, our results imply that band-to-band recombination is enhanced by the presence of dark carriers resulting from unintentional doping of the perovskites. Finally, our general approach to determine concentrations of trap states and dark carriers is also highly relevant to other semiconductor materials. PMID:26267206

  13. Recent stress field in the east of the Russian Plate and the Urals from macro- and mesostructural evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, M. L.; Verzhbitsky, V. E.; Kolesnichenko, A. A.; Tveritinova, T. Yu.; Vasil'ev, N. Yu.; Korchemagin, V. A.; Mostryukov, A. O.; Ioffe, A. I.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the first cartographic reconstruction of the recent stress field for the southeastern Russian Plate and the southern Urals based on computer analysis of the extensive body of measurements of mesostructural kinematic markers. Comparison of this reconstruction with macro- and mesostructural data on the dynamics of recent dislocations at the platform leads to the following conclusions: (1) spatial variations of the stress field reflect the pressure on the platform's lithosphere from the Caucasus-Kopet Dagh collisional orogen and the intraplate linear rise of the recent Urals, presumably related to the Central Asian collision zone; (2) when passing through the heterogeneous crust of the platform, the collision stresses were distorted: in the vertical section, compression decreased upward (especially in strike-slip-stress regime) and even gave way to extension above uplifting hanging wall of thrust faults and crests of swells; in plan view, compression (including in the strike-slip-stress regime) increased at basement uplifts; on the contrary, extension increased near syneclises, as well as lateral squeezing directed here along strike-slip faults; (3) reconstructions based on data variable in scale and type (results of macro- and mesostructural observations processed by differing statistical means with leading use of computer programs) do not contradict but supplement one another. Taken together, they represent the complete pattern of the recent stress state; (4) our results can be used for applied purposes to introduce clarity into the kinematics of the known faults, especially for revealing strike-slip offsets and how the intraplate earthquakes relate to faults and flexures of a certain kinematics. In general, they indicate that tectonodynamic analysis is promising for solving regional tectonic problems.

  14. Self-assembly of magnetite nanocubes into helical superstructures.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurvinder; Chan, Henry; Baskin, Artem; Gelman, Elijah; Repnin, Nikita; Král, Petr; Klajn, Rafal

    2014-09-01

    Organizing inorganic nanocrystals into complex architectures is challenging and typically relies on preexisting templates, such as properly folded DNA or polypeptide chains. We found that under carefully controlled conditions, cubic nanocrystals of magnetite self-assemble into arrays of helical superstructures in a template-free manner with >99% yield. Computer simulations revealed that the formation of helices is determined by the interplay of van der Waals and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, Zeeman coupling, and entropic forces and can be attributed to spontaneous formation of chiral nanocube clusters. Neighboring helices within their densely packed ensembles tended to adopt the same handedness in order to maximize packing, thus revealing a novel mechanism of symmetry breaking and chirality amplification. PMID:25061133

  15. Generation of THz transients by photoexcited single-crystal GaAs meso-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Mikulics, Martin; Adam, Roman; Grützmacher, Detlev; Sobolewski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    We report a sub-picosecond photoresponse and THz transient generation of GaAs single-crystal mesoscopic platelets excited by femtosecond optical pulses. Our structures were fabricated by a top-down technique, by patterning an epitaxial, 500-nm-thick GaAs film grown on top of an AlAs sacrificial layer and then transferring the resulting etched away 10 × 20-μm2 platelets onto an MgO substrate using a micropipette. The freestanding GaAs devices, incorporated into an Au coplanar strip line, exhibited extremely low dark currents and ~0.4 % detection efficiency at 10 V bias. The all-optical, pump-probe carrier dynamics analysis showed that, for 800-nm-wavelength excitation, the intrinsic relaxation of photocarriers featured a 310-fs-wide transient with a 290 fs fall time. We have also carried out a femtosecond, time-resolved electro-optic characterization of our devices and recorded along the transmission line the electrical transients as short as ~600 fs, when the platelet was excited by a train of 100-fs-wide, 800-nm-wavelength optical laser pulses. The platelets have been also demonstrated to be very efficient generators of free-space propagating THz transients with the spectral bandwidth exceeding 2 THz. The presented performance of the epitaxial, freestanding GaAs meso-structured photodevices makes them uniquely suitable for THz-frequency optoelectronic applications, ranging from ultrafast photodetectors to THz-bandwidth optical-to-electrical transducers and photomixers.

  16. Yoshizawa's cross-helicity effect and its quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Rädler, K.-H.

    2013-02-01

    A central quantity in mean-field magnetohydrodynamics is the mean electromotive force EMF, which in general depends on the mean magnetic field. It may however have a part independent of the mean magnetic field. Here we study an example of a rotating conducting body of turbulent fluid with non-zero cross-helicity, in which a contribution to the EMF proportional to the angular velocity occurs (Yoshizawa 1990). If the forcing is helical, it also leads to an alpha effect, and large-scale magnetic fields can be generated. For not too rapid rotation, the field configuration is such that Yoshizawa's contribution to the EMF is considerably reduced compared to the case without alpha effect. In that case, large-scale flows are also found to be generated.

  17. PS-b-PEO/Silica Films with Regular and Reverse Mesostructures of Large Characteristic Length Scales Prepared by Solvent Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    YU,KUI; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY; HURD,ALAN J.; EISENBERG,ADI

    2000-11-22

    Since the discovery of surfactant-templated silica by Mobil scientists in 1992, mesostructured silica has been synthesized in various forms including thin films, powders, particles, and fibers. In general, mesostructured silica has potential applications, such as in separation, catalysis, sensors, and fluidic microsystems. In respect to these potential applications, mesostructured silica in the form of thin films is perhaps one of the most promising candidates. The preparation of mesostructured silica films through preferential solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) has recently received much attention in the laboratories. However, no amphiphile/silica films with reverse mesophases have ever been made through this EISA procedure. Furthermore, templates employed to date have been either surfactants or poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers, such as pluronic P-123, both of which are water-soluble and alcohol-soluble. Due to their relatively low molecular weight, the templated silica films with mesoscopic order have been limited to relatively small characteristic length scales. In the present communication, the authors report a novel synthetic method to prepare mesostructured amphiphilic/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases of large characteristic length scales. This method involves evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers. In the present study, the PS-b-PEO diblocks are denoted as, for example, PS(215)-b-PEO(100), showing that this particular sample contains 215 S repeat units and 100 EO repeat units. This PS(215)-b-PEO(100) diblock possesses high molecular weight and does not directly mix with water or alcohol. To the authors knowledge, no studies have reported the use of water-insoluble and alcohol-insoluble amphiphilic diblocks as structure-directing agents in the synthesis of mesostructured silica films through

  18. A multifunctional role of trialkylbenzenes for the preparation of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controlled pore size, particle diameter, and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironori; Ujiie, Hiroto; Urata, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Eisuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    Both the pore size and particle diameter of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSS/CMPS) derived from tetrapropoxysilane were effectively and easily controlled by the addition of trialkylbenzenes (TAB). Aqueous highly dispersed CMPS with large pores were successfully obtained through removal of surfactants and TAB by a dialysis process. The pore size (from 4 nm to 8 nm) and particle diameter (from 50 nm to 380 nm) were more effectively enlarged by the addition of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and the enlargement did not cause the variation of the mesostructure and particle morphology. The larger molecular size and higher hydrophobicity of TIPB than TMB induce the incorporation of TIPB into micelles without the structural change. When TMB was used as TAB, the pore size of CMSS was also enlarged while the mesostructure and particle morphology were varied. Interestingly, when tetramethoxysilane and TIPB were used, CMSS with a very small particle diameter (20 nm) with concave surfaces and large mesopores were obtained, which may strongly be related to the initial nucleation of CMSS. A judicious choice of TAB and Si sources is quite important to control the mesostructure, size of mesopores, particle diameter, and morphology.Both the pore size and particle diameter of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSS/CMPS) derived from tetrapropoxysilane were effectively and easily controlled by the addition of trialkylbenzenes (TAB). Aqueous highly dispersed CMPS with large pores were successfully obtained through removal of surfactants and TAB by a dialysis process. The pore size (from 4 nm to 8 nm) and particle diameter (from 50 nm to 380 nm) were more effectively enlarged by the addition of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and the enlargement did not cause the variation of the mesostructure and particle morphology. The larger molecular size

  19. TURBULENT CROSS-HELICITY IN THE MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Kuzanyan, K. M.; Zhang, H.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2011-12-20

    We study the dynamical and statistical properties of turbulent cross-helicity (correlation of the aligned fluctuating velocity and magnetic field components). We derive an equation governing generation and evolution of the turbulent cross-helicity and discuss its meaning for the dynamo. Using the symmetry properties of the problem we suggest a general expression for the turbulent cross-helicity. Effects of the density stratification, large-scale magnetic fields, differential rotation, and turbulent convection are taken into account. We investigate the relative contribution of these effects to the cross-helicity evolution for two kinds of dynamo models of the solar cycle: a distributed mean-field model and a flux-transport dynamo model. We show that the contribution from the density stratification follows the evolution of the radial magnetic field, while large-scale electric currents produce a more complicated pattern of the cross-helicity of comparable magnitude. The pattern of the cross-helicity evolution strongly depends on details of the dynamo mechanism. Thus, we anticipate that direct observations of the cross-helicity on the Sun may serve for the diagnostic purpose of the solar dynamo process.

  20. Flux amplification in Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-II) coaxial helicity injection discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Hamp, W. T.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Smith, R. J.

    2008-02-15

    Recent coaxial helicity injection (CHI) studies using the Helicity Injected Torus device [Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] have produced discharges with measured toroidal plasma currents up to 350 kA and direct evidence of both poloidal flux amplification and toroidal current buildup, resulting from a steady process on millisecond time scales. Internal magnetic probes directly measure the poloidal flux amplification, and also measure a strong paramagnetism. Equilibrium reconstructions of these flux amplification discharges, using only surface magnetics, match the internal probes and multipoint Thomson scattering, and show current-profile relaxation during toroidal current ramp up. The criteria for producing flux amplification include both a sufficiently thin electrode-driven edge region and a large magnetic shear in the CHI injector region, which allows injector reconnection activity to overcome resistive decay and build up a closed plasma core. If the interelectrode distance d is small, then both criteria can be easily met. If d is comparable to the device minor radius, then the injector must be overdriven to produce significant flux amplification. The physics basis for generating CHI discharges with the theoretically maximum toroidal current is now understood, and this basis can be used to guide CHI experiments in any axisymmetric device.

  1. Expanding Non-solenoidal Startup with Local Helicity Injection to Increased Toroidal Field and Helicity Injection Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique under development on the Pegasus ST. Plasma currents up to 0.18 MA have been initiated by LHI in conjunction with poloidal field induction. A 0-D power balance model has been developed to predict plasma current evolution by balancing helicity input against resistive dissipation. The model is being validated against a set of experimental measurements and magnetic reconstructions with radically varied plasma geometric evolutions. Outstanding physics issues with LHI startup are the scalings of confinement and MHD activity with helicity injection rate and toroidal field strength, as well as injector behavior at high field. Preliminary results from the newly-installed Thomson scattering system suggest core temperatures of a few hundred eV during LHI startup. Measurements are being expanded to multiple spatial points for ongoing confinement studies. A set of larger-area injectors is being installed in the lower divertor region, where increased toroidal field will provide a helicity injection rate over 3 times that of outboard injectors. In this regime helicity injection will be the dominant current drive. Experiments with divertor injectors will permit experimental differentiation of several possible confinement models, and demonstrate the feasibility of LHI startup at high field. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  2. Spin susceptibility function of helical metal and RKKY interacton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunxiao; Roy, Bitan; Sau, Jay; CMTC; JQI Team

    Topological insulator is a peculiar material, which is insulating in the bulk, while conducting on the surface due to the topology in momentum space . Here, we study the surface of 3D topological insulator, which is also called helical metal. The Hamiltonian of the surface electrons is H = k × σ , which has spin-momentum locking and Dirac dispersion. The property that we are interested in is the spin susceptibility function of the helical metal. It describes how the system respond to the external magnetic field in the linear response regime. However, because the dispersion of helical metal is linear in momentum k, the spin susceptibility is easily divergent in terms of UV momentum cutoff. The talk we will present is focusing on how we renormalize the spin susceptibility function in the particular renormalization scheme we choose. In the second part of the talk, we will make use of the renormalized spin susceptibility to show how external magnetic impurities on the surface would interact with each other, with the interaction mediated by electrons of helical metal. This interaction is also called RKKY interaction. Treating impurities as classical spins, we show the pattern of ground state with numerical simulations. grants by NSF.

  3. Position and Trajectrories of helical microswimmers inside circular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldag, Hakan; Yesilyurt, Serhat

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the position and orientation of helical mm-sized microswimmers in circular channels obtained by image processing of recorded images. Microswimmers are biologically inspired structures with huge potential for medical practices such as delivery of potent drugs into tissues. In order to understand the hydrodynamic effects of confinement on the velocity and stability of trajectories of swimmers, we developed helical microswimmers with a magnetic head and a rigid helical tail, similar to those of E. coli bacteria. The experiments are recorded using a digital camera, which is placed above the experimental setup that consists of three Helmholtz pairs, generating a rotating magnetic field. A channel containing the microswimmer is placed along the axis of the innermost coil. Image processing tools based on contrast-enhancement are used to obtain the centroid of the head of the swimmer and orientation of the whole swimmer in the channel. Swimmers that move in the direction of the head, i.e. pushed kinematically by the tail, has helical trajectories, which are more unstable in the presence of Poiesuille flow inside the channel; and the swimmers that are pulled by the tail, have trajectories that stabilize at the centerline of the channel.

  4. Distribution of linear mesostructures in oblique folded surfaces: Unravelling superposed Ordovician and Variscan folds in the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Josep Maria; Queralt, Pilar; Mencos, Joana; Gratacós, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis yielded new data on the geometry of Ordovician folds in the Pyrenees. These folds caused the Variscan mainphase folds to develop over non-horizontal bedding surfaces in the pre-Upper Ordovician rocks. As a result, the Variscan mainphase fold axes and intersection lineations in these rocks present a wide range of orientations. Bedding surfaces exhibit a complex pattern in map view making it necessary to reconstruct the structure in 3D. Computer aided reconstruction tools such as FoldPlot proved useful for visualizing and reconstructing the geometry of such refolded structures in 3D. In the absence of map-scale key horizons, evidence of superposed folds is provided by detailed mapping of mesostructures. This requires a good and continuous outcrop over an extended area since one single fold system can account for a complex distribution of the subsequent intersection lineation. As a result, a cartographic study and a structural analysis are warranted because the direction of the Ordovician folds cannot be established only by the orientation of the L2 mesostructures.

  5. A mechanically driven form of Kirigami as a route to 3D mesostructures in micro/nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yihui; Yan, Zheng; Nan, Kewang; Xiao, Dongqing; Liu, Yuhao; Luan, Haiwen; Fu, Haoran; Wang, Xizhu; Yang, Qinglin; Wang, Jiechen; Ren, Wen; Si, Hongzhi; Liu, Fei; Yang, Lihen; Li, Hejun; Wang, Juntong; Guo, Xuelin; Luo, Hongying; Wang, Liang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced functional materials has important implications across broad areas of technology. Existing approaches are compatible, however, only with narrow classes of materials and/or 3D geometries. This paper introduces ideas for a form of Kirigami that allows precise, mechanically driven assembly of 3D mesostructures of diverse materials from 2D micro/nanomembranes with strategically designed geometries and patterns of cuts. Theoretical and experimental studies demonstrate applicability of the methods across length scales from macro to nano, in materials ranging from monocrystalline silicon to plastic, with levels of topographical complexity that significantly exceed those that can be achieved using other approaches. A broad set of examples includes 3D silicon mesostructures and hybrid nanomembrane–nanoribbon systems, including heterogeneous combinations with polymers and metals, with critical dimensions that range from 100 nm to 30 mm. A 3D mechanically tunable optical transmission window provides an application example of this Kirigami process, enabled by theoretically guided design. PMID:26372959

  6. A mechanically driven form of Kirigami as a route to 3D mesostructures in micro/nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihui; Yan, Zheng; Nan, Kewang; Xiao, Dongqing; Liu, Yuhao; Luan, Haiwen; Fu, Haoran; Wang, Xizhu; Yang, Qinglin; Wang, Jiechen; Ren, Wen; Si, Hongzhi; Liu, Fei; Yang, Lihen; Li, Hejun; Wang, Juntong; Guo, Xuelin; Luo, Hongying; Wang, Liang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-09-22

    Assembly of 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced functional materials has important implications across broad areas of technology. Existing approaches are compatible, however, only with narrow classes of materials and/or 3D geometries. This paper introduces ideas for a form of Kirigami that allows precise, mechanically driven assembly of 3D mesostructures of diverse materials from 2D micro/nanomembranes with strategically designed geometries and patterns of cuts. Theoretical and experimental studies demonstrate applicability of the methods across length scales from macro to nano, in materials ranging from monocrystalline silicon to plastic, with levels of topographical complexity that significantly exceed those that can be achieved using other approaches. A broad set of examples includes 3D silicon mesostructures and hybrid nanomembrane-nanoribbon systems, including heterogeneous combinations with polymers and metals, with critical dimensions that range from 100 nm to 30 mm. A 3D mechanically tunable optical transmission window provides an application example of this Kirigami process, enabled by theoretically guided design. PMID:26372959

  7. Rational design of helical architectures

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Fejer, Szilard N.; Wales, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Nature has mastered the art of creating complex structures through self-assembly of simpler building blocks. Adapting such a bottom-up view provides a potential route to the fabrication of novel materials. However, this approach suffers from the lack of a sufficiently detailed understanding of the noncovalent forces that hold the self-assembled structures together. Here we demonstrate that nature can indeed guide us, as we explore routes to helicity with achiral building blocks driven by the interplay between two competing length scales for the interactions, as in DNA. By characterizing global minima for clusters, we illustrate several realizations of helical architecture, the simplest one involving ellipsoids of revolution as building blocks. In particular, we show that axially symmetric soft discoids can self-assemble into helical columnar arrangements. Understanding the molecular origin of such spatial organisation has important implications for the rational design of materials with useful optoelectronic applications.

  8. Brownian motion of helical flagella.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N

    1979-07-01

    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique. PMID:16997210

  9. OPE for all helicity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Benjamin; Caetano, João; Córdova, Lucía; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    We extend the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM to account for all possible helicities of the external states. This is done by constructing a simple map between helicity configurations and so-called charged pentagon transitions. These OPE building blocks are generalizations of the bosonic pentagons entering MHV amplitudes and they can be bootstrapped at finite coupling from the integrable dynamics of the color flux tube. A byproduct of our map is a simple realization of parity in the super Wilson loop picture.

  10. Resilience of helical fields to turbulent diffusion - II. Direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Blackman, Eric G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2014-03-01

    Blackman and Subramanian (Paper I) found that sufficiently strong large-scale helical magnetic fields are resilient to turbulent diffusion, decaying on resistively slow rather than turbulently fast time-scales. This bolsters fossil field origins for magnetic fields in some astrophysical objects. Here, we study direct numerical simulations (DNS) of decaying large-scale helical magnetic fields in the presence of non-helical turbulence for two cases: (1) the initial helical field is large enough to decay resistively but transitions to fast decay; (2) the case of Paper I, wherein the transition energy for the initial helical field to decay fast directly is sought. Simulations and two-scale modelling (based on Paper 1) reveal the transition energy, Ec1 to be independent of the turbulent forcing scale, within a small range of RM. For case (2), the two-scale theory predicts a large-scale helical transition energy of Ec2 = (k1/kf)2Meq, where k1 and kf are the large-scale and small turbulent forcing scale, respectively, and Meq is the equipartition magnetic energy. The DNS agree qualitatively with this prediction but the RM, currently achievable, is too small to satisfy a condition 3/RM ≪ (k1/kf)2, necessary to robustly reveal the transition, Ec2. That two-scale theory and DNS agree wherever they can be compared suggests that Ec2 of Paper I should be identifiable at higher RM in DNS.

  11. Progress in Nonsolenoidal Plasma Startup Using Point-Source Helicity Injection in the Pegasus ST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Thome, K. E.

    2010-11-01

    Compact, high-current plasma guns are employed as DC helicity injectors on the Pegasus ST. This startup technique has produced Ip˜0.17 MA to date, consistent with helicity balance and Taylor relaxation constraints. Once a tokamak-like plasma is formed, passive electrodes can act as helicity injectors for further growth. This may provide additional control of the edge current density, the Taylor relaxation limit, and provide a higher helicity input rate. Ion heating to Ti˜0.5 keV is observed in the strongly-reconnecting, helicity-driven phase. Efficient handoff from helicity to inductive drive requires the buildup of core current density. Following helicity formation, OH-driven plasmas are MHD-quiescent and sustained above 0.20 MA, apparently due to increased core magnetic shear. Outstanding issues for prediction to larger fusion experiments include: structure of the edge current density; impedance of the injected current channel; impurity behavior; and the behavior of the confinement and helicity dissipation rate as Ip and Te increase.

  12. Gyrokinetic investigation of ITG turbulence in helical RFPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Terranova, D.

    2014-10-01

    Micro-instabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas have been investigated in the last years from several viewpoints and with various numerical tools. So far, axisymmetry of the magnetic equilibrium has always been postulated. Nevertheless, experimental evidence suggests that the physical conditions mostly favoring the onset of electrostatic/electromagnetic turbulence, e.g., the occurrence of large pressure gradients, emerge when magnetic surfaces become helical, during the single helicity states. In this work, we investigate ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence focusing on the 3D feature, with the aim to describe its distinct properties compared to the axisymmetric geometry. For this study, we will apply the 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic code GENE to RFP equilibria generated by the VMEC code.

  13. Model NbTi Helical Solenoid Fabrication and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Makarov, A.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    A program to develop model magnets for a helical cooling channel is under way at Fermilab. In the first steps of a planned sequence of magnets, two four-coil helical solenoid models with 300 mm aperture have been fabricated and tested. These two models, HSM01 and HSM02, used insulated NbTi Rutherford cable wound onto stainless steel rings with spliceless transitions between coils. Strip heaters were included for quench protection of each coil, and the coils were epoxy-impregnated after winding inside the support structures. Based on the results of the first model the second model was made using a cable with optimized cross-section, improved winding and epoxy-impregnation procedures, enhanced ground insulation, and included heat exchange tubing for a test of conduction cooling. We report on the results and lessons learned from fabrication and tests of these two models.

  14. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.; Ebrahimi, F.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-09-15

    The generation of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), including flux surface closure, is studied using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations with plasma flows, currents, ohmic heating and anisotropic thermal conduction. An injection-voltage pulse shape is used that separates the injection and closure phases allowing elucidation of the physics. The formation of an X-point near the helicity-injection gap is triggered as the injector voltage drops to zero. Near the forming X-point, magnetic pressure due to toroidal field entrained in the E × B plasma flow from the helicity-injection gap drops, allowing resistive magnetic reconnection even though the total injected current is almost constant. Where appropriate, the simulations are compared with Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments in the NSTX spherical tokamak, which have demonstrated the formation of a promising candidate for non-inductive startup plasmas [Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075005 (2003)].

  15. Note: Helical nanobelt force sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, G.; Hashimoto, H.

    2012-12-15

    We present the fabrication and characterization of helical nanobelt force sensors. These self-sensing force sensors are based on the giant piezoresistivity of helical nanobelts. The three-dimensional helical nanobelts are self-formed from 27 nm-thick n-type InGaAs/GaAs bilayers using rolled-up techniques, and assembled onto electrodes on a micropipette using nanorobotic manipulations. The helical nanobelt force sensors can be calibrated using a calibrated atomic force microscope cantilever system under scanning electron microscope. Thanks to their giant piezoresistance coefficient (515 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Pa{sup -1}), low stiffness (0.03125 N/m), large-displacement capability ({approx}10 {mu}m), and good fatigue resistance, they are well suited to function as stand-alone, compact ({approx}20 {mu}m without the plug-in support), light ({approx}5 g including the plug-in support), versatile and large range ({approx}{mu}N) and high resolution ({approx}nN) force sensors.

  16. Note: Helical nanobelt force sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, G.; Hashimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of helical nanobelt force sensors. These self-sensing force sensors are based on the giant piezoresistivity of helical nanobelts. The three-dimensional helical nanobelts are self-formed from 27 nm-thick n-type InGaAs/GaAs bilayers using rolled-up techniques, and assembled onto electrodes on a micropipette using nanorobotic manipulations. The helical nanobelt force sensors can be calibrated using a calibrated atomic force microscope cantilever system under scanning electron microscope. Thanks to their giant piezoresistance coefficient (515 × 10-10 Pa-1), low stiffness (0.03125 N/m), large-displacement capability (˜10 μm), and good fatigue resistance, they are well suited to function as stand-alone, compact (˜20 μm without the plug-in support), light (˜5 g including the plug-in support), versatile and large range (˜μN) and high resolution (˜nN) force sensors.

  17. Note: helical nanobelt force sensors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, G; Hashimoto, H

    2012-12-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of helical nanobelt force sensors. These self-sensing force sensors are based on the giant piezoresistivity of helical nanobelts. The three-dimensional helical nanobelts are self-formed from 27 nm-thick n-type InGaAs/GaAs bilayers using rolled-up techniques, and assembled onto electrodes on a micropipette using nanorobotic manipulations. The helical nanobelt force sensors can be calibrated using a calibrated atomic force microscope cantilever system under scanning electron microscope. Thanks to their giant piezoresistance coefficient (515 × 10(-10) Pa(-1)), low stiffness (0.03125 N/m), large-displacement capability (~10 μm), and good fatigue resistance, they are well suited to function as stand-alone, compact (~20 μm without the plug-in support), light (~5 g including the plug-in support), versatile and large range (~μN) and high resolution (~nN) force sensors. PMID:23278031

  18. Full-wave simulations on ultrashort-pulse reflectometry for helical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, H.; Fukuchi, A.; Itakura, A.; Mase, A.

    2004-10-01

    The full-wave simulations on ultrashort-pulse reflectometry for helical plasmas are studied based on the FDTD method in two dimensions. The propagation of an ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic wave is computed in helical plasmas modeled for the Large Helical Device magnetic field configuration. The density-profile reconstruction is performed by the Abel inversion method with the time delay data for the reflected waves from plasma, and it is shown that the reconstructed density profile coincides well with the original profile.

  19. EVOLUTION OF SPINNING AND BRAIDING HELICITY FLUXES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, B.; Yoshimura, Keiji; Dasso, Sergio E-mail: yosimura@solar.physics.montana.edu

    2011-12-10

    Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2}. The observed reversal in the sign of spinning and braiding helicity fluxes could be the signature of the emergence of a twisted flux tube, which acquires the writhe of an opposite sign. The magnetic cloud associated with the ejected mass has carried about -7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} Mx{sup 2} of helicity. A time integration of helicity flux of about 1.2 hr integrated backward in time of the observation of the coronal mass ejection is sufficient for this event.

  20. Mechanical analysis and test results of 4-coil superconducting helical solenoid model

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Makarov, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Novel configurations of helical superconducting magnets for muon beam 6D phase space cooling channels and demonstration experiments are being designed at Fermilab. Operating as needed for the beam cooling in a cryogenic environment, the helical solenoid generates longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields; meanwhile, large Lorentz forces are produced, so rigid coil support structures need to be designed. A short model of a helical solenoid (HS), consisting of four coils and supporting structures, was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The magnetic and mechanical designs were analyzed using TOSCA and ANSYS. The supporting structures were fabricated and assembled using SSC NbTi cable. Strain gauges were utilized to monitor the deformation of the structures due to both thermal contraction and Lorentz forces. The superconducting coils were trained during the test. The model should prove the design concept, fabrication technology, and the magnet system performance.

  1. Large-scale convective instability in an electroconducting medium with small-scale helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, M. I.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2015-04-15

    A large-scale instability occurring in a stratified conducting medium with small-scale helicity of the velocity field and magnetic fields is detected using an asymptotic many-scale method. Such a helicity is sustained by small external sources for small Reynolds numbers. Two regimes of instability with zero and nonzero frequencies are detected. The criteria for the occurrence of large-scale instability in such a medium are formulated.

  2. The wobbling-to-swimming transition of rotated helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of work aims at designing and testing micron-scale synthetic swimmers. One method, inspired by the locomotion of flagellated bacteria, consists of applying a rotating magnetic field to a rigid, helically shaped, propeller attached to a magnetic head. When the resulting device, termed an artificial bacteria flagellum, is aligned perpendicularly to the applied field, the helix rotates and the swimmer moves forward. Experimental investigation of artificial bacteria flagella shows that at low frequency of the applied field, the axis of the helix does not align perpendicularly to the field but wobbles around the helix, with an angle decreasing as the inverse of the field frequency. Using numerical computations and asymptotic analysis, we provide a theoretical explanation for this wobbling behavior. We numerically demonstrate the wobbling-to-swimming transition as a function of the helix geometry and the dimensionless Mason number which quantifies the ratio of viscous to magnetic torques. We then employ an asymptotic expansion for near-straight helices to derive an analytical estimate for the wobbling angle allowing to rationalize our computations and past experimental results. These results can help guide future design of artificial helical swimmers.

  3. Helicity and the ALPHA-EFFECT:DYNAMO Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzanyan, Kirill M.

    The best available tracers of the alpha-effect in the solar convection zone are current helicity and twist of the photospheric magnetic fields obtained by vector magnetographic observations. Here we present results of systematic studies of the current helicity and twist of averaged over a series of solar active regions. The data analysis enables us to reveal latitudinal dependence of the effect which is antisymmetric over the solar equator. Consideration of individual rotation rates of active regions versus the solar internal differential rotation law indicates that the radial structure of the alpha-effect is likely sign-changing. These properties are in agreement with theoretical estimates and numerical simulations of flows in the solar convection zone and model assumptions of dynamo theory. The fine structure of observational signatures of the alpha-effect indicates that the magnetic field generation mainly occurs near the bottom of the convection zone. We revealed some cyclic evolution of current helicity over the solar cycle that is in accord with dynamo models under certain parameter range. Thus knowledge on the spatially-temporal structure of signatures of the alpha-effect leads to further improvement of dynamo theory in description of the mechanism of generation of solar magnetic fields.

  4. Investigation of electron beam transport in a helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Y.U.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Lossless transport of electrons through the undulator is essential for CW operation of the FELs driven by recirculating electrostatic accelerators. We calculate the transport ratio of an electron beam in a helical undulator by using a 3-D simulation code and compare the results with the experimental results. The energy and the current of the electron beam are 400 keV and 2 A, respectively. The 3-D distribution of the magnetic field of a practical permanent-magnet helical undulator is measured and is used in the calculations. The major parameters of the undutlator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, number of periods in adiabatic region = 3.5, magnetic field strength = 1.3 kG. The transport ratio is very sensitive to the injection condition of the electron beam such as the emittance, the diameter, the divergence, etc.. The injection motion is varied in the experiments by changing the e-gun voltage or the field strength of the focusing magnet located at the entrance of the undulator. It is confirmed experimentally and with simulations that most of the beam loss occurs at the adiabatic region of the undulator regardless of the length of the adiabatic region The effect of axial guiding magnetic field on the beam finish is investigated. According to the simulations, the increase of the strength of axial magnetic field from 0 to 1 kG results in the increase of the transport ratio from 15 % to 95%.

  5. Helical rays in two-dimensional resonant wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R.; Brizard, Alain J.

    2004-09-14

    The process of resonant wave conversion (often called linear mode conversion) has traditionally been analyzed with a spatially one-dimensional slab model, for which the rays propagate in a two-dimensional phase space. However, it has recently been shown [E.R. Tracy and A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130402 (2003)] that multidimensional rays have a helical structure for conversion in two or more spatial dimensions (if their dispersion matrix is generic). In that case, a one-dimensional model is inadequate; a correct analysis requires two spatial dimensions and, thus, four-dimensional phase space. In this paper we show that a cold plasma model will exhibit ray helicity in conversion regions where the density and magnetic field gradients are significantly non-parallel. For illustration, we examine a model of the poloidal plane of a deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma, and identify such a region. In this region, characterized by a six-sector topology, rays in the sector for incident and reflected magnetosonic waves exhibit significant helicity. We introduce a ''symmetric-wedge'' model, to develop a detailed analytic and numerical study of helical rays in this sector.

  6. Helical rays in two-dimensional resonant wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R.; Brizard, Alain J.

    2004-12-08

    The process of resonant wave conversion (often called linear mode conversion) has traditionally been analyzed with a spatially one-dimensional slab model, for which the rays propagate in a two-dimensional phase space. However, it has recently been shown [E.R. Tracy and A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130402 (2003)] that multidimensional rays have a helical structure for conversion in two or more spatial dimensions (if their dispersion matrix is generic). In that case, a one-dimensional model is inadequate; a correct analysis requires two spatial dimensions and, thus, four-dimensional phase space. In this paper we show that a cold plasma model will exhibit ray helicity in conversion regions where the density and magnetic field gradients are significantly non-parallel. For illustration, we examine a model of the poloidal plane of a deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma, and identify such a region. In this region, characterized by a six-sector topology, rays in the sector for incident and reflected magnetosonic waves exhibit significant helicity. We introduce a ''symmetric-wedge'' model, to develop a detailed analytic and numerical study of helical rays in this sector.

  7. Majorana states in helical Shiba chains and ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Teemu; Poyhonen, Kim; Westsrom, Alex; Rontynen, Joel; Nanotheory Team

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by recent proposals to realize Majorana bound states in chains and arrays of magnetic atoms deposited on top of a superconductor, we study the topological properties of various chain structures, ladders and two-dimensional arrangements exhibiting magnetic helices. We show that magnetic domain walls where the chirality of a magnetic helix is inverted support two protected Majorana states giving rise to a tunneling conductance peak twice the height of a single Majorana state. Multiple overlapping Majorana states are protected by chiral symmetry which is present in systems exhibiting planar magnetic textures. Thus the topological properties of coupled chains exhibit nontrivial behaviour as a function of the number of chains beyond the even-odd dichotomy expected from Z2 classification. In addition, it is possible that a ladder of two or more coupled chains exhibit Majorana edge states even when decoupled chains are trivial. The authors acknowledge the Academy of Finland for support.

  8. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  9. Predictive supracolloidal helices from patchy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruohai; Mao, Jian; Xie, Xu-Ming; Yan, Li-Tang

    2014-11-01

    A priori prediction of supracolloidal architectures from nanoparticle and colloidal assembly is a challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics. Despite intense research in this area, much less has been known about the predictive science of supracolloidal helices from designed building blocks. Therefore, developing conceptually new rules to construct supracolloidal architectures with predictive helicity is becoming an important and urgent task of great scientific interest. Here, inspired by biological helices, we show that the rational design of patchy arrangement and interaction can drive patchy particles to self-assemble into biomolecular mimetic supracolloidal helices. We further derive a facile design rule for encoding the target supracolloidal helices, thus opening the doors to the predictive science of these supracolloidal architectures. It is also found that kinetics and reaction pathway during the formation of supracolloidal helices offer a unique way to study supramolecular polymerization, and that well-controlled supracolloidal helices can exhibit tailorable circular dichroism effects at visible wavelengths.

  10. Predictive supracolloidal helices from patchy particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruohai; Mao, Jian; Xie, Xu-Ming; Yan, Li-Tang

    2014-01-01

    A priori prediction of supracolloidal architectures from nanoparticle and colloidal assembly is a challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics. Despite intense research in this area, much less has been known about the predictive science of supracolloidal helices from designed building blocks. Therefore, developing conceptually new rules to construct supracolloidal architectures with predictive helicity is becoming an important and urgent task of great scientific interest. Here, inspired by biological helices, we show that the rational design of patchy arrangement and interaction can drive patchy particles to self-assemble into biomolecular mimetic supracolloidal helices. We further derive a facile design rule for encoding the target supracolloidal helices, thus opening the doors to the predictive science of these supracolloidal architectures. It is also found that kinetics and reaction pathway during the formation of supracolloidal helices offer a unique way to study supramolecular polymerization, and that well-controlled supracolloidal helices can exhibit tailorable circular dichroism effects at visible wavelengths. PMID:25387544

  11. In Situ GISAXS investigation of low-temperature aging in oriented surfactant-mesostructured titania thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nagpure, Suraj; Das, Saikat; Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Strzalka, Joseph; Rankin, Stephen E.

    2015-09-11

    In this study, the mechanism of forming orthogonally oriented hexagonal close packed (o-HCP) mesostructures during aging of surfactant-templated titania thin films is elucidated using in situ grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) in a controlled-environment chamber. To promote orthogonal orientation, glass slides are modified with crosslinked Pluronic P123, to provide surfaces chemically neutral towards both blocks of mesophase template P123. At 4 °C and 80% RH, the o-HCP mesophase emerges in thin (~60 nm) films by a direct disorder-to-order transition, with no intermediate ordered mesophase. The Pluronic/titania o-HCP GISAXS intensity emerges only after ~10-12 minutes, much slower than previously reportedmore » for smallmolecule surfactants. The Avrami model applied to the data suggests 2D growth with nucleation at the start of the process with a half-life of 39.7 minutes for the aging time just after the induction period of 7 minutes followed by a period consistent with 1D growth kinetics. Surprisingly, films that are thicker (~250 nm) or cast on unmodified slides form o-HCP mesophase domains, but by a different mechanism (2D growth with continuous nucleation) with faster and less complete orthogonal alignment. Thus, the o-HCP mesophase is favored not only 2 by modifying the substrate, but also by aging at 4 °C, which is below the lower consolute temperature (LCST) of the poly(propylene oxide) block of P123. Consistent with this, in situ GISAXS shows that films aged at room temperature (above the LCST of the PPO block) have randomly oriented HCP mesostructure.« less

  12. Quasi-single helicity spectra in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Franz, P.; Chapman, B. E.; Craig, D.; Sarff, J. S.; Biewer, T. M.; Prager, S. C.; Reardon, J. C.

    2002-07-01

    Evidence of a self-organized collapse towards a narrow spectrum of magnetic instabilities in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch device is presented. In this collapsed state, dubbed quasi-single helicity (QSH), the spectrum of magnetic modes condenses spontaneously to one dominant mode more completely than ever before observed. The amplitudes of all but the largest of the m=1 modes decrease in QSH states. New results about thermal features of QSH spectra and the identification of global control parameters for their onset are also discussed.

  13. Vlasov versus reduced kinetic theories for helically symmetric equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2013-04-15

    A new constant of motion for helically symmetric equilibria in the vicinity of the magnetic axis is obtained in the framework of Vlasov theory. In view of this constant of motion the Vlasov theory is compared with drift kinetic and gyrokinetic theories near axis. It turns out that as in the case of axisymmetric equilibria [H. Tasso and G. N. Throumoulopoulos, Phys. Plasmas 18, 064507 (2011)] the Vlasov current density thereon can differ appreciably from the drift kinetic and gyrokinetic current densities. This indicates some limitation on the implications of reduced kinetic theories, in particular, as concerns the physics of energetic particles in the central region of magnetically confined plasmas.

  14. End-to-End Thiocyanato-Bridged Helical Chain Polymer and Dichlorido-Bridged Copper(II) Complexes with a Hydrazone Ligand: Synthesis, Characterisation by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Variable-Temperature Magnetic Studies, and Inhibitory Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Kuheli; Datta, Amitabha; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Huang, Jui-Hsien; Garribba, Eugenio; Hsiao, Ching-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Lin

    2012-04-01

    The reactions of the tridentate hydrazone ligand, N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]acetohydrazide (HL), obtained by condensation of 2-acetylpyridine with acetic hyadrazide, with copper nitrate trihydrate in the presence of thiocyanate, or with CuCl2 produce two distinct coordination compounds, namely a one-dimensional helical coordination chain of [CuL(NCS)] n (1) units, and a doubly chlorido-bridged dinuclear complex [Cu2L2Cl2] (2) (where L=CH3C(O)=N-N=CCH3C5H4N). Single-crystal X-ray structural determination studies reveal that in complex 1, a deprotonated hydrazone ligand L(-) coordinates a copper(II) ion that is bridged to two neighbouring metal centres by SCN(-) anions, generating a one-dimensional helical coordination chain. In complex 2, two symmetry-related, adjacent copper(II) coordination entities are doubly chlorido-bridged, producing a dicopper entity with a Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu distance of 3.402 (1) Å. The two coordination compounds have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques including IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance, and variable-temperature magnetic studies. The biological effects of 1 and 2 on the viability of human colorectal carcinoma cells (COLO-205 and HT-29) were evaluated using an MTT assay, and the results indicate that these complexes induce a decrease in cell-population growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells with apoptosis. PMID:24551495

  15. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R.

    1982-01-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  16. Lamb Wave Helical Ultrasonic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, K. R.; Hinders, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been used for a wide variety of ultrasonic inspection techniques. We describe here a new variation called helical ultrasound tomography (HUT). This new technique, among other things, has direct application to advanced pipe inspection. HUT uses guided ultrasonic waves along with an adaptation of the tomographic reconstruction algorithms developed by seismologists for what they call "cross borehole" tomography. In HUT, the Lamb-like guided waves travel in various helical crisscross paths between two parallel circumferential transducer arrays instead of the planar crisscross seismic paths between two boreholes. Although the measurement itself is fairly complicated, the output of the tomographic reconstruction is a readily interpretable map of a quantity of interest such as pipe wall thickness. We demonstrate the feasibility of the HUT technique via laboratory scans on steel pipe segments into which controlled thinnings have been introduced.

  17. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  18. Emulsification-Induced Homohelicity in Racemic Helical Polymer for Preparing Optically Active Helical Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jinrui; Deng, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Optically active nano- and microparticles have constituted a significant category of advanced functional materials. However, constructing optically active particles derived from synthetic helical polymers still remains as a big challenge. In the present study, it is attempted to induce a racemic helical polymer (containing right- and left-handed helices in equal amount) to prefer one predominant helicity in aqueous media by using emulsifier in the presence of chiral additive (emulsification process). Excitingly, the emulsification process promotes the racemic helical polymer to unify the helicity and directly provides optically active nanoparticles constructed by chirally helical polymer. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the emulsification-induced homohelicity effect. The present study establishes a novel strategy for preparing chirally helical polymer-derived optically active nanoparticles based on racemic helical polymers. PMID:26829250

  19. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  20. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  1. Chaotic coordinates for the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Stuart; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    The study of dynamical systems is facilitated by a coordinate framework with coordinate surfaces that coincide with invariant structures of the dynamical flow. For axisymmetric systems, a continuous family of invariant surfaces is guaranteed and straight-fieldline coordinates may be constructed. For non-integrable systems, e.g. stellarators, perturbed tokamaks, this continuous family is broken. Nevertheless, coordinates can still be constructed that simplify the description of the dynamics. The Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, the Aubry-Mather theorem, and the KAM theorem show that there are important structures that are invariant under the perturbed dynamics; namely the periodic orbits, the cantori, and the irrational flux surfaces. Coordinates adapted to these invariant sets, which we call chaotic coordinates, provide substantial advantages. The regular motion becomes straight, and the irregular motion is bounded by, and dissected by, coordinate surfaces that coincide with surfaces of locally-minimal magnetic-fieldline flux. The chaotic edge of the magnetic field, as calculated by HINT2 code, in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is examined, and a coordinate system is constructed so that the flux surfaces are ``straight'' and the islands become ``square.''

  2. The morphology transformation from helical nanofiber to helical nanotube in a diarylethene self-assembly system.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yulong; Yan, Shihai; Zhou, Xinhong; Xu, Wei; Xu, Hongxia; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Lixue; Zhang, Chuanjian; Cui, Guanglei; Yao, Lishan

    2014-08-01

    A helical nanostructure can be obtained by self-assembly of a diarylethene derivative that bears two malononitrile substitutes in a tetrahydrofuran/water medium. It is revealed that the helical nanostructure changed from helical nanofiber to helical nanotube when the diarylethene monomer changed from the open-ring isomer to the closed-ring isomer upon irradiation with 365 nm ultraviolet light, meanwhile, the helix angle of the nanostructure changed from 50° ± 5° to 75° ± 5°. There is a great possibility that the helical nanofibers and helical nanotubes are assembled from dimers as base units based on theoretical calculation and experimental results. PMID:24940732

  3. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  4. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  5. Processes the Govern Helicity Injection in the SSPX Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S; Stallard, B W; Holcomb, C T; Cothran, C

    2002-10-08

    The physical processes that govern the gun-voltage and give rise to field generation by helicity injection are surveyed in the Sustained Spheromak Physics experiment (SSPX) using internal magnetic field probes and particular attention to the gun-voltage. SSPX is a gun-driven spheromak, similar in many respects to CTX, although differing substantially by virtue of a programmable vacuum field configuration. Device parameters are: diameter = 1m, I{sub tor}-400kA, T{sub e}{approx}120eV, t{sub pulse}{approx}3ms. SSPX is now in its third year of operation and has demonstrated reasonable confinement (core {chi}{sub e}{approx}30m{sup 2}/s), and evidence for a beta limit (<{beta}{sub e}>{sub vol}{approx}4%), suggesting that the route to high temperature is to increase the spheromak field-strength (or current amplification, A{sub I} = I{sub torr}/I{sub inj}). Some progress has been made to increase A{sub I} in SSPX (A{sub I} = 2.2), although the highest A{sub I} observed in a spheromak of 3 has yet to be beaten. We briefly review helicity injection as the paradigm for spheromak field generation. SSPX results show that the processes that give efficient injection of helicity are inductive, and that these processes rapidly terminate when the current path ceases to change. The inductive processes are subsequently replaced by ones that resistively dissipate the injected helicity. This result means that efficient helicity injection can be achieved by harnessing the inductive processes, possibly by pulsing the gun. A pulsed build-up scenario is presented which gives A{sub I} > 3 and emphasizes the need to maintain reasonable confinement while the field of the spheromak is being built.

  6. ON THE INJECTION OF HELICITY BY THE SHEARING MOTION OF FLUXES IN RELATION TO FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Ambastha, A.; Maurya, R. A.; Chae, J. E-mail: ambastha@prl.res.in E-mail: jcchae@snu.ac.kr

    2012-12-20

    An investigation of helicity injection by photospheric shear motions is carried out for two active regions (ARs), NOAA 11158 and 11166, using line-of-sight magnetic field observations obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We derived the horizontal velocities in the ARs from the differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE) technique. Persistent strong shear motions at maximum velocities in the range of 0.6-0.9 km s{sup -1} along the magnetic polarity inversion line and outward flows from the peripheral regions of the sunspots were observed in the two ARs. The helicities injected in NOAA 11158 and 11166 during their six-day evolution period were estimated as 14.16 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} and 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The estimated injection rates decreased up to 13% by increasing the time interval between the magnetograms from 12 minutes to 36 minutes, and increased up to 9% by decreasing the DAVE window size from 21 Multiplication-Sign 18 to 9 Multiplication-Sign 6 pixel{sup 2}, resulting in 10% variation in the accumulated helicity. In both ARs, the flare-prone regions (R2) had inhomogeneous helicity flux distribution with mixed helicities of both signs and coronal mass ejection (CME) prone regions had almost homogeneous distribution of helicity flux dominated by a single sign. The temporal profiles of helicity injection showed impulsive variations during some flares/CMEs due to negative helicity injection into the dominant region of positive helicity flux. A quantitative analysis reveals a marginally significant association of helicity flux with CMEs but not flares in AR 11158, while for the AR 11166, we find a marginally significant association of helicity flux with flares but not CMEs, providing evidence of the role of helicity injection at localized sites of the events. These short-term variations of helicity flux are further discussed in view of possible

  7. Reversible helicity and higher harmonics in spin textures: stripes and skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiuzhen; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Kaneko, Yoshio; Matsui, Yoshio; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2011-03-01

    The magnetic bubbles viewed as skyrmions have long been attracting attention because of possible application to spintronics. The bubble configuration has been revealed by versatile microscopic techniques such as magnetic-force microscopy, scanning Hall microscopy, and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, their topological properties, such as topological spin texture and helicity, have not been sufficiently unraveled in spite of possibly important implication in the novel magneto-transport phenomena. In this study, we have scrutinized the spin texture of the thin films of Sc-doped hexagonal barium ferrite with controlled magnetic anisotropy; we have demonstrated the generation of the bubble lattice under external magnetic fields which are applied perpendicular to the film plane. The magnetic component distributions in strips, bubbles and Bloch lines have been successfully achieved by means of high-resolution Lorentz TEM observations and quantitative analyses of the local magnetizations. The results indicate the reversible helicity and higher harmonics in spin textures of stripy and bubble domains.

  8. Engineering and Design of the Steady Inductive Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--SI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, P. E.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.; Shumlak, U.

    1999-11-01

    Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) is an inductive helicity injection method that injects helicity at a nearly constant rate, without open field lines, and without removing any helicity or magnetic energy from the plasma.(T.R. Jarboe, Fusion Technology, 36) (1), p. 85, 1999 SIHI directly produces a rotating magnetic field structure, and in the frame of the rotating field the current profile is nearly time independent. The Steady Inductive Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--SI) is a spheromak designed to implement SIHI so that the current profile in the rotating frame is optimized. The geometry of HIT--SI will be presented, including the manufacturing techniques and metallurgical processes planned for construction of the close-fitting flux conserver. The flux conserver is made of aged chromium copper with 80% the conductivity of pure copper. The detailed electrical insulation requirements in the helicity injector design lead to a complex o-ring seal and a plasma-sprayed alumina insulation coating. This has prompted the construction of an o-ring prototype test fixture having the main features of the o-ring design and the alumina coating. The design and evaluation of this fixture will also be presented with vacuum and voltage test results.

  9. Quark Helicity Distributions at Large Longitudinal Momentum Fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyun Avakian; Stanley Brodsky; Alexandre Deur; Feng Yuan

    2007-08-01

    We study the quark helicity distributions at large $x$ in perturbative QCD, taking into account contributions from the valence Fock states of the nucleon which have nonzero orbital angular momentum. These states are necessary to have a nonzero anomalous magnetic moment. We find that the quark orbital angular momentum contributes a large logarithm to the negative helicity quark distribution in addition to its power behavior, scaling as $(1-x)^5\\log^2(1-x)$ in the limit of $x\\to 1$. Our analysis show that the ratio of the polarized over unpolarized down quark distributions, $\\Delta d/d$, will still approach 1 in this limit. By comparing with the current experimental data, we find that this ratio will cross zero at $x\\approx 0.75$.

  10. Structure factor of interacting one-dimensional helical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharaiah, Suhas; Schmidt, Thomas L.; Loss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the dynamical structure factor S (q,ω) of a weakly interacting helical edge state in the presence of a magnetic field B. The latter opens a gap of width 2B in the single-particle spectrum, which becomes strongly nonlinear near the Dirac point. For chemical potentials |μ|>B, the system then behaves as a nonlinear helical Luttinger liquid, and a mobile-impurity analysis reveals power-law singularities in S (q,ω) which depend on the interaction strength as well as on the spin texture of the edge states. For |μ|

  11. A hybrid sol–gel synthesis of mesostructured SiC with tunable porosity and its application as a support for propane oxidative dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Liu, Yong-Mei; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Xin; Cao, Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian

    2011-06-01

    Porous silicon carbide (SiC) is of great potential as catalyst support in several industrially important reactions because of its unique thermophysical characteristics. Previously porous SiC was mostly obtained by a simple sol–gel or reactive replica technique which can only produce a material with low or medium surface area (< 50 m2 g(−1)). Here we report a new hybrid sol–gel approach to synthesize mesostructured SiC with high surface area (151–345 m2 g(−1)) and tunable porosity. The synthesis route involves a facile co-condensation of TEOS and alkyloxysilane with different alkyl-chain lengths followed by carbothermal reduction of the as-prepared alkyloxysilane precursors at 1350 °C. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A mechanism for the tailored synthesis of mesostructured SiC was tentatively proposed. To demonstrate the catalytic application of these materials, vanadia were loaded on the mesostructured SiC supports, and their catalytic performance in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane was evaluated. Vanadia supported on the mesostructured silicon carbide exhibits higher selectivity to propylene than those on conventional supports such as Al2O3 and SiO2 at the same propane conversion levels, mainly owing to its outstanding thermal conductivity which makes contributions to dissipate the heat generated from reaction thus alleviating the hot spots effect and over-oxidation of propylene. PMID:21739681

  12. Scale-up of spherical tokamak solenoid-free startup by coaxial helicity injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X. Z.; Boozer, A. H.

    2007-10-15

    Current multiplication and flux amplification are two critical measures in assessing the usefulness of magnetic helicity injection for forming the plasma confining magnetic field in laboratory spheromak and spherical tokamak (ST) experiments. While the two concepts are closely related for spheromaks, they are independent for a Taylor-relaxed ST plasma, and negatively correlated for a more realistic, partially relaxed ST plasma. An important application of this understanding leads to the so-called relaxed transient coaxial helicity injection scheme for solenoid-free ST startup, which can deliver reactor-grade high current multiplication and flux amplification.

  13. Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Helically symmetric formulation, Casimir invariants, and equilibrium variational principles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2012-05-15

    The noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to construct variational principles for continuously symmetric equilibrium configurations of magnetized plasma, including flow. In particular, helical symmetry is considered, and results on axial and translational symmetries are retrieved as special cases of the helical configurations. The symmetry condition, which allows the description in terms of a magnetic flux function, is exploited to deduce a symmetric form of the noncanonical Poisson bracket of MHD. Casimir invariants are then obtained directly from the Poisson bracket. Equilibria are obtained from an energy-Casimir principle and reduced forms of this variational principle are obtained by the elimination of algebraic constraints.

  14. 2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.

  15. Theory of magneto-optical effects in helical multiferroic materials via toroidal magnon excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, S.; Furukawa, N.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate dynamical magnetoelectric effect owing to Nambu-Goldstone magnon resonance in helical multiferroic materials. Using the spin wave expansion, we analyzed magneto- and electroactive modes in the J1-J2 Heisenberg model through the spin-current mechanism. Under external magnetic field, the Nambu-Goldstone magnons accompany dynamical toroidal moments, i.e., toroidal magnons, and their resonant absorption shows anomalous features such as nonreciprocal directional dichroism and natural circular dichroism. The estimation indicates that such effects are gigantic in helical magnets.

  16. Self-organization of helically forced MHD flow in confined cylindrical geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Malcolm; Leroy, Matthieu; Morales, Jorge; Bos, Wouter; Schneider, Kai

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of a magnetically forced conducting fluid in confined geometries is studied. A pseudospectral method with volume penalisation is used to solve the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. A helical magnetic field is imposed via boundary conditions, which generates a response in the velocity field for large enough magnitudes. Different helical structures are observed in the flow depending on the magnitude and direction of the forcing and the cross-sectional geometry of the fluid domain. A computational technique for finding a solenoidal vector field which can be used in complex geometries is also proposed.

  17. Theoretical study of the magnetic exchange interaction in catena-μ- Tris[oxalato(2-)-O 1,O 2;O 3,O 4]-dicopper complex with interlocked helical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negodaev, Igor; Queralt, Núria; Caballol, Rosa; Graaf, Coen de

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of the spin moments has been studied in an oxalato-based 3D extended structure with Cu(II) ions as magnetic sites. The ab initio calculations reveal that two of the three different magnetic interaction paths are characterized by a strong coupling, while the third one presents weaker interaction. Based on these calculated values, the magnetic topology of the material is determined as an alternating chain with weak interchain coupling. A theoretical estimate of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is derived from the diagonalization of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian for a multi-center magnetic model with boundary conditions. The theoretical procedure can serve as guide in an experimental determination of the magnetic coupling parameters in 3D extended structure with oxalato-bridges as found in the hexagonal layers of the bifunctional materials.

  18. Mesostructured HfxAlyO2 Thin Films as Reliable and Robust Gate Dielectrics with Tunable Dielectric Constants for High-Performance Graphene-Based Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunseong; Jeon, Woojin; Cho, Yeonchoo; Lee, Min-Hyun; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Jongsun; Park, Seongjun

    2016-07-26

    We introduce a reliable and robust gate dielectric material with tunable dielectric constants based on a mesostructured HfxAlyO2 film. The ultrathin mesostructured HfxAlyO2 film is deposited on graphene via a physisorbed-precursor-assisted atomic layer deposition process and consists of an intermediate state with small crystallized parts in an amorphous matrix. Crystal phase engineering using Al dopant is employed to achieve HfO2 phase transitions, which produce the crystallized part of the mesostructured HfxAlyO2 film. The effects of various Al doping concentrations are examined, and an enhanced dielectric constant of ∼25 is obtained. Further, the leakage current is suppressed (∼10(-8) A/cm(2)) and the dielectric breakdown properties are enhanced (breakdown field: ∼7 MV/cm) by the partially remaining amorphous matrix. We believe that this contribution is theoretically and practically relevant because excellent gate dielectric performance is obtained. In addition, an array of top-gated metal-insulator-graphene field-effect transistors is fabricated on a 6 in. wafer, yielding a capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of less than 1 nm (0.78 nm). This low capacitance equivalent oxide thickness has important implications for the incorporation of graphene into high-performance silicon-based nanoelectronics. PMID:27355098

  19. Self-assembly and crystallization behavior of mesoporous, crystalline HfO2 thin films: a model system for the generation of mesostructured transition-metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Brezesinski, Torsten; Smarsly, Bernd; Iimura, Ken-ichi; Grosso, David; Boissière, Cédric; Amenitsch, Heinz; Antonietti, Markus; Sanchez, Clément

    2005-08-01

    Mesoporous thin films of crystalline hafnium oxide were fabricated by evaporation-induced self-assembly in combination with sol-gel processing, followed by a suitable post heat-treatment procedure to initiate the crystallization. A novel type of block-copolymer template was used as structure-directing agent, which generated a distorted cubic arrangement of spherical mesopores, the size of which could be quantified by suitable techniques, such as ellipsometry-porosimetry, small-angle X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Detailed insights into the nature of the crystallization process of mesostructured hafnium oxide were obtained by temperature-dependent, in situ X-ray scattering experiments. These investigations revealed that crystallization takes place, within the confinement of the mesostructure, as a solid-solid transition from a dehydrated, amorphous form of hafnium oxide. The study suggests that one main benefit of the novel template results from the ability of the polymer to stabilize the mesostructure of amorphous hafnium oxide up to 400-450 degrees C. PMID:17193544

  20. Self-reactivated mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite for enhanced high-temperature CO2 capture and carbonation/calcination cycles performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lee, Tai-Jung; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan

    2015-03-25

    In this study, highly efficient high-temperature CO2 sorbents of calcium aluminate (Ca-Al-O) mesostructured composite were synthesized using presynthesized mesoporous alumina (MA) as a porous matrix to react with calcium nitrate through a microwave-assisted process. Upon annealing at 600 °C, a highly stable mesoporous structure composed of poorly crystalline Ca12Al14O33 phase and the CaO matrix was obtained. The Ca-Al-O mesostructured sorbents with a Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratio of 5:1 exhibit an enhanced increasing CO2 absorption kinetics in the CO2 capture capacity from 37.2 wt % to 48.3 wt % without apparent degradation with increasing carbonation/calcination cycling up to 50 at 700 °C due to the strong self-reactivation effect of the mesoporous Ca-Al-O microstructure. Remarkable improvements in the CaO-CaCO3 conversion attained from the mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite can be explained using the concept combined with available mesoporous structure and Ca12Al14O33 phase content. However, a high Ca(2+)/Al(3+) =8:1 Ca-Al-O composite causes degradation because the pores become blocked and partial sintering induces CaO agglomeration. PMID:25730384

  1. The Segmented Bifilar Contrawound Toroidal Helical Antenna.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvoorhies, Kurt Louis

    The segmented bifilar contrawound toroidal helical antenna, a.k.a. QuadContra antenna creates a toroidal magnetic current whose radiated electromagnetic fields emulate those of an electric dipole located normal to the plane of the toroidal helix. This antenna is a magnetic dual of the constant current electric loop antenna. Its principal advantages of reduced size and low profile result from both its circular geometry and from the velocity factor of its slow wave contrawound helical structure. This antenna is constructed by winding two conductors in contrawound relation to each other on a toroidal form, dividing the winding into an even number of segments, and reversing the pitch sense of each conductor from one segment to another. Feed ports are located on the conductors at the segment boundaries, and are connected in alternate phase to a central signal terminal via balanced and tuned transmission line elements. At resonance, each winding segment supports a quarter-wave sinusoidal current distribution. Toroidal electric current components are canceled, and poloidal current components are enhanced in the resulting anti-symmetric mode current distribution. This study measured and simulated the velocity factor, input impedance, bandwidth and simulated the radiation gain and pattern for a variety of linear and toroidal structures. The velocity factor, modeled as a power function of the ratio of axial winding length to wire length, was two to three times slower for the anti-symmetric mode contrawound helix than for a comparable monofilar helix. The radiation characteristics of the antenna were simulated using the OSU ESP4 Moment Method based program, after making extensive improvements to accommodate a wide variety of antenna configurations and to automatically find resonant frequencies. The simulated QuadContra antenna radiates with vertically polarization in a dipole-like pattern having a gain about 2 dB less than the dipole. The gain falls off dramatically for

  2. Building blocks for subleading helicity operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.

    2016-05-01

    On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. We also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks can be assembled.

  3. Helical tomotherapy superficial dose measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Chester R.; Seibert, Rebecca M.; Robison, Benjamin; Mitchell, Martha

    2007-08-15

    Helical tomotherapy is a treatment technique that is delivered from a 6 MV fan beam that traces a helical path while the couch moves linearly into the bore. In order to increase the treatment delivery dose rate, helical tomotherapy systems do not have a flattening filter. As such, the dose distributions near the surface of the patient may be considerably different from other forms of intensity-modulated delivery. The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions near the surface for helical tomotherapy plans with a varying separation between the target volume and the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom. A hypothetical planning target volume (PTV) was defined on an anthropomorphic head phantom to simulate a 2.0 Gy per fraction IMRT parotid-sparing head and neck treatment of the upper neck nodes. A total of six target volumes were created with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm of separation between the surface of the phantom and the outer edge of the PTV. Superficial doses were measured for each of the treatment deliveries using film placed in the head phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed on the phantom's surface underneath an immobilization mask. In the 0 mm test case where the PTV extends to the phantom surface, the mean TLD dose was 1.73{+-}0.10 Gy (or 86.6{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose). The measured superficial dose decreases to 1.23{+-}0.10 Gy (61.5{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose) for a PTV-surface separation of 5 mm. The doses measured by the TLDs indicated that the tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimates superficial doses by 8.9{+-}3.2%. The radiographic film dose for the 0 mm test case was 1.73{+-}0.07 Gy, as compared to the calculated dose of 1.78{+-}0.05 Gy. Given the results of the TLD and film measurements, the superficial calculated doses are overestimated between 3% and 13%. Without the use of bolus, tumor volumes that extend to the surface may be underdosed. As such, it is recommended that bolus be added for these

  4. SUNSPOT ROTATION, FLARE ENERGETICS, AND FLUX ROPE HELICITY: THE ERUPTIVE FLARE ON 2005 MAY 13

    SciTech Connect

    Kazachenko, Maria D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Longcope, Dana W.; Qiu, Jiong; DesJardins, Angela; Nightingale, Richard W.

    2009-10-20

    We use the Michelson Doppler Imager and TRACE observations of photospheric magnetic and velocity fields in NOAA 10759 to build a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field model. The most dramatic feature of this active region is the 34{sup 0} rotation of its leading polarity sunspot over 40 hr. We describe a method for including such rotation in the framework of the Minimum Current Corona model. We apply this method to the buildup of energy and helicity associated with the eruptive flare of 2005 May 13. We find that including the sunspot rotation almost triples the modeled flare energy (1.0 x 10{sup 31} erg) and flux rope self-helicity (-7.1 x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}). This makes the results consistent with observations: the energy derived from GOES is 1.0 x 10{sup 31} erg, the magnetic cloud helicity from WIND is -5 x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}. Our combined analysis yields the first quantitative picture of the helicity and energy content processed through a flare in an active region with an obviously rotating sunspot and shows that rotation dominates the energy and helicity budget of this event.

  5. Novel ceria-zirconia-yttria mesostructures: Synthesis, characterization, diffusional studies & the effects of morphology on their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova Morales, Alma Iris

    Ceria-zirconia-yttria (CZY) mixed oxides are used as catalyst supports for three-way catalysts for automotive exhaust emission control and in solid oxide fuel cells. By improving the morphology of CZY mesopores it is possible to reduce the sintering of supported noble metals and enhance overall catalyst lifetime and performance. However, limited studies have been published on the synthetic control of the morphology of CZY materials and the effects that CZY pore geometry has on catalyst operation. To create optimized CZY catalyst supports, novel mesoporous CZY oxides were synthesized via classical sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) methods, obtaining mesostructures that exhibited excellent physical and diffusional properties. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the factors and mechanisms that promote the creation of ordered mesoporous CZY structures via classical sol-gel and EISA approaches. Classical sol-gel methods are reaction-limited syntheses in which, for the case of CZY materials, the formation of polyoxides occurs rapidly as a result of the availability of water and hydrolyzing agents in the initial solution, yielding disordered oxide mesostructures. Alternatively, EISA is a diffusion-limited process, where the rate of oxide forming reactions is limited by the slow diffusion of water into the initial ethanolic-metal salts solution. The slow loss of ethanol by evaporation enables the condensation-polymerization of metal oxy-hydroxide species to coincide with the ordering of these oligomers around the self-organized polymer template. Thus, for the templated synthesis of mesoporous CZY materials, it is the rate of metal oxide condensation that determines the nature of the resulting oxide structure. The choice of templating technique used during CZY synthesis heavily influenced post-calcination morphologies and pore sizes, but to-date no relationships between pore morphology and catalyst performance for CZY materials was presented

  6. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-11-01

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.

  7. A Global Galactic Dynamo with a Corona Constrained by Relative Helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A.; Mangalam, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for a global axisymmetric turbulent dynamo operating in a galaxy with a corona that treats the parameters of turbulence driven by supernovae and by magneto-rotational instability under a common formalism. The nonlinear quenching of the dynamo is alleviated by the inclusion of small-scale advective and diffusive magnetic helicity fluxes, which allow the gauge-invariant magnetic helicity to be transferred outside the disk and consequently to build up a corona during the course of dynamo action. The time-dependent dynamo equations are expressed in a separable form and solved through an eigenvector expansion constructed using the steady-state solutions of the dynamo equation. The parametric evolution of the dynamo solution allows us to estimate the final structure of the global magnetic field and the saturated value of the turbulence parameter αm, even before solving the dynamical equations for evolution of magnetic fields in the disk and the corona, along with α-quenching. We then solve these equations simultaneously to study the saturation of the large-scale magnetic field, its dependence on the small-scale magnetic helicity fluxes, and the corresponding evolution of the force-free field in the corona. The quadrupolar large-scale magnetic field in the disk is found to reach equipartition strength within a timescale of 1 Gyr. The large-scale magnetic field in the corona obtained is much weaker than the field inside the disk and has only a weak impact on the dynamo operation.

  8. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the helical flow pump.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kohei; Hosoda, Kyohei; Nishida, Masahiro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ariyoshi, Koki; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Sato, Masami; Hara, Sintaro; Lee, Xinyang; Wu, Sheng-Yuan; Imachi, Kou; Abe, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    The helical flow pump (HFP) was invented to be an ideal pump for developing the TAH and the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) using two HFPs has been developed. However, since the HFP is quite a new pump, hydrodynamic characteristics inside the pump are not clarified. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of the HFP, flow visualization study using the particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics analysis were performed. The experimental and computational models were developed to simulate the left HFP of the HFTAH and distributions of flow velocity vectors, shear stress and pressure inside the pump were examined. In distribution of flow velocity vectors, the vortexes in the vane were observed, which indicated that the HFP has a novel and quite unique working principle in which centrifugal force rotates the fluid in the helical volutes and the fluid is transferred from the inlet to the outlet helical volutes according to the helical structure. In distribution of shear stress, the highest shear stress that was considered to be occurred by the shunt flow across the impeller was found around the entrance of the inlet helical volute. However, it was not so high to cause hemolysis. This shunt flow is thought to be improved by redesigning the inlet and outlet helical volutes. In distribution of pressure, negative pressure was found near the entrance of the inlet helical volute. However, it was not high. Negative pressure is thought to be reduced with an improvement in the design of the impeller or the vane shape. PMID:25784463

  9. Simplified Fabrication of Helical Copper Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A simplified technique has been devised for fabricating helical antennas for use in experiments on radio-frequency generation and acceleration of plasmas. These antennas are typically made of copper (for electrical conductivity) and must have a specific helical shape and precise diameter.

  10. Chiral self-assembly of helical particles.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Hima Bindu; Cinacchi, Giorgio; Ferrarini, Alberta; Giacometti, Achille

    2016-04-12

    The shape of the building blocks plays a crucial role in directing self-assembly towards desired architectures. Out of the many different shapes, the helix has a unique position. Helical structures are ubiquitous in nature and a helical shape is exhibited by the most important biopolymers like polynucleotides, polypeptides and polysaccharides as well as by cellular organelles like flagella. Helical particles can self-assemble into chiral superstructures, which may have a variety of applications, e.g. as photonic (meta)materials. However, a clear and definite understanding of these structures has not been entirely achieved yet. We have recently undertaken an extensive investigation on the phase behaviour of hard helical particles, using numerical simulations and classical density functional theory. Here we present a detailed study of the phase diagram of hard helices as a function of their morphology. This includes a variety of liquid-crystal phases, with different degrees of orientational and positional ordering. We show how, by tuning the helix parameters, it is possible to control the organization of the system. Starting from slender helices, whose phase behaviour is similar to that of rodlike particles, an increase in curliness leads to the onset of azimuthal correlations between the particles and the formation of phases specific to helices. These phases feature a new kind of screw order, of which there is experimental evidence in colloidal suspensions of helical flagella. PMID:26767786

  11. Optimization of the AGS superconducting helical partial snake strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin,F.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.U.; Roser, T.

    2008-06-23

    Two helical partial snakes, one super-conducting (a.k.a cold snake) and one normal conducting (a.k.a warm snake), have preserved the polarization of proton beam up to 65% in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the extraction energy from 85% at injection. In order to overcome spin resonances, stronger partial snakes would be required. However, the stronger the partial snake, the more the stable spin direction tilted producing a stronger horizontal intrinsic resonance. The balance between increasing the spin tune gap generated by the snakes and reducing the tilted stable spin direction has to be considered to maintain the polarization. Because the magnetic field of the warm snake has to be a constant, only the cold snake with a maximum 3T magnetic field can be varied to find out the optimum snake strength. This paper presents simulation results by spin tracking with different cold snake magnetic fields. Some experimental data are also analyzed.

  12. Helical bunching and symmetry lowering inducing multiferroicity in Fe langasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaix, L.; Ballou, R.; Cano, A.; Petit, S.; de Brion, S.; Ollivier, J.; Regnault, L.-P.; Ressouche, E.; Constable, E.; Colin, C. V.; Zorko, A.; Scagnoli, V.; Balay, J.; Lejay, P.; Simonet, V.

    2016-06-01

    The chiral Fe-based langasites represent model systems of triangle-based frustrated magnets with a strong potential for multiferroicity. We report neutron-scattering measurements for the multichiral Ba3M Fe3Si2O14 (M =Nb ,Ta ) langasites revealing new important features of the magnetic order of these systems: the bunching of the helical modulation along the c axis and the in-plane distortion of the 120∘ Fe-spin arrangement. We discuss these subtle features in terms of the microscopic spin Hamiltonian and provide the link to the magnetically induced electric polarization observed in these systems. Thus, our findings put the multiferroicity of this attractive family of materials on solid ground.

  13. Pumping velocity in homogeneous helical turbulence with shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Käpylä, Petri J.; Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-11-01

    Using different analytical methods (the quasilinear approach, the path-integral technique, and the tau-relaxation approximation) we develop a comprehensive mean-field theory for a pumping effect of the mean magnetic field in homogeneous nonrotating helical turbulence with imposed large-scale shear. The effective pumping velocity is proportional to the product of α effect and large-scale vorticity associated with the shear, and causes a separation of the toroidal and poloidal components of the mean magnetic field along the direction of the mean vorticity. We also perform direct numerical simulations of sheared turbulence in different ranges of hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers and use a kinematic test-field method to determine the effective pumping velocity. The results of the numerical simulations are in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  14. Hypermagnetic helicity evolution in early universe: leptogenesis and hypermagnetic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Semikoz, V.B.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Sokoloff, D.D. E-mail: smirnoff.alexandr@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    We study hypermagnetic helicity and lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via inverse Higgs decays and sphaleron transitions which violate the left lepton number and wash out the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). In the scenario where the right electron asymmetry supports the BAU alone through the conservation law B/3−L{sub eR} = const at temperatures T > T{sub RL} ≅ 10 TeV the following universe cooling leads to the production of a non-zero left lepton (electrons and neutrinos) asymmetry. This is due to the Higgs decays becoming more faster when entering the equilibrium at T = T{sub RL} with the universe expansion, Γ{sub RL} ∼ T > H ∼ T{sup 2}, resulting in the parallel evolution of both the right and the left electron asymmetries at T < T{sub RL} through the corresponding Abelian anomalies in SM in the presence of a seed hypermagnetic field. The hypermagnetic helicity evolution proceeds in a self-consistent way with the lepton asymmetry growth. The role of sphaleron transitions decreasing the left lepton number turns out to be negligible in given scenario. The hypermagnetic helicity can be a supply for the magnetic one in Higgs phase assuming a strong seed hypermagnetic field in symmetric phase.

  15. Modeling and Navigation of Artificial Helical Swimmers in Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Acemoglu, Alperen; Yesilyurt, Serhat

    2013-11-01

    Recent developments in micro/nanotechnology and manufacturing techniques make use of micro robots for biomedical applications realizable. Controlled in-channel navigation of swimming micro robots is necessary for medical applications performed in conduits and vessels in living bodies. Successful design and control of micro swimmers can be achieved with full understanding of hydrodynamic behavior inside channels and their interaction with channel walls and resultant flows. We performed experimental and modeling studies on untethered mm-sized magnetic helical swimmers inside glycerol-filled rectangular channels. In experiments it is observed that rotation of swimmers in the direction of helical axis leads to forward motion due to fluidic propulsion and lateral motion due to traction forces near the wall. Effects of surface roughness, swimming direction and rotation frequency on the swimmers' speed are analyzed. The flow induced by the tail motion is visualized using micro-particle image velocimetry and analyzed at different radial positions using Computational Fluid Dynamics models. Results indicate that at low frequencies traction forces are effective, however as frequency increases fluid forces become dominant and fluid flow is affecting the swimming motion of helical swimmers. We acknowledge the support from TUBITAK (Techonological & Research Council of Turkey) under the grant no: 111M376.

  16. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  17. Structure and interactions of biological helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Lee, Dominic J.; Leikin, Sergey; Wynveen, Aaron

    2007-07-01

    Helices are essential building blocks of living organisms, be they molecular fragments of proteins ( α -helices), macromolecules (DNA and collagen), or multimolecular assemblies (microtubules and viruses). Their interactions are involved in packing of meters of genetic material within cells and phage heads, recognition of homologous genes in recombination and DNA repair, stability of tissues, and many other processes. Helical molecules form a variety of mesophases in vivo and in vitro. Recent structural studies, direct measurements of intermolecular forces, single-molecule manipulations, and other experiments have accumulated a wealth of information and revealed many puzzling physical phenomena. It is becoming increasingly clear that in many cases the physics of biological helices cannot be described by theories that treat them as simple, unstructured polyelectrolytes. The present article focuses on the most important and interesting aspects of the physics of structured macromolecules, highlighting various manifestations of the helical motif in their structure, elasticity, interactions with counterions, aggregation, and poly- and mesomorphic transitions.

  18. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  19. XAS study of mercury(II) ions trapped in mercaptan-functionalized mesostructured silicate with a wormhole framework structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chen; McKimmy, Emily J; Pinnavaia, Thomas J; Hayes, Kim F

    2004-09-15

    Directly assembled wormhole mesostructures with high level functionalized mercaptan (MP-HMS) have been shown to be effective mercury(II) (Hg2+) trapping agents. Sorption of Hg2+ onto MP-HMS was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the structural coordination of the adsorbed Hg. Samples with different fractions of mercaptan functionalized groups (i.e., x = 0.1 and 0.5) with various Hg/S molar ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 were investigated. XAS analysis indicates that adsorbed Hg first coordination shell is best fitted with an Hg-O path and an Hg-S path. The Hg-S atomic distance (R(Hg-S)) remained relatively constant while the Hg-S coordination numbers (CN) decreased as Hg/S loading increased. For the Hg-O path, both the CN and the R(Hg-O) increased with increasing Hg loading. XAS results suggest that at low Hg loadings, adsorbed Hg2+ forms mostly monodentate sulfur complexes (-S-Hg-OH) with the sulfur functional groups on the MP-HMS surfaces. At high Hg loadings, the Hg coordination environment is consistent with the formation of a double-layer structure of Hg attached to sulfur binding sites (-S-Hg-O-Hg-OH). PMID:15487784

  20. Siliceous mesostructured cellular foams/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) composite biomaterials for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengbing; Xu, Shuogui; Zhou, Panyu; Wang, Jing; Tan, Honglue; Liu, Yang; Tang, TingTing; Liu, ChangSheng

    2014-01-01

    Osteoinductive and biodegradable composite biomaterials for bone regeneration were prepared by combining poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) with siliceous mesostructured cellular foams (SMC), using the porogen leaching method. Surface hydrophilicity, morphology, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 adsorption/release behavior of the SMC/PHBHHx scaffolds were analyzed. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that the SMC was uniformly dispersed in the PHBHHx scaffolds, and SMC modification scaffolds have an interconnected porous architecture with pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 μm. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of SMC into PHBHHx improves the hydrophilicity of the composite. In vitro studies with simulated body fluid show great improvements to bioactivity and biodegradability versus pure PHBHHx scaffolds. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation on the scaffolds was also evaluated, and the new tools provide a better environment for human mesenchymal stem cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation on PHBHHx scaffolds. Moreover, micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation confirmed that the SMC/PHBHHx scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability and faster and more effective osteogenesis in vivo. PMID:25364243

  1. Hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 mesostructures as high-performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Longmei; Li, He; Lai, Hongwei; Li, Danqin; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with enhanced performance to commercial ones are urgently demanded in portable electric devices. Herein, we demonstrate an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of a dominant commercial cathode material (LiCoO2) by constructing 3D hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 (h-LNCO). The h-LNCO presents porous spherical-shaped morphology at mesoscale while comprises interconnected primary nanoparticles at nanoscale. Such a unique morphology endows the h-LNCO with porous structure for easy penetration of electrolyte, relatively small size of primary particles with short Li+ ions diffusion length and abundant exposed surface in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation. The synergism of these merits makes the h-LNCO exhibit superior electrochemical properties with high capacity, superior cyclability and rate capability, much better than the solid granular LNCO counterparts and commercial LiCoO2. This strategy of constructing porous hierarchical mesostructures could be extended to other electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  2. Three-Dimensionally Mesostructured Fe2O3 Electrodes with Good Rate Performance and Reduced Voltage Hysteresi

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Junjie; Braun, Paul V.; Zhou, Hui; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-03-26

    Ni scaffolded mesostructured 3D Fe2O3 electrodes were fabricated by colloidal templating and pulsed elec-trodeposition. The scaffold provided short pathways for both lithium ions and electrons in the active phase, enabling fast kinetics and thus a high power density. The scaffold also resulted in a reduced voltage hysteresis. The electrode showed a reversible capacity of ~1000 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 (~0.2 C) for about 20 cycles, and at a current density of 20 A g-1 (~20 C) the deliverable capacity was about 450 mA h g-1. The room temperature voltage hysteresis at 0.1 A g-1 (~0.1 C) wasmore » 0.62 V, which is significantly smaller than that normally reported in the literature. And it could be further reduced to 0.42 V when cycling at 45 ºC. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) studies indicated the small voltage hysteresis may be due to a reduction in the Li2O/Fe interfacial area in the electrode during cycling relative to convention-al conversion systems.« less

  3. Ion-triggered spring-like motion of a double helicate accompanied by anisotropic twisting.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kazuhiro; Furusho, Yoshio; Yashima, Eiji

    2010-06-01

    Molecules that extend and contract under external stimuli are used to build molecular machines with nanomechanical functions. But although common in biological systems, such extension and contraction motions with helical molecules have rarely been accompanied by unidirectional twisting in synthetic systems. Here we show that sodium ions can trigger the reversible anisotropic twisting of an enantiomeric double-stranded helicate, without racemization. An optically active helicate consisting of two tetraphenol strands bridged by two spiroborate groups sandwiches a sodium ion. On removal of the central sodium-through addition of a cryptand [2.2.1] in solution-the double helicate extends. Crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the extended helicate is over twice as long as the initial molecule, and is twisted in the right-handed direction. Circular dichroism analysis suggests that the twisting doesn't affect the helicate's handedness. This anisotropic extension-contraction process is reversibly triggered by the successive addition and removal of sodium ions in solution. PMID:20489711

  4. Baryon asymmetry from hypermagnetic helicity in dilaton hypercharge electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2006-12-15

    The generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe from the hypermagnetic helicity, the physical interpretation of which is given in terms of hypermagnetic knots, is studied in inflationary cosmology, taking into account the breaking of the conformal invariance of hypercharge electromagnetic fields through both a coupling with the dilaton and with a pseudoscalar field. It is shown that, if the electroweak phase transition is strongly first order and the present amplitude of the generated magnetic fields on the horizon scale is sufficiently large, a baryon asymmetry with a sufficient magnitude to account for the observed baryon-to-entropy ratio can be generated.

  5. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13CO to Lipid 31P Proximities Support Similar Partially Inserted Membrane Locations of the α Helical and β Sheet Peptide Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrys, Charles M.; Qiang, Wei; Sun, Yan; Xie, Li; Schmick, Scott D.; Weliky, David P.

    2013-10-01

    Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane protein of HIV. The fusion peptide (FP) is the -25 N-terminal residues of gp41 and is a domain of gp41 that plays a key role in fusion catalysis likely through interaction with the host cell membrane. Much of our understanding of the FP domain has been accomplished with studies of -HFP-, i.e., a -25-residue peptide composed of the FP sequence but lacking the rest of gp41. HFP catalyzes fusion between membrane vesicles and serves as a model system to understand fusion catalysis. HFP binds to membranes and the membrane location of HFP is likely a significant determinant of fusion catalysis perhaps because the consequent membrane perturbation reduces the fusion activation energy. In the present study, many HFPs were synthesized and differed in the residue position that was 13CO backbone labeled. Samples were then prepared that each contained a singly 13CO labeled HFP incorporated into membranes that lacked cholesterol. HFP had distinct molecular populations with either α helical or oligomeric - sheet structure. Proximity between the HFP 13CO nuclei and 31P nuclei in the membrane headgroups was probed by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) measurements. For many samples, there were distinct 13CO shifts for the α helical and - sheet structures so that the proximities to 31P nuclei could be determined for each structure. Data from several differently labeled HFPs were then incorporated into a membrane location model for the particular structure. In addition to the 13CO labeled residue position, the HFPs also differed in sequence and/or chemical structure. -HFPmn- was a linear peptide that contained the 23 N-terminal residues of gp41. -HFPmn_V2E- contained the V2E mutation that for HIV leads to greatly reduced extent of fusion and infection. The

  6. The helical flow pump with a hydrodynamic levitation impeller.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Nakano, Emiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Ono, Minoru; Imachi, Kou

    2012-12-01

    The helical flow pump (HFP) is a novel rotary blood pump invented for developing a total artificial heart (TAH). The HFP with a hydrodynamic levitation impeller, which consists of a multi-vane impeller involving rotor magnets, stator coils at the core position, and double helical-volute pump housing, was developed. Between the stator and impeller, a hydrodynamic bearing is formed. Since the helical volutes are formed at both sides of the impeller, blood flows with a helical flow pattern inside the pump. The developed HFP showed maximum output of 19 l/min against 100 mmHg of pressure head and 11 % maximum efficiency. The profile of the H-Q (pressure head vs. flow) curve was similar to that of the undulation pump. Hydrodynamic levitation of the impeller was possible with higher than 1,000 rpm rotation speed. The normalized index of the hemolysis ratio of the HFP to centrifugal pump (BPX-80) was from 2.61 to 8.07 depending on the design of the bearing. The HFP was implanted in two goats with a left ventricular bypass method. After surgery, hemolysis occurred in both goats. The hemolysis ceased on postoperative days 14 and 9, respectively. In the first experiment, no thrombus was found in the pump after 203 days of pumping. In the second experiment, a white thrombus was found in the pump after 23 days of pumping. While further research and development are necessary, we are expecting to develop an excellent TAH with the HFP. PMID:22926404

  7. Helices of fractionalized Maxwell fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Abro, Kashif Ali; Khan, Najeeb Alam

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the helical flows of fractionalized Maxwell fluid model, through a circular cylinder, is studied. The motion is produced by the cylinder that at the initial moment begins to rotate around its axis with an angular velocity Omegatp, and to slide along the same axis with linear velocity Utp. The solutions that have been obtained using Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and presented in series form in terms of the newly defined special function M(z), satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. Moreover, the corresponding solutions for ordinary Maxwell and Newtonian fluid obtained as special cases of the present general solution. Finally, the influence of various pertinent parameters on fluid motion as well as the comparison among different fluids models is analyzed by graphical illustrations.

  8. Thermal deformation of helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Fei, Ye-tai; Liu, Shan-lin

    2010-08-01

    The analytical equation for the thermal field of a helical gear under normal working condition in a stable thermal field is established using mathematical physics, and the thermal deformation of the gear can be computed using this equation. The variations of gear geometric parameters, such as radial dimension, tooth depth, spiral angle, pressure angle, flank clearance and etc., are investigated with respect to the temperature change. According to the analytical and computational results obtained using the equation, the thermal deformation of the gear is strongly dependent on the choice of parameters, which is also confirmed using simulation software (COMSOL Multiphysic software). This is significant for the improvement of the rotation precision and working efficiency of screw gears.

  9. THE PHOTOSPHERIC ENERGY AND HELICITY BUDGETS OF THE FLUX-INJECTION HYPOTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, P. W.

    2010-05-01

    The flux-injection hypothesis for driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) requires the transport of substantial magnetic energy and helicity flux through the photosphere concomitant with the eruption. Under the magnetohydrodynamics approximation, these fluxes are produced by twisting magnetic field and/or flux emergence in the photosphere. A CME trajectory, observed 2000 September 12 and fitted with a flux-rope model, constrains energy and helicity budgets for testing the flux-injection hypothesis. Optimal velocity profiles for several driving scenarios are estimated by minimizing the photospheric plasma velocities for a cylindrically symmetric flux-rope magnetic field subject to the flux budgets required by the flux-rope model. Ideal flux injection, involving only flux emergence, requires hypersonic upflows in excess of the solar escape velocity 617 km s{sup -1} over an area of 6 x 10{sup 8} km{sup 2} to satisfy the energy and helicity budgets of the flux-rope model. These estimates are compared with magnetic field and Doppler measurements from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager on 2000 September 12 at the footpoints of the CME. The observed Doppler signatures are insufficient to account for the required energy and helicity budgets of the flux-injection hypothesis.

  10. Experimental studies of helical solenoid model based on YBCO tape-bridge joints

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flangan, G.; Lopes, M.L.; Johnson, R.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Helical solenoids that provide solenoid, helical dipole and helical gradient field components are designed for a helical cooling channel (HCC) proposed for cooling of muon beams in a muon collider. The high temperature superconductor (HTS), 12 mm wide and 0.1 mm thick YBCO tape, is used as the conductor for the highest-field section of HCC due to certain advantages, such as its electrical and mechanical properties. To study and address the design, and technological and performance issues related to magnets based on YBCO tapes, a short helical solenoid model based on double-pancake coils was designed, fabricated and tested at Fermilab. Splicing joints were made with Sn-Pb solder as the power leads and the connection between coils, which is the most critical element in the magnet that can limit the performance significantly. This paper summarizes the test results of YBCO tape and double-pancake coils in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and then focuses on the study of YBCO splices, including the soldering temperatures and pressures, and splice bending test.

  11. Spontaneous sense inversion in helical mesophases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, H. H.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the pitch sensitivity of chiral nematic phases of helicoidal patchy cylinders as a generic model for chiral (bio-)polymers and helix-shaped colloidal rods. The behaviour of the macroscopic helical pitch is studied from microscopic principles by invoking a simple density functional theory generalised to accommodate weakly twisted director fields. Upon changing the degree of alignment along the local helicoidal director we find that chiral nematic phases exhibit a sudden sense inversion whereby the helical symmetry changes from left- to right-handed and vice versa. Since the local alignment is governed by thermodynamic variables such as density, temperature or the amplitude of an external directional field, such pitch sense inversions can be expected in systems of helical mesogens of both thermotropic and lyotropic origin. We show that the spontaneous change of helical symmetry is a direct consequence of an antagonistic effective torque between helical particles with a certain prescribed internal helicity. The results may help opening up new routes towards precise control of the helical handedness of chiral assemblies by a judicious choice of external control parameters.

  12. Modulated spin helicity stabilized by incommensurate orbital density waves in a quadruple perovskite manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Manuel, P.; Bombardi, A.; Martin, C.; Chapon, L. C.; Radaelli, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    Through a combination of neutron diffraction and Landau theory we describe the spin ordering in the ground state of the quadruple perovskite manganite CaMn7O12 —a magnetic multiferroic supporting an incommensurate orbital density wave that onsets above the magnetic ordering temperature, TN 1=90 K. The multi-k magnetic structure in the ground state was found to be a nearly-constant-moment helix with modulated spin helicity, which oscillates in phase with the orbital occupancies on the Mn3 + sites via trilinear magneto-orbital coupling. Our phenomenological model also shows that, above TN 2=48 K, the primary magnetic order parameter is locked into the orbital wave by an admixture of helical and collinear spin density wave structures. Furthermore, our model naturally explains the lack of a sharp dielectric anomaly at TN 1 and the unusual temperature dependence of the electrical polarization.

  13. Steering Chiral Swimmers along Noisy Helical Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank

    2009-08-01

    Chemotaxis along helical paths towards a target releasing a chemoattractant is found in sperm cells and many microorganisms. We discuss the stochastic differential geometry of the noisy helical swimming path of a chiral swimmer. A chiral swimmer equipped with a simple feedback system can navigate in a concentration gradient of chemoattractant. We derive an effective equation for the alignment of helical paths with a concentration gradient which is related to the alignment of a dipole in an external field and discuss the chemotaxis index.

  14. Method and apparatus for maintaining equilibrium in a helical axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1984-10-31

    Apparatus for maintaining three-dimensional MHD equilibrium in a plasma contained in a helical axis stellarator includes a resonant coil system, having a configuration such that current therethrough generates a magnetic field cancelling the resonant magnetic field produced by currents driven by the plasma pressure on any given flux surface resonating with the rotational transform of another flux surface in the plasma. Current through the resonant coil system is adjusted as a function of plasma beta.

  15. Method and apparatus for maintaining equilibrium in a helical axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for maintaining three-dimensional MHD equilibrium in a plasma contained in a helical axis stellerator includes a resonant coil system, having a configuration such that current therethrough generates a magnetic field cancelling the resonant magnetic field produced by currents driven by the plasma pressure on any given flux surface resonating with the rotational transform of another flux surface in the plasma. Current through the resonant coil system is adjusted as a function of plasma beta.

  16. NMR Assignments for a Helical 40 kDa Membrane Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Oxenoid, Kirill; Kim, Hak J.; Jacob, Jaison; Soennichsen, Frank D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2004-04-28

    Backbone nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments were achieved for diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) in detergent micelles. DAGK is a homotrimeric integral membrane protein comprised of 121 residue subunits, each having three transmembrane segments. Assignments were made using TROSY-based pulse sequences. DAGK was found to be an almost exclusively helical protein. This work points to the feasibility of both solving the structure of DAGK using solution NMR methods and using NMR as a primary tool in structural studies of other helical integral membrane proteins of similar size and complexity.

  17. Magnetic polymer composite artificial bacterial flagella.

    PubMed

    Peyer, K E; Siringil, E; Zhang, L; Nelson, B J

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs) are magnetically actuated swimming microrobots inspired by Escherichia coli bacteria, which use a helical tail for propulsion. The ABFs presented are fabricated from a magnetic polymer composite (MPC) containing iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded in an SU-8 polymer that is shaped into a helix by direct laser writing. The paper discusses the swim performance of MPC ABFs fabricated with varying helicity angles. The locomotion model presented contains the fluidic drag of the microrobot, which is calculated based on the resistive force theory. The robot's magnetization is approximated by an analytical model for a soft-magnetic ellipsoid. The helicity angle influences the fluidic and magnetic properties of the robot, and it is shown that weakly magnetized robots prefer a small helicity angle to achieve corkscrew-type motion. PMID:25405833

  18. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  19. Accessibility control on copper(II) complexes in mesostructured porous silica obtained by direct synthesis using bidentate organosilane ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Juan; Albela, Belén; Perriat, Pascal; He, Ming-Yuan; Bonneviot, Laurent

    2010-08-17

    The accessibility of metal(II) complexes in 2D hexagonal mesostructured porous silicas obtained by direct synthesis is controlled using an appropriate organosilane ligand. This is exemplified here using copper(II) as a transition metal probe and a neutral or negatively charged ligand: N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, L(A), and, N-salicylaldimine-propylamine-trimethoxysilane, L(B)(-), respectively. L(A) leads to inaccessible complexes located into the pore wall and called "embedded" sites here where silanolate groups from the siliceous network block the access to Cu(II) ions. By contrast, L(B)(-) generates accessible complexes, named "showing-on" sites here. The copper-containing silicas were synthesized with various metal molar ratios (M/SiO(2) = 0.5-3%) in basic media, with cetyltrimethylammonium p-toluenesulfonate (CTATos) as template and with sodium silicate solution as silicon source. A soft template extraction procedure has been developed to preserve the complex integrity of the showing-on copper sites during the treatment. The embedded copper(II) and nickel(II) sites were compared. Materials containing embedded, showing-on, and grafted sites were also compared with regard to pore size, surface polarity, and metal leaching. The material containing showing-on sites was found to be catalytically active for the hydroxylation of phenol into catechol and hydroquinone. Both textural and structural properties of the material and the copper sites were investigated using XRD, TEM, N(2) sorption isotherms, TGA, FT-IR, UV-visible, and EPR spectroscopies. PMID:20695596

  20. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-01

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (Rrec-V) and the current density-voltage (J-V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted Rrec data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the Rrec-V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the Rrec's are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the Rrec decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.